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Version 2006.

05

Micro-hydropower Design Aids Manual (v 2006.05)

SHPP/GTZ

NOTICE
The earlier version of these hydropower Design Aids had been prepared to provide a basis for microhydropower consultants to undertake calculations and prepare drawings as per the requirements of Alternative Energy promotion Centre (AEPC) of the Government of Nepal. The tools in this version (version 2006.05) were amended to fulfill the minimum requirements of standard micro and mini hydropower project feasibility studies. It is expected that the use of these Design Aids will result in a standard methodology for calculating and presenting MHP designs. This manual and any examples contained herein are provided as is and are subject to change without notice. Small Hydropower Promotion Project (SHPP/GTZ) shall not be liable for any errors or for incidental or consequential damages in connection with the furnishing, performance, or use of this manual or the examples herein. Small Hydropower Promotion Project (SHPP/GTZ). All rights reserved. All rights are reserved to the programs and drawings that are included in the MHP Design Aids. Reproduction, adaptation or translation of those programs and drawings without prior written permission of SHPP/GTZ is also prohibited. Micro-hydropower Design Aids (v 2006.05) is a shareware and can also be downloaded from www.entec.com.np . Permission is granted to any individual or institution to use, copy, or redistribute the MHP Design Aids so long as it is not sold for profit. Reproduction, adaptation or translation of those programs and drawings without prior written permission of SHPP/GTZ is prohibited.

Published by: Small Hydropower Promotion Project (SHPP/GTZ) Pulchowk, Lalitpur, Nepal PO Box 1457, Kathmandu, Nepal Tel: 977 1 5009067/8/9 Fax: 977 1 5521425 Web: http://www.entec.com.np Email: shp@gtz.org.np Author:

Mr. Pushpa Chitrakar


Engineering Advisor SHPP/GTZ Printed by: Hisi Offset Printing Press, Jamal, Kathmandu, Nepal This Edition: May 2006 First Edition 1000 copies Price: : NRs. 300 (for Nepal and SAARC countries) : US$ 15 (for other countries)

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PREFACE
This set of hydropower design tools is an updated version of Micro-hydropower Design Aids which was prepared by Small Hydropower Promotion Project (SHPP/GTZ) during its collaboration with Alternative Energy Promotion Centre (AEPC/ESAP) from 2002 to 2004. It is a complete set of tools consisting of typical AutoCad drawings, typical Microsoft Excel spreadsheets and a users manual. An electronic version of earlier tools was officially distributed by AEPC/ESAP for using up to feasibility study levels of its subsidized micro-hydropower schemes up to 100kW. German Development Cooperation (GTZ) has been cooperating with the Kingdom of Nepal for more than four decades. During this period its bilateral Technical Cooperation covered a broad range of sectors including agriculture, livestock, rural development, forestry, energy, credit, industry, vocational training, urban development, education and health. Small Hydropower Promotion Project was established in 1999 as its bilateral Technical Cooperation on energy sector. Since then this project has been providing technical and logistic services to small hydropower stakeholders within Nepal through Entec AG of Switzerland as an implementing consultant of this project. Since its establishment in 1999, SHPP/GTZ has been providing its services to hydropower stakeholders. Although its main mandate is to provide technical and logistic supports to small hydropower projects in Nepal within the range of 100kW to 10MW, SHPP/GTZ has also been backstopping hydropower project below 100kW. The overwhelming positive feedbacks from micro and small hydropower stakeholders on these tools and continuous update and distribution of these tools are the examples of its concern on the holistic approach of sectorial development of hydropower in Nepal. This version of the design aids includes three additional spreadsheets and enhanced utilities especially useful for mini hydropower project component designs. Since these tools were verified with real project studies, I personally found them very useful for the stated design works. Irrespective of the sizes and locations, all hydropower schemes have a common feature using potential energy of water for generating electricity. Therefore, use of all the tools except the spreadsheet on hydrology can also be used for micro and mini hydropower projects outside Nepal. Moreover, some spreadsheets and drawings can also be small and even large hydropower project designs. These tools have also been used in some small hydropower projects in Vietnam and micro hydropower projects in Afghanistan. I would like to thank Entec AG, Switzerland and German Development Cooperation, Nepal for their support to make this publication happen. My special thank goes to Mr. Pushpa Chitrakar, Engineering Advisor of SHPP/GTZ, for his devotion of making such a useful complete set of utility package for micro and mini hydropower project designs. I would also like to extend my sincere thanks to AEPC/ESAP for their contributions to the development of these Design Aids. The contribution of all SHPP/GTZ team members for their continuous support on the development of these design aids is highly appreciated. I do hope that this Micro-hydropower Design Aids would fill the gap that has been felt by all the micro and mini hydropower stakeholders and will be able to contribute to the hydropower sector.

Sridhar Devkota Project Manager SHPP/GTZ

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Thanks for using the Micro-hydropower Design Aids (version 2006.05). Micro-hydropower Design Aids is a complete set of tools consisting of typical AutoCad drawings, typical Microsoft Excel spreadsheets (a workbook) and a users manual (this manual) recommended for use in the feasibility study of micro and mini hydropower schemes. Although these tools were mainly prepared based on the prudent practices of Nepali micro and mini hydropower scheme designs, it is expected that the use of these Design Aids helps enhancing the overall quality of hydropower sector within Nepal and abroad. All spreadsheets except Hydrology can also be used for mini and small hydropower projects outside Nepal. However, the title of these tools in this version is not changed. Why I Prepared the Design Aids I approached this project with one goal in mind. To write a one-step Micro-hydropower Design Aids that would appeal to all Nepali micro-hydropower stakeholders. That is a fairly ambitious goal. But based on the feedback I received from all the stakeholders, I think I have been successful. In addition to updating the existing tools for use in mini, micro and small hydropower projects, spreadsheets for calculating anchor block calculation and design, machine foundation design, loan payback cash flow, etc, are added in this version. These additional tools are especially useful for mini and small hydropower projects. Interactive diagrams to most of the spreadsheets are added in this version. Microsoft Excel is the present market leader, by a long shot, and it is truly the best spreadsheet available. Excel lets you do things with formulas and macros (Visual Basic for Application) that are impossible with other spreadsheets. Similarly, Autodesk AutoCad has been the best and suitable tool for creating digital drawings. Since most of the hydropower stakeholders are familiar with these application software, I have prepared these tools on these application software platforms. Although the above mentioned software are popular amongst all the micro-hydropower stakeholders, it is a safe bet that only about five percent of Excel and AutoCad users in Nepali hydropower sector really understand how to get the most out of these software. With the help of these Design Aids, I attempt to illustrate the fascinating features of these software (especially Excel) and nudge you into that elite group. I have noticed that there are very few complete technical tools and books related to micro and small hydropower design available in the market. A single set of tools for all the calculations is not yet available. Moreover, the outcome of most of these tools are not adequately tested and verified. Most of the good software have none or only poorly illustrated manuals. The combined outcome may produce poor quality feasibility studies which lead to improper implementation decision. To overcome these dangers, I have prepared the Design Aids along with this manual. Electronic version of the Design Aids (an Excel workbook), 15 AutoCad drawings and this manual in Acrobat PDF format are presented on the attached CD ROM. This set of Design Aids (v 2006.05) is a shareware. It would not have been possible for me to write this Design Aids package without the encouragement from German Development Cooperation, Nepal; Entec AG, Switzerland and of course, Mr. Sridhar Devkota, the Project Manager, Small Hydropower Promotion Project. I would also like to thank my colleague Mr. Girish Kharel for his tireless assistance and valued suggestions on composition and presentation.
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What You Should Know The Design Aids are prepared for practicing technical designers who have basic knowledge of hydropower, technical calculation skills and who are familiar with Excel and AutoCad. I attempt to elaborate these Design Aids in such a way that the users will learn to use these Design Aids quite comfortably. The calculations in the spreadsheets are intended to mimic manual calculations as far as possible. Stepwise calculations are also presented in this manual. What You Should Have To make the best use of the Design Aids, you need a copy of Microsoft Excel (XP or later), Autodesk AutoCad (2000 or later) and Adobe Acrobat Reader (5.0 or later). The latest version of a free copy of Adobe Acrobat Reader can be downloaded from www.adobe.com. A downloaded copy of Adobe Acrobat Reader is included in the bundled CD. The minimum system requirements are: Operating system CPU RAM Display CD ROM HD : Windows 98/2000/NT/XP : 486/333MHz : 128MB : 640 x 480 pixels, 256 colours : Double-speed (for installation only) : 10 MB (approximately)

How These Design Aids Are Organized There are many ways to organize these Design Aids materials, but I settled on a scheme that divides them into three main parts. Part I A: Micro-hydropower Drawings The section of this part consists of fifteen typical drawings useful for project elements from intake to transmission line. Since they are only typical drawings, additions of drawings and the level of details may be amended to fulfill specific needs of a particular project. Special efforts were made to maintain the level of consistency, compatibility and the extent of information in the drawings. It is expected that the presented feasibility drawings by consultants are complete and appropriate for micro hydropower plants and all the concerned stakeholders should be able to understand and implement the presented content. Part I B: Mini/Small-hydropower Drawings Part I B consists of fifteen selected typical drawings of an actual feasibility study of a 1500kW Lipin Small Hydropower Project, Sindhupalchowk District, Central Nepal. I used most of the spreadsheets presented in the Design Aids for designing and detailing project elements of this project. Hard copies and soft copies in Acrobat PDF format are presented in this version of Design Aids. The difference between the levels of details of these drawings prepared for a 1500kW project and micro-hydropower projects up to 100kW are quite noticeable. Therefore, it is obvious that higher levels of details with the help of more drawings are expected for larger small hydropower projects. Part II: Spreadsheets This part consists of twenty-five typical spreadsheets covering all calculations recommended by AEPC guidelines for subsidy approval of micro-hydropower schemes, Practical Action Nepal (formerly ITDG, Nepal) guidelines and requirement recommended by small hydropower designers. An earlier version the Design Aids prepared especially for micro-hydropower
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schemes had thirteen typical spreadsheets. Some additional spreadsheets have been presented to cater mini and small hydropower design needs. These spreadsheets provide users to estimate hydrological parameters; design civil, mechanical and electrical components and analyze financial robustness of the perspective micro and mini hydropower schemes in Nepal. Part III: Users Manual This manual (also in Adobe Acrobat PDF format) illustrates aspects of using the presented drawings and spreadsheets; and stepwise calculations covering all technical and non technical (costing and financial) components of hydropower schemes. Download and Reach Out Electronic files included on the attached CD can also be downloaded from www.entec.com.np. Updates will also be posted on this site. Preparation of the Design Aids is a continuous process. I am always interested in getting feedback on these Design Aids. Therefore, valuable suggestions and feedbacks are expected from all the stakeholders/users so that the overall quality of the hydropower sector is enhanced. Any suggestion and feedback can directly be sent to my email pushpa.chitrakar@gtz.org.np. Sharing of hydropower related information regarding advanced options beyond this design aids is also expected. Pushpa Chitrakar Engineering Advisor SHPP/GTZ

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page No.

NOTICE PREFACE ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION


1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 GENERAL OBJECTIVES OF THE DESIGN AIDS SOURCES OF THE DESIGN AIDS DESIGN AIDS: TYPICAL MICRO-HYDRO DRAWINGS DESIGN AIDS: TYPICAL MINI/SMALL HYDRO DRAWINGS DESIGN AIDS: SPREADSHEETS 1.6.1 Flow chart notations 1.6.2 Iterative Processes 1.6.3 Macro Security 1.6.4 Individual vs. linked spreadsheets 1.6.5 User specific inputs 1.6.6 Interpolated computations 1.6.7 Errors 1.6.8 Cell notes 1.6.9 Cell Text Conventions 1.6.10 Types of inputs 1.6.11 Pull Down menus and data validation 1.6.12 Design Aids Menus and Toolbars 1.6.13 Interactive Diagrams INSTALLATION DIRECTORY

II III IV VII 1
1 2 2 2 3 5 5 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 9 10 11 11

1.7

DISCHARGE MEASUREMENT
2.1 2.2 2.3 GENERAL PROGRAM BRIEFING & EXAMPLES CALCULATION AT SITE

12
12 12 13

HYDROLOGY
3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 GENERAL HYDROLOGICAL DATA MEDIUM IRRIGATION PROJECT (MIP) METHOD: MEAN MONTHLY FLOWS WECS/DHM (HYDEST) METHOD: FLOOD FLOWS GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS
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3.6

PROGRAM BRIEFING & EXAMPLES

20

HEADWORKS
4.1 4.2 INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS 4.2.1 Weir 4.2.2 Intake 4.2.3 Intake Trashrack PROGRAM BRIEFINGS AND EXAMPLES 4.2.4 Side Intake calculations 4.2.5 Drop Intake calculations

23
23 24 24 24 24 24 26 29

4.3

HEADRACE/TAILRACE
5.1 5.2 GENERAL GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS 5.2.1 Canal 5.2.2 Pipe PROGRAM BRIEFING AND EXAMPLES 5.3.1 Canal 5.3.2 Canal 5.3.3 Pipe

32
32 32 32 32 33 33 33 36

5.3

SETTLING BASINS
6.1 6.2 6.3 SEDIMENT SETTLING BASINS SETTLING BASIN THEORY GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS 6.3.1 Gravel Trap 6.3.2 Settling Basin 6.3.3 Forebay PROGRAM BRIEFING AND EXAMPLES 6.4.1 Features of the spreadsheet 6.4.2 Vertical flushing pipe 6.4.3 Spillway at intake 6.4.4 Gate

39
39 40 40 40 41 41 42 42 43 43 43

6.4

PENSTOCK AND POWER CALCULATIONS


7.1 7.2 7.3 GENERAL GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS PROGRAM BRIEFING AND EXAMPLE 7.3.1 Program Briefing 7.3.2 Typical example of a penstock pipe FORCES ON ANCHOR BLOCKS 7.4.1 Program example ANCHOR BLOCK DESIGN 7.5.1 Program example

47
47 47 47 47 48 51 51 55 55

7.4 7.5

TURBINE SELECTION
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8.1 8.2 8.3

GENERAL GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS PROGRAM BRIEFING AND EXAMPLE

59 59 60

ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT SELECTION


9.1 9.2 GENERAL SELECTION OF GENERATOR SIZE AND TYPE 9.2.1 Single Phase versus Three Phase System 9.2.2 Induction versus Synchronous Generators GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS 9.3.1 Sizing and RPM of a Synchronous Generator: 9.3.2 Sizing and RPM of an Induction Generator: PROGRAM BRIEFING AND EXAMPLES 9.4.1 Program Briefing 9.4.2 Typical example of a 3-phase 60kW synchronous generator 9.4.3 Typical example of a single phase 20kW induction generator

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61 61 61 61 62 62 63 63 63 64 66

9.3

9.4

10

MACHINE FOUNDATION
10.1 10.2 INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS EXAMPLE

68
68 68

11

TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION


11.1 11.2 11.3 INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS PROGRAM BRIEFING AND EXAMPLES 11.3.1 Program Briefing

72
72 72 72 72

12

LOADS AND BENEFITS


12.1 12.2 12.3 GENERAL GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS / AEPC GUIDELINES PROGRAM BRIEFING AND EXAMPLE 12.3.1 Program Briefing

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77 77 77 77

13

COSTING AND FINANCIAL ANALYSES


13.1 13.2 13.3 INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS / AEPC GUIDELINES PROGRAM BRIEFING AND EXAMPLE 13.3.1 Program Briefing 13.3.2 Typical example of costing and financial analyses

80
80 80 80 80 81

14

UTILITIES
14.1 INTRODUCTION 14.1.1 Uniform depth of a rectangular or trapezoidal canal 14.1.2 Payment of loan for different periods (monthly, quarterly and yearly) 14.1.3 Power calculations
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14.1.4 Spillway sizing. 14.1.5 Voltage drops of transmission line. 14.1.6 Pipe friction factor.

85 85 86

15

REFERENCES

87 I
I XVII

DRAWINGS
TYPICAL MICROHYDROPOWER DRAWINGS TYPICAL DRAWINGS OF 1500KW LIPIN SMALL HYDROPOWER PROJECT

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1.1: A typical Micro Hydro Settling Basin Drawing .................................................................4 Figure 1.2: A typical Small Hydro Settling Basin Drawing .................................................................4 Figure 1.3: Iterative process .................................................................................................................6 Figure 1.4: Activation of iteration (Tools => Option =>Calculations ..................................................6 Figure 1.5: Enabling macros and macro security ...............................................................................6 Figure 1.6: Cell formula incorporated in a cell note. ...........................................................................7 Figure 1.7: A cell note presenting typical values of Mannings n for different surfaces ..................8 Figure 1.8: Colour coding of cell texts .................................................................................................8 Figure 1.9: Different categories of inputs. ...........................................................................................9 Figure 1.10: Different categories of inputs. .........................................................................................9 Figure 1.11: Design Aids Menu and Toolbar .....................................................................................10 Figure 1.12: Typical interactive diagram of Side Intake ....................................................................11 Figure 2.1: Discharge calculations by salt dilution method .............................................................14 Figure 3.1: Hydrology..........................................................................................................................15 Figure 3.2: Hydrological Data and MHP .............................................................................................15 Figure 3.3: MIP Regions ......................................................................................................................16 Figure 3.4: MIP model .........................................................................................................................17 Figure 3.5: Need of interpolation for calculating mean monthly coefficient ...................................17 Figure 3.6: Effect of interpolation on mean monthly flows ..............................................................18 Figure 3.7: Hydest Model ....................................................................................................................19 Figure 3.8: Flow chart of Hydrology spreadsheet .............................................................................20 Figure 3.9: Typical example of a hydrological parameters calculation spreadsheet Hydrology 22 Figure 4.1: Trashrack parameters ......................................................................................................25 Figure 4.2: Flow chart for trashrack calculations..............................................................................25 Figure 4.3: Side intake parameters ....................................................................................................26 Figure 4.4: Flow chart for side intake calculations ...........................................................................27 Figure 4.5: An example of side intake calculations ..........................................................................28 Figure 4.6: Parameters and flow chart of drop intake design ..........................................................29 Figure 4.7: An example of drop intake ...............................................................................................31 Figure 5.1: Flow chart for canal design .............................................................................................34 Figure 5.2: An example of canal design.............................................................................................35 Figure 5.3: Illustrated canal type and their dimensions....................................................................36 Figure 5.4: Flow chart for pipe design ...............................................................................................37 Figure 5.5: An example of headrace pipe design ..............................................................................38 Figure 6.1: Typical section of a settling basin...................................................................................39 Figure 6.2: An ideal setting basin.......................................................................................................40 Figure 6.3: Flushing pipe details ........................................................................................................43 Figure 6.4: Typical example of a settling basin (Settling basin, spilling and flushing). .................45 Figure 6.5: Typical example of a settling basin (Gate and rating curve). ........................................46 Figure 6.6: Typical example of a settling basin (forebay and dimensioning)..................................46 Figure 7.1: Flow diagram of penstock design ...................................................................................48 Figure 7.2: Input required for penstock and power calculations .....................................................49 Figure 7.3: Output of penstock and power calculation spreadsheet. ..............................................50
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Figure 7.4: Output of anchor block force calculation spreadsheet..................................................55 Figure 7.5: Anchor Block Considered ................................................................................................55 Figure 7.6: Anchor Block force diagram ............................................................................................57 Figure 7.7: Anchor Block force diagram ............................................................................................58 Figure 8.1: Pelton and Crossflow Turbines .......................................................................................59 Figure 8.2: A Typical turbine example. ..............................................................................................60 Figure 9.1: Electrical components of a 20kW 3-phase synchronous generator. ............................65 Figure 9.2: Electrical components of a 20kW 1-phase induction generator....................................67 Figure 10.1: Layout of MachineFoundation Spreadsheet. ................................................................71 Figure 11.1: Flow chart of transmission and distribution line computation. ..................................73 Figure 11.2: Transmission line and load used for the example. ......................................................73 Figure 11.3: Typical example of a low voltage transmission line. ...................................................76 Figure 12.1: Flow chart of the load and benefits calculation spreadsheet. .....................................77 Figure 12.2: Load duration chart ........................................................................................................78 Figure 12.3: An example of load and benefits calculation................................................................79 Figure 13.1: Flow chart for Project costing and financial analyses. ................................................81 Figure 13.2: A typical example of project costing and financial analyses. .....................................82 Figure 14.1: A typical example of uniform depth calculation of a trapezoidal section...................83 Figure 14.2: A typical example EMI calculation.................................................................................84 Figure 14.3: Generated Schedule of EMI calculation ........................................................................84 Figure 14.4: A typical example of power calculation ........................................................................84 Figure 14.5: A typical example of spillway sizing .............................................................................85 Figure 14.6: A typical example of transmission line calculation......................................................85 Figure 14.7: A typical example of pipe friction calculation ..............................................................86

LIST OF TABLES
Table 1.1: Summary of Micro Hydropower Drawings ........................................................................3 Table 1.2: Summary of Small Hydropower Drawings ........................................................................3 Table 1.3: Summary of Spreadsheets ..................................................................................................5 Table 2.1: Input parameters for Salt Dilution Method .......................................................................12 Table 2.2: First set conductivity reading for Salt Dilution Method (Example) .................................12 Table 2.3: Data Input (partial) .............................................................................................................13 Table 3.1: MIP regional monthly coefficients ....................................................................................16 Table 3.2: Standard normal variants for floods .................................................................................19 Table 4.1: Drop intake and upstream flow .........................................................................................29 Table 6.1: Settling diameter, trap efficiency and gross head ...........................................................41 Table 7.1: Summary of penstock thickness and corresponding maximum permissible static head .......................................................................................................................................................50 Table 7.2: Summary of forces.............................................................................................................53 Table 8.1: Turbine specifications .......................................................................................................59 Table 8.2: Turbine type vs. ns .............................................................................................................59 Table 9.1: Selection of Generator Type.............................................................................................62 Table 9.2: Generator rating factors ....................................................................................................62 Table 11.1: ASCR specifications ........................................................................................................72 Table 11.2: Rated current and voltage drop calculation ...................................................................72 Table 13.1: Per kilowatt subsidy and cost ceiling as per AEPC .......................................................80

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LIST OF MICRO-HYDROPOWER DRAWINGS


Drawing Name 01 General Layout 02A Side Intake Plan 02B Side Intake Sections 03 Drop Intake Plan 04 Headrace 05A Gravel Trap 05B Settling Basin 06 Headrace Canal 07 Forebay 08 Penstock Alignment 09 Anchor & Saddle Blocks 10 Powerhouse 11 Machine foundation 12 Transmission 13 Single line diagram Page .................................... D-ii .................................... D-iii .................................... D-iv .................................... D-v .................................... D-vi ....................................... D-vii ..................................... D-viii .................................... D-ix .................................... D-x .................................... D-xi ........................................ D-xii ........................................ D-xiii ........................................ D-xiv ........................................ D-xv ........................................ D-xvi

LIST OF SMALL-HYDROPOWER DRAWINGS


Drawing no 7.D.np.5133/01/ 10A01 10A02 10A03 20A01 20A02 20A03 20A04 20A05 30A01 40A10 40A11 40A12 50A02 60A04 70A01 Page Title / Remarks Project Location, District Map & Catchment Area Project Layout, sheet 1 of 2, Plan Project Layout, sheet 2 of 2, Profiles Weir, Intake and Gravel Trap, sheet 1 of 3, plan and sections Weir, Intake and Gravel Trap, sheet 2 of 3, plan and sections Weir, Intake and Gravel Trap, sheet 3 of 3, plan and sections Settling Basin, sheet 1 of 2, plan and sections Settling Basin, sheet 2 of 2, plan and sections Plan and Profile and Typical Sections/Similar for penstock alignment Anchor Blocks, sheet 1 of 2 Anchor Blocks, sheet 2 of 2 Saddle Support Powerhouse Plan and Sections Geological Mapping, sheet 4 of 4 Single line diagram D-xviii D-xix D-xx D-xxi D-xxii D-xxiii D-xxiv D-xxv D-xxvi D-xxvii D-xxviii D-xxix D-xxx D-xxxi D-xxxii

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1.

INTRODUCTION

1.1 GENERAL
This set of Micro-hydropower1 Design Aids is a complete set of feasibility level hydropower design tools consisting of typical AutoCad drawings, typical Microsoft Excel spreadsheets and a users manual recommended for micro and mini hydropower schemes. An earlier digital version of the set was published as a part the publication of Alternative Energy promotion Centre (AEPC) of The Government of Nepal2 (ISBN 99933-705-5-X) and has officially been recommended for its subsidized micro-hydropower schemes in Nepal up to 100kW. The micro-hydropower Design Aids were prepared to provide a basis for consultants to undertake calculations and prepare drawings as per the requirements set aside by the procedural guidelines of AEPC-the Government of Nepal. Since most of the stakeholders are familiar with Autodesk AutoCad (2000 or later) and Microsoft Excel (XP or later) application software, the Design Aids were prepared based on these software to make them simple and user friendly. During the preparation of these Design Aids, special efforts were made so that the skills and knowledge of practicing stakeholders such as consultants, manufacturers and inspectors are further enhanced by this Design Aids. This design aids are updated version of the previous design aids and suitable for designing mini and small hydropower schemes. Update, addition and publication of the design aids are the symbols of Small Hydropower Promotion Project(SHPP/GTZ)3 SHPPs continuous assistance and support to the Nepali hydropower sector. The Design Aids consist of a set of fifteen typical drawings, a workbook with twenty-five typical spreadsheets and a users manual for procedural guidance. This set of design aids also covers all aspects recommended by AEPC guidelines for its subsidized micro-hydropower schemes. The Design Aids provide users to estimate hydrological parameters; design civil, mechanical and electrical components and analyze financial robustness of the prospective micro hydropower schemes in Nepal. Procedural guidelines, detailed step by step calculations and guidelines for using the presented spreadsheets are presented in this users manual. A copy of this manual in Acrobat PDF file format is included in the bundled CD. The Design Aids are distributed in template/read-only formats so that the original copy is always preserved even when the users modify them. The Design Aids were originally prepared for micro hydropower schemes up to 100kW. Since there are many common approaches and features in all hydropower projects, these spreadsheets were modified to suit mini and small hydropower design requirements as well. Spreadsheets on Hydrology are intended for Nepali micro hydropower schemes only. Spreadsheets on Cost&Benefits and FinancialAnalyses are intended to serve micro-hydropower schemes outside Nepal too (refer to Table 1.2). Preparation and use of the Design Aids is a continuous process. SHPP/GTZ has been continuously enhancing the Design Aids and this update (version 2006.05) is the outcome of SHPPs efforts in hydropower sector development in Nepal. Therefore, valuable suggestions and feedbacks are expected from all the stakeholders/users so that the overall quality of the micro hydro sector is enhanced. Any suggestion and feedback can directly be sent to pushpa.chitrakar@gtz.org.np .

In Nepal, hydropower projects up to 100kW are termed as micro hydropower projects. Projects within 100kW to 1000kW are termed as mini hydropower projects. 1000kW to 10,,000kW are termed as small hydropower projects. Beyond this, they are termed as large hydropower projects.
2

Alternative Energy Promotion Centre (AEPC) is a Nepal Government organization established to promote alternative sources of energy in Nepali rural areas. MGSP of AEPC-ESAP is promoting Nepali micro-hydropower schemes up to 100kW.
3

Small Hydropower Promotion Project is a joint project of the Government of Nepal, Department of Energy Development (DoED) and German Technical Cooperation (GTZ). Since its establishment in 1999, this project has been providing its services to sustainable development of small hydropower projects in Nepal (100kW to 10MW) leading to public private participation and overall rural development. It has also been providing technical support and backstopping to Nepali micro-hydropower stakeholders including AEPC. Entec AG of Switzerland is the implementing consultant of this project.

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1.2 OBJECTIVES OF THE DESIGN AIDS


The main objective of the Design Aids is to enhance the quality of the micro and mini hydropower sector in Nepal. Use of these Design Aids helps fulfilling the main objective because: 1. The Design Aids function as a set of Time Saver Kit for precision and speed (e.g. hydrological calculations based on exact flow measurement date, Q flood off-take, friction factor of penstock pipes, etc.). 2. They provide relevant references to micro and mini hydro sector stakeholders for using and upgrading their skills and creativities. Useful information is incorporated within the design aids so that external references are minimized. Cell notes, tables, figures, etc., in the spreadsheets and information in this manual are some of the examples that will greatly reduce external references. 3. The depth of the study and presented reports by different consultants are uniform and their data presentations are consistent and to the required depth. 4. The Design Aids serve as templates so that there is sufficient room for further creativity and improvement and tailoring to include specific needs of particular projects. 5. In addition, the Design Aids are handy and user friendly. The user familiar AutoCad 2000 and MS Excel XP software platforms have been used to develop the Design Aids.

1.3 SOURCES OF THE DESIGN AIDS


The Design Aids were prepared aiming to enhance the overall quality of the micro and mini hydro sector. Reviews of following sources were carried out during the preparation of the Design Aids: 1. Review and assessment of more than 60 small hydropower projects which have been assisted by SHPP/GTZ. 2. Review, assessment and appraisal of more than 300 preliminary feasibility, 200 feasibility and 50 Peltric set feasibility study reports during the SHPP-AEPC collaboration. 3. Review of AEPC micro hydropower guidelines and standards for Peltric and microhydropower schemes. These guidelines and standards were updated by SHPP during SHPPAEPC collaboration. 4. Feedbacks from all stakeholders such as Independent power producers (IPPs), lending agencies, in-house colleagues, AEPC, Consultants, Manufacturers and Installers. 5. Experience from other micro, small and large hydropower projects within Nepal and abroad. 6. Standard textbooks, guidelines and other standards.

1.4 DESIGN AIDS: TYPICAL MICRO-HYDRO DRAWINGS


As stated earlier, fifteen micro-hydropower related AutoCad drawings were prepared and incorporated in the Design Aids. The presented drawings cover from intake to transmission line. Since they are only typical drawings, additions of drawings and the level of details may be changed to fulfill specific needs of a particular project. The level of consistency, compatibility and the extent of information in the drawings are complete and appropriate for micro hydropower plants and all the concerned stakeholders should be able to understand and implement the presented content. The main features of the presented drawings are: 1. These drawings are recommended only for micro-hydro schemes. 2. Minimum required details such as plans and adequate cross sections are provided. 3. Recommended values of elements such as the minimum thickness of a stone masonry wall, the longitudinal slope of a settling basin, etc, are presented in the drawings. 4. Standard line types and symbols are presented.

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5. Basic drawing elements such as a title box with adequate information and controlling signatories; scale; etc are presented. 6. All drawings with standard layouts for printing. The dimensions and geometries of the presented drawings should be amended according to the project details. A set of all the drawings are presented in the appendix. For an example, a typical drawing of a settling basin is presented in Figure 1.1. The MHP drawings that are presented are listed in Table 1.1.

1.5 DESIGN AIDS: TYPICAL MINI/SMALL HYDRO DRAWINGS


A total of fifteen selected typical drawings of an actual feasibility study of a 1500kW Lipin Small Hydropower Project, Sindhupalchowk District, Central Nepal are presented in appendix. The difference between the levels of details of micro and small hydropower drawings are quite noticeable. A typical settling basin drawing is presented in Figure 1.2. All the presented drawings listed in Table 1.2 are recommended for mini and small hydropower projects within 2000kW. Table 1.1: Summary of Micro Hydropower Drawings
SN 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Drawing Name (*.dwg) 01 General Layout 02A Side Intake Plan 02B Side Intake Sections 03 Drop Intake Plan 04 Headrace 05A Gravel Trap 05B Settling Basin 06 Headrace Canal 07 Forebay 08 Penstock Alignment 09 Anchor & Saddle Blocks 10 Powerhouse 11 Machine foundation 12 Transmission 13 Single line diagram Remarks General layout of project components except the transmission and distribution components. A general plan of headworks including river training, trashrack, intake, gravel trap and spillway. A longitudinal section along water conveyance system from intake to headrace, two cross sections of weir for temporary and permanent weirs respectively and a cross section of a spillway. A general plan, a cross section across a permanent weir and a cross section of a drop intake. A longitudinal headrace profile showing different levels along it. A plan, a longitudinal section and two cross sections. A plan, a longitudinal section and two cross sections. Two cross sections for permanent lined canal and one for temporary unlined canal. A plan, a longitudinal section, two cross sections and penstock inlet details. A longitudinal section of penstock alignment. Plans and sections of concave and convex anchor blocks and a saddle. A plan and a section of a typical powerhouse. A plan and three sections of a typical machine foundation. A single line diagram if a transmission/distribution system. A single line diagram showing different electrical components.

Table 1.2: Summary of Small Hydropower Drawings


SN 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Drawing no 7.D.np.5133/01/ 10A01 10A02 10A03 20A01 20A02 20A03 20A04 20A05 30A01 40A10 40A11 40A12 50A02 60A04 70A01 Title / Remarks Project Location, District Map & Catchment Area Project Layout, sheet 1 of 2, Plan Project Layout, sheet 2 of 2, Profiles Weir, Intake and Gravel Trap, sheet 1 of 3, plan and sections Weir, Intake and Gravel Trap, sheet 2 of 3, plan and sections Weir, Intake and Gravel Trap, sheet 3 of 3, plan and sections Settling Basin, sheet 1 of 2, plan and sections Settling Basin, sheet 2 of 2, plan and sections Plan and Profile and Typical Sections/Similar for penstock alignment Anchor Blocks, sheet 1 of 2 Anchor Blocks, sheet 2 of 2 Saddle Support Powerhouse Plan and Sections Geological Mapping, sheet 4 of 4 Single line diagram

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Figure 1.1: A typical Micro Hydro Settling Basin Drawing

Figure 1.2: A typical Small Hydro Settling Basin Drawing

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1.6 DESIGN AIDS: SPREADSHEETS


As stated earlier, MS Excel XP has been used to develop the presented twenty-five spreadsheets. General as well as special features of Excel XP have been utilized while developing the spreadsheets. There are sixteen main spreadsheets each covering a tool required for covering computations for an element of hydropower schemes. The Utility spreadsheets presented at the end of the workbook covers minor calculations such as uniform depth of water in a canal, loan payback calculations, etc. The list of the presented spreadsheets and their areas of coverage are presented in Table 1.3. Table 1.3: Summary of Spreadsheets
SN 1 2 3 4 6 7 5 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 1724 Name Discharge Hydrology Side Intake Bottom Intake Canal Pipe Settling Basin Penstock AnchorLoad AnchorBlock Turbine Electrical Machine Foundation Transmission Load Benefit Costing Financial Utilities & Area of coverage Chapter 2: Computation of river discharge from Salt dilution method. Chapter 3: Hydrological parameters calculations based on MIP and Hydest methods (Regression Methods) Chapter 4: Design of side intakes including coarse trashrack, flood discharge and spillways. Chapter 4: Design of bottom intake including flood discharges. Chapter 5: Design of user defined and optimum conveyance canals with multiple profiles and sections. Chapter 5: Design of mild steel/HDPE/PVC conveyance pipes. Chapter 6: Design of settling basins, gravel traps and forebays with spilling and flushing systems with spillways, cones and gates. Chapter 7: Design of penstocks with fine trashrack, expansion joints and power calculations. Chapter 7: Calculations of forces on anchor blocks. Chapter 7: Design of anchor block. Chapter 8: Selection of turbines based on specific speed and gearing ratios. Chapter 9: Selection of electrical equipment such as different types of generators, cable and other accessories sizing. Chapter 10: Design of machine foundation. Chapter 11: Transmission / Distribution line calculations with cable estimation. Chapter 12: Loads and benefit calculations for the first three years and after the first three years of operation. Chapter 13: Costing and financial analyses based on the project cost, annual costs and benefits. Chapter 14: Utilities such as uniform depth, loan payment calculations, etc. Uses Micro/small Micro/ small in Nepal All sizes All sizes All sizes All sizes All sizes All sizes All sizes (2D) All sizes (2D) Micro Micro Micro Micro/small Micro Micro All sizes

Design of anchor blocks and saddles are site and project specific. The presented anchor block spreadsheets are based on two-dimensional calculations and are useful for penstock aligned in straight lines without any horizontal deflection. Background information and main features of the presented spreadsheets are: 1.6.1 Flow chart notations Standard flow chart notations are used to describe program execution flows. Following notations are mostly used: Start and End Input Processing formulas and output Processing and output from other sub routine
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Conditional branching Flow direction 1.6.2 Iterative Processes The spreadsheets are designed to save tedious and long iterative/repetitive processes required for calculations. Manual repetitive processes are the main source error generating and they are also time consuming factors. A typical repetitive process is presented in Figure 1.3.

Assume Xo

Y =f(X): X=f`(Y)

Is Yes End e=<|Yn+1 Yn| No X=X+h

Figure 1.3: Iterative process As shown in the figure, the initial assumed value of X0 is amended until an acceptable error limit is reached. By default, Excel does not activate this features and generates Circular Reference Error. The iterative features in Excel can be activated by selecting Calculations tab (Tools>Options->Calculations>Tick Iteration (cycles & h)) and checking the iteration box. The Excel dialogue box with this features activated is presented in Figure 1.4.

Figure 1.4: Activation of iteration (Tools => Option =>Calculations 1.6.3 Macro Security The spreadsheets contain Visual Basic for Application (VBA) functions and procedures. Because of the safety reasons against possible virus threats, MS Excel disables such VBA functions and procedures by default. Setting security level to medium (Tools => Macros => Security => Medium) and enabling the macros during the opening of the Design Aids are required for the proper execution of the Design Aids. Dialogue boxes for setting security level to medium and enabling the macros are presented in Figure 1.5.

Figure 1.5: Enabling macros and macro security

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1.6.4 Individual vs. linked spreadsheets By default, common inputs such as the project name, etc., in all the spreadsheets are linked to the first design spreadsheet Conductivity. The objective of linking such common inputs is to have consistent input with minimal user effort. Some of the other processed data such as the design discharge or flood discharge are also linked by default. However, the users may change these values for specific calculations i.e., the spreadsheets can also be used as individual spreadsheets for independent calculations that are not linked to a single project. It is recommended to save an extra copy of the workbook before manipulating such linked cell so that the saved copy can be used as a workbook with linked spreadsheets for a single project. 1.6.5 User specific inputs Some parameters such as canal freeboards, width of a canal, factor of safety for a mild steel penstock, etc., have their standard optimum values. By default, the standard optimum values are computed or presented. However, users are allowed to enter non-standard specific values under special circumstances. 1.6.6 Interpolated computations Some of the parameters such as frictional coefficient of a bend, coefficient of gate discharge, etc., have standard proven values for standard conditions. In case the condition is of a non-standard type, interpolated values with the help of curve fittings are estimated and used. The users are cautioned to check the validity of such values whenever they encounter them. 1.6.7 Errors Mainly three types of errors are known in the presented design aids. One of them is the NAME# error which is caused by not executing custom functions and procedures because of the macro security level set to high or very high level. In case such an error occurs, close the workbook, activate the macro security level to medium and enable the macros when opening the workbook again. Typical NAME# errors occur for the depth of water during flushing yfi (m) and d50f during flushing (mm) in the settling basin spreadsheet. VALUE# error is the other error that is generated by the malfunctioning of circular references. When such an error occurs, select the error cell, press F2 and press Enter. Q intake Qf cumec in the side intake spreadsheet is an example of such an error. A REF# error in transmission line computation occurs due to the deletion of unnecessary rows in a branch. In such an instance, copy the second cell from the second line of any branch. 1.6.8 Cell notes Cell notes are comments attached to cells. They are useful for providing, information related to computational procedures. Adequate cell notes are provided in the presented spreadsheets so that external references are minimized. Figure 1.6: Cell formula incorporated in a cell note. For example, a cell note with a cell formula for calculating specific speed of a turbine is presented in Figure 1.6. Similarly, the cell note in Figure 1.7 presents a basic table for selecting Mannings coefficient of roughness of a canal. Other information such as mandatory requirements set by AEPC for its subsidized micro hydropower projects are also presented. For hydropower projects that are not subsidized by AEPC, these mandatory requirements may be amended.

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Figure 1.7: A cell note presenting typical values of Mannings n for different surfaces 1.6.9 Cell Text Conventions Three different colour codes are used to distinguish three different cell categories. A typical example of colour coding of cells is presented in Figure 1.8. The colours and categories of these cells are: Blue cells: These cells represent mandatory input cells. These cells are project dependant cells and project related actual inputs are expected in these cells for correct outputs. The mandatory input includes the name of project, head, discharge, etc. Some of these cells are linked. Figure 1.8: Colour coding of cell texts Red cells: These cells are optional input cells. Standard values are presented in these cells. Values in this type of cells can be amended provided that there are adequate sufficient grounds to do so. It is worth noting that care should be taken while changing these values. Typical optional values / inputs are the density of sediment, sediment swelling factor, temperature of water, etc. Black cells: The black cells represent information and or output of the computations. For the sake of protecting accidental and deliberate amendment or change leading to wrong outputs, these cells are protected from editing. 1.6.10 Types of inputs According to the nature of inputs, the inputs are further categorized into the following three groups:
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1. User or project specific inputs: The input variables that totally depend on the user and or the project are categorized as the user or project specific inputs. The programs do not restrict on or validate the values of such inputs. The name and gross head of the project are some of the examples that fall on this category. The velocity through orifice (Vo) in the example presented in Figure 1.9 can have any value hence it is a user specific input. 2. Prescribed Input: Some of the inputs have some standard values for standard conditions. The programs list using such values and give choices for the user to select. However, the programs do not restrict on or validate such variables. These inputs are termed as prescribed inputs. For example in Figure 1.9, with the help of a pull-down menu, Mannings coefficients for different types of surfaces are listed for selection. This will greatly reduce the need for referring external references. However, any specific values for specific need can be entered into this type of cells. Figure 1.9: Different categories of inputs. 3. Mandatory Input: Some inputs can only have specific values and the programs need to validate such values for proper computations. These values are termed as mandatory inputs. Since Nepal is divided into seven MIP regions, the value for a MIP region can have an integer ranging from 1 to 7 only. In the example presented in Figure 1.10, the MIP region can have values from 1 to 7. In case the user enters different values (for example 8 as presented in the figure), the program generates an error prompting for the correct input of 1 to 7. The proper value between 1 and 7 can be entered after clicking Retry button.

Figure 1.10: Different categories of inputs. 1.6.11 Pull Down menus and data validation As demonstrated earlier, some input cells are equipped with pull down menus to facilitate the users to input standard values related to the input cell. Cells related to pull down menus can have any user specific values than the stated standard values if the data cells are not of mandatory type. In Figure 1.9, the pull down menu for Mannings roughness coefficient (n) in cell B42 is activated. Different surface materials are listed in the pull down menu, stone masonry surface type is selected and the corresponding standard value of the Mannings coefficient of roughness of 0.02 is substituted in the corresponding cell. Since the value in this cell is not restricted, users can enter any values for this cell. Some inputs such as the name of the month, MIP hydrological region and dates in Hydrology spreadsheet can have specific values in their respective cells. Since the outcome of the computation will be erroneous if the input data does not match with the desired values, the spreadsheets are designed to reject such an invalid value and flag an error message with suggestions. This example is demonstrated in Figure 1.10.

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1.6.12 Design Aids Menus and Toolbars A menu and a toolbar are added to the workbook to facilitate users access all the design tools including online manual, drawings and feedback to the Design Aids. They are set to active only when the workbook is active. The toolbar has to be dragged to either on top or side of the screen (as presented in Figure 1.11) for convenience.

Figure 1.11: Design Aids Menu and Toolbar

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1.6.13 Interactive Diagrams Most of the design spreadsheets are equipped with dynamically linked interactive diagrams which change according to the changes in the design parameters. A typical example of an interactive diagram for a side intake is presented in Figure 1.12. Interactive diagrams are provided for the following designs: 1. Side Intake. 2. Bottom Intake. 3. Settling Basin. 4. Anchor Block. 5. Machine Foundation and 6. Canal (utility)
NW L= 500.56 Crest = 500.66 HFL = 501 .41

Wall Geometry

Top = 501 .91

HFL = 500.49 NW L= 500.45 O rif ic = 0.2x0.32

Canal =500

Figure 1.12: Typical interactive diagram of Side Intake

1.7 INSTALLATION DIRECTORY


It is recommended to install the design aids under C:\Design Aids\ directory for the full functioning of these tools. In case it is installed elsewhere, the external links for online manual and drawings will not work. Run Install.bat on the root directory of the bundled CD for installing to the default location. It is also recommended that the working copy of project specific spreadsheet be saved on C:\Design Aids\Design Aids.

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2 DISCHARGE MEASUREMENT
2.1 GENERAL
Almost all potential hydropower project sites in Nepal are located in remote areas where there is a complete lack of hydrological information. For micro-hydropower projects in Nepal, MGSP guidelines requires at least one set of discharge measurement at the proposed intake site to be carried out in the dry season, between November and May. Regular (such as monthly measurements) measurements during dry seasons are recommended for mini and small hydropower projects. Bucket method for flow up to 10 l/s, weir method for a flow from 10 to 30 l/s and for flows larger than 30 l/s salt dilution method (conductivity meter method) are recommended by MGSP. This chapter deals with spreadsheet calculations based on the salt dilution method. Since the salt dilution method is quick (generally less than 10minutes per set of measurement), easier to accomplish and reliable, its accuracy level is relatively higher (less than 7%) than other methods. This is suitable for smaller fast flowing streams (up to 2000 l/s), easier for carrying the instrument in remote places. Consultants have been using mainly this method even though AEPC and other guidelines have proposed different methods for different flows at the river. In this method, the change of conductivity levels of the stream due to pouring of known quantity of predefined diluted salt (50-300gm per 100 l/s) are measured with a standardized conductivity meter (with known salt constant, k) at a regular interval (e.g., 5 seconds). For more information, please refer to MGSP Flow Verification Guidelines or Micro Hydro Design Manual (A Harvey) or other standard textbooks.

2.2 PROGRAM BRIEFING & EXAMPLES


Hydrology spreadsheet presented in the Design Aids can handle up to four sets of data. The input parameters required for the discharge calculation are presented in Table 2.1. Discharge measurement carried out in a small river in Eastern Nepal with an average gradient of 10% is considered as an example. The typical input parameters considered in the example are presented in the adjacent column. The first set of field readings are presented in Table 2.2. Partial inputs of three sets of reading are presented in Table 2.3. Table 2.1: Input parameters for Salt Dilution Method
SN 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Input parameters River Conductivity Meter Date Type of Salt Conductivity Constant (m Siemens) Water temp Time Intervals (dt) Weights of salt for sets 1 to 4 (M in g) Readings (m & mbaseline) for sets 1 to 4 Input for the cited (Example) Mai Khola HANNA Instruments HI 933000 12-Jan-04 Iyoo Nun o 1.8 at 15 C o 15 C 5sec 400g, 1580g and 1795g Presented in Table 2.2

Table 2.2: First set conductivity reading for Salt Dilution Method (Example)
5 25 34 32 30 28 26 10 26 35 32 29 28 26 15 27 35 32 29 27 26 20 28 35 31 29 27 26 25 29 35 31 29 27 26 Time(sec) 30 35 30 31 34 34 31 31 29 29 27 27 26 26 40 32 34 31 28 26 25 45 32 33 31 28 26 25 50 55 60 33 34 34 33 33 32 30 30 30 28 28 28 26 26 26 25 Total (mS) = Sm Total readings (nr) Sum 361 407 372 344 321 257 2062 70

Water Conductivity in mS

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Table 2.3: Data Input (partial)


Time 5 10 15 . Reading 1 25 26 27 28 .. Reading 2 24 24 24 24 .. Reading 3 24 25 25 26 Reading 4

With these input parameters, discharge at the stream can be calculated by the following procedures: Stream Flow, Q = M x k/A Where, Q = flow in litre/sec M = mass of dry salt in mg (i.e.10-6 kg) k = salt constant in (mS)/(mg/litre) A = effective area under the graph of conductivity versus time, after excluding the area due to base conductivity. The units for the area under the graph is sec x mS. The area is determined as follows: Area (A) = (Sm nr x mbaseline) * dt Weighted averages of the individual flows thus calculated are computed. A typical spreadsheet is presented in Figure 2.1. The average estimated discharge will further be used by Medium Irrigation Project Method (MIP) to calculate long term average monthly flows. The calculation procedures for the first set of measurement (Set 1) are:
Area (A) = (Sm nr x mbaseline) * dt = (2062-70*25)*5 = 1560 sec x mS = M x k/A = 400000*1.8/1560 = 461.54 l/s = 461 l/s

Discharge (Q)

2.3 CALCULATION AT SITE


Calculation of measured flows and plotting of graphs of the corresponding data are always recommended at site for verification. This saves critical time of revisiting the intake site in case the measured discharge is not within acceptable limits. It is recommended to carry out a number of measurements until at least three consistent results (within 10%) are obtained. Procedural steps for checking flow with the help of a scientific calculator (Casio Fx 78 or equivalent) are presented in this section. This procedure uses inbuilt standard deviation functions. INV MODE => starts standard deviation mode (STD) INV SAC => standard deviation all memory clear 25x, 26x.=> input data (readings)

Sx-n* (xbase) = *(dt) = (Area) =>2062-70*25=*5=1560 => gives area (A)


INV MODE exits STD MODE 1/x* (M)* (K)=Q => 1/x of 1560*400000*1.8=461.54 (Q in l/s) Note Italic & Underlined letters are individual calculator keys

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Discharge Measurement by Conductivity Meter


Small Hydropower Promotion Project (SHPP)/GTZ Referances: 6,12,13,15,16 SMALL HYDROPOWER PROMOTION PROJECT/GTZ Spreadsheet by Mr Pushpa Chitrakar Date Rev ision 24-May-2006

2006.05

Project Developer Consultant Designed Checked Meter Salt Given k


Salt Const. (k) Wt. of Salt Nr of data Baseline conductiv ity Sum of readings Effectiv e Area Discharge

Upper Jogm ai, Ilam Kankaimai Hydropower P Ltd EPC Consult Pushpa Chitrakar
HANNA Ins truments (HI 933000)

Iyoo Noon Water temp: 1.8 Time intervals


400 gm 70 25 2062 1560 462 l/s 1.8000 1580 gm 1795 gm 91 106 24 24 3433 3997 6245 7265 455 l/s 445 l/s Average Dis charge

11 deg C 5 sec

454 l/s

Dis charge Meas urement by Conductivity Meter: Upper Jogmai, Ilam


80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

Salt =400gm , A eff =1560 Salt =1580gm , A eff =6245 Salt =1795gm , A eff =7265 Salt =0gm , A eff =0

5/24, 11deg C, HANNA Discharge Measurement by Conductiv Iyoo Noon, Meter: k=1.8, Upper Av e. Jogmai, Discharge Ilam = 453.89 l/s 400 0Instruments 50 (HI 933000), 100 150 ity 200 250 300 350

Figure 2.1: Discharge calculations by salt dilution method

Conductivity mS

450 500 550 600 Time(s ec) =400gm, A Salt Salt eff =1560 =1580gm, ASalt effSalt =6245 =1795gm, A effeff =7265 =0gm ,A =0 D ate= 2006/5/24, 11deg C, H AN N A Instruments (H I 933000), Iyoo N oon, k=1.8, Ave. D ischarge = 453.89 l/s

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3 HYDROLOGY
3.1 GENERAL
Hydrology is the science that deals with space-time characteristics of the quantity and quality of the waters of the earth. It is the intricate relationship of water, earth and atmosphere. Tools developed for estimating hydrological parameters for un-gauged catchment areas are mainly based on regional correlations. The outputs of these tools are quite comparable to the actual hydrological parameters for rivers having bigger catchment areas (100km2 or more). Almost all potential micro and mini hydropower scheme sites in Nepal have relatively small catchment areas and are located in remote areas where there is a complete lack small of hydrological information. It is recommended that at least one set of actual measurement in dry season (November-May) for estimating reasonably reliable long term mean monthly flows. Long term mean monthly flows are estimated by the use of a regional regression methods called Medium Irrigation Project (MIP) method developed by M. Mac Donald in 1990. For hydropower schemes having a design discharge more than 100 l/s, flood hazards are generally critical and flood flows should be calculated. Long term mean monthly flows based on MIP method and flood flows based on methodologies for estimating hydrologic characteristics of engaged locations in Nepal, WECS/DHM 1990 Study (Hydest) are incorporated in Hydrology spreadsheet. Brief introduction of these two methods are presented in the subsequent sub-sections. It is worth noting that MIP and HYDEST are only applicable for Nepal.

Atmosphere Atmosphere

Hydrology

Water Water

Earth Earth

Figure 3.1: Hydrology

3.2 HYDROLOGICAL DATA


As presented in Figure 3.2, the hydrological data constitute of stream flow records, precipitation and climatological data, topographical maps, groundwater data, evaporation and transpiration data, soil maps and geologic maps. Large projects may need all the hydrological data. However, only the first three data are sufficient for the estimation of MIP monthly flows and Hydest floods in micro and mini hydropower projects.
Streamflow Streamflow Records Records Precipitation Precipitation and and Climatological Climatological Data Data

Topographic Topographic Maps Maps Groundwater Groundwater Data Data Evaporation Evaporation and and Transpiration Transpiration Data Data Geologic Geologic Maps Maps
Soil Soil Maps Maps

Hydrological Hydrological Data Data

MHP MHP

Hydrological Hydrological Data Data


Figure 3.2: Hydrological Data and MHP
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3.3 MEDIUM IRRIGATION PROJECT (MIP) METHOD: MEAN MONTHLY FLOWS


As stated earlier, this method is developed by M. Mac Donald in 1990. According to this method, Nepal is divided into 7 regions. Based on wading measurements by the Department of Hydrology and Meteorology, Government of Nepal, non-dimensional regional hydrographs were developed for each region. The month of April was used for non-dimensionalizing. Seven sets of average monthly coefficients for the seven regions for each month were prepared. The seven regions are graphically shown in Figure 3.3 and the corresponding seven sets of mean monthly coefficients are presented in Table 3.1. It is worth noting that these monthly coefficients have to be interpolated to get the actual monthly coefficients if the flow measurement is not on the 15th of the measured month.

Figure 3.3: MIP Regions Table 3.1: MIP regional monthly coefficients
Month January February March April May June July August September October November December 1 2.40 1.80 1.30 1.00 2.60 6.00 14.50 25.00 16.50 8.00 4.10 3.10 2 2.24 1.70 1.33 1.00 1.21 7.27 18.18 27.27 20.91 9.09 3.94 3.03 3 2.71 1.88 1.38 1.00 1.88 3.13 13.54 25.00 20.83 10.42 5.00 3.75 Regions 4 2.59 1.88 1.38 1.00 2.19 3.75 6.89 27.27 20.91 6.89 5.00 3.44 5 2.42 1.82 1.36 1.00 0.91 2.73 11.21 13.94 10.00 6.52 4.55 3.33 6 2.03 1.62 1.27 1.00 2.57 6.08 24.32 33.78 27.03 6.08 3.38 2.57 7 3.30 2.20 1.40 1.00 3.50 6.00 14.00 35.00 24.00 12.00 7.50 5.00

Figure 3.4 represents a flow chart of the MIP model for calculating mean monthly flows based on a set of low flow measurement. As shown in the figure, this model takes low flow measurement, its date and MIP region number as inputs and processes them for estimating mean monthly flows for that point on the catchment area. As stated earlier, the actual measurement date plays an important role in computing more realistic mean monthly flows. This critical factor is often ignored by microhydropower Consultants resulting in highly unlikely flow estimation.
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Low Low flow flow measurement measurement

INPUT INPUT

Measurement Measurement date date MIP MIP region region number number
Figure 3.4: MIP model These mean monthly flows are calculated as:

MIP MIP

OUTPUT OUTPUT Mean Mean monthly monthly flows flows

Mean Coeff. for this month by interpolation if the date is not on 15th April coeff = 1/coeff this month (interpolated) April flow = April coeff * Q Monthly flows = April flow * coeffs (Qi = QApril * Ci)

2 1.9 1.8 1.7 1.6 1.5 1.4 1.3 1.2 1.1 1 0

Interpolation of April 1, 15 and 30 data Q measured =54 l/s


Q corr for mid month = Q measured * Average Coef f/Actual Coef f

60, 1.88

0, 1.38 15, 1.19 30, 1 15


April 1 45.38
Days If measured on Q calculated

45, 1.44

30
April 15 54.00

45
April 30 37.50

60
May 15

March 15 April 15 Q corr

Figure 3.5: Need of interpolation for calculating mean monthly coefficient The importance of considering actual date of measurement and the need of calculating actual mean monthly flows are further explained in Figure 3.5. The measured flow is 54 l/s and the project lies in region 3. The corrected flows for April are 45.38 l/s, 54 l/s and 37.5l /s corresponding to the measurement dates as April 1, 15 and 30 respectively. This important factor is incorporated in the spreadsheet. The fact that the mean monthly coefficient calculation plays a major role in AEPC acceptance criteria is illustrated further by the following example. Measured flow (m3/s): MIP region (1 -7): Area of basin below 3000m elevation A3000 (km2): Turbine discharge (m3/s): Water losses due to evaporation/flushing (%): 1 3 65 1.173 15%

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Figure 3.6 is the graphical representation of the outcome of the MIP method. Interpolated MIP flows corresponding to the measurement dates of April 1, 15 and 30 are presented. The design flow exceeds 11 months and fulfills AEPC criteria if it is measured on April 15th. However, the design flow exceeds only 10 months and does not meet AEPC criteria if it is measured on either 1st or 30th of April.
E rro rs G e ne rate d b y u sin g mid mo nthly flow s
30

25

1 -A pr 1 5 -A p r 3 0 -A p r Q dive rted

Discharge (m 3/s)

20

15

10

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 M ONTH 7 8 9 10 11 12

Figure 3.6: Effect of interpolation on mean monthly flows

3.4 WECS/DHM (HYDEST) METHOD: FLOOD FLOWS


The WECS/DHM (Hydest) Method, which is also known as Methodologies for estimating hydrologic characteristics of un-gauged locations in Nepal, was developed by WECS/DHM in 1990. Long term flow records of DHM stations (33 for floods and 44 for low flows) were used to derive various hydrological parameters such as the monsoon wetness index (June-September precipitation in mm). The entire country is considered as a single homogenous region. This method generally estimates reliable results if the basin area is more than 100 km2 or if the project does not lie within Siwalik or Tarai regions. Annual, 20-year and 100-year floods based on Hydest method are presented in the spreadsheet. It is recommended to use instantaneous floods of 20-year return period while designing Nepali micro hydro intake structures. In case of mini and small hydropower projects, it is recommended that the headworks structures should be able to bypass 100-year instantaneous flood. The catchment area below 3000 m contour line is used for the estimation of floods of various return periods. 3000m elevation is believed to be the upper elevation that is influenced by the monsoon precipitation. This method has to be used with caution for catchments having significant areas above snowline. The 2-year and 100-year flood can be calculated using the following equations: Q2 daily = 0.8154 x (A3000 +1) 0.9527 Q2 inst = 1.8767 x (A3000 +1)0.8783 Q100 daily =4.144 x (A3000 +1)0.8448 Q100 inst = 14.630 x (A3000 +1)0.7343

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Flood peak discharge, QF, for any other return periods can be calculated using: QF = e

(lnQ

2 + Ss

lnQF

Where, S is the standard normal variant for the chosen return period, from Table 3.2, and ln
Q100 Q2

slnQF =

2.326
Standard normal variant (S) 0 0.842 1.282 1.645 2.054 2.326

Table 3.2: Standard normal variants for floods


Return period (T) (yrs) 2 5 10 20 50 100

As shown in Figure 3.7, the Hydest method requires different catchment areas and monsoon wetness index as inputs to estimate hydrological parameters such as the mean monthly flows, floods, low flows and flow duration curve.

INPUT
Total Total catchment catchment area area (MMF (MMF & & FDC) FDC)

Area Area below below 5000m 5000m (LF) (LF) Area Area below 3000m 3000m (FF) (FF)
*Monsoon *Monsoon wetness wetness index index (MMF (MMF & & FDC) FDC) Monsoon Monsoon wetness wetness index=(Jun-Sept) index=(Jun-Sept) mm mm
Figure 3.7: Hydest Model

Hydest

*Mean monthly monthly flows flows Flood Flood flows (2-100 (2-100 yrs) yrs)
Low Low flows(1,7,30 flows(1,7,30 & & monthly) monthly)

OUTPUT

Flow Flow duration (0-100%) (0-100%)


2 * * Area Area =>100km =>100km2

3.5 GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS


General recommendations on estimating hydrological parameters for hydropower projects in Nepal are summarised as: 1. Discharge measurement at the proposed intake site should be between November and May. 2. The recommended discharge measurement methods for different discharges are:
Method Bucket collection Weir Salt dilution Discharge (l/s) <10 10-30 >30

3. Since MIP method utilizes actual measured flow data, mean monthly flows should be computed by using this method. Alternatively, HYDEST method may be used for catchment area equal to or more than 100 km2. 4. The design flow for AEPC subsidized micro hydropower projects should be available at least 11 months in a year (i.e., the probability of exceedance should be 11 months or more). The
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design flow corresponding to the installed capacity (Qd) should not be more than 85% of the 11-month exceedance flow. Loses and environmental releases should also be considered if it exceeds 15% of the 11-month exceedance. There is a provision of 10% tolerance on Qd at the time of commissioning a scheme. 5. The design flow for other projects should be based on the prudent practices of the stakeholders and project optimization. For example for a small hydropower project with an installed capacity of more than 1MW, the design flows should not exceed 65% probability of exceedance. For projects less than or equal to 1MW, the design flows are estimated by optimizing project installed capacities. 6. Construction of flood wall against annual flood is recommended if the design flow exceeds 100 l/s.

3.6 PROGRAM BRIEFING & EXAMPLES


As per the standards and guidelines, the presented spreadsheet is designed to compute MIP mean monthly flows and exceedance of the design flow, Hydest floods and design discharges for different components of a hydropower scheme. For simplicity, the program considers 30 days a month for all the months. The flow chart for the proposed hydrological calculations is presented in Figure 3.8.
Start Project name, location, river, Qd, % losses Q measured, date measured, MIP region from the attached map MIP Q monthly Q designed & MGSP Q diverted Q losses Q release Q available Q exceedance Monthly Hydrograph Q Hydest Flood flows End

A 3000 Given? Yes

Is

No

A 3000

Figure 3.8: Flow chart of Hydrology spreadsheet A typical example of the spreadsheet including inputs and outputs are presented in Figure 3.9. The considered project is 55kW Chhotya Khola Micro-Hydropower Project in Dhading. The information required for computations such as the MIP regions and the corresponding coefficients are presented in the spreadsheet. The project lies in MIP region 3. The measured discharge of 80 l/s on March 23 shows that the project is proposed to utilize a small stream. Although the floods are not critical to the project, they are calculated for sizing floodwall and other structures. The design discharge of 80 l/s has a probability of exceedance of 10 months only and hence does not qualify AEPC acceptance criteria. For AEPC to qualify this project, the turbine design discharge should not exceed 73.389 l/s. The detailed calculations are: MIP mean flows:
Corrected coefficient and mid month discharges (Kc December) for Region 3: Since the measured date of March 23 lies in between March 15 and April 15 , K March K April Kc March Q March = 1.38 = 1.00 = K March+ (K April -K March)*(Date -15)/30 = 1.38 + (1.00-1.38)*(23-15)/30 = 1.2787 = Q measured *K March /Kc April = 80 *1.38/1.2787 = 86.34 l/s
th th

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Q April Q May

= Q March /K March = 86.34/1.38 = 62.57 l/s = Q April *K May = 62.57 * 1.88 = 117.62 l/s

Other mean monthly discharges are calculated similar to the discharge calculation for the month of May.

Hydest flood flows:


The 2-year and 100-year floods are: Q2 daily Q2 inst Q100 daily = 0.8154 x (A3000 +1) = 1.8767 x (A3000)
0.9527

= 0.8154 * (1.5+1)

0.9527

= 1.952 m /s
3

0.8783

= 1.8767 x (1.5+1) =4.144 x (1.5 +1)


0.7343

0.8783

= 4.197 m /s
3

=4.144 x (A3000 +1)


0.7343

0.8448

0.8448

= 8.987 m /s
3

Q100 inst = 14.630 x (A3000 +1)

= 14.630 x (1.5+1)

= 28.669 m /s

Peak discharges for other return periods are calculated by using these formulas:

s l nQF =

ln

Q100 Q2

QF = e

(lnQ

2 + Ss

lnQF

)
3

2.326
3

Q20 daily = EXP(LN(1.952 )+ 1.645*(LN(8.987/1.952)/2.326)) = 5.747 m /s Q20 inst = EXP(LN(4.197 )+ 1.645*(LN(28.669/4.197)/2.326)) = 16.334 m /s

Different discharge calculations (as per AEPC criteria):


Qturbine = 85% of the 11 month flow exceedance from the MIP flow if the designed flow is higher or the design flow. = 73.389 l/s (since the design flow is higher and has 10 months exceedance only) = Qturbine / (1-%losses) = 73.389 / (0.95) = 77.252 l/s = Qdiverted -Qturbine = 77.252-73.389 = 3.863 l/s = Qmin MIP *%release = 62.57 * 0.05 = 3.128 l/s = Qdiverted + Qrelease = 77.252+3.128 = 80.380 l/s

Qdiverted Qlosses Qrelease Qrequired at river

A hydrograph including the design flow, exceedance of the proposed design flow and the flow acceptable for AEPC is presented in Figure 3.9.

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Spreadsheet by Mr Pushpa Chitrakar Date Rev ision

HYDROLOGICAL CALCULATIONS FOR UNGAUGED MHP RIVERS


Small Hydropower Promotion Project (SHPP)/GTZ Referances:2,2,4, 6,12,13,15,16 SMALL HYDROPOWER PROMOTION PROJECT/GTZ

24-May-2006 2006.05

Project:
Developer Consultant Designed Checked

Chhyota Khola MHP


Kankai Hydropower P Ltd EPC Consult Pushpa Chitrakar

INPUT
River name : Location : Measured flow for MIP method l/s: Month and day of flow m easurement: MIP region (1 -7) : Area of basin below 3000m elevation A3000 km2 : Turbine discharge Qd l/s: Water losses due to evaporation/flushing/seepage % of Qd : Downstream w ater release due to environmental reasons % of Q lowest : Chhyota Khola Barand, Sertung VDC 2, Dhading 80 March 23 3 1.5 80 5% 10%

OUTPUT
MIP monthly average discharge Month @ river To plant January 169.55 77.25 February 117.62 77.25 March 86.34 77.25 April 62.57 56.31 May 117.62 77.25 June 195.83 77.25 July 847.13 77.25 August 1564.13 77.25 September 1303.23 77.25 October 651.93 77.25 November 312.83 77.25 December Annual av 234.62 471.950 77.25 75.506 Hydest Flood Flows Return Period (yrs) 2 20 100 Discharges (l/s) Qturbine (Qd) Q diverted Qd+Qlosses Q losses 5% of Qd Q release 10% of Qlow Q min required @ river Q exceedence (month) Q turbine for 11m Flood Discharge (m3 /s) Daily Instantaneous 1.952 4.197 5.747 16.334 8.987 28.669 Designed As per MGSP 80.000 73.389 84.211 77.252 4.211 3.863 6.257 6.257 90.467 83.508 10 73.821 11

Long TermA verage A nnual Hydrograph of Chhy ota Khola river, Chhyota Khola MHP
1800 1600
M IPF lows

1400 Discharge (l/s) 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 Jan

Q design =80 l/s with 10-m onth exceedence Q as per M G SP=73.389 l/s with 11-m onth exceedence

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

Dec

Months

Figure 3.9: Typical example of a hydrological parameters calculation spreadsheet Hydrology


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4 HEADWORKS
4.1 INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS

Headworks A headworks consists of all structural components required for safe withdrawal of desired water from a source river into a canal/conduit. Intake, weir, protection works, etc., are the main structural components. Indicators of an ideal headworks can be summarized as: 1. Withdrawal of desired flows (i.e., Qdiverted and spilling in case of flood). 2. Sediment bypass of diversion structure (Continued sediment transportation along the river). 3. Debris bypass (Continued debris bypass without any accumulation). 4. Hazard flood bypass with minimum detrimental effects. 5. Sediment control at intake by blocking/reducing sediment intake into the system. 6. Settling basin control (settling and flushing of finer sediments entered into the system through intakes or open canals). Intake An intake can be defined as a structure that diverts water from river or other water course to a conveyance system downstream of the intake. Side intake and bottom intake are the common types of river intakes that are used in Nepali hydropower schemes. Conveyance Intake is an intake which supplies water to a conveyance other than the pressure conduit to the turbine. Power Intake is an intake which supplies water to the pressure conduit to the turbine. Side Intake A structure built along a river bank and in front of a canal / conduit end for diverting the required water safely is known as a side intake. Side intakes are simple, less expensive, easy to build and maintain. Bottom/Drop/Tyrolean/Trench Intake A structure built across and beneath a river for capturing water from the bed of a river and drops it directly in to a headrace is known as a bottom intake. They are mainly useful for areas having less sediment movement, steeper gradient, and surplus flow for continual flushing. Inaccessibility of trashrack throughout the monsoon season and exposure of the system to all the bed load even though only a small part of the water is drawn are the common drawbacks of drop intakes. Weir A weir is a structure built across a river to raise the river water and store it for diverting a required flow towards the intake. Protection Works Protection works are the river protection and river training works to safeguard the headworks against floods, debris and sediments. Trashrack A trashrack is a structure placed at an intake mouth to prevent floating logs and boulders entering into headrace. Coarse trashracks and fine trashracks are provided at the river intake and penstock intake respectively.

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4.2

GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS

General recommendations and requirements for headworks components such as weirs, intakes and trashracks are briefly outlines in this section. 4.2.1 Weir Type: A weir can be either temporary or permanent in nature. A dry stone or gabion or mud stone masonry can be termed as a temporary weir whereas a cement masonry or concrete weir can be termed as a permanent weir. Location: It is recommended that the weir should be 5m to 20m d/s of side intake. This will assure that water is always available and there is no sediment deposition in front of the intake. A narrow river width with boulders is preferable for weir location. Height: The weir should be sufficiently high to create enough submergence and driving head. Stability: Permanent weir should be stable against sinking, overturning and sliding even during the designed floods. Intake Type: Side intakes are suitable for all types of river categories whereas the drop intake is recommended for rivers having longitudinal slopes more than 10% with relatively less sediment and excess flushing discharge. The side intake is generally is of rectangular orifice type with a minimum submergence of 50mm. The side intake should be at: o o o o 4.2.3 Straight river u/s & d/s of the intake. Alternatively, on the outer side of the bend to minimize sediment problems and maximise the assured supply of water. Relatively permanent river course. By the side of rock outcrops or large boulders for stability and strength.

4.2.2

Capacity: According to the flushing requirement and tentative losses the intake has to be oversized to allocate an excess flow of 10% to 20% (or Qdiverted). A coarse trashrack should be provided to prevent big boulders and floating logs from entering into the headrace system. A gate/stop log should be provided to regulate flow (adjust/ close) during operation and maintenance. To optimize downstream canal and other structures, a spillway should be provided close to the intake. Intake Trashrack

The recommended intake coarse trashrack is made of vertical mild steel strips of 5mm*40mm to 5mm*75mm with a clear spacing not exceeding 75mm. The approach velocity should be less than 1.0m/s. For transportation by porters in remote areas, the weight of a piece of trashrack should not exceed 60 kg. Placing of trashrack at 3V:1H is considered to be the optimum option considering the combined effect of racking and hydraulic purposes.

4.3

PROGRAM BRIEFINGS AND EXAMPLES

There are two spreadsheets for designing intake structures, They are sideIntake and BottomIntake for designing side and bottom intakes respectively. The first part of the side intake calculates trashrack parameters while the second part of it calculates side intake parameters including spillways for load rejection and flood discharge off-take. The second spreadsheet calculates all the design parameters for a drop intake.

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Since most of the program flow chart in this section is self explanatory, only critical points are explained. Figures 4.1 to 4.7 present the assumptions, flow charts and typical examples for calculating trashrack parameters, side intake and drop intake dimensioning.

Figure 4.1: Trashrack parameters


Start Project name, location, river, Trashrack coefficient kt Bar thickness t mm Clear spacing of bars b mm Approach velocity Vo m/s Angle of inclination from hor f deg Ht of trashrack bot from river bed ht Flow deviation b deg Design Discharge Qd cumec h friction = kt * (t/b)^(4/3) * (Vo^2/2/g) * sin f h bend = Vo^2 /2/g * sin b hl= hf + hb K = (hf + hb)/(Vo^2/2g)

Is Yes cleaning K1=0.3 manual No K1 K1=0.8 MHP = 0.55

A surface= 1/K1 * (t+b)/b * Q/Vo * 1/sin f h submerged = hr ht, hr from intake cal

B = S/(h/sin f ) End

Figure 4.2: Flow chart for trashrack calculations The trashrack coefficients for different cross section of the bars are presented in the pull down menu. Typical bar thickness, clear spacing and approach velocity are suggested in the respective cell notes. According to the flow chart presented in Figure 4.2, the trashrack losses consist of frictional and bend losses. The frictional losses depend on the geometry of trashrack such as the trashrack coefficient, thickness and clear spacing of bars, inclination of the trashrack and the approach velocity. The bend loss depends on the hydraulics of the approaching flow such as the approach velocity and its deviated direction with respect to the normal of the trashrack surface.

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The trashrack surface area coefficient K1 for automatic raking is 0.8 whereas it is 0.3 for manual raking suggesting that the raking area for manual operation to recommended surface area is 3.33 times more than the theoretical area. Manual racking is recommended for Nepali micro and mini hydropower. Since the consequence of temporary reduced trashrack area in micro and mini hydro is not severe and the trashrack sites are generally accessible to operators all the year, the average of automatic and manual racking coefficient of 0.55 (i.e., 80% more than the theoretical area) is recommended for practical and economic reason.

Flood

ht

Figure 4.3: Side intake parameters Typical side intake parameters considered in the spreadsheet are presented in Figure 4.3. The procedures for designing a side intake parameters are presented in Figure 4.4. An example is presented in Figure 4.5. The calculation processes for designing a typical side intake are also presented in the following section. 4.2.4 Side Intake calculations
Trashrack Design: h friction h bend h total A surface S Width B = kt * (t/b)
2 (4/3)

* (Vo /2g)* sin f = 2.4*(4/25)


2 o

(4/3)

* (0. 5 /2/9.81)* sin 60 = 0.0023m

= (Vo /2g)* sin b = (0. 5 /2/9.81)* sin 20 = 0.0044m = h friction + h bend = 0.00232 + 0.0044 = 0.0067m = 1/k1*(t+b)/b * Q/Vo * 1/ sin f = 1/0.55*(4+25)/25*0.077*1/ sin 60 = 0.3763 m = S/(h/ sin f) = 0.3763/(.3/ sin 60 ) = 1.09 m
o o 2

Normal condition: Depth @ canal (hc) = h submergence + height of orifice + height of orifice sill from bottom of the canal = 0.05+0.2+0.2 = 0.45m Driving head (dh) Head at river (hr) = (Vo/c) /2/g
2

= (1.2/0.8) /2/9.81 = 0.115 m

= hc+dh (this value can be provided) = 0.45+0.115 = 0.565

Height of weir (hw) = hr +0.1 = 0.565+0.1 = 0.665 m

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Start

Orifice V coeff c, Vo, n, d/s submergence hsub, H from canal bed h bot, height H

Canal & Spillway Spillway above NW L Cd spillway Freeboard h fb1 canal width d/s of orifice

River Crest length L Qf flood

End

h overtop = 50% (FB - spillway crest height above NW L) Ls 100% =Qf/C/(2*h overtop)^1.5, Ls=max(Ls1 =Qf/C/h overtop^1.5, Ls2 =2*(Qf-Qd)/C/h overtop^1.5) Ls1=>obstruction d/s=> h ot const Circular references (flood): dhf = hrf -hcf Qo = A * C * (2*g*dhf)^0.5 hcf = (Qo*n/2^(1/3)/SQRT(1/S))^(3/8) Vof =c*SQRT(2*g*dhf) ycf = (Qf^2/L^2/g)^(1/3) hrf = hw+yc

Yes Is W c=W c W c provided? No W c=2*hc

hc=hsub+H+hbot dh = (Vo/c)^2 / 2g hr = hc + dh hw = hr+0.1

1/S = 1/{Q * n * P^2/3 /A^5/3 }^2 A = Q/V, B = A /H FB = FB if provided Or else Min(300, 0.5*hc))

Figure 4.4: Flow chart for side intake calculations


Orifice area (A) Orifice width (B) = Q/V = 0.77/1.2 = 0.064 m = A/H = 0.064/.2 = 0.322 m
2

Flood: 2 2 1/3 2 2 1/3 Critical depth at crest (yc) = (Qf /L /g) = (10 /5 /9.81) = 0.742 m Head at river (hf r) = hw+yc = 0.665+0.742 = 1.407 m

Water depth at canal during flood is calculated by equating and iterating flow coming from orifice to that of canal flow. Since this iterative process is tedious and erroneous, most of the micro-hydropower consultants do not calculate it precisely. This iterative process is introduced in the presented spreadsheet. In case this cell generates VALUE# error, select the cell, press F2 and press Enter. The final canal depth is (hcf) Q intake (Qf) = 0.490m = 0.218 m /s
3

Spillway overtopping height (h overtop) = 50%(Free board h nwl) = 0.5*(.3-.05) = 0.125 m Spillway length 100% (Ls for Qf) = Qf/C/(2*h ot) Spillway length 50% = Qf/C/(h ot)
1.5 1.5

= 0.218/1.6/(2*0.125)
1.5

1.5

= 1.525 m

= 0.218/1.6/(0.125)

= 3.078 m

Care should be taken while designing spillway lengths. Ls for Gfm (d/s Obs & 100% hot -50) is only applicable when full downstream obstruction for flood off-take is provided with the help of stop logs or gates. Otherwise, the gradually varying water profile at the spillway has to be considered.

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Design of Orifice Side Intake


Spreadsheet dev eloped by Mr. Pushpa Chitrakar, Engineering Adv isor, SHPP/GT Z Referances: 6,12,13,15,16 SMALL HYDROPOWER PROMOT ION PROJECT /GT Z Date Rev ision

24-M ay-2006 2006.05

Project Developer Consultant Designed Checked

Chhyota Khola M HP Kankaimai Hydropower P Ltd EPC Consult Pushpa Chitrakar


Wall Geometry

Design Flood Level

Coarse Trashrack Orifice (H*B) Min 100 thick & 1000 wide walkway Rcc slab

Weir Crest
.

Normal 1 river level 3 hr Gravel Flushing Gate Gravel trap (if needed) 1:30 Compacted earth/200mm stone soling . h sub hbot

Top = 501 .91

h rf River bed

Canal

Fb
Crest = 500.66 HFL = 500.49 NW L= 500.56 O rific = 0.2x0.32 NW L= 500.45

h cf

h r-hc hc
LS

HFL = 501 .41

Can a l= 500

Trashrack calculations
Input
T rashrack coeffieient kt 2.4 2.4 Bar thickness t mm 4.00 Clear spacing of bars b mm 25.00 Approach v elocity Vo m/s 0.50 Angle of inclination from horizontal f deg 60.00 Flow dev iation b deg 20.00 Design Discharge Qd cumec 0.077 Height of trashrack bottom from riv er bed ht 0.200 Canal inv ert lev el (m) 500.00

Output
Headloss due to friction hf m Headloss due to bends hb m Headloss coeff K T otal headloss ht m Surface area A surface m2 Vertical height h m T rashrack width B m 0.0023 0.0044 0.5226 0.0067 0.3750 0.3647 0.8906

Orifice Calculations for (B = 2H or provided) rectangular canal dow nstreamof orifice Input
Orifice River Velocity coeff of orifice c 0.8 Crest length L m 5.000 0.8 Velocity through orifice Vo m/s 1.2 Prov ided Q flood m3/s 10.000 Manning's coeff of roughness 0.02 Q flood m3/s (Q20 for MHP with Qd>100) 16.334 0.02 Downstream submergence depth hsub m 0.050 Used Q flood 10.000 Orifice height H m 0.200 Canal & Spillway Height of orifice from canal bed h bot m 0.200 Spillway crest height abov e NWL m 0.050 Prov ided water depth in the riv er hr (m) Spillway discharge coeff 1.6 1.6 Prov ided canal width (m) 0.500 Prov ided Freeboard h fb1 m 0.300

Output
Normal Condition Canal witdth d/s of orifice 1/Slope of canal immediately d/s of orifice Depth of water in canal hc m Free board in canal h fb m Area of orifice A m2 Width of orifice B m Actual v elocity through orifice Vo act m/s Canal width Wc m Water lev el difference dh m Water depth in the riv er hr = hc + dh m Height of weir (hw = hr+0.1) m Spillway ov ertopping height h ov ertop m Flood 0.500 Critical depth of water at crest yc m 1865 Flood head at riv er hf r = hw+yc m 0.450 Head difference dhf 0.300 Velocity through orifice Vof m/s 0.064 Q intake Qf cumec 0.321 Depth of water at canal (hc f) m 1.200 0.500 Spillway 0.115 Ls for Qf m (d/s Obs & 100% hot -50) 0.565 Length of spillway Ls1 for Qf m (d/s Obs) 0.665 Length of spillway Ls2 for Qf-Qd m 0.125 Designed spillway length Ls m 0.742 1.406 0.916 3.392 0.218 0.490

1.521 3.078 3.978 3.978

Figure 4.5: An example of side intake calculations


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4.2.5

Drop Intake calculations

The example presented in Figure 4.7 follows the procedures presented in Figure 4.6. This example is taken from a 4500kW Sarbari Small Hydropower Project, Kullu, India. Although the calculation procedures for the drop intake are relatively straightforward and simple, it has more restrictions and limitations regarding the stream geometry and operational conditions. Based on the flow conditions and the slope of rack, flow immediately upstream of the rack may be either critical or sub-critical. Critical depth at the entrance of the rack has to be considered if the rack is steeper (more than 15o). For more details, please refer to EWI UNIDO Standard. The main differences between considering critical flow and normal flow conditions are presented in the Table 4.1. In the presented spreadsheet, critical depth of upstream flow of the intake is calculated and presented if normal flow (sub-critical) is considered.
Start River River W idth (Br) Head of u/s water (ho) U/s water velocity (vo) River gradient (i) degrees hof, vof Trashrack Aspect ratio (L across river/B along river) Design Discharge (Q) Gradient ( b ) deg, Contraction coeff (m ) Witdth/diameter (t), Clearance (a) d = t + a, he = ho = vo^2/2g X = =0.00008*b^2 - 0.0097*b + 0.9992 c =0.6*a/d*(COS b )^1.5 Yc Considered? Yes h = *Yc Qo u/s = v (9.81 * ho 3 * Br 2 ) Qof u/s = v (9.81 * hof 3 * Br 2 )

No h =2/3*c*he Qo u/s = Br * ho * vo Qof u/s = Br * hof * vof

End

L =SQRT(3*Q/(2*c*m*L/B ratio*SQRT(2*9.81*h))) L' = 120% of L, b = L/B ratio * L, A=L'*b Qu u/s = Qo u/s Qdesign h f = 2/3* c *(ho + vo f^2/2g) Q in f= 2/3*c*m*b*L'*SQRT(2*9.81*h f) Quf d/s = Qof u/s of intake -Q in f

Figure 4.6: Parameters and flow chart of drop intake design Table 4.1: Drop intake and upstream flow Parameters Normal flow Velocity head (h) = 2/3 * c * he 3 Qo u/s of intake (m /s) normal = Br * Ho * Vo Qo u/s of intake (m3/s) flood = Br * Ho f * Vo Critical Depth considered = * Yc = SQRT(9.81*ho 3*Br 2) = SQRT(9.81*ho f 3*Br 2)

The calculations presented in Figure 4.7 are verified in the following section. In this example the flow upstream of the intake is considered to be of critical.
Normal condition: c/c distance of trashrack bars d (mm) = t + a = 60+30 = 90mm Kappa (c) = 0.00008*b^2 - 0.0097*b + 0.9992 (by curve fitting) = 0.00008*36^2 - 0.0097*36 + 0.9992 = 0.749 = * of Yc = * 0.226 = 0.170 m = 0.6*a/d*(COSb)^1.5 = 0.6*30/90*(Cos 36)^1.5 = 0.146
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Velocity head (h) m Correction factor (c)

Micro-hydropower Design Aids Manual (v 2006.05)

SHPP/GTZ

Length of Intake (L) m

= SQRT(3*Q/(2*c*m*L/B ratio*SQRT(2*9.81*h))) = SQRT(3*2.7/(2*c*0.85*3.546468*SQRT(2*9.81*.170))) = 2.249 m = L*COS(b) = 2.249*cos (36) = 1.819 m

Length (L) m

Intake length across the river (b) m = L/B ration * L = 3.546468*2.249 = 7.975m Area of intake (A) m
3 2

= L * b = 2.249 * 7.975 2 = 17.935 m = SQRT(9.81*ho *Br ) = SQRT(9.81*.226 *8 ) 3 = 2.7 m /s = Qo u/s Qd = 2.7-2.7 3 = 0 m /s


3 2 3 2

Qo u/s of intake (m /s) Qu d/s of intake (m /s)


3

Intake length across the river (b) m = L/B ration * L = 3.546468*2.249 = 7.975m Flood: h flood (hf) m Qo u/s of intake (m /s) Qo in (off-take) (m /s)
3 3

= 2/3*c*(ho flood+vo flood^2/2g) = 2/3*0.749*(3+4^2/2/9.81) = 1.906 m = SQRT(9.81*hof *Br ) = SQRT(9.81*1.906 *20 ) 3 = 325.497 m /s = 2/3*c*m*b*L *SQRT(2*9.81*h flood) = 2/3*0.146*0.85*7.975*2.249*SQRT(2*9.81*1.906) 3 = 7.318 m /s (this discharge can be reduced by introducing a throttling pipe d/s of the intake) = Qo u/s Qd = 315.497-7.318 3 = 318.178 m /s
3 2 3 2

Qu d/s of intake (m /s)

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Design of Bottom/Drop Intake


Spreadsheet dev eloped by Mr. Pushpa Chitrakar, Engineering Adv isor, SHPP/GT Z Referances: 6,7,8,12,13 SMALL HYDROPOWER PROMOTION PROJECT /GTZ Date Rev ision

Project Developer Consultant Designed Checked

24-May-2006 2006.05 Sarbari SHP Kullu, Himanchal Pradesh, India Pushpa Chitrakar

Weir Geometry
H FL =501.91

N W L =500.23 Top =500

Trashrack W idth =1.82

Top =498.68

Input

Critical Depth Considered

Riv er Width flood (Brf) m = 20 Riv er Width (Br) m = 8 ho flood m = 3.000 Head/Critical Depth of u/s water (ho)m = 0.226 v o flood m/s = 4 Upstream water v elocity (v o) m/s = 1.494 Design Discharge (Qd), m3/s = 2.7 Riv er gradient (i) degrees = 9.462 T rashrack witdth/diameter (t) mm = 60 Trashrack gradient (b) deg = 36 T rashrack clearance (a) mm = 30 Contraction coeff (m) = 0.85 Inv ert lev el of crest (masl) 500 Aspect ratio (Length across the riv er/Breadth along the riv er) = 3.546468

Output
c/c distance of trash rack bars d mm = T otal head (he) m = kappa (c) = v elocity head (h) m = Correction factor ( c) = Length of intake (L) m = Length (L' ) m = Intake length across the riv er (b) m = Area of intake (A=L' *b) m2 = 90 0.340 0.749 0.170 0.146 2.249 1.819 7.975 17.935 Qo u/s of intake (m3/s) normal = Qu d/s of intake (m3/s) normal = h d/s normal (m) h flood u/s= h d/s flood (m) Qof u/s of intake = Br * hof * v of (m3/s) = Q in flood m3/s = Quf d/s of intake (m3/s) = 2.700 0.000 1.906 1.864 325.497 7.318 318.178

Figure 4.7: An example of drop intake

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5 HEADRACE/TAILRACE
5.1 GENERAL
A headrace or a tailrace can be defined as a conveyance system that conveys designed discharge from one point (e.g. intake) to another (e.g. forebay). Generally canal systems are used in all micro hydropower schemes whereas pipe systems are used for specific e.g. difficult terrain. A canal can be unlined (earthen) or lined (stone masonry or concrete). Rectangular and trapezoidal canal cross sections are mostly used profiles. Pipes used in MHP can be of HDPE or mild steel and it can be either open or buried. Mild steel and glass reinforced pipe (GRP) headrace-cum-penstock pipes are getting popularity in mini and small hydropower schemes in Nepal. Because of the easier sediment handling facility and better financial parameters, a layout with headrace-cum-penstock pipe has been adopted in many micro, mini and small hydropower projects in Nepal. For computing head losses, Mannings equation is used for canal whereas Darcy-Weisbach equation is used for pipe.

5.2

GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS

General recommendations and requirements for designing canal and pipe headrace systems are outlined here. 5.2.1 Canal

a) Capacity: The canal should be able to carry the design flow with adequate freeboard and escapes to spill excess flow. A canal should generally be designed to carry 110 to 120 % of the design discharge. b) Velocity: Self cleaning but non erosive ( 0.3m/s). c) Unlined canal: In stable ground for Q 30 l/s d) Lined canal: For higher discharge and unstable ground. Canals with 1:4 stone masonry or concrete are recommended. Care should be taken to minimize seepage loss and hence minimize the subsequent landslides. e) Sufficient spillways and escapes as required. f) Freeboard: Minimum of 300mm or half of water depth. g) Stability and Safety against rock fall, landslide & storm runoff. A catch drain running along the conveyance canal is recommended for mini and small hydropower projects. h) Optimum Canal Geometry: Rectangular or trapezoidal section for lined canal and trapezoidal section for unlined canal are recommended. Unequal settlement of lined trapezoidal canal should be prevented. 5.2.2 Pipe

a) PVC/HDPE/GRP: Buried at least 1m into ground. b) Steel/Cast Iron: As pipe bridge at short crossings/landslides. They are also used for low pressure headrace and headrace-cum-penstock alignments. c) Pipe inlet with trashracks for a pipe length of more than 50m. d) Minimum submergence depth of 1.5*v2/2g at upstream end. e) Provision of air valves and wash outs where necessary.

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5.3
5.3.1

PROGRAM BRIEFING AND EXAMPLES


Canal

a) Permissible erosion free velocities for different soil conditions: Fine sand =0.3-0.4 Sandy loam =0.4-0.6 Clayey loam =0.6-0.8 Clay =0.8-2.0 Stone masonry =0.8-2.0 Concrete = 1.0-3.0 b) Sectional profiles considered in the program are: 1) Semicircular (not popular because of the construction difficulty) 2) Rectangular 3) Triangular (not popular because it is not financially attractive) 4) Trapezoidal c) Two parts of calculations for canals are provided for: 1) Evaluation of the design parameters based on user specified inputs. 2) Optimum canal parameters based on MHP Sourcebook by Allen R Iversin. d) Two spreadsheets are included in the Design Aids for: 1) Canal calculations: Calculations procedures are presented in Figure 5.1 with the help of a flow chart and a typical spreadsheet with an illustration is presented in Figure 5.2. 2) Pipe calculations: Pipe calculation flow chart is presented in Figure 5.4. The calculation procedures are further illustrated in Figure 5.5. 5.3.2 Canal

Calculations for a rectangular stone masonry headrace canal for 185 l/s flow presented in Figure 5.2 (Intake Canal in second column) are briefly described in the following section. This example is taken from a 750kW Sisne Small Hydropower Project, Palpa, Nepal.
Present Canal: Area A m
2

= D*B = 0.3*0.5 = 0.15 m = B+2*H*N

Top Width T (m) Wetted Perimeter (m) Hydraulic Radius r (m) Calculated flow (m /s) Critical Velocity Vc m/s Velocity V m/s Headloss hl (m)
3

= 0.5+2*0.3*0 = 0.5m

= 2*D+B = 2*0.3+.5 = 1.1m = A/P = 0.15/1.1 = 0.136 m = A*r *S /n = 0.15*0.136 *0.01299 /n = 0.226 m /s = sqrt(A*g/T) = sqrt(0.15*9.81/.5) = 1.72 m/s = Q/A = 0.185/0.15 = 1.233 m (Okay since it is less than 80% of Vc) = S*L + di (drops) = 0.01299*20+0 = 0.260m
2/3 0.5 2/3 0.5 3

Critical dia of sediment d crit (mm) = 11000*r*S = 11000*0.136*0.01299 = 19.48mm (i.e., the canal can transport sediments of diameter 19.48mm or less during its normal operation) Optimum Canal: Area A m
2

= Q/v desired = 0.185/1 = 0.185 m

Hydraulic Radius ro (m)

= 0.35*SQRT(A) = 0.35*SQRT(0.185) = 0.1505 m

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Depth Do (m) Top Width Bo (m) Critical Velocity Vc m/s Headloss hl (m)

= 2*ro = 2*0.1505 = 0.301m = 4*ro = 4*0.1505 = 0.602m = sqrt(A*g/T) = sqrt(0.185*9.81/.602) = 1.74 m/s (Okay since the desired velocity of 1m/s is less than 80% of Vc) = S*L + di (drops) = 0.0050*20+0 = 0.100m

Critical dia of sediment d crit (mm) = 11000*r*S = 11000*0.136*0.0050 = 8.271mm (i.e., the canal can tranport (self clean) sediments of diameter 8.271mm or less during its normal operation)

Start
Project name, Reach name, Design discharge (Qd) Roughness coefficient (n) Side slope (N) Sectional profile Canal length (L) 1/canal slope (1/S) Canal depth/diameter (D) Freeboard (FB) Canal width (B) Desired velocity (Vo) Canal drop di (V) & hi(H) W etted perimeter (P) Semicircular = PI()* D/2 Trapezoidal = B+2*D*sqrt(1+N^2) Rectangular =2* D+B Triangular = 2*D*sqrt(1+N^2)

r = A/P, Qc = A*r^(2/3)*S^0.5/n FB=min(0.3,0.5*D) V = Q/A, hl =S*L+di hl =hl previous + hl (continuous) d crit =11000*r*S

Flow area (A) semicircular = PI()* D^2/4/2 Trapezoidal = (B+N*D)*D Rectangular = D*B Triangular = D*B/2 Ao = Qd/Vo, T=B+2*D*N (trapezoidal) or =B Vcrit = sqrt(9.81*Ao/T) V desired=80% of Vcrit, Semicircular = 0.4*SQRT(A) Trapezoidal=0.5*SQRT(Sin(N)*A/(2-COS(N)) Rectangular/Traingular = 0.35*SQRT(A)))

ro for optimum canal

Depth Do for optimum canal


Semicircular = 4*ro Traingular = 2.8*ro Rectangular/Trapezoidal = 2*ro

Ho = Do + FBo Channel width Bo hl =S*L+di Hl =hl previous + hl d crit =11000*r*S

Semicircular = 2*Do Rectangular = 4*ro Traingular = 5.7*ro Trapezoidal = 4*ro/Sin(N)

End

Figure 5.1: Flow chart for canal design

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Canal Design: Proposed design and optimum canal sections


Small Hydropower Promotion Project (SHPP)/GTZ Referances: 6,12,13,15,16 SMALL HYDROPOWER PROMOTION PROJECT/GT Z
Spreadsheet by M rP ushpa C hitrakar

Date Rev ision

24-May-2006

2006.05

Project Developer Consultant Designed Checked

Sisne Small Hydropower Project Gautam Buddha Hydropower P Ltd EPC Consult Pushpa Chitrakar

Input
Type and Name Flow (m3/s) Roughness coefficient (n) Sectional Profile Side slope N (1V:NHorizontal) Length of the canal (m) 1/Canal slope (s) Channel Depth/diameter D (m) Freeboard FB (m) Channel Width (B) m Channel Drops di m Channel Drops Horizontal length hi m Desired v elocity Vo (m/s) 1.000 1.500 1.500 1.500 Intake Canal T ailrace Main2 0.185 0.145 0.02 0.017 0.02 0.02 0.017 0.02 Rectangular 00 20 77 0.300 0.300 0.500 T rapezoidal 0.5 0.5 40 200 0.525 0.250 1.000 Main3 0.145 0.02 0.02 Triangular 0.5 0.5 120 72 0.300 0.150 0.400 0.145

Semicircular 00 150 30 0.300 0.150 0.400

Output
Side slope d (degrees) Canal slope S Total depth H (m) Chainage L (m) 0.01299 0.600 20.000 63.435 0.00500 0.775 60.000 0.03333 0.450 210.000 63.435 0.01389 0.450 330.000

Present canal
Area A m2 Top Width T (m) Wetted Perimeter P (m) Hydraulic Radius r (m) Calculated flow (m3/s) & remarks Comment on freeboard Velocity V m/s Critical Velocity Vc m/s & Remarks Headloss hl (m) Total headloss Hl(m) Critical dia of sediment d crit (mm) 0.150 0.500 1.100 0.136 0.226 high ok 1.233 1.72 Ok 0.260 0.260 19.481 0.663 1.525 2.174 0.305 1.249 high low 0.219 2.06 Ok 0.200 0.460 16.769 0.035 0.400 0.471 0.075 0.057 low ok 4.103 0.93 Not Ok 5.000 5.460 27.500 0.060 0.400 0.671 0.089 0.071 low ok 2.417 1.21 Not Ok 1.667 7.126 13.665

Optimum canal
Area Ao m2 Top Width T (m) Critical Velocity Vc m/s & Remarks Hydraulic Radius ro (m) Channel Depth/diameter Do (m) Freeboard Fbo (m) Total depth Ho (m) Channel Width Bo (m) Canal Slope Headloss hlo (m) Total headloss Hlo(m) Critical dia of sediment d crito (mm) 0.1850 0.6022 1.74 Ok 0.1505 0.301 0.150 0.451 0.602 0.0050 0.100 0.100 8.271 0.0967 0.7636 1.11 Not Ok 0.1180 0.236 0.263 0.498 0.528 0.0112 0.449 0.549 14.584 0.0967 0.9949 0.98 Not Ok 0.1244 0.497 0.150 0.647 0.995 0.0145 2.175 2.724 19.834 0.0967 0.4867 1.4 Not Ok 0.1088 0.218 0.150 0.368 0.487 0.0173 2.079 4.803 20.736

Figure 5.2: An example of canal design.


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B = 0.5 & 0.602 D = 0.6 & 0.451 d & F B (0.3 & 0.3) & (0.301& 0.1 5) B = 1& 0.764 D = 0.775 & 0.498 d & F B (0.525 & 0.25) & (0.236 & 0.263)

SHPP/GTZ

B = 0.4 & 0.995 D = 0.45 & 0.647 d & F B (0.3 & 0.1 5) & (0.497 & 0.1 5)

B = 0.4 & 0.487 D = 0.45 & 0.368

Figure 5.3: Illustrated canal type and their dimensions. 5.3.3 Pipe

Calculations for a headrace pipe presented in Figure 5.5 are briefly described in the following section. The trashrack calculations are similar to the trashrack calculations presented earlier in the intake design, hence it is not presented in this section. Trashrack loss of 0.02m is taken in this example. In this example, one 140m long HDPE pipe with 260mm internal diameter is considered for a design flow of 160 l/s each. Sizing of headrace pipe
Headloss HDPE pipe roughness, k =0.06 mm

k 0.06 mm = = 0.000231 d 260 mm 1.2Q 1.2 x0.160 = = 0.73846 d 0.260


From Moody chart (Appendix), f=0.0153. Based on an iterative method presented in Laymans Guidebook on How to Develop a Small Hydro Site, European Small Hydropower Association (ESHA), the presented spreadsheet calculates this friction factor and greatly speeds up the pipe selection decision for consultants by iterating following equations:

Friction loss

= f

l V2 l = 0.0826 * Q 2 * f 5 d 2g d 140 = 3.82 m 0.265

hwall loss = 0.0826 * 0.160 2 * 0.0153 *

Turbulent losses considering, K entrance for inward projecting pipe= 0.8, Kexit=1.0 and Kbends based on the bending angles (see Table in the Appendix)

V 2 \ hturbulentlosses = (K entrance + K bends + K valve + K others + K exit ) 2g 3.012 = (0.8 + 0.57 + 0 + 0 + 1) * = 1.10m 2 x 9.81
Total head loss= 3.82 m + 0.02+1.10 m = 4.94 m
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Water level difference between intake and storage reservoir is 7m and 95% of this head is allowed for total headloss. Only 70.56% is estimated as the total headloss. Although the exiting water has some residual head, it is recommended to provide some marginal residual head for safety. The HDPE pipe does not need expansion joints and therefore not calculated.

Start Project Name, Location, Life Hydraulics Qd, Hg, RL us, %hl, Entrance, Exit, R/d Pipe #, Material, Fabrication If steel, Laying, Valve, t, L, q(upto 10) Trashrack Bar type, t,b, Vo, F, b,H Exp Joint Tmax, Tinst, Tmin, Group L (5)

Exp Joint Dimensions, Position during installation End


Figure 5.4: Flow chart for pipe design

Hydraulics hl(friction, turbulent) Other criteria checking

Trashrack hl, Surface Area, Width, h submerge

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Spreadsheet by Mr Pushpa Chitrakar Date Rev ision 24-May-2006

HEADRACE PIPE CALCULATIONS


Small Hydropower Promotion Project (SHPP)/GT Z Referances: 2,4, 6,12,13,15,16 SMALL HYDROPOWER PROMOT ION PROJECT /GTZ

2006.05

Project:
Developer Consultant Designed Checked INPUT

MHP in Jumla

Location:

Jogmai

Pushpa Chitrakar

Economic life (years) Hydraulics: Div ersion flow Qd (m3/s) Flow in each pipe Qi (m3/s) Gross headHg (m)

15

0.160 0.160 7.000

U/S Inv ert Lev el (m) % head av ailable or headloss hlt (m)

1950.00 95.00%

Entrance T ype Inward project 0.8 Bending radius (r/d) 0.3 5

Headrace pipe Pipe Material Welded / Flat rolled if steel Rolled if steel T ype if steel Burried or exposed T ype of v alv e Non standard ultimate tensile strength (UTS) N/mm2 Estimated pipe diameter d(mm) Prov ided pipe diameter d(mm) Min pipe thickness t (mm) Prov ided pipe thickness t (mm) Pipe Length L (m) Trashrack
Flat

HDPE NA NA NA Burried

Exit (Yes/No) No of pipes Bending angle 01 Bending angle 02 Bending angle 03 Bending angle 04 Bending angle 05 Bending angle 06 Bending angle 07 Bending angle 08 Bending angle 09 Bending angle 10

Yes 1.00 20.00 4.00 6.00 20.00

282 260 NA 3.0 140.000

k 2.40

t 6.00

b 20.00

Vo 1.00

f 60.00

Q 0.160

H 3.00

Expansion Joints
Tmax (deg) T installation Tmin 1st Pipe length(m) 2nd Pipe L (m) 3rd Pipe L (m) 4th Pipe L (m) 5th Pipe L (m)

40

20

50.00

100.00

150.00

200.00

250.00

OUTPUT
Trashrack hf 0.0213 hb H coeff 0.4174 H 0.0213 S 0.8006 B 0.23
Min Submergence CG L=1.5v^2/2g

1.39

0.69

Turbulent loss coefficients K inlet K bend 01 K bend 02 K bend 03 K bend 04 Hydraulics Pipe Area A (m2) Hydraulic Radius R (m) Velocity V (m/s) Pipe Roughness ks (mm) Relativ e Roughness ks/d Reynolds Number Re = d V /Vk T ype of Flow Friction Factor f Expansion Joints (mm) EJ number dL theoretical dL recommended dL for expansion dL for contraction 1

0.80 0.16 0.13 0.13 0.16

K bend 05 K bend 06 K bend 07 K bend 08 K bend 09

K bend 10 Kv alv e K exit K others KT otal 1.00 2.37

0.053 0.07 3.01 0.06 0.00023 687032 T urbulent 0.0153 2 2 4

U/S Inv ert Lev el (mAOD) D/S Inv ert Lev el (mAOD) Is HL tot < HL av ailable Friction Losses hf (m) Fitting Losses hfit (m) Trashracks and intake loss (m) T otal Head Loss htot indiv idual (m) % of H.Loss of indiv idual pipe 5

1950.000 1943.000 OKAY 3.82 1.10 0.02 4.94 70.56% Ok

Figure 5.5: An example of headrace pipe design

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SETTLING BASINS

6.1 SEDIMENT SETTLING BASINS


A settling basin traps sediment (gravel/sand/silt) from water and settles down in the basin for periodical flushing back to natural rivers. Since sediment is detrimental to civil and mechanical structures and elements, the specific size of specified percentage sediment has to be trapped, settled, stored and flushed. This can only be achieved by reducing turbulence of the sediment carrying water. The turbulence can be reduced by constructing settling basins along the conveyance system. Since the settling basins are straight and have bigger flow areas, the transit velocity and turbulence are significantly reduced allowing the desired sediments to settle. The sediment thus settled has to be properly flushed back to the natural rivers. Thus a settling basin: 1. Prevents blocking of headrace system assuring desired capacity of the system. 2. Prevents severe wearing of turbine runner and other parts. 3. Reduces the failure rate and O&M costs. According to the location and function, a settling basin can be of following types: 1. Gravel Traps for settling particles of 2mm or bigger diameter. 2. Settling Basins for settling particles of 0.2mm or bigger diameter. 3. Forebays for settling similar to settling basin (optional) and smooth flow transition from open flow to closed flow. Micro hydro settling basins are generally made of stone masonry or concrete with spillways, flushing gates, trashracks, other accessories as and when necessary. Most of the mini and small hydropower settling basins are of concrete (M20 or higher). However, for functionality, all settling basins should have following components: 1. Inlet Zone: An inlet zone upstream of the main settling zone is provided for gradual expansion of cross section from turbulent flow to smooth/laminar flow.. 2. Settling Zone: A settling zone is the main part of a settling basin for settling, deposition, spilling flushing and trash removal. 3. Outlet Zone: An outlet zone facilitates gradual contraction of flow to normal condition. A typical section of a settling basin with all the components (inlet, transition, settling and outlet zones) and accessories (spillway, gate) is presented in Figure 6.1.

Figure 6.1: Typical section of a settling basin

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6.2 SETTLING BASIN THEORY


An ideal settling basin is a basin having a flow flowing in a straight line (no turbulence, no eddy current). In practice, no single basin is ideal. For an ideal basin shown in figure 6.2: H/W = L/V Or, B *H /W = B*L/V Or, Ax/W = As/V Or, Q/W = As = Surface area (i.e., the surface area is directly proportional to the discharge and inversely proportional to the settling velocity/sediment diameter/temperature).

Figure 6.2: An ideal setting basin Efficiency of a real basin is generally 50 % or less than that of an ideal basin. This is mainly because of the following factors: 1. Presence of water turbulence in basin. 2. Imperfect flow distribution at entrance. 3. Flow convergence towards exit. Vetters equation takes care of the factors stated above and hence recommended for use in settling basin design. According to Vetters equation, trap efficiency (h) for a given discharge (Q), surface area (As) and falling velocity of critical sediment diameter (w) is:

6.3 GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS


6.3.1 Gravel Trap

General recommendations and requirements for designing a gravel trap are outlined in the following sections: 1. Location: Close to intake and safe. 2. Dimensions: Sufficient to settle and flush gravel passing through upstream coarse trashrack. 3. Spilling: Sufficient spillway/vertical flushing pipe. 4. Spilling and flushing: back to the river. 5. Material: 1:4 cement stone masonry with 12mm thick 1:2 cement plastering on the waterside or structural concrete. 6. Recommended settling diameter and trap efficiency are 2mm and 90% respectively.

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7. Sediment storage zone: Adequate storage for 12 hours minimum (flushing interval). 8. Drawdown: Drawdown discharge capacity should be at least 150% of the design discharge. 9. Aspect ratio (straight length to width ratio): 1.5 to 2 for micro-hydropower gravel trap. The recommended aspect ratio of mini and small hydropower gravel trap is 4. 6.3.2 Settling Basin

General recommendations for designing a settling basin are outlined below: 1. Location: Close to gravel trap/Intake. 2. Dimensions: Sufficient to settle and flush the designed sediment size. 3. Spilling: Sufficient spillway/vertical flushing pipe (layout dependent). 4. Spilling and flushing: back to the river. 5. Material: 1:4 cement stone masonry with 12mm thick 1:2 plastering on the waterside or structural concrete. 6. Recommended settling diameter (trap efficiency) and head are presented in Table 6.1 Table 6.1: Settling diameter, trap efficiency and gross head Settling diameter (mm) Trap efficiency (%) Gross Head (m) Micro Hydro 0.3-0.5 0.3 0.2 0.2 90% 90% 90% 95% 10m 10 to 100m More than 100m Mini/Small Hydro 10m 10 to 50m 50 to 100m More than 100m

7. Sediment storage zone: Adequate storage for 12 hours (flushing interval) 8. Drawdown: Drawdown discharge capacity should be at least 150% of the design discharge. 9. Aspect ratio (straight length to width ratio): 4 to 10. 6.3.3 Forebay

Following criteria have been outlined for designing a forebay: 1. Dimensions and functions: Similar to settling basin if upstream system is of open type or the forebay functions as a combined settling basin cum forebay. 2. Submergence: Sufficient to prevent vortex (i.e. 1.5 * v2/2g). 3. Active Storage: At least 15 sec * Qd. Active storage capacity should be based on closing time of turbines. 4. Freeboard: 300mm or half the water depth whichever is less. 5. Drawdown: A drain pipe/Gate. 6. Spilling capacity: Minimum of spilling Qd during load rejection. 7. Fine Trashrack: a. At the entrance of the penstock b. Inclination: 3V:1H c. Bars: Placed along vertical direction for ease of racking.

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d. Clearance: 0.5 * nozzle diameter in case of Pelton or half the distance between runner blade in case of Crossflow/Francis. e. Velocity: 0.6 to 1 m/s f. Weight: =< 60kg (porter load) for transportation by porters.

6.4 PROGRAM BRIEFING AND EXAMPLES


6.4.1 Features of the spreadsheet

The spreadsheet is designed to cater for all types of settling basins and with all possible spilling and flushing mechanisms. Some of the main features are listed below: 1. A single spreadsheet for: a. Gravel Trap b. Settling Basin (Desilting) c. Forebay-cum-Settling Basin 2. Settling of sediment using: a. Ideal settling equation b. Vetters equation 3. Flushing of deposited sediment during: a. Normal operational b. Drawn-down condition 4. Sediment flushing with: a. Vertical flushing pipe b. Gate c. Combination of both 5. Spilling of excess flow due to: a. Incoming flood b. Load rejection 6. Spilling of excess flow with a. Spillway b. Vertical flushing pipe c. Combination of both 7. Drawdown / Dewatering with: a. Vertical flushing pipe b. Gate 8. Rating curve for the gate: According to Norwegian Rules and Regulations of Dam Construction, a gate rating curve for the designed parameters is computed. According to this manual, the flow through gate is of free flow type until the gate opening is two third of the water depth behind the gate. Beyond this level (i.e., the gate opening higher than 2/3 of the water depth behind the gate), the flow through gate is a pressure flow. 9. Multiple basins 10. Combination of approach canal / pipe options

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6.4.2 Vertical flushing pipe Vertical flushing pipes (used in micro hydropower projects) are used for spilling of excess water and flushing of the basin. The diameter of vertical flushing pipe is estimated based on the critical parameter of these two functions. 1. Overflow: Acts as a sharp crested weir. diameter d1 is: Qf =p*d1*Cw*hf 2/3 for Cw = 1.6 d1 = Qf/(1.6*p*hf2/3) Discharge through the flushing pipe having a

2. Drawdown / Dewatering through the vertical flushing pipe: 1.5*Qd =C*A*(hb+fflush) 0.5: A=p*d212/4: C=2.76 for L=<6m d21=(6*Qd/( p *C *( hb+fflush)0.5 )0.5 @ full d22=(4*Qd/( p *C *( fflush)0.5 )0.5 @ empty 3. Design diameter: Maximum of above (d1, d21,d22)

Figure 6.3: Flushing pipe details 6.4.3 Spillway at intake Length of a spillway is the function of spilling discharge, freeboard and downstream obstruction. In case there is not downstream obstruction such as a gate the cross section area of flow is of a triangular shape. For a downstream obstructed condition, the flow is rectangular in section across the spillway. According the conditions, the spillway length is calculated as: hovertop = 50% of (FB spillway crest height above NWL) Ls1 =Qf/C/hovertop1.5: for downstream obstruction and constant h overtop. Ls2 =2*Abs(Qf-Qd)/C/ hovertop 1.5) for no downstream obstruction and average h overtop. Ls3=Qf/C/(2* hovertop -0.05)1.5: for downstream obstruction and constant h overtop (100%0.05). 6.4.4 Gate Lifting force F(kg)=W buoyant + 1000*m*Asub*hcg
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Gate opening dh=h1-h2 dh<2/3*h1 :=> Pressure flow (as a gate): Q=C*L*(H11.5-H21.5) dh=>2/3*h1 :=> Open flow (as a spillway ): Q=C*L*H11.5 Enter the maximum gate opening in the lowest gate opening cell and press the Calculate Gate Rating Curve button for computing rating curve. An example of a settling basin design is presented in figure 6.6. The procedures for designing the settling basin are briefly described in the following section. Sizing of settling basin
1. Settling of sediment using: a. Vetters equation Surface area of basin = -(Qtotal)/w*LN(1-neff) Asi = -(0.455)/.035* LN(1-neff) 2 = 25 m Max section width for hydraulic flushing = 4.83*Q^0.5 = 4.83*.455^0.5 = 3.258m Provided Width B Length of basin L = 2.5m = Asi/B = 25/2.5 = 10m, which is 4 times the width hence, satisfies the requirement.

Basin transit velocity vt = 0.44* sqrt(d) = 0.44*sqrt(0.2) = 0.241m/s Water depth Hi = Qi/B/vt = 0.455/2.5/0.241 = 0.755m

Sediment storage volume assuming 100% trap efficiency (conservative side) V = (Qtotal)*(Flushing intensity in sec)*Concentration max in kg/Bulk Sed. 3 Density in kg/m /Sed Swelling factor = (Qtotal)*(FI*3600)*Cmax/G*S = 0.455*(8*3600)*2/2.6*1.5 3 = 15.12m Sediment depth Hs = V/Asi = 15.12/25 = 0.6m

b. Ideal settling equation Length of an Ideal Basin= Maximum of (4xB and Q/B/w) = MAX(4*2.5, 0.455/2.5/0.035) = MAX(10, 5.2) = 10 m 2. Spilling of excess flow due to load rejection: A combination of a 0.3m diameter vertical pipe and spillway of 1.0m length is used. H overtopping = h ot =(Q1/(1.9*PI()*n1*d1+Cd*Ls))^(2/3) = (0.455/(1.9*pi()*1*.3+1.6*1))^(2/3) = 0.262 m = 1.9*PI()*n1*d1*h ot ^1.5 = 1.9*pi()*1*.3*0.262^1.5 3 = 0.240 m /s = Cd*Ls*h ot ^1.5 = 1.6*1*0.262^1.5 3 = 0.215 m /s

Q pipe Q spillway

3. Flushing of deposited sediment through the flushing pipe: The pipe diameter will be the biggest of : a. For incoming flow and draw down: D1 = (Qflushing%*4*Qi/(PI()*Cd*SQRT(h NWL+h flush)))^0.5

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= (100%*4*0.455/(pi()**2.76*SQRT(1.36+1.7)))^0.5 = 0.35m b. For incoming flow only: D2 =(4*Qi/(PI()*Cd*SQRT(hflush)))^0.5 = (4*0.455/(pi()**2.76*SQRT(1.7)))^0.5 = 0.4m

Settling Basin Design


Small Hydropow er Promotion Project (SHPP)/GTZ Referances: 2,4, 6,9,12,13,15,16 SMALL HYDROPOWER PROMOT ION PROJECT /GT Z Spreadsheet by Mr Pushpa Chitrakar D ate R ev ision
24-M ay-2006

Project:
Developer Consultant Designed Checked

Upper Jogm ai SHP Kankaimai Hydropower P Ltd EPC Consult Pushpa Chitrakar Pushpa Chitrakar
Q flood Manning's number M (m1/3/s) 1/n= Design discharge Qdesign (m3/s) = Flushing discharge Qf lush (m3/s) = Total discharge Qbasins (m3/s) = Particles to settle d (mm) = Trapping efficiency n (%) = w ater temperature t (oC) = Fall v elocity w at 15 deg C (m/s) = Sediment concentration Cmax (kg/m3) = Flushing Frequency FI (hours) = Surface area / basin Asi (m2) 85 % = Basin transit v elocity Vt (m/s) = Bulk Sed density G (kg/m3) = 50.000 0.421 0.034 0.455 0.300 85% 15 0.037 2 8 24.000 0.241 2600 0.455 3.258 2.500 1.000 10.000 4.000 0.755 1.888 4.010 0.471 1.385 3.750 10.000

Location:

2006.05 Jogmai

Sediment swelling factor S = Volume of sediment storage V (m3) = Sediment depth Hs (m) = V/Asi Inlet approach conv eyance Canal/Pipe = 1/Bottom slope of SB Sf (1:50 to 1:20) = Outlet approach conv eyance Canal/Pipe = Water lev el at inlet NWL (m) = h flush below the base slab (L<6m) Number of basins N Spillway crest height abov e NWL m Spillway discharge coeff Prov ided Freeboard h fb1 m Discharge coeff for pipe as orifice (2.76 if L <6 m) Drawdown discharge % of design discharge Water depth of inlet canal hc1 (m) = Outlet canal width /canal diameter Bc2 (m) = Water depth of outlet canal hc2 (m) = Prov ided Length of the basin Lact (m)=

1.50 15.12 0.63 Canal 50.00 Pipe 1950.00 1.70 1.00 0.05 1.60 0.30 2.76 1.00 0.50 0.50 0.30

Discharge per basin Qbasin (m3/s) = Max section width for hydraulic flushing B (m) = Width used B (m) = Inlet canal width /canal diameter Bc1 (m) = Length of basin L (m) (Idel L = 9.6) = Aspect ratio (4<=AR<=10) Min. water depth H i (m) = X -sectional area / basin Ai (m2) = Wetted perimeter / basin Pi (m) = Hydraulic radius R i (m) = Normal WL @ basin h b m = Straight inlet transition length at 1:5 (m) = Straight approach canal length (m) =

Pipe does not need a straight approach! *** Head ov er outlet weir h ov ertop (m) = 0.23 Approach inlet v elocity v i1 (m/s) = 0.91 Approach outlet v elocity v i2 (m/s) = 3.03 1/Energy gradient during operation So = 15763.86 d 50 during operation (mm) = 0.33 Depth of water during flushing yfi (m) = 0.12 d 50f during flushing (mm) = 49.32 Length of an Ideal Basin (m) = 10.00

Spilling of excess water


Vertical Flus hing pipe D iameter for flood d1 m = Diameter for load rejection (u/s flood bypass) d1 m = 2 x 0.43

Spillway Freeboard m Spillw ay ov ertopping height h ov ertop m Spillway length for Qf (flood and non operational) Combination of vertical flushing pipe and s pillway Vertical flushing pipe diameter d1 m N o of v ertical flushing pipe Spillway length used (m) Flood and Under Operation (Qf- Qd) H ov ertopping Discharge passing through v ertical pipe Discharge passing ov er spillway 0.300 0.125 Spillway length for Qd (under operation) Spillway length for Qd (load rejection & u/s flood bypass) Spillway length for Qd (d/s obstruction & full hov ertop-50) Flood and non operational (Qf) Flood discharge passing through v ertical pipe Spillw ay length for the remaining discharge m 6.43 6.43 3.18

0.30 1.00 1.00

1.00

Load Rejection (Qd) H ov ertopping Discharge passing through v ertical pipe Discharge passing ov er spillway

0.262 0.240 0.215

Figure 6.4: Typical example of a settling basin (Settling basin, spilling and flushing).

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In the second case, the depth of water during flushing (yfi) may be added to h flush for higher precision. This is not considered here. The recommended minimum diameter of the flushing pipe diameter is 0.4 m. Use of flushing pipe should be restricted to micro-hydropower projects. For larger projects, use of gates is recommended. The gate curve in the example presented in Figure 6.5 includes the gate dimensions, forces and the rating curve. The rating curve of the gate versus different gate opening can be computed by entering allowable gate opening at the lowest input cell and clicking Calculate Gate Rating Curve button.

Flushing of water and sediment


Flushing pipe and orifice diameter d for incoming flow and draw down m d for incoming flow only (empty state) m d for incoming flow only (empty state & with y flushing) m Gate Buoyance weight of the gate W kgf Gate Opening B, (m) Gate Opening H (m) Submerged area of th gate A m2 Water surface to cg of submerged area h m Coeff of static friction mu Lifting force F kgf H. of water (H1) 300.00 1.00 0.50 0.50 1.11 0.90 799.50 1.36 0.35 0.40 0.39

Calculate Gate Rating Curves Gate Opening Hg 0.000 0.033 0.067 0.100 0.133 0.167 0.200 0.233 0.267 0.300 0.333 0.367 0.400 0.433 0.467 0.500 Relative Discharge Gate Openinig One basin Hg/H1 Q 0.000 0.000 0.025 0.127 0.049 0.249 0.074 0.366 0.098 0.479 0.123 0.591 0.147 0.700 0.172 0.807 0.196 0.912 0.221 1.016 0.245 1.117 0.270 1.216 0.294 1.312 0.319 1.406 0.343 1.497 0.368 1.586

Figure 6.5: Typical example of a settling basin (Gate and rating curve). The last part the spreadsheet can be used if the considered basin is a settling basin cum forebay. The basic penstock inlet geometry is computed in this section. An example is presented in Figure 6.6.
0.367 0.400 0.433 0.467 0.500 0.265 0.289 0.313 0.337 0.361 1.230 1.328 1.423 1.516 1.606

1.800 1.600 1.400 1.200 1.000 0.800 0.600 0.400 0.200 0.000

Designed Cross Section


Av. H ot =0.125m Water depth 0.76m

Forebay cum settling basin (one basin)


Penstock diameter m Penstock velocity m/s Submergence depth of penstock pipe m Height of pipe above the base slab m Min. pond depth m Effective thickness of penstock mm FS for air vent (5 burried, 10 exposed) Young's modulus of elasticity E N/mm2 Penstock inlet gate (Yes/No) Air vent diameter mm
half of Gr expansion

Sediment depth 0.63m

Width 2.5m

0.41 3.45 0.91 0.30 1.62 3 10 200000 No Nominal

Gradual Expansion of 1:5

0.500 1.000
Gradual Expansion 1 in 10 (1:2 for MHP)

Width 2.5m L =10

Flushing cone/spillway O

Spillway

0.300

0.500

Water depth 0.76m Sediment depth 0.63m

Slope 1:50

Figure 6.6: Typical example of a settling basin (forebay and dimensioning).

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7 PENSTOCK AND POWER CALCULATIONS


7.1 GENERAL

A penstock pipe conveys water from free flow state (at a settling basin or a forebay) to pressure flow state to the powerhouse and converts the potential energy of the flow at the settling basin or forebay to kinetic energy at the turbine.

7.2

GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS

1. Material: Mild steel (exposed and buried) and HDPE/GRP (buried) pipes should be used as penstock pipes. For mild steel pipes, flanged connections are recommended for low head (up to 60m) micro-hydropower projects. In other cases, site welding is recommended. A combination of HDPE/GRP and mild steel can also be used. 2. For exposed (i.e., above ground) mild steel penstock alignment, a minimum clearance of 300 mm between the pipe and the ground should be provided for ease of maintenance and minimising corrosion effects. 3. GRP/HDPE pipes should be buried to a minimum depth of 1 m. Similarly, if mild steel penstock pipes have to be buried, a minimum of 1 m burial depth should be maintained and corrosion protection measures such as high quality bituminous/epoxy paints should be applied. Due to higher risks of leakage, flange connected penstocks are not recommended to be buried. 4. The recommended initial trial internal diameter (D) can be calculated as: D = 41 x Q 0.38 mm Where, Q = Design flow in l/s 5. Total penstock headloss should not be more than 10% of the penstock gross head. 6. Anchor / Thrust blocks at every horizontal and vertical bend are recommended. For micro hydropower projects, these blocks are also recommended for every 30m of straight pipe stretch. 7. Expansion joints should be placed immediately downstream of every anchor block for exposed mild steel penstock. 8. Instead of providing an expansion joint immediately upstream of turbine, a mechanical coupling is recommended for ease of maintenance and reduced force transmitted to the turbine casing.

7.3

PROGRAM BRIEFING AND EXAMPLE

7.3.1 Program Briefing The design procedure of a penstock pipe is similar to that of a headrace pipe. In this spreadsheet, the penstock is checked for surge / water hammer head propagated due to various closures of the system. Sudden closure of one jet is considered as the maximum surge in case Pelton turbines are used. Both the installed capacities based on the AEPC criteria and actual cumulative efficiency of the electro-mechanical are presented. The installed capacity based on the given cumulative efficiency should be used in case it is provided by manufacturers. Since a provision of maximum of ten bends is generally sufficient for a typical micro and mini hydropower scheme, head losses due to ten bends are incorporated. However, users can add any cumulative values of bend constants (k) if there are more than ten bends and other losses due to turbulence in the K others cell.

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A fine trashrack is always recommended upstream of penstock inlet. Therefore, a trashrack calculation and minimum submergence criteria by Gordon and AEPC criteria are also included. AEPC criterion of 150% of the velocity head is enough for micro and mini hydropower projects. User specific factor of safety and ultimate tensile strength for mild steel penstock are allowed in the spreadsheet in order to be able to use non standard values. The friction factor calculation is based on the iteration procedures described in the Laymans Guidebook on How to Develop a Small Hydro Site by European Small Hydropower Association (ESHA). Design and installation criteria of expansion joints are presented at the end of the spreadsheet.

Start Project Name, Location, Life Hydraulics Qd, Hg, RL us, %hl, Entrance, Exit, R/d Pipe #, Material, Fabrication If steel,Laying, Valve, t, L, q(upto 10) Trashrack Bar type, t,b, Vo, F, b,H Exp Joint Tmax, Tinst, Tmin, Group L (5)

Exp Joint Dimensions, Position during installation

Power Pturbine,P MGSP, P hnetPCU M

Hydraulics hl(friction, turbulent) Other criteria checking

Trashrack hl, Surface Area, Width, h submerge

End Figure 7.1: Flow diagram of penstock design


7.3.2 Typical example of a penstock pipe Figure 7.1 presents calculation procedures applied in the example presented in Figures 7.2 and 7.3. The presented example is taken from the 500kW Jhakre Mini Hydropower Project, Dolakha. For the given head of 180m and discharge of 450 l/s, three units of two-nozzle Pelton turbines are selected. Since trashrack and pipe hydraulics are similar to headrace pipe presented earlier, the detailed calculations are not presented in this section. The steel pipe thickness, expansion joints and power calculations are presented in this section. It is assumed that the valve closing is of slow type. The minimum factor of safety for penstock is chosen to be 2.5.
Pipe thickness: It is worth noting that in reality the diameter of penstock pipe is optimized by calculating marginal costs and benefit method. In this method, the incremental benefit of annual energy by increasing the pipe diameters and corresponding increase of costs are plotted. The intersecting point represents the cost of optimum diameter. Alternatively, net present values of these cash/cost flow can be calculated and the net present value (NPV) of marginal benefit from energy gain should be higher than that of the marginal cost of that diameter. Lets consider 4mm thick 300mm diameter pipe, the wave velocity

a=

1440 2.1 x10 9 x d 1+ E xt

1440 2.1 x 10 9 x 0.300 1+ 200 x 10 9 x 6 1000

= 1071.454 m / s

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hsurge htotal t effective

= a * V/(g*njet) = 1071.454*2.83/(9.81*6) = 51.484m = hgross + hsurge = 180+51.484 = 231.484 m = t/(welding factor*rolling) thickness for corrosion taken as Life span/10 = 6/(1.1*1.2) 1.0 = 3.55mm

Factor of safety (allowable FS = 3.0)

S .F . =

teffective x S 5 x htotal x 103 x d

(3.55 1000) x 410 x10 6 5 x 231.484 x 10 3 x 0.450

= 2.79 which does not exceed the allowable FS of 2.5, hence OK. This factor of safety should be used for thinner penstock.

PENSTOCK AND POW ER CALCULATIONS


Spreadsheet dev eloped by M r. Pushpa Chitrakar, Engineering Adv isor, SH PP/G T Z R eferances:2,4, 5,6,12,13,15,16 SM ALL H YDR O PO WER PR O M O T IO N PR O JECT /G T Z Date R ev ision 10-N ov-2005

Project:
Developer Consultant Designed Checked INPUT

Jhankre m ini-hydropower H im al Power Lim ited BPC H ydroconsult Pushpa Chitrakar Pushpa Chitrakar

Location:

2005.10 Barand, Sertung VDC 2, Dhading

General: Jogm ai I Project: Location: Ilam Hydraulics: Diversion flow Q d (m 3/s) Flow in each pipe Q i (m 3/s) G ross head (from forebay) H g (m ) Power: T urbine type (CR O SSFLO W/PELT O N ) N o of total jets (nj) Direct Coupling (Yes/N o) Closure tim e T sec N um ber of units Penstock pipe: Pipe M aterial (ST EEL/H DPE/PVC) Welded / Flat rolled if steel R olled if steel T ype if steel (U N G R AG ED/IS) Burried or ex posed N o of pipes Bending angle 01(degrees) Bending angle 02 Bending angle 03 Bending angle 04 Penstock diam eter d=>d estd, d act (m m ) Pipe Length L (m ) Trashrack k t Flat 2.40 6.00 Expansion Joints
Tm ax (deg) T installation

Econom ic life (years) 0.450 0.450 180.00 Pelton 6 Yes 30.00 3 Steel Welded R olled IS Ex posed WL @ forebay or U /S Invert Level (m ) % head allow able headloss hlt (m ) Cum ulativ e know m efficiency (g,t,tr,others) Valv es (Sperical/G ate/Butterfly) T aper (Yes/N o) Exit (Yes/N o) N on standard ult. tensile strength (U T S) N /m m 2

10 1213.90 16.00% 79.38%


Butterfly 0.3

N o N o 0

Safety factor for low er pipes (0 for default) Entrance T ype Entrance w ith gate and air-v ent (Yes/N o) Bending radius (r/d) (1/2/3/5/1.5) Bending angle 05

Sharp cornered

1.5

2.5 0.5 N o 0.45 22

418 550.000 b 20.00


Tm in

1.00 Bending angle 06 2.00 Bending angle 07 11.00 Bending angle 08 4.00 Bending angle 09 11.00 Bending angle 10 450 Pipe thickness t=>t m in, t act (m m ) 3.0 R oughness coefficient (ks) Vo 1.00
1st Pipe length(m )

14.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 6.0 0.060 H 0.70


5th Pipe L (m )

f 71.56
2nd Pipe L (m )

b 0.00

Q 0.450

3rd Pipe L (m ) 4th Pipe L (m )

40

20

10.00

15.00

20.00

25.00

30.00

Figure 7.2: Input required for penstock and power calculations

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OUTPUT
Trashrack hf 0.0233 Turbulent loss coefficients K inlet K bend 01 K bend 02 K bend 03 K bend 04 Hydraulics Pipe Area A (m ) H ydraulic R adius R (m ) Velocity V (m /s) Pipe R oughness ks (m m ) R elativ eR oughness ks/d R eynolds N um ber R e = d V /Vk T ype of Flow Friction Factor f Factor of Safety Young's m odulus of elasticity E N /m m T hickness Diam eter (m m ) N et H ead (m ) Wave Velocity a (m /s) Critical tim eT c (sec) *2 = Closing tim eT K if crossflow turbine Kcf H surge for one jet closure of Pelton(m ) H surge for instanteneous closure of all unit closure of Pelton (m ) Lengths (m ax & actual) of the specified pipe (m ) &O k 613.998 Power T urbine efficiency as per M G SP Available shaft pow er(kW) R eqd.'T urbine Capacity (+10% ) (kW) Expansion Joints (m m ) EJ num ber dL theoretical dL recom m ended dL for expansion dL for contraction
2 2

hb 0.0000 KT otal 0.50 0.18 0.21 0.19 0.21

H coeff 0.4572 2.06

H 0.0233

S 2.0555

B 2.79

Min Submergence

CGL=1.5v^2/2g

1.84

0.61

K bend 05 K bend 06 K bend 07 K bend 08 K bend 09

0.24 0.22 0.00 0.00 0.00

K bend 10 Kv alv e K taper K ex it K others

0.00 0.30 0.00 0.00 0.00

0.159 0.11 2.83 0.060 1.333E-04 1116427 T urbulent 0.0138 200000 6.000 450.000 172.268 1071.454 1.03 O k 0.00000 51.484 308.907 550.000

U /S Inv ert Lev el (m AO D) D/S Inv ert Lev el (m AO D) Is H Ltot < H L av ailable Friction Losses hf (m ) Fitting Losses hfit (m ) T rashracks and intake loss (m ) T otal H ead Loss htot indiv idual (m ) % of H .Loss of indiv idual pipe U ltim ate tensile strength (U T S) N /m m 2 H total for one jet closure of Pelton(m ) t effective (m m ) M inim um t effictiv e for negativ e pressure (m m ) Com m ent on thickness Safety Factor (S) Check on Safety Factor Air v ent diam eter d vent (m m ) H total capacity of the specified pipe (m ) H static capacity of the specified pipe (m )

1213.90 1033.90 O KAY 6.87 0.84 0.02 7.73 4.3% O k 410 231.48 3.55 4.71 N A, N o gate 2.79 O k 67.45 258.42 206.94

75.00% 570.36 627.39 Coeff of linear ex pansion /deg C 2 2 4 6 9 11 13 17 22 7 10 12 6 8 10

Electrical Pow er as per M G SP G L (kW) Electrical Pow er based on H net (kW) Pow er for know n cum ulativ e eff (kW) 1.2E-05 5 13 26 14 12

397.31 456.29 603.67

1 4 9 5 4

Figure 7.3: Output of penstock and power calculation spreadsheet.


Based on the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) recommendations, the allowable minimum thickness is 3.00 mm. Therefore, optimum penstock thickness can vary from 3mm to 6mm. The summary of the penstock thickness corresponding to static head is presented in Table 7.1. The static heads for different thickness of pipes are calculated by applying different thickness of the pipe and noting the thickness and the corresponding to the calculated values of H static capacity of the specified pipe (m) cell.

Table 7.1: Summary of penstock thickness and corresponding maximum permissible static head Penstock thickness (mm) Static Head (m) 3 40 4 86 5 132 6 180

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7.4

FORCES ON ANCHOR BLOCKS

An anchor block is a gravity retaining structure placed at every sharp change along the penstock pipe and is designed to retain penstock pipe movement in all directions. It should be stable against overturning, sliding and sinking/bearing. Although the design of anchor blocks and saddles are site and user specific and the rules of thumb are valid for micro-hydropower schemes, care should be taken while using these rules of thumbs even for micro-hydropower projects. The spreadsheet AnchorLoads is useful for calculating static and dynamic forces on an anchor block. In case the penstock pipes upstream and downstream of an anchor block are not on a single plane (i.e., 3 dimensional forces), the resultant forces act on three dimensions and the block has to be stable in all three dimensions. Calculation and design of anchor blocks for three dimensions is a complex process and beyond the scope of this book and most of micro and mini hydropower projects have penstock in single planes, therefore, a spreadsheet useful for calculating forces in a single plane parallel to longitudinal section of the anchor block is presented. Moreover, the designers are strongly advised to align penstock in a single plane. AEPC/ESAP does not have any mandatory procedures for designing anchor blocks. Therefore, standard procedures for calculating forces on anchor blocks are considered in this spreadsheet. The possible forces acting on anchor blocks are presented in the spreadsheet. Since the calculation of anchor forces consists of single line formula calculations without many conditions, the spreadsheet is designed to present simple definitions of these forces along with sketches, their formulae and the calculated results. An example of 500kW Jhankre mini-hydropower project anchor block presented in Civil Works Guidelines for Micro-Hydropower in Nepal has been taken as an example. Some additional forces are added and some of the formulae based on analytical method are used. 7.4.1 Program example

Input for the cited example are presented in Figure 7.4. Elevations are used to calculate vertical angles ( a and b ) in case these angles are not entered as inputs. As always, care should be taken to verify inputs in red colour. Total head, Static head h gross = forebay water level pipe centre line = 650.50 636.750 = 13.750m htotal = h gross + hsurge = 13.750 m + 48 m = 108 m Unit weight of pipe and water, Wp = (d + t) t gsteel = x 0.454 x 0.004 x 77 = 0.448 kN/m Ww = (d ) /4* gwater =
2

P(0.450) 2 4

9.8 = 1.560 kN/m

Total weight per unit length WT=W p+W w = 2.008 kN/m Velocity, v = Q/A = 4*Q/(*d ) = 4*0.45/(*.45 ) = 2.829 m/s 1. Perpendicular component of weight of pipe and water acting perpendicular to the pipe centre line along the anchor faces F1u = W T L1u cos a = 2.008 * 2 * cos 13 = 3.913 kN F1d = W T L1d cos b = 2.008 * 2 * cos 25 = 3.640 kN The axial components of these forces can be calculated as: F1u axial = - W T L1u sin a = 2.008 * 2 * sin 13 = - 0.903 kN F1d axial = - W T L1d sin b = 2.008 * 2 * sin 25 = - 1.697 kN FEMu = W T L1u /8 = 2.008 * 2 /8 = 2.677 kN-m 2 2 FEMd = - W T L1d /8 = 2.008 * 2 /8 = - 2.677 kN-m
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2. Axial frictional force of pipe on saddle supports transferred to anchor block considering f = 0.25 for steel on steel (greased) saddle top. Frictional force per support pier = f *W T*L2u cos a = 0.25*2.00 * 4 cos 13= 1.95 kN Total frictional force for 8 piers (F2u ) = 1.95 x 8 = 15.653 kN Note that F2d is zero since an expansion joint is located immediately downstream of the anchor block. 3. Hydrostatic pressure at bend due to the vector difference of static pressure and acting towards IP (F3) and total force along the pipe (P). Since upstream and downstream penstock diameter are the same. Pu (kN) = /4*d2*Ht*g = /4*.452*108*9.81 = 168.50 25 - 13 F3 = 2*P*sin((b-a)/2) = 2 x 168.50 x sin = 35.227 kN 2 4. Component of weight of pipe along the pipe (L4u = 34.89 4 = 30.894) F4u = L4u = 0.448 x 30.894 x sin 13 = 3.112 kN F4d = W pL4d sin b = 0.448 x 4.0 x sin 25 = 0.757 kN 5. Since expansion joints both upstream and downstream are provided, F5 = 0. Typical temperature ranges are presented in the example. Since the temperatures (dt) are different for expansion and contraction, F5 for both the cases are presented. 6. Axial friction within expansion joint seal due to the movement against the circumferential pressure (F6) can be calculated using either of the formulas: F6 = 100 x d or F6 = *D*W*H*g*m Since the second formula is based on analytical method, it is recommended to use it. H is the total head at the considered expansion joint. For a seal width (W) of 0.16m and a friction factor (m) of 0.25, F6 is F6u= *0.454*0.16*98.512*9.81*0.25 = 55.666 kN F6d= *0.454*0.16*109.888*9.81*0.25 = 60.959 kN 7. Axial hydrostatic pressure on exposed end of pipe in expansion joint (F7): F7=*(d + t)*t*H*g F7u = * 0.454*0.004*98.512*9.81= 5.518 kN F7d = * 0.454*0.004*109.888*9.81= 6.042 kN 8. Dynamic pressure at the bend due to the vector difference of momentum (F8): P8 (kN) = F8 = Q*r *v= 0.45*1*2.829 = 1.273 kN Q2 b - a 0.450 2 2 sin = 2.5 sin 25 - 13 F8 = 2.5 = 0.261 kN 2 d 0.450 2 2 9. No reducer is provided in this case. Therefore axial force on reduce (F9 = 0). In case there is a reducer, total head at the specified reducer location is calculated for calculating F9. 10. Axial drag of flowing water (friction of flowing water) is generally not considered in micro and mini hydropower scheme penstock design. Therefore F10 =0 is considered in this example. 11. Force due to soil pressure (F11): 2 g h F11= soil 1 cos i x Ka x w 2 For gsoil = 20 kN/m , f = 30 and Ka = F11 =
3

cos i - cos2 i - cos2 f cos i + cos2 i - cos2 f

=0.371

20 18 . 2 cos 13 x 0.371 x 2 = 23.455 kN 2

This force acts at 1/3 of the buried depth at upstream face of anchor block, which is (1/3 x 1.8) = 0.6 m.

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Summary of forces are presented in Figure 7.4. The forces calculated above are further resolved in mutually perpendicular directions to get the summary. A typical calculation is presented in Table 7.2. Forces acting at the bend and the total forces for both the expansion and contraction are presented in the table. The total forces will further be utilized in anchor block design. These forces are calculated for vertical angles of a = 13, b = 25.

Table 7.2: Summary of forces


Forces (kN) F1u = 3.90 F1d = 3.63 F2u = 15.6 F3 = 35.20 X - component (kN) + = - F1u sin a = - 0.880 = - F1d sin b = - 1.538 = F2u cos a = 15.252 = F3 sin Y- component (kN) + = F1u cos a = 3.813 = F1d cos b = 3.299 = F2u sin a = 3.521 = - F3 cos

b + a = 11.469 2

b + a = - 33.308 2

F4u = 2.97 F4d = 2.97 F5u = 0.000 F5d = 0.000 F6u = 45 F6d = 45 F7u = 5.70 F7d = 6.08 F8 = 0.26

= F4u cos a = 3.033 = F4u cos b = 0.686 = F5u cos a = 0.000 = - F5d cos b = 0.000 = F6u cos a = 54.239 = - F6d cos b = - 55.248 = F7u cos a = 5.377 = - F7d cos b = - 5.476 = F8 sin

= F4u sin a = 0.700 = F4u sin b = 0.320 = F5u sin a = 0.000 = - F5d sin b = 0.000 = F6u sin a = 12.522 = -F6d sin b = -25.763 = F7u sin a = 1.241 = - F7d sin b = - 2.553 = - F8 cos

b + a = 0.085 2

b + a = - 0.247 2

F9u = 0.000 F9d = 0.000 F10u = 0.000 F10d = 0.000 F11 = 23.45 F12 = 354.64 SUM (expansion) SUM (contraction)

= F9u cos a = 0.000 = - F9d cos b = 0.000 = F10u cos a = 0.000 = - F10d cos b = 0.000 = F11 cos i = 22.853 0 H @ bend exp = H total exp - F11H = 26.997 kN H total exp = 49.851 kN H @ bend c = H total c F11H = -1.488 kN H total c = H @ bend expansion 2(F2H +F6Hu+ F6Hd ) = 21.366 kN

= F9u sin a = 0.000 = - F9d sin b = 0.000 = F10u sin a = 0.000 = - F10d sin b = 0.000 = F11 sin i = 5.276 = F12 = 354.640 V @ bend exp = V total exp - F11V - F12V = -36.454 kN V total exp = 323.460 kN V @ bend = V @ total c F11V = -17.015 kN V total c = V @ bend contraction 2(F2V +F6Vu+ F6Vd)=342.901 kN

Forces on A nchor Block


Small Hydropower Promotion Project Spreadsheet (SHPP)/GT by M rP Z ushpa C hitrakar Referances: 6,12,13,15,16 SMALL HYDROPOWER PROMOT ION PROJECT /GT Z

Block # & type

Conv ex Date Rev ision 24-May-2006

2006.05

Project Dev eloper Con su ltan t

Jh ankre m in i-h y dropow er BPC H ydroconsult Designed Ch ecked

Input
Particulars
P ipe dimensions D iam eter (D i) T hickness Shaddle Spacing & num ber E levations H orizontal D istance (m) Vertical angles, a & b (deg) Location of E xpansion Joint D /S E xpansion Joint : O utput W eight of pipe, W p (kN /m ) W eight of water, W w (kN /m ) T otal weight, W (kN /m )) Velocity, v (m /s) Vertical angles, a & b (rad) Yes 34.000 13.0000 4 Yes

Ups tream
0.45 0.004 4.00

C entral

D owns tream
0.45 0.004 4.00

3 D esign D ischarge, Q (m /s)

0.45 78.5 9.81 25 22 200 30 0.5236 20

8 636.750

U nit W eights (kN /m3) M ild Steel W ater R C C Anchor Block Soil

40.000 25.0000 4

2 Bearing capacity (kN /m ) f gs

0.448 1.560 2.008 2.829 0.226893

0.448 1.560 2.008 2.829 0.436332

H eads (m) F orebay W L 696.750 T ot.T ransient Len 3277.753 Sumof P ipe Len (forebay to Anchor 1074.814 Block) T otal Surge H ead 146.381 Static H ead 60.000 Surge H ead 48.00 Total (H ) 108.000 Youngs M odulus of E lasticity (E 2.1E ) +11 C oefficient of Linear E xpansion ( 12E -06

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GENERAL FORCES 1. Perpendicular component of Wt of pipe and water act perpendicular to the pipe CL along the anchor faces
L'
a FEMu

F2

F E Md b

F1=dead weight of half of anchor saddle pipe perp to pipe 4.016 4.016 F1u (kN)=wu*lm u/2*COS(a ): F1d (kN)=wd*lm d/2*COS(b) F1 perpendicular to pipe 3.913 3.640 F1 axial -0.903 -1.697 Fixed end m om ent = wl^2/8 for proped cantilever FE M . FE M u (kN -m )= R estoring m om ent: FE M d (kN -m )= O verturning m om ent FE M 2.677 -2.677

F1 u

F1 d

2. A xial frictional force of pipe on saddle supports transferred to anchor


F2 (kN)= m*w*L'*cos a U SP ipe Length, L' (m ): 34.89 15.653 +ve for expansion

Steel to (HDPVC) to Steel (greased) (m)

0.25

F2 (kN) =

3. Hy drostatic Pressure at Bend due to the vector difference of static pressure & acting tow ards IP
Pu (kN) = F3u =PI/4*dui^2*Ht*g Pd (kN) = F3d =PI/4*ddi^2*Ht*g F3 = 2*P*sin((b-a )/2) 35.227 168.50 168.50
pu pd b a F3

4. Com ponent of w eight of pipe (w p) along the pipe


F4u= wp*active armL*sin(a ) F4 F4d= wp*active armL*sin(b) 3.112 0.757

L'

F4=w sin a W

5. Therm ally (expansion/contraction) induced axial force ( if no EJ provided)


F5 (kN )=pi()*D *a *Dt mean*t*E Condition Temp at oC + Expansion, - Contraction Tmax Tinstallation 40 20 0.000 0.000 Tmin 4 0.000 0.000

F5 F5

F5 expans ion F5 contraction

6. A xial friction w ithin Expansion joint seal due to the m ovem ent against the circum ferential pressure
F6=P I()*D *W *H *g*m m for rubber packing Static P ressure at E xp, P s (m ) D ynam ic P ressure at E xp, P d (m ) Total (AH ) +E xpansion, - C ontraction 0.25 Seal width, W(m) 0.16 52.150 46.442 98.592 55.666 61.69 48.20 109.888 60.959

F6
P ipe M ovem ent

F6

F6

F 6 (kN )

7. A xial hy drostatic pressure on exposed end of pipe in Expansion Joint


F7=P I*D *t*H *g

F7

5.518

6.042

F7
-Q *r *Vo

p
F8
Q *r * Vi

F7

8. Dy nam ic pressure at the bend due to the vector difference of m om entum


F8 = 2.5*(Q^2/d^2)*sin((b-a )/2) P8= m V =Q*r *Vi 1.273 0.261 1.273

FH

Q *r* Vi

P8 (kN)
F8

b Q*r*Vo
V ector difference of m om entum at bend (m v i -m vo )

Fv

9. A xial (sm all diam eter) force on Reducer


F9=P I()*(D *H upi^2-D dni ^2)/4*g R educer: Location & D iameter: St. H ead D yn. H ead N o 3.00 59.33 47.97 0.000 0.40 N o

F9

p
4.00 61.69 48.08 0.000 0.40

F9

F9 (kN)

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10 A xial drag of flow ing W ater (friction of flow ing w ater) (not considered in MHP)
F10=g*P I()*D H upi ^2/4*D (Exp to block) F 10 (kN ) o 0.000 N o 0.000 N

11 A xial (u/s slope) force due to soil pressure upstreamof the block
F11 =g s*hs^2/2*cos f*ka*B
ka= (cosi-sqrt(cosi^2-cosf^2))/(cosi+ sqrt(cosi^2-cosf^2))

F 11

0.371 @ 1/3 of hs

W idth, B(m ) 0.6

hs = soil depth = hu F 11

1.8 23.455 Yes

12 V ertical force due to the w eight of the block


F12 =g block*Vol of block Vol of block F 12 16.12 354.640 Yes E xpansion
@ bend Total

12

SUMMA RY OF CRITICA L FORCES 1 Summation of total horizontal forces S H(kN) 2 Summation of total vertical forces SV (kN) 3 Summation of total moment forces SM (kN-m)

Contraction
@ bend Total

26.997 -36.454 0.000

49.851 323.462

-1.49 -17.02 0.00

21.37 342.90

Figure 7.4: Output of anchor block force calculation spreadsheet.

7.5

ANCHOR BLOCK DESIGN

A design of one of the anchor blocks of 500kW Jhankre minihydropower project presented in Civil Works Guidelines for Micro-Hydropower in Nepal has been taken as an example for preparing the spreadsheet AnchorBlock. It is worth noting that the slight differences in calculated output in the guidelines are mainly due to the rounding off of processed data for secondary processing. A typical sketch of the considered anchor block is presented in Figure 7.5. Stepwise calculations of the considered example are also presented in this section. The inputs for the calculations are presented in the input section of the spreadsheet presented in Figure 7.7. Figure 7.5: Anchor Block Considered The spreadsheet is also designed to accommodate forces due to the dead weight of anchor block and upstream earth pressure. In case forces at the pipe bend calculated as per section 7.4 are used, dead weight of anchor block and upstream earth pressure for a different anchor block (not similar to defined in AnchorLoads) can be used in this spreadsheet. 7.5.1 Program example Concrete Block
Centre of gravity of the block from the upstream face of the block taking the moment of mass. {(3 x 2.25)3/2 + (1/2 x 3 x 1.05)1/3 x 3} x 2 = 1.405m {(3 x 2.25 ) + (1 / 2 x 3 x 1.05)} x 2 \ the weight of the block WB acts 1.41 m from point O. Concrete volume (V) = Block volume excluding volume of the pipe and water if any 1 2 2 3 . } x 2 - 1 x P x 0.458 /4 cos 13 - 2 x P x 0.458 /4 cos 25 = 16.191 m = {(2.25 x 3) + 3 105 2 Unit weight of concrete, (gconcrete)= 22 kN /m
3

Weight of block, W B = 16.12 x 22 = 356.199 kN

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Soil
Ka = cos i - cos2 i - cos2 f cos i + cos2 i - cos2 f =0.3715

F11=

2 20 18 . 2 g soilh1 cos i x Ka x w = cos 13 x 0.3715 x 2 = 23.455 kN 2 2

This force acts at 1/3 of the buried depth at upstream face of anchor block from point O as shown in Figure 7.6, which is (1/3 x 1.8) = 0.6 m. Perpendicular components of this forces are: F11X= F11 *cos i = 23.455*cos 13 = 22.853 kN F11Y= F11 *sin i = 23.455*sin 13 = 5.276 kN

Stability (refer to Figure 7.6)


Overturning: Expansion case Sum of moments about point O with clockwise moments as positive: M @ O = 30.327 x 2.15 + 22.853 x 0.6 + 356.199 x 1.405 16.215 x 1.0 = 563.303 kN-m d=

M 563.303 = 1.632 m = V 345.26 3 - 1.632 = 0.132 m 2

e=

Lbase 3 = = 0.5 m 6 6 \ e < eallowable OK eallowable = Contraction case Sum of moments about point O with clockwise moments as positive: M @ O = -6.19 x 2.15 + 22.85 x 0.6 + 356.199 x 1.405 41.03 x 1.0 = 473.281 kN m d=

M 473.281 = 1.477 m = V 320.44 3 e= - 1.477 = 0.023 m 2

Recall that eallowable = 0.5 \ e < eallowable OK. Since e < eallowable for both cases, the structure is safe against overturning. Bearing capacity: 2 Note that for stiff clay allowable bearing pressure is 200 kN/m (Table 7.3). Expansion case: Pbase max = V A base 6e 1 + L base =

345.26 6 0.132 2 1 + = 72.681 N/m 3 2 3

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Pbase min =

V Abase

6e 1 - L base

345.26 6 0.132 2 = 42.406 N/m = 3 2 1 3

Contraction case: Pbase max = V A base 6e 1 + L base =

320.44 6 0.023 2 1 + = 55.866 N/m 3 2 3

Pbase min =

V Abase

6e 1 - L base

320.44 6 0.023 2 = 50.947 N/m = 3 2 1 3


2

In both cases Pbase < Pallowable = 200 kN/m . \ the structure is safe against sinking. Sliding: Expansion case H<mV m = 0.5 for concrete/masonry on soil 53.18 kN < 0.5 x 345.26 kN 53.18 kN < 172.63 kN OK. Contraction case H<mV 16.66 kN < 0.5 x 320.44 kN 16.66 kN < 160.22 kN OK. Since H < m V in both cases the structure is safe against sliding. \The anchor block is stable.

Figure 7.6: Anchor Block force diagram


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Anchor Block Stability


Small Hydropower Promotion Project (SHPP)/GT Spreadsheet by M rZ P ushpa C hitrakar Referances: 6,12,13,15,16 Date 24-May-2006 SMALL HYDROPOWER PROMOT ION PROJECT /GTZ Rev ision

2006.05

Project Developer Consultant Designed Checked

Jhankre mini-hydropower BPC Hydroconsult

Input
Anchor U pstreamdepth, H u (m ) D ownstreamdepth, H d (m ) Width, W (m ) Length, L (m ) /m 3) g anchor (kN m Penstock Bend at (X), (m ) Bend at (Y), (m ) D iam eter, d (m ) U pstreamangle, a (deg) U pstreamangle, b (deg) Foundation U pstreamdepth hfu (m ) Soil friction f, (deg) /m 3) g soil (kN Bearing C apacity, SBC (kN /m 2) 3.3 2.25 2 3 22 0.5

Output
C oncrete volum e of Anchor Block Weight of block, Wb (kN ) C entre of gravity XX
3.5 3.0 Pipe CL 2.5 2.0

16.191 356.199 1.405

Anchor B lock Section

1 2.15 0.458 13 25
-0.5

1 .5 1 .0 0.5 Lengt h X ( m) ' 0.0 0.0 0.5 1 .0 1 .5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0

1.8 30 20 200

Active earth pressure coeff, Ka FP a Soil force Acting at (m )

0.3715 Fx 23.455 0.6 22.853 Fy 5.276

Forces (with soil pressure and block weight) Yes Forces w ith earthpressure & anchor E xpansion ) SH (kN ) SV (kN

O verturning N et Forces @ bend SM@ O 53.180 30.327 d 345.260 -16.215 eccentricity e, Ok e allowable SM@ O -6.19 d -41.03 eccentricity e, Ok

B earing 563.303 P m ax 1.632 P m in 0.132 0.500 473.281 P m ax 1.477 P m in 0.023

Sliding 72.681 172.63 42.406 Ok Ok

Contraction ) SH (kN ) SV (kN

16.66 320.44

55.866 160.22 50.947 Ok Ok

Figure 7.7: Anchor Block force diagram

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8 TURBINE SELECTION
8.1 GENERAL

A turbine converts potential energy of water to rotational mechanical energy. Cross-flow and Pelton turbines are the most commonly used turbines in Nepali micro hydropower plants. Pelton, Francis and Turgo turbines are used in mini and small hydropower projects. The size and type of turbine for a particular site depends on the net head and the design flow. Pelton turbines are suitable where the ratio of head to flow is high. For Cross-flow and Francis turbines, this ratio is lower than that of the Pelton turbines. Turgo turbines lie in between these two categories. It should be noted that for certain head and flow ranges, both Pelton (multi-jet) and other turbines may be appropriate. In such cases, the designer should consult with manufacturer and make a decision based on availability, efficiency and costs. On a horizontal shaft Pelton turbine the maximum number of jets should be limited to 3 for ease of manufacturing. The number of jets can be higher for vertical shaft Pelton turbines. However, these require higher precision work in mounting the generator vertically on the turbine shaft and furthermore, in case of varying rotational speeds (RPM of the turbine and the generator), the belt drive arrangements (including those for mechanically coupled end uses) will be difficult.

Figure 8.1: Pelton and Crossflow Turbines

8.2

GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS

The recommended net heads for maximum rotational speed (rpm) and efficiencies for different turbines and turbine specifications are presented in Table 8.1. Table 8.1: Turbine specifications Type Net head (m) Pelton More than 10m T12 Crossflow up to 50m T15 Crossflow up to 80m Max RPM 1500 900 1500 Efficiency (nt) 70 - 75% 60 - 78% 60 - 78%

The type of turbine can be determined by its specific speed given by the following equation: Sp Speed (no gear) ns = Turbine rpm*(1.4*PkW/Nturbines)/Hn5/4 Sp Speed (gear) nsg = Sp Speed (no gear)* Turbine rpm / Generator rpm Table 8.2: Turbine type vs. ns Turbine types Single Jet Pelton Double Jet Pelton Three Jet Pelton Cross flow ns Ranges 10 30 30 40 40 50 20 80
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8.3

PROGRAM BRIEFING AND EXAMPLE

The Turbine spreadsheet is presented in Figure 8.2. The specific speeds (ns) with (gear ratio of 1:2) and without gear are calculated as:
Sp Speed (no gear) ns = Turbine rpm*(1.4*PkW/Nturbines)/Hn = 750*SQRT(1.4*67.89/1)/58^(5/4) = 46 (Turgo/Crossflow/2-jet Pelton is suitable) Sp Speed (gear) nsg = Sp Speed (no gear)* Turbine rpm / Generator rpm = 46*1/2 = 23 (Single jet Pelton/Crossflow is suitable)
5/4

If ns exceeds the range given in Table 8.2, multiple units should be used. Specific speed of multijet Pelton turbines is computed by multiplying the specific speed of runner by the square root of the number of the jets. The calculations show that for the given parameters, either a gearless Crossflow/Turgo turbine or a Pelton/Crossflow with a gear ratio of 1:2 is recommended.

Turbine Selection
Small Hydropower Promotion Project (SHPP)/GTZ Referances: 6,7,8,12,13 Date SMALL HYDROPOWER PROMOTION PROJECT Rev ision /GTZ Spreadsheet by Mr Pushpa Chitrakar

25-Apr-2006 2006.03

Project Developer Consultant Designed Checked


Input Discharge (l/s) Gross head (m) Hydraulic losses Max turbine output kW Turbine rpm Cd Output Net head m No Gearing Sp speed of runner rpm (no gearing) Pelton (12-30) => (Ns 17-42) Turgo (Ns 20-70) => (Ns 28-99) Crossflow (Ns 20-80) Fracis (Ns 80-400) Propeller or Kaplan (Ns 340-1000)

Pushpa Chitrakar Pushpa Chitrakar

150 Gear ratio at turbine 69 Gear ratio at generator 15.94% No of turbines/generators 67.89 Total number of jets if Pelton n 750 Specified turbine 0.96 Cu

1 2 1 2 Pelton 0.46

58.001 Generator with gearing rpm With Gearing 46 Sp speed of turbine Pelton (12-30) => (Ns 17-42) Turgo (Ns 20-70) => (Ns 28-99) Crossflow (Ns 20-80) Fracis (Ns 80-400) Propeller or Kaplan (Ns 340-1000)

1500

** Turgo Crossflow ** **

23 Pelton ** Crossflow ** **

Figure 8.2: A Typical turbine example.

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9 ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT SELECTION


9.1 GENERAL
A generator converts mechanical energy to electrical energy. There are two types of generators; namely, synchronous and asynchronous (induction). Generally, induction generators are inexpensive and appropriate for Nepali micro-hydro schemes up to about 15kW. For micro-hydro schemes ranging from 10kW to 100kW, synchronous generators are technically and economically more attractive. Both synchronous and asynchronous generators are available in single and three phases. Brushless synchronous generators are recommended for mini and small hydropower projects. Load controllers are generally used as the governing system in Nepali micro hydro schemes. An Electronic Load Controller (ELC) is used for controlling power output of a synchronous generator. To control an induction generator, an Induction Generator Controller (IGC) is used. Brushless synchronous generators with hydraulic controlling systems are recommended for mini and small hydropower projects.

9.2

SELECTION OF GENERATOR SIZE AND TYPE

Selection of generator size mainly depends up on the loads of a proposed site. Selection of generator type depends on the size of the selected generator, nature of the proposed loads and costs and benefits of the scheme. As stated earlier, a generator type can be either synchronous or induction of either single or three phase. Some of the main features of all types of generator are outlined in the following sections: 9.2.1 Single Phase versus Three Phase System Advantages of a Three - Phase System Considerable saving of conductor and machine costs. Cheaper above 5 kW. Less weight by size ratio. Advantage of a Single Phase System Simple wiring. Cheaper ELC. No problem due to unbalanced load. 9.2.2 Induction versus Synchronous Generators Induction Generators Advantages of Induction Generators: Easily available Cheap, rugged and simple in construction Minimum Maintenance Drawbacks of Induction Generators: Problem supplying large inductive loads. Capacitor banks are generally not durable. Poor voltage regulation compared to synchronous generators. Synchronous Generators Advantages of Synchronous Generators: High quality electrical output. Higher efficiency. Can start larger motors.

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Drawbacks of Synchronous Generators: The cost is higher than induction generator for small sizes. Higher losses due to unbalanced load.

9.3

GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS

Based on the major features, general guidelines for selection of phase and type of generator are prepared and summarized in Table 9.1. Table 9.1: Selection of Generator Type Size of scheme Up to 10 kW Generator Synchronous/Induction Phase Single or Three Phase 10 to 15 kW Synchronous/Induction Three Phase More than 15 kW Synchronous Three Phase

Maximum ambient temperature, powerhouse altitude, electronic load controller correction factor and power factor of the proposed loads are the major factors affecting the size of a generator. De-rating coefficients to allow for these factors are presented in the Table 9.2. Table 9.2: Generator rating factors Max. Ambient temperature in oC => Temperature Factor (A)
Altitudes Altitude Factor (B) 1000 1.00 1250 0.98 1500 0.96 1750 0.945 2000 0.93

20 1.10
2250 0.915

25 1.08
2750 0.88

30 1.06
3000 0.86

35 1.03
3250 0.845

40 1.00
3500 0.83

45 0.96
3750 0.815 4000 0.8

50 0.92
4250 0.785

55 0.88
4500 0.77

2500 0.90

ELC Correction Factor (C) Power Factor (D) For light bulb loads (inductive) only For mixed loads of tube lights and other inductive loads

0.83 1.0 0.8

9.3.1 Sizing and RPM of a Synchronous Generator: The steps for selecting the size of a synchronous generator are as follows: 1 2 Power factor of 0.8. The size of synchronous generator (kVA): Installed Capacity in kW Generator (kVA) = 1.3*----------------------------AxBxCxD Where, A, B, C and D are correction factors from Table 9.2, and 1.3 is the 30% overrating factor (recommended) to allow for: i) Unexpected higher power from turbine.

ii) Handling of starting current if large motors (> 10% of generator size) are supplied from the generator. iii) The generator running at full load when using an ELC. 3 The synchronous rotational speed per minute:

Rotational speed ( N )( rpm) =


Where,

120 f P
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f = frequency of the system in Hertz (Hz) (50 Hz in Asia and Europe) P = number of poles of the generator (2, 4, 6, etc., in pairs). P for Nepali micro-hydropower schemes is generally 4 so that the rotational speed is 1500 RPM. 9.3.2 Sizing and RPM of an Induction Generator: The steps for selecting the size of an induction generator are as follows: 1 The size of an induction generator (kW): Installed Capacity in kW Induction Generator (kW) = 1.3* ----------------------------------------AxB It is worth noting that an induction generator is basically a motor used as a generator. Similar to motor rating, the rating of an induction generato should be in kW. Therefore, ELC factor (C) and the power factor (D) corrections are not applicable for an induction generator. Other factors are applied similar to a sychronous generator. Generator voltage and current ratings should not exceed 80% of the electrical motor rating. 2 The rotational speed of an induction generator:

Rotational speed ( Ni )( RPM ) =

Where, P and f are the same as for synchronous generator and s is the slip of the generator, Where, Ns is the synchronous speed, i.e. Ns( RPM ) =

120 f (1 + s ) P

s=

Ns - Nr Ns
120 f P

Nr is the rated rotor speed of the induction motor and Ni always exceeds Ns while acting as a generator.

9.4

PROGRAM BRIEFING AND EXAMPLES

9.4.1 Program Briefing In addition to calculating electrical parameters stated above, following electrical parameters are added to the presented Electrical spreadsheet: 1 2 3 Computation of excitation capacitance for an induction generator. Sizing of electrical load controller (ELC) or induction generator controller (IGC) (equal to the installed capacity). Sizing of ballast (20% higher than the installed capacity). In case the installed capacity exceeds or equal to 50kW, the ballast capacity of ELC-Extension is calculated as: Ballast capacity of ELC extension (kW) = 60% * 1.2 * Pe (electrical power) Fixed load = 40% * Pe (electrical power) 4 5 Sizing of MCCB/MCB. Sizing of power cables.

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1. Sizing of excitation capacitance of an Induction Generator Excitation capacitance for Delta connection C (F) = 1/(2*pi()*f*Xc*hm) 1000*Pe* sin (cos-1 (power factor)) Or, C (F) = ----------------------------------------------------3*V2*pf*2*pi()*f*hm Where, Xc () = V / Im V (V) = Rated Voltage of the motor (V) (phase to phase voltage, 380/400/415) Im (A) = Magnetizing Current = I rated at full load current (A) * sin (cos-1 (power factor)) I rated at full load current = Rated power (kW) * 1000/(V*pf) hm = rated efficiency of motor at full load For star connected capacitors, the excitation capacitance is three times that for the Delta connection. 2. Sizing of MCCB/MCB (A) = 1.25*Pe * 1000/(V*pf) Where, 1.25 = overrating factor by 25%. Pe (kW)= Installed capacity V (V) = Rated phase to neutral Voltage (V) (V*3 for 3-phase) pf = power factor if induction generator is used 3. Sizing of power cable (A) = 1.7*I Where, 1.70 I (A) V (V) pf = overrating factor by 70%. = Current = Generator size/(V *pf if induction generator is used) = Rated phase to neutral Voltage (V) (V*3 for 3-phase) = power factor

9.4.2 Typical example of a 3-phase 60kW synchronous generator Electrical component calculations for an example of a three-phase 60kW synchronous generator at an altitude of 1500m are presented in Figure 9.1. The detailed step-by-step calculations are:
The size of synchronous generator: Installed Capacity in kW Generator kVA = 1.3*----------------------------AxB xCxD = 1.3*60.04/(0.96*0.96*0.83*0.8) = 127.70 kVA The higher size available in the market of 45kVA is used.

Rotational speed ( N ) =

120 f RPM =120*50/4 P

= 1500 rpm Since Pe > 50kW, the ballast capacity of ELC extension (kW) = 60% * 1.2 * Pe + 40% * Pe = 0.6*1.2*60.04 + 0.4*60.04 = 67.24 kW I rated for Cable & MCCB at Generator side = 1000/ V rated * Generator size /1.732 = 1000 / 400*140/1.732 = 202.08 Amp
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Calculated size MCCB/MCB (A) = 1.25*Pe * 1000/(V*pf) = 1.25*60.04*1000/(400*1.732*0.8) = 135.40 Amp Power cable inside the powerhouse Rating current = 1.5*I rated = 1.5*202.08 = 303.12 Amp
2

For this current a 4-core copper armoured cable of ASCR 185mm is chosen.

Selection of Electrical Equipm ent


Spreadsheet developed by M r. Pushpa Chitrakar, Engineering Advisor, SH PP/G TZ

11-N ov-2005 2005.10 SM ALL H YDR O PO WER PR O M O TIO N PR R evision O JECT/G TZ Project U pper Jogm ai, Ilam Developer Kankaim ai H ydropower P Ltd Consultant EPC Consult Designed Pushpa Chitrakar Checked Pushpa Chitrakar
R eferances: 6,7,8,12,13 Date

INPUT
Discharge (m /s) G ross head (m ) O verall plant efficiency (%) Tem perature ( C) Altitude (m ) ELC correction factor Frequency of the system (H z) Capacity of used generator (kVA)
o 3

0.204 Pow er factor 60.000 Safety factor of generator 50% Phase 45 Type of G enerator 1500 O ver rating factor of M CCB 0.83 O ver rating factor of cable 50 N o. of poles 0R ated rotor speed if induction generator N (rpm ) Delta

0.8 1.3 3-phase 3


Synchronous

1 1.25 1.5

OUTPUT
Pe Electrical output (active pow er) (kW) Generator Tem p.factor Capacity (kVA ) Synchronous rotational speed N s (rpm ) ELC capacity (kW) 60.04 Ok

0.96 Altitude factor 127.70 A ctual available capacity (kVA ) 1500 60.04 Calculated Ballast capacity 1.2*Pe (kW) Ballast capacity of ELC-Extention (kW) 400 Irated for Cable & M CCB (A ) at Generator side 108.32 Calculated size of M CCB (A )

0.96 140.00

72.04 67.24 202.08 135.40

Rated Voltage (V) Rating of M CCB (A ) Cable R ating (A)

303.12 Size of 4-core cupper arm oured cables

185

Figure 9.1: Electrical components of a 20kW 3-phase synchronous generator.

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9.4.3 Typical example of a single phase 20kW induction generator Figure 9.2 gives electrical equipment sizing of the previous project with a single phase induction generator with a rotor speed of 1450rpm. Since the electrical output is more than 10kW, a reminder error is flagged in the adjacent cell. The electrical components presented in Figure 9.2 are computed as:
The size of the asynchronous generator: Installed Capacity in kW Generator kW = 1.3*---------------------------------------- = 1.3*20/(0.96*0.96) AxB = 28.25 kW The higher size available in the market of 30kW is used.

Rotational speed ( N ) =

120 f =120*50/4 P

= 1500 rpm Rotational speed of a generator = Ns*(1+(Ns-N)/Ns) = 1500*(1+(1500-1450)/1500) = 1550 rpm Excitation capacitance -1 1000*Pe* sin (cos (power factor)) C (F) = ----------------------------------------------------2 3*V *pf*2*pi()*f*hm 1000*20* sin (cos (0.8)) C (F) = ----------------------------------------------------2 3*400 *0.8*2*pi()*50*0.89 =123.16 F I rated for Cable & MCCB at Generator side = 1000/ V rated * Generator size /pf = 1000 / 220*30/0.8 = 170.45 Amp MCCB/MCB (A) = 1.25*Pe * 1000/(V) = 1.25*20*1000/(220) = 142.05 Amp
-1

Power cable inside the powerhouse Rating current = 1.5*I rated = 1.5*170.45 = 255.68 Amp
2

For this current a 2-core copper armoured cable of ASCR 185mm is chosen.

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Selection of Electrical Equipm ent


Spreadsheet developed by M r. Pushpa Chitrakar, Engineering Advisor, SH PP/G TZ

11-N ov-2005 2005.10 SM ALL H YDR O PO WER PR O M O TIO N PR R evision O JECT/G TZ Project U pper Jogm ai, Ilam Developer Kankaim ai H ydropower P Ltd Consultant EPC Consult Designed Pushpa Chitrakar Checked Pushpa Chitrakar
R eferances: 6,7,8,12,13 Date

INPUT
Discharge (m /s) G ross head (m ) O verall plant efficiency (%) Tem perature ( C) Altitude (m ) ELC correction factor Frequency of the system (H z) Capacity of used generator (kW) Capacitor configuration
o 3

0.08 Pow er factor 50.968 Safety factor of generator 50% Phase 45 Type of G enerator 1500 O ver rating factor of M CCB 0.83 O ver rating factor of cable 50 N o. of poles 0R ated rotor speed if induction generator N (rpm ) Delta Efficiency of m otor at full load

0.8 1.3 1-phase 1


Induction

2 1.25 1.5

4
1450 89%

OUTPUT
Pe Electrical output (active pow er) (kW) Generator Tem p.factor Capacity (kW) Synchronous rotational speed N s (rpm ) IGC capacity (kW) 20.00 Use of 3-phase generator is m andatory

0.96 Altitude factor 28.25 A ctual available capacity (kW) 1500 R otational speed of the generator (rpm ) 20.00 Calculated Ballast capacity 1.2*Pe (kW) Excitation Capacitance (m icro F) 220 Irated for Cable & M CCB (A ) at Generator side 113.64 Calculated size of M CCB (A )

0.96 30.00 1550 24.00 123.16 170.45 142.04

Rated Voltage (V) Rating of M CCB (A ) Cable R ating (A)

255.68 Size of 2-core cupper arm oured cables

150

Figure 9.2: Electrical components of a 20kW 1-phase induction generator.

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10 MACHINE FOUNDATION
10.1 INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS

A machine foundation of a hydropower scheme is a gravity structure designed to transfer hydraulic forces from penstock, torque from rotating machines and gravity loads from generator, turbines and the foundation itself. Similar to an anchor block, the machine foundation should be stable against overturning, sliding and sinking/bearing. Standard dimensions can be referred to while dimensioning microhydropower machine foundation. It is strongly recommended to refer to suppliers while dimensioning mini and small hydropower machine foundations. A machine foundation of 500kW Jhakre Mini-hydropower project cited in Civil Works Guidelines for MicroHydropower in Nepal has been taken as an example in the spreadsheet MachineFoundation. A plan and a section of the considered foundation are presented in Figure 10.1. These figures are part of the presented spreadsheet and are interactive diagrams. The considered machine foundation is designed to support a directly coupled Pelton turbine and a generator. It is worth noting that the critical plane of a machine foundation depends on turbine axis and coupling types. A turbine axis (shaft) is perpendicular to the incoming flow for Crossflow, Pelton and Spiral case Francis turbines whereas it is parallel to the incoming flow for open flume Francis and other axial flow turbines. Coupling type (direct or belt drive) also determine a critical plane (XX or YY as presented in the spreadsheet) with respect to its stability. Stability along both these mutually perpendicular axes are analysed in the presented spreadsheet. Stepwise calculations of the considered example are presented in the following sections. For input to these stepwise calculations, refer to the input section of the spreadsheet is presented in Figure 10.1.

10.2

EXAMPLE
General Calculations htotal = hgross + hsurge = 51 m + 50 m = 101 m: = (Pipe area) x 101 m x unit weight of water = 0.3 2 m 2 101 m 9.8 kN / m 3 4

Force due to htotal , (FH) = 70.036 kN

Weight of the three sections W1, W 2. W 3 as presented in Figure 10.1 are: 3 W1 = 0.4m 1.5m 2.5m 22kN/m =33.00 kN W2 W3 = [(0.45 x 1.5 x 2.5)-(0.45 x 1 x 0.5)-(0.45 x 0.5 x 1)] x 22 = 27.225 kN = 2.35 x 1.5 x 2.5 x 22 = 193.875 kN

Overturning: Take sum of moments about point B (counter clockwise moments as positive): 0.4 0.45 2.35 SM@B = W 1 x + 0.45 + 2.35 + (W 2 + W T ) + 2.35 + (W G + W3 ) - FH 1.8 2 2 2
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= 33.00(3.0) + (27.225+2.94)(2.575) + (3.43+193.875)(1.175) 70.036 x 1.8 = 282.455 kNm Sum of vertical forces, SV = W 1+W 2+W 3+W T+W G = 33.00 + 27.225 + 193.875 + 2.94 + 3.43 = 260.477 kN Equivalent distance at which SV acts from point B: d=

M = 282.455 = 1.084 m V 260.477


e=

eccentricity,

L Base 3.2 - d = - 1.084 = 0.516 m 2 2

eallowable =

LBase 3.2 = = 0.533 m 6 6

Since e is less than eallowable , eccentricity is in the middle third. \The structure is safe against overturning. Bearing pressure: Pbase max =

A base

V 1 +

6e = Lbase

260.477 6 0.516 2 1 + = 64.038 kN/m 3.2 2.5 3.2

Pbase min =

A base

V 1 -

6e L base

260.477 6 0.516 2 = 1.081 kN/m = 3.2 2.5 1 3.2


2

Since both pressures are within zero and 180 kN/m (max. allowed for soil) the structure is safe against sinking. Sliding: Assume that the friction coefficient between block and soil, m = 0.5 SH = FH = 70.036 kN m SV = 0.5 x 260.5 = 130.2 kN Factor of safety against sliding: =

m V

130.238 = 1.86 > 1.5 OK 70.036

\ The structure is safe against sliding.

Stability along YY is analysed in similar manner. It is worth noting that the machine foundation is not stable (for the stated factor of safety) against overturning and bearing along YY axis and this is the real critical case for the presented example in the guidelines. However, this critical case is not considered and not illustrated in the guidelines. The mismatch between Photo 8.4 (the actual case) and Figures 8.2 to 8.4 is quite noticeable. The Pelton turbine axis in Photo 8.4 perpendicular to XX axis (longer) whereas it is considered parallel to XX axis in the illustrated calculations.
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Turbine and Generator Machine Foundation


Small Hydropower Promotion Project (SHPP)/GTZ Spreadsheet by Mr Pushpa Chitrakar Referances: 6,12,13,15,16 Date 24-May-2006 SMALL HYDROPOWER PROMOTION PROJECT/GTZ Rev ision

Project Developer Consultant Designed Checked

2006.05 Jhankre mini-hydropower BPC Hydroconsult

1 .8 1 .6 1 .4

Machine Foundation Section

Machine Foundation Plan


2.8 2.6 2.4 2.2 2.0 1 .8 1 .6 1 .4 1 .2 1 .0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0

Height ZZ (m)

1 .2 1 .0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0

Turbine C L

Generator C L

YY (m)

Turbine C L

Generator C L

W 1

W 2

W 3

XX (m)

XX (m)

INPUT Gross head hg (m ) Surge head hs (m ) Foundation Foundation on Allowable bearing capacity Pall (kN/m ) Friction coeff between block and soil m Length L (m ) Bredth B (m ) Height H (m ) M aterial of foundation
3 Density of foundation (kM /m ) 2

3 51.00 Design Discharge Qd (m /s) 50.00

0.150

Penstock Soil Diam eter dp (m ) 0.300 m ild steel 0.300 0.450 0.500 1.000 0.500 YY (m ) 1.250 1.250 180 M aterial 0.5 Centreline above PH floor hp (m ) 3.2 Turbine Pit 2.5 Length of opening Lo (m ) 1.5 Bredth of opening Bo (m ) Concrete Height of opening Ho (m ) 22 Height of tailrace canal Htr (m ) XX (m ) 0.625 2.025

Electro-mechanical W eight of turbine W t (kN) & cl position W eight of generator W g (kN) & cl position OUTPUT Forces Force due to h total of 101 m , Fh (kN) Foundation W 1 W 2 W 3 Sum of m om ents SM (kN-m ) Sum of vertical forces SM (kN)

2.943 3.434

W eight W i (kN) 70.036 33.000 27.225 193.875

Lever Arm LA (m ) LA along XX 1.800 3.000 2.575 1.175 282.455 260.477

LA along YY

1.25 1.25 1.25 199.530 260.477

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Overturning Equivalent distance at which SM acts from critical point d (m ) Eccentricity e, (m ) Allowable eccentricity e all (m ) C om m ent on overturning m om ent Bearing Pressure at base Pm ax Pm in Com m ents on bearing Sliding Factor of safety against sliding, FS sl Com m ent of sliding

LA along XX 1.084 0.516 0.533 Ok

LA along YY 0.766 0.484 0.417 Not Ok

LA along XX 64.038 1.081 Ok

LA along YY 70.379 -5.260 Not Ok

LA along XX 1.860 Ok

LA along YY 1.860 Ok

Figure 10.1: Layout of MachineFoundation Spreadsheet.

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11 TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION


11.1 INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS

Power generated at a powerhouse is evacuated to load centres or grids with the help of transmission and distribution lines. According to the Nepal Standards, 400/230V is the standard minimum voltage. 400/11000V system is used in micro-hydropower transmission system where as 11 kV/33 kV is used in mini and small hydropower transmission system. 11 kV and 33 kV are also considered to be distribution voltage by Nepal Electricity Authority (NEA). Use of standard voltages in micro hydropower projects is recommended so that the power can be easily synchronized and evacuated to grid in future.

11.2

GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS

AEPC MGSP/ESAP has formulated following guidelines regarding micro-hydropower transmission and distribution systems: 1 2 3 4 Cable configuration and poles: Buried or suspended on wooden or steel or concrete poles. Permissible Voltage drop: 10% of nominal value at point of use. Conductor: Aluminum conductor steel reinforced (ACSR) or Arial Bundled Cable (ABC) The ASCR specifications are presented in Table 11.1.
Current rating max Amps 76 85 95 135 185 205 Equivalent Copper area 2 mm 13 16 20 30 50 65 Inductive Reactance Ohm/km 0.355 0.349 0.345 0.335 0.328 0.315 Sp. Weight (kg/km) 80 106 128 214 394

Table 11.1: ASCR specifications


ACSR Code number 1 2 3 4 5 6 Type of ACSR Squirrel Gopher Weasel Rabbit Otter Dog Resistance Ohm/km 1.374 1.098 0.9116 0.5449 0.3434 0.2745 Sp. Cost (Rs/km) 13000 14500 15500 25750 52000

Note: Sp. Costs are taken from the guidelines and are lower than the market price. It is recommended to refer to the actual market price in the design.

11.3
1 2 3

PROGRAM BRIEFING AND EXAMPLES


The presented spreadsheet is designed to calculate transmission parameters for three phase 33kV, 11kV and 400V and single phase 230V transmission and distribution lines. Balanced load is assumed, i.e., neutral conductor does not carry any current. With a power factor of 0.8, the rated current and voltage drop are calculated as: Table 11.2: Rated current and voltage drop calculation Phase 3-phase 1-phase Current (A) Power*1000/(1.732*V* power factor) Power*1000/(V*power factor) Voltage drop (dV) 1.732*IA*Z*Lkm 2*IA*Z*Lkm

11.3.1 Program Briefing

4 5

Impedance (Z) = (Resistance2+Reactance2). Voltage at node (Vi) Phase Single to single phase or 3 to 3 phase Voltage at node (Vi) Vprevious - dV
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Three to single phase (400V to 230V)

Vprevious/1.732 - dV

Spreadsheet protection: Transmission line networks is project specific and does not match each other. Therefore, this spreadsheet is not protected to match the transmission line networks of the considered project.

Start Project Name, Location, Node & reach names, reach lengths, phase, Power at node, ASCR code, Remarks for repeated lengths

Length of cables Cost of cables End

Length of neutral cables

Voltage drop Voltage at node

Current Resistance Reactance Impedance

Figure 11.1: Flow chart of transmission and distribution line computation. The grid and load presented in Figure 11.2 are used for the calculations presented in Figure 11.3.

Transformer # 1

Legends
Node/Load (kW) at nodes Reach length (m)/Phase/Load (kW)

Figure 11.2: Transmission line and load used for the example.
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Transmission line calculations Reach: powerhouse to node A to B The installed capacity of the considered scheme is 36kW. Out of this, a total of 16kW of power is transmitted from the powerhouse to nodes A, B, C and D. The transmission line from the powerhouse to node A is 400V three phase four wires type. Power from node A to other load centres are transmitted using 230V single phase two wire systems. Lengths and other information of these reaches are presented in Figures 11.2 and 11.3. Reach PH-A By Trial and error to limit voltage drop at the end of last load centre, a dog is found to be suitable. For this cable, 2 2 2 2 Z = (I + L ) = (0.275 + 0.315 ) = 0.418 Ohm /km Current, I PH-A = Power*1000/(3*V* power factor) = 16*1000/(3*400*0.8) = 28.87 A Voltage drop, dV = 3* I PH-A *Z*Lkm = 3* 28.87 *0.418 *0.300 = 6.3 V dV% = dV/VPH = 6.3/400 *100 = 1.58%, which is within the limit of 10%. A relatively lower value is recommended at this point because voltage drop at the end of either B or C or D has to be within 10%. Voltage @ node A, VA = VPH dV = 400 6.3 = 393.70 V Reach A-B As stated, this is single phase line. By Trial and error to limit voltage drop at the end of last load centre, an otter is found to be suitable. For this cable, Z = (I + L ) = (0.545 + 0.335 ) = 0.640 Ohm /km Voltage at A for single phase, VA1 = 393.70/3 = 227.30 V Current, I A-B = Power*1000/(VA* power factor) = 5*1000/(227.30 *0.8) = 27.50 A Voltage drop, dV = 2* I A-B *Z*Lkm = 2* 27.50 *0.640 *0.500 = 17.60 V Voltage at B for single phase, VB = 227.30 - 17.60 = 209.70 V dV% = dVtotal/VPH = (1-209.70 /230) *100 = 10.40%, which is slightly above the limit of 10%. Hence OK for micro-hydropower project. Calculations for other nodes C and D shall be calculated in similar manner. It is worth noting transmission line from A to C and D are constructed by splitting lines from A and therefore the voltage at A for these calculations should also be same (i.e., 227.30 V). It should also be noted that standard voltage should be used at the outlet of the transformers. The voltage at the outlet is standarised using tapping switch adjustment. The length of neutral wire depends on the configure of the transmission line network and users choice of type of the neutral wire. Therefore, the length and type of neutral wire is presented as an input parameter. Transmission line calculations for mini and small hydropower project shall be calculated similar to the calculations presented in Reach PH-A. Power from most of the mini and small hydropower projects in Nepal are evacuated to load centres or grids. Since the tariff for these projects is fixed on energy basis, energy losses while transmitting power to the load centres or grids should also be calculated and considered in the financial analyses. Power losses is not included in this spreadsheet but included in the Voltage Drop calculation under Utility. It is calculated using following equation: Ploss = 3*(V1-V2)/2/1000*I*pf
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Transmission and Distribution System:

Small Hydropower Promotion Project (SHPP)/GTZ Spreadsheet by Mr Pushpa Chitrakar Referances:2,4, 6,12,13,15,16 SMALL HYDROPOWER PROMOTION PROJECT/GTZ

20-Apr-2006 Date Revision 2006.03

Project:
Developer Consultant Designed Checked

Upper Jogmai, Ilam Kankaimai Hydropower P Ltd EPC Consult Pushpa Chitrakar Pushpa Chitrakar

Cable Summary
Type Squirrel Gopher Weasel Rabbit Otter Dog Total Cost(Rs) Length(km) 7.02 10.00 2.36 1.55 2.40 486080.00

Node name PH-A-B-C-D PH A A B C D PH-T1 PH T1 T1-T2 T1 T2 T2-E T2

Reach name

Reach Length (km)

Intermediate Calculation Length of neutral cables (km) Vrated @ node & Rated Voltage Reach Power at Current V @ prev d/s prev node Voltage Volt at node branch Phase next node ACSR (V) drop (V) (V) % voltag drop 1,3,11 (kW) node (V) (A) type 3 3 1 1 1 3 3 11 11 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 400.00 28.87 27.50 29.80 33.50 400.00 36.08 400.00 393.70 393.70 393.70 393.70 400.00 400.00 400.00 400.00 227.30 227.30 227.30 400.00 400.00 11000.00 11000.00 400.00 400.00 226.44 226.44 226.44 226.44 217.04 226.44 226.44 211.64 226.44 226.44 221.84 217.04 217.04 211.64 211.64 400.00 393.70 209.70 223.90 223.40 400.00 398.50 11000.00 10995.30 400.00 392.20 226.44 198.74 226.44 217.04 206.14 226.44 211.64 204.04 226.44 221.84 212.44 217.04 211.24 211.64 208.64

PHA AB AC AD

0.300 0.500 0.090 0.090

16 5 5 6

Dog Rabbit Rabbit Rabbit

6.30 17.60 3.40 3.90

1.58 10.40 2.65 2.87

PHT1

0.050

20 Otter

1.50

0.38

T1 T2

1.500

20 Squirrel

11000.00 11000.00 1.31 11000.00 400.00 36.08 226.44 110.41 226.44 33.12 28.80 226.44 38.64 29.53 226.44 5.52 5.63 217.04 11.52 211.64 5.91 400.00 400.00 226.44 226.44 226.44 217.04 217.04 226.44 211.64 211.64 226.44 221.84 221.84 217.04 217.04 211.64 211.64

4.70

0.04

T2 E

0.300

20 Dog

7.80

1.95

E-J ( r ) T2 J E-H (y) E F F H E-G (b) E F F G E-M ( r) E F F M F-K (y) F K F-L(b) F L

T2 J

0.300

20 Dog

27.70

13.59

EF FH

0.300 0.400

6 Otter 5 Otter

9.40 10.90

5.64 16.01

EF FG

0.300 0.200

7 Rabbit 5 Rabbit

14.80 7.60

7.98 19.27

EF FM

0.300 0.600

1 Squirrel 1 Squirrel

4.60 9.40

3.55 11.19

FK

0.180

2 Squirrel

5.80

8.16

FL

0.180

1 Squirrel

3.00

9.29

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10

Squirrel

Gopher

Weasel

Rabbiit

Otter

Dog

0.90
1.00 0.18 0.18

0.15

4.50

0.90

0.60

0.60 0.80

0.60 0.40

0.60 1.20

0.36

0.36

Figure 11.3: Typical example of a low voltage transmission line.

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12 LOADS AND BENEFITS


12.1 GENERAL

By optimising the use of available energy by allocating it in different time slots, benefit from a micro hydro scheme can be maximized. Based on the AEPC MGSP/ESAP guidelines, a spreadsheet on loads and benefits is presented for concerned stakeholders to arrive to the most optimum pre-construction decision.

12.2

GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS / AEPC GUIDELINES

1. Average subscription wattage should not exceed 120W per household. 2. Minimum of 10% of total energy output as productive end use is mandatory. 3. Multipurpose scheme is preferable.

12.3

PROGRAM BRIEFING AND EXAMPLE

12.3.1 Program Briefing A flow chart of loads and benefits analyses used in the spreadsheet is presented in Figure 12.1. Based on this flow chart, an example is presented in Figure 12.2. The main features and assumptions are: 1. In case the guidelines are similar to that set by AEPC, this spreadsheet can also be used to all micro hydropower project. For the first three years of operation, one set of domestic and five different end uses can be defined in five different time slots in the 24-hour load duration curve. 2. Probable business load after three years of operation can defined based on the AEPC requirements. 3. Annual available energy, annual load, productive end use load factor and annual total income are calculated and subsequently used in the financial analyses. 4. A load duration chart for the first three years of operation is presented at the end of the spreadsheet. This chart is very helpful in planning and allocating different loads so that the benefits are maximized.

Start Project Name, Location, Installed capacity, present loads & tariff (24 hr, 5 slots) Future EU load & tariff (1 time slot)

24 hr load Load duration Graph (decision making) End

Annual energy Yearly loads EU factors Yearly income

Figure 12.1: Flow chart of the load and benefits calculation spreadsheet.
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Loads and Benefits calculations Loads and benefits calculation in the presented spreadsheet are divided into two main parts. The first part covers existing or committed business loads while the second part covers probable business load after this period. This spreadsheet is prepared to mimic AEPC subsidy calculation format. A 96.1kW Gaddigadh MHP, Doti is used as an example in the spreadsheet. The stepwise calculations for the first three years of load and benefit calculations are presented. Domestic Loads Annual available energy, Ey = operating days * installed capacity * 24 = 330*96.1*24 = 761112 kWh Load P (kW) =Beneficiary households (HH) *Average HH load /(1-loss)/1000 = 471 * 85 /(1-0.1)/1000 = 44.483 kW Yearly load P y = operating days * daily load (D) = 330 * (5* 88 + 2*91.1) = 205326 kWh Average daily operating hours = Py/ D /P = 205326/330/44.483 = 13.987 hours/day Load factor = Py / Ey * 100 = 205326/761112*100 = 26.98% Annual Income By =tariff * HH * load*12 = Rs 1*471*85*12 = Rs 480,420 Existing/ Committed business loads Existing or committed business loads are calculated in similar manner. The calculated values are presented in Figure 12.3. As presented in the figure, the annual end use and productive end use load factor are 117060 kW and 15.38% respectively. Similarly the total plant factor and annual income are 42.36% and Rs 916,050 respectively. Since the committed end use is more than 10%, this project is recommended for implementation using AEPC subsidy. The presented load duration chart in Figure 12.2 suggests that the scheme is mainly dominated by domestic load. Other end uses can be incorporated even at subsidized rate during 5:00 to 17:00 and 20:00 to 24:00 hours. The available power varies from zero to 96.1kW during these periods. In case the scheme has to share water with other existing water utilities such as irrigation systems, this can be arranged during the non-operating hours or during partial load hours. Thus, this load duration curve can also be used to maximize benefits even at lower tariff during such hours.
Load Duration Chart for the first three years of operation of Gaddi Gad Khola
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21

0 140

22

23

24

120

Installed C ap acity & L oad (kW )

100

80

60

40

20

0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23

Time (hrs)
Domestic Agro-processing Bakery Saw Mill Herbs Processing Load 5 Load 6 Installed Capacity

Figure 12.2: Load duration chart


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LOADS AND BENEFITS


Small Hydropower Promotion Project (SHPP)/GT Z Referances: 1,2,3,4, 6,12,13,15,16 SMALL HYDROPOWER PROMOT ION PROJECT/GT Z Spreadsheet by Mr Pushpa Chitrakar Date Rev ision
20-A pr-2006

Project:
Developer Consultant Designed Checked
INPUT General Power Output (kW) Name of the Source Beneficiary HH (nos.) Plant's operating days Loads (kWh or W/m) Domestic Agro-processing Bakery Saw Mill Herbs Processing Load 5 Load 6

Gaddi Gad Khola Gaddi Gad Khola MHP Perinial Pushpa Chitrakar Pushpa Chitrakar

Location:

2006.03 Ladagada VDC, Doti

96.1 Gaddi Gad Khola 471 330 Operating Tariff days /year (Rs ) 330 1.00 330 6.00 320 6.00 300 5.00 180 5.50 330 330

Domestic lighting Av erage subscription/household (W/HH) System loss 10% time 5 load 88 440 Probable Busines s Load Expected after 3 years Operating d/y T ariff (Rs) Load Metal Workshop 330 6.00 Photo Studio 320 6.00 Dairy Processing 320 6.00 Cold Store 310 6.00 Load 5 Load 6

85 8 18 91.1 182.2 20

10 1 8 6

From (hr) T o (hr) 12 16 8 20 8 18 8 18

Proposed end uses and operting hours time (hr) Agro-processing time (hr) Bakery time (hr) Saw Mill time (hr) Herbs Processing time (hr) Load 5 15 time (hr) Load 6 12 36 OUTPUT Summary Annual Av ailable kWh

4 8 9 3 3 6 3

12 22.5 14 16 10 12 25 8 5

16 18 18 17 15 10

22 22 22 22 22 22

Daily Energy Demand (Dd) kWh Yearly Energy Demand (Dy) kWh Av erage Load Factor

1037 378578 49.97%

36.00

761112 First 3 years After 3 years 117060 147680 15.38 19.40 42.36 50.40 916,050 1,099,770

Yearly end use load (kWh) Productiv e end use load factor (%) T otal load plant factor Annual total (domestic + end uses) Income (Rs) End Use

Load Operation Period Yearly Load Annual (kW) Hours/day Days/year kWh LF (%) Income (Rs) Domes tic Lighting 44.483 13.987 330 205326 26.98 480,420 Exis ting/Committed Busines s Load Agro-processing 22.5 4 330 29700 3.90 178200 Bakery 9 6 320 17280 2.27 103680 Saw Mill 10 2 300 6000 0.79 30000 Herbs Processing 25 5 180 22500 2.96 123750 Load 5 15 6 330 29700 3.90 Load 6 12 3 330 11880 1.56 Total 117060 15.38 435,630 Total Annual Income from sales of electricity 916,050 Probable Bus iness Load after 3 years Metal Workshop 10 Photo Studio 1 Dairy Processing 8 Cold Store 6 Load 5 Load 6 T otal additional annual income after 3 years Productiv e End Use (%) 19.40

4 12 10 10

330 320 320 310

13200 3840 25600 18600

1.73 0.50 3.36 2.44

79200 23040 153600 111600

61240

8.05

183,720

Figure 12.3: An example of load and benefits calculation.


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13 COSTING AND FINANCIAL ANALYSES


13.1 INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITIONS

As per the guidelines and standards set aside by AEPC, this spreadsheet tests financial viability of a micro-hydro scheme for the subsidy approval. The base of the robustness of the project is mainly its financial sustainability during its life span of 15 years. Positive Net Present Value (NPV) of project cost (equity) and benefit streams based on based on 4% of discount rate is expected for subsidy approval.

13.2

GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS / AEPC GUIDELINES

1. 15 years as the economic life span of the project for calculating financial parameters. 2. Total cost of the project including subsidy should be limited to Table 13.1: Per kilowatt subsidy and cost ceiling as per AEPC
Walking distance from nearest road head less than 2 days walking distance 2-5 days walking distance more than 5 days walking distance Subsidy 70000 78750 91500 Ceiling 170000 178750 191500

3. Net present value of equity investment at a discount rate of 4% should be positive.

13.3

PROGRAM BRIEFING AND EXAMPLE

13.3.1 Program Briefing The spreadsheet presented requires the total costs including financing of the project and annual costs and benefits as inputs to calculate the financial parameters such as the net present value and cost per kilowatt. The flow chart on which the spreadsheet is based is presented in Figure 13.1. Annual cash flows for the stated planning horizon is presented and used to calculate different financial parameters. Present values of costs and benefit streams are calculated to estimate NPV of the scheme. The total capitalized cost of the project includes subsidy based on accessibility of the project site, loans from banking and other lending agencies, cash and kind equities and other sources such as donations, etc. Investment costs are presented in Figure 13.2. Costs required for the operation and maintenance of the project is calculated. Revenues with and without probable business loads are calculated (Refer to Chapter 11 for business loads). NPVs of the project on total investment, total cost excluding subsidy and equity only are calculated and compared. As stated earlier, the minimum criteria for subsidy approval is to have positive NPV for equity only consideration without probable business loads. Cost per kilowatt to be within the specified limits is another criteria for the subsidy approval. The subsidy policy came into effect because of the fact that implementation of micro-hydropower projects in Nepal is not financially feasible and sustainable without subsidies. Moreover, soft loans and relatively lower discount rate are applied to make them more sustainable. It is worth noting that the only loans and cash equity are considered as investments in the financial analyses. The loans shall be paid back within the stated payback periods.

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Start Project Name, Location, Sources of investment Payback of loan Discount factor Breakdown of investment cost Annual operating cost

NPV w & w/o probable business load Cost per kW Subsidy per HH Cash flows End
Figure 13.1: Flow chart for Project costing and financial analyses. 13.3.2 Typical example of costing and financial analyses A typical example of costing and financial analyses of a micro-hydro scheme based on projected cash flow is presented in Figure 13.2. Since the economic life span of mini and small hydropower is more than 15 years, use of the spreadsheet should be limited to micro-hydropower projects only. However, financial analyses of mini and small hydropower projects can be carried out using the stepwise calculations presented in the subsequent section.
Financial Analyses Project costs and benefit related are presented in Figure 13.2. The summary of costs and benefits are: Total project cost P = Rs 12,734,865 Total loan L = Rs 1,890,044 Cash equity = Rs 1,200,000 Operation and maintenance cost = Rs 305,004 Annual installment of bank loan (annuity)

L i (1 + i ) n (1 + i ) n - 1

1890044 3%(1 + 3%) 7 = Rs 303,364 (1 + 3%) 7 - 1

Alternatively, an Excel built-in function PMT (interest rate, payback year, loan) can also be used to calculate the annual installment. If the installment mode is other than annual (such as monthly and quarterly), it is recommended to use Loan Payment module of the presented Utility spreadsheet. Based on the projected annual cash flows (CFs), NPV of the project can be calculated by using following equation.

NPV = CF0 +

CFn CF1 CF2 + + ............. + 1 2 (1 + i ) (1 + i ) (1 + i ) n

=
t =0

CFt (1 + i ) t
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An alternative equivalent Excel built-in function NPV(Discount Factor, Cash Flows)*(1+Discount Factor) is used in this spreadsheet. NPV of equity without probable business load is, NPV equity = NPV(Discount Factor, Cash Flows)*(1+Discount Factor) = NPV(4%, -1200000, 307682, ., 611046,)*(1+4%) = Rs. 3,773,038 OK since it is positive. Cost per kilowatt = Total Project Cost / Project Size = 12,734,865/96.1 = Rs 132,517/kW OK since it is within the limit Rs 191,500/kW for projects located with an access of five days or more of walking distance. Based on above results, the project is financially viable for subsidy approval. parameters for different cases are calculated in similar manner. Other similar financial

Project Costing and Financial Analyses


Small Hydropower Promotion Project (SHPP)/GTZ Referances: 1,2,3,4, 6,7,8,12,13 SMALL HYDROPOWER PROMOTION PROJECT /GT Z Spreadsheet by Mr Pushpa Chitrakar Date Rev ision 23-Apr-2006

2006.03

Project Developer Consultant Designed Checked

Upper Jogm ai, Ilam Kankaim ai Hydropower P Ltd EPC Consult Pushpa Chitrakar Pushpa Chitrakar

INPUT Project size (kW): 96.10 Total Project Cos t (Rs .) 12,734,865 Subsidy/kW T otal subsidy m ore than 5 days walking distance 91500 Rs/kW x 96.1 = 8793150 Interest rate i (%) Payback period n (yr) Plant life N (yr) 15 Discount Rate I (%) 4% Inves tment Cos t (Rs ) Mechanical components Electrical component Civ il component Spare parts & tools T ransport.

Bank loan 1,890,044 3% 7

Other loan

Cash equity 1,200,000

Kind equity 851,671

Others

8,516,715 999,040 Installation 2,061,717 Commissioning 1,363,497 VAT 57,550 Contingencies 3,178,800 Others

232,500 623,611

O & M (Rs ) Salary Spares Maintenance Office expenses Miscellaneous Others

305,004 114000 171,000 20,004

Cost Sum m ary


Project cost (Rs) Annual Operation, Maintenance and other Costs (Rs) Annual Income without probable business loads (Rs) Annual Income with probable business loads (Rs) Annual installment for Bank loan Annual installment for other loan NPV on equity without probable business load (Rs)+v e NPV equity with probable business load (Rs)+v e Cost/Kw =>>Ok Subsidy/HH 12,734,865 305,004 916050 1099770 303364 NA 3,773,038 5,305,869 132,517 18,669

NPV Bas ed on Different Project Cos ts NPV Probable Business Load Without With T otal inv estment cost -3,543,677 -2,010,846 T otal Inv Cost-Subsidy 5,249,473 6,782,304 Equity 3,773,038 5,305,869

A nnual Cash Flows


W ithout P robable Business Loads Year E quity O & Mcosts Loan repaym ent Incom e C ash flow W ith P robable Business Loads Incom e C ash flow

1,200,000 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 305,004 305,004 305,004 305,004 305,004 305,004 305,004 305,004 305,004 305,004 305,004 305,004 305,004 305,004 305,004 303,364 303,364 303,364 303,364 303,364 303,364 303,364 916,050 916,050 916,050 916,050 916,050 916,050 916,050 916,050 916,050 916,050 916,050 916,050 916,050 916,050 916,050

-1,200,000 307,682 307,682 307,682 307,682 307,682 307,682 307,682 611,046 611,046 611,046 611,046 611,046 611,046 611,046 611,046

916,050 916,050 916,050 1,099,770 1,099,770 1,099,770 1,099,770 1,099,770 1,099,770 1,099,770 1,099,770 1,099,770 1,099,770 1,099,770 1,099,770

-1,200,000 307,682 307,682 307,682 491,402 491,402 491,402 491,402 794,766 794,766 794,766 794,766 794,766 794,766 794,766 794,766

Figure 13.2: A typical example of project costing and financial analyses.


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14
14.1

UTILITIES
INTRODUCTION

In this spreadsheet tools for independent calculations are presented. These tools are especially helpful in case quick and handy independent computations are required. Some of the presented tools are: 14.1.1 Uniform depth of a rectangular or trapezoidal canal Calculation of uniform depths of an open channel is an iterative process. Mannings equation is used for calculating uniform depth. VBA for Excel is used for this iterative process. A typical calculation for a trapezoidal section is presented in Figure 14.1.

Uniform Depth of a Trapezoidal Canal (Y-m)


Small Hydropower Promotion Project (SHPP)/GTZ Spreadsheet by Mr Pushpa Chitrakar Date Rev ision 1,000 50.0000 300 0.2 0.3 1.000 Z= 0.50 01-May-2006

Upper Jogmai, Ilam


Stone masonry canal Design Discharge (l/s): 1/Mannings Coeff (M): 1/Canal Slope (S): Freeboard, FB (m) Wall Thickness, t (m) Width of Canal, b (m): Unlined fissured/disintegrated rock/tough hardpen cut Top width, T (m) Uniform Depth (Y-m)

2006.05

1.572 0.572
Canal Wall Geometry

W all

N W L = 572 m m& T = 1572 m m

Figure 14.1: A typical example of uniform depth calculation of a trapezoidal section 14.1.2 Payment of loan for different periods (monthly, quarterly and yearly) The tool presented in Figure 14.2 is useful for calculating equal installment payback (EMI) for a given loan at a specific interest rate and terms. Three modes namely monthly, quarterly and yearly payments are available in this tool.

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Payment of a loan
Small Hydropower Promotion Project (SHPP)/GTZ Spreadsheet by Mr Pushpa Chitrakar

Upper Jogmai, Ilam


Stone masonry canal

Date Rev ision

01-May-2006

2006.05
Payback 1 2 2006

Loan amount (NRs) : Interest rate (APR): Yearly payment and No Yearly Payment Back to Utilities Print

1,800,000 Starting Month 13.00% Starting Year 10 331,721.20 Generate Schedule

Figure 14.2: A typical example EMI calculation A full payment schedule can also be generated by clicking Generate Schedule button. A typical schedule is presented in Figure 14.3.

Payment Schedule of Upper Jogmai, Ilam with Loan(1800000) & Interest(13%)


Month Pmt No. Pmt Principal Interest Balance

Feb-06 Feb-07 Feb-08 Feb-09 Feb-10 Feb-11 Feb-12 Feb-13 Feb-14 Feb-15

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Rs 331,721 Rs 331,721 Rs 331,721 Rs 331,721 Rs 331,721 Rs 331,721 Rs 331,721 Rs 331,721 Rs 331,721 Rs 331,721

Rs 97,721 Rs 110,425 Rs 124,780 Rs 141,002 Rs 159,332 Rs 180,045 Rs 203,451 Rs 229,899 Rs 259,786 Rs 293,559

Rs 234,000 Rs 221,296 Rs 206,941 Rs 190,720 Rs 172,389 Rs 151,676 Rs 128,270 Rs 101,822 Rs 71,935 Rs 38,163

Rs 1,702,279 Rs 1,591,854 Rs 1,467,074 Rs 1,326,072 Rs 1,166,740 Rs 986,695 Rs 783,244 Rs 553,345 Rs 293,559 (Rs 0)

Figure 14.3: Generated Schedule of EMI calculation 14.1.3 Power calculations This tool is useful for calculating power based on AEPC guidelines for subsidy criteria and actual power based on known cumulative efficiency. A typical example is presented in Figure 14.4 below:

Actual vs AEPC Power (Pe-kW)


Small Hydropower Promotion Project (SHPP)/GTZ Spreadsheet by Mr Pushpa Chitrakar

Upper Jogmai, Ilam


Stone masonry canal

Date Rev ision

01-May-2006

2006.05

Discharge (l/s): Cumulativ e efficiency including head loss (n%) Gross Head (H-m) Actual Power (Pact-kW) Power MGSP-E SAP (Pe-kW)

120 80.00% 300.00 282.53 176.58

Figure 14.4: A typical example of power calculation


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14.1.4 Spillway sizing. The spillway sizing tool is useful for calculating spillway lengths for different spillway shapes with different downstream conditions (downstream obstructed or free). As presented in Figure 14.5, this tool calculates actual spillway length required for critical conditions of load rejection and off-take flood.

Spillway Lengths (m)


Small Hydropower Promotion Project (SHPP)/GTZ Spreadsheet by Mr Pushpa Chitrakar

Upper Jogmai, Ilam


Stone masonry canal

Date Rev ision

15-Apr-2006

2006.03

Flood discharge (l/s): Design discharge (l/s): Ov ertopping height (ho) mm: Spillway discharge coeff Ls pillway min for Qf m & full height Length of s pillway Ls 1 for Qf m & half height
1.5

2,000 500 300 1.5 8.11 17.21

Figure 14.5: A typical example of spillway sizing 14.1.5 Voltage drops of transmission line. This tool calculates voltage drop, percentage voltage drop and voltage at a lower end of a transmission line segment for a given power. A typical example is presented in Figure 14.6.

Voltage Drop
Small Hydropower Promotion Project (SHPP)/GTZ Spreadsheet by Mr Pushpa Chitrakar

Upper Jogmai, Ilam


Stone masonry canal

Date Rev ision

01-May-2006

2006.05

Reach length, L (km) Voltage at 1st node, V1 (V) Power, P (kW) ASCR type Phase at 1st node, f1 (1/3) Phase at 2nd node, f2 (1/3) Current, I (A) Impedence, Z (/km) Voltage at 2nd node, V2 (V) Power los s P los s (kW) Voltage drop, dV (V) %Voltage drop
Dog

1.000 230 20 6.00 1 1 108.70 0.4178 151.34 3.42 78.66 39.49

Figure 14.6: A typical example of transmission line calculation

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14.1.6 Pipe friction factor. This tool is useful for calculating friction factor. Manual friction factor calculation involves a long and tedious process and can easily go wrong. The tool presented in Figure 14.7 also calculates head losses in metres and percentage and net head for given inputs.

Friction Factor (f) & Net head


Small Hydropower Promotion Project (SHPP)/GTZ Spreadsheet by Mr Pushpa Chitrakar Upper Jogmai, Ilam Date 01-May-2006 Stone masonry canal Revision

2006.05

Discharge (m3/s) Gross head (m) Pipe roughness ks (mm) Pipe diameter (mm) Pipe Length (m) Turbulent headloss factor (K) Friction factor f Headloss hl (m) Headloss hl (%) Net Head (m)

0.500 Flow 63 Velocity, v(m/s) 0.010 Reynold's nr, (R ) 500.00 Laminar Flow 100 1.50

2.546479089 1116876.794

5.73027E-05 9.170E+00 9.170E+00 Transitional Flow & Turbulent Flow 0.011893135 0.0119 1.282 2.03 61.718

Figure 14.7: A typical example of pipe friction calculation

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15 REFERENCES
1. Mini-Grid Support Programme, Alternative Energy Promotion Centre, Kathmandu, Nepal (2002), Peltric Standards 2. Mini-Grid Support Programme, Alternative Energy Promotion Centre, Kathmandu, Nepal (2003), Preliminary Feasibility Studies of Prospective Micro-hydro Projects 3. Mini-Grid Support Programme, Alternative Energy Promotion Centre , Kathmandu, Nepal(2001), Technical Details and Cost Estimate 4. Mini-Grid Support Programme, Alternative Energy Promotion Centre , Kathmandu, Nepal(2003), Guidelines for Detailed Feasibility Study of Micro-Hydro Projects 5. European Small Hydropower Association (1998), Layman's Guidebook on How to Develop a Small Hydro Site 6. BPC Hydroconsult, Intermediate Technology Development Group (ITDG), Kathmandu, Nepal (2002), Civil Works Guidelines for Micro-Hydropower in Nepal. 7. United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), Report on Standardization of Civil Works for Small Hydropower Plants 8. GTZ/Department of Energy Development, Energy Division, Papua New Guinea, Micro Hydropower Training Modules (1994), Modules 1-7, 10, 13, 14 & 18B. 9. American Society of Civil Engineer (ASCE), Sediment Transportation. 10. KB Raina & SK Bhattacharya, New Age International (P) Ltd (1999), Electrical Design Estimating and Costing. 11. Badri Ram & DN Vishwakarma, Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited, New Delhi 1995, Power System Protection and Switchgear, 1995. 12. Adam Harvey et.al. (1993), Micro-Hydro Design Manual, A guide to small-scale water power schemes, Intermediate Technology Publications, ISBN 1 85339 103 4. 13. Allen R. Inversin (1986), Micro-Hydropower Sourcebook, A Practical Guide to Design and Implementation in Developing Countries, NRECA International Foundation, 1800 Massachusetts Avenue N. W., Washington, DC 20036. 14. Helmut Lauterjung/Gangolf Schmidt (1989), Planning of Intake Structures, GATE/GTZ, Vieweg. 15. HMG of Nepal, Ministry of Water Resources, Water and Energy Commission Secretariat, Department of Hydrology and Meteorology, Methodologies for estimating hydrologic characteristics of un-gauged locations in Nepal (1990). 16. HMG/N, Medium Irrigation Project, Design Manuals, 1982 17. His Majesty's Government of Nepal, Ministry of Water Resources, Department of Irrigation, Planning and Design Strengthening Project (PDSP), United Nations Development Programme (NEP/85/013) / World Bank, Design Manuals for Irrigation Projects in Nepal, 1990. 18. ITECO, DEH/SATA Salleri Chialsa Small Hydel Project (1983), Technical Report.

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19. P.N. Khanna (1996), Indian Practical Civil Engineer's Handbook, 15th Edition, Engineer's Publishers, Post Box 725, New Delhi - 110001. 20. ITDG, Electrical Guideline For Micro-Hydro Electric Installation. 21. REDP, REDP Publications, Environment Management Guidelines, 1997 22. ITDG, IT Nepal Publications, Financial Guidelines for Micro-hydro Projects, 1997 23. IT Nepal Publications, Management Guidelines For Isolated MH Plant In Nepal, 1999. 24. ITDG/ESAP, Guidelines relating to quality improvement of MH plants, 1999 25. ICIMOD, Manual for Survey and Layout Design of Private Micro Hydropower Plants. 26. Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Administration, The Norwegian Regulations for Planning, Construction and Operation of Dams, Norwegian University Press, Oslo, Norway, 1994. 27. Various Consultants, AEPC subsidized Nepali micro-hydropower (up to 100kW) Pre-feasibility and Feasibility Study Reports (about 400 projects), 2002-2004. 28. Various Consultants, SHPP/GTZ assisted Nepali small hydropower (up to 10MW) study reports at various levels (about 65 projects), 2001-2006. 29. Small Hydro Engineers Consultants P Ltd, Detailed Project Report (DPR) of 5MW Soldan Small Hydropower Project, Himachal Pradesh, India, 2001. 30. Small Hydro Engineers Consultants P Ltd, Detailed Project Report (DPR) of 4.5MW Sarbari Small Hydropower Project, Himachal Pradesh, India, 2001. 31. Entec AG, Switzerland, 240 kW Dewata Tea State Mini Hydropower Scheme Feasibility Study, West Java, Indonesia, 2000. 32. Entec AG, Switzerland, 585 kW Jegu Village Mini Hydropower Plant Feasibility Study, East Java, Indonesia, 2000. 33. Son Vu Energy Development Joint Stock Company, 3.2MW Nhap A Hydropower Project Final Feasibility Report, Hoa Binh, Vietnam, 2005. 34. Hanoi Construction Company, 3MW Sao Va Hydropower Project Feasibility Report, Nghe An Province, Vietnam, 2005.

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DRAWINGS

TYPICAL MICROHYDROPOWER DRAWINGS

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SHPP/GTZ

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Micro-hydropower Design Aids Manual (v 2006.05)

SHPP/GTZ

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Micro-hydropower Design Aids Manual (v 2006.05)

SHPP/GTZ

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Micro-hydropower Design Aids Manual (v 2006.05)

SHPP/GTZ

Page: D-xxxi

Micro-hydropower Design Aids Manual (v 2006.05)

SHPP/GTZ

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Small Hydropower Promotion Project (SHPP/GTZ)


Introduction:
Small Hydropower Promotion Project (SHPP/GTZ) was established in 1999 as a joint project of the Ministry of Water Resources and German Development Cooperation. It provides technical and logistic supports to hydropower projects in Nepal within the range of 100kW to 10MW.

Objectives:
The objective of the project is to establish a market for small hydro power development, rehabilitation and operation which will in turn facilitate the expansion of rural electrification and leads to associated economic activities and rural development.

Activities:
1. Strengthening of Policy Frame Work SHPP provides input to the formulation of hydropower and other related policies, acts and regulations. 2. Technical and logistic support from desk studies to operation of small hydropower schemes on: Performance and optimization studies incorporating efficient technologies Review of projects including financial analysis, hydrological studies, environmental protection, civil works , metal works, electro-mechanical works, transmission lines, etc. Preparation of model contracts on civil construction, mechanical works, etc. Technical supports to under-construction small hydropower projects. Operation, repair, maintenance and rehabilitation 3. Capacity building of stakeholders Conducting seminars, workshops and forums for professionals and stakeholders in SHP. Facilitating Nepali developers to participate in seminars, workshops and forums organized by others. 4. Facilitating Investment SHP facilitate on building up of financial set ups of small hydropower projects. It also helps share relevant information among developers and other stakeholders. 5. Assistance and advice to SHPP provides assistance and advice to Independent Power Producers (IPPs) on the maximum use of electricity by increasing load factors and utilizing off-peak hours of isolated plants to increase revenue streams. It also assist prospectus leases on assessing inventories and requires repair & maintenance statements of NEA schemes

Approaches:
In order to overcome the entrepreneur's hesitation and / or inability to engage in the small hydropower sector, the project offers a common platform for public and private stakeholders. The platform allows them to make each other aware of their specific constraints as well as their mutual interest in developing a partnership for satisfying the uncovered electricity demand of the rural areas. In this way, the project seeks to have the barriers to private sector's involvement in the small hydropower field reduced or eliminated. The projects also works directly with the developers assisting them to acquire services they require to implement and operate successful projects.

Institutional Framework:
The project has an Advisory Committee which has the representation from Ministry of Water Resources (MoWR), Department of Electricity (DoED) and German Technical Cooperation (GTZ). The committee meets, as and when required, to discuss and approve policies and directives for the execution of plans and programs. The implementing consultants of Small Hydropower Promotion Project are ENTEC, Switzerland and Winrock International, Nepal.