E3125/1/1 INTRODUCTION TO TELEPHONY SYSTEM

UNIT 1

INTRODUCTION TO TELEPHONY SYSTEM

OBJECTIVES

General Objective

: To understand the concept of telephony system, the types of the telephone exchanges and the switching concept.

Specific Objectives : At the end of the unit you will be able to: explain the need of the telephony networking system. sketch the telephone network for local exchange and telephone network hierarchy.   define PSTN and MTX telephone exchange. explain switching concept including matrix switching, step by step, common controller and SPC.  draw the SPC block diagram and to understand the advantages and disadvantages of the system.

 

E3125/1/2 INTRODUCTION TO TELEPHONY SYSTEM

INPUT INPUT

1.0

Introduction

We use telephony system in our everyday life. The equipment involves telephone sets at home, the internet, e-mails, our mobile phones and telefaxes. Telephony system makes our life much more easier.

The Telephony Communication Principle There are 3 main parts as shown in figure 1.1 a) Transmitting transducer b) Receiving transducer c) One pair wire system

E3125/1/3 INTRODUCTION TO TELEPHONY SYSTEM

Conversation Energy Produces the conversation energy again

Transmitting Transducer

Transmitting Transducer

Receiving Transducer

Receiving Transducer

Figure 1.1 Telephony Communication Principle 1.1 The Telephone The telephone is one of the simplest devices we have in our house. It is so very simple because the telephone connection to our house has not changed in nearly a century. The telephone only contains three parts and they are all simple as shown in figure 1.2.  A switch to connect and disconnect the phone from the network. This switch is generally called the hook switch. It connects when you lift the handset.  A speaker - It is generally in a small size, 8-ohm speaker of some sort.  A microphone - In the past, telephone microphones have been as simple as carbon granules compressed between two thin metal plates. Sound waves from our voice compress and decompress the granules, changing the resistance of the granules and modulating the current flowing through the microphone.

400 hertz are eliminated. That's why someone's voice on a phone has a distinctive sound. It uses the button to give signal for every one digit. The button on the phone is connected to a set of oscillators which produces a pair of tone on the local line whenever a button is being pressed. In order to allow more long-distance calls to be transmitted. The detector circuits in the main distributor will confirm the tone within 33ms.E3125/1/4 INTRODUCTION TO TELEPHONY SYSTEM Figure 1.2 Telephone Bandwidth Parts of the telephone set.3 shows the Dual Tone Multi Frequency (DTMF) type of dialing. All of the frequencies in our voice below 400 hertz and above 3. the frequencies transmitted are limited to a bandwidth of about 3000 hertz.2 1. The tone will be detected at the main distributor and the digit will be confirmed. The diagram in figure 1. .3 Digital Telephone The digital button is the latest technique of dialing. 1.

This is a 33 c/s continuous note and is applied to the line after the subscriber has lifted his handset and the switching equipment has allocated him an available outlet for this call to proceed.75 seconds on.75 seconds off. Busy tone indicates either that the called subscriber is already off-hook (busy) or that the route to the called subscriber is congested. Busy Tone (BT). In later systems.E3125/1/5 INTRODUCTION TO TELEPHONY SYSTEM 697Hz 1 2 3 770Hz 4 5 6 852Hz 7 8 9 * 0 # 941Hz 1209Hz Figure 1.3 1.3. the subscriber would not get a dial tone. A higher pitched note of 400 c/s interrupts to give a cadence of 0. There would have been a physical limit on the number of calls an exchange could handle so if all equipment was already in use. A busy tone . a slightly different cadence was introduced in order to distinguish between these two scenarios.1 Progress Tones 1336Hz 1477Hz Dual Tone Multi Frequency (DTMF) The various types of tones generated by the exchange to guide the users are : Dial Tone (DT). 0.

4 seconds on. faulty or that a spare line has been dialed.2 seconds off. A tone of 133c/s which interrupts in the same cadence as the ring current which rings the telephone bell at the called party's end : 0. . Identical pitch to the busy tone but continuous. 0. with a cycle of one and a half second on and one and a half second off. Ring Tone (RT). Number Unobtainable Tone (NUT).E3125/1/6 INTRODUCTION TO TELEPHONY SYSTEM is made up of a 480-hertz and a 620-hertz tone. This tone is used to indicate that a number is out of service.

.1 Do you know the human’s voice frequency ? Solution to Example 1.E3125/1/7 INTRODUCTION TO TELEPHONY SYSTEM Telephony System surely makes my job easier. Yahoo !!! Example 1.1 The answer is between 300 – 3400 Hz.

1. . This won’t be achieved without the advancement in telephony technology.E3125/1/8 INTRODUCTION TO TELEPHONY SYSTEM Activity 1A TEST OUR UNDERSTANDING BEFORE YOU CONTINUE WITH THE NEXT INPUT…! 1.2 List and explain FOUR types of the telephone supervisory (progress) tones .1 State THREE main parts of the telephone system and draw the block diagram. Telephony system makes the world becomes smaller through the usage of the internet.

There would have been a physical limit on the number of calls an exchange could handle so if all equipment was already in use.1 a) Transmitting transducer b) Receiving transducer c) One pair wire system Conversation Energy Produces the conversation energy again Transmitting Transducer Transmitting Transducer Receiving Transducer Receiving Transducer Figure 1.2 The various types of tones generated by the exchange to guide the users are : Dial Tone (DT).1 Telephony Communication Principle 1.1 There are 3 main parts as shown in figure 1. This is a 33 c/s continuous note and is applied to the line after the subscriber has lifted his handset and the switching equipment has allocated him an available outlet for this call to proceed. . the subscriber would not get a dial tone.E3125/1/9 INTRODUCTION TO TELEPHONY SYSTEM Feedback To Activity 1A 1.

In later systems. 0. A tone of 133c/s which interrupts in the same cadence as the ring current which rings the telephone bell at the called party's end : 0.2 seconds off. Ring Tone (RT).75 seconds on. Identical pitch to the busy tone but continuous.75 seconds off.E3125/1/10 INTRODUCTION TO TELEPHONY SYSTEM Busy Tone (BT).4 seconds on. A higher pitched note of 400 c/s interrupts to give a cadence of 0. faulty or that a spare line has been dialed. . with a cycle of one and a half second on and one and a half second off. This tone is used to indicate that a number is out of service. 0. A busy tone is made up of a 480-hertz and a 620-hertz tone. Busy tone indicates either that the called subscriber is already off-hook (busy) or that the route to the called subscriber is congested. a slightly different cadence was introduced in order to distinguish between these two scenarios. Number Unobtainable Tone (NUT).

4. Subscriber B will pick up the telephone set.3. 5. The device in the exchange will act as a switch which contacts whenever it is directed. The connection process is shown in figure 1.. 3. Local Exchange will detect a call request signal from Subscriber A. 2. Local Exchange will send a dial tone to Subscriber A.1 The Telephone Connection Between Two Subscribers. When Subscriber A picks up the telephone set. 1. If the line is available. If the numbers are valid. Subscriber A starts to dial the numbers. The numbers received will be tested by the Local Exchange. Local Exchange will send a ringing tone to Subscriber A and the signal to ring the Subscriber B’s telephone.E3125/1/11 INTRODUCTION TO TELEPHONY SYSTEM INPUT INPUT 1. Local Exchange will test whether the line is available or not. 1. Local Exchange will do the connection.4 The Telephone Exchange The telephone exchange is the place where all the telephone lines are connected so that the communication using the human’s voice could be achieved. . thus making the dialing tone stop.4.

If either one of the subscribers hangs up the phone . communication will be disconnected and the Local Exchange will clear the line.5 SA SUBSCRIBER A LOCAL EXCHANGE 2 3 5 4 SUBSCRIBER 5 B 6 6 Figure 1.4 shows the connection from the exchange to the customer’s house. Along the road runs a thick cable packed with 100 or more copper pairs. Depending on where we are located. A pair of copper wires runs from a box at the road to a box at our house. From there. Figure 1.000 samples per second and 8-bit resolution. 1 1.3 Telephone communication between subscribers Telephone Network For Local Exchange The telephone network starts from the house.E3125/1/12 INTRODUCTION TO TELEPHONY SYSTEM 6. the pair of wires is connected to the phone jack in our house. this thick cable will run directly to the phone company's switch in our area or district and it will run to a box that acts as a digital concentrator (cabinet) The concentrator digitizes the voice at a sample rate of 8. It then combines the voice with dozens of others and sends them .

It comprises of all the customers and data which are situated in one area or district.hole Underground Cable Figure 1. Either way.E3125/1/13 INTRODUCTION TO TELEPHONY SYSTEM all down a single wire (usually a coax cable) to the phone company office.5. Cabinet The cabinet is a place to distribute lines to the DP Box before reaching a customer’s house as portrayed in figure 1. the cabinet is the end for the main cable where it starts at the Main Distribution Frame and passes through the cabinet. c) To check the problem phone line.4 The Connection from the Exchange to the Customer House Main Distribution Frame (MDF) The Main Distribution Frame is situated at the telephone exchange. It is used to connect the customer (phone user) with the main switching system after passing through the cabinet. Upper Cable Exchange Cabinet IB Cable DP Box House Connection Man . d) To cut the phone line manually. e) To connect the phone line manually. b) To execute the jumper process. The duties of MDF : a) To test the phone line. . Generally. the line connects into a line card at the switch so we can hear the dial tone when we pick up our phone.

c.E3125/1/14 INTRODUCTION TO TELEPHONY SYSTEM Connection from the cabinet to the main distributor normally uses the ‘lead’ cable of different sizes where each of it has 200 pairs and to be distributed to about 20 DP Box. Usually. b. Distribution Point Box (DP) The DP Box’s function is to make maintenance work and underground cabling easier. To act as a place to perform maintenance checking. the DP Box has 10 pairs but only 8 pairs are used and the others kept for testing work from DP Box to the main distributor. there are 1800 pairs of terminals. it uses the plastic cable. To save the usage of cable and replacing cable would be easier. In the cabinet. From the cabinet to the DP Box. Upper Cable The upper cable is used to make connection with the customers using the DP Box. To upgrade the arrangement of lines. To avoid the joint to be opened and this would save cost and time.5 Cabinet The Cabinet’s functions are as follows : a. . d. Figure 1. The two wire cable normally is used.

The underground cable will end at the telephone exchange. 1.E3125/1/15 INTRODUCTION TO TELEPHONY SYSTEM Underground Cable The underground cable is connected to the cabinet from the DP through man-holes. .6 The National Telephone Network Hierarchy MSC ZSC DSC DSC DSC ZSC DSC LE LE LE LE LE LE LE LE S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S Figure 1.6 The Telephone Network Hierarchy MSC – Main Switching Center ( for international call ) ZSC – Zone Switching Center ( for call between states in Malaysia ) DSC – District Switching Center ( for call between different districts ) LE – Local Exchange S – Phone User / Subscriber The National Telephone Network Hierarchy is the network that links all the exchanges in one country.

E3125/1/16 INTRODUCTION TO TELEPHONY SYSTEM Example 1.2 What does DTMF stand for ? Solution to Example 1. . It is also named as Touch Tone.2 DTMF (Dual-tone Multi frequency) is a type of dialing system which uses a pair of audio tone to create signals representing the numbers to be dialed.

1.3 Sketch and explain the connection from the exchange to the customer ‘s house.E3125/1/17 INTRODUCTION TO TELEPHONY SYSTEM Activity 1B TEST OUR UNDERSTANDING BEFORE YOU CONTINUE WITH THE NEXT INPUT…! 1.4 Describe with the aid of a suitable diagram the route of your call if you want to make a call from your polytechnic to another polytechnic nearest to you. .

Upper Cable Exchange Cabinet IB Cable DP Box House Connection Figure 1. Figure 1. From there. this thick cable will run directly to the phone company's switch in our area or district and it will run to a box that acts as a digital concentrator (cabinet) The concentrator digitizes the voice at a sample rate of 8. Either way.4 shows the connection from the exchange to the customer’s house.000 samples per second and 8-bit resolution.E3125/1/18 INTRODUCTION TO TELEPHONY SYSTEM Feedback To Activity 1B 1.4 Man . It then combines the voice with dozens of others and sends them all down a single wire (usually a coax cable) to the phone company office.3 The telephone network starts from the house. Depending on where we are located. A pair of copper wires runs from a box at the road to a box at our house.hole Underground Cable The Connection from the Exchange to the Customer House . the pair of wires is connected to the phone jack in our house. the line connects into a line card at the switch so we can hear the dial tone when we pick up our phone. Along the road runs a thick cable packed with 100 or more copper pairs.

the route of the call would be as follows: PUO PUO LE LE DSC DSC ZSC ZSC PSP PSP LE LE DSC DSC ZSC ZSC .4 If you are at Politeknik Ungku Omar and you want to call a friend at Politeknik Seberang Perai.E3125/1/19 INTRODUCTION TO TELEPHONY SYSTEM 1.

E3125/1/20 INTRODUCTION TO TELEPHONY SYSTEM INPUT Do you wonder how the telephone exchange works? 1. Office equipment terminated on the MDF represents a physical location in the switch and a specific telephone number. With the introduction of electromechanical switches. customers are given telephone numbers. The switch performs three main functions to process a call: a) To identify the subscriber’s location b) To set up the communication path c) To supervise the call By using the jack position. The customer's cable pair is terminated and cross-connected to the office equipment at the main distributing frame.7 Switching Concept Switch is used to provide a path for the call. . the customers occupying the switchboard can be easily identified.

The PSTN provides the most popular basis for creating wide area networks (WANs) through both leased lines and dial-up lines between local and remote networks. expander and multiplexer. Internet users avoid having to pay usage tolls to anyone other than their ISPs. This will reduce the cost of installation and maintenance. All the subscribers can be connected simultaneously at different channels. Combination of all these networks will form a complete PSTN. Because Internet service providers ISPs pay the long-distance providers for access to their infrastructure and share the circuits among many users through packet-switching. The process of signal transmission needs switching network such as concentrator. In relation to the Internet. the PSTN actually furnishes much of the Internet's longdistance infrastructure.7 shows the concentrator concept in PSTN network.8 Public Switching Telephone Network (PSTN) Public Switching Telephone Network (PSTN) is the world's collection of interconnected voice-oriented public telephone networks. Concentrator Figure 1.E3125/1/21 INTRODUCTION TO TELEPHONY SYSTEM 1.The concentrator unit is controlled directly by the local exchange. PSTN is often used in wide area networking and because of its ubiquitous nature local loop connections exist almost everywhere in the world. distributor. The PSTN consists of a digital backbone of switched circuits together with the analog local loop wiring still found in many residences. .

for every 1000 incoming lines.7 The traffic concentration in PSTN network.8. This unit will connect thousands of subsribers in stages . it will allow 100 outgoings to the distributor at one time.E3125/1/22 INTRODUCTION TO TELEPHONY SYSTEM Distributor Subscribers Concentrator Figure 1. Distributor Distributor is a network in the middle of the concentrator and the expander as shown in figure 1. Concentrator Expander Incoming channel Local line 1 Outgoing channel Local line 1 Distributor Local line 1000 Local line 1000 Figure 1.8 PSTN Switching Network Expander . For example.

the number of crossing is 16. Demultiplexing is the technique used to regain the input signals at the receiver. Some of the multiplexing techniques that are widely used are the Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) and Frequency Division Multiplexing (FDM). The number of crossing will be the multiplication of the number of input and output channels.9 Multiplexing and Demultiplexing Techniques Types Of Switching Generally.E3125/1/23 INTRODUCTION TO TELEPHONY SYSTEM This unit will expand the actual number of lines giong into the concentrator.9.9 Figure 1. . This will allow subscriber input 2 and output 4 to communicate. Information signal 1 Information signal 2 DEMUX MUX Information signal 1 Information signal 2 Information signal 10 Information signal 10 1. Switches are needed to connect the combination of both lines. This will reduce the number of lines needed. the “d” switch will be activated.9.10. 1.1 Crossbar Switch (Matrix) It consists of a vertical and horizontal lines. Step by step Switch and Stored Program Control (SPC). there are THREE types of switching : The Crossbar Switch. Multiplexer The function of the unit is to send signals from multiple sources through the single channel as potrayed in figure 1. To connect input channel 2 and the output channel 4. The switching process for the expander and the concentrator relies on the number of lines being activated simultaneously. The number of crossing can be found with the method by multiplying the input and output of channel and total them up. For figure 1.

2 Step-by-Step Switch 2 3 4 Output The Matrix Switching Almon Strowger invented the first "automatic" switch in 1890. The fundamental process was that telephone calls progressed through switches in steps.11. The name Step-by-Step came from the way the path is set up step-by step as each digit was dialed as shown in figure 1. It was the step by step electromechanical switch. each step being made in response to the dialing of a digit. copper and magnets which were so heavy that required steel reinforcement in the floors where they were installed High Maintenance: The large number of moving parts in this switch required constant dusting and oiling to ensure connections could be made inside the switch Noise: The contacts were chattering as a physical path is set up through the switch for call processing. The problems of the Step-by-Step switch were: Power : Required a large amount of electricity to move switch components for call processing Floor Space: Major switch components were made of brass. It was first installed in 1892. .E3125/1/24 INTRODUCTION TO TELEPHONY SYSTEM 1 2 Input 3 4 a e i m b f j n c g k o d h l p 1 Figure 1.9.10 1.

 Control Director The program that controls and directs the whole system.11 The Selector Switch 1.  DTMF/decodec To decode the signal produced during the dialing process.  Driver To on and off the switch.3 Stored Program Control (SPC) The Stored Program Control (SPC) is a method of switching using computer to process a call automatically.  Tone Generator / Ringer .  Scanner To detect the telephone status (on/off hook) and signal from the line.  Central Processing Unit (CPU) To control and execute the program. The computer will operate based on a certain program which can be changed whenever it is needed.E3125/1/25 INTRODUCTION TO TELEPHONY SYSTEM Figure 1.  Memory To store the user’s activities status in the form of software.. To allow the tones signal to pass through.9. Figure 1.  File To store the information.12 shows the block diagram of the SPC system.

. Line Saluran #1 #2 Unit Switching #1 Unit #M Tone Generator DTMF/ Decadic #n Scanner 1 2 n Driver Ringer CPU Memory Control Director File Figure 1.E3125/1/26 INTRODUCTION TO TELEPHONY SYSTEM To generate the tones.12 SPC Switching Block Diagram.

Once the feedback is received. The CPU will store the user’s bill. The driver will drive the switching equipment to create a between A and B. the dial tone will be stopped by the DTMF (Dual Tone Multi Frequency) . After the communication. x. If caller A picks up the telephone set (off hook) . When A starts dialing. path The Advantages of the SPC . the line will be activated and this will be automatically detected by the scanner. the scanner will detect the stop signal and send it to the CPU. ix. the CPU will check the status of A and store it in the memory. When B picks up the set. xii. iii. xi. vi. The CPU will identify types of call and the destination. vii. viii. The ringing tone will be sent to caller A simultaneously. The frequency representing the dialed number will be stored in the memory. iv. v.E3125/1/27 INTRODUCTION TO TELEPHONY SYSTEM SPC Exchange Switching Process i. the scanner will detect the answering signal and send it to the CPU. The CPU will direct the ringer to stop the ringing tone and starts the timer . The CPU will then connect A and the switching section via the driver. if anyone of the users hangs up. ii. The scanner will identify the location and condition of caller A and inform the CPU. The CPU will instruct the ringer to produce the ringing tone for receiver B. The dial tone will be sent from the generator to A.

Any increase in the number of lines will not need the upgrading of the signaling equipment. b) The signaling from the exchange can be operated more efficiently. b) Will need proper air-conditioned room. c) The maintenance cost is low and the speed is faster.E3125/1/28 INTRODUCTION TO TELEPHONY SYSTEM a) The monitoring and maintenance will be easier by inspecting the program. a) Any single minor breakdown will cease the operation of the exchange. . The Disadvantages of the SPC.

The PSTN provides the most popular basis for creating wide area networks (WANs) through both leased lines and dial-up lines between local and remote networks. . The PSTN consists of a digital backbone of switched circuits together with the analog local loop wiring still found in many residences.E3125/1/29 INTRODUCTION TO TELEPHONY SYSTEM Example 1. PSTN is often used in wide area networking because its ubiquitous nature local loop connections exist almost everywhere in the world.3 Elaborate what is meant by the Public Switching Telephone Network (PSTN) Solution to Example 1.3 PSTN (Public Switching Telephone Network) is the world's collection of interconnected voice-oriented public telephone networks.

The PSTN provides the most popular basis for creating wide area networks (WANs) through both leased lines and dial-up lines between local and remote networks.E3125/1/30 INTRODUCTION TO TELEPHONY SYSTEM Activity 1C TEST OUR UNDERSTANDING BEFORE YOU CONTINUE WITH THE NEXT INPUT…! 1. Define THREE functions of the switch in the telephone exchange. .6 1.7 State THREE types of telephone switching and mention the main differences between them.5 True or false. 1.

5 1.6 True Matrix (electromechanical). Step by Step (auto electromechanical) and Stored Program Control (fully computerized). 1.7 a) Identify the subscriber’s location b) Set up the communication path c) Supervise the call .E3125/1/31 INTRODUCTION TO TELEPHONY SYSTEM Feedback To Activity 1C 1.

It is also referred to as the dual tone multi frequency (DTMF) . the use of a rotary dialing mechanism produces what is known as pulse dialing. Each exchange (identified by the first three digits of a phone number) can serve up to 10000 lines. For the newer telephone. Do you know that telephones are connected directly by twisted-pair cable to a local exchange. 3. it uses a dialing system known as touchtone. In the older telephone.E3125/1/32 INTRODUCTION TO TELEPHONY SYSTEM KEY FACTS 1. . 2.

d. List FOUR possible functions of the cabinet. What is the difference between the upper cable and the underground cable. b. Name the FOUR important switching networks in the PSTN and explain. Explain the process of the telephone connection between two subscribers. Explain briefly the disadvantages of a step-by-step exchange. If you face any problems. What is the name of the building or facility to which every telephone is connected? Question 1-2 a.10. Good luck. Question 1-1 a. PSTN (Public Switching Telephone Network) is the collection of interconnected voice-oriented public telephone networks. name the type of the telephone switching system. c. Question 1-3 a. Briefly define the terms MDF. Explain the connection that is involved in order to activate “j” switch. Based on the diagram in figure 1. Try all the questions in this self-assessment section and check your answers with those given in the Feedback on Self-Assessment given on the next page.E3125/1/33 INTRODUCTION TO TELEPHONY SYSTEM SELF-ASSESSMENT You are approaching success. DTMF and MSC. discuss it with your lecturer. . b. c.

12.E3125/1/34 INTRODUCTION TO TELEPHONY SYSTEM 1 2 Input 3 4 a e i m b f j n c g k o d h l p 1 Figure 1.12 .10 2 3 4 Output The Matrix Switching d. The Stored Program Control (SPC) is a method of switching using computer to process a call automatically. Name all the empty blocks in figure 1. Line Unit #1 #2 Switching Line Unit #1 #M #n 1 2 n Figure 1.

c.E3125/1/35 INTRODUCTION TO TELEPHONY SYSTEM Feedback To Self-Assessment Have you tried the questions????? If “YES”. The telephone exchange. The Cabinet’s functions are as follows : i. To act as a place to perform maintenance checking. b. check your answers now. Answer 1-2 a. To avoid the joint to be opened and this would save cost and time. Answer 1-1 a. To save the usage of cable and replacing cable would be easier. iv. DTMF.Dual Tone Multi Frequency MSC – Main Switching Center. 1 SA SUBSCRIBER A LOCAL EXCHANGE 2 3 5 4 SUBSCRIBER B 5 6 6 . iii. ii. MDF – Main Distribution Frame. To upgrade the arrangement of lines.

6. communication will be disconnected and the Local Exchange will clear the line. Underground Cable : The underground cable is connected to the cabinet from the DP through man-holes. 3. Answer 1-3 a. 5. The underground cable will end at the telephone exchange. 2. The numbers received will be tested by the Local Exchange. The disadvantages of the Step-by-Step switch were: Power : Required a large amount of electricity to move switch components for call processing Floor Space: Major switch components were made of brass. d. If the numbers are valid. thus making the dialing tone stop. Local Exchange will test whether the line is available or not. copper and magnets which were so heavy that required steel reinforcement in the floors where they were installed . Local Exchange will detect a call request signal from Subscriber A. Local Exchange will do the connection. Upper Cable :The upper cable is used to make connection with the customers using the DP Box. If either one of the subscribers hangs up the phone . Local Exchange will send a ringing tone to Subscriber A and the signal to ring the Subscriber B’s telephone.. The two wire cable is normally used.E3125/1/36 INTRODUCTION TO TELEPHONY SYSTEM 1. When Subscriber A picks up the telephone set. 4. Subscriber A starts to dial the numbers. Subscriber B will pick up the telephone set. Local Exchange will send a dial tone to Subscriber A. If the line is available.

8. Concentrator: The concentrator unit is controlled directly by the local exchange. To activate “j” switch. This will reduce the number of lines needed. All the subscribers can be connected simultaneously at the different channels. This unit will connect thousands of subsribers in stages . Demultiplexing is the technique to regain the input signals at the receiver. . c. b. Multiplexer : The function of the unit is to send signals from multiple sources through the single channel. Combination of all these networks will form a complete PSTN. Distributor : Distributor is a network in the middle of the concentrator and the expander as shown in figure 1. This will reduce the cost of installation and maintenance. Some of the multiplexing techniques that are widely used are the Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) and Frequency Division Multiplexing (FDM).E3125/1/37 INTRODUCTION TO TELEPHONY SYSTEM High Maintenance: The large number of moving parts in this switch required constant dusting and oiling to ensure connections could be made inside the switch Noise: The contacts were chattering as a physical path was set up through the switch for call processing. Expander : This unit will expand the actual number of lines giong into the concentrator. The switching process for the expander and the concentrator relies on the number of lines being activated simultaneously. the input channel 3 and output channel 2 must be connected.

Line Unit #1 #2 Switching Line Unit #1 #M Tone Generator DTMF/ Decadic #n Scanner 1 2 n Driver Ringer CPU Memory Control Director File .E3125/1/38 INTRODUCTION TO TELEPHONY SYSTEM d.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful