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Chemistry101

Chapter3

CHAPTER3
CalculationswithChemicalFormulasandEquations
MOLECULARWEIGHT
(M.W.)
SumoftheAtomicWeightsofall
atomsinaMOLECULE of
asubstance.

FORMULAWEIGHT
(F.W.)
SumoftheatomicWeightsofall
atomsinaFORMULAUNIT
ofasubstance.

Canbeusedfor:
MOLECULARCOMPOUNDS
only.
Example:

Canbeusedforboth:
IONICCOMPOUNDSand
MOLECULARCOMPOUNDS
Example:

MW(H2O)=?

FW(Na2CO3)=?

OneH2Omolecule
contains:
2Hatoms:
2x1.01amu=
2.02amu
1Oatom:
1x16.00amu=16.00amu

OneFormulaUnitofNa2CO3
contains:
2Na+ ions:
2x22.99amu=45.98amu
1Catom:
1x12.01amu=12.01amu
3Oatoms:
3x16.00amu=48.00amu

OneH2O
molecule
weighs

OneNa2CO3
formulaunit
weighs

18.02amu

105.99amu

Chemistry101

Chapter3

THEMOLECONCEPT
THEMOLE: istheamountofsubstancethatcontains6.02x1023 chemicalunitssuchas:
atoms,
ions
molecules
formulaunits
electrons,etc.
23
6.023x10 isabbreviatedNA
hasbeenintroducedinchemistrybytheItalianscientist,Avogadro
isreferredtoasAvogadrosNumber
Examples:
1moleHatoms contains:
6.023x1023 Hatoms
1moleH2 moleculescontains:

6.023x1023 H2 molecules:
2x6.023x1023 Hatoms=1.20x1024Hatoms

1moleH2Omolecules contains:

6.023x1023 H2Omolecules:
2x6.023x1023 Hatoms=12.05x1023Hatoms
1x6.023x1023 Oatoms=6.023x1023 Oatoms

1moleNaCl contains:

1moleNa2CO3 contains:

6.023x1023 formulaunitsofNaCl:
1x6.023x1023 Na+ ions
1x6.023x1023 Cl- ions
6.023x1023 formulaunitsofNa2CO3:
2x6.023x1023 Na+ ions=12.05x1023 Na+ ions
1x6.023x1023 CO32- ions=6.023x1023 CO32- ions
1x6.023x1023 Catoms
3x6.023x1023 Oatoms=18.07x1023 Oatoms

Chemistry101
MOLARMASS(MM):

Chapter3
isthemassofonemoleofsubstance
isequaltotheFormulaWeightexpressedingrams

1moleH2O
contains
6.023x1023
molecules

1moleNa2CO3
weighs

18.02g

contains

weighs

6.02x1023
formulaunits

105.99g

Examples:
1.
CalculatethemassingramsofoneHeatom.
1molHeatoms
1Heatom x x =
6.02x1023 Heatoms
2.

HowmanyCatomsaretherein4.00x10-8 gofpropane(C3H8)?
4.00x10-8gC3H8 x x x

NOTE:Setupunitssothattheycancelout

Chemistry101

Chapter3

3.

HowmanymolesofNaatomsaretherein50.0gofNa?

4.

Whatisthemassof6.30molesoflead(II)sulfate?

Formulaoflead(II)sulfate:

2+ 2
PbSO4

PbSO4

??????gPbSO4
?gPbSO4 =6.30molesPbSO4 x
1molePbSO4
1molePbSO4 =MolarMassofPbSO4 :

1molePb =
1moleS =
4molesO =

1x207.2g =
1x32.07g =
4x16.00g =

207.2g
32.07g
64.00g
303.3g

303.3gPbSO4
?gPbSO4 =6.30molesPbSO4 x =1.91x103 gPbSO4
1molePbSO4

Chemistry101

5.

Chapter3

Calculatethenumberofmolesin2.45gofmagnesiumsulfate.

Formulaofmagnesiumsulfate:

2+ 2
MgSO4

MgSO4

1moleMgSO4
?molesMgSO4 =2.45gMgSO4 x
?????gMgSO4
1moleMgSO4 =MolarMassofMgSO4 :

1moleMg =
1moleS =
4molesO=

1x24.31g =
1x32.07g =
4x16.00g =

24.31g
32.07g
64.00g
120.38g

1moleMgSO4
?molesMgSO4 =2.45gMgSO4 x =0.0204molesMgSO4
120.38gMgSO4

Chemistry101

Chapter3

PERCENTCOMPOSITION
Thepercentcompositionofacompoundisthemasspercentofeachelementinthecompound.

Mass%X=

no.ofXinformulaxatomicmassofX
x100
molecularmassofcompound

Therecommendeddailyallowanceoftablesalt(sodiumchloride)is2000.mgNaCl.Howmanymgof
Naarecontainedin2,000.mgNaCl?
FirstStep:

Calculatethemassof1moleofcompound
1moleNa
1moleCl

=
=

1x22.9g
1x35.45g

1moleofNaCl

=
=

22.99g
35.45g

58.44g

SecondStep: Calculatethe%by massofeachelementinthecompound

%Na=

22.99g
x100=39.34%
58.44g

%Cl=

35.45g
x100=60.66%
58.44g

ThirdStep:Checkifthepercentagesaddupto100%
39.34%Na+60.66%Cl=100.00%
HowmanymgofNaarecontainedin2,000.mgNaCl?
39.34mgNa
?mgNa=2,000.mgNaClx =786.8mgNa
100.00mgNaCl

Chemistry101

Chapter3

Examples:
1. Calculatethepercentcompositionof sodiumphosphate(Na3PO4).
Calculatemolarmassofsodiumphosphate:
3molesNa
1moleP
4molesO
1moleNa3PO4

=
=
=
=

%Na= x100 =

%P= x100 =

%O= x100 =

TOTAL%

100.00%

2. Calculatethemasspercentageofcopperinthenaturaloremalachite. Theformulaofmalachiteis
CuCO3 .Cu(OH)2
First:Calculatethemassof1moleofCuCO3 .Cu(OH)2
2molesCu =
2x63.55g =
127.1gCu
1moleC
=
1x12.01g =
12.01gC
5molesO
=
5x16.00g =
80.00gO
2molesH
=
2x1.01g
=
2.02gH
1moleCuCO3 .Cu(OH)2

%Cu=

221.1g

127.1g
x100=57.49%
221.1g

Chemistry101

Chapter3

3. Calculatethemassofcopperin1.37gramsofcopper(II)oxide(CuO)

1moleCu
1moleO

=
=

1x63.55g
1x16.00g

1moleCuO

=
=

63.55g
16.00g

79.55g

63.55gCu
?gCu=1.37gCuOx =1.09gCu
79.55gCuO

4. Seawatercontains0.0065%(bymass)ofbromine. Howmanygramsofbrominearetherein2.50Lof
seawater? Thedensityofseawateris1.025g/cm3.

Chemistry101

Chapter3

CHEMICALFORMULAS
Formulasgiveinformationaboutthetype,thenumber,andarrangementofatomsinasubstance
Twoimportanttypeofformulaswillbediscussedandcompared:

EMPIRICALFORMULAS
(SimplestFormulas)
canbewrittenforbothmolecularand
ioniccompounds

MOLECULARFORMULAS
canbewrittenformolecularcompoundsonly

indicatethenumberofatomsofeachkind
inamolecule
aremultiplesofempiricalformulas

indicatethesmallestwholenumberratio
betweentheatomsorions ofasubstance
(smallestwholenumbersubscripts)
Multiplier

H2O2 (hydrogenperoxide)
H2O
C2H2 (acetylene)
C6H6 (benzene)
C6H12O6 (glucose)
C6H12 (cyclohexane)
C6H4Cl2
DoesnotexistforanIonicCompound
Doesnotexistforanioniccompound
9

HO
H2O
CH
CH
CH2O
CH2
C3H2Cl
NaCl
SnO2

2
1
2
6
6
6
2

Chemistry101

Chapter3

CalculatingtheEmpirical(SimplestFormula)
InformationRequired: PercentageCompositionbyMass,or
Compositionbyweight
Example:
Tin(Sn)reactswithoxygen(O)toformanoxideoftin(SnaOb),which
contains0.9913gSnand0.2729gO.
WhatistheEmpiricalFormulaoftheoxide?
(thatis: a=?
b=?)
Step1: MASS
MOLE
1moleSn
?molesSn=0.9913gSnx =0.008351molesSnatoms
118.71gSn
1moleO
?molesO=0.2729gO x =0.01706molesOatoms
16.00gO
Step2: DIVIDEBYSMALL
0.01706molesO
RelativenumberofOatoms= =2.043
0.008351molesSn
0.008351molesSn
RelativenumberofSnatoms= =1.000
0.008351molesSn
EmpiricalFormula:
Sn1.000O2.043
(includesexperimentalerror)
10

SnO2

Chemistry101

Chapter3

SampleProblem#1
Arsenic(As)reactswithoxygen(O)toformacompoundthatis
75.7%Asand24.3%Obymass.
Whatistheempiricalformulaofthisoxide?
Step1: PERCENT
MASS
75.7%As
24.3%O
Assume100gcompound
Step2: MASS

75.7gAs

24.3gO

MOLE

1moleAs
?molesAs= 75.7gAsx =
74.92gAs

1.01molesAsatoms

1moleO
?molesO= 24.3gOx =
16.00gO

1.52molesOatoms

Step3: DIVIDEBYSMALL
1.52molesO
RelativenumberofOatoms= =1.50
1.01molesAs
1.01molesAs
RelativenumberofAsatoms= =1.00
1.01molesAs
EmpiricalFormula:
As1.00O1.50 ???????????
(subsciptsmustbewholenumbers)
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Chemistry101

Chapter3

Step4: MULTIPLYTILWHOLE:
(As1.00O1.50)

As2O3

ASimpleRhymeforaSimpleFormula
(toberemembered)
1.
2.
3.
4.

PercenttoMass
MasstoMole
Dividebysmall
MultiplytilWhole

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Chemistry101

Chapter3

SampleProblem#1
AsampleofFreoncontains0.423gC,2.50gCl,and1.34gF. WhatistheEmpiricalFormulaofFreon?

1.

PercenttoMass

Thisstepmaybeskippedsincemassesarealreadygiven:
0.423gC

2.

2.50gCl

1.34gF.

MasstoMole

?molesC=

?molesCl=

?molesF=

3.

Dividebysmall
C=
Cl=
F=

EmpiricalFormula:

_________________

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Chemistry101

Chapter3

FindingtheMolecularFormula
Informationrequired: 1.EmpiricalFormula
2.MolecularMass

Ex:CH2
Ex:56.0amu

WhatistheMolecularFormulaofthiscompound?
EmpiricalFormulaMassofCH2 is:
1C=1x12.0amu=12.0amu+
2H=2x2.0amu =2.0amu
14.0amu
MolecularFormula:
cannotbeCH2
multiplierisnot1

(14.0amu 56.0amu)

ConsiderthepossiblemultipliersandtheresultingMolecularMass:
Multiplier(n):
1
MolecularFormula:
CH2
MolecularMass(amu): 14.0

2
C2H4
28.0

3
C3H6
42.0

4
C4H8
56.0

correctMolecularFormula
(yieldscorrectMolecularMass)
NOTE: MolecularMass
MM
56.0amu
56.0amu
Itfollows: 4=
14.0amu

=Multiplierx EmpiricalFormulaMass
= n
x
EFM
= 4
x
14.0amu
MolecularMass
InGeneral: n=
EmpiricalFormulaMass
14

Chemistry101

Chapter3

SampleProblem1
TheempiricalformulaforbenzeneisCH.Themolecularmassofbenzene
is78amu.Whatisthemolecularformulaofbenzene?
EmpiricalFormulaMassofCHis:

1C=1x12amu =12amu+
1H=1x1amu =1amu
13amu

MolecularFormula:
(CH)n
n=?
MolecularMass78amu
n= = =6
EmpiricalFormulaMass13amu
MolecularFormula:

(CH)6

C6H6

SampleProblem2:
AcompoundwhoseempiricalformulaisC3H2ClhasaMolecularMassof
147.0amu.WhatistheMolecularFormula?
EmpiricalFormulaMassofC3H2Clis: 3C=3x12.0amu=36.0amu+
2H=2x1.0amu =2.0amu
1Cl=1x35.5amu=35.5amu
73.5amu
MolecularFormula:
(C3H2Cl)n
n=?
MolecularMass147amu
n= = =2
EmpiricalFormulaMass73.5amu
MolecularFormula:(C3H2Cl)2

C6H4Cl2
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