The report on the following pages is the outcome of six weeks training at the industry.

The report is the outcome of the practical knowledge that we acquire during our training. This report presents the brief summary of our industrial training.

I had the privilege of receiving such training at HINDUSTAN AERONAUTICS LIMITED ,LUCKNOW.

There could not be a better place to learn…

I would like to express my sincere gratitude to the management of HINDUSTAN AERONAUTICS LIMETED for having given this opportunity to carry out my training. I am grateful to my esteemed guide Mr.Dy. General manger of instrument department for his whole hearted cooperation and support. I also acknowledge my gratefulness to Mr. Nirmaljeet Singh, training and placement officer, H.E.C. Jagadhri, for giving me the opportunity to undergo this training And last but not the least, I would like pay my sincere gratitude to all the employees of the HAL , LUCKNOW, for there valuable help and technical support at various times.

The history of the Indian Aircraft Industry can be traced to the founding of Hindustan Aircraft Limited at Bangalore in December 1940 in association with the erstwhile princely State of Mysore and late Shri Seth Walchand Hirachand, an Industrialist of extra -ordinary vision. Govt. of India became one of its shareholders in March 1941 and took over the management in 1942. Hindustan Aircraft Limited was merged with Aeronautics India Limited and Aircraft Manufacturing Depot, Kanpur to form Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) on 01st October 1964. Today HAL has got 16 production units and 9 research and design centers spread out in seven different locations in India. Its product track record consists of 12 types of aircraft from in house R &D and 13 types by license production. HAL has so far produced over 3300 aircraft, 3400 Aeroengines and overhauled over 7700 aircraft and 26000 engines. HAL has engaged & succeeded in number of R & D programs for both the military and civil aviation sectors. Substantial progress has been made in the current projects like Dhruv -Advanced Light Helicopter (ALH), Tejas-Light Combat Aircraft (LCA), Intermediate Jet Trainer (IJT) and various military and civil upgrades. The deliveries of Dhruv were effected to Indian Army, Navy, Air Force and Coast Guard in March 2002, in its first year of production which is a unique achievement. HAL has played a significant role for India's space programs in the manufacturing of satellite launch vehicles like PSLV (Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle), GSLV (Geo Stationary Launch Vehicle), IRS (Indian Remote Satellite) & INSAT (Indian National Satellite). HAL has also two joint venture companies, BAeHAL Software Limited and Indo- Russian Aviation Limited (IRAL). Apart from the two, other major diversification projects are Industrial Marine Gas turbine and Airport Services. Several co-production and joint Ventures with international participation are under consideration. HAL's supplies / services are mainly to Indian Defence Services, Coast Guard and Border Security Force. Transport aircraft and Helicopters have also been supplied to Airlines as well as State Governments of India. The Company has also achieved a foothold in export in more than 30 countries, having demonstrated its quality and price competitiveness.

HAL, has won several International & National Awards for achievements in R&D, Technology, managerial performance, exports, energy conservation, quality and fulfillment of social responsibilities. M/S Global Rating, United Kingdom in conjunction with The International Information and Marketing Center (IIMC) has awarded the “INTERNATIONAL GOLD MEDAL AWARD” AT THE INTERNATIONAL SUMMIT (GLOBAL RATING LEADERS 2003) LONDON, UK to M/s. Hindustan Aeronautics Limited for Corporate Achievement in Quality and Efficiency. HAL was also presented the INTERNATIONAL “ ARCH OF EUROPE” AWARD IN GOLD CATEGORY in recognition for its commitment to Quality, Leadership, technology & Innovation. At National level, HAL won the top award instituted- by SCOPE (Standing Conference of Public Enterprises) -The "GOLD TROPHY" for excellence in Public Sector Management. The Company scaled new heights in the financial year 2002-2003 with a turn over of Rs. 3120 Crores and export of Rs. 103.89 Crores. “To become a globally competitive aerospace industry while working as an instrument for achieving self reliance in design, manufacture and maintenance of Aerospace equipment, civil transport aircraft, helicopter and missiles and diversifying to related areas, managing the business on commercial lines in a climate of growing professional competence.” In the six decades, HAL has spread its wing to cover various activities in the areas of Design, Development, Manufacture and Maintenance. Today HAL has 16 production divisions spread over at Bangalore, Nasik, Koraput, Kanpur, Lucknow, Korwa, Hyderabad and Barrackpore. These divisions are fully backed by nine Design Centres, which are co-located with the production divisions. These centres are engaged in the Design and Development of combat aircraft, helicopter, Aeroengine, Engine Test Beds, Aircraft communication and Navigation systems and Accessories of mechanical and fuel systems and instruments. Its product track record consists of 12 types of aircraft from in house R &D and 13 types by license production. HAL has so far produced over 3300 aircraft, 3400 Aeroengines and overhauled over 7700 aircraft and 26000 engines. The current programme are series production of ALH and delivery to our defence and civil customers, production of Jaguar, the deep penetration strike aircraft, Dornier Do-228, Multi Mission Aircraft and LANCER the Light Attack Helicopter and upgrades of MiG-21 BiS, MiG-27 M and Jaguar. With the signing of Inter Governmental Agreement and General Contract the license manufacture of SU MkI has been launched.

Coast Guard.A.The new initiative in R & D will include an Intermediate Jet Trainer ( IJT ). replacement for Cheetah and Chetak Helicopter and a Light Attack Helicopter..L.HAL is the major design partner for aircraft and system / equipment as well as for system integration of Light Combat Aircraft (LCA) which successfully completed the first block of flights.Partnership for coproduction of ATR-42.Design capabilities. State Govt. Flying Academies & Educational Institutions. a follow. Air Cargo. Navy. • Flight Control Actuators • Ground Support Equipment and test Rigs. Ordnance Factories. make HAL a valuable partner for challenging programmes in Aerospace and related fields. Corporate Sectors. . Air Taxi. Main Customers i) Indian Air Force. Light Observation Helicopter. Army. and the new project to design and develop a Multirole Transport Aircraft (100 seater) are signs of growth for the largely military aircraft manufacturing company in the commercially competitive aerospace industry. a trainer for the 21st century. Airlines.on project for ALH. DIVISION The major products of the Division are: • Undercarriage systems • Wheels and Brake systems • Hydraulic Systems • Aircraft and Engine Fuel Systems • Panel Instruments (Barometric and gyroscopic) • Electric Power Generation and Control systems • Environmental control systems. modern facilities and skills combined with competitive pricing and prompt deliveries. an invitation from Airbus to participate in A-380 project. MAJOR PRODUCTS OF THE H. Civil Aviation. Overseas customers for civil and military applications. BSF ii) iii) iv) v) vi) Defence R&D Laboratories and Deptt of Space.

.vii) Collaborators and Licensors.

Koraput & Hyderabad for MiG Airframe.ORGANISATIONALGROWTH OF HAL 200 2 Expansion of Nasik Division as Aircraft Manufacturing & Overhaul Division Establishment of SUKHOI ENGINE DIVISION at Koraput 2000 Establishment of Airport Service Center for coordinating the operation of HAL airport -Bangalore 1998 Establishment of Industrial &marine Gas Turbine Division for aero derivative gas turbines/industrial engines 1988 Establishment of AEROSPACE DIVISION for structure of Aerospace Launch Vehicles 1982 Establishment of KORWA DIVISION for Advanced Avionics 197 4 Establishment of FOUNDARY & FORGE DIVISION at Bangalore 197 0 Establishment of HELICOPTER DIVISION at Bangalore Establishment of LUCKHNOW DIVISION for Accessories & instruments 196 4 Establishment of HINDUSTAN AERONAUTIC LIMITED by merging of 3 companies 196 2 Establishment of Aeronautics India LTD. At Nasik. Engines & Avionics 1960 Establishment of aircraft Manufacture DEPOT at Kanpur for HS-748 1956 Establishment of Engine Division at Bangalore 1940 Hindustan Aircraft Limited at Bangalore .

pressurization system. Advanced Light Helicopter (all versions i. Cockpit instruments and sensors.HAL ACCESSORIES DIVISION . Jaguar. This was followed by license manufacture of accessories for MiG-21 aircraft. Special Purpose Test Equipment & Ground Support Equipment. Design and Development capabilities include Environmental Control Systems & Pneumatics. helicopters and engines with a view to attain self-sufficiency in this field in the country. barometric instruments. The Division started with the manufacture of hydro-mechanical accessories and instruments under license for Marut and Kiran aircraft. This capability has culminated in indigenous design and development of a variety of systems and accessories for the Light Combat Aircraft (LCA). Gyroscopic Equipment. and . undercarriages.LUCKNOW The Division was established in 1970 with the primary objective of manufacturing systems and accessories for various aircraft. and Computerised test equipment. 29 Mirage-2000. Dornier and other defense applications. The Division has also made steady progress in the area of Exports. Gyroscopes. Dedicated Test rigs. and electronic items. engine fuel system. Dornier DO-228. MI-17. Engine Fuel Control & aircraft fuel systems.e. At present. 27. Rotables and spares of Jaguar International and Cheetah (Lama). Fuel Management. Sea-Harrier. environment control system. repairing and overhauling more than 800 different types of systems and accessories under license. Land Navigation. The Division has also developed and has made successful strides into the area of Microprocessor based control systems. Ground Support Equipment for MiG 23. Avro HS-748. and took commercial applications of Hydraulic items. LCA. such as Mirage and Sea Harrier was undertaken. Cheetah/Chetak helicopters. Ground support equipment. it is manufacturing. The Division has diversified in other defence applications like tanks and armoured vehicles for Army. The range of items cover units for hydraulics. Army. Airforce. Wheels and Brakes. Electrical Power Control Protection. The range of products and services available for exports include: 1. Navy & Civil) and Intermediate Jet Trainer (IJT-36). 2. Su30. Hydraulic System & Power Controls. the Division has laid emphasis on developing indigenous capability through design and development of various systems and accessories. The number of licensors exceeds twenty. From inception. electrical system items. gyroscopic instruments. Chetak (Alouette) Helicopters. Microprocessor based Controllers. Chetak. Additionally repair and overhaul of Lucknow manufactured accessories as well as those fitted on directly purchased aircraft. Navigation and Display. Cheetah.

All these parameters are kept under control because these can have adverse effect on their functional efficiency. Instrument Factory 3.RMI. Fuel Factory INSTRUMENT FACTROY This factory deals with the testing and assembly of electronics instruments used in aircraft e. The required specification for the instruments assembled and tested are different . Luknow is divided into three main factories namely 1. accessory division .ALH.g. The following chart is given for the classification of clean room. Jaguar Clean room is further subdivided into three units. black box etc. temperature and humidity. This INSTRUMENT FACTORY is further divided into four units which are as follows: • • • • CLEAN ROOMS ASSEMBLY AND TEST SHOP 2 & 3 ELECTRO ROTATING MACHINES GROUND LAND NAVIGATION SYSTEM SHOP (G.A. . Cheetah (Lama). 3.S Shop) » Clean room ‍ In Clean room those subunits are assembled and tested that are sensitive to dust.L. The Division today has a prime name in the aviation world and a number of international companies are interested to join hands with it for future projects.N. Repair and Overhaul of aircraft accessories of MiG series. Gyro-magnetics compass .L. Mechanical Factory 2. Chetak (Alouette) and Dornier. Altimeter. H.

Jaguar. An aircraft comprises of many small units or accessories. RPM Indicator of Western Origin 45 -55 Kiran MKI&II. AN32. Acceleromet ers. are fighter aircrafts. Jaguar. 27. ALH Helicopters Kiran MKI&II. Avro Aircraft. HPT-32. Cheetah. radio magnetic indicator. Cheetah.Laksh ya.000 CLASS C – UNMONITO RED <100. which play significant role in their successful flight . any fault. Chetak Helicopters ROOM 3 Gyroscopic Instruments of Western Origin 15 to 25 ° C 45 -55 <10. The main instrument were KCN-2 compass system. may lead to an catastrophic end. gyro magnetic compass. flight data recorder. forms an integral part of any manufacturing unit. AN32. Chetak.L.000 CLASS B AIRCRAFT ROOM 1 Gyroscopic Instruments of Russian Origin 45 -55 MIG 21.5 µ /ft3 <100. . AN – 32 ROOM 2 Barometric 15 to 25 ° C Instruments. Avro Aircraft. Mirage.000 CLASS A MONITORE D » Assembly and test shop 2 & 3 The major products of H. Here comes the role of assembly and test unit . Dornier. Mirage. millivolt meter temperature indicator.STANDARD CLEAN ROOM CONDITIONS: ROOM ITEM Temp Limits °C 15 to 25 ° C Humidity R/H % Dust Count Particle size 0.A. fuel gauging system. Dornier.

» Ground land navigation system shop (G. Regulators. As in this shop it manufacture the only ground land navigation system in world. These products are of mig-21 & mig-27 aircrafts which is of Russian origin and jaguar aircraft is of France origin.N. These products are basically those products which takes the principle of the electro magnetic rotating which can be elaborated as follows i.. Constant speed alternator. As due the different applicability of the gyros therefore these gyros have been placed in the road transportation system which is used in ground e. of the Russian and French origin.S shop it assembles and test the ground land navigation system of Vijayanta tank . hills or sand dunes. The principle objective of system is not only to ease the in more precise and quicker manner whether in plains. Inverter. where there are no special remarks.R.M) In the E.L.L. The instrument which uses the property of any type of gyro and is installed in road transportation system is known as ground land navigation system.g.» Electromagnetic rotating shop (E.M department of the instrument factory the assembly and testing of the dc Starter Generators. AC Generator system. The Gyro land navigation system is an electronic navigation device used for guiding any army vehicle to its destination point. trucks.R. cars.S) Ground land navigation system shop is one of the most different & unique shop. In the G. electrical energy is converted into mechanical energy or vice versa.N.e.

The same is true in an airplane. The general condition of the running motor is available to the driver at all times. Airplanes have added redundancy increasing the options if one system fails. Engine Instruments 2. dials and whirligigs into two groups by function in any aircraft. or oil temperature is increasing. There is a gauge to tell you if the battery is charging. . the more instruments needed to monitor the health of those systems. Aircraft with hydraulic systems have to allow for redundancy and often have dual hydraulics with mechanical back up capabilities all as individual indicators. The more complex the aircraft systems. That's why some cockpits look so confusing. So in aircraft the same way we can separate the gizmos. since you cannot pull over and call road-side service. So these two group are as fowllows: 1. there is a complete set of these instruments for each engine. These instruments alert the pilot to engine operation and condition as the flight progresses. Flight Instruments » Engine Instruments Every car has an indicator to let you know when you need petrol. A red light comes on if oil pressure drops.INSTRUMENT SYSTEMS OF AN AIRCRAFT Instrument Systems Just as in a car. there are instruments that monitor the engine. and instruments that monitor the "flight" or drive. Engine instruments in the simple single-engine airplanes are: • Fuel gauges • Oil pressure • Oil temperature • Cylinder Head temperature • Exhaust gas temperature • Nainfold temperature • RPM • Altimetere/genrator For multi-engine airplanes.

These are the basic six instruments. heading. feet per minute in climb or descent. and a speedometer or airspeed indicator. altitude.1. This is refered to the compass. but these six are always there Airspeed Altimeter Vertical Speed Indicator Indicator Attitude Indicator Directiona l Gyro Turn Indicator Fig. Here's a review of the Basic Six instruments found in the cockpit of any plane. Now these are still in use. ball and airspeed". but added with a few things to keep up with technological advances and flight research. rate of turn. The Basic Six Instrument inside any cockpit . Their position varies. What does a pilot want to know? Airspeed.» Flight Instruments As pilot flew there aircraft with only "needle. and the attitude of the airplane as compared to the horizon. a level.

Newton's First Law states in part: "A body in motion tends to move in a constant speed and direction unless disturbed by some external force". RIGIDITY IN SPACE: The primary trait of a rotating gyro rotor is rigidity in space. The instructors also like to place a "view limiting device" on the pilot to ensure that the pilot is relying on the instruments alone and not using outside visual references. Thus. or gyroscopic inertia.2. So also sometimes these are called GYROSCOPIC INSTRUMENTS. This stability increases if the rotor has great mass and speed. . Gyroscopic Systems and Instruments » GENERAL The gyro instruments include the heading indicator.Fig. The spinning rotor inside a gyro instrument maintains a constant attitude in space as long as no outside forces change its motion.000 rpm for the heading indicator).The basic six The flight instruments give the pilot feedback on the three axes and his own skill and coordination. » PRINCIPLES 1. attitude indicator and turn coordinator (or turn-and-slip indicator). That is why there are redundant instrument systems.000 rpm for the attitude indicator and 10. As these flight instruments were basically based on the principle of GYRO. Instructors like to cover them up. just to see how well a pilot can fly by the seat of his or her pants or strictly by "feel". the gyros in aircraft instruments are constructed of heavy materials and designed to spin rapidly (approximately 15. It is important that instrument pilots understand the gyro instruments and the principles governing their operation. Each contains a gyro rotor driven by air or electricity and each makes use of the gyroscopic principles to display the attitude of the aircraft. Pilots must trust the instruments since the human body often gives false sensations.

If the rotor axis represents the natural horizon or a direction such as magnetic north. PRECESSION: Another characteristic of gyros is precession. below right). are moved. which is the tilting or turning of the gyro axis as a result of applied forces.Fig. The aircraft heading and attitude can then be compared to these stable references. For example. on the right) remains in the same position even if the surrounding gimbals. the rotor of the universally mounted gyro (See Universally Mounted Gyro figure. Universally Mounted Gyro The heading indicator and attitude indicator use gyros as an unchanging reference in space. When the rotor is spinning. When a deflective force is applied to the rim of a stationary gyro rotor. the same forces causes the rotor to move in a different direction. places the rotor in a new plane of rotation. 2. parallel to the applied force. it provides a stable reference for instrument flying. . Once the gyros are spinning.3. This turning movement. the rotor moves in the direction of the force. however. or precession. as though the force had been applied to a point 90° around the rim in the direction of rotation (See the Precession Force figure. or circular frames. they stay in constant positions with respect to the horizon or direction.

Many gyro instruments manufactured today have higher attitude limitations than the older types. . Precession Force Unavoidable precession is caused by aircraft maneuvering and by the internal friction of attitude and directional gyros. most older gyro rotors topple over. These instruments do not "tumble" when the gyro limits are exceeded. rather than merely precess. but. Beyond these limits the newer gyros give incorrect readings. Even though caging causes greater than normal wear. however. Some of the older gyros have caging devices to hold the gimbals in place. do not reflect pitch attitude beyond 85 degrees nose up or nose down from level flight. The gyro may be erected or reset by a caging knob. This causes slow "drifting" and thus erroneous readings. When deflective forces are too strong or are applied very rapidly.4.Fig. older gyros should be caged during aerobatic maneuvers to avoid damage to the instrument. This is called "tumbling" or "spilling" the gyro and should be avoided because it damages bearings and renders the instrument useless until the gyro is erected again. These gyros have a self-erecting mechanism that eliminates the need for caging.

Point A is still traveling in the upward direction when it is at the 90 degrees position in Fig 6. Fig. . B.» How a gyroscope works Here is a pictorial of a simplified version of a gyro. When a tilting force is applied to the top axis. The same goes for point C and D. Instead of a complete rim. represent the areas of the rim that are most important in visualizing how a gyro works. D. Fig. A. point A will be where point B was when the gyro has rotated 90 degrees. C. point A is sent in an upward direction and C goes in a downward direction. Fig 5. Since this gyro is rotating in a clockwise direction.6. The bottom axis is held stationary but can pivot in all directions.5. Fig.7. four point masses.

the axis would move in the precession plane to the left. If in the clockwise example the tilting force was a pull instead of a push. If the gyro were rotating counterclockwise. » THE GIMBALED GYROSCOPE The property of Precession represents a natural movement for rotating bodies.and point C will be traveling in the downward direction. as needed. The more the tilting force pushes the axis. the more the rim on the other side pushes the axis back when the rim revolves around 180 degrees. The property of precession of a gyroscope is used to keep monorail trains straight up and down as it turns corners. The downward motion of point C is now countered by the tilting force and the axis does not rotate in the "tilting force" plane. the precession would be to the left. the tilting force ( being constant) is more than the upward and downward counter acting forces. Gyroscopes. The combined motion of A and C cause the axis to rotate in the "precession plane" to the right Fig. In this case to the right. 7. A more interesting example of gyroscopic effect is when the axis is confined in one plane by a gimbal. The axis will rotate because some of the energy in the upward and downward motion of A and C is used up in causing the the axis to rotate in the precession plane. point C is where point A was when the tilting force was first applied. A hydraulic cylinder pushes or pulls. when gimbaled. Sometimes precession is unwanted so two counter rotating gyros on the same axis are used. the axis will rotate in the tilting force plane in this example. When the gyro has rotated another 90 degrees Fig. Then when points A and C finally make it around to the opposite sides. where the rotating body doesn’t have a confined axis in any plane. only resist a tilting change in their axis. on one axis of a heavy gyro.6 This is called precession. Actually. The axis does move a certain amount with a given force. Also a gimbal can be used. . A gyro's axis will move at a right angle to a rotating motion.

The point masses at the rim are the only mass of the gyro system that is considered.Fig. A more detailed explanation of how a gimbaled gyro functions Here it is explained that how much the axis will rotate around a gimbaled axis. how fast it rotates in the direction of a tilting force. There is no change in the RPM of the rim around the axis. That is to say. As the rim rotates through the gimbaled plane all the energy transferred to the rim by the tilting force is mechanically stopped. In figure 8. The rim then rotates back into the tilting force plane where it will be accelerated once more. the precession plane in the gimbaled example functions differently than in the above example of figures 1-3.8 A quick explanation of how a gimbaled gyro functions Figure 8 shows a simplified gyro that is gimbaled in a plane perpendicular to the tilting force. . Each time the rim is accelerated the axis moves in an arc in the tilting force plane. The gyro is a device that causes a smooth transition of momentum from one plane to another plane. and I have renamed it "stop the tilting force plane". where the two planes intersect along the axis. The mass and gyroscope effect of the axis is ignored.

the left half.1 seconds. The tilting force of 1 newton. if applied for .9. half of .1 second the point mass will be in the "stop the tilting force plane" and all the energy transferred to point mass A is lost in the physical restraint of the gimbal bearings. 005meters. Since the length of the axis is twice as long as the average distance of the rim’s mass. Point mass A is rotating at 5 revolutions per second. mass to point mass A of 1/2kg. the axis will move . in the tilting force plane. Figure 9 shows a profile of the average mass in the tilting plane and the average distance from the axis that the mass is situated.01meter. At the end of . Fig.01 meter. So we must use the average distance from the axis of all the mass on the left-hand side. The tilting force will change the position of point mass B and D very little and change the position of point mass A the most. 1/4kg. and the axis will advance another . Only now. So the axis will advance half as much. We are concerned at how far the mass at the average distance will rotate within the tilting plane when a given force is applied to the axis in the direction indicated. and add their combined. So then the total mass on the left side is ½ the total mass of all 4 point masses. This means that it is exposed to the tilting force for only .1 second. The point masses inside the "stop the tilting force plane" share half their mass on either side of the plane. The average distance the mass is from the "stop the tilting force" plane is 1/2 meter.1 second is not the whole story because the mass on the right side of the gyro hasn’t been considered. The mass on the left side is 1kg. the tilting force will move point mass A down. The right side has the same mass as the left and has the same effect on the axis as the left side does.005 meter in an arc. . The same thing happens when point mass A is on the right side of figure 4. Both halves of the rim mass will pass through the stop the tilting . will cause the mass at the average distance to move .01 meter in an arc.At first consider only ½ of the rim.01 meter every . or . or 1kg.

half as fast if the rim speed is doubled. let me be the first credited to use the term "rotation pollution" or "motion . To get the gyro out of the Earth's rotational plain a small force could be applied to the gyro axis and precession would put the axis back in the original position. So then.48 RPM within the tilting force plane. The 90 degree precession rotation would be much faster than the once per 24 hours opposing forces rotation. What happens when the mass of the rim is doubled? The gyro will rotate in the tilting force plane. The top of the gyro would normally go westward. Each time a half of the rim passes though the "stop the tilting force plane". 10 times a second. The generator would be mechanically linked to the precession back and forth motion in one direction only so it will turn the same direction all the time. The gyro will rotate at .force plane 10 times in one second. The gyro would turn due to precession until it reaches 90 degrees with it's axis pointing north and south. half as fast if the rim diameter is doubled If left undisturbed. The energy comes from the rotation of the Earth and therefore the Earth rotational speed is slowed as energy is tapped from a gyro-generator type machine. Then it would be in the same plane as the rotation of the Earth and gyroscopic precession would stop. half as fast if the rim mass is doubled How does the rim diameter effect rotation in the tilting force plane? The gyro will rotate in the tilting force plane. But if the top axis were held so that it could not rotate from east to west. the axis will move 5cm per second along an arc.1 second on the rim mass at the average distance. The mass has to undergo acceleration again so we continually calculate the effect that 1 newton has for . but some gearing would probably still be needed to run a generator. If this should happen. the gyro will rotate in the north and south direction depending on the direction the rim is rotating. What considerations does the rim speed have on the distance that the axis will rotate along an arc in the tilting force plane? The gyro will rotate in the tilting force plane. days and nights would become longer. due to precession. This is NOT a free energy thing. it losses all its momentum that was added by the tilting force. The amount of energy needed to keep the gyro's rim spinning and the energy needed to turn the gimbals back 90 degrees would determine the overall efficiency. at the point that the 1 newton force is applied. a gyro on the surface of the Earth would turn 360 degrees once every 24 hours. If this method of generating energy is used to a great extent.

Air or electricity supply the power to operate gyro instruments in light aircraft. while fast gyro speeds cause the instruments to overreact in addition to wearing the gyro bearings faster and decreasing gyro life. Because a constant gyro speed is essential for reliable instrument readings. the turn-and-slip indicator is electrically powered. Suction lines connect the pump to the instruments. » GYRO POWER SOURCES. below) or warning light.pollution". There is normally a vacuum gauge. 1. Typical Suction GauGe The air is drawn through a filter. in addition to the pitot-static instruments. it is accelerated and directed against small "buckets" cast into the gyro wheel. A regulator is attached between the pump and the gyro instrument case to control suction pressure. The pilot should consult the aircraft operating manual for specific information with regard to vacuum system normal operating values. drawing cabin air through the filtered openings in the instrument case. suction gauge (See the Typical Suction Gauge figure.10. As the air enters the case. The advantage of this arrangement is that if the vacuum system (which supplies air) fails. If the directional indicator and attitude indicator are air-driven (as they generally are). the instrument pilot still has the compass and the turn indicator for attitude and direction reference. to the instruments and then to the pump where it is vented to atmosphere. . the correct suction pressure is maintained with a vacuum pressure regulator. VACUUM POWER SYSTEM: Air-driven gyros normally are powered by a vacuum pump attached to and driven by the engine. Low gyro rotation speeds cause slow instrument response or lagging indications. Fig.

These are . The bank indicator. normally used to drive the turn coordinator or turnand-slip indicator.c. cold air.c. The figure (below) shows the face of a typical attitude indicator.000 rpm. operates like a small electric motor with the spinning gyro acting as the motor armature. The a. Fig. shows the degree of bank during turns through the use of index marks. also called the gyro or attitude horizon. ATTITUDE INDICATOR BASIC COMPONENTS AND OPERATION The purpose of the attitude indicator is to present the pilot with a continuous picture of the aircraft's attitude in relation to the surface of the earth.Attitude Indicator Pitch attitudes are depicted by the miniature aircraft's relative movement up or down in relation to the horizon bat. Aircraft that normally operate at high altitudes do not use a vacuum system to power flight instruments because pump efficiency is limited in the thin. » GYROSCOPIC INSTRUMENTS 1. Two are below the artificial horizon bar and two are above. the a. It should be noted that other attitude indicators differ in details of presentation.11. Usually at least four pitch reference lines arc incorporated into the instrument. normally located at the top of the instrument.c. power is provided by inverters that convert direct current to alternating current.) drives the gyros in the heading and attitude indicators. Gyro speed in these instruments is approximately 8. Instead. power is supplied directly from the engine-driven alternator or generator. alternating current (a. In some cases.2. ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEM: An electric gyro.

therefore. nonetheless. placed at 30°. the pilot may use the attitude indicator for rolling in and out of the turn. Therefore. Large errors may be caused by wear. The sky is represented by a light blue and the earth is shown by black or brown shading. The error disappears as the aircraft rolls out at the end of a 180 degrees turn at a normal rollout rate. with larger marks. The nose of the aircraft is depicted by a small white dot located between the fixed set of wings or by the point of the triangle as in the figure (See the bottom centre of the Attitude Indicator figure. but should use other instruments (VSI and altimeter) during the turn for specific pitch information. Principal Attitude Indicator Errors TURN ERROR During a normal coordinated turn. Small errors due to acceleration and deceleration are not significant because the erection device corrects them promptly. When the older-type gyro tumbles as a result of extreme attitude changes. The small knob near the bottom of the instrument is used for vertical adjustment of the miniature aircraft. above right). During straight-and-level flight the miniature aircraft should be adjusted so that it is superimposed on the horizon bat. ACCELERATION ERROR . dirty gimbal rings. above right) may mean either that the instrument is not receiving adequate electrical power or that there is a problem with the gyro. the artificial horizon is kept horizontal by the gyro on which it is mounted. centrifugal force causes the gyro to precess toward the inside of the turn. Even an attitude indicator in perfect condition can give slight erroneous readings. it is greatest during the actual turn. Converging lines give the instrument a three-dimensional effect. This precession increases as the bank steepens.spaced at 10° intervals through 30°. An erection mechanism automatically rights the gyro when precession occurs clue to manoeuvres or friction. 60° and 90° bank positions . the rotor normally precesses slowly back to the horizontal plane. when performing a steep turn. Once the artificial horizon line is aligned with the natural horizon of the earth during initial erection. Warning flags (see Attitude Indicator figure. the pilot should be aware of them (refer to the paragraphs below). or out-of-balance parts.

HEADING INDICATOR The heading indicator. The heading is displayed at the top of the dial by the nose of the miniature aircraft (see the figure to the right).g.12. Fig. Therefore. formerly called the directional gyro. This should be done . shown in the figure below .. In newer heading indicators. the vertical card or dial on the instrument face appears to revolve as the aircraft turns.As the aircraft accelerates (e. The pilot should remember that real precession. uses the principle of gyroscopic rigidity to provide a stable heading reference. takeoffs in low visibility require the use of other instruments such as the altimeter to confirm that a positive rate of climb is established immediately after takeoff. DECELERATION ERROR Deceleration causes the horizon bar to move up. it must be set to agree with the magnetic compass. in a magnetic compass.Heading indicator Because the heading indicator has no direction-seeking qualities of its own. as well as apparent precession caused by aircraft movement and earth rotation. indicating a slight pitch up attitude. Another type of direction indicator shows the heading on a ring similar to the card. caused by maneuvers and internal instrument errors. indicating a false pitch down attitude. there is another type of gyro precession which causes the horizon bar to move down. 2. during takeoff). may cause the heading indicator to "drift".

the pilot should ensure that these errors are not transferred to the heading indicator. The turn co-ordinator contains a miniature schematic aircraft to shown when the actual aircraft is turning. on the other band. . › TURN-AND-SLIP INDICATOR The turn-and-slip indicator provides the only information of either wing's level or bank attitude if the other gyroscopic instruments should fail. This instrument. Because the magnetic compass is subject to certain errors . The pilot should set the heading indicator by turning the heading indicator reset knob at the bottom of the instrument to set the compass card to the correct magnetic heading. The turn-and-slip indicator.only on the ground or in straight-and-level.13. This indicator is sometimes called the "needle and ball". below). 3. The Turn-and-Slip Indicator .compass System The pilot of a light aircraft should check the heading indicator against the magnetic compass at least every 15 minutes to assure accuracy. On large aircraft. Fig. unaccelerated flight when magnetic compass indications are steady and reliable. magnetic compass and altimeter. this function is done using a compass controller (See the Compass Controller figure. even when it is the only gyro instrument operating. has a vertical needle which deflects in the direction the aircraft is turning. along with the airspeed indicator. can assist the pilot in flying through instrument weather conditions. RATE AND QUALITY OF TURN INDICATORS There are two types of rate and quality of turn indicators 1. Both of these gyroscopic instruments indicate the rate at which the aircraft is turning. The Turn Coordinator and 2.

When the turn needle is exactly centred. the aircraft is either slipping or skidding . The answer to controlling and trimming an aircraft in straight and level flight by means of the turn-and-bank indicator requires a return to basic control principles . The ball of the turn-and-bank indicator is actually a separate instrument. This instrument is best used as an indication of attitude. In coordinated flight. When the ball is centred within its glass tube the manoeuvre is being executed in a coordinated manner. or both).. increase the bank angle. if the ball is centred.The turn needle of the turn-and-bank indicator gives an indirect indication of the bank attitude of the aircraft. (To correct. or use rudder to decrease the rate of turn. the aircraft is turning in the direction of the displacement. the needle may be used to measure the rate of turn. and the lack of centrifugal force causes the ball to be displaced to the inside of the turn.i. the aircraft is in straight flight. Fig. decrease the angle of bank. The side to which the ball has rolled indicates the direction of the slip or skid. in these conditions. the rate of turn is too slow for the angle of bank. However. when flying straight and level through the use of the turn- . Return to straight flight is accomplished by coordinating aileron and rudder pressures. if the ball is out of its centre location. the needle is aligned with the left or right marker (doghouse) and the aircraft will turn at the rate of 3° per second or 180° in one minute. Thus.e. conveniently located under the turn needle so the two instruments can be used together. in a "standard rate turn". Hence. and excessive centrifugal force causes the ball to be displaced to the outside of the turn. or use rudder to increase the rate of turn. (To correct. the needle indicates both direction and rate of turn.Turn and Slip Indicator In a slip. or both). Therefore. a left displacement of the turn needle means the left wing is low and the aircraft is in a left turn. In a skid the rate of turn is too fast for the angle of bank. When the needle is displaced from centre. control yaw with the rudder and keep the wings level with aileron.14.

In other words. After the bank angle for a turn is established and the roll rate is zero. and keep the wings level with appropriate aileron pressure. Fig. The electric gyro is canted approximately 35°. therefore. just which one of these the aircraft is doing can only be determined by reference to the needle. the aircraft is in a standard-rate turn 30°/sec. a primary requirement for a normal turn. › TURN CO-ORDINATOR Most current aircraft have a turn coordinator that replaces the older turnand-slip instrument. When the wing of the aircraft silhouette is aligned with one of the lower index marks. the aircraft symbol indicates only the rate of turn. An aircraft could be in a bank attitude and yet the needle could remain centred or indicate a turn in the opposite direction. if controls are not coordinated. The problem associated with using these instruments separately is that although the ball will positively indicate that the aircraft is slipping or skidding.). Turn Co-ordinator This instrument also senses the roll rate because the gyro is tilted on its fore and aft axis.and-bank indicator. . the miniature aircraft banks whenever the actual aircraft rotates about either the yaw or roll axis. A small aircraft silhouette rotates to show how the aircraft is turning (see the figure below). and control the needle with aileron since the ailerons affect bank angle. the needle will not positively indicate a bank attitude. the aircraft silhouette banks in the direction of the turn. since no turn exists.15. Furthermore. control the ball with rudder since the ball moves parallel to a plane passing through the rudder pedals. It is important that both the needle and ball are used together. prevent yawing with appropriate rudder pressure. This freedom of movement enables the gyro to indicate immediately when the aircraft is turning. The needle will not deflect while heading is constantly maintained. When the aircraft turns left or right.

the aircraft is flying straight but with one wing low. the turning radius of aircraft C is approximately nine times that of aircraft A. If two aircraft arc turning at the same angle of bank. The Aircraft at Same Bank Angle But Different Speeds figure (right) shows three aircraft flying with the same angle of bank but at different airspeeds. The pilot should understand the relationship of true airspeed and angle of bank as it affects the rate and radius of turn. requires just two minutes to complete a 360° turn. Fig. The position of the ball indicates the quality of the turn. For example. varying with the square of the true airspeed. Aircraft at the same bank angle but different speeds A common misconception is that faster aircraft will complete a 360° turn in the least time. with also a 20° bank but a true airspeed of 130 knots (kts). If the miniature aircraft is level and the ball is displaced to either side (see ball in above figure on the right). When the miniature aircraft depicts a turn and the ball is not centred. The radius of turn also increases with an increase in airspeed.3 minutes to complete a 360° turn. the slower aircraft has the shorter turning radius and also a greater rate of turn. Therefore. a jet in a 20° bank flying at a true airspeed of 350 kts requires approximately 5. The aircraft with the greatest rate of turn is aircraft A. Aircraft A. because the speed of aircraft C is about three times that of aircraft A. it shows that the turn is not coordinated (see black ball in figure on the right).The miniature aircraft moves independently of the ball or inclinometer.16. .

THE GYROSYN COMPASS SYSTEM A gyrosyn compass system has a remotely located unit for sensing the earth's magnetic field. It is usually remotely located to reduce aircraft magnetic disturbances. c) ERECTION MECHANISM An erection torque motor is used to keep the gyro spin axis in a horizontal plane. or moving-card indicators such as a radiomagnetic indicator (RMI) or a horizontal situation indicator (HSI). The sensing element is pendulously suspended within a sealed bowl (fluid-filled to prevent excessive swinging) and maintains a horizontal plane within a pitch attitude of +30 degrees. including fixed-card instruments. It incorporates a gyroscope to provide stability. b) GYROSCOPE The gyroscope principle of rigidity in space is applied to retain a fixed position during any aircraft turns. airspeed or pitch the sensing clement is displaced from the horizontal plan and produces erroneous signals. Remote compass transmitter signals arc phase detected to resolve for the 180-degree ambiguity and arc sent to the slaving torque motor to keep the gyro spins axis aligned with magnetic north-south. unaccelerated flight again provides correct orientation signals. Turning motion of the aircraft about the gyro is then electrically relayed to the heading indicator. Electrical power is required for its operation. and . The amplifier also provides high voltage to the slaving torque motor for any periods of fast slaving. A variety of cockpit indicators may be driven by a gyrosyn compass system. All gyrosyn compass systems have a set of basic components whose operation is similar. These generally have little effect because of the stability provided by the gyro. During large changes in heading.4. regardless of the aircraft type: a) REMOTE COMPASS TRANSMITTER The remote compass transmitter senses the earth's magnetic field. and a return to straight-and-level. d) AMPLIFIER The amplifier is the coordination and distribution center for all system electrical signals.

In this situation: a. c.e) HEADING INDICATOR UNIT NOTE: Some gyrosyn compass systems are capable of non-slaved operation in extreme northern or southern latitudes where the earth’s magnetic field is distorted or weak. . and Some form of latitude correction is necessary to overcome the effects of apparent precession. Aircraft turning motion about the gyro is still relayed electrically to the heading indicator. b. The remote compass transmitter does not-function. The gyro must be oriented manually for heading and then serves as the only directional reference. d.

INSTRUMENTS OF CLEAN ROOM 1 A.A. is employed for determining and indicating the aircraft heading.) REMOTE CONTROLLED GYRO HORIZON PURPOSE: The main purpose of remote controlled gyro horizon A D-1 is to ensure the pilot of highly perceptible broad scale indication of position of aircraft in wide range of angles of bank and pitch during retaining correct readings after any evolution.) KC -2 COMPASS SYSTEM PURPOSE: The KC -2 compass system designed for installations in a fighter aircraft. Visual indicator of gyro horizon A D-1 is the following system.L. bombing. reproducing angles of bank and pitch in accordance with electrical signals fed by distant located gyro horizon (gyro – pick – up). Heading signals fed by the directional gyro are initially slaved with the magnetic heading by means of the magnetic corrector. firing. This principle consists in the following: the used heading selector (corrector) determines the aircraft heading relative to magnetic meridian and presents the result for correcting heading signal picked up from the gyro. B. The compass system makes it possible to determine the aircraft heading. relative and true bearings of the radio station and to feed heading signals to consumers for solving piloting. PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION OF COMPASS SYSTEM: The KC -2 compass system is a directional gyro operating without gimbals errors with remote transmission of aircraft. landing course and radio station bearings as well as for feeding heading signals to the consumers. headings to indicators and consumers.INSTRUMENTS ASSEMBLED IN THE INSTRUMENT FACTROY OF THE H. Use of remote transmission . Like most of the modern reading compasses. etc. the compass system employs the principle of combined operation of directional gyro and a heading selector (corrector). navigation. 1. tasks.

of output signals permits to set some visual indicators from gyro pick-up in action. unbalancing and other factors. radar and so on) on aircraft. Due to the Earth rotation. acceleration and decelerations. The errors caused by the above factors are eliminated by means of the pendulum erection system. Gyro pickup may feed electrical signals proportional to angles of rolling and pitch not only on visual indicator of A D-1 but also on others available instruments of these signals (altitude control. OPERATING PRINCIPLE: Operation of the 458M vertical gyro is based on the feature of a free gyro to retain the direction of the rotor axis unchanged in space and the feature of a pendulum to align itself with the true geographical vertical of the earth. the torque motors (torquers) of the pendulum erection system develop torques on the axles of the outer gimbals due to electrical signals proportional to the departure angles. These angles converted into electrical signals are transmitted through the synchro system either to a miniature aircraft or to the card of the artificial horizon.) VERTICAL GYRO 458 M PURPOSE: Modified vertical gyro 458 M develops electrical signals proportional to the aircraft roll and pitch angles within 360° in all modes of operation and maneuvers of the aircraft. To increase the accuracy of the roll and pitch during the aircraft maneuvers. the spin axis of the gyroscope departures from its vertical. friction of the axle of the outer gimbal. and to prevent action of the noon gravitational forces tending to align the pendulum and the gyroscope spin axis connected with it through the erection system with so called apparent vertical. the vertical gyro is equipped with a special follow up system which protects the gyroscope from tumbling at any maneuvers of the aircraft. provision is made to cut out the gyroscope during turns by means of the bar type erection switch connected in series with the contacts of erection cutout . The roll and pitch angles are taken off the artificial horizon scales. the present position of the true vertical is fixed by a liquid level pendulum type switch employing the 11XM-9M elements. C. The torques cause the gyroscope spin axis to process toward the true vertical. avigraph system. turns with respect to the rotor axis through angles equal to the aircraft turn angles in roll and pitch. If the spin axis of the gyroscope departures from the true vertical. During aircraft maneuvering the axis of the gyroscope rotor retains its vertical position and the housing of the vertical gyro. Besides. rigidly connected to the aircraft structure. In flight.

The other main difference between the indicators is in the type of electrical connector fitted. but when the static . INSTRUMENTS OF CLEAN ROOM 2 A. the interior of the capsule is connected by a capillary tube to the aircraft’s pitot pressure line while the exterior of the capsule is open to static pressure via the aircraft static system. The fast hand indicates on an outer scale which is calibrated 0 – 100 knots. therefore the rate of change of static pressure is proportional to he vertical component of aircraft speed. One side of capsule is secured to the instrument frame. OPERATING PRINCIPLE: The purpose in an aircraft static system is proportional to the height of the aircraft.85 km/hour When installed. The static system is connected directly to the inside of the capsule. B. 1 knot = 1.switch as well as to cutout pitch erection system by means of the liquid switch when longitudinal acceleration are imparted. The instrument is basically a differential air pressure gauge consisting of a twin capsule assembly connected. but the other side is free to move in response to pressure differences and it is this movement which is transmitted to the pointers. The slow hand moves over a inner or subsidiary scale and indicates hundreds of knots. the vertical component of aircraft speed. 2.) ASI (SENSITIVE AIRSPEED INDICATORS) PURPOSE & OPERATING PRINCIPLE: It is designed to provide continuous indication of the airspeed of aircraft. and via a calibrated is zero. via suitable linkage and gearing to pointers which move over a circular dial calibrated in knots. The instrument has two concentric pointer consisting of a fast and a slow hand. The scale. for both climb and descent is linear over its first part and logarithmic over the remainder and is calibrated in ft/min for group A indicators and m/s for group B indicators.) VERTICAL SPEED INDICATORS: PURPOSE: The Vertical Speed Indicators are sensitive to the rate of change of pressure in the aircraft static air system and indicate by means of a pointer moving over an integrally lit dial.

4 to 0. one corner of the bezel is removed. OPERATING PRINCIPLE: An acceleration force acting upon a weight tends to cause the shafts to rotate against the control spring. The front pointer registers the instantaneous acceleration.) MACHMETER GENRAL: It indicates Mach number within the range of 0. The response is chosen to retain readability at low rates of climb and descent. The accelerometers are housed in a 2 ½ inch diameter case with detachable bezel. On KAE-0504/3. When the unit is stationary in its normal operating position.pressure changes the pressure difference cited is proportional to the rate at which the static pressure changes. and the middle and rear pointers register the maximum positive (upward) and negative (downward) acceleration respectively.The ranging spring block increasingly restricts the movement of the capsule as the pressure differential across the capsule increases. A pressure differential across the capsule causes the capsule to expand or contract. to provide a non – linear response. D.85 Mach. The presentation comprises three concentric pointers moving over a linearly divided scale. Movement of the capsule is transmitted via the rocking shaft assembly. Thus the position of the pointer represents the rate of change of static pressure and the vertical component of aircraft speed. at altitudes between zero and +50.000 feet. Symmetrical duplication of the shaft and weights. The eddy currents drag – cup provides damping to ensure that higher frequency acceleration. The scale is calibrated in unit of ‘g’ the unit of normal gravitational acceleration. The instrument mechanism is contained within a square section metal case which is sealed at the front end by a flange and . ensure that rotation of the shafts is due to the vertical component of acceleration only.) INDICATING ACCELEROMETERS PURPOSE: Indicating accelerometers provide a visual indication of the acceleration experienced in the vertical axis of an aircraft. are not included. sector gear and pinion to drive the indicator pointer. the front point indicates the force due to the gravity as + 1 ‘g’ and the middle and rear pointer indicates the maximum positive and negative acceleration experienced since the reset button was last depressed. C. due to vibration .

The latter ensure that the gyro compartment will not be opened by unauthorized personnel. This case is attached to the aircraft at 3 points by shock mounts. The rectangular section contains the electronic unit which groups all the electronic circuits of the equipment. If the gyro is defective it retransmits in the emergency mode the magnetic heading it receives from the system. Each lamp is energized by a low voltage ac or dc supply connected through the 3 pin receptacle at the rear of the instrument. To remove the electronic unit from its housing. The rear cover carrier a 3 pin electrical receptacle together with the pitot and static pressure inlet. The cylindrical section forms a sealed compartment filled with a mixture of helium – nitrogen gas and in which the directional gyro is installed. The third is secured to the boss under the rectangular section of the case. Four internal lamps with red filters. situated behind the top corners of the flange provide illumination at the dial. A bonding strip is installed between a securing lug and a boss of the case provides electrical connection between the case ground and the aircraft structure on which it is assembly. This compartment is filled with helium through a plug. it is . 3. should the latter become defective. This unit is integral with the cover which is secured to the case by six screws. The instrument is fitted with a rotating lubber mark which can be adjusted by a setting screw located in the case back plate. Its lower surface is closed bya cover secured by 4 screws including two lead sealed screws. It can also. supply a directional heading. DESCRIPTION : The gyro magnetic compass is in the form of a combined cylindrical and rectangular case. It is a bay mounted equipment item which. provides gyro magnetic heading from magnetic heading information supplied another unit in the system. INSTRUMENTS OF CLEAN ROOM 3 A.) GYRO MAGNETIC COMPASS (TYPE 512-3) PURPOSE: The gyro magnetic is a part of heading system. Two of these are secured to the lugs screwed to the bosses on the upper half of the cylindrical section. lubber mark and pointer. in normal operation. At the rear the case is sealed by a gasket sandwiched between a clamping plate and the rear cover.

On the cover are the following components: • A timer counter totalizing the gyro magnetic compass energization timer. • The overhaul record plate giving the index of the modifications applied to the unit and the date of the latest overhaul. moves with regard to the gyroscopic system which indicates the vertical. The aircraft attitude is indicated to the pilot. The synchronous rotor motor is of the hystersis type.000 rpm. due to the rotation of the Earth.recommended to screw the special tool into 2 holes. as well as the spurious precessions caused by the various friction loads on the suspension axis. by the relative position of the pointer linked to the gyroscope. tapped in the cover. OPERATING PRINCIPLE: The horizon is composed of a gyroscope the axis of rotation of which is slaved to a position close to the local vertical. The heading information is delivered by the stator of two synchro Transmitters whose rotors are connected in rotation with the azimuth gimbal of the gyro. in the roll and pitch planes.) ARTIFICIAL HORIZON (AIR DRIVEN) TYPES 950. and of the model secured to the case. The rotor is mounted in an elevation gimbal slaved in such a way that it remains in the horizontal plane. The instrument case. The operating mode of the gyro magnetic compass can be selected externally so as to give the following heading information: • Gyro magnetic • Directional • Magnetic B. by means of a pneumatic system with pendulum type erecting devices. OPERTING PRINCIPLE: It uses a conventional directional gyro. . Its speed is 24. secured to the airframe.955 PURPOSE: The Horizon is a gyroscopic flight instrument which provides a permanent visual indication of the aircraft attitude. It thus makes up for the absence of fixed references external to the aircraft. with regard to the local vertical. This system is used to compensate the apparent precession of the gyroscope.

2 and 3). and inversely. i. In straight flight.) Slip Indicator Slip occurs when an aircraft’s vertical axis deviates from the direction of gravity in straight flight. in each direction. b.) TURN AND SLIP INDICATORS: GENERAL: The turn and slip indicators provide indication of the rate at which an aircraft is turning about its normal axis.) Turn Indicator The turn indicator depends for its operation on a property of a rotating gyroscope which may be stated as follows: if the spin axis of a rotating gyroscope is itself rotated about a second axis (axis of turn) at right angles to the spin axis.e. by the roll index. actual or apparent. actuated by an electrically driven rate gyroscope. during a turn. is indicated . the gyroscope will exert a torque so as to cause rotation of precession about a third axis at right angles to the other two. The response rate of the instrument is accelerated by the fact that he direction of precession is opposite to the direction of turn. the resultant of actual gravity and centrifugal force. the displacement being related to the torque and therefore to the aircraft’s rate of turn. or apparent gravity. Rate of turn indicator is given by a pointer.When the aircraft dives the pointer indicates a displacement of the horizon in the upward direction and inversely. the horizon line rotates to the left. C. The aircraft’s longitudinal altitude here is disregarded. the rotation of the gimbal is transmitted to the pointer through the gears which reverse the direction so that the rate of turn is indicated on the appropriate side of the scale. the rotor’s axis tends to be held horizontal by the force exerted by the rate spring and the pointer remains at zero. OPERATION: a. The ball in the slip indicator constantly gravitates to the ‘lowest’ point of the curved tube so that the direction of gravity. During a turn. and an indication of slip arising from an incorrectly banked turn. reading against a scale calibrated to indicate three rates of turn (1. Similarly when the aircraft banks to the right. the rotor precesses and the gimbal rotates to a point at which the torque balanced by an equal and opposite torque exerted by the rate spring. The amount of banking is indicated on the roll dial.

the aircraft’s vertical axis is parallel with the direction of real or apparent gravity (the aircraft’s angle of attack being disregarded) and the ball remains at the central datum. This system is designed by HAL. Lucknow division and has been under production 1978. During straight flight in the normal lateral attitude.e. The capacitance increase or decrease as the level of fuel changes in the gap.) F. or during a correctly banked turn.C. . OPERATING PRINCIP[LE: The function of F. The vertical axis of the aircraft is parallel to a line drawn through the centre of radius and a centre datum on the dial. when the fuel level falls below a certain limit. aviation fuel. B. the direction of gravity deviates from the vertical axis and the ball is displaced from the central datum in the direction of slip or skid by a related a line passing through the centre of radius of the tube and the centre of the ball. Transient movement is damped by the fluid in the tube.G (FUEL CONTENT GAUGING SYSTEM) PURPOSE: It indicates the volume of fuel whatever available in the fuel tank of helicopter and also alerts the pilot by giving him a visual warning. 4. This change in capacitance is measured by meter.G is based upon the principle that the capacitance of two concentric tubes (cylindrical in shape) is different when there is air in between and when there i. When slip or skid occurs. Each secondary output is full-wave rectified by a 3-phase silicon diode rectifier bridge. 400 Hz 3-phase ac input. acting as dielectric in between the gap. The interphase reactor (T2) balances the bridge rectifier outputs. (ii)The transformer has two 3-phase secondary windings one in delta connected and other star connected to produce a 6-phase output.C. INSTRUMENTS OF THE ASSEMBLY & TEST SHOP – 2 A.) TRANSFORMER RECTIFIER UNIT Operation (i) The unit consists essentially of a 3-phase step down transformer (T1) and a rectifier circuit which produces a nominal 28 V dc output from a 200 V.

The contacts of the thermostats situated on the upper fin are open under normal operating temperatures but should the fan unit fail. (iv) Radio interference suppression is provided by capacitors ( C1 to C11) which are connected from each input. OPERATING PRINCIPLE: The magnetic power supplies (through thyristors) the brake inductors and alternator exciter. At last. Voltage detection is carried out at terminal stud network. The detected data (proportional to voltage or frequency) is compared to a reference and the error signal thus obtained is amplified. and its supplies are controlled by voltage regulation circuit and frequency regulation circuit respectively. the stabilized power supply is provided by magnetic power. while the frequency is detected on magnetic power.(iii) The 3-phase motor driven fan unit draws cooling air through the fin unit and case. the contacts close when a fin temperature of approximately 200. output and transformer secondary terminal to chassis.) RADIO MAGNETIC INDICATOR GENRAL: .The magnetic tachometer furnishes a signal proportional to the drivng speed of vario-alternator.) Regulator PURPOSE: The regulator <12310-31> controls the energizing current of alternator exciter. D. eddy current brake and of clutch in a way to obtain a 3-phase voltage 115/200 V + 2% and a frequency of 400 Hz + 1% of output alternator whatever may be the delivered current by alternator. in order to act on the circuits controlling the inductor power supplies. and this signal acts:• In the one part.C is reached thus providing an output signal on fan unit failure. • On the other hand. C. “accelerator frequency limiting” circuit that has the purpose to discharge (if necessary) the alternator on frequency limiting resistors. a clutch circuit that controls the power supply of wound clutch.

A knob is provided to set the course.Radio magnetic indicator is a panel mounted air borne instrument that provides the pilot with the following information: A) Heading of the aircraft. which is to be followed. magnetic or directional heading mode from a gyrocompass as desired by the pilot. thus creating a linear movement of the free side of the capsule. (b) Sensing Unit: The PCBs of the sensing unit constitute four optical detectors which are identical in operation.) INDICATED AIR SPEED SWITCH (I. . E. It operates integral relays at four pre – determined indicated air speeds to provide an external information at each of these airspeeds. The interior of the case is connected to static pressure whilst the airspeed capsule of the mechanism is connected to pitot pressure. Cyclic ratio of a pulse = On time/On time + Off time OPERATING PRINCIPLE: (a) Air Speed Mechanism: The air speed capsule is directly connected to pitot (P) pressure and is surrounded externally with static pressure. The aircraft heading indication is read on a circular dial against a fixed lubber mark on the unit.D.S S/W) PURPOSE: This switching unit contains a pressure sensitive mechanism. the relay contained within the corresponding module of the electronic unit is then energized normally. the photo transistor intercepts the infra – red radiation from the emitting diode. B) Relative bearing of a Radio station. Bearing of the radio transmitting station is obtained by a signal from the receiver unit of Automatic Direction Finder (A. It will expand in response to an increased differential and contract in response to a reduced differential.F). In the absence of an obstacle. receiving signal either from gyro magnetic. an optical sensing unit and an electronic unit. and C) Deviation from asset course The heading operation is servo controlled.A.

C. G. The diaphragm mounted on top of the phototransistor controls the width of the beam intercepted by the photo transistor. the existing carbon pile regulator and the over voltage protection unit. the regulation and protection PCB’s and to the starting relay. their functions are independent. should the photo transistor intercept undesired oscillator.C. • Optical Detector: When the diode is fed by the oscillator.) GENERATOR CONTROL AND PROTECTION UNIT (G.U OPEREATING PRINCIPLE: GCPU is fully solid state unit having 2 circuits one for regulation and the other for protection. an amplifier and a relay control circuit. This arrangement provides accurately determined triggering speeds.Each of the four identical channels composed by the electronic and sensing units can be functionally divided into four elements:. The capacitor and resistance network is used to provide good noise elimination and isolate the amplifier from any D. an optical detector. • The relay is controlled by means of another transistor. The relay is operated by a transistorized circuit such that the relay contacts are .U is a solid state device which can be directly fitted across the dc generators. The unit automatically disconnects the generator from the aircraft dc bus bar and itself in case of over voltage. F.P.C. it emits an infrared radiation which is intercepted by the phototransistor.P. • The amplifier amplifies the obtained potential difference. • The oscillator and its matching mechanism network provides a pulsating current for the diode. which suppress the radio frequency noise. voltage liable to occur. to give a regulated/stabilized dc output for all loading and speed conditions. DC generator positive and negative voltages are supplied through the connector to the radio interference suppression filters.U) PURPOSE: The G. Starting relay is connected across the field and +G terminal. Output from filter goes through the over voltage protection relay to the power transistor. This unit also has facilities to indicate to the pilot over current and under voltage conditions.P. This unit replaces. Even though these are encased in one box.C. These filter out the noise developed during ON & OFF of the transistor switching.

Since the field circuit is highly inductive in nature a re-circulating power rectifier is connected parallel to the field (between the field and – G terminal).2 ± . is designed for fitment in any altitude and in any position with any type of highly maneuverable military aircraft. tropical test. but also protects the generator and the electrical system from any damage due to fault in a circuitry totally isolated from regulator circuitry. The average of the transistor ON time over each switching cycle determines the field current (Higher the ON time.f. resistance to fungus growth test. It energizes an externally fitted magnetic doll’s eye at normal conditions and de – energizes it when generator voltage is below 23. humidity and pressure tests. Combined temperature.It also provides protection of itself as well as utilization equipment. This in turn increases the field current to increases the generator voltage and vice versa until a balance state is achieved due to negative feedback. magnetic interference tests constant and crash acceleration tests. radio interference. the recirculating diode (rectifier) remains off. alternately at a fixed frequency of 500 ± 100 Hz which is totally independent of individual generator characteristics.C. is basically not designed for the starting mode function of the Starter – Generator and is recommended for functional use only during generation mode. This is done in such a way that when the power transistor is ON and pumping current from the field.U.P.G.C. over current annunciating circuit senses the over current and de – energizes the doll’s eye. USE: The unit not only regulates (control) a D.Protection circuit senses generator voltage which if exceeds limit will disconnect the regulator from the generator and also de – energize differential contactor which will immediately disconnect the generator from the bus bar.P.8 V and also remains in this condition for more tan 3 ± 1 seconds. higher is the field current).normally closed until the generator voltage builds up to a predetermined voltage of 18 ± 1 volts. It is not designed to be fitted on the aircraft engine.U. A sensing circuit senses generator voltage and accordingly controls the power transistor in such a way that if the generator voltage falls below a preset voltage (nominally 28 V) the ON time increases. of the highly inductive field. . When the generator load current exceeds its preset value for more than 3 ± 1 seconds. and when the transistor switches off.C. The main power transistor is connected across +G of the generator and the field. generator voltage. Above this voltage the circuit energizes the relay which opens the circuit and the transistorized regulator takes over to control the generator. The G. Forced commutation techniques is adopted so that transistor switches ON & OFF.An under voltage annunciating circuit is provided which senses the generator voltage. the diode takes over the slowly decaying field current due to the back e.m. An over current annunciating circuit is provided to energize a doll’s eye.

of the fuel volumetric flow rate. into a pulse voltage. Q. through the reduction gear. the core of the pulse – induction gear. hence.17. realized by transmitter.) Totalizing Fuel Flow Meter Type PTC1-1 (RTS) PURPOSE: It is designed for remote measuring the fuel contents in the fuel tanks of one engine of the airplane in volume units by means of measuring the fuel returning from the pipeline behind the PTCT50 transmitter into the service tank (when the fuel pipelines and the tanks are in good order) and for transmitting those information data into the K3A system. Block diagram of Fule Flow Indicator OPERATION: The operating principles of the flow meter are based on the fact that the fuel flowing helical impeller whose rotation speed is in proportion to the speed of the flow and. OPERATING PRINCIPLE: The operating principle of the flow meter are based on the conversion. to the amount of fuel that flows through the fuel flow transmitter.5.51 of the fuel that has passed through the transmitter. The impeller of the main flow rate type PTCT50 transmitter is calculated in such a manner that a single pulse could correspond to every 2. Transmitter Amplifier Indicator Fig. V1 which is in proportion to flow rate Q on the conversion and the power amplification of the transmitter signal in the Amplifier (V2=KV1) and on the indication of the fuel contents available in the plane tanks with the aid of the indicator. The impeller drives. INSTRUMENTS OF THE ASSEMBLY & TEST SHOP – 3 A. The transmitter signal is fed to the input circuit of amplifier Y -4 located in the Y 2-1 .

Eight single command signals superimposed on Three continuously variable parameters.. power amplified and supplied to the winding of motor P of the indicator.amplifier. WORKING: In this. B. by one tooth. the ratchet – wheel which is coupled to the pointer through the differential gear and the reduction gear. mechanical motion is converted into electrical signals and then it is converted in to optical signals. then this signal gets converted into rectangular pulses. Now the mirror will move and thus light will move and thus further the photographic film is printed.) Flight Data Recorder Purpose and working: System records automatically 6 continuously changing parameters which are: • Altitude • Engine speed • Aircraft speed • Vertical acceleration • Horizontal acceleration • Turn Angle of stabilizer Five single command signal. The light beam is moved under the effect of a permanent magnetic field and flux and shifts the light beam accordingly. and hence to the amount of the fuel that has passed through the transmitter. . the number of operations of motor P will be also in proportion to the number of revolutions of the impeller. There is a fixed mirror in the vibrator which moves accordingly to the moving light beam. The indicator P operates and turns. Since the number of revolutions of the pulse – induction gear core is in proportion to the number of revolutions of the impeller. and timer line to indicate the time on black and white aero photo film and preserves it in normal and crash conditions for study and analysis of flight conditions.

Speed Pickup Unit . “Approach Blip” indication. two auxillary units and four optional associated items. Besides instantaneous display of present vehicle position in terms of Eastings and Northings coordinate to facilitate quicker movement.L. Basic Units 1.N. when the vehicle reaches within 1.2 km of the destination point. INSTRUMENTS OF G. when the vehicle reaches within 200 m (visible range) of destination point. “Bearing Rotation” indication. supply source. Land Navigation Computer Major Function To supply vehicle Heading Signal To compute and display present vehicle position c coordinates and indicate vehicle’s Heading and Bearing angle (a) To interconnect all units (b) To control the Gyro (c) To cater slope correction To generate vehicles speed signal 3. Junction Box 4. The principle objective of system is not only to ease the in more precise and more quicker manner whether in plains.N.S (GROUND LAND NAVIGATION SYSTEM) OVERVIEW: The Gyro land navigation system is an electronic navigation device used for guiding any army vehicle to its destination point.S SHOP G.C. Description: The Ground Land Navigation System comprises four units together with one Static Inverter as an A.5.L. Directional Gyro 2. the following indications are additionally provided. hills or sand dunes. where there are no special remarks.

110 VA Optional (Associated Items) 1. If any of the above parameters goes beyond the specified limit it de-energizes the protective relay cutting off supply to the base drive. Control card generates the oscillation with frequency of 400 Hz. Driver’s Repeater Unit Type 3 To control the system remotely To indicate vehicle’s ‘Heading’ to RMITo supply A. This signal is preamplified in Base drive card. over voltage (A. Interconnection Harness Set Vijayanta tank 2.).C. This gives 115 single – phase A. Land Navigation Computer: .) and overload. Signal proportional to the output is fed to the protection card.C.. Commander’s Control Unit 2.C. Static Inverter: It converts 28 V DC in to 115 V A. Variable Position Cradle To interconnect all the units within the To protect computer from vibration To read externally vehicle heading during day as well as night Detailed Description of Important Instrument Directional Gyroscope: This unit supplies vehicles heading signal. This signal is preamplified at a frequency of 400 Hz. 400 Hz. 28 V D. which fitted with osing the Gyro motor. single – phase. power 115 V.Supply Unit: 1. The gyro rotor is spherical in shape and supported in the inner gimbal ring.C. output.C. single – phase output. The output of the power transistor fixed on the chassis for power amplification. input coming from JBV is to feed through the RI filter to the control card via one pole of the protective relay. Static Pickup Unit Type Auxillary Unit: 1. The protection card senses under voltage (D. 400 Hz.C. Gyro motor is three – phase induction motor driven at 24000 rpm.

N output signals for bearing synchro to indicate bearing angle in the heading indicator. 115 V A.C. supplies required for PCB’s given from CCU and processed with feedback from the Tacho – generator of the Heading Indicator. Vehicle speed input signal is processed in the analog card with resolved Sin θ/ Cos θ and RK signal to give incremental Easting and Northings distance pulses CPE and CPN. Tuned A.2 km and 200 m range respectively. . These signals are sent to bearing card to generate E. supply is given to power supply card to generate various D. These signals are divided by 10 in Digital card and sent to heading indicator to have a selected clock pulse. These signals proportional to the difference (H-P) E and (H-P) N. is stepped down in transformer base plate assembly and is fed to power supply card. The resultant servo signal is fed to the Heading indicator. Depending upon the thumbwheel switch set (destination) position and the displayed (present). the digital cards give the signals proportional to the difference (H-P) E and (H-P) N.C. which are fed to Digital card. To give approach indication the difference signals are processed and output controls display blipping and bearing pointer notation for 1. which is again fed to Digital card.C.C. supply is given to base unit to generate A. Analog card generates the direction signals S/N and W/E. 28 V D. signal for providing slow signal to gyro through ven to generate resolved in sin θ /cos θ output signals.It consists of eight subassemblies.C. which indicates the vehicle – heading angle.

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