# This is the PDF file of text No.TE04EA-1.

No.TE04EA-1.pdf 98.3.20

3. Noise Suppression by Low-pass Filters 3.5. The Effect of Non ideal Capacitors

Characteristic of Capacitors
0 10 20 30 40 50 1 Chip monolithic two-terminal ceramic capacitor 0.001µF (1000pF) 2.0 x 1.25 x 0.6 mm 5 10 50 100 500 1000

12

Insertion loss (dB)

Ideal capacitor 0.001µF (1000pF)

Frequency (MHz)

This section and the following sections describe the necessity and performance of capacitor-type EMI filters. With the ideal capacitor, the insertion loss increases as the frequency becomes higher. However, with actual capacitors, the insertion loss increases until the frequency reaches a certain level (self-resonance frequency) and then insertion loss decreases.

[Notes]

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TE04EA-1.. [Notes] –– 13 –– .3.The frequency at wich the insertion loss begins to decrease is called self-resonance frequency. It is the frequency at which the impedance of the capacitor becomes zero. The Effect of Non ideal Capacitors The Effect of Non ideal Capacitors 13 (a) Equivalent circuit of capacitor Signal At high frequencies. No.. f = 1/2π√LC f: Self-resonance frequency C: Capacitance L: Residual inductance The insertion loss of capacitors increase until the frequency reaches the self-resonance frequency and then decrease due to residual inductance of the lead wires and the capacitor's electrode pattern existing in series with the capacitance.5. and residual inductance. Noise Suppression by Low-pass Filters 3.TE04EA-1.Since noise is prevent from going through the bypass capacitors to the GND.pdf 98.This is the PDF file of text No. From j2πfL + 1/j2πfC = 0. ESL: Equivalent series inductance (L) (Residual inductance) GND (b) Effect by residual inductance Insertion loss Limiting curve by ESL Ideal characteristic of capacitor Self-resonance frequency Frequency Self-resonance frequency The frequency at which resonance occur due to the capacitor’s own capacitance.the insertion loss decrease.20 3.

i.20 3. For use in a high-frequency range. Insertion loss Capacitance Limiting curve by ESL Small Medium Large Frequency ESL Insertion loss Large Medium Small Frequency When the residual inductance is the same. the insertion loss does not change regardless of whether the capacitance value is increased or decreased.This is the PDF file of text No.3. the insertion loss does not change at frequencies above the self-resonance frequency. Therefore for greater noise suppression at frequencies higher than the self-resonance frequency. you must select a capacitor with a higher self-resonance frequency. a capacitor with a high self-resonance frequency.TE04EA-1. The Effect of Non ideal Capacitors The Effect of ESL 14 At frequencies higher than the self-resonance frequency. small residual inductance (ESL).pdf 98.TE04EA-1. No.5.e. must be selected. small residual inductance. Noise Suppression by Low-pass Filters 3. regardless of whether the capacitance value of the capacitor is increased or decreased.e. [Notes] –– 14 –– . i.

pdf 98.4 x 8.2 mm Chip monolithic two-terminal ceramic capacitor (0.25 x 0.5 1 Leaded monolithic two-terminal capacitor (0.01 µF) 2.TE04EA-1.1 µF) 5 10 50 100 500 1000 Frequency (MHz) The above drawing shows examples of insertion loss measurements of typical capacitors.TE04EA-1.20 3.0 x 1. For leaded capacitors.85 mm 60 Chip aluminum electrolytic capacitor (47 µF) 8.6 x 3. the insertion loss is measured with the lead wires cut to 1 mm. [Notes] –– 15 –– .This is the PDF file of text No.3 mm Chip monolithic two-terminal ceramic capacitor (0.6.01 µF) 40 Chip aluminum electrolytic capacitor (47 µF) 5. No.0 x 1.25 x 0. Characteristic of Typical Capacitors Insertion Loss Characteristics of Typical Two-terminal Capacitors 0 15 Insertion loss (dB) 20 Leaded monolithic two-terminal ceramic capacitor (0.85 mm 80 0.3 x 6. Noise Suppression by Low-pass Filters 3.1µF) 2.3.8 x 4.

3.25 x 0. Noise Suppression by Low-pass Filters 3. Size: 2. Size: 8. which are calculated from the impedance curves shown on the previous page. [Notes] –– 16 –– .0 nH 2.TE04EA-1.25 x 0.01 µF.6 nH 1.5.9 nH 0.8 nH 3.01 µF) Leaded monolithic ceramic capacitor (0.01 µF) Leaded disc ceramic capacitor (0. Size: 5.6 mm) Chip monolithic ceramic capacitor (0.1 µF. depending on the dielectric material and the structure of the electrode pattern.20 3.4 x 8.1 µF) Leaded monolithic ceramic capacitor (0. It can also vary in the same type of capacitor. The residual inductance varies depending on the type of capacitor.2 mm) Residual inductance (ESL) 3.6 x 3.8 x 4.7 nH 0. No.TE04EA-1.pdf 98.6 nH 1.3 mm) Chip tantalum electrolytic capacitor (47 µF.85 mm) Chip aluminum electrolytic capacitor (47 µF.0 x 1.3 x 6. Characteristic of Typical Capacitors Typical ESL Values for Capacitors 16 Type of Capacitor Leaded disc ceramic capacitor (0.1 µF) Chip monolithic ceramic capacitor (0.9 nH 6.This is the PDF file of text No.0 x 1.4 nH The above table shows typical residual inductances (ESL) values for capacitors. Size: 2.

No.3. The Effect of Equivalent Series Resistance The Effect of Equivalent Series Resistance (a) Capacitor’s equivalent circuit with ESL and ESR ESL: Equivalent series inductance (L) (Residual inductance) ESR: Equivalent series resistance 20 (b) Affect by ESL Insertion loss (c) Affect by ESR Insertion loss Limiting curve by ESR Limiting curve by ESL Ideal characteristic of capacitor Self-resonance frequency Ideal characteristic of capacitor Frequency Frequency (d) Insertion loss frequency characteristic of actual capacitor affected by ESL and ESR Insertion loss Frequency The second factor that causes deterioration in the characteristic of capacitors is equivalent series resistance (ESR).TE04EA-1.TE04EA-1.8.pdf 98.20 3. [Notes] –– 20 –– .This is the PDF file of text No. The ESR is very low in ceramic capacitors but higher in aluminum electrolytic capacitors. The insertion loss will be lower due to ESR caused by the electrode and material. Noise Suppression by Low-pass Filters 3.

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