Protection of Transformer

• A: Electrical Protection:
–  Differential Protection –  HT & LT Over Current Protection –  Restricted Earth Fault Protection –  Standby Earth Fault Protection

• B: Mechanical Protection:
– – – –  Buchholz Protection  Pressure Relief Device  Explosion Vent  Oil Surge Relay

• C: Thermal Protection:
–  OT/WT Protection –  Overload Trimming Protection

• D: Lightning Protection:
–  Lightning Arrestors

Transformer Differential Protection –  Merz-Prize 95% Differential Protection –  HT/LT CTs connected differentially –  CTs on Star side connected in delta and vice-versa –  CT mismatch compensated by slope setting –  In-rush currents taken care by Harmonic Restraint Unit –  Stable for through faults –  High set unit takes care heavy uncleared through faults –  High Speed. reliable. dedicated but expensive protection –  Not very sensitive for earth faults closer to neutral end .

Transformer Over Current Protection –  Simple Over Current Relays on HT & LT. –  HT Over current isolates transformer. –  Backup protection for uncleared feeder faults. –  LT Over current relives load and the transformer remains energized from HT –  Can mal-operate during inrush and for through faults if not set properly. –  Unstable for through faults. –  Moderate Speed. dependable inexpensive protection .

• Stand by Earth Fault Protection: –  Over Current relay connected on the neutral CT –  Back up for un-cleared feeder earth faults – In-expensive and simple protection .Transformer-Restricted & Standby Earth Fault Protection • Restricted Earth fault Protection: –  Over Current relay connected across the summation of 3 and Neutral CT –  Very sensitive. reliable. expensive protection for Star windings. dedicated.

Transformer-Mechanical Protection • 1. inexpensive. Oil Surge Relay: –  Operates due to Oil surges caused by internal faults . Buchholz Protection: –  Located on the oil pipe connecting the main tank with conservator above the tank –  Gas evolution principle –  Alarm and trip at different levels of gas evolution –  Very sensitive. reliable for incipient evolving faults • 2. Pressure Relief Device: –  Relives the hydraulic pressure developed inside due to faults –  Slow protection • 3.

- Protects the transformer from thermal overloads - Relieves the load fully or partially - Starts/stops the oil pumps and fans .Transformer.Thermal Protection - Operates due to thermal stresses developed due to overload. - The temperatures of the Oil /winding simulated through image coil Can detect inadequate cooling. - Can detect inadequate cooling.

Transformer -Lightning Protection • Lightning Arrestors & Spark Gaps: –  Protects from lightning and switching over voltages –  Spark gaps for small and non-vital transformers –  Lightning arrestors for large and vital transformers .