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Electrical Machines

Electrical Machines

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Electrical Machines
Electrical Machines

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Shaftflux,ormoregenerallyaxial leakageflux,occursinall electrical machines.It
isproducedbecausenomachinecanbeconstructedwithperfectsymmetry. There
will alwaysbe,forexample,slightdifferencesinthereluctanceofmagneticcircuits
duetobuildingtolerances,core-plateanisotropy,andplatethicknessvariation[29].
Thisasymmetryisreflectedintheimpedancespresentedbythevariousphasegroups,
orcoilsinthemachinestator, andwill causeslightvariationsbetweenthecurrents
flowinginthecoils.Itisalsothecauseofhomopolarfluxesinthemachineshaftthat
canleadtoshaftvoltagesasdescribedinalatersection.
Thisasymmetry,togetherwithsmalldifferencesintheelectricalpropertiesofthe
conductorsandvariationsinthephysical dispositionof theconductioninboththe
activelengthandendregionsofmachines,willgiverisetoanetdifferencebetween
thecurrents flowing in onesection of theend winding when compared with the
correspondingsectiondiametricallyopposite.Theimbalanceleadsnaturallytoanet
axial fluxcomponent.A similarargumentcanbeappliedtotherotorcircuits;hence
onecanexpecttomeasureaxialflux,eveninmachinesthatarein‘perfecthealth’.
Itisasimpleextensionofthistoconsiderwhathappenswhencertainfaultcon-
ditionsariseinamachine.Faults,suchaswindingshortcircuits,voltageimbalance
andbrokenrotorbars, representseveredisruptionstotheinternal symmetryof the
machine.Itislogicaltoconclude,therefore,thattheeffectontheproductionofaxial
fluxwillbereadilyobservable.Anygrosschangeofmagneticcircuitconditions,such
astheformationofaneccentricairgapduetobearingwear,will,bythesametoken,
bereflectedwithacorrespondingchangeinaxialleakageflux.
Thepurposeofaxialfluxmonitoringisthereforetotranslateobserveddifferences
in thenatureof theaxial leakageflux into an indication of fault condition. The
productionof suchfluxesinsquirrel cagerotorinductionmachineswasstudiedby
Jordanet al.[30,31]withparticularemphasisonthechangesoccurringduetostatic
eccentricity.Erlickiet al.[32]showedthatitispossibletodetectthelossofasupply
phasethroughaxialfluxmonitoring.
Inthe1970sintheUK alargepower stationboiler auxiliaryinductionmotor,
equippedwithtwostator windingsfor two-speedoperation, wasoperatingonone
windingwithashortedturnontheidlewinding. Circulatingcurrentsinthefaulty
idlewinding, inducedbytheenergisedwinding, causeddegradationof theinsula-
tion, charringandthegenerationof flammablegases(seeChapter7, Section7.2).
Eventuallythesegasesenteredtheterminalbox,ignited,burstingtheterminalboxand
causingafatality.ThisincidentgalvanisedinterestintheUK inmotormonitoring,
becauseitwasquicklyrealisedthatthefaultedidlewindingcouldhavebeendetected
bymonitoringtheaxialleakagefluxofthemachine,particularlybymountingasearch
coilaroundtherotorshaft.

214 Condition monitoring of rotating electrical machines

Rickson[24]developedaprotectiondevicebasedonthisprincipal.Penmanet al.
[33]showedthatmorediscriminationcouldbeachievedbetweenavarietyof fault
conditionsbycarefullyprocessingtheaxial fluxsignal andthisinitiatedPenman’s
workonmachineconditionmonitoring.
Thetechniquerelies upon examining thechanges in thespectral components
of theaxial flux. Thesecomponentsariseasdescribedbelow. Sincethefluxesare
producedbywindingcurrents,thefrequencyofthesefluxcomponentsmustberelated
tothefrequenciesofthecurrents.Rotorcurrentsarealsoinducedbytheairgapflux,
so thenet airgapflux will bemodifiedas aresult. Whiletherotor is at rest the
airgapfieldresultssolelyfromthecurrentsflowinginthestator;henceonlythetime
harmonicspresentinthelinecurrentswill appearintheaxial flux. Oncetherotor
moves,however,itdoessowithanangularspeed,ωrm = (1− s)ωse/p,withrespect
tothestator, wherep isthenumber of polepairsinthemachine. Theairgapflux
components will consequently befrequency filtered. For example, inthenormal
three-phasestatorwinding,theairgapfieldproduced,bstator,canbeapproximatedup
totheseventhharmonicbytheform

b1(t) = ˆB1cos(ωset − pθ1)+ ˆB5cos(ωset +5pθ1)

− ˆB7cos(ωset −7pθ1)+ · · ·

(9.18)
Wecantransformthisexpressionintoaframeofreferencemovingwiththerotor
byconsideringFigure9.12,whichshowstherelationshipsbetweenafixedpointin
thestatorandafixedpointontherotor:

θ2 = θ1−ωrmt

(9.10)

Stator

Rotor

Stator ref.

R

o

to

r re

f.

Q2 = wrmt

Q

Q

2

Q1

Figure9.12 Rotor and stator frames of reference

Electrical techniques: current, flux and power monitoring 215

However,foraninductionmachinewithp polepairs:

φ2 = θ1− (1− s)

p ωset

(9.16)

Usingtheseexpressionsitcanbeshownthatthenth

termoftheairgapfieldinthe

statorframeis

bn1(t) = ˆBncos[(1±(1− s)nωset)± npθ1]

(9.19)

Therotorframeexpressioncorrespondingto(9.18)is

b2(t) = ˆBcos(sωset − pθ2)+ ˆB5cos((6−5s)ωset −5pθ2)

− ˆB7cos((7s −6)ωset − pθ2)+ · · ·

(9.20)

Thefirstairgapharmonicproducescurrentsatstimesthesupplyfrequency;thefifth
airgapharmonicproducestimefrequenciesof(6−5s)timesandsoon.
Itisnowapparentthattheaxialfluxspectrumisrichinharmonics,eveninawell-
constructed, healthymachine. Moreover, becausefaultconditionssuchasshorted
turns, lossof phase, eccentricity andsoon, causechangesinthespaceharmonic
distributionsintheairgap,suchconditionswill beaccompaniedbyacorresponding
changeinthetimeharmonicspectrumofaxialflux.Furthermore,byeffectivelyusing
thestatorwindingasasearchcoiltodetectrotorfaults,andtherotorwindingtodetect
statorfaults,itispossibletogaininsightintotheharmonicchangestobeexpected
foragivenfaultcondition.
Letusfollowatypical faultconditionthroughthediagnosticprocedure. If we
assumethataninter-turnshortcircuitexistsinthestatorwindingthenthiscondition
canberepresentedasasinglepulseof MMF,similartothatshowninFigure9.13.

P/2/2

ΘΘ

Π

Π /2/2

ΘΘ

HH((ΘΘ))

P/2

Q

P

3P/2

2P

Q

H(Q)

Figure9.13 MMF due to a single fully pitched coil

216 Condition monitoring of rotating electrical machines

Thecomponentsofthestatorairgapfieldbstator generatedbythisdistributionare

b1(t) =

n=1,3,5...

ˆBncos(ωset ± nθ)

(9.21)

Thenth

componentintherotorframewillthereforebe

bn,2(t) = ˆBncos 1±(1− s)

n
p

ωset ± nθ2

(9.22)

Theseharmonicswill inducecurrentsintherotorcircuits,andbecausethereare
asymmetriesintherotor magnetic andelectric circuits, they will appear asaddi-
tional componentsinthespectrumof axial flux.Table9.1attheendof thechapter
summarisestheangularfrequencycomponentsarisingintheaxial flux.Figure9.14

Axial coil emf amplitude

0

500

Frequency, Hz

(a)

100

200

300

400

Axial coil emf amplitude

0

500

Frequency, Hz

(b)

100

200

300

400

Axial coil emf amplitude

0

500

Frequency, Hz

(c)

100

200

300

400

Axial coil emf amplitude

0

500

Frequency, Hz

(d)

100

200

300

400

0

500

0

2000

0

2500

0

500

Figure9.14 Typical spectra taken at identical gains from an axial flux search coil
fitted to an experimental motor. (a) Good rotor, no faults, no load;
(b) Broken rotor bar, no other faults; (c) Good rotor, large stator
shorted turn 1 amp, no load; (d) Good rotor, small stator negative
phase sequence, no load.

Electrical techniques: current, flux and power monitoring 217

illustratescomparableresultsfromasmallfour-polesquirrelcageinductionmachine
usingthetechnique. Only thespectral componentsbelow 500Hz areshown, but
faults,suchasinter-turnshortcircuits,brokenrotorbars,ornegativephasesequence
inthesupply,arevisibleinthespectraandhavebeenidentified.
Theaxial fluxmonitoringtechniqueisstill embryonicbutessentiallyitrequires
thecollectionof anaxial fluxsignal,usingasearchcoil woundconcentricallywith
theshaftofamachine.Thissignalisthenspectrallyanalysedandonthebasisofthe
appearanceofcertainharmonicgroupsadecisionismadeastotheconditionofthe
machine.Theattractionsof themethodarethatitiscompletelynon-invasiveanda
singlesensorcanbeusedforavarietyof faulttypes. Itis, however, acomplicated
techniquerequiringspecialisedequipment,andisrelativelyuntested.

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