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Published by: Haneefa Ch on Apr 07, 2009
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06/08/2013

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GRP Pipe Manufacturing by CFW Process Flowchart

Mixing

Resin + Cobalt

Catalyst

Fiberglass Reinforcemen ts

Infrared curing

Hydro-testing

Chamfering, Shaving, Calibration, Cutting

Storage

In-line automatic spigot calibration & Chamfering

Dosing of cobalt – automatic

PLC controlled chemical dosing

Pipe Design Recipe

Feed the design parameters into the CFW machine

In-house Tests

Axial Tensile Strength Test

Stiffness Test

Flexure Test

Split Disc Testing Machine – for HOOP strength test

Beam Strength Test

Strain-Corrosion Test

Strain-Corrosion End-point

Strain-Corrosion Test Report

Strain-Corrosion Test Report

Fig. 2. Plot of regression line,

HDB Test

HDB Test Report

HDB Test Report

Fig. 2 – Graph of regression line, 95% Confidence and Prediction Limits.

Cell Classification System
Type 1 Type 2 Grade 1 Grade 2 Grade 3 Grade 4 Liner A Liner B Liner C Liner D : Filament-Wound : Centrifugally Cast : Glass Fiber Reinforced Epoxy (RTRP Epoxy) : Glass Fiber Reinforced Polyester (RTRP Polyester) : Glass Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Mortar (RPMP Epoxy) : Glass Fiber Reinforced Polyester Mortar (RPMP Mortar) : No Liner : Thermoplastic Liner : Reinforced Thermoset Liner : Non-reinforced Thermoset Liner

Example : Type 1, Grade 2, Liner C (Filament-wound, RTRP Polyester, Reinforced Thermoset Liner)

STIS E’b Backfill Installations Compaction Native Soil

E’n

Traffic Loads Pipe Invert

Pipe Crown Vertical deflection

Facts about GRP Pipe

AWWA M45 fig. 6-1

Trench Cross-Section Terminology

Native Soil Group Classification
Appendix C Nativ e Soil Grou p 1 2 3 4 5 6 Blow Counts’ > 152 8 – 15 4–8 2–4 1–2 0-1 E’n value3,4 (MPa) 34.5 20.7 10.3 4.8 1.4 0.34 Description Friction Angle (degrees) 33 30 29 28 27 26 Description Unc. Comp. Str. (kPa) 192 - 384 96 – 192 48 – 96 24 – 48 12 - 24 0 - 12

Compact Slightly compact Loose Very loose Very loose Very, very loose

Very stiff Stiff Medium Soft Very soft Very, very soft

Blows/foot from standard penetration test, ASTM D1586. For higher blow counts, E'n values increase to 345 MPa for rock. 3 The use of geotextiles in the pipe zone will likely increase the values of E'n above those listed. 4 If permanent sheeting is used in the pipe zone, consider native E’n = E'b, Sc = 1
1 2

Field testing to assist Classification of Native Soils
Table E1 Simple Field Test for Determining Soil Group1

Native Soil Group 1 2 3 4 5 6

Measurable Characteristic Can be barely penetrated with thumb Can be 4mm Can be 10mm Can be 25mm Can be 50mm Can be penetrated with thumb to penetrated by thumb to penetrated by thumb to penetrated by thumb to penetrated by fist to 25mm

Based on Peck, Hanson and Thornburn, "Foundation Engineering," 2nd Ed., John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1974 and ASTM D2488.
1

Ideal backfill material, but costly…

Description of Backfill Soils
Appendix D1 Backfill Soil Type Classification Backfill Type
A B C D E F

Description
Crushed stone and gravel, < 12% fines Gravel with sand, sand, < 12% fines Silty gravel and sand, 12 – 35% fines, LL < 40% Silty, clayey sand, 35 – 50% fines, LL < 40% Sandy clayey silt, 50 – 70% fines, LL < 40% Low plasticity fine-grained soils,LL < 40%

Unified Soil Classification Designation, ASTM D2487
GW, GP, GW – GM, GP - GM GW – GC, GP – GC, SW, SP SW – SM, SP – SM, SW – SC, SP SC GM, GC, GM – GC, SM, SC, SM - SC GM, GC, GM – GC, SM, SC, SM - SC CL, ML, CL - ML CL, ML, CL - ML

Backfill Modulus of Passive Resistance, E’b (MPa)
Appendix D2 Backfill Modulus of Passive Resistance (NonSaturated) Backfill Type A B C D E F E’b values (MPa) at Relative Compaction 80% 16 7 6 3 3 3 85% 18 11 9 6 6 6 90% 20 16 14 9 9 92 95% 22 19 17 102 102 102

100% relative compaction defined as maximum Standard Proctor Density at optimum moisture content. 2 Values typically difficult to achieve, included as reference.
1

Backfill Modulus of Passive Resistance, E’b (MPa)
Appendix D3 Backfill Modulus of Passive Resistance (Saturated) Backfill Type A B C D E F E’b values (MPa) at Relative Compaction 80% 13 5 2 1.7 NA3 NA3 85% 13 7 3 2.4 1.7 1.4 90% 14 10 14 9 9 1.72 95% 15 12 4 3.12 2.42 2.12

1. 100% relative compaction defined as maximum Standard Proctor Density at optimum moisture content. 2. Values typically difficult to achieve, included as reference, 3. Not recommended for use.

Standard Trench Installation, Type 1 Without Traffic Burial depth, m corresponding to values of E’b
E’b MPa 1 6 2 Native Soil Group 3 4 5

2500 STIS
18.0 m 15.0 m 13.0 m 10.0 m 7.5m 5.5 3.5m 2.6m 11.0 m 10.0 m 9.0m 7.5m 6.0m 5.0m 3.5m 2.6m 7.0m 6.0m 5.5m 5.0m 4.0m 3.8m 2.8m 2.2m 2.8m 2.6m 2.6m 2.4m 2.0m 1.8m 1.6m 1.4m NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

20.7 13.8 10.3 6.9 4.8 3.4 2.1 1.4

23.0m 18.0m 15.0m 11.0m 8.5m 6.0m 4.0m 2.6m

Standard Trench Installation, Type 1 Without Traffic Burial depth, m
E’b MPa 1 6 2 Native Soil Group 3 4 5

5000 STIS
18.0m 15.0m 13.0m 10.0m 7.5m 6.0m 4.0m 3.0m 12.0m 10.0m 9.0m 8.0m 6.5m 5.0m 3.5m 3.0m 7.0m 6.5m 6.0m 5.0m 4.5m 4.0m 3.0m 2.6m 2.8m 3.0m 2.8m 2.6m 2.2m 2.0m 1.8m 1.6m 1.2m 1.2m 1.2m 1.2m NA NA NA NA

20.7 13.8 10.3 6.9 4.8 3.4 2.1 1.4

23.0m 18.0m 15.0m 11.0m 9.0m 6.0m 4.0m 3.0m

Standard Trench Installation, Type 1 Without Traffic Burial depth, m
E’b MPa 1 6 2 Native Soil Group 3 4 5

10000 STIS
19.0m 16.0m 13.0m 10.0m 8.5m 6.5m 4.5m 3.5m 12.0m 11.0m 10.0m 8.5m 7.0m 5.5m 4.0m 3.4m 8.0m 7.0m 6.5m 5.5m 5.0m 4.5m 3.5m 3.0m 3.6m 3.6m 3.4m 3.2m 2.8m 2.6m 2.4m 2.2m 1.8m 1.8m 1.6m 1.6m 1.6m 1.6m 1.6m 1.6m

20.7 13.8 10.3 6.9 4.8 3.4 2.1 1.4

24.0m 19.0m 15.0m 12.0m 9.0m 7.0m 4.5m 3.5m

Standard Trench Installation, Type 1 With Traffic Burial depth, m
E’b MPa 1 6 2 Native Soil Group 3 4 5

2500 STIS
18.0 m 15.0 m 13.0 m 10.0 m 7.5m 5.5m 3.5m NA 11.0 m 10.0 m 9.0m 7.5m 6.0m 5.0m 3.0m NA 7.0m 6.0m 5.5m 5.0m 4.0m 3.8m NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

20.7 13.8 10.3 6.9 4.8 3.4 2.1 1.4

23.0m 18.0m 15.0m 11.0m 8.5m 6.0m 3.5m NA

Standard Trench Installation, Type 1 With Traffic Burial depth, m
E’b MPa 1 6 2 Native Soil Group 3 4 5

5000 STIS
18.0 m 15.0 m 13.0 m 10.0 m 7.5m 6.0m 4.0m 2.4m 12.0m 10.0m 9.0m 8.0m 6.5m 5.0m 3.5m 2.2m 7.0m 6.5m 6.0m 5.0m 4.5m 4.0m 3.5m NA 3.0m 2.4m 2.4m NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA

20.7 13.8 10.3 6.9 4.8 3.4 2.1 1.4

23.0m 18.0m 15.0m 11.0m 8.5m 6.0m 4.0m 2.4m

Standard Trench Installation, Type 1 With Traffic Burial depth, m
E’b MPa 1 6 2 Native Soil Group 3 4 5

10000 STIS
19.0m 16.0m 13.0m 10.0m 8.5m 6.5m 4.5m 3.0m 12.0m 11.0m 10.0m 8.5m 7.0m 5.5m 4.0m 3.0m 8.0m 7.0m 6.5m 5.5m 5.0m 4.5m 3.5m 2.8m 3.5m 3.5m 3.0m 3.0m 2.5m NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA                

20.7 13.8 10.3 6.9 4.8 3.4 2.1 1.4

24.0m 19.0m 15.0m 12.0m 9.5m 7.0m 4.5m 3.0m

Compaction of Backfill
Helpful tips for compacting the various types of backfill: 1. As a means of "calibrating" an installation method with a given backfill type, we recommend that specific attention be given to compaction techniques and relative compaction results during the installation of the initial sections of pipe used at a given installation site. 2. When these initial pipes are installed, testing should be conducted frequently to assure relative compaction and pipe deflection criteria are being achieved. 3. For backfill placement and compaction in the haunch areas, start compacting under the pipe and work away from the pipe. 4. For side fill, compaction usually progresses best when the backfill is compacted at the trench wall first and compaction progresses toward the pipe. 5. Usually the number of "passes" or repeated applications of the compaction equipment (at a constant rate of movement) will increase the relative compaction. 6. Pipe zone backfill materials should be placed and compacted in uniform lifts on both sides of the pipe. 7. Compaction over the top of the pipe must assure that there is sufficient material to not impact the pipe. At least 150 mm cover should be sufficient when using a hand operated plate vibrator compactor; however, 300 mm is recommended when using a hand operated impact compactor. A relative compaction of no more than 85% SPD can realistically be achieved when compacting the first 300mm lift over the pipe. A measurement of the increase in the vertical diameter of the pipe is a reasonable measure of compaction effort used during the installation and another good "calibration" measurement.

Spangler Equation developed in 1941, now evolved into IOWA formula thru extensive field studies conducted by Howard.

This condition can be simulated in the lab thru strain-corrosion testing.

FIELD SERVICE ENGINEER

Field Service Representative WATANI can assign a Field Service Representative. He will provide assistance to the installer so as the latter may attain a satisfactory pipe installation. This “on-the-job” field service will be provided early in the installation and may be carried on periodically throughout the execution of the project. The service will range from continuous (full time) to intermittent depending on the job schedule, difficulty, and installation results.

Screen Shot of “Butt-Joint Overlay Calculation Software”

Joint Laminate Calculation Software

Screen Shot of “CEASAR II Software”

UNDERGROUND PIPELINE DESIGN
ANSI/AWWA Standard C950-95 and AWWA Manual M45 are the basic references of this guideline to select the appropriate GRP pipe for underground installation. AWWA Manual M45 (First Edition 1996) gives the design requirements and criteria for buried fiberglass pressure pipe. Fiberglass pipes are flexible and can sustain large deformation without any difficulties for the material. Vertical loads (covering soil, traffic and water table) determine a deflection depending on soil compaction around the pipe and on ring stiffness of the pipe cross-section. AWWA Manual M45 recognizes that the pipe design can follow two different procedures based on the stress or on the strain. Watani follows the strain procedure. The design procedure involves the following steps: 1. Check the working pressure, Pw 2. Check the surge pressure, Ps The maximum pressure shall not exceed 1.4 the pressure class of the pipe Pw + Ps ≤ 1.4Pc 3. Check ring bending, Sb and, so on…

Buried Pipe Design Calculation Program based on AWWA M45 guideline

Solutions to some worksite problems….

Taking the exact measurement of Pipe O.D.

Accurately taking the Pipe O.D. using Pi Tape

Specially-made GRP connector for Ductile Pipe

GRP-To-Ductile Iron Connection Fitting

GRP-To-Ductile Connection, pressurized to 10 bar

In-situ building-up of GRP spigot to the measured O.D

Large diameter GRP flanges up to 2600mm

Large diameter “Y” branch

Spools

Following are photo shots of GRP duct system for Ardiya and Sulaibiya Waste Water Treatment Plants…

GRP Ducts & Ducting Components, Sulaibiya & Ardiya Projects

GRP Pipe [Arabi Enertech] DN400

We provided help in in-situ jointing

Jointing by “butt-and-wrap” method

A completed in-situ “butt-and-wrap” joint

Thank you very much for your time….

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