Group Technology (GT

• It is an approach to organizing manufacturing which can be applied to any industry where a small batch variety production is used. • It is a basic & simple concept of : identification & bringing together related or similar parts & processed, to take advantage of the similarities which exists, during all stages of design & manufacture. • It is based on the fact that : small lots of different parts can be produced more economically, if they are grouped & scheduled for production according to the common characteristics. Definition : 1. It is an approach to the organization of work in which organizational units are relatively independent groups, each responsible for production of a given family of products. 2. A group is a combination of a set of workers & a set of machines & or other facilities in one reserved area, designed to complete a specified set of products. 3. A family is the set of products produced by a group. ( 405 MT / kackar)

machines or workstations are arranged in a line in their sequence of operation.H Gr II B.r.t functions. machines & workstations are used to process the parts in batches & the facilities are arranged w.F Gr IV D. Gr III C. • New method of facility layout called GT is based on product specialisation in which group of machines chosen for each family are situated together in a group layout in such a way that parts flow from one machine to the next in sequence of operation.G Facilities 405-6 MT / Kackar Group Layout . • It is preferred when all the components made on the line use the same workstations in the same sequence.Group Lay out. It is not necessary for every part to visit each machine but machines in a group or cell should ideally be capable of carrying out all operations required in the family. • When line layout cannot be used. • With the line lay out.E Gr I A.

The number of workers in the group should be small. The parts should not move out of the group for operations on machines belonging to other groups. ( 406 MT / Kackar) 2 3 4 5 6 . & handling time. Workers should not be allowed to move or transferred out of the group.I. This helps to reduce throughput time. Group should have its own special products to be completed.Desirable characteristics of Group 1. There should be group of machines & equipments special to each group: The group should be supplied with machines that are needed to process all the components in their families. There should be group of workers special to the group: Workers associated with a specific group make a good team & they learn to understand the special problems associated with machines & equipments & with the family of components which they make. inventory. Special allocated area to house machines & equipment: This is an essential characteristics if full benefit of GT is to be obtained.P. A common output target for the group: This is essential if full advantage is to be taken of the use of planned sequence of loading to reduce set-up times & throughput times & to increase machine capacity. W.

1. Decrease in w. Reduction of throughput time as all operations on a part are done inside the group. The parts of each of the items produced are examined & placed into logical classes or families & the operation sequence for each class of parts is determined & specified. Groups of facilities. Improvement in quality levels. 4. 3.Benefits of Groups 1. Completion of work as per due date or schedule. 5. (406 MT / Kackar) Stages in group technology manufacture: 2 3 .p inventory. Reduced set-up time hence increase in productive capacity.i. 2. The sequencing of each class of parts for each group of facilities. suitable for processing of these classes of parts are specified using the operation planning details of forecasted demand for the items & hence components.

a) Formation of part families: .This technique was derived by Burbidge (1975) to enable groups of parts to be defined in terms of the operations that they will require for their manufacture. Usually they are related by size. Continued . geometry.A family is the collection of parts which are similar for purpose of manufacture.Stages in group technology manufacture: contd. . shape & required similar manufacturing operations. i) British system ii) Mitrofanov system iii) Optive system iv) Vuoso system 2 Production flow analysis: .next slide .Major groups are formed using factory flow analysis on the basis similar operation route sequence.The key factor in using GT successfully is the ability to identify readily items within the same family. 1 Coding & classification system: 4-systems are commonly used for classification. .

The aim is to find the sequence of machines which will give the nearest approximation to line flow.stages: a) Factory flow analysis: This is concerned with the (i)1st major division into large groups of department size & (ii) into very large families of parts to be made in to these departments. b) Group analysis : This is concerned with the (i) division of plant assigned to each slide . (ii) each machine type should exist in each group only & (iii) incompatible processes should be in different groups. • Production flow analysis has 3. on to groups & (ii) division of parts into associated families. each part should be processed in one group only.Formation of part families: contd. The primary aim is to achieve the simplest possible material flow system inside each department & to help to achieve this. 3-secondary aims are adopted. (i) As far as possible. Continued . c) Line analysis: This is concerned with the flow of materials between machines inside the groups & planning the best layout for the machines.

3 Cluster analysis: Clustering is the science of classification of objects based upon their possession or lack of defined characteristics. iii) Perform a cluster analysis : The similarity between each pair of objects is examined & group of objects are formed such that within each group the objects are similar to each other according to set of rules. This approach provides the way to study similarities between a divers population of objects in a quantitative manner.Formation of part families: contd. ii) Prepare a similarity co-efficient matrix: This is based on the extent to which the parts share common characteristics. This involves 3-stages: i) Preparation of part operation matrix: This indicates if the features are either present or absent. .

b) Choice of family: Composition of family parts which are “ housed” in a group is largely determined by the equipments available within the organization. a composite component may be conceptualized.Stages in group technology manufacture: contd. 4-aspects of the group likely to result from the family should be examined: i) What load will the family generate? ii) What capacities & capabilities would be needed? iii) Is it possible to set up the group for the family? iv) Are the necessary machines available or to be obtained? c) Composite Components: Once the family has been identified . ( refer figure in next slide—408 / MT). It is the one which contains all of the features of all the members of the family. The available machines are then surveyed to find which group can be best put together to produce the family. .


e) Sequencing : Determination of sequence in which the batches of parts are loaded on to the GT cell or “Line” will be influenced by the desire to minimise the set-up time/cost& minimise throughput time . d) Facilities sequencing: The facilities necessary to perform all operations on the part family & the expected load on each equipment can be listed for each family identified. Such charts show the nature of the inter-operation movements for all parts for a given period of time. “Singleton” outlined a simple method for determining a layout sequence foe a number of operations or machines through which a variety of parts is processed.Stages in group technology manufacture: contd. each part having a particular route through the operation. Travel or cross charts are some times used in developing layouts.

Considerable preparatory effort is required including training of staff to get acceptance of the accepted change over.Stages in group technology manufacture: contd. • • • f ) Introducing group technology: Introduction of GT may affect wide areas of the organization depending on the extent to which it is applied. (408 MT / kackar) 1. New procedures in production planning & control are needed if the advantage of the GT are to be realized fully. 5. 3. 2. g) Benefits of GT: Reduced unit set-up time & increased capacity. Simplifies production control & material handling. . Simplification of material flow system. 6. Reduction in throughput time. Improved labour efficiency resulting from standardization & simplification. 7. 4. Reduced work-in-process Simplification in planning procedures.

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