University Libraries

3 0802 101794248






INC. 38-2931


indistinct in the twilight. ." This is the forest primeval. Stand like harpers hoar. ivith voices sad and prophetic. and in garments green. with beards that rest on their bosoms. Bearded with moss. Stand like Druids of old. The murmuring pines and the hemlock." Longfellow.


N. 1906 All rights reserved THE OUTING PRESS DEPOSIT. London. Y. 1905.APPL COL Copyright. by THE OUTING PUBLISHING COMPANY Copyright. 1906. by FIELD AND STREAM Entered at Stationers' Hall. England Published September. .



194 .. . .CONTENTS CHAPTER PAOX Foreword I Outfitting II III The Sportsman's Clothing Personal Kits . Woods . xi 1 . . 207 off the 217 Country . .. 92 100 X XI XII Dressing and Keeping Game and Fish Camp Cookery Pests of the ..37 . .. . V VI VII VIII . .. .. Keeping a Course XrV Blazes — Survey Lines—Natural of Direction . . .. ..114 165 179 Xni Forest Travel.. XV Getting Lost XVI Emergency —Bivouacs Foods — Living .11 22 IV Tents and Tools Utensils and Food . A Check-List—Packing Up . Signs .52 . . 62 70 The Camp The Camp-Fire Marksmanship in 82 IX the Woods .. .

. 232 AxEMANSHip Qualities of Wood and ^56 .. Other Animal 290 300 ..... Buckskin and Rawhide 277 XX XXI Tanning Pelts Products Accidents: Their Backwoods Treat- ment — . ..— viii CONTENTS PAGH CHAPTER XVII XVIII Edible Plants of the Wilderness . Bark XIX Trophies..

.... . . . .. 182 218 . . . 230 230 Where Lurks the Lusty Trout . 98 122 122 182 Crude. 20 32 Starting a Lean-to Shelter . ..46 .. Frontispiece Facing page .. . But a Good Day's Luck Lands Them 218 A Stray Goose Wanders Near .. Old Story .. .. . . but Comfortable Down the Snow-white Alleys The Old... A Proud Moment Real Comfort in .72 72 The Fixed Camp A Good Day's Shoot 98 An Ideal Camp-Fire The Camp in Order Just Starting Out . ... . .ILLUSTRATIONS "The Forest Primeval" In Still Waters . the Open .. ... ..


if necessary. I have treated the matter of outfitting in some detail. but because in town there is so much to pick and choose from. where we have nothing to choose from but the raw materials that lie MY one aim in writing this little book is to make it of practical service to those who around us. every one. for example. Real woodcraft consists rather in knowing how to get supply-posts. was a good woodsman.FOREWORD seek rest or sport in the wilderness. or essential parts of it. a blanket. I am not advising anybody to travel with nothing but a gun and ammunition. or on Ins own back. or whose business calls them thither. and the ways of fish well in the wilderness When we . As for camps situated within easy reach of towns or knows best how to own tastes in fitting them up. and a tin cup. Thereafter. have been destroyed. say that Daniel Boone. not because elaborate outfits are usually desirable. gratify his along without the appliances of civilization than in adapting them to wildwood life. his canoe. and with the intention of a protracted stay. for they are not. but it has been part of my object to show how the thing can be done. Such an art comes in play when we travel "light. without serious hardship. Woodcraft may be defined as the art of getting along by utilizing nature's storehouse. . that he could find his way through the dense forest without man-made marks to guide him that he knew the habits and properties of trees and plants. and prefers to use his own ingenuity rather than copy after others. the body of the book is mainly given up to such shifts and expedients as are learned in the wilderness itself. we mean that he could confidently enter an unmapped wilderness. with no outfit but what was carried by his horse. when the equipment. a frying-pan." and especially in emergencies. I suppose.

woods marten and stone marten. . backwoods handicrafts in wood. dressing and keeping game fish. Neumann of Neudamm. and wild duck. how to avoid and what to do if one does get lost. build adequate shelter against wind and rain. swan. I have little or getting lost. dog. forest travel. snowshoeing. and jumping. tropics or arctics. squirrel. trapping. made by the red deer. Fdhrten und Spurenkunde (Tracks and Trailing). This sort of thing can be overdone. polecat. mostly life-size. that he was a good trailer and a good shot: game and cure peltry. and for this I would suggest the plain English compound wildcraft. moor-hen. not that it would make a good trailer out of anybody. and of the capercailzie. rabbit. wolf. A similar book for American game is much to be desired. canoeing. deserts. nothing to say. bustard. curlew. here. cook wholesome meals over an open fire. The text is accompanied by capital woodcuts. chamois. but any one who reads German may come to a different conclusion after studying a work by Eugen Teuwsen and Carl Schulze. running. In the following chapters I offer some suggestions on making camps.* * This woiild seem an impossible subject to treat in a book. published in 1901 by J. heron.xii FOREWORD that he could dress and game. and could bide comfortably in the wilderness without help from outside. hare. but because it would give a beginner a clear idea of what to look for c\id what to avoid. because each of these is an and we have good books on all of them save trailing. what the different species of trees are good for (from a camper's viewpoint). but we need a generic term to express the art. fox. pheasant. the treatment of wounds and other injuries. — The literature of outdoor sport is getting us used to such correlative terms as plainscraft. quail. badger. and even icecraft. that he knew how to utilize the gifts of nature. This describes the tracks fallow deer. plains. mountaincraft. black-cock. outfitting. and birdcraft. otter. bear. of getting on well in wild regions. snowcraft. and pack-trains. various weasels. or the of horses art trailing. in general. showing with more than photographic exactness the tracks made by these animals in the various paces of walking. crane. living off the country. mountains. moose. wild goose. whether in forests. management by itself. fishing. and camp cookery. wild boar. and keep himself warm through the bitter nights of winter in short. Prussia. entitled. and some other branches of woodcraft that may be of service when one is far from shops and from hired help. hazel-grouse. skins and other raw materials. roebuck. bark. about hunting. wildcat. stork.

Moreover. That is the difference between a true knot and a granny knot. I have tried to keep in mind a variety of conditions existing in different kinds of country. Perplexed. It can also show how not to do a thing and there is a good deal in that. as of any other art. when confronted by strange conditions. for both are shifty. but none will repeat the error unless he be possessed by the notion that he has nothing new to learn. A Maine guide may scour all the forests of northeastern America. very often depend upon close observance of just such details as breathless people would skip or scurry over. it is useful only to those who do not expect too much from it. is in knowing what to avoid. both are cool-headed. but put him in a Mississippi canebrake.FOREWORD I xiii book have preferred to give full details. and. Any man may blunder once. for a time. In the school of the woods there is no graduation day. since this is not a guidebook to any one particular region. Half of woodcraft. But there are some practical arts that it can teach. bewildered. No book can teach a man how to swing an axe or follow a trail. as far as this One's health and comfort in the wilds goes. But it would not take long for either of these men to "catch on" to the new conditions. and the difference can be shown by a — sketch as easily as with string in hand. to be used according to circumstances. What would be good woodcraft in one region might be bad bungling in another. till he scarce doth know His right forefinger from his left big toe. and have suggested alternative methods or materials. and both are keen observers. it can give a clear idea of general principles. If any one should get the impression from these pages that camping out with a Hght outfit means Httle . And a southern cane-cracker would be quite as much at sea if he were turned loose in a spruce forest in winter. and it is long odds that he would be. As for book-learning. and feel quite at home in any of them. what is of more consequence.

Horace Kephart. until there is here about double the matter that appeared I have also added two chapters in the parent series. 1906. in 1904-6. taking all that for granted. classic in the literature of Dayton. torment from insects. it has been remedium utriusque jortunoe. Most of these pages were written in the wilderness. he will not have caught the spirit of my intent. of difficulties. in a peculiar sense. a hard bed. Ohio March. questionable meals. who is best known by his Indian-given title of Nessmuk. under a similar title. rather. No one need be told how to Hence it is that I treat chiefly enjoy the smooth ones. over rough parts of the trail. and how to overcome them. I owe much. indebtedness to a scrap-book full of notes and clippings. I some short-cuts. The original chapters have been expanded. the latter chiefly from old volumes of Forest and Stream and Shooting and Fishing. This book had its origin in a series of articles. where there were abundant facilities for testing the value of suggestions that were outside my previous In this connection I must acknowledge experience. Sears. the little book on Woodcraft by the late George R. both to the spirit and the letter of that outdoor life. which was one of the most valued tomes in the rather select "library" that graced half a soap-box in one corner of my cabin.xiv FOREWORD but a daily grind of camp chores. and a good chance of broken bones at the end. and new ones have been added. To me. It is not here my purpose to dwell on the charms of free life in a wild country. to the magazine Field and Stream. and it is but fitting that I should dedicate to the memory of its author this humble pendant to his work. previously published in Sports Afield. that I contributed. would point out here and there. . and offer a lift.

I have a sudden passion — IN some of our fitters to large cities there are professional out- whom one can go and say: "So many of us wish to spend such a month in such a region. besides showing you where the game and fish are " using. who will take you to the best hunting grounds and fishing waters. In this way a party who know nothing of woodcraft can spend the woods very comfortably. cooking. Nicholas for the wild wood should be free as air in the wild wood What say you? Shall we go? Your hands. aside from the expense of this kind of camping. or the city man may find himself some day alone. not campaigning. your hands!" Robin Hood. hunting and fishing: equip us." The dealer will name a When price. making camp. you pay it. packing over portages. It will include everything needed for the trip. and leave the rest to him. the time comes he will have the outfit ready and packed. though getting tical of city men a season in little prac- knowledge of the wilderness. and will do all the hard work of paddling. well When your party selected and of the best materials. But. chopping wood.— — CHAPTER I OUTFITTING We "By St. but it may be worth the price to such as can afford it. and who like that sort of thing. but the day of disaster may come. the outfit may be destroyed. reaches the jumping-off place it will be met by professional guides and packers. This is touring. seems to me that whoever takes to the woods and waters for recreation should learn how to shift for himself in an emergency. It is expensive. lost in the forest. He may employ guides and a cook all that. and comit — 1 ." and how to get them. and cleaning up.

a sense of reserve force. but of that woodcraft that holds the key to nature's storehouse. wash. am And it is conceivable that some folks might call it extravagant to pay thirty-five dollars for a thing to sleep in when you lie out of doors on the ground from choice. and if he wants a portable tent he can generally buy very cheaply a second-hand army one that will meet all his requirements for several sea- . how to select and make a camp. and all that sort of thing. are not rich enough to give carte blanche orders over the counter. We would like silk tents. anyway. reels. And there are many of us who. and how to extemporize such makeshifts as may be needed in wilderness faring. His is the confidence of the lone sailorman. how trail.2 pelled to life. at that rate. Then is he truly a woodsman. air mattresses. A camper should know for himself how to outfit. sure to do promptly the right thing at the right time. how to travel without losing to do when he has lost it. And he should know these things as he does the mend. but we would soon "go broke" I if we started in saying nothing about guns." as the unregenerate call our sylvan sport. rods. or thirty dollars for pots and pans to cook with when you are "playing hobo. Such a man has an honest pride in his own resourcefulness. how to wield an axe and make proper fires. through some miscue of the Fates. canoe. manage boat or way to his mouth. his course. whatever befalls. as a matter of course. how to fish. or what hunt. because they are the things that every properly conducted sportsman goes broke on. CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT Then meet the forces of nature in a struggle for his it may go hard with him indeed if he be not only master of himself. who whistles as he puts his tiny bark out to sea. to cook. and such-like. fiber packing cases. a doughty self-reliance that is good to feel. dress game. Nor can we deny that a man with an axe and a couple of dollars' worth of cotton cloth can put up in two or three hours as good a woodland shelter as any mere democrat or republican needs between the ides of May and of November. I am speaking only of such purchases as might be thought extravagant. shoot.

OUTFITTING sons. It helps out when you are caught slipping in through the back gate with a brand-new gun. 3 Tin or enameled ware. get together a commendable camping equipment. will cook just as good meals. by the way. though not so smart nor so ingeniously nested as a special aluminum kit. night. One can wear ready-made clothing. The best way is to make many of the things yourself. are quite as respectable in the eyes of woodland folk as a costume of loden or gabardine. and a narrow bed-tick. and they have the advantage that they are not too and mouth so home (though be broken up for shelves and table in camp. in combination with a rubber blanket or poncho. This gives your pastime an air of thrift. six months in advance. legitimate use for. he can exist in ready-furnished rooms. easy shoes and a campaign hat. and nobody will notice the outlay. filled with browse. It is sure to be loaded with gimcracks that you have no use for. and will not burn one's fingers severely. and propitiates the Lares and Penates by keeping you home o' nights. . to plan a world of solid comfort in having everything fixed just The only way to have it so is to do the work yourself. without. And there is If one begins. perhaps). as a mark. when everybody knows that you already possess more guns than you can find good to As for duffel bags. is a good thing to produce now and then to show your friends how ingeniously economical you are. Blankets we can take from never the second time. as he should. by gradual and surreptitious hoarding. he can. few things are more satisfactory than seamless grain bags that you have coated with boiled linseed oil. Such a bag. but a readymade camping outfit is a delusion and a snare. or with grass or leaves where there is no browse. makes a better mattress than the Father of his Country had on many a weary A discarded business suit and a flannel shirt. and they do not set one up so prominently Grocery boxes make good packing cases. and to lack something that you will be miserable to suit you. and prepare for his next summer or fall vacation.

To be sure. any way. if and this is but one of the cruisers' outfits comes to grief. every man going completely equipped and quite independent of the others. to sort over your beloved duffel. and. and flogging your wits with the same old problem of how to save weight and bulk without sacrifice of All thoroughbred campers do this as regularly utility. to contrive new wrinkles that nobody but yourself has the gigantic brain to conceive. . in odd corners where you have no business. or cooks badly. since all the eggs are not in one basket. or lacks forethought in suffers the penalty. and their kind have been doing it since the world began. but I want this outfit to be so light and compact that I can easily handle it myself when I am alone. generally. even though a man rigs up his own outEvery season fit. or just. again fussing over your kit. to fish around for materials. he alone On the other hand. too lazy to be neat. There is something to be said in favor of individual outfits. altering this. to make and fit up the little boxes and hold-alls in which everything has its proper place. just big enough for two men. It is one of the delights of single-handed canoeing. to concoct mysterious dopes that fill the house with unsanctimonious smells. as the birds come back in spring. that every Then if any one is carries too man is fixed to suit much or too little. so that I can dispense a modest hospitality to a chance acquaintance. If some misguided genius should invent a camping equipment that nobody could find fault with. turns up at the last moment. substituting that. I like to have a complete camping outfit of my own. sees the downfall of some cherished scheme. and sundry other states of mind. whether you go alone or cruise in squadron. to set the female members of the household to buzzing around in curiosity. himself. in the long winter evenings. It is good for us. half our pleasure in life would be swept away. the others can help him out. disapproval. he never gets it quite to suit him. or take with me a comrade who. through no fault of his own.4 CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT It is great fun. the failure Every winter sees you of some fond contrivance.

! We seek the woods to escape civilizaand all that suggests it. cots. everybody to the least detail. pots and pans galore. Still. In a far way you are emulat- — ing those grim heroes of the past who made the white man's trails across this continent. folding bath-tubs what you will. plentiful changes of clothing. come good or ill. time" to do his share of the work before starting will be the very one to shirk in camp. and closer to those good old times when every American was considered "a man for a' that" if he proved it in a manful way. Fancy Boone reclining on an air mattress. It gets us closer to nature. and intends to go into fixed camp. utensils. And there is a pleasure in achieving creditable results by the sim- plest means.OUTFITTING 5 Then I am always "fixed. and provisions. kerosene. then almost anything can be carried along trunks." and always independent. Anybody can fit up a wagon-load of calamities. If the party can travel by wagon. camp stove. merely because he is experienced and a willing worker. To saddle this hard and thankless job on one man. tools. such as tent. and hire a farmer to serve as porter. it is the general rule among campers to have "company stores." In so far as this means only those things that all use in common. But does it pay ? I think not. it is well enough. Let us sometimes broil our venison on a sharpened stick and serve it on a sheet of bark. Be plain in the woods. mattresses. but it should be a point of honor with each and every man to carry for himself a complete kit of personal necessities. arsenals of weapons and ammunition. big wall tents and poles. The question of what to take on a trip resolves itself chiefly into a question of transportation. Depend upon it. blow high or low. mackintoshes and rubber boots. books. down As for company stores. It tastes better. should bear a hand in collecting and packing them. When you win your own way through the wilds with axe and rifie you win at the same time the imperturbability of a mind at ease with itself in any . or Carson pottering over a sheet-iron stove tion for a time. — chests. the fellow who "hasn't is selfish.

" An old campaigner is known by the simplicity and He carries few impedimenta. The art of going "light but right" is hard to learn. as any one. flint and steel. nor even a veteran who ever quite attained his own ideal of lightness and Probably Nessmuk came as near to it serviceability. we go to smoothe it But let us live the simple. knapsack. blanket-bag. Then you feel that you have red blood in your veins. tomahawk. at first. it rough enough in town. we get to the woods to rough it. rod. if he learned anything. extra clothing. but every article has been well tested and it is the best He has learned by hard that his purse can afford. after he got that famous ten-pound canoe. I never knew a camper who did not burden himself. knife. and that it is good to be It is one of the blessings of free and out of doors. and leave all frills behind. hatchet. and two days' rations. Only a tenderfoot will parade a scorn of comfort and a taste for As Nessmuk says: "We do not go useless hardships. of course. "never exceeded twenty-six pounds. Let me not be misunderstood as counseling anybody to "rough it" by sleeping on the bare ground and eating nothing but hardtack and bacon. wilderness life that it shows us how few things we need in order to be perfectly happy. fitness of his equipment. nor one who. and I went prepared to camp out any and every night. rifle. the spot many substitutes for " boughten" things that we consider necessary at home. In the days when game was plentiful and there were no closed seasons our frontiersmen thought nothing of making long expeditions into the unknown wilderness with no equipment but what they carried on their own persons. including canoe. was in summer. how to fashion on tive forest. an awl. too. experience how steep are the mountain trails and how tangled the undergrowth and down wood in the primiHe has learned.6 CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT emergency by flood or field." This. natural life in the woods. — He said that his load. with a lot of kickshaws that he did not need in the woods. to wit: a blanket. a spare pair of moc- . ammunition. did not soon begin to weed them out.

roll up in his small blanket a pouch of rockahominy. But they were woodsmen. perhaps. with their men. he would perform journeys that no mammal but a wolf could equal. or forging through thickety woods. The more absurd this trinket is. Now let him imagine himself toiling uphill under an August sun. with all Again. which compels even an experienced woodsman to lug along some pet trifle that he does not need. When asked what it was for. Balancing these two prospects one against the other. not needful nor advisable for a camper in our time to suffer hardships from stinting his supplies. armed only with a bow and arrows. Scales of another kind will then fall from his eyes. and. wet night ahead. and another of parched Indian corn. ground to a coarse meal. or to rely upon a diet of pork. in a country where game may be scarce. how every bag and tin adds weight. The knack is in striking a happy medium between too much luggage and too little. 7 a small bag of jerked venison. over rocks and roots and fallen trees. and well ballasted amidships. common to us all. let him think of a chill. He will note how the little. the more he loves it. but which he would be miserable without. G-string and moccasins. which they called " rockahominy " or "coal Their tutors in woodcraft often traveled flour. beans. and of what he will really need to keep himself warm. started afoot from the mouth of the Columbia River on their return trip across the continent. A Now it is pair of scales are good things to have at is hand when one making up his packs. One of my camp-mates for five seasons carried in his "packer" a big chunk of rosin. he cannot go far wrong in selecting his outfit. unconsidered trifles mount up." An Indian runner would strip to his lighter than this. General Clark said that when he and Lewis. In his charming book The Forest. dry. every inch of them. this stuff on his back. their total store of articles for barter with the Indians for horses and food could have been tied up in two handkerchiefs.OUTFITTING casins. he . It is foolish to take insufficient bedding. and hardtack. Stewart Edward White has spoken of that amusing foible.

minus the handle. ready to endure trial and privation without a murmur. camp-stools. It may be noticed that old-timers are apt to be a bit distant when a novice betrays any eagerness to share in their pilgrimages. Hot indeed must be the confessed: — sun. It will dispel the koosy-oonek. witchcraft and so. (If you don't know what that means. So it is that experienced campers are chary of admitting new members to their lodges. and what is harder for most men to put is able caution. O — There no churlishness in this. no doubt. and this is to make it 'turk. cool-lipped. as to every- . depend very much upon how one chooses his companions granting that he has any choice in the matter at all. some day." your amulet against the kit. rather it is commendNot every good fellow in town makes a pleasant comrade in the woods. But I do love it. To be one of them you must be of the right stuff. It cost me much trouble to find one that would fit snugly inside the metal cup in which I brew my tea. The joys and sorrows of camp life. and the proportion of each to the other. and brings rain on the just when they want to go fishing. I'm going to get a fellow to make me '" a turkey-call. shaving-mugs. ask an Eskimo. spooks and bogies of the woods. but to us children of guile it is the spell of that imp who hides our pipes. alarm-clocks. He may tell you that it means sorcery. but ardent teacup! sake thee. For there is a seamy side to camp life.) No two men have the same "medicine. Many's the time it has all but slipped from my fingers and dropped upon a rock. stow it religiously in your It is your "medicine. derringers that nobody could hit anything with." Mine is a porcelain teacup.8 CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT "Oh. and other such trifles have been known to accompany very practical men who were otherwise in light marching If you have some such thing that you know order. it does to the children of nature. you can't sleep well without. tangled the trail and weary the miles. — — up with petty inconveniences without grumbling. before I formy frail. Jew's-harps. steals our last match. many's the gibe I have suffered for its dear sake.

It is worth paying some wood-geld that you may learn how to fell and . spending a good part of your time in learning how to wield an axe. or flowers. and bear downright calamity like a gentleman. for scenery. Yet there are other qualities in a good camp-mate who cannot and endurance. go to some pleasant woodland.OUTFITTING thing else." Donald G. who has not a keen eye that are rarer than fortitude is these — : for the things of the country. how to cook good meals out of doors. then leave the real wilderness out of account for the present. or for trees. As Olive Shreiner says " It is not he who praises nature. Chief of a love of nature for her own sake not the "put on" kind that expresses itself in gushy sentimentalism. Mitchell once remarked that nobody should go to the country with the expectation of deriving much pleasure from it. as country. hire a guide. to which a New in York editor replied that *'Of this not one city man a thousand has a particle in his composition. if there be more than three of you. 9 Even in the best of camps things do hapsaint swear fit pen sometimes that are enough to make a But no one is silently through his teeth. who is actually united to her. Treat your guide as one of yourselves. life for such turn ordinary ill-luck into a joke. the ones who can find plenty to interest them in the woods when fishing and hunting fail. within hail of civilization. But if you cannot afford this expense. and start an experimental camp. or some kind of culture. A good one deserves such consideration. but the elect of these. how to build proper fires. If your party is made up of men inexperienced in the woods. are not to be found on every street corner. though ordinarily mute affection which finds pleasure in her companionship and needs none other. Be sure to get the privilege beforehand of cutting what wood you will need. and so forth. take along a cook as well. and." The proportion of city men who do thoroughly enjoy the hardy sports and adventures of the wilderness is certainly much larger than those who could be entertained on a farm. intense. but that pure. a poor one is not worth having at all. but he who lies continually on her breast and is satisfied.

. do their fair share of the camp chores. manly fellows. be sure to get together a company of good-hearted. In any case. and will be fitted for something more ambitious the next season.10 CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT Here. Then are plenty of such men. steel-true and blade-straight. and agree to have no arguments before breakfast. will your trip be a lasting pleasure. who will take things as they come. you can have a jolly good time. to be lived over time and again in after years. There hew. There are no friendships like those that are made under canvas and in the open field. with fair fishing and some small game hunting.

CHAPTER II THE SPORTSMAN'S CLOTHING camping FOR ordinary but be sure that do. These cloths wear well. because he sported a big bowie knife or a fake cowboy hat-band. are not easily soiled. It may be well to take along a pair of overalls. it pays rule. but it is too heavy for loads of shotgun shells. Both of them 11 . They are designed for bird hunters. who carry heavy little else. but this is about all the good that can be said of them. trips an old business suit will the buttons are securely sewn and that the cloth is not worn thin. are generally of fairly good color for the purpose. a poor protection against cold. and has been well laughed at in the bargain. and tumble into a civilized hot days. Canvas and corduroy are the materials most used. some heed As a the conventional hunting costumes of the shops are as unfit for the wilderness as they are for the gymnasium. not nearly so warm in cold weather as its weight of woolen goods. as a friend of mine once did. Corduroy wears like iron. they are workmanlike and win the respect of country folk. It is somewhat embarrassing to come back home. and not so comfortable in any weather as wool. trip. and it is notoriously heavy and hard to dry when it has been soaked through. When to give one is preparing for a long. Canvas is too stiff for athletic movements. Neither canvas nor corduroy are good absorbents of perspiration. hard to the clothing question. tenderfoot has had to pay double prices for everything. Men who dwell in the woods the year 'round are practical Many a fellows who despise frills and ostentation. and who can bed at night. nor do they let it evaporate freely. with a staring legend of XXX FAMILY FLOUR emblazoned on the seat of his trousers. and they do not collect burs.

The more air contained in a garment. Thick underwear ommended. other things being equal. permitting him to be active and agile. rasping against grass and underbush. It is unwise tr^ carry more changes of underwear. soft. of more imporshould be of pure. . -n are clammy and Cotton or silk unhealthful when one perspires freely. thus pressing out the confined air. Two thin shirts worn together are warmer than a thick one weighing as much as both. unless the work is skilfully done. of inconspicuous color. They are also likely to chafe the wearer. or sow the seeds of rheumatism. and they chill the skin when one is drenched by a shower or when he rests after exertion. J Underwear. and should be roomy enough to give one's limbs free play. the forest is often damp and chilly. The T^ quality of one's underwear It soft tance than his outer garments. At such times you are likely to catch a bad cold. and to double-up in cold weather or on frosty nights. is i wool throusrhout. not recIt is better to have a spare is undershirt of a size larger than what one commonly wears. light. and to be exposed to a keen wind when topping a ridge after a hard climb. as he is sure to do when living an active life out of doors. A sportsman's clothing should be strong. Drawers should be loose around the thighs and knees. It should fit so as not to chafe. and easy to dry after a wetting. It should be self-ventilating. so do not get a snug fit at the start. And you must expect to get a ducking now and then. regardless of the j r^ x. This is because there is a layer of warm air between them. especially at night and in the early morning hours. even in midwinter. there is a swishswash of the trousers at every step. and of such material as absorbs the moisture from the body. One soon realizes this when he spreads a blanket on the hard ground and lies down on it. but snug Remember that woolen goods will shrink in washing. in the crotch. even for winter. The air of season.12 CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT Even when they are not are too noisy for still-hunting. the warmer it is. if your underclothing is of any other material than wool. warm for its weight.

. They will all . Gray is the best color. and around camp in the chill of the morning and evening. etc. besides being more comfortable to sleep in. The objections to a sweater are that it is easily torn or picked out burs almost as a magnet does iron by brush. . so that they can be turned up and tied around the neck.THE SPORTSMAN'S CLOTHING handkerchiefs. on account of the belt. only be worn as a "come-and-go" garment Coats and T It would when one ^^ traveling to and from the wilderness. it filings. . Overshirts should be loose at the neck. anyway. For the latter purpose a heavy jersey or sweater is much better. 13 i« and is useful x to tie over the hat and ears when the wind is high or the frost nips keenly. f ff with. It should be of gray or light tan color. if the shirts are to be used in cold weather. should A heavy coat is a nuisance in the woods. . and so long as spare clean ones remain no man is going to bother about washing the others. in cold weather. tie pecially. If the watch is carried in the fob pocket of the trousers it will be unhandy to get at.. . Q The collars should be wide. the dark blue of soldiers' or firemen's shirts being too conspicuous for hunters. i> i over the stomach. It is well to sew two small pockets on the shirt just below where the collar-bone comes. keeps it warm . and easier to dry out. which is a nuisance of the first magnitude. These are to receive the watch and compass. This means an accumulation of soiled clothes. and all-wool of course. because that is easy to wash and dry out. and attracts it soaks .. . and a tight collar is not to be tolerated. preferably of silk. and it is more likely to be injured when one wades out of his depth or gets a spill in shallow water. for they will surely shrink. It protects the neck from sunburn. a size larger than one ordinarily wears. than one can comfortably get along have to be washed. A bright color. A neckerchief should be worn. . which should fit snugly so as not to flop out when one stoops over. white or red esbe avoided if one expects to do any hunting. . In case of cramps it is a good thing to ii6CKercnieis.

soft. forces itself into every pore of a woolen fabric. On hot days his overshirt and trousers will be all the outer clothing he will want. . Do not seek to keep your legs dry by wearing waterproofed material. drives through the air. sheds burs. and at no time more so than when the mercury stands far below zero. and. for it would be clumsy and would not dry out quickly. For those who prefer a single heavy coat. the kinds of weather is attained. and khaki or duxbak for warm weather. I would recommend. or cold all three will be worn. a ity. through wet underbrush. Mackinaw for steady cold coat of the best obtainable qual- such as sheds a light rain. melting from the heat of the body." or gabardine. closely is taken along. very woven khaki. rain-proof and windproof. large to through in a smart shower. soaks the garment through and through. all perfection of comfort in if it threatens rain. skin. mornings and evenings. tolerate the "bunchy" feeling of several layers of dif- ferent materials. Nothing but rubber or pantasote will shed the water when you forge J. To combine the two in one garment would defeat the purpose. firmly woven woolen troulike sers or knickers are best for the woods in cold weather. dry days. weather. but self-ventilating. In any case the coat merely considered as a thin. and when it is both cold and windy. the heat-giving and sweat-absorbing part of the clothing being worn underneath.14 CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT But if a coat of thin. A free outlet for the moisture from the body. "duxbak. With the above combination one is fixed for any kind of weather. or a thick absorbent of it that can be taken off and dried out quickly. rather than is and wet. enough wear over the sweater. he will add the coat. Strong. dust-like snow which. Such a coat is rain-proof. and keeps out not only the wind but the fine. Take your wetting. on a windy day in winter. poor ones soak up water a sponge. and dry out when you get back to camp. or on cold. he will substitute the sweater. is a prime essential of health and comfort in all climates. and they would wet you most uncomfortably by giving no vent to perspiration.

which is waterproof. greens. or rasping covering for their legs. Most shades of cloth used for men's clothing are darker than they should be for hunting. White (except amid snow) and red are the most glaring colors in the woods. take a hint runway. would blend with the tree trunks and would not look entirely opaque. . whether he carries a gun or not. whereas a man attracted by your The same rule holds good when one calling will. An ideal combination would be a mottle of alternate splotches of brown or drab and light gray. The color of withered fern is good. hooks.THE SPORTSMAN'S CLOTHING 15 The color of a woodsman's clothing should be as near inTisibility as possible unless he ranges through a country infested with fools with guns. but should lace through large eyelets or fasten with a puttee strap. Leggings should not be fastened with buckles. looks quite dark in the woods. preferably of loden. ^ 1 • m . What seems. to be a light brown. or leather are too noisy. When a man is i • m . a bright neckerchief. ^. from the protective plumage of grouse and woodcock. Buckles and hooks catch in the grass and glitter in the sunlight. may be advisable. Those of canvas. which. a glittering buckle. T the woods to see what is going on them he should move as quietly and make himself as unnoticeable as possible. so are some of the lighter shades of covert cloth. you are motionless the turkey will not recognize you as a human being. Leggings should be of woolen cloth. such as top-coats are also the yellowish-green khaki. spoil it all by a flopping hat. and drabs are indistinguishable from each other at a few rods' distance. or springs. The light browns. pantasote. it is bad practice turkeys to hide in the brush or So long as Sit right out in the open. . and are so in the main. is By when one calling from the deer and the rabbit. made of. at a short distance in the woods. is on a deer stand. or "holding down a log" on a As for inconspicuous clothing. for instance. in which case a flaming red head-dress — the way. Many men who think themselves properly dressed for stillhunting. besides being Leggmgs. behind a tree. near by.

The shoes should be well broken in before starting. overlapping an inch or two at a turn. stiff soles. springs are too stiff for pedestrians. It is claimed that nothing else so well supports the veins of the legs in marching. should be large and square. The shoes and stockings should fit snugly. Nothing in a woodsman's clothing is of more importance than his foot dressing. starting from the ankle and winding up to the knee. ers or others who travel in the wilderness. Hob-nails are recommended only for thick. hooks are easily bent out of shape. not cone-shaped. High-topped hunting boots that lace up the leg are well enough for engineers and stockmen. but they should on no account be tight enough to bind. A puttee of the kind I mean is a piece of stout woolen cloth four or five inches wide and fully nine feet long. to be wrapped spirally around the leg. The two unpardonable a soldier are a rusty rifle and So they should be regarded by us campers. A few hob-nails along the edges of the soles and heels will suflfice. fishermen and mountaineers. They should be of soft Their heads iron. as the serpent's fangs are not so likely to penetrate the comparatively loose folds of cloth. They should be pliable both in No one can walk well in boots with soles and uppers. that they are more comfortable and noiseless than ordinary leggings. for if merely hemmed they will soon fray at the edges. but for hunt„. those of most importance being the two on If the middle of the either side of the ball of the foot. will do for ordinary wear. and that they afford better protection against venomous snakes. nor weighing an ounce more than two and a half pounds to the pair.16 CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT hard to manage when covered with mud or ice. A pair of strong shoes with medium soles and bellows tongues. they are much too heavy and clumsy. and fastened at the top by tapes sewn on like horse-bandages. It is not advisable to wear them in a thickety country. as steel ones slip on the rocks. not over seven inches high. either afoot or afloat. sins of sore feet. . so as not to chafe from friction. Puttees should be specially woven with selvage edges on both sides. Many recommend cloth puttees instead of leggings.

Now shift that load from his back and fasten half of it on each foot how far will he go ? You see the difference between carrying on your back and lifting with your feet. and will keep them soft for months. by the way. do rubber soles. . in spite of repeated wettings. wear either thick moccasins or light moccaj^ sin-shoes (the latter should not weigh over one and a half pounds to the pair). a — . so. and con* sequently tender. so that one can infallibly recognize his own It is in the heels footprints for him. and . It will make boots waterproof. For canoeing. in a particular pattern. Suppose that a man in fair training can carry on his back a weight of forty pounds for ten miles on good roads. for -_. Let me show what it means. without excessive fatigue. as well as for use around camp. but for warm weather they should not. when back-trailing. If one has much marching to do he had better take his chances of getting his feet wet now and then than to keep them overheated all the time. 17 The studded with them they are likely to hurt the leather should be well soaked before they are driven in. rubbing in while hot. not a bad plan to drive a few protruding nails and soles of one's shoes. .^ . oil. if This will also assist one's companions they should have occasion to search The best shoe-laces are made from rawhide at the ends belt- lacing. by slightly roasting them in the Shoes to be worn in cool weather may well be waterproofed.THE SPORTSMAN'S CLOTHING sole is feet. cut in strips and hardened fire. a pair of hunting shoes of conventional store pattern weighs about three pounds. still-hunting. The importance of going lightly shod when one is to do much tramping is not always appreciated. waterproofed leather heats the feet. An leather excellent is this: Norwegian recipe for waterproofing Boil together two parts pine tar and three parts cod-liver Soak the leather in the hot mixture. and for long marches in the dry season. Very well.

at first. and enjoyed nothing more than the lightness and ease of my footwear.18 CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT In pair of moose-hide moccasins weighs eleven ounces. and pass in safety along treacherous slopes where thick-soled shoes might bring him swiftly to grief. and likely your feet are too tender. If clumsy. It follows that a ten-mile tramp in the big shoes means lifting some eight tons more footgear than that all. and you will be able to travel farther. but made of the raw hide. for moccasins. in which case (unless of caribouhide) they would shrink and dry hard after a wetting. faster. and with less exertion. over flinty Ozark hills. It is rarely indeed that one hears of a man spraining his ankle when wearing the Indian footgear. After one's feet have of all become accustomed to this most rational covering they become almost like hands. dons will learn to do their proper work without crutches. its fibers thoroughly broken — . and soon wears out. One can swim with them as if he were barefoot. One can climb in moccasins as in nothing else. This. over unballasted railroad tracks at night. too. They do not stick fast in mud. and in other rough places. or. So long as they are dry. ten miles there are 21. than in any kind of boots or shoes. They can bend freely. and glide softly over the telltales without cracking them. through canebrakes. Deerskin is too thin.120 average paces. Moccasined feet feel the dry sticks underneath. Moccasins should be of moose-hide. I have often gone tenderfooted from a year's ofiice work and have traveled in moccasins for weeks. stiff. and "honest Injun" at that that is to say. better still. if one wore mocare soft casins. he can cross narrow logs like a cat. The hide should be Indian-tanned. in rough country. the tencedar. the shoes are to blister the feet. feeling their way. more noiselessly. add bark or the dried inner bark of red After a few days the feet will toughen. and avoiding obstacles as though gifted with a special sense. hard on the feet for that reason. of caribou. through cypress swamps where the sharp little immature '* knees" are hidden under insoles of birch the needles. Nor is The moccasins and pliable as gloves. Elk-hide is the next choice. not tanned with bark or chemicals.

or at least not stretching Shanks are sometimes made of green hide. moderately elastic. tanned by the above process (which properly is not tanning at all) are only pleasant wear in dry weather. The hide should be tanned with bark. the skin will the brains of the animal. take up so little room in the pack. to outside the tent. When kept well greased with tallow (oil them too much) they are waterand much more comfortable than rubber shoes. and are so delightfully easy on the feet. more impervious to wind. or ping elk. using the bend of the hock for the heel of the boot. In a mountainous region that is heavily timbered. it it 19 plentiful expenditure of elbow-grease. that a pair should be in every camper's outfit. Oil-tanned shoe-packs are better than moccasins for wet weather. dry without shrinking and can be made as pliable as before by a little rubbing Moccasins to be used in a prickly-pear or cactus country must be soled with rawhide. and they will be appreciated when one must get up and move about . It is remarkably tough. They weigh so little. when tanned they are very durable. " Shanks " made by stripthe hide from the hind legs of moose. or the hair will drop out. But they are always a great comfort in a canoe or around camp. and are beyond comparison the warmest and Caribou or reindriest of footwear for high latitudes. and are almost indispensable for still-hunting or snow-shoeing. when properly tanned are impervious to w^ater and snow. The hair should be left on and worn outside. . moccasins are too slippery for use after the leaves fall. drier than any other kind of leather. and sewing up the toe part. At night they are the best foot. as they soon wear out. Ordinary moccasins. caribou. after using. so that in the hands. like all other skins. warmer for its weight than any other material. but only for temporary purposes.warmers that one could wish. deer skin makes the best. erty of tightening when wet. without splitting it. the shanks being carefully dried away from the fire.THE SPORTSMAN'S CLOTHING up by a softened by rubbing into and then smoked. and it has the singular prop"P k " d « <5Vi ir » softens proof. as alum destroys its good qualities.

The natural smoke-color of the felt is best. the cavalry 72x84. and become almost as stiff and hard as horn. For a woodsman an army poncho is better. but heavy to tote around. and hang them in a current of air where they can dry slowly. Remove the leather sweat-band and substitute one of „ under a flannel. either of rubber or (much more duIt makes a good ground-sheet at rable) of pantasote. absorbent substance. but anything of this sort is too heavy. would rather get wet from water than Canvas wading from perspiration. save when working in the marshes. shoes. when one is afoot. may be all right in a boat or over p. or when driving. Scrape off as much moisture as you can. A mackintosh or other long-tailed coat is as out of place in the woods as an umbrella on shipboard.-\ decoys. stuff them full of dry grass or some other elastic. I never wear. weighing only one pound can be made from thin enameled cloth. An —. The of best head-gear for general pattern. or old shoes with slits cut in them (not wide enough to let in gravel). weather around a cabin or fixed camp. The infantry size is 45x72 inches. sloppy __. too hot. too awkward to shoot from. ter. or for a short time in muddy. army wear is a Stetson hat and keeps its shape good deal of abuse. and the brush soon tears it. The brim should be wide enough to keep rain and snow from falling down the back of one's neck.p I is easily torn.J. are good to use when fishing. and sticks well to one's head. on horseback. the latter being large enough to serve as a shelA waterproof poncho ter. they would shrink too small for your feet. with eyelets at the toes to let the water run out. It stands rain. so that the hat is not easily knocked fall In the off by wind or boughs.20 CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT Never hang your moccasins before the fire to dry. which is far more comfortable in all weathers. Then rub them Rubber boots soft. or winter take also a knitted wool cap . night. topped off by a sou'wes. at a cost of about forty cents. too draggling. oilskin slicker. but it .

In Still Waten .


A belt drawn tightly enough to hold up much weight may cause rupture. as a protection from cold. A pair of buckskin gloves or gauntlets. should be loose. It 21 that can be drawn down good nightcap. almost indispensable at times on account of the It is also useful in huntthick clouds of mosquitoes. particularly when you want to somewhat smoke or but in some localities. is ing wild bees. and then are little better than none. For very hot weather a pith helmet with yellow lining makes a is better than a hat. If there is a big. A cartridge belt should be worn cowboy fashion. shiny buckle. especially in the far north. no matter how well it may be greased. If a head-net is taken. wear it to the rear. are too easily wet through. if one is worn. the latter being hung from the neck by strings. which you will need on cold nights when sleeping in the open or under canvas. get one long enough to button under the coat. A leather belt with loops long enough to cover the bullets is best for a sandy region. dress after the custom of the country. p. ^ colored spit. for sunlight glittering on it will scare away game. for black is easier to see through than white or . Rowing and chopping will quickly blister tender hands. should be carried by any man who goes fresh from the office to the woods. and dye the bobbinet black. Suspenders should be „ worn if the trousers are heavy. where the climate is different from our own. But in very cold weather it is best to wear woolen ones under loose fur mittens. . In nearly all wild regions there are civilized residents who can give the desired pointers. Woolen gloves. Loops closed at the bottom collect dirt and grit. sagging well down on the hips. The belt. and do not cause verdigris to - form on the cartridges as any leather belt will do. Woven ones are more comfortable than leather. When traveling in foreign lands. pliable and not too thick. A head-net is of a nuisance.THE SPORTSMAN'S CLOTHING over the ears. it stuff.

and he rolls over on the other side. for any one trip. Lying down again. then he tosses. An hour later he reawakens. For a time he rests in supreme after Pi 6C6SSltV . sweating and tired. the season of the year. fidgets. He comes into camp a hard day's tramp. In nothing does a tenderfoot show off more discreditably than p ^. in his disregard of the essentials of a . and finds that his hips and shoulders ache from serving as piers for the arches of his back and sides. drowsily satisfied that this is the proper way to "rough it. this time with How cold the shivering flesh and teeth a-chatter. ease. and he rolls back again into his former position. scoops out hollows to receive the projecting portions of his frame. he drops off peaceand is soon snoring. eats heartily. good night's rest. He gets up. according to the country traversed. fully 22 . groans. An hour passes. and again lies down. ten minutes. and he rolls again. Let no one imagine that he must lay in everything mentioned here. One's health and comfort in camp depend very much upon what kind of bed he has. he discovers that he can show He shifts that a sharp stone is boring into his flesh. he arises and clears the ground of his tormentors. -J ¥T ^ . Cursing a little.CHAPTER III PERSONAL KITS is hard to generalize on outfits. Presently. about. because men's requirements vary. wakes up. muttering. as his eyes grow heavy and he cuddles up for the night.. and then throws himself down in his blanket on the bare ground. and personal tastes. a half hour." and that no hardships of the field can daunt his spirit. and rolls upon a sharper stub or projecting root.

and folds into a package 3 ft. This sort of roughing enough when one is compelled to submit to it. when means of transportation permit it. and. but without sound sleep he will soon go to pieces. no matter how much bedding you have. Even the dumb beasts know better. because. compacted by his weight and in contact with the cold earth. and they are particular about making their beds. is not half enough to keep out the bone-searching chill that comes up from the damp ground. or a doubled comforter as a substitute. for to sleep on taut canvas with nothing but a blanket under you is little more restful than lying on a board floor. mattress.PERSONAL KITS orround is! 23 sufficient cover. This matter of a good portable bed is the most serious problem in outfitting. He arises. and dawn finds him a haggard. A cot. This will never do. When twice as many soldiers as bullets do. The blanket over him is but the same thickness beneath. owing to the narrowness of the cot. x 5 in. . when you can carry them. however. A man can stand almost any hardship by day. besides affording a comfortable lounge by day. disgusted with camp life and eager to hit the back trail for home. x 4 in. you cannot keep it tucked in snugly around you. For camping in summer or in early autumn. is of even more importance on such a cot than the blanket that one covers himself with. is not at all comfortable in real cold weather. save much time and work in bed-making and tent-trenching. it is The moral is plain. such as is specially made for military and sportsmen's use. and they keep the bedding clean. worn-out type of misery. the best camp bed is a compactly folding cot. bad en- It kills it is dured merely to show off one's fancied toughness and hardihood it is rank folly. it weighs but sixteen pounds. this time for good. and be none the worse for it. you will suffer from cold underneath. A thin mattress of cotton or curled hair. no matter how gritty he may be. if the nights are A cot and chilly. Pneumonia or rheumatism will follow. passes a wretched night before the fire. provided he gets a comfortable night's rest.

in the fall. forming a bag open at that can be stuffed with grass or browse. are not warm underneath one's body.. and useless if punctured. it is both ends improved but any such contrivance takes considerable time to rig up properly. but if the nights are chilly there will be a cold draught along the floor (always the coldest If part of a tent) which will soon chill one to the bone. damp ground. it is a perquisite Cork mattresses are favored by such canoefairly won. leaves. but. or such other soft stuff as one may find on the camping ground. nor spruce. in all sorts of countries. though the warmest covering for their easily weight. An air mattress expensive. and a man can make a good mattress with it one that will not spread out nor pack hard in less with ing. For all-round fer to carry service. as the pressure squeezes out their confined air. 24 CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT But suppose you are traveling light. unfortunately. being and making good life-preservers. but for summer camping. make long portages. is useful in packing. Such a bag weighs but Ij pounds. „ „ good. A canvas stretcher swung on long poles makes a good spring bed for hot weather. . and the tent may not be long enough for the poles and their supports. it be made double. • ists as are not obliged to dried. Down quilts. for this - sort of bed. unreliable and cold in zero is luxurious. But they are rather bulky. either ready-made or extern. then . — . the first requisite is a mattress of some sort._ ^^ Mattresses. and none too soft nor warm. especially by us middle-aged or older fellows. who may have grown a trifle stiff and rheumatic from many a night on the bare. X A ponzed on the spot. throughout the greater part of our country there is no balsam. perforce what ? Cot or no cot. but weather. nor any other kind of tree that affords even passable browse. takes up little room when empty. nor even hemlock.. to be filled with grass. 2^ feet — — . Nearly every book and magazine article on camping that I have read extols a bed of balsam browse shingled Balsam is in between a pair of logs. I pre- me a narrow bag of 10-cent bed tickwide and 6| feet long.

unless the lining is entirely removable from the cover. they cannot so quickly be aired and dried as blankets. Hudson Bay ity of or Mackinaw. For horsemen a saddle is sup. For extremely cold climates nothing equals a robe (not bag) of caribouhide with the hair on. No J. may both from the damp. matter how waterproof the outside cover — . but do not get one that is narrow and folds at the end you cannot roll up in it so snugly as if it were almost square. A posed to be all the pillow needed but it is nothing of the sort a mound of earth is better. An explorer of wide experience both in the arctic and be. to be filled in camp like the is another soft thing that no experienced woodsman despises. The qual- our regular army blanket is excellent for the purpose. and from the exudations of the sleeper. .. then as to shed dirt. The perspiration that collects in the bag during the night freezes immediately we leave it in the morning. spread the rubber blanket or poncho on top of the bag.. Blankets should be all-wool. hard to get into and out of. If wet stuff must be used for filling. which should be done every morning. and all will be well. and firmly woven. as it is warmer and drier for its bulk and weight than any other material. Sleeping-bags have their good and bad qualities. and then . The bag. therefore. — bed-tick. and there is not sufiicient heat from the sun to dry the bag when it is packed on the sledge. the blanket or fur lining will surely get air antarctic regions gives his opinion of sleeping-bags as follows is a thing of gradually gets worse and worse. so California blankets are best. separate pillow-bag. Even so. The only sleeping-bags worth considering are those that can easily be opened and spread wide in the sunlight or before the fire.: PERSONAL KITS rig 25 than half the time it would take to shingle browse or up a stretcher. and „hard to air properly and to dry. Those which open only part way down are abominations. has to be thawed For the first two or three days the sleeping-bag it comfort and a joy.

open at both ends. Taking it all in all. poncho. The notion that it is any substitute for a roof overhead. can be rolled up within this cover. The bag part of the affair can be . so that it gradually becomes heavy with moisture. I choose the separate bed-tick. Two Years in the Antarctic. and thus form a pillow for and buckles. and they can be thrown open instantly in case of alarm. and with straps end large pockets at the head contain spare clothing. is a delusion. to be laced up in a bag. on a rainy night. ®^^^ *^ cover the sleeper. Two the night. Nor is such a cover of much practical advantage. Armitage. Lieut. trap to be in when a squall springs up suddenly at night. There may be better bags that I have not tried. except underneath. In blankets you can sleep double in cold weather. and other articles. and that your weight and cooped-upness prevent you from readjusting the bag to your comLikewise a sleeping-bag may be an unpleasant fort. Blankets can be wrapped around one more snugly. I think that one is more likely to catch cold when emerging from a stuffy sleeping-bag into the cold air than if he had slept between loose blankets. A waterproof cover without any opening except where your nose sticks out is no more wholesome to sleep in than a rubber boot is wholesome for one's foot. or the tent catches fire. making a convenient pack. It is snug. The blankets. pillow-bag. and blanket. and more and more uninviting. rather than the same bulk and weight of any kind of sleeping-bag that I have so far experimented with. and shorter ^^^^^ ^^_ fitted ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ j^^^^^ ^^^ ing made of stout waterproofed canvas. and the whole affair is then quickly buckled up. There is a form of camp bed known as a "carry-all" It may be described as a bag that deserves mention.- ««r AU »» Carry-AU. they do not condense moisture inside.— 26 CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT out by our bodies each night. rain- proof all around. for a while. but not so snug when you roll over and find that some aperture at the top is letting a stream of cold air run down your spine. with a flap on each -.

In this a ration of meat is carried on the march. as now made. is its weight. ^ pail is . and across the ends. for one man's bedding. together A weigh only 6^ pounds. not mere metal eyep. is of waterproofed 7x8 feet. grass. for such trips. weighing f of a pound. procured from a dealer in second-hand military equipments for twenty cents. A frying- pan and a ^.tick. It consists of two oval dishes of tinned steel which fit together and form a meat can 8 inches long. and shelter — until frosts set in. cloth. Army mess kit. and is deep enough for soup. The upper dish has a folding handle which locks the two together. the contrivance weighing from 2 to 2^ pounds?) This makes a small roll on top of one's knapIt makes a good shelsack. pleasantest and most profitable days in my experience. so as to form either a spring-bed or a hammock. or serves as a pack-cloth. S. knife. The addition of a good.PERSONAL KITS stuffed full of browse. . or such other 27 bedding as the country affords. (The balloon shelter-cloth here referred to silk. and gets closer to nature when he is far off in the woods by himself than when he is around camp or hunting with companions. which is 10 pounds. though a quart a useful addition. Instead of a frying-pan. with eyelets (small steel rings sewed on by hand. 6^ inches wide. and each of them is good for something by itself when you are on the trail. When the dishes are separated the lower one serves as a plate. . ter or windbreak when one takes a side trip of a day Such side trips are generally the or two from camp. * large tin cup. and cotton bed. j^^^^ around the edges at intervals of about a foot. packand these are plenty for anybody cloth. _ . One sees more. with the sheath- sufficient. pillow-bag. bnelter-Llotn. and poles can be run through it at either side. and 1^ inches deep. The chief objection to this contrivance. I like a U. learns more. heavy blanket brings the weight up to about 15 pounds. silk shelterponcho of pantasote sheeting. This are is not formidable. To the same end it is well to take with you an individual cooking . and it makes a fair frying-pan. kit.

is commendable for those who care to spend more money on such a thing. sometimes for dressing big game. or was until quite recently." For such purposes a rather thin. A camper has use for a common-sense sheath-knife. It is always tempered too hard. it is an even bet that out will come a nick as big as a saw-tooth and Sheridan forty miles from a grindstone! Such a knife is shaped expressly for stabbing. The Abyssinians have a saying. Its blade and handle are each 4j inches long. Such a knife. but soft enough so that when it strikes a knot or bone it will. On be the subject of hunting knives I am tempted to green and callow days (perhaps not yet over) I tried nearly everything in „the knife line from a shoemaker's skij^ ver to a machete. broadpointed blade is required. but oftener for such homely work as cutting sticks. our lamented grandmothers to the contrary notwithstanding. then a whetstone soon puts it in order. "If a sword bends. we can straighten it. and it would be in one's way every time he sat down. who can mend it ? " So with a knife or hatchet. of the familiar dime-novel pattern invented by Colonel Bowie.28 CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT Preston individual cooking kit. slicing bacon. Nothing is gained by a longer blade. which is about the very last thing that a woodsman ever has occasion to do. as in cutting through the ossified false ribs of an old buck. — . The conventional hunting knife is. Such a knife is too thick and clumsy to whittle with. and frying "spuds. and too sharply pointed to cook and eat with. turn rather than nick. When put to the rough service for which it is supposed to be intended. broad pointed. much too thick for a good skinning knife. The diffuse. and continued through the handle as a hasp and riveted to it. In my . and I had knives made to order. and it need not be over four or five inches long. lies before me. if anything. bearing the marks of hard usage. It can be procured from army outfitters. The made of alumi- num. but if it breaks. the blade being 1 inch wide. It is tempered hard enough to cut green hardwood sticks. J inch thick on the back.

A woodsman be as critical in selecting it as in „ When it should carry a hatchet.PERSONAL KITS 29 handle of this knife is of oval cross-section. also a small. long enough to give a good grip for the whole hand. driving tent pegs or trap stakes. and with no sharp edges to blister one's hand. tempered hard enough for seasoned . and has done more work than all of them put together. which may be wet and soft. The handle is of light but hard wood. but there is no guard on the back. and he should buying a gun. so as to enter the sheath easily and grip it tightly. for it would be useless and in the way. This belt. and keeping the knife well up on my side. blazing thick-barked trees. It has a | inch knob behind the cutting edge as a guard. } inch thick at the butt and tapering to h inch forward. but it has outlived in my affections the score of other knives that I have used in competition with it. J hickory.. which is pref. chopping kin- dling. The common hatchets of the hardware stores They have broad. The notion that a heavy hunting knife can do the work of a hatchet is a delusion. A . brittle stuff. If it were heavy it would make the knife drop out when I stooped The sheath has a slit frog binding tightly on the over. thin blade that will take a keen edge and keep it. and they are generally camper's hatchet should have the edge and temper of a good axe. are unfit for a woodsman's use. to comes cleaving carcasses. It was made by a counknife weighs only 4 ounces. try blacksmith. or brittle from cold. The best pattern is an "easyopener. * erably of ebony. and is one of the homeliest things I ever saw. and keeping up a bivouac fire. should have one heavy blade 2f or 3 inches long. It For ordinary whittling a good jackknife is needed. It must be thin blades with beveled edge. but thick enough not to nick or snap off. made of poor." which has part of the handle cut away so that one can open it without using his thumb-nail. the knife never was made that will compare with a good tomahawk. There should be no sharp edges on the handle.

map. Its grip is wound with waxed twine to give a good hold when one's hand is wet. yet it should bite deep in timber. compass. Spare hooks. -^When there is a full-grown axe in camp I carry a tomahawk of 12-ounce head. or where they can be snatched up at a grab in case of emergency. matches. fine on the other. rigged. then the handle will swing free from brush and will not be in the way when you sit down. and without it I would have fared badly. get a quite small double whetstone. take a piece of cigar box about two by six inches and glue to each side ^. if you don't mind the weight. to keep knives and hatchet in order. should always be with you. Needle and thread. money.axe with 2-pound head and 18-inch handle is about right. For a light and quick-cutting hone. Minnow hooks (with half ^ ^'*bait. like an Indian tomahawk. This little tool has been my mainstay on several bitter nights when I was lost in the forest. hatchet. Safety pins. With it one can fell trees big enough for an all-night fire made Indian fashion. If such a tool is carried from the belt (seldom advisable) its muzzle should be attached by a frog that works on a loose rivet.. a dozen rounds of ammunition. One p . or like a Nessmuk double-blade. knives. pipe and tobacco. This may be carried in a light leather wallet. Then you are always "fixed.30 light CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT enough to carry in one's belt or knapsack. a strip of emery cloth. and that is to make the blade long and narrow. Or. a half. thus forming a hinged joint. along with the following articles: # Small coil of copper snare wire. coarse on one side.°^ or two short fishing lines. or any journey on which a fullsized axe cannot be taken with the camping equipment. thus putting the weight where it will do the most good. the barb filed off) for catching These things with your gun." . For a canoeing trip. The handle is just a foot long. or in a canebrake. coarse and fine on opposite sides. There is but one way to get this seemingly contradictory result.

and. S. show the moon's changes. and show every watercourse. almanac for the months in which you be out. does it not ? Well. S. remember whether the black end of the needle A card compass [is better than is north or south. Washington. by them. D. Geological Survey. fords. it is easier to see in dark weather. The best maps for any part of the United States for which they have been published are the topographical sheets issued by the U. ^ will ' good enough where there are no trains to Take with you the sheets of an catch. Do -^ . They are useful to regulate the watch. The first time that a man loses his bearings in the wilderness his wits refuse to work. A bit of candle is a good thing to carry in one's pouch to start fire in a driving rain. and sold at five cents each. and. try to get one with a on the north end of the needle. ferries. Geological Survey. preferably of such pattern as has a cover that cannot off. Procure.. to save his life. a good map of the region to be visited. Most of these sheets are on a scale of two miles to the inch. big or little. is _. bridges. and easily re^ membered. they give contour lines (usually for drop ^ . if the case is deep enough for the card to traverse freely when inclined. PERSONAL KITS If 31 a needle compass is chosen. An expensive watch should be left at home. C. to determine the day of the month and week. This seems like an absurd precaution. what is of high importance to a traveler. mines. it will not seem so if you get lost. one with a needle. A list of those published up to date can be had by applying to the Director. settlements. He cannot. scratch on the case. U. if possible. A dolpearl point * B=N lar watch . not on any account omit a water'proof matchbox. They are printed in three colors. If you must put up with a common one in which the north end of the needle is (Black equals North) merely blackened. which one is apt to forget when he is away from civilization. every road and important trail. but it is more bulky.

malaria. footsoreness. inclosed in a waterproof cover. JxLCQlClIlCS tain risks that we all when we venture far from civilization. as one is liable to get a ducking at any Quarter eagles are best. while others. wet. Thorough revision of many sheets is urgently needed. . an antiseptic bandage. being more easily time. and from blowing away. As for myself.32 CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT every 100 feet in mountainous regions. Gold coin is mere trusty than banknotes. and carried (together with a keymap that one makes himself) in an envelope made of tracing cloth. particvilarly of the wilder mountainous districts. them . changed by country folks than higher denominations. and others that will be mentioned in the chapter on Accidents. the whole being very light and compact. Take along some postal cards. Wear a money belt. and at lesser intervals for more level country). and two safety pins. he is most subiect. soiling. thus protecting the map from tearing. It contains two antiseptic compresses of sublimated gauze. fractures. ivy poisoning. Some of are accurate. In the matter of medicines. but there are cer. Note-books should be of such paper as is ruled in squares. no matter how light I travel. an Esmarch triangular bandage with cuts printed on it showing how to bandage any part of the body. are filled with details that exist only in the draughtsman's imagination. numbered.* Maps should be cut up into sections about 4 by 6 inches. In snake time I also keep by me at all times a hypo- * I regret to say that these sheets are of uneven merit. „ and a timetable of the road by which you expect to return. The required sheet is placed on top. run in common such as wounds. I always carry either in a pocket or in my hunting pouch a solThis can be procured from a dier's first-aid packet. which are useful in rough mapping and sketching. attacks of venomous insects. every man must take into account his personal equation and the ills to which __ J. dealer in surgical instruments or from a camp outfitter. snake-bites. and can be made out through the envelope without removing it.

A Proud Moment .


. Some natives have an unpleasant way of extracting an aching — * The tablets starred are carried in the hypodermic case. sod. Senega compound. morphin 1-40 local ancesthetic. heartburn. fine. 1-30 gr. gr. brandy. A small bottle of unguentine and some cathartic pills generally complete the list for a short trip.) tablets intense pain. etc. curved medium. Vaselin. Surgeon's needles: 2 straight 1 1 medium. rolled bandages. curved small. Unguentine burns. insect bites. Belladonna plasters.. Compound cathartic pills. in two small bottles. . tablets surgical shock. 3 gr. An ulcerated tooth is a bad thing to fight in the wilderness grizzly bears are nothing to it. McClintock's germicidal soap cleansing wounds. tablets coughs. in Absorbent cotton. 3 2-in. bottle. ivy poisoning. sublimated gauze. Soda mint tablets sour stomach. etc. 1-5 gr. Surgeon's silk. ^Quinin.) and atropin (1-150 gr. colds. Mustard plasters. 8 oz.) * Morphin (J gr. * Strychnin sulphate. Bernays' antiseptic tablets. When going far from medical or surgical aid. the use of which will be explained hereafter. etc. Hypodermic sjTinge. bruises.— — —— — — —— — — 33 PERSONAL KITS dermic syringe with tubes of potassium permanganate and strychnin. chlor. coarse and Catgut ligatures. It is better to carry separately the crystals and a little vial of distilled water. A permanganate solution will precipitate a sediment in a week or two. artery forceps and needle-holder combined. ^-grain tablets. I might pack along a box containing the following kit: 3-in. Tooth forceps. sunburn. *Cocainand morphin tablets (cocain 1-5 gr. One such kit is enough for a large party. Sun cholera tablets dysentery. * Potassium permanganate. capsules malaria. It will be used mostly on the natives. 1 yd. Trional sleeplessness.

Toilet Bag. after exhaustive experiJ. Wyeth's lemonade tablets are still better. German socks. . When much water is to be corrected. wherein will also be found various formulas for fly dopes. each for himself. For an ordinary trip the following will suffice: th "R ^^ used for clean clothes Jersey or sweater. it is preferable to use added to water The refreshing lemonade. it is well to carry. knit cap. one teaspoonful to the gallon of water. which. and to other torments of the woods and swamps. two pairs drawers. crystals make a and they are valuable to neutralize alkaline water and make it potable. in the chapter on Pests. Forceps. gloves. ments. as when making a long trip through an alkaline country. hydrochloric (muriatic) acid. In summer add a head-net. It is well to make ^^ this in saddle-bag shape. in winter. One drop of anise will lure for half a mile — radius. three pairs socks. if there are no lemons in the outfit. two undershirts. Kephart.. a bit at a time. spare overshirt. and a pair of mitts. by prying it out with an awl. In hot weather little citric . In spring and autumn I usually carry a tiny vial of oil of anise. one side n and the other for soiled ones. to which the reader is referred. if you have room. lumberman's rubbers (if you cannot get shanks). p. the whole serving as a pillow if you have no regular pillow-bag. moccasins. woolen pyjamas (not linen). or Southwest (anywhere I add a 4-ounce bottle of chloroform. which is very attractive to various animals whose acquaintance I wish to cultivate from bees to bears. Spare clothing should be packed in a bag by itself. a acid. three handkerchiefs. I have found to be the only thing that can be depended upon to put chiggers (redbugs) to sleep in the cuticle of H. Paul Kruger used to cut his out with a knife. In a sponge-bag carry: . I will pay my respects to these microscopic fiends. A word to the wise is sufficient: When traveling in the South from Missouri down). 34 CAMPING AND WOODQRAFT molar.

small pieces of mending cloth and leather. and the part crossing the bridge of the nose similarly covered. a few small jobs. In for fitting up such a repair kit. a rawhide belt-lace. comb. The glasses should be surrounded by fine wire gauze. ^^ These are better than green or blue ones. screw driver (T-shaped. these (contents varying. pocket mirror. each with a T-shaped slit cut in it to see through. in which are kept such things as • — TT-j. scissors. If you wear glasses. split rivets.PERSONAL KITS Towel and (old 35 and soft). pocket tape-measure. of course.shades are better for high latitudes than glasses. when removed. do not give the sensation of darkness that is experienced after removing colored glasses. soap. The Eskimo kind of eye. the soap in a soft rubber tobacco-pouch. In winter it pays to carry a pair of smoke-colored goggles. strong twine. is a convenient — * . They consist of two wooden disks. with a narrow strap to go over the bridge of the nose and another to go around the head. wire. strop. gun grease. with 3 blades). rivets. halfround bastard file. pocket scales. folding. safety pins. In one's camp kit it is advisable to have a holdall. Of nails. if you carry them. to prevent snow-blindness likewise in summer if you are much on the water. cut wipers. should fit well. A pantasote pouch. Such shades give perfect vision. because they are less opaque and there is less They loss of color in objects seen through them. be sparing of bulk include only enough and weight. beeswax. large rubber bands. 10x12 inches. sewing and darning needles. or a japanned box. awl. a few assorted nails and tacks. go elsewhere. 1 doz. the edges covered with velvet. 6-in. The razor the If you smoke. oiled rags. do not collect moisture.cutting parallel pliers. spare buttons. and. two sizes soft wire. side. toothbrush. waxed-ends (get a shoemaker to make them for you if you don't know how). linen thread. take along an extra pair. darning cotton. sure. stow a spare pipe in your kit koosy-oonek will get one. ac- ^ Rifle-rod cording to personal requirements): and brush.

p for one's necessities when he is ing without a coat. Macmillan). but one of service pattern. New York. Ammunition. They are very accurate up to 100 yards or more. If p teen is filled it several hours. the pattern used by our regular infantry is as good as any.22 Long). incased in felt and this covered with duck. fishing tackle. If a telescope sight of three or four diameters (not more) is mounted on it. For a knapsack.22 cartridges are the Long Rifle (not to be confounded with the inferior . A canteen should not be a cheap affair merely covered with flimsy flannel. you can drive tacks with the tiny bullet at 40 feet. "small deer" as may be A inch barrel and skeleton stock is almost as easily carried as a pistol. not overpocket rifle with 15looking the comestible frog. The best . night. and can be shot with much greater precision. refer to . and hit squirrels in the head nearly every time at 30 yards if you are a marksman. See that the rifle is specially chambered and rifled for one or other of these. I will offer no advice here about any of these P k t T?*fl things beyond saying that a fisherman. the . to carry a . may do well rifle. for such available for the pot. and Tackle (American Sportsman's Library.22 caliber or a pocket rifle.* — For a detailed discussion of rifles for big game hunting I may my chapter on The Hunting Rifle in the book entitled Guns.22-7 and the . edited by Caspar Whitney. or any one else who takes his vacation in the woods at a time when most game is out of season.36 CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT and makes a good carrier travel.22 Automatic. the outside is immersed when the canwill keep three pints of water cool for Filled with hot water at night. boats and cameras. it makes a comfortable addition to one's blanket on a cold Every camper is supposed to have his own ideas about guns. receptacle for small stores.

with a storm roaring toward him through the forest. it can be made cosy in any kind of weather. It is easy . It should keep out insects and cold draughts. Men who travel in untracked forests. and chortles over the blissful cerAnd it tainty that no wind can blow his tent down. a wall tent is generally preferred. But a wall tent. It should be used only for sleeping quarters. A 10x1 2-foot wall tent is large enough for a party of four. or mountains. and should stand securely in a gale. with its necessary poles. or any camp that can be reached by wagon. It should be cool and air yon summer days. All of which is easily said. — ^ 37 . but let in the rays of the camp-fire and plenty of pure air. It should shed heavy rains. Every year sees countless campers busy with new contrivances in canvas or other material and still the prehistoric patterns hold There is a fascination about tent life that their own. and they are still used as portable dwellings by men of all races and in all climes and still the per- — has not been invented. may be partly due to its uncertainties. For a fixed camp. but warm and dry at night. is too heavy and bulky for anything but a wagon trip. A tent should be easy to set up. takes just one second of parting guys and ripping cloth to tumble him off his perch and cast him headlong into the very depths of woe. and has plenty of head-room. usually require a more portable shelter.CHAPTER IV TENTS AND TOOLS T^ENTS fect tent were invented long before the dawn of his- ^ tory. deserts. ^ With the addition of a fly.to set up. The utmost pinnacle of comfort is reached when one lies at night under taut canvas. a groundcloth. and a tent stove.

may be bought very cheaply from deal- camps. serviceable condition. For fixed Tent Cloth. These army and well made. Where expense is not considered. 10-ounce double-filling army *i. j duck i is -^u the • government auctions. the material in either case being waterproofed by one or other of the processes mentioned hereafter. and an A tent of the same size only 7^ pounds. the choice depends upon the intention to go light or not. no material equals pantasote. Secondfilling duck is neither strong nor rain-proof. two tents may be joined together whenever desirable. a 7jx 1^ miner's tent weighs but 6 pounds. but this should be understood beforehand. pitch than one large one. materials. It is well to have the tents made to open at both ends. take another Two small tents are easier to transport and to tent. so that they can have a complete circulation of air on hot days. A tent of this kind big enough for one man to bivouac in is made that weighs only 2^ pounds. In this case. unbleached sheeting or silk. should be taken along. should be used. and for a very light one. ^^ perfectly waterproof. it is not sticky in hot weather nor brittle For a in cold.38 CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT shelter for personal kits fly and as a and other perishables. having been condemned only for stains or other trifling defects. and to cover the box or other contrivance that is used for an outdoor cupboard. and extra weight It is not objectionable. t-i. to be used as a roof for the dining space. light tent. Guides usually furnish their own shelters. sail drilling. A separate As /« ^ for tent whether ^1 it is ^-i.u i ine cheap singlethmg. The strength of a tent depends more upon the reinforcement of the grommets ers who get them at tents are always well designed . hand army tents that are in good. If there are more than four in the party. Tents of waterproofed balloon silk of excellent quality and strongly made can now be bought ready-made in all shapes and sizes. and its wearing qualities are excellent. and they haye the supreme advantage that the snorers can then be segregated in a limbo of their own. embers from the f a erproo camp-fire will not burn holes in it.

also prevents mildew. Let the solutions stand until clear. by linen tape. A long. whereas a common tent will take up so much water Waterproofing that its weight is greatly increased.TENTS AND TOOLS and seams than upon the kind lines of greatest strain 39 of cloth used. thoroughly work the fabric in it. in light tents. The should be reinforced. but keeps much cooler on a hot day. because it insures the precipitation of all the lead in the form of sulphate. If a common tent is purchased. Similarly. and better results will follow from it. and even heavy canvas. but if set up at a lower angle than this. then pour the alum liquor into a clean vessel. It is only within a few years that ready-made waterproof tents have been supplied by outfitters. and allows one to roll up his tent when it is wet on the outside. is essential that soft water be used. Let stand a few hours. so that every part is Remember Suite penetrated. such as sheeting or muslin. but prevents it from absorbing water. consequently it should be waterproofed. a fly cannot be carried. will absorb so much water that if the inside of the cloth be touched by so much as one's finger a steady drip of water will come through at that spot so long as the rain lasts. Thin. lat sugar of lead is poisonous if taken internally. dissolve . and add the sugar of lead solution. stretch and dry. closely woven cotton goods. not only makes the roof watertight. if he is in a hurry. will shed ordinary rains if pitched at a higher angle than 45°. in a separate ^ pound of sugar of lead (lead acetate) in 4 gallons of water. If such treatment is properly applied it not only renders the tent dry throughout the worst storm. squeeze out. if not waterproofed or protected by a fly. hard rain will soak such cloth through and through. When traveling light. or . camper makes one for himself. the water will penetrate. It vessel. Then pour off the clear liquor. and the tent itself must be light and thin. the p he can waterproof it by either of the following processes: fly A the tent ^ Dissolve ^ pound of alum in 4 gallons of boiling rain-water. This is double the proportion of alum usually recommended.

Dr. This would freely permit the "A of escape of the internal humidity.: 40 CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT This treatment fixes acetate of final alumina in the is fibers of the cloth. which is always the curse of polar workers. though still porous. get a cake of paraffin. they will become brittle at low temperatures and may break in folding. be an excellent idea tion of the wind. place the mixture in a warm room. To hasten the solution of the paraffin. perhaps. because. Do not oil a tent. Dissolve it in turpentine or benzin. Or. using as much wax as the Apply with a varnish brush to the tightly liquid will take up. it should be borne in mind that a traveler's greatest discomfort in cold weather is from moisture generated from within and condensing on the inner surface of clothing or tent cloth that is not sufficiently porous to let it escape. so as to allow Rainperspiration to pass through and evaporate. lay the cloth on a table. proceed as follows Cut the paraflBn into thin shavings. of course." — . Then iron the cloth with a medium-hot flatiron. if they are. Clothing may also be made rainproof in this way. near the fire) and stir it now and then. and cloth so treated will be sticky in hot weather. to have window spaces. says: scientifically ideal tent wall would be a double sheeting some gauzy material. while it would sufficiently prevent the penetraIt would. and rub the outer side with the wax until it has a good coating. stretched goods. Tents to be used in very cold weather should not be waterproofed. which melts the wax and runs it into every pore of the cloth. for it is an excellent wind guard. Cook. evenly distributed. and makes a tent proof against sparks and embers from the camp-fire. the antarctic explorer. water will penetrate it wherever the cloth binds tightly. To waterproof cloth with paraffin. rain. so as to dissolve readily. while easily allowing the escape of moisture. retaining the internal heat. Frederick A. The washing to cleanse the cloth from the useless white powder of sulphate of lead that Cloth treated in this manner sheds is deposited on it. spread with gauzy or porous material. or where the hot sun will strike it (but not. Moreover. Linseed oil rots the fiber. made in the front of this tent near the peak mosquito netting is by no means out of place on the polar ice-fields. the two thicknesses being separated from each other about one inch.

p small tents intended for mountaineering and similar work. stones. . and the material is too easily torn. In . a very Hght affair to be used in arctic work. P^^ The In summer best insect discourager it is is cheese- a good plan to have a duplicate tent of cheese-cloth hung inside from the ridge or peak.TENTS AND TOOLS 41 The tent to which he refers is one of his own design. especially if water be boiled within the tent. sodSuch a tent cannot blow cloths being dispensed with. to be held down by small This keeps out logs. It is an advantage to have a tent dyed to a Hght green or tan color. tan color. yeing sun. covering most of the floor of the tent and lapping over the sod-cloth. then the canvas may be left wide open on sultry nights. A few packages of dye may be used be- Two pounds of ground white oak bark in 3J gallons of boiling water will dye canvas a fore waterproofing. which is a strip about nine inches wide joined to the bottom of the tent on the inside. and other pests. This moderates the glare of the . But a fixed floor-cloth is objectionable in cold weather. because the steam condenses and runs down the inside of the tent. cold air will be sucked in along the floor and will chill the sleepers. The mesh of ordinary mosquito netting is too open. A waterproof ground-cloth. In fly time a netting to keep out insects is a prime necessity. - makes the a^jj(j tent less attractive to it gjgg^ renders less conspicuous in the woods. is a good thing if it can be carried along. ^ . or earth. and bobbinet is likewise too weak. cloth. and it has the minor advantage that small articles dropped on the floor will not be lost. draughts. and it should be allowed to run off into the snow along the edges. If the lower edges of the tent are left loose. Every tent should have a sod-cloth. away when the weight of the occupants is inside. insects. which latter is worth considering in some localities where undesirable visitors may drop in. this ground-cloth is sometimes sewed fast to the bottom of the tent.

pegs where he camps. covered with cheese-cloth. twisted somewhat like a lariat pin. which rolls up with the tent. A tin guard is a _.42 CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT If a stove is to be used in the tent. and split- Steel tent pins.. the pipe-hole should be guarded by an asbestos ring or collar. however. The heat from the fire is reflected by the tent roof upon the ground below. damp. lumbermen. ^ squeaky thing when the wind blows. than to close it up and sleep in a The most ean. hold better. Metal and not given tent slides are better than wooden ones. and others who is live in the woods. the air in it is soon poisoned. before which a big log fire is kept going all through the night. but the work is well repaid by the exquisite comfort of lying . Napoleon declared that his troops kept in better health when bivouacking under the stars than when It is far better to leave the sleeping in tents. and harden the points by slightly charring more and are not a bag of their them in the fire. a lean-to or shed-roof affair with open front. are better than wooden pegs. * lighter ting. as they are easily driven in rocky ground. If made of green wood. being to swelling. and keeping the sleepers warm through a lot of the coldest night. AH tents that are made to close up tightly at night should have ventilators. It is more unhealthful to sleep in a tightly closed tent than in an ordinary bedroom with all the windows closed. and the labor of chopping is rather severe to any one but a good axeman. but it is better to carry them Pegs should be unless one is going particularly light. and the one favored by guides. front of the tent wide open. for the cubic contents of an average tent are less. They should be carried in so bulky. a good-sized hardwood tree being consumed in a single night. . stuffy atmosphere. select hard at least a foot long. takes wood. and with flaps on the outside to tie down in bad weather. and the interior is damp besides. This. or some of them will probably be misplaced or In a wooded region one can depend upon cutting lost. even in cold weather.o ' healthful form of tent. wood that has no pithy core. own. drying it out. shrinking.

but on nights when a fire is kept going the flap should be stretched forward vertically from the windward side of the tent front. from which a light rope is extended and stretched between two trees. A waterproof silk tent of this pattern. door-flap separate from the tent. warm as and breathing deeply the fresh air of the forest. all kinds of weather. treated to a bath of hot linseed oil. For a camp that the front of which is left wide open. A better plan is to have the the tent is open. is and ease of pitchNothing is better. the rope being made taut by two forked poles bracing it up at each end of the tent. 43 before the blazing backlogs on a cold night. It should be of braided cotton. the shed-roof tent is the most comfortable kind of shelter. for a timbered region. the . to be stretched out forward like an awning tents are apt to be. as all closed Tent-makers always make these shed-roof or "baker" tents with a door-flap sewed to the top. and the fire should be built close to the tent. so as to check the draught from that direction. used. For a small tent the ridge rope should be about twenty-five feet long. and stretched until dry. ending in a loop at each end. Such an arrangement is secure against heavy gales. A metal slide it or tightener near each end of the rope will keep taut without crotched poles. and the tent may be closed up by it when the occupants are away. Such a tent is never damp and cheerless. is not shifted every day or two. lightness. as preferred. A strong tape is sewed along the ridge of the tent. portability. ^ where portages must be made and camp In this case no poles are shifted at frequent intervals. nor kink.TENTS AND TOOLS toast. and outside of it. when no all-night fire is needed. in ing. then For extreme A tent recommended. it will neither shrink. for a trip in summer. in the long run. In warm weather. stretch. . it may be hung from the top as an awning. The Hudson Bay form cloth of A or wedge tent economizes and weight by making the ends round and the ridge short. and so fitted with when grommets or eyelets that it can be attached either to the top or to one side of the tent.

It can It sheds rain well. and for all kinds devised. -. inside. a regular Sibley tent stove should be carried along. Both of these patterns have so steep a „. and this may be jointed. * * likely at times to resemble the inside of a chimney-flue just unless its owners know it how to manage is it. and right in the middle of the inclosed space.. that home for all human ingenuity has the most comregions. . weighs only 6 pounds. Meals can be cooked over this open fire. ^ pitch that they shed rain very well. How- ever. as must often be the case. the teepee fortable portable of weather.. A so-called "canoe tent" is made that combines some of the advantages of the shed-roof tent with an arrangement whereby it can be set up with only one pole. and the steam and smells will be wafted out through the . The "protean" tent is of similar pattern. " pee (pronounced tee-pee). be thrown wide open in a moment. affords more room for beds than a conical tent of equal cubic capacity. Both of these forms are suitable for travel in a treeless region where a tent pole must be carried. without smoking the occupants out. The claim that a Sibley tent can be heated by an open fire inside is not well borne out. The pyramidal ^. The miner's tent. and that is the Indian lodge or tee-. and on this account may be made of thin material. A fire can be kept going within the tent. where it will do the most good. or it can be closed tightly all around and still kept well ventilated by the hole at the top. the Sibley especially. They also stand well in heavy winds. and even it is require only one pole. when properly pitched. If the tent is to be heated. so as to pack easily on an animal or in a canoe. because its pitch is steep. directly under the smoke-hole. taking all around. miner's tent. which covers a square ground space. There is only one kind of tent that can be heated by an open fire. It is more secure in a gale than any other form of tent that does not depend upon neighboring trees to hold it up. and the conical Sibley. . because the opening at the top is too small to let out the smoke when green wood is burned.44 CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT 6x9x7 feet.

in almost any kind of weather. with grommets in outer . To set up a teepee properly. easy to set up. in a gale. secure . There is no center-pole to stumble against. and a trifling smudge of dried fungus going in the center. slender poles are needed. The awning has two thin jointed poles and cord guys. Perry D. The length of each breadth. nor guy to trip The tent is easily set up. and it can quickly be over. An excellent form of tent for all-round service. Each width of duck measures 38 inches. 8 inches square. In the rear of the tent is a window. inclusive of the end left below partly in a personal letter. or even with one. Frazer.TENTS AND TOOLS 45 smoke-hole. 1 and 2. filled with bobbinet. at sides and bottom. mosquitoes can be kept at a respectful distance. is 10 feet 2 inches. by him and partly from an article and Fishing. (Figs. rain-proof. giving a good circulation of air. being warm. it fastens down with hooks and eyes. The awning is usually left up. Its flap is 13x14x18 inches. By manipulating the smoke-flaps or wind-guards the "chimney" may be made to draw. ten or a dozen straight. taken down and rolled up into a small parcel. The door is about 14 inches wide at top and about 20 inches at bottom. It is the favorite tent of that veteran canoeist. Teepees are not to be had of tentmakers. the one here trated. and aflFording plenty of is headillus- ^ room for its size. in Shooting hem is for sod-cloth. Frazer. P . poles set up as a tripod. except to order. and these are often hard to find. With the tent closed. The tent is octagon in form. Mr. the latter being braced against a tree. and a flap of mosquito-bar closes the opening. well-ventilated. and its lower end jabbed into the ground. feet 6 inches (actual length along goods) The door is 5 The awning large brass 5 feet 8 inches long. The cuts and details here given are supplied by Mr. . whose book on Canoe Cruising and Camping is the most practical manual of its kind that has been published. even But one can make shift with three in a dense forest. 8^ feet in diameter and 8^ feet high.) The material is dark brown 10-ounce duck.

winetoiir Fig. 1.Fig. 2. .



and The octagonal floor-cloth fastens to the sides insects. of the tent with grommets and small wooden buttons. in conjunction with the sod-cloth and floor-cloth. Its is this: It keeps the bottom of the tent in rationale what is practically one so that its piece.cloth sets true. It is slit from The front to pole. when a snug water and wind-proof tent is desirable. and the tent . 3. pegs. Mr. with poles and pegs. A . it would be ideal for light trips. at the door. so that the for- Fig.) tent floor-cloth lies over the sod-cloth. and to keep out rain. where it would have to be carried but if made of waterproofed muslin or 6-ounce duck. E. it makes the bottom of the tent proof against cold and insects at the very point where other tents are weak. I had the second one of this type that was made. (Fig.TENTS AND TOOLS 47 corners to hold stick. when one comes into the feet. . It was designed by J. 3. besides. Frazer says: "This is my favorite tent for canoeing trips early in the spring and late in the fall. This inches. as shown by the dotted line. It would be too heavy for inland trips. without any measuring. so that it can be stretched for air. tent with "sill muddy The is "under the door 5 inches high.^j Floor. and it will Twelve-inch meat skewers are used for be noticed that the tent only requires into eight of them. ward edges can be turned back. dampness. namely. making the impervious to cold draughts. or taken out at wiU. and I had mine made wider. tent folds a parcel about 24x12x3 and weighs about 32 pounds. but his tent was too small. The sod-cloth is 6 inches wide. G. Yalden of New York. so that it can be left with tent when folded. is when the latter stretched taut every peg finds proper place.

Folding tables. u but it is • i. which are very convenient receptacles for odds and ends. . however.. grand tents. S. and wall pockets. stools." In any tent with a ridge-pole two screw-eyes should be put in it at opposite ends from which to suspend by _ cords a straight stick to hang clothes on. which fit on the upright poles of tents. Hemand Son. and even folding working drawings. made of pantasote. and chairs. Once set. is now used by canoeists. when set up on four poles. a cupboard of three shelves 2 feet long. plated. I have timed the owner of one of these tents while in the act of setting it. will turn water as readily as if it were greased. 54 South St. that are well worth packing along if the party is not traveling very light indeed. connected by cross-pieces on which the top rests. are supplied by camp outfitters.. The table is set up by driving a stake into the ground at each corner. and weighing only 3 pounds. the latter being 2x3 feet when opened. or other one-pole tents. It pays to take such things. are made in • large quantities for military use. forming. Three minutes were consumed in driving the eight steel pegs and hoisting the pole into position. let the wind blow as hard as it may. but it may be less. One may stand upright in it. and metal lantern hangers and gun-racks. and there is room for one cot or for two beds on the ground. stiffened The shelves are made of canvas. have the I think the price. the owner need never fret. Wire clothes hangers and candle ^ holders. New York. and these are a rolling The table is table-top and a set of folding shelves. for it would be hard Its sides being so steep. with pockets on the under side which are stiffened by thin wooden slats. it to trip this style of tent. The hangers are particularly useful in Sibley. weighing 3 . * bath-tubs. ture on the spot. if make one's own simple furnianything like a hard trip is contemarticles of There are two ready-made furniture. • Tent Fur- _ ^ _ and campers' ^ better to x i-i trouble in iixmg Thev save time and -x up a camp.48 CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT of tents of this type are for all-round use they are number and menway pegs.. miner's. similarly by slats. without poles or twelve dollars.

^ Camp T^^i^ Tools. or at a stick lying flat on the ground. unless you are certain that he knows how to use it. see that the helve full-sized is . as it should. make a few bungling whacks at a projecting root. drive the blade through into the earth and pebbles. \ use u bemg * to sharpen the axe when you • are far from grindstones. in inches. An axe lying around camp has a fatal attraction for men who do not know how to use it. And the fellow who does this is the one who could not sharpen an axe to save his life. derness. or that the best way to ruin it is to strike it into the ground. 49 As boards are seldom obtainable in the wiland shelves may be worth the trouble axe should be taken along whenever it Its head need not weigh more than 3^ or 4 pounds. then turn over and see if the edge of the axe ranges exactly in line with the center of the hilt (rear end of handle). A practicable to carry one. A good chopper is as critical about the heft and hang of his axe as a shooter is about the balance of his gun. its chief i xi. Get the axe ground by a careful workman. You may loan your last dollar to a friend. and leave the edge nicked so that it will take an hour's hard work to put it in decent order again. but never loan him your axe. but somebody will pick it up. If the handle is straight. and free from knots.TENTS AND TOOLS pounds. If an axe is bought ready handled. Not that they will do much chopping with it. is of young growth hickory. It never seems to occur to him that an axe is of no use unless its edge is kept keen. if it is it Sight along the back of the helve to see straight in line with the eye of the axe. the tables of carrying them. score a 2^foot rule on it. . and he can quickly fell and log-up a tree large enough to keep a hot fire before his lean-to throughout the night. and that the hilt is at right angles to the center of the eye. straight grained. With this one tool a good axeman can build anything that is required in the wilderness. A file should be taken alone:. The store edge is not thin enough or keen enough. /^««. or that a chopping block will prevent that.

When traveling with horses.50 CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT When going into fixed camp it is well to take along a small hand-saw. carrying water. Carbide is much especially if so much as a drop escapes anywhere near your provisions. though. Nails will be needed in such a camp. unscrews and exposes the opening of a small spout within. some copper rivets. refuse pit. A spade may Jdc taken for trenching. will generally suffice. because some one will surely use it in sawing meat bones. saddler's thread. but let it be of easier to carry than kerosene. are much bulkier than carbide. take with you some boards for making a table. rawhide thongs. camp refrigerator. and. etc. benches. Make up your mind that it will have to be thrown away when you leave for home. which. which the clamp has been removed. washers. a good way to carry it is in quart cans such as are made for heavy oils. These have a stopper which leather dressings. or a sapling chopped to a wedge at one end and hardened in hot ashes. A coil of fifteen or twenty yards of half-inch rope is . which is very useful in making camp furniture. a few spare horseshoes and their nails. tools in a rolled holdall may be handy and an inch auger is often useful around a permanent camp. frail. and so forth. awls. It may be well to take a crosscut saw for the special benefit of those who are rather proud of the fact that they do not know how to chop firewood. etc. and for excavating the oven. those made of tin or aluminum are much too Candles. night and picking up frogs at night. An acetylene lantern bicycle lamp. cache. for the amount of light they give. brass. will taint them. A folding pocket lantern for candles is best when one is in light marching order. take a hammer. is good for coon hunting. fishing and a wire bail attached to the top. if the ground is reached by wagon. A wooden spade. however. and a set. from - An ordinary is a good thing. Never venture into an arid region without one or two large canteens for A few small at times. and a good length of rope. If oil is preferred.

" to which to chain him. When camping in a canebrake country have a huntsman's horn in the outfit. take along a few yards of strong wire. * .TENTS AND TOOLS 51 a good thing to have around a permanent camp. It is a dulcet note to one who is bewildered in a thick wood or brake. who will blow it every evening „ about an hour before supper. this to be strung between two trees as a "trolley wire. with you. Leave it with the campkeeper. or as an aid If you have a dog in reaching the nests of hawks. It will be useful should you find a bee^ tree and elect to rob the bees. and its message is unmistakable. The sound of a horn carries far. etc.

'^^^ affair. _ a bonfire can be built to one side and hard coals shoveled from it to a spot sheltered by bark or canvas where the cooking is done. pitch me over to Davy Jones. which are used to support the frying-pan and coffeepot over the fire. Till. it your cooking wood into short Meals as good as any that ever came out of stove can be cooked over an open fire. Why are none made of of flat steel (iron would bend too about 2 feet long. if one has a darky to look after it. cast When aluminum ? a Dutch oven cannot be 52 carried. And meat. When you shift camp every day or so. a folding . These are simply two pieces . and J inch thick. or other sheet-iron convenient in a fixed camp. easily when heated) 1^ inches wide. They salted me down for sailors' use. it is a good scheme to take along a pair of fire-irons. eyes. killed by blows and sore abuse. sailors off "The Cut They turn me over and damn my they do me despise. and scrape my bones. my — camp stove. jammed "out all compels you to cut of whack." Old chanty. If they can easily be carried." Besides. such a thing is an intolerable nuisance Either it or its pipe is to clean up and pack around. A Dutch oven of cast-iron is very ^ serviceable on any trip that permits carrying so heavy a utensil. \ COLLAPSIBLE may be forever getting lengths. Even when it rains.CHAPTER V UTENSILS AND FOOD "Old horse! old horse! what brought you here?" "From Sacarap to Portland Pier I've carted stone this many a year.

The reflector here mentioned is such as our great-grandmothers used to bake biscuit in. pan of which holds just a dozen For four men. flesh and fowl can be roasted to a turn in this contrivance. If. The best coffee or tea this side of Elysium is brewed. and also for use as a sauce-pan. you must be conventional. bakes evenly all around. the bread pan The slanting top and bottom being in the middle. the broiler packs inside the for broiling meat. and impossible for pot-roasts or braising a Dutch oven being the thing for such purposes. but in a little tightly lidded pail. It has several better points than an oven. for instance. but not nearly so strong) should be substituted. p the quintessence of goodness in these delectable fluids cannot escape as they would from an open spout. is A wire not necessary handy for the purpose. latter is for frying in .— UTENSILS AND FOOD reflector of sheet-iron or 53 aluminum (the latter lighter. but it reflector. inches. When there are more than three men in the party. The best size of reflector for two men is 12x12x8 biscuits. and the bottom like another shed roof turned upside down. . reflect heat downward upon the top of the baking and upward against its bottom. not in a spouted vessel. so that bread. and without danger of burning the dough. chief of which is its portability. one of the ordinary shallow-pattern. take two frying-pans. like the pan ^ of a chafing-dish. Frying-pans with folding handles are convenient for tramping trips. without waiting for the wood to burn down to coals. but it is inferior for corn bread. army bread. Fish. A prime advantage of this cunning utensil is that baking can proceed immediately when the fire is kindled. and it is especially for broiling fish. „ from which the volatile aromas that are -. as it folds flat. however. etc. * The deep fat. The top slants like a shed roof. but the common ones with solid handles are more satisfactory when you are cooking. and the other deeper. before a hearth fire. with a tight cover. a good size is 16x18x10. There is no need of adding a long wooden handle if you build the right kind of a cooking-fire..

too. Kettles do all the work of saucepans. should have a cup. they will boil quickly and will pack well. and. if your plate be not hot. then their clean port- pie pans are about right. soups and baked beans. 2. The the fierce heat of an open ^ • smallest pail is for coffee or tea. the moment your back is turned. Plates should be deep enough to eat soup out of. have covers to keep the heat in and the ashes out. which is an item deserving forethought. and four small covered kettles or pails. the largest kettle (which should be of stout metal and with a wire for ring riveted on the cover) being for stews. for. fork and a fuUsized dessert spoon apiece. or folding wash-basin to mix dough in. because they can either be set hung above the fire. the next size for cereals. and Carter of Carters ville who I believe it was Colonel declared that "there is no . A soldered spout. This is well worth consider- ing when you are to eat in the frosty air. especially for the larger be low and broad. or be buried under besides. iron or crockery. They. and any other baking in a hole under Make a rule of using them in this the camp-fire. are preferably of aluminum. for A Tjr-x T^ A Kit For '^ £ company kit. or Aluminum kettle.! — is 54 CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT coflPee-pot. begins to melt at the joint from fire. off goes the nozzle A party of four men. the next for hot water. a pan _. plate. and as a double boiler in combination with No. boiling vegetables. in then get a miner's which the spout an integral part of the pot. traveling in moderately light order. because this metal holds heat better than tin. then you will never have more than one greasy pot to clean. nesting. you can carry water in them. and then potztausend himmel donnerwetter. order. If bottom edges are rounded they will be easier to and less abrasive to one's back when making All such vessels should ages. like that of mutton. cools quickly to tallow. and they are more useful on the coals all 'round. knife. your gravy will turn to tallow and your flapjack be a clammy thing that your hungriest dog will not eat. is the best material. y two irying-pans. Venison fat. and they it.

Copper utensils are dangerous. Enameled ware is nice so long as it remains smooth. but if you must use tinware remove the fruit as soon as it is done. and salt and pepper shakers capped. cut through the lower part of the handles and bend them outward a little." By the same token. Fruits should be cooked in granite or other enameled ware. but its surface flakes off easily. Directions how to select ma: .UTENSILS AND FOOD 55 crime equal to putting a hot duck on a cold plate. Then if the spoon should slip from your fingers when you are stirring the kettle it is not so apt to fall into the soup. So. unless thoroughly tinned on the inside. combined can-opener and corkscrew may be needed. aluminum is not so good for coffee cups and for the handles of such vessels as are to be used over the fire. a wire broiler that fits in the reflector when packing up. for the woods have four-andtwenty kinds of flies and doodle-bugs to the city's one. The following utensils are also desirable if they can be carried without too much trouble A folding canvas water bucket. an extra tablespoon or two. Dirty dishes lying around are even worse nuisances in camp than they would be at home. baskets. or a folding reflector to bake in. wash-basins. The handles of tablespoons used in cooking should be bent over at the end so as to form hooks. for every utensil must be washed frequently. an oven. a tea-ball or coffeeA strainer. go light in pots and tableware. even cups. but it is unwise to add much unless a hired cook goes along. Plates. particularly in cold weather. and tin is very easily melted off from utensils placed over an open fire. and there is no chore that the human male so cordially despises and so brazenly shirks as dish-washing. A party going into fixed camp can add to the above equipment at its discretion. so as to be very neat and clean. can be made out of bark and withes. trenchers. Tin plates are hard to wash. buckets and barrels. To make ordinary cups nest. This kink deserves special mention by the Young Men's Guild of Good Life. I repeat. Take as few dishes as you can well get along with and keep them clean.

When transportation is easy it pays to pack the bread. securing their contents from and rodents. and so forth. wooden plates are always useful. there is nothing so good as pork. flour. ^ . to catch rain-water. c . in a tin wash-boiler or two. In a summer camp of the glorified picnic order. if it be unprotected. the predatory mink. . what kind of food the human machine needs to keep it up to the highest physical efficiency. even late in the fall. and the fretful porcupine. tea (or coffee) and salt. -5 wet. pests. But in a paper birch country they are superfluous. These are the mainstays of lumbermen. which are wrapped in burlaps and -. in at all times are downright pests of the woods. table-cloth. to keep flies out of things.56 CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT terials for the purpose and how to rig them up will be given in another chapter. who certainly know. and it is useful for strainers. when the flies will come out and blow your venison. There may come warm days. too. and what will keep best in all n . practicable. to say nothing of the wily coon. on many occasions. miners and soldiers. for if the smoke be dense enough to keep flies at a distance it will dry up the meat and make it taste like very bad dried beef. puddingbags. A smudge is not to be relied upon.. Substantial ^f ^ j tar as down as £ and bulk must be cut p .. bags of flour. of such food as "sticks to the ribs. waterproof and dye tents. and hard travel is ahead." are what men want who are taking hearty When weight exercise in the open air. prospectors. Ants in summer and mice crated. beans. etc. After all these things have been done in them they are properly seasoned for cooking a burgoo. The boilers ^e useful. jin . to hang game and nsh m. the inquisitive skunk. No matter how lightly one travels he should carry several yards of cheese-cloth. ^. boil clothes. insects These make capital grub boxes camp. saving much washing and being convenient for side dishes. There is nothing so good to bar out mosquitoes and other rvi +V. trappers. if any men do. Plain dishes well cooked.

The United States Army ration is often taken as the standard of what men require in camp and field. light or heavy. for they will not do to climb hills with. evaporated vegetables. The Rockies of Canada."* As a rule. and he may add sugar. canned beef. however." says an experienced mountaineer. dried milk. I am speaking now of the garrison ration. Anything added to these staples is a luxury. But „ . chop trees. however. The army travel ration. . cereals. Canned goods. with game and fish. will enable him to dine sumptuously every day. according to one's means of transportation. canned baked beans. "he will be ravenously hungry hours. which. and much being allowed for accidental waste. paddle canoes. dried fruits. some butter. vinegar and a few other condiments. and fresh vegetables. which consists only of bread. amounts to 2 68-100 pounds of solid food for one person one day. while pork and beans will sustain him from six to ten hours and give the utmost physical buoyancy and strength. after three hours. The quantities are sufficient without counting on game or fish. roasted coffee and sugar. These * F. after four or five hours. Marion Wilcox. of bacon and bread. one can add to the variety of m this bill of fare -.UTENSILS AND FOOD 57 weathers and stow most compactly. to be carried or not. will be noticed in the "heavy" ration lists that follow. owing chiefly to the water that is in them. tote burdens. - J it is more liberal than most campers need. by substituting. concen- trated soups. I will give in the next chapter four ration lists for four men two weeks. speaking of two one of his craft. in warm weather or in cold. for flour ^* some of the pork and and beans. the soldiers getting a rebate for P food not used by them. of cornmeal. Variety of food is quite as welcome in camp as it is anywhere else. nor will they sustain the wilderness hunter from dawn to dusk. "After a hearty breakfast of oat- meal. Many things that we crave in town would rank as "baby foods" in the woods. and rightly so. graded according as they travel. add enormously to the weights to be carThis ried.

^ man lists . and similarly to record the quantities left over at the end of the trip. I have allowed liberally for this. its weight in my ration lobacco. the amount of provisions taken on lone camping tours.tCold-Weather n ^^ ^ n e a \ u man who A tatty and oily toods." keeps well and does not blow out of one's pipe with every puff of wind. for sugar is stored-up energy. for it is always appreciated. burns "cool. tobacco should be considered a necessity.58 lists CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT It has been are based upon my own experience. and that the addition is mostly ^ . my own portions of this and that. If butter is not taken. so a supply Men of dried vegetables and fruits should be added. records 1 It will m . be noticed that the cold-weather ration that I give is about one-third more liberal than that for warm weather. They vary remark- ably. But a steady diet of bread and bacon is likely to breed scurvy. and have spent considerable time studying and comparing them.j TTT . and an extra supply should be carried ^^^j brand of cut plug is best for outdoor smoking. as well as those taken by the various parties that I have accompanied. This is a normal demand. For those addicted to it. as it holds fire well. eats city will find that little fat meat when living in the when he open air and sleeps in the hard in cold weather his system will demand more travels fatty food. I have also collected practical in many ration lists compiled by woodsmen. living in the open also develop a craving for sweets that is out of all proportion to what they experience in town. The experience of travelers in the far results of scientific analysis. ave been of most assistance. About six ounces a week per is a fair allowance for steady smokers. practice for years to weigh personally. for presents. and note my my down at the time. that North bears out the foods containing fats and oils are more nutritious and heat-producing than any others. not so much in aggregate weights as in the proOn the whole. and also for the increased consumption of coffee and tea that is the rule (owing somewhat to the fact that they lose strength from exposure to the air).

lard or bacon grease. a drachm of the latter to a pound of butter. and put p up in tins with melted lard poured over it to keep out the air. or by the sour-dough process. It has a higher melting point „ than lard. not be despised low. fried or boiled. It will keep indefinitely if sliced. and tastes better than plain is to melt in the proportion of . etc. borrowed from the Indians. with flavor little impaired. Butter will keep well in a hot climate. otherwise one should vary his diet with unleavened bread of corn-meal or flour. skimming off the scum as it rises till the melted butter is -. Bread can be raised with yeast powder or lungwort. and packing in a covered pail or pryP up tin. Ground coffee should it large canisters. . tions 59 Similarly other substituin the other will may be made compo- nents. g be put up in small tins. they make a A steady diet of baking-powder bread or biscuits will if persisted in.UTENSILS AND FOOD should be substituted in pork. dredging. Meat of any kind will quickly mold if packed in tins from which ruin the stomach . Condiments when the game and fish supply is new dish out of yesterday's leavings. J. If in from repeated exposure to air. if packed in a paper bag so as to keep out flies. On trips of more than three weeks it is better to carry the will lose strength rapidly green berries. clear as oil. . A frying fat superior to lard is made by melting together over a slow fire equal parts of lard and beef suet. Ham will keep. canisters. keeping them heated together a few minutes. „ not excluded. and then soldering it up in air is . and then straining off the fat. it with slippery-elm bark. roast them in the frying-pan and pulverize by pounding in a bag. if thoroughly boiled. Self-raising flour is more likely to spoil than plain flour. even in warm weather. Flour and cornmeal should be sifted before packing. Another method. . Tea is more bracing . gravies. and it will not do for thickening.

but it has neither the flavor of soup-stock nor any nourishment whatever. in soluble powdered . . It can be dissolved even in ice-cold water. etc. and it is seldom that men in the wilderness have both the material from which to make it and the time to spare. potatoes. lighter to carry . Cocoa and chocolate have high well nutritive value. unless you have been there before and are sure of the place's p.. and its keeping qualities are all that can be desired. Milk or cream is now put up form. it will save unpacking en route. To preserve ration-list because o ox Soup-Stock.j. Some -^ smoked herring and dried codfish might be substituted for some of the meat.. makes passable hash. Their chief value is for use in mixing flapjacks. Eggs can be carried anywhere if packed in pasteboard boxes with compartments. and not so mussy. 1 . being careful not to it. where you leave the railroad. resources. Desiccated eggs can also be procured from camp outfitters. get condensed soups. paraffin. • eggs. . paper.60 than CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT coffee. Don't depend upon buying fresh eggs. which is better flavored and j^. In a small box or basket carry separately enough food for the meals to be P eaten while traveling from the railroad to the first camping ground. Without ^ ffood stock it is impossible to 11 J J . leave the smallest particle of shell unprotected with This is a much more reliable preservative bran. than condensed milk or evaporated cream. I have added canned consomme to the "heavy" Canned meats do now and then. Ordinary canned soups are mostly water. Canned corned beef. or other common than methods..^ make a good soup. . p however. Soup from the raw materials can only be made in fixed camps as it takes at least half a day to prepare.. Many campers carry beef extract in the fatuous hope of using it in soup-stock or for beef tea. enough for a quick luncheon unwholesome and unappetizing for steady diet. etc. varnish them with vaselin. salt. and stowed in wooden boxes. but are it is an ideal soup-stock for campers.

hard or cold. it can be used with cold water. such as jerked venison. pemmican and rockahominy or pinole. soft. will be given in another chapter. since makes a hot or helps along a in any kind of water. . Directions for preparing emergency rations. and will save the flannels from shrinking.UTENSILS AND FOOD Tar soap good lather „ is 61 it best for campers' use. A light coat of its lather to keep off mosquitoes. Take bar of naphtha soap for washing woolens.

This is intended as a check-list. Note-book. Hat (smoke-colored felt. with hobnails. Mackinaw. The things that "might come in handy" should be left at home: OUTFIT FOR FOUR MEN IN THE WILDERNESS. Knickers or trousers or homespun). stockings. Undershirt. heavier. Pencil. to be modified according to circumstances. Pocket lens (?) 62 . EACH MAN. Jackknife. kersey. flannel sweat-band. closely if woven gray preferred. CHAPTER VI A CHECK-LIST—PACKING UP /^N the following list.. or socks (woolen). (firm. such articles as should be ^-^ dispensed with when traveling light are starred. Tobacco. In Pockets: Purse. Overshirt (gray flannel). tweed. Shoes (light leather hunting. Money belt. Loose matches. Pipe. Wear: Coat (duxbak or khaki. Watch. Handkerchief. those used only on special trips are queried. in winter). Waterproof matchbox. ventilators). No one expedition will require every- thing that is listed here. Map. Compass. Take only what you know you will need. for mountaineering) Leggings (loden. drawers. or cloth puttees). Neckerchief (gray silk). Belt and sheath-knife.

Repair kit (only part of on a hard march). (?). *Cot. Wallet. Broken shell extractor. or rod. spoon. Pillow-bag. Canteen (?). Timetable. Ammunition. Trapping scent (?). (?). In summer: Hypodermic. Poncho. pail (containing cup. it Toilet paper. Individual mess Shelter-cloth (?). of salt. Postal cards. kit. tea). sugar. double bag. *Landmg net. Almanac sheets.) Knapsack. (See page 30. Fly-dope. (?).) First-aid packet. Camera Field glass Pack Waders up: in Spare clothing. and small oiled silk bag etc. Field cleaner for rifle. 10 cartridges.) * Razor and strop. Mattress or bed-tick. gun. (See page 32. each Bouillon capsules. with fish lines. (See page 35. Sweet chocolate. Toilet bag. in case.) . or pack-strap.A CHECK-LIST—PACKING UP Pouch : 63 Tomahawk Quart (muzzled). etc.) Medicines. Fishing tackle. (See page 34. (See page 34. Blankets. Carry: Rifle. Head-net (black) Chloroform (?) Citric acid (?) (?) In winter: Snow goggles.

|]^Can "^ opener. "^"Dish towels dish clouts (3). spoons. Pantasote bucket. ^ "'^ *Panel saw (tied between thin boards). 4 each. Heavy twine. Axe. *Spare pipe.64 CAMPING AND V WOODCRAFT ""•Matches (tin box). Boards (?). Lantern. *Tent hangers. *Dish pan. chair. *Dutch oven. 2 tablespoons. *Fire irons. and ridge-rope. if any. Reflector. (2). 2 frying-pans. forks. . long. COMPANY STORES. oil. *Corkscrew. plates. Huntsman's horn (?). Cheese-cloth. Prospecting pick (?). *Camp *" Stationery (?). Screw eyes (?). nested. candles. "^ *Butcher knife. folding. Cold chisel (?). Pantasote wash basin. "^ Carbide. Small tools in roll-up case. -**• Tobacco. or *Spade. *Wire broiler. *Roll-up shelves. *Rope. '^-Spare glasses (?). *Fly for dining roof. *Ground-cloth. *Roll-up table top. — Shoe grease. *Poles and pins (the latter in a bag). File. 4 kettles with covers. Tent. '~^- *Nails and tacks. ''^ Salt and pepper shakers. *Coffee strainer. cups. knives. folding (on tramping trip used only for mixing dough). small.

. or alum and saltpeter. (Even if roofing paper is carried.. 40 . leaks. 1 5 4 2i 10 12 5 lbs. framing chisel. . add a large sponge for of beeswax for stopping If going by pack-train. add. 4 2i "^Butter -^Cheese --Lard *'**' 10 lbs. and a pound or two boat or canoe. Canned consomme •-* Fresh eggs . instead of spade. . 12 lbs.) . or translucent parchment. LIGHT. Summer. And perhaps a broadaxe. ' 65 •-*Cookbook. Window (glazed). and auger.. 10 lbs. Fresh bread *»> 5 "—Hard biscuit --riour '-Corn-meal (yellow) .) Froe. 5 4 1^ 2 5 (4 doz. Salt pork LISTS.. 10 5 4 li 2 5 6 1 1 3 3 2^ 3 3 Dried milk (or evaporated cream. (56 RATIONS. 1^ in. Nails. take some tin and a soldering set for making a vermin-proof closet or chest. 6 cans) Bread. Sulphuric acid.) 6 1 Winter. this will be useful.. 5 25 3 Buckwheat **^RoUed oats Rice flour 5 25 10 3 3 3 1 25 3 . Winter.. Hinges. HEAVY. -'Insect powder and "gun. If traveling in bailing. --•Bacon "^Ham Corned Beef (canned) Concentrated soups . etc. Thermometer. TWO WEEKS. add Crosscut saw. . or intend to occupy an old camp. for curing skins. 3 3 1 V ^Macaroni **Baking powder (Royal) Baking soda 11 3 3 1 25 10 3 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 42 52 42 52 . jack plane. Summer. FOUR MEN. Miner's shovel. If it is the intention to build a cabin. . mattock. 2J 2i 40 5 2J 50 30 etc. . If convenient. and some wire netting for cages of wild animals you may capture. or some oiled paper. including wrought nails for battening door. RATION Meats. a shoeing and pack-mending kit.: A CHECK-LIST—PACKING UP "-"Soap. besides horse trappings." if you camp in summer.

etc. 2 1 oz. Maple sugar Maple syrup Preserves. jam. apricots. Pepper (white) Cayenne or Chili . .. 2 4 (2 doz.) Citric acid.) 5 6(igal. . 2 1 oz. 66 CAMPING ANP WOODCRAFT 30 ih bu. Add Soap. 10 (4 cans) 1 Shelled nuts 1 1 5 Condiments. • 1 oz.^. plums. Sugar (granulated) . 1 oz. . 2 1 oz. Vinegar Pickles . 136ilbs.).. cherries..) . 1 oz. . 1 oz. Matches. 1 (1 pint) Lemons. • • 1 bot.. . 7 16 16 2 1 oz. Worcestershire sauce . etc. or 5 lbs.. 2 1 1 4 1 1 2 2 1 Raisins (seeded) Canned peaches.. . -Ajj^#(f wTTT. . Vegetables. Mustard.. 176 200 lbs. Salt (if allowing for curing skins. Cofifee (roasted. lade 5 5 5 3 5 (1 qt. . .. whole. 4 4 5 (2 cans) 2i (1 can) 16 20 4 5 49^ 53i Beverages. . 1 bot. take 10 lbs. . etc. Olive oil. 1 bot. . 2i — - Total 109i . 5 marma10 10 13 16 Acids. . X x 5 X X X 5 lbs.. Evaporated Prunes (stoned) apples. 1 bot. pears. x Sage Parsley Mixed herbs X X X X Nutmeg Curry powder Ginger 2i . .. . I 1 6 Fruits. . . peaches. cranberries . .. Potatoes (fresh) " (evaporated) Onions (fresh) Beans Split peas *4 Tomatoes (canned) Sweet corn (canned) .lbs. ground) 3 i i Tea Whitman's cocoa Sugar.

meal. The best size is 24x1 8x 12 inches. tea. frying fat. say . but they should be small. but they are heavy. and the chest painted. Camp chests are very convenient when it is practicable to carry them. bags. in. and it saves much trouble to buy them ready made. For the ends and lids of small chests. Mason jars are nice to pack butter. sugar and salt in pry-up tin cans. It is when the nights are assumed that the tramper . with a hand-hold gouged out of the under side. A pine grocery box of this size. Label everything plainly. top and bottom. Some ^^ camp outfitters supply these small bags and tins of proper size to stow in waterproof provision bags of their own make. Strap-hinges and hasp. and f-inch for the sides. so that one man can easily handle them unassisted. cheese and bread in parchment paper. Check off every article in the outfit as it is stowed and keep the inventory for future reference. this being convenient for canoes and packsaddles. and will not splinter.. etc.5x2 inches. weighing not over fifty or sixty pounds each when packed. I append here a list of things taken on a three-days' — side trip from camp frosty. jam. Bottles should be packed in corrugated paper or in excelsior. unless the chests are to go on pack animals. vegetables 67 Pack the pork. in the fall of the year. and will answer the purpose very well. and * especially the sugar and salt. a brass padlock and broad leather end-straps (not drop-handles) should be provided. If they are specially made. bottoms and trays.A CHECK-LIST—PACKING UP the flour. f-inch stuff is thick enough. the butter. cereals. and dried fruits in . with J-inch ends and f-inch sides. The bottom should have a pair of f-inch cleats for risers and the top a similar pair to keep it from warping. weighs only 12 pounds. so that one may not be taken for the other. Screw a wooden handle on each end. cottonwood is the best material (if thoroughly seasoned bfj«ards can be had otherwise it il is the strongest and toughest warps abominably) wood for its weight tliat we have. coffee. A tin bread-box is convenient in a canoe for carrying the utensils and food used while traveling.

x i. wipers. quart pail. With this equip^* ment. spare socks. that goes alone. Packed on Back. If your _ shoes are new. with sling 8 lbs. in. There are several things to be looked after in good season before starting on a camping trip. -tin cup. pepper Sweet chocolate " 2^ " 3^ " i " f " J " i Total 35 lbs. twine. with good shelter and _ a warm bed at night. you have sighted elevations at various ranges. vaselin " " Pack harness " f " ll 19i " Three days' provisions. he can keep to the woods for a week. should he have fair luck in hunting.^ j -^ *t. Clothes worn. ^ COLD-WEATHER TRAMPING Cakried. toilet-bag. as Rifle.: 68 CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT also. spoon Pillow-bag. «< »» 4. sheath-knife. If your rifle is new. in muzzle 20 cartridges " " " IJ " 2J " 2^ 1 1 Mess can. wallet.. first-aid pkt. namely: Bacon Bread (previously baked in camp) Tea Sugar Salt. eat . matches. with- ^ . If your fishing tackle . he proposes to have plenty to on the trip. ^ . and making sure that the . hitherto specified. testing the it up. . articles in pockets. field cleaner. • sights are accurately aligned. oil them and break them _. out stocking up KIT. Shelter-cloth Blanket Bed-tick Jersey 2 8 HaK-axe. do not dream of carrying it into the wilderness until J Around. .

Don't carry off your bunch of keys. Pare your nails closely. gets Be on hand aboard. bon voyage! .A CHECK-LIST—PACKING UP is 69 old. See that you have a good supply of small change when you start. overhaul and test it thoroughly. If you have a hollow tooth. Get your hair cropped short. get it filled. or they will soon be badly broken. €arly at the station personally that your and see to it humble but precious duffel all And now.

3.— CHAPTER VII THE CAMP woods. ing stream. and when such is found they had better accept it at once than run the risk of "murdering a night" farther on. which may be miles apart. Here a traveler must depend for water chiefly on the creeks and rivers. In any case. ^ <. though when you do strike one it is a big one. fire. they should begin at least two hours before sunset to keep a bright lookout for a good place on which to spend the night. force them * to stop. nor are springs as common as one would expect. and there are no brooks. where the rock is a porous limestone. " "And they shall dwell safely in the wilderness Ezekiel. level enough for the tent and campbut elevated above its surroundings so as to have good natural drainage. 70 . when men are journeying through a wild country that is strange to them. In cold weather there should be either an abundance of sound downwood or some standing hardwood trees that are not too big for easy felling. the drainage mostly underground. whether it be open plain or timbered bottom land. There are exceptions. good water and a high and dry site may be hard to find. wherever the powers of darkness /^OOD ^^ a camping grounds are seldom hilly may P 1. 2. The essentials of a good camp site are these: Pure water. Wood that burns well. An open spot. In a level region... as in the Ozarks. It must be well above any chance of overflow from the sudden rise of a neighborObserve the previous flood marks. and sleep in the far to seek in country that is well wooded.

THE CAMP 4. A ravine or narrow valley between steep hills is a trap for fog. He subsisted for a week. and deep woods where the sun rarely penetrates. and when a rescue party found him he was kicking his bag of gold over the few yards of dry ground that were left of his domain. especially during the early morning hours. and it is quite common in many parts of the West for wide bottoms to be flooded in a night. in a few minutes. When I was a boy in Iowa. and the cold. like his horses. Precautions as to elevation and drainage are especially needful in those parts of our country that are subject to cloudbursts. heavy air from the head of the hollow pours down it at night. A sudden flood left him marooned the next morning on a knoll scarce big enough for his team and wagon. Security against the spread of fire. Straight poles for the tent. on the inner bark of Cottonwood. protection against the prevailing wind. for they are damp lairs at best. and they and their dogs may have left behind them a legacy of rubbish and fleas. blow. while an undertow of warmer air drawing upward now and then makes the smoke from one's camp-fire shift most annoyingly. with a torrent that swept trees and bowlders along with it. 6. Its previous occupants will have stripped it of good kindling and downwood. in cold weather. New clearings in the forest are unhealthy. 8. . It is well to avoid an old camping ground. or trees convenient for attaching the ridge rope. exposure to whatever breezes may 7. Exposure to direct sunHght during a part of the day. there are any) 5. and in warm weather they are infested with mosquitoes. should be avoided. 71 (if and bedding Grass or browse for the horses for the men. a *' mover" camped for the night on an island in Coon River. Bottom lands. when practicable. near our place. In summer. I have seen a ravine that had been stone-dry for months fill fifteen feet deep. but was out of rations. for the sun gets in on plants that are intolerant of strong light. He had a bag of gold coin.

the neighborhood of large trees that have position that it will get the direct rays of the and the evening sun. willows. is up and the fog points. build your fire against the cliff. that has a clump of trees on it.72 they rot. where surrounding trees will break the wind. catalpa. If one is as well as from the recently disturbed soil. or a "bench" (natural terrace backed by a cliff) on the leeward side of a hill. which disperse fog and insects. and it is soon If one can be found dried whenever the sun shines. will brittle limbs (the aspens. ashes) are much more likely to be struck by lightning than are those "rich chestnut. In cold weather seek an open. elms. poplars. in fat" (beech. nor amid trees that are shallow-rooted (such as basswood and hemlock). yellow locust. if there be a thicket or a cluster of evergreen trees. an open knoll. maples. In the latter case. willows. breezes. basswood). The tent should not be set under a tree where it would catch the drip of dew and rain or of snow-laden boughs. Granting that one has much choice swarm in summer. butternut. morning be shaded during the heat ideal site for a summer camp. for these are liable to be overthrown by a storm. The rock will reflect heat upon the tent. if practicable. rocky point jutting out into a A low promontory catches the cool river or lake. and low. On a hillside that is mostly bare. a bold. obliged to camp in a malarial region he should not leave the camp-fire until the sun dispelled. birch. gravelly to he a low ridge. The stream of cold air from above will jump this obstacle and will leave an eddy of comparatively warm. still air immediately below it. nor near a dead tree. but This is the of the day. in summer with midges. Trees that are "poor in fat" (the oaks. and shield the tent with a windbreak. better still. park-like spot in the forest. . poplars. pitch the tent in such should select. or. get on the downhill side of it.conductor as well. silver maple). cottonwood. Sandy beaches. Avoid. are likely in the matter. and will serve as a smoke. CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT and poisonous gases arise from their decay.

Starting a Lean-to Shelter The Fixed Camp .


angle (that is. Thus. If the ground is so sopping wet. make each corner a right angle.THE CAMP stubs. let Then No. clear it of brush. unpack the tent. while No. . which abound as far north as Missouri. unless the line has stretchers.. and stand by it with a green bough to whip the fire into subjection if it burns too fast. stamp the earth down. the camp will be properly made.J. or less. 73 Having selected a site for the camp. . Then p. to harbor tarantulas and scorpions. If dry leaves and grass are so thick on the ground as to be dangerous. dead leaves. 3 and 4 clear the ground and smooth it off. dig a rather deep hole where each peg should stand. instead of having them askew). rustling wood and Meantime Nos. . drive each peg at a sharp angle and lay a flat rock over the slant of it. and the canvasmen turn bed-makers." Then the cook goes on with his proper duties. flat stones are likely. stake out the four corners in a true rect. build cook. and in it bury a rock or a fagot of brush that has a bit of rope tied to it which is left sticking out a few inches above the ground. cut tent pegs and poles. and every one's work is done save the unfortunate scullion's. besides the teamster or packer. Then drive the other pegs. get out the provisions and a fire. The celerity with which a camp is made depends upon the training and willingness of the men. which will be within an hour. Decayed downwood and loose. and summon all hands for a minute to assist in raising the tent and pegging it "square. 2 water. and prepare is the food for cooking. the axeman cuts and beds a chopping-block and gets in night-wood. that pegs will not hold. be careful in burning them off to light them at only one spot at a time. _ us suppose that there are four in the party. and tie the projecting ends of rope into the . by the time supper is ready. If the soil is thin. draw the ridge rope tight between two trees. in a southern country. and fasten each end with a clove hitch. To set up an A tent. who is utensils. . and rotten wood. 1. rig up the fireplace. and the system by which their duties are parceled. Let _^ . or so sandy.

Nos. over which is passed the extended corner guy rope. and Nos. Do not neglect to trench the tent. it is placed in position over tent. Care must be taken that the tent is properly squared and pinned to the ground at the door and four corners before raising it." Setting up a To pitch a wall tent. 3 left rear. and slip the pins of the uprights through the ridge-pole and tent. It is miserable business to crawl out into a driving storm and dig a ditch by lantern-light worse still to awake to a realization that trenching is too late to save your soaking possessions. 1 and 2 procure canvas. 1 right rear. Nos. 3 and 4 the at night — poles. then lay the uprights at each end of ridge-pole and at right angles to it. 2 right front. No. and Nos. then drive a pin at each end of the ridge to mark front and rear. Nos. 4 left front. in the is to stand. 1 in rear. "Make yourself ready in your cabin for the mischance of the hour. Now stretch the ridge line taut with your rope-sHdes. if so it hap. on the side opposite that from which the wind blows. and raise the tent to a convenient height from the ground. and a pace to the front (Nos. and the loops of the long guys over direction that the tent the front and rear pole pins. 4 secures center (door) loops over center pin in front.: 74 CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT grommets. when Nos. 1 and 2 unroll the tent and spread it out over the ridge-pole and on both sides of it. draw bottom of tent taut and square. If a fly is used. 2 and 4 in front. four men proWall Tent. No. or by bracing it up with a forked saphng near each end. They then drop the tent pins and hammers at their respective ends of the tent. ceed as follows Nos. Each goes to his corner. Nos. Nos. 2 and 4) or rear (Nos. 2 and 4 to the front pole. and No. each securely sets a long pin. 1 and 3 now go to the rear. 2 and 3 enter and seize . No. 1 and 3 now go to the rear. and fasten it with All pins through the corner loops. No. then stepping outward two paces from the corner. Meanwhile. No. 1 and 3). 3 and 4 lay the ridge-pole on the ground. the front and rear at right angles to the ridge.

save one. and pin or lace it together in front. Trim if stubs are left on them they will make Tie three of them together with the canvas leak. This is the army method. Nos. make a loop in one end of its lash rope. and let it trail. ^ ^ * them carefully. slim nearly so. and. mark *^^*' marking the radius of the guys. 75 and all together raise the tent until the upright poles are vertical. all set the guy pins and fasten the guy ropes. Nos. Peg the cover .. loop on the grommet lines to the former. and it is the best. To erect a teepee: The site must be level. raise the tent. at the point between the flaps. and then make all taut. with another peg used alternately in the other loops. loop the end of the line over it. 2 and 3 support the poles. carry the cover around the outside of the framework. Set these up as a tripod.THE CAMP their respective poles. against the top of the tripod. 1 and 4 tighten the corner The tent being guys. spacing their butts equidistant around the circle. and about the same distance above where the top of the teepee cover will come. „. Drive the pegs and guy stakes on these circles. to the remaining lodge-pole. For a Sibley tent. where they are tied together. respectively. if the Drive a peg in the center of the space that the tent is to cover. 1 and 2 to the right. Tie the top of the teepee cover. and then the wall pins. and two * l^^Tent ^^ the radius of the tent when set up ^^^° another loop farther out tent has a wall. beginning on the windward side. thus temporarily secured. Lean all the other poles. the lash rope about eighteen inches from the top. For a teepee of 12 feet diameter they will be 10 feet 5 inches apart. for longer poles for the smoke-flaps. Nos. lodge-poles (ten or twelve). or very Cut the requisite number of straight. Insert the smoke-poles in the pockets of the flaps. measuring straight from one Carry the rope around them a few times to the other. 3 left. While Nos. and another at such distance from this as will and 4 . and lift it into place. draw two concentric circles on the ground. the butts equidistant on a circle described on the ground as above.

When it blows. To make no Bro a bed of browse. the wind blows directly against the entrance. close both flaps. stones. 4. A self-supporting ^R k Ground cannot be driven into it. stubs. first smooth the ground. When raise the flap to windward and lower the other. Pitch the tent with its door When there is no to leeward of the prevailing winds. and side-logs. *^^ tripods can be erected at a con- framework 4 and 5. is do not call the teepee a wigwam. In such case. the latter a fixed residence. the tops of the tripods interlocking as shown in the illustration. portable. and raise the bottom of the door cover a little to tight to Fig.) leaving for a shed-roof camp is also shown. which may be somewhat .76 CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT down. create a draught. the former other Some time it may be necessary to set up a tent or camp on ground which is so rocky that stakes ^ ^ venient distance apart for the ridge-pole or rope. By the way. and anchor the tent by drawing the lash rope a crotch driven into the ground inside the tent and on the windward side. or hummocks. keep both smoke-flaps open. Then cut B d ^^^^~ ^^^ foot-logs a foot thick. wind. (Figs.

It takes considerable time and labor to make.THE CAMP smaller. Put matches and candles where they can quickly be found in the dark. Such a bed is luxurious in proportion to its depth and freshness. porcupines. using none that cannot be broken off by one's fingers. making a rectangular framework on the ground to keep the browse in place. Now lay a course of boughs a foot long against the head-log. leaving only the tips of the boughs showing. It should be FiQ. pine. When camping v/ith a pack-train. where it is handy. pile the packs . and so on down to the foot of the bed. renewed every day. I prefer the individual bed-tick. then shingle another layer in front of these. or stout wire run from one tree to another. or even cedar will do in a pinch) and strip off the fans. hang from a shelter or other thieving varmints annoy you. skunks. the edibles by wires or cords from branches. p . and them from sun and rain. If mice. filled by each man to suit himself. 6. wood rats. Next fell a thrifty balsam or hemlock (spruce. it will not spoil in the weather. butts down and to the front. Hang the salt pork or bacon to a tree beside the fireplace. 77 and pin them down with inverted crotches.

with a shelf underneath for utensils. the site should be chosen with particular care. fearless. and no hint to leave that is weaker than a handful of red pepper baked inside a pone o' bread will A hog-proof fence around camp. nest. Shooting his tail off does not discourage him. being picturesque and secluded. and mali- and "Indian devils" not excepted. sightly though it be. and simiand protect the saddles. and that nothing will be buried out of sight. and cotton goods last * of all. with tusks gleaming from his jaws he or she of the third or further removed generation of feral — lawlessness — is the most perverse. is one's only safeguard in southern ciously destructive brute in America. baking powder.78 CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT and cover them with canvas. undrive him away. Soldierly system in all if snow falls during the night. and covering the top with straight sticks or boards. wolverines wild woods. etc. long-legged. If it is the intention to remain in one place for a considerable time. sharp-nosed razorback. making especially sure that the lash ropes cannot get wet.. such matters pays a big dividend in time and good neatly together larly pile temper. off somew^here by itself. On each side of it build a bench on for A the same principle. no other reason than to keep insects and vermin out of the sleeping tent. condiments. if separate dining space and kitchen should be built. Mildew attacks leather first. Near the fireplace build a kitchen table. Over these erect a framework. It should have a good outlook ^ but not a free inlook. and . Make a dining-table by driving four stakes into the ground for legs. rocks and clubs are his amusement. nailing cleats across the ends. then woolens. lard. Your thin-flanked. A tenderfoot's camp looks like a hurrah's Wild hogs are literally the betes noires of southern campers. on which stretch a tarpaulin or tent fly. otherwise it will be unpleasant in wet weather and its contents will get musty or mildewed. The tent should be floored.

Make some rustic chairs. Later. No land animal can disturb such a store. cut a hole in the ice. dig a hole in the it For a up or line least. with the stick resting across the orifice. just below the ice. and cover the top. a little rock-lined well can be dug near the spring. Have a definite place for the latrine. stone it with bark. put blocks of ice over the hole and throw water on the mass until it freezes together.. Butter and milk should not be stored near anything that has a pronounced odor. "None is so poor that he need sit on a pumpkin that is shiftlessness. Then you will not be bothered so much by flies. a layer of ashes or earth." Dig a sink or rubbish hole near the kitchen table. sink it in the ground to its top. for dishwater. stools. If it is desired to cache meat in this way. if you stay in that place. ing a paddle in the excavated earth behind it. and build it as soldiers do. and the venison will keep fresh and palatable for a couple of months at refrigerator. Tie a white rag to a branch or bush directly over this water-cache. or. fasten the meat to a stick by a rope or thong. and such other refuse as will not burn. to scare away animals. leav- — . bore a few holes for drainage C Id St in the bottom of a box or barrel.THE CAMP 79 with space below for a box or other bin for potatoes and onions. tin cans. and cover with burlaps or a blanket. if you have ice. for they would be tainted. the string being tied to the bank may not carry the food away or bury out of sight. As Thoreau says. If fresh venison is put in a spring the outside of the meat will get white and stringy but the inside will keep sweet for several weeks. In winter. and benches. and into this throw every day ^. and covered securely so that coons and porcupines cannot plunder so that a freshet it . Who- ground. let the meat down into the water. As soon as the camp ground is reached the butter tin or jar should be placed in a net or bag and sunk in the spring or cold brook. ever wrote "Deuteronomy" was a good camper.

utensils. where H Y d any one can find it when wanted. and suspend the parcel from the end of one arm of the cross. and air your blankets on it every day Against a straight or two when the weather is pleasant. tree near the tent make a rack. Andrew's cross (X-shaped). :<._^ . and wire or tie them to the pole. A chopping-block is the first thing needed about a camp. etc. so that the steel might shiver on the first knot you struck the next morning. W .80 it. note There are camps so situated that the following may be of service Milk can be kept sweet for several days by adding a spoonful of grated horseradish to one or two gallons of milk}. CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT . lining the cache with hay and hides. casting the excavated earth into a stream. full rigged. The axe.. The odor of oilskin is said to be A offensive to wolverines and other predatory beasts. so that every puff of wind will set it swinging. hang it from the pole. and where it will not injure men or dogs. further precaution is to make a St. the frost would make it brittle. in which fishing rods can be stood. bedding. you may want to leave at the camp may be dug in a dry bank and roofed over with logs and earth. when not in use. Do not let the axe lie outdoors on a very cold night. A cache or secret storehouse for heavy tools. should always be stuck in that particular block. somewhat like a billiardcue rack. To cache provisions in trees. that until the next season. Stretch a stout line between two trees where the sunlight will strike. The old Indian method of digging a jug-shaped hole in a knoll. and sealing it with the same piece of sod (about twenty inches in diameter) that was reis moved when beginning to dig the neck of the hole an excess of precaution nowadays. fasten a pole from one tree to another at a height of 15 to 20 feet from the ground. wrap the provisions in canvas and then in oilskin (if you have it). without danger of being blown down. and peel the bark from the tree trunks to hinder animals from climbing them. the interior being lined with dry grass and poles or bark.

THE CAMP 81 Of course. and getting in a good supply of wood and kindling. but it pays. and leave the camp in disorder. is to eat your dough before it is baked. just the same. To rush right off hunting or fishing. it takes time and hard work to make everything snug and trim around camp. to spend a couple of days at the start in rigging up such conveniences as I have described. .

and now — The wilderness is home! —Edwin L. the odds are that it will result in nothing but a quick blaze that soon down to a smudge. But see a spark. and set a match to it. If we rake together a pile of leaves. Strange shapes go flitting through the gloom. glowing. and would save much time and vexation in other words. hot little fire that will boil water in a jiffy. and will soon burn down to embers that are not too ardent for frying. If one would have good meals cooked out of doors." All's Cold night weighs down the forest bough. One glance at a camper's fire tells what kind of a woodsman he is. cover it higgledy-piggledy with dead twigs and branches picked up at random. that always loved a great fire. or (3) a big log fire that will throw its heat forward on the ground. to ignite readily. is always with old leaves. roasting. During a drought rubbish is so tinder-dry that a spark falling in it start a conflagration. dead and fallen trees. smokeless heat for baking.— CHAPTER am a woodland fellow. a flame. littered T^HE -* forest floor sticks. Sdbin. and into a tent or lean-to. he must learn how to produce at will either (1) a quick. VIII THE CAMP-FIRE "I sir. or slow boiling. 82 . at least on their under side. Yet that is the way most of us tried to make our first outdoor fires. but through a great part of the year the leaves and sticks that lie flat on the ground this may are too moist. Well that Ends Well. or (2) a solid bed of long-lived coals that will keep up a steady. and will last several hours without dies — replenishing. if he wants to be comfortable in the woods.

N. Ahce Lounsberry's Guide to the Trees (Stokes. and habit of growth. Y. little so I shall offer. steady flame. Some are stubborn to split. is . or ill. yellow into / * A complete manual of the trees of the United States and Canada A handC. or. hardwoods and softwoods. but drawing the line between sycamore. Y. Mathews' Familiar Trees and Their Leaves (Appleton. Simple methods for identifying' trees after the fall of leaves are given in A. Alice Lounsberry's Southern Wild Flowers and Trees (Stokes. late in the season. We must know how well.). Keeler's Our Native Trees (Scribner. E.) is a convenient field-book. There are several handy little manuals by which one who has no botanical knowledge can soon learn how to identify the different species of trees by merely examining their leaves. N. N. in the present chapter. H. On southern trees. F. as well as when seasoned. S. each of them burns in a green state. .). Shrubs and Vines of the N ortheastern United States (Scribner.). S. C. which. somely illustrated work of general scope is Julia Roger's The Tree Book (Doubleday. vary a great deal. N.. yellow birch. S. N.). To practhem successfully in all sorts of wild regions we must know the different species of trees one from another. Y. Some kinds of wood pop violently when burning and cast out embers that may burn holes in tents and bedding or set the neighborhood afire.* But no book gives the other information that I have referred to. with clear. Huntington's Studies of Trees in Winter (CaldweU. Boston). Y. buds. by their bark. a this rudimentary instruction in important branch of woodcraft.). and their relative _. others almost fall apart under the axe.). Y. others burn quietly. when a fire is most needed. and to select a natural shelter where fire can be kept going during a storm of rain or snow. In wet weather it takes a practiced woodsman to find tinder and dry wood. N. Parkhurst's Trees. N. as we shall see. L. It is convenient for our purpose to divide the trees two great groups. Sargent's Manual of Trees (Houghton. It is important to discriminate between wood that makes lasting coals and such as soon dies down to ashes. Y. O. Y. fuel values. . Newhall's Trees of Northeasteriv America (Putnam. Boston). Less expensive works v.-hich suffice to identify the trees of northeastern America are H. THE CAMP-FIRE tice 83 These arts are not so simple as they look. using these terms not so loosely as lumbermen do.

a green state. buckeye. when the sap is down. sassafras. sourwood. The following woods will scarcely burn at all when they are green: aspen (large-toothed). 1x1/ birch. and red on the As a general rule.junks or andirons. ^ They. pitch pine birch. tupelo (sour gum). and persimmon burn very slowly in Such woods are good for backlogs.vitse (northern "white cedar") and chestnut to dead coals that do not communicate flame. must be watched for a time after the fire is started. balsam. CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT and slippery elm. even when green. as well as box elder.84 pine. box elder. that green wood burns best in winter. r. chestnut. and passing it by at a glance. Trees that grow on high. of the southern Appalachians burns freely. tulip. and hence more dangerous than those of softwoods. hot fire that is soon spent. cedar. and for side-logs in a cookingYellow birch and fire that is to be used continuously. water oak. poplar (tulip). Arbor. Split logs are more . black ash. pitch pine. beech. white oak. ble Woods. on the contrary. hardwoods make good. on the one and white side. hand. \ X 1 rack. Certain hardwoods. slow-burning fuel that yields lasting coals. and the mountain beech burns as ardently as . jj sassafras. . because the embers that they shoot out are long-lived. and spruce. red oak. sassafras. . sycamore. But each species has peculiarities that deserve close attention. and sometimes hickory. It may be said. such as sugar maple. in general. and softwoods make a quick. The knack of finding what we want in the woods lies a good deal in knowing what we don't want. Butternut. service berry. dry ground burn better than those of the same species Chestnut cut on the summits that stand in moist soil. red cedar. are better for a camp-fire when green than when they are seasoned. other. burn „ . white ash. but they are splendid fuel for all that. too. tama-_. make a great crackling and snapping in the fire. red maple. are prone to pop. . . hemlock. All of the soft pines. balsam. tamarack.

Hickp ory. because it ignites easily. ™. overcup. pecan. lowing the hickory. the thick bark takes fire readily. save where a hopelessly defective one is found. in fuel value. especially when green. All of the birches are good fuel. yellow. by the way.. paper. and dogwood. but it is too valuable a tree. with little flame. such as hickory. however. burning down to a bed of hard coals that keep up an T^ ^. Mulberry has similar qualities. laid with the heart-side out. hence it is good for night-wood. sugar maple. it also splits very readily. but slippery elm is better. beech. to be cast into the fire. red. when green. It should be noted. are the chestnut oak. even. and leaves good coals. Black birch also ranks here. is distinctly an AmerFolican tree. splits fairly well. burns with a clear. steady flame. meaning that the oil in the birch assists its combustion so that the wood needs no coaxing. no other region on earth produces it. birch. Best of all firewoods is hickory. ." as a Carolina mountaineer said to me the other day. In some respects white ash is the best of green woods . The latter burns finally to a beautiful white ash that is characteristic. ranking in about this order: black. green or dry. post. dogwood.^ Stubborn J i-j. THE CAMP-FIRE likely to 85 snap from the outside than from the inside. it is easy to cut. is and should be . Locust is a good. generous heat for hours. apple wood does the same. the hornbeams (ironwoods). it has the advantage of "doing its own blowing. leaving pretty good coals. that some woods which are very stub-. but lasts a long time. Woods that are hard to split are enumerated in the chapter on Axemanship. Cherry makes only fair fuel. and. Sugar maple was the favorite fuel of our old-time hunters and surveyors. The best of the oaks for fuel. 11 -1 - white oak. and the wood then burns slowly. are easily split born when seasoned while green. lasting fuel. White elm is poor stuff. The scarlet and willow oaks are among the poorest of the hardwoods for fuel. and basket oaks. and white. It makes a hot fire. slippery elm. nowadays.

and „ . be excelled. Sycamore and buckeye. Alder burns readily and gives out considerable heat. hickory. and the white and loblolly pines make quick fires but are soon spent. and lasts longer than any other free-burning wood of its weight.86 CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT It is easily cut and split. and wet sticks can be kindled with it. It burns with clear flame. pine. magnolia. and quaking aspen. Most of the softwoods are good only for kindling. unless there is plenty of on the spot. Spruce is poor fuel. As a rule. are good fuel. but is not lasting.. blazes up at once. is lighter most other hardwoods. but hard to split. and leaves good coals. catalpa. will burn in any wind. as well as for torches. Seasoned chestnut and tulip split easily and make a hot fire. The best green softlasts well. . popfor quick cooking-fires. does not crackle. red cedar. Besides kindling and the firewood proper. like paper. The wood of the large-toothed aspen will not burn in a green state. it kindles easily and makes a good blaze for "branding up" a fire. where hardwoods are scarce. or sugar maple cannot . but when dry it burns freely. to tote than nature that even the green wood catches fire readily. paper birch. The shredded inner bark of dead cedar or cottonwood burns . . soft maple. The bark of all species of birch is excellent for this purpose. Seasoned tamarack is fairly good. but crackle and leave no coals. For a cooking-fire that will burn quickly to coals. when thoroughly seasoned. although. the bark of dead hemlock. The gray (Labrador) pine is considered good fuel in the far North. lar (tulip). Balsam fir. without smoke. generally a poor mainstay for an all- n it 'ffw A night fire. and is of so dry a for campers' fuel. It is full of resinous oil. willow are poor fuel. or Liquidambar. basswood. being resinous. the timber growing along the margins Hence driftwood is of large streams is softwood. woods for fuel are white birch.. one often needs some kind of tinder to start a fire. . Cottonwood.

^ ^ W . or stubs of branches.. depends upon local condifuel. without detaching the shavings. shelving rocks. or cedar. go about tions. split it fine. but choose those. most of the branches will be free from the ground and snap-dry. Where a tree is found that has been shivered by lightning. Do not pick up twigs from the ground. t Dry the fire. — In a hardwood forest the best kindling. if you want to — . sure to be dry underneath the bark in all weathers. The best . butts together. and those sticking out from old rotten logs are as good as The knots of any. among the downwood. make a way to -_ . since it is of sprangling growth. set the knots up as a tripod. or splits of dry pine. and shavings touching then light the latter. lar natural shelters. fPine knots are the heavy. and build your fire under the shelter of the trunk. resinous stubs of limbs that are tound on dead pine tre^^ They are almost imperishable. balsam fir are similarly used. and. p. or one that has broken off without uprooting. look for a dead softwood tree that leans to the south. and a place to build can often be found under big it uptilted logs. but hemlock knots are A good way to start a fire is to take three worthless. Splits from a pine stump that has been burned on the outside A stump may often be found that are fat with resin. Pitch pine affords the best knots. It is fire a good test of one's resourcefulness to out of doors in rainy weather. of dead laurel. has rotted nearly to the ground but has a sound.THE CAMP-FIRE 87 Tinder will not be needed if pine knots. that are held up free from the ground. dry core from which good kindling can be split. good splinters of dry wood In every laurel thicket there is plenty will be found. In default of these. that are left on the trunks of medium-sized trees. can be procured. is procured by snapping off the small dead branches. whittle some shavings from their less resinous small ends. such knots. or in the core of and simian old stump. They ignite readily and give out intense heat. small ends down. The wood and bark on the under side will be dry chop some off.



use it for only a short time. If it is necessary to camp in the rain without artificial shelter, and no rocky ledge can be found, pick out a big green tree the larger the Be sure that it is big that leans a good deal. better enough not to be weakened by an all-night fire. If the rain is driving, and you have a blanket, lean a couple of saplings against the tree and spread your blanket over them to shelter the fire until it is well started, or lean large sticks or splits against the tree, in the shape of half a cone, leaving a cavity at the base

which you can insert kindling. Face the wind. Cup your hands, backs toward wind, match held with its head pointing toward rear of cup i.f., toward the wind. Remove right ^ T I,* hand just long enough to strike match ^^ something very close by; then in+Ti "W H Flame stantly resume former position. of match will run up the stick, instead of blowing away from it. Fire may be made without matches by drawing the bullet or shot from a cartridge, pouring out all but about one-fourth of the charge, putting p. ^ the cartridge in the gun (muzzle up), and loosely ramming down a piece of „ dry cotton cloth upon it. Fire the gun either toward the ground or straight up into the air; it will ignite the rag. One should have some punk or








by him

at the time.



two kinds:


dry fungus, such as the

shelf-like toadstools (polyphori) that

grow on the boles

maple, birch, beech, locust, especially), not the hard, woody

fungi, but those that are soft



also dried


that has decayed from a fungus

growth ("conkesy," "dozed" or "dotey" wood, it is called by timbermen), such as is often found in dead trees or stumps, or under the excrescences of growing maples, birches, and other trees. Green toadstools can soon be dried out before the fire. The inner part of such a fungus, as well as dozed wood, will ignite readily from a spark, but does not flame, and will carry

fire for

to drive



makes a very good smudge

away mosquitoes.
Extemporized tinder

made by

tearing (not

cutting) a strip of cotton cloth, leaving the edges fluffy,

a roller bandage, leaving one end end rub crushed gunpowder, leaving a few grains uncrushed, or the ashes of a The ashes of tobacco, Indian corn, suncigar will do. flower, and some other plants, contain enough saltpeter to make good touch-paper by rubbing them into cloth Dry dung, especially horse-dung, when or soft paper. broken up, takes a spark readily, and so do dried moss and dried willow catkins. Sparks may be struck from flint, quartz, or pyrites, by striking them a glancing blow with the back of a






projecting a


into this

knife, or other piece of

to catch the spark than to

hard steel. It takes more skill produce it. When the sun shines, the lens of a camera, field-glass, or telescope Even a watch sight may be used as a burning-glass. crystal, removed, and three-fourths filled with water, forms a lens that, if held very steadily, will ignite punk
or tinder.

To make a fire burn well there is one thing even more necessary than kindling or firewood, and that is air. It is from neglecting this invisible factor TT -o -ij How X to Build ., ^ rjM, f '^ e must that most novices tail. Ihe luel „. not be tumbled together; it must be built systernatically, so that air can draw under it and upward through it, even after the tinder and small kindling have burned up. The latter should never be used to support the larger sticks. The best way to make a fire quickly, and one that is sure to keep on burning as long as it is fed, is, first, to lay two good-sized sticks on the ground as a foundation, then across them at right angles lay a course of dry twigs or splinters, not quite touching each other; on these, at one side, place your tinder, of paper, bark, or whatever it may be; then on top of this put two other cross-sticks, smaller than the bed-sticks; over this a cross-layer of larger twigs, and so on, building the pile cob-house style, and gradually increasing the size of





a match a minute and if the upper courses hickory, or other good hardwood, it will all

the sticks.

Such a

pile will roar within half

touched to

are of split

burn down to live coals together. In cold weather, when the camp-fire
to keep the


depended upon

should be built higher than the general level of the camp, first, because you will get more heat from a fire built somewhat higher than your bed, and, second, because, unless it is built upon a rock, or hard, naked earth, it will eat

men warm




way down

in the forest refuse.

There are forty-eleven ways of building a camp-fire; but only three of them are basic and orthodox. The others are mere variants, or schisms, from the true


three are:


the hunter's






(3) the Indian's fire.



build them:

The Hunter s Fire. Best for a shifting camp, because it affords, first, a quick cooking-fire with proper supports for the utensils, and afterward a good campSelect fire for the night when the weather is not severe. a tree not less than a foot thick at the butt (ash or softwood if you have not a full-sized axe). Fell it, and cut from the butt end two logs about six feet long. Lay these side by side, about fifteen inches apart at one end and six or eight inches at the other. Lay a course of small, dry sticks across the middle of them, and on At each end of this course lay this place your tinder. a green hand- junk, about eight inches thick, to support Across them, parallel with the bedthe larger wood. logs, lay dry sticks, and on them build a cob-house of Fill in with short split wood that will make coals.
small kindling around the tinder, and touch it off. The upper courses of wood will soon burn to coals, which will drop between the logs and set them to blazing on After supper, night-wood is piled on the inner side. In the morning there will be fine top of the junks.

cook breakfast. Best for a fixed camp in cold weather, before a lean-to or shanty tent. If there is no big bowlder or ledge of rocks on the camp site, build a
coals with

which The Trapper's




wall of rocks about six feet in front of the lean-to, with two stone "andirons" at right angles to them; or, drive two big stakes in the ground, slanting backward, against them pile on top of each other three logs at least a foot thick, and place two thick, short handjunks in front of them to support the fore-stick. Select for this purpose green wood that is hard to burn. Plaster mud in the crevices between the logs, around the bottom of stakes, and around the rear end of hand-

junks, for otherwise the

fire will

quickly attack these

meant to reflect the heat forward, conduct the smoke upward, and serve as a windbreak in front of camp. Build the fire between the hand-junks, and cut plenty of six-foot logs for
Such a
fireplace is


Have a
s Fire.







Best where fuel is scarce, or only a small hatchet with which to cut Fell and trim a lot of hardwood saplings. night- wood. Lay three or four of them on the ground, butts on top of each other, tips radiating from this center like the spokes of a wheel. On and around this center build a small, hot fire. Place butts of other saplings on this, radiating like the others. As the wood burns away, shove the sticks in toward the center, butts on top of each other, as before. This saves much chopping, and economizes fuel. Build a little windbreak behind you, and lie close to the fire. Doubtless you have heard the Indian's dictum (southern Indians express it just as the northern and western ones do): "White man heap fool; make um big fire can't git near: Injun

The Indian

when one has

make um

little fire

git close.



Fires built especially for purposes of cookery will

be described hereafter.

out every fall only a few have any opportunities, during the close season, for rifle practice under conditions similar to those they will meet in the wilderness. By far the larger number must be content with such facilities as they can find on a rifle range, where the shooting is done at known distances, over a clear field, at stationary targets, and with no time limit. The fortunate few who live all the year 'round in thinly settled regions, where they can try their rifles in the woods whenever they feel like it, are prone to think lightly of the city man's rifle clubs. I will never forget the remark that a backwoodsman once made when I was trying to entertain him at a rifle match near St. Louis. I had shown him the shooting-house, the target-house, and their appurtenances had explained

/^UT of the

thousands of

men who go

to hunt with the



our system of scoring and our code of rules; had told him the reasons for using such heavy rifles, sensitive triggers, pronged butt-plates, cheek-pieces, palm-rests, all that; and then I vernier and wind-gauge sights bade him watch some of our experts as they made bull's-eye after bull's-eye, seldom missing a space the size of a man's head, shooting offhand, at 200 measured yards. I thought that my friend would be impressed. He was; but not quite as I had anticipated. After watching the firing for a long time in silence, he turned to me and remarked: "If it weren't for the noise and the powder smoke, this would be a very ladylike game." Of course, I was piqued at this, and felt like giving the honest fellow a peppery reply. And yet, many a time since, as I have sat, chilled to the bone, on some crossing in the high Smokies, straining my ears for the




bear-dogs far below; or, tired beyond speech and faint from hunger, as I lay down beside a log in the great forest, all alone; or, blown by hard climbing till my heart seemed bursting, as I wiped the mist from my eyes, and got down on all fours to follow a fresh spoor aye, into the hideous laurel fastness of Godforsaken many a time I have looked backward and thought, "You were right, partner; it was a very ladylike game."



us not be too hard on the city man's


he has, to burn powder on, and it is The pity is that he far better than no range at all. (I speak now of civilian, does not make better use of it. not military, ranges.) It was a blunder when we abandoned the old Standard American rules, which did at least recognize the rifle as a weapon instead of a toy, and were led astray by a foreign system for which we have not yet found so much as an English name. The "schuetzen" system does teach a man to hold
It is all

and to let off delicately, and this is the marksmanship. But it stops there. It teaches the forward and backward till the pupil becomes, perhaps, wonderfully expert in such exercise; but it never gets beyond and Z Y X. It weds a man to a toy, so that any practical weapon seems awkward to him. It teaches him to drive a nail with a bullet;







makes him

too slow

— altogether too slow for the

man's game of hunting or war. The most hopeful sign of our time, from a rifleman's viewpoint, is the move
to establish, near all of our large cities, military rifle ranges, to which civilians will be admitted for target practice. Ofi'hand shooting at the shorter ranges with regular hunting rifles, or with military rifles, together

with skirmish big game.

drill, is

excellent training for hunters of

any case, practice! Use a .22 in a city baseyou can do no better. It is practice, intelligently varied practice, that makes the marksman. As for a hunting rifle, get the best that you can, of course; but do not worship it. Bear in mind that, whatever its trajectory and killing power, it is only a gun, and can kill nothing that you miss with it. When







you get into the real wilderness, far away from rich men's preserves and summer hotels, you will find there some mighty hunters who make mighty kills with guns of the vintage of 1866, or earlier guns that would bring only the price of scrap-iron in New York. Get sights that you can see, and such as you are not

when taking quick aim. Take pains to get what suits your eyes, and spare no time in Never take an untried gun into the the adjustment. woods. That is no place to align sights and test eleNever trust the sights as they are placed on vations. the gun at the factory. Test them not only from rest, but offhand, too; for a light rifle charged with highpower ammunition is likely to shoot several inches
likely to overshoot with

higher (or in some other direction) when fired from muzzle-and-elbow rest, at 50 yards, than it does when shot offhand, albeit it may be an accurate weapon

when rightly used. Now, as for adjusting
tant matter

the elevation a most imporby all means, find the "point-blank" Take nobody's say-so of your weapon by actual test. for it. If your dealer assures you that a certain rifle shoots practically point-blank up to 200 or 300 yards, "trust him not; he's fooling thee." Never lose sight of


the fact that, in a timbered country, nine-tenths of big game is shot inside of 75 yards. Now it is a prime
essential that



should be so sighted that


bullet will not rise or fall outside a one-inch circle at

25 yards, a two-inch circle at 50 yards, a three-inch circle at 75 yards. If it has been sighted to strike center at 200 yards, it will shoot far above these limits at the short distances here mentioned, no matter how powerful may be the charge. Let me give an example, to show how easily one can be fooled in such matters Here is a high-power rifle. The initial velocity of its bullet is 2,000 feet a second trajectory 5h inches at 100 yards, when shot 200 yards. At the factory the sights have been set for the latter distance, by aiming with top of bead just touching bottom of an eight-inch bull's-eye. In other words, the gun shoots four inches

too. A rifle using black powder should be sighted for 50 and 100 yards. Jjf As for trigger-pull. respectively. Now. without making any allowance for distance in either case always provided. With the 80yard elevation your rifle will shoot on a line practically level up to 100 yards. one shoots no more than he needs. On such a trip one seldom shoots at small fry. — — — . and (second adjustment) at 160 yards. without looking. but never tolerate a trigger that will easily jar off. under all conditions that make such long shots justifiable. namely. plus the trajectory (5^ inches). first at 80 yards. particularly if you are to hunt in the mountains. when shooting ofl'hand. suit yourself. at 100 yards gun will shoot two inches too high. to strike the point actually aimed at. unless the large animals fail to show themselves. for two distances. Have a sling-strap on your gun. and kill a deer 100 yards away when only his head is visible. that your own part of the performance is up to scratch. Remember. with the 160-yard elevation it is "good" for a deer's vitals at any distance up to 200 yards. that your trigger finger will soon get calloused in the woods. Take only one kind of ammunition when you go after big game. my brother. It will not shoot over nor under an eightinch circle at any distance up to 200 yards. a high-power rifle for hunting big^"*^ game should have its sights adjusted. with precision. when aimed for the center. and that it will often be numb with cold. strike a bear through the eye at close quarters.MARKSMANSHIP IN THE WOODS this 95 above the point actually aimed at. this rifle shoots seven inches too high at 100 yards! Is that ''£ractically point-blank " ? How would you like it ? t t^ C^As a general rule. then you can decapitate a grouse or squirrel. and notch the 160-yard point so you can feel it with your thumb-nail. But carry the rifle habitually with sight set for 80 yards. Then fix the rear sight so that it cannot work down below the 80-yard point. minus sight allowance (angle of line of aim to line of fire depending upon height of say one-half-inch alfront sight above axis of bore lowance midway of range) that is to say. even then.

he would always be fussing over his elevations. Then there are trees in the way. or lose the opportunity. and twenty are enough for a month wherever the number of heads allowed is limited. the chances are that you will miss altogether yes. the odds are long that you will not see the game until it is sneaking stealthily but swiftly away. the light may be shining in your eyes. to get your : — gim in position the instant that you see the game. confronting a moose. above all things. even where it is plentiful and unprotected. I would say that three or four seconds is a fair average interval between raising the rifle and firing. but the eyes and brain. . and how much of it you lugged back home. that must be quick. when a deer has been jumped in the forest. To give a novice an idea. miss a full-grown deer at twenty paces. but. The points to be observed are To be as alert at all times as though you were hunting grouse without a dog. Beyond that. your footing may not be secure. The targets offered by large animals in the woods are about as different as anything could be from the targets used on rifle ranges. he does occasionally blow a grouse to pieces it If he should take along both fullpower and reduced charges. and. When one hunts large game. and brush. and he might some day find himself with a squirrel load in his gun. he will not average two shots a day. and you must shoot quick. If you are still-hunting. Be sparing in your load of ammunition. and then to dwell on the aim just long enough to see your bead clearly and to hold for a vital spot. very quick. do not hesitate the fraction of a second. It is not so much the hands. Fifty rounds are ample for a two-months' trip into farthest no-man's land. allowing liberally for misses and for pot-boilers on small game. Remember what a weight of lead you carried around last year. as quick as lightning. instead of at some one particular spot.96 CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT if doesn't matter. or gave away. to pick out. if you shoot so quickly that you merely aim at the animal as a whole. with it all. Yet. a clear space through which to fire. not to shoot until you are absolutely certain that it is game you are shooting at.

In shooting at a running animal. and. for example. fine art. this is only a general proposition. so neutral and the outlines are so indistinct. in ranging forward.MARKSMANSHIP IN THE WOODS 97 Of course. from the general bulk of the animal and the position in which it is presented. For a broadside shot. will pass through or close When an animal stands looking at me as a deer often will when it comes in on a runway and one bleats or whistles at it. at such a point that the bullet. as a rule. not send your bullet whack to the heart. knock-out blow. do not hold first on the beast and then swing ahead. when you are in the timber. is spot to shoot and then to find it over the sights. . the color he wants to hit. the best point to shoot for is immediately behind the shoulder and only one-third of the way up from breast to withers that is. the object that you want to hit. at least. my favorite shot is the neck. in case of open sights. even in good light. as one would do when aiming right instant. that a man's eyes can seldom distinguish the exact spot that is deer. A bullet passing through any animal's neck is almost sure to strike a paralyzing. but pick out an open space that the game will cross. because it can scarcely miss a vital part. instead of waiting to swing back and steady down. is a to select the right The main With a trouble. You must see your bead. in such cases. To off without pulling to snap-shoot at the one side. or rather when it swings close to. By snap-shooting with the rifle I do not mean merely glancing along the barrel and disregarding the sights. He judges where it must be. and shoot an instant before it crosses. at. Then you will. When the body is presented in any — other position. but it is snap-shooting to press the trigger instantly when it first touches. shoot. to spend most of one's target ammunition in snapshooting. deliberately. where the heart lies. you must see that the bead is well down in the notch. into an intervening tree. Many times one has a chance for deliberate aim (though not Yet I think it is best often when he is still-hunting).

Aim dead-on when shooting uphill. Long shots at game standing clearly outlined against the sky or water call for no comment. after all the hard work of dogs and drivers. as distinguished from snapshooting. as they are comparatively easy for one who has had considerable experience on the rifle range. do not forget that the only distance to be allowed for is that from the mark to a point directly under you and level with the mark. nearly all shooting is in thick timber. can often be practiced at game in an open country. Now if he does let that bear go through. and yet half doubtful of his own ability to head it off if it does come his way. although one sometimes gets a shot over the water.98 CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT Aim low when more of the shooting downhill. because then you upper side of the animal than you ordinarily would. A shot high up is seldom fatal. It is hard on a fellow's is when he sitting bear sit there. such as many parts of the West. and to know from the racket . In the East and South. unless the range is greater than your rifle is sighted for on a level. unless you hit the spine. Deliberate shooting. toward which he will have to run with all his might and main before firing. but that it will come crashing through the brush at some point on one side. his shirt-tail will be amputated that night by his comrades and hung from a high pole in the midst of the camp a flag of distress indeed! Who wouldn't get buck-ague in the face nerves to may — of such alternative. In making long shots downhill. if he does not misjudge the distance and sighting allowance and if he does not get buck-ague. The see extra allowance for "lift" is so trifling at ordinary ranges that you had better disregard it than overdo the matter. to hear those dogs coming toward him. praying with all his soul that the not run some other way. — This novice latter affliction is more likely to seize upon the on a stand and hears the dogs baying toward him. I say. The chances are that it will by no means run over him.'^ It is hard on a fellow's nerves.

A Good Day's Shoot An Ideal Camp Fire .


Yet. fear has nothing to do with it. when the critical moment does come. surface. Especially is this apt to be the case when a fighting beast comes suddenly in view. maybe. but not to know where or when the brute may emerge. Can you hit him ? That is the question. It is a tremor and a galloping of the heart that comes from over-anxiety lest you — — — should fail to score. In fact.MARKSMANSHIP IN THE WOODS that a bear 99 is certainly ahead of them. it often turns out that the man who has been shaking like a leaf from pent-up anxiety suddenly grows cold and steady as a rock. to follow the pack on horseback to chase after something that is running away. I have known seasoned sports- men to be victimized by it. nor what infernal trees and thicket and downwood may be in the way. The honor Ah. it. Precisely the come upon you on the target range. . his fighting blood comes to the the spirit of some warrior ancestor (dead. But to sit here chewing your mustache while at any moment a hard-pressed and angry bear may burst out of the thicket and find you in his way nothing but you between him and near-by freedom gentlemen. Buck-ague is not the effect of fear. Instantly the man's primeval instincts are aroused. and he who trembled but a moment ago now leaps into the combat with a wild joy playing on his heart strings. these thousand years) possesses and sways your mild-eyed modern man. place that I ever experienced same seizure may That is the only There is no telling when it may strike. it tests nerve! Ask any old soldier whether he would rather charge or be charged. me! it is easy of the camp is on your shoulders.

the feathers are more easily plucked. Speaking. or hang a handkerchief over it. and work the point of the knife two or three inches back and forth. just in front of the sternum or breastbone. of large game. will soon spoil. but if this is neglected putrefaction will soon set in. it is . because the fur keeps in the vital heat. so that blood will not flow over the hide. but sometimes you can't. so as to sever the great blood-vessels. remove the entrails at once. close up to the backbone. First put a bullet through its heart or spine. to suggest a trap. and. it will do merely to take out the paunch and intestines. perhaps after another animal. toss some brush over the carcass. Twist its head to one side. The meat keeps better. If the ground is not too rough. If you are in a hurry. When an animal is shot. To cut a deer's throat would ruin the head for mounting. to guide you back to the spot.CHAPTER X DRESSING AND KEEPING GAME AND FISH "DUTCHERING '^ hunter's work —a job is the most distasteful part of a to be sublet when you can. so that the body will smoke when opened. nor the distance too 100 If practicable. Even birds and fish should be bled as soon as secured. now. this. even after it has lain a long time in hard-freezing weather. for it might prove an ugly customer in its death struggle. or if the camp is not far away. with the throat downhill. do not drop your gun and rush in on a dying beast to stick it. if possible. especially. and make a brush blaze here and there as you go along. Then if you must hurry on. A bear. in the case of a bird. the first thing to do is to bleed it. then stick your knife in at the point of the breast. To do not necessary to hang the animal up.

fasten your picket-rope to the deer's hind legs. cut strips from the skin of the deer's fore Be sure to fasten the load securely. and drag away. and. Or. if your horse is green in the business. throw the line over the saddle. balancing it evenly. swing the burden over the saddle. Unless the carp ^^^^ ^^ *^^^ snugly to the pole. you first T. For thongs. then tie the animal on the upper side of the bush.foremost. but drag it head. and tying the head to the pole. if you wish to ride. Re-cinch your saddle. or you will have a badly frightened horse.DRESSING GAME AND FISH great. if pulled the other way every hair will act as a barb against the ground. get on the other side. and saddle. partly disarticulating the latter. if the deer is too heavy to lift upon the horse's back. m place. ^h u ^ ui t Even xv then you may have trouble. off a cut-bank into a swift riTcr. and that j o JJ1 is going yet. L'tt burden will swing like a pendulum as you trudge along. you S^t the carcass lashed on a Saddle. go around. and lash it fast. . deer. move the deer behind the saddle and lash it there. especially if the pole is at all springy. By skinning the legs from hoofs to ankles. they will not dangle and scare the horse. Be- fore starting. . tie the front legs to the lower jaw. nor catch in underbrush. pet him. and then tying the legs snugly. blindfold . let him smell the deer. To pack a deer on horseback: first. I have seen a mule get such a conniption fit at the smell of blood that he bucked himself. if disfigured. T^ Packmg Deer . The and the hide will not be so drop a bush or small tree by cutting through the roots. . a deer 101 may be dragged to camp over the snow ^ -°^ . the girth broke. necessary. so that it cannot slip. carcass will slide easier. Two men can carry a deer on a pole by tying its legs together in pairs. such a legs. bringing the legs forward saddle on either side and tying them to the rings of the cinch. slipping the pole through. then quickly snub the rope around the saddle-horn.1 1 him • until 1 i. ^ or leaves. if . and. leaving a stub of a root projecting for a handle. and haul away until the deer's hocks are up even with the saddle.

of the litter. and fasten to each end of the litter a broad strap. and "git ep!" Or. tie the hind legs together your head and one as a soldier does a When one has a and the fore legs to them. in such a way that it may pass over the shoulders of the carrier and thus take up much of the weight. and blanket-roll. venient for your hands. just above the hoof. cut off the head and hang it up to be called for later. To carry a larger animal pickaback: gut it. but not too close. carry a small deer entire by dragging it up on the log. tie the head and legs together. lengthwise and back down. and can only carry . leaving the feet on. Diagram of an Improvised Litter for Carrying a Deer. by the loop thus formed. to a fallen tree. about two and one-half apart. boosting „. carry the burden long way to go. and carrying the load weight is on the back of his neck and ^^S^ ^^^^ shoulders. thrust arm through. skin the legs down to the knees and hocks. tie the skin of each fore leg to the hind leg on the same side. put the arms through the loops thus formed. then grasping the hind ^ 1 h H ri * so that its ^^^ hand and the fore legs with the other. and nailing or tying cross-pieces athwart Whittle the ends of the poles to a size con- A feet poles the poles. and another slit through each of the legs between the tendons. A better scheme is to cut a slit through the lower jaw and up through the mouth. remove the bones from the fore legs from knee to foot. it Then lash the animal securely to the top One man can _ . cut off the shinbones. and then.102 CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT more comfortable way is to make a litter of two by laying them parallel. swing the burden over your shoulder.

. trim off the top. can hang a pretty TT heavy animal in the following way: g Drag it headforemost to a sapling that is just limber enough to bend near the ground when you climb it. pack the saddles. Skin the deer. leaving the stub of one stout branch near the top. acting as a spring-pole. but that is the . Tie your belt into a loop around the deer's antlers or throat. ten or twelve feet long. Climb the sapling and It is not necessary to it. The latter. place a stick athwart the inside of the skin. as shown in the illustration. Cut three poles. butcher . unassisted. Bend the sapling down until you can slip the loop over the end of the sapling. and tid-bits in the latter. will lift part of the deer's . 6. with crotches near the ends. Fig.DRESSING GAME AND FISH the hide 103 and the choicer parts of the meat. One man. the best way is to make up an Indian pack. The Indian Pack. hang a deer up to skin and more cleanly way. hams. and roll up and tie in a convenient bundle.

raise it up out of reach of roving dogs and "varmints. The more common way of skinning a deer. J. are good for anything. scribed above. Push first on one pole. easier to butcher. the butts of the poles radiating outward. you have a jackknife. —This is your buck. well banked with stones and earth so that it cannot blow around and set the woods afire. and must fix the rest so that it will not be molested over night. saving all parts of it that ^ . is to hang it up by one hind leg and begin skinning at the hock. forefinger. thus forming a tripod. and either a pocket hatchet or a big bowie-knife probably the latlet Now away from camp. By deer. which you may want to have mounted for a trophy. if this is your first trip. Then place the crotches of the poles under the fork of the sapling. The smudge will help to keep away blow-flies and birds of prey. then on another. us suppose that you have killed a deer far that you wish to skin and butcher it on the spot. Of course. after which the carcass is swung by both legs and is eviscerated. head it will be hard to grain. and so raise the carcass free If you do not intend to butcher it immediately. and finally the neck. when hung head up. If the skin is stripped off from rear to from the ground. when the head is not wanted for mounting.104 CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT weight. and . — ter. as dethe time you are through cutting First hang the those poles with your knife your thumb and better. then the body. but. then removing the head with skin on (for baking in a hole). drains better. You wish to make a workmanlike job of it. You can carry only the choicer parts with you that evening." and put a smudge under it of rotten wood. peeling the legs. the animal is easier to skin. It is common practice to hang deer by gambrels with the head down. Dried blood is very hard to remove from hair or fur. and does not drip blood and juices over the neck and head. You are alone. a hand will ache between tomahawk would have been first Skinning. and you wish to .

now peel . then. edge : up. being careful not to perforate the walls of the belly. Having stripped the vertebrae from the tail. slit upward to meet the cut around Then reverse. from the nose and mouth. and. 7. Then slit along the inside of each leg from the hoof If you wish to to the belly slit. and an inch below the knee on the fore leg. snap the shank off. noting where the arrow points. the skin of the whole neck must be preserved. starting by inserting the point of the knife between the heel-pads. over the paunch. and stuff some dry moss. insert the point. knife into a log alongside it is only to look at. — Study the accompanying illustrations of these joints. In a deer the joint is about an inch and a half below the hock on the hind leg. For this. —^ The Place to Use Your Knife. and similarly behind. which is the place to use your knife. for the Open your jackknife. not skin the head at present you may not have time Insert the point of the knife through the skin for that. Cut square across through skin and muscles. continue the slit backward to the end of the tail. in front. be Fig. in the beast's mouth. excepting that it is snapped forward. Now comes a nice trick. and cut the skin in a circle around the base of the neck.DRESSING GAME AND FISH 105 save the head for mounting. running from the withers down over the front of the shoulder-blade Do to the brisket or point of the breast on each side. The joint of the fore leg is broken in a similar manner. or other absorbent. and the neck. particular to rip the skin in a From Forest and Stream. clear back to the shoulCleanse away any blood that may have issued ders. straight line up the under side of the leg. following the middle line of the chest. with a quick pull backward against your knee. save the feet for mounting. where the neck joins the back. Nearly every inexperienced person starts too high. that of severing the shanks. Stick your big present.

or by merely pulling the ribs away from each other. Open the abdominal cavity. but in an old one the ribs have ossified. and cut through the In a young anifalse ribs to the point of the sternum. which are rather hard Here your knife's temper. Reach in and take in your grasp all the vessels that run up into the neck. and you must search for the soft points of union between the ribs and the sternum.106 CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT the skin off the whole' animal. (It is the membrane that separates the organs of the chest from those of the abdomen. where necessary. taking care that you do not cut yourself. and prop the chest open a few inches with a stick.) Every- thing now is free from the body except at the throat and anus. or membrane must be thoroughly removed skin is before the ready for tanning. you had one. which is attached. will at the back. meat as it is butchered. own. now split the pelvis. with the knife. Now pull away gradually. and perhaps your be put to the test. you would The thing can be done with a if . With knife in the other hand. flesh. from the shoulders downward. taking care not to rupture anything. alongside of you to receive portions of the Gralloching. hair side down. without cutting it. insert its point alongside the breastbone. helping a little here and there with the knife until all the contents of the visceral cavity lie at feet. but wherever the knife is used be careful to scrape the skin as clean as you can. stretch it out flat. The skin of the body and limbs having been removed. To skin a frozen animal I have known four old is a desperately mean job. and that is easier to do now than after it dries. With a hatchet. mal this is easy. Cut the diaphragm free at both sides and to find. for every adhering bit of fat. cut them across from above downward. and. your still save the lower end of the rectum. hunters to work nearly a whole afternoon in skinning a frozen bear. —Now take up your big knife. The whole operation of skinning is much easier while the animal is still warm than after the body has become cold. assisting with your closed fist. The most trifling-looking pocket hatchet would do the trick in a jiffy.

from the head backward. etc. . for pouches and The receptacles of various kinds. the hoofs for glue (if you are far from supply-stores and expect to remain a good while) and perhaps the bladder. makes a good tobacco-pouch.. Many a tenderfoot has been tricked into looking for it. keeping as close to the bone as possible. Search along this till you find the flat joint between the faces of two vertebrae. In the final cutting up. brain. large intestine. then twist the attached part of the body round and round. The old-time way of butchering a buffalo was to turn the carcass on its belly. lay the animal on sloping ground. and pericardium (outer skin) of the heart. Directions how to skin a head for mounting are given in the chapter on Trophies. . for sinew thread. FISH 107 not top old. accomplish this just now.^j^ . cut through flesh. case. the ligaments that lie on either side of the backbone. heart.. save the marrow-bones (especially of elk) for eating. for a deer has none. paunch. stretching transverse out the legs on either side to support it.^^ ^^^^ uphill. milt The caul is the (spleen). P^ ermg ^. out the abdominal cavity and let it drain. cut carefully around the rectum and urinary the animal is soft suture at the highest part of the organs. scrotum of a buck. and to make catgut. or bend its back over a log or rock. In butchering. or turn it on its back P with its head twisted around and wedged under one side. and is not particular about the In that hide. until it breaks off. by finding the bone and rocking But you may not be able to the knife-edge on it. tanned with the hair on. and the caul fat. kidneys. to the backbone. wash free everything from the cavity. To remove the head: flay back the skin for several inches at base of neck. fold of membrane loaded with fat that covers most of the intestines. etc. and If water is near. save the liver. separate these as far as you can. DRESSING GAME large knife. In removing the liver you need not bother about a gall-bladder. if jS^T> ». So reach in with the jackknife. he can do his butchering on the ground. If one is in a hurry. A .

which is the mixed fat and lean lies along the loin and ribs. was removed from along the backbone. Then the skinning is finished over the shoulders and arms. of course. are skinned. and that the tongue. the shanks removed. and quarter it. . leaving one rib on each hind quarter. Sometimes only the haunches. Then turn the body on its back and prop it in position with a couple of „. the hide split from throat to gullet raised. It is best not to cut up the meat until it is quite cold and firm. hair of the hump in one hand. Then split the carcass in halves along the backbone. The rest of the meat was left to feed the wolves.. and the hump ribs were cut off with a tomahawk. the windpipe and and diaphragm cut loose. lungs and heart removed. separated the skin from the shoulder. allowed to roll out on the ground. If state. -_ three-foot stakes sharpened at both ends. together with the houdins from the stomach. gathering the long. then the workman. a hole being dug for a moose's withers. these being cut away without skinning or gutting the carcass. and paunch are then loosened and tail. laid it open to the tail. sirloins and tongue are saved. These portions were placed on the skin. The rectum. Bears are butchered in a similar manner. small intestines. and the carcass then raised high enough so that the hide can be removed from the rump and back.108 CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT cut was made at the nape of the neck. severed. a hide is to be preserved for some time in a green use nothing on it but salt. the liver taken out. attached to the belly it was stretched upon the ground Then the shoulder was to receive the dissected meat. or several men with a In this case the lower legs rope. there must be a horse. Spread it out flat. first remove the head. If a complete job of butchering is to be done. In butchering an elk or moose that has antlers. along the spine. and the diaphragm. The gullet is cut. and the fleece. freed it from the sides. and pulled While the skin was thus still it down to the brisket. the pleura the sides skinned free. to elevate the body. but without removing the head.

and around the bones. stretch the all Ifegs. and ? weignt.DRESSING GAME AND FISH hair side down. A better way is this: Sever the tail . etc. for what Shakespeare calls "small deer": must take issue with Nessmuk on the art of skinning a squirrel. and rub parts thoroughly with salt.^. and feet with the hatchet. particular pains being moose-hide taken to leave no little fold untreated. tail.612." objection is that. 109 flanks. inserting the two „ middle fingers. So long as they have not bored into the flesh they do it no harm. He says: "Chop off head. When a deer has merely been eviscerated and is hung up to be skinned and cut up at a more convenient season. It may be said here that even smoked bacon is not immune from blows. Uressin&f back crosswise. cut the skin on the _.^^ ^^ 78. leaving two ribs on the hind quarters. so that it may dry out If the weather is warm enough quickly. Clean and cut the squirrel in The halves. Now * special tid-bits. Hornaday gives the following rule. fold in the legs and roll the hide up. the cheek meat and brain being its I . ^ the live weight in pounds. the quotient will be . for computing the live weight of deer from _ the dressed weight: Add four ciphers to the dressed weight in pounds. in his Natural History. at any hour of the day for flies to come out. pull the skin off in two parts (head and tail). you throw away the best part of the squirrel. remove them. . A even fifteen pounds of salt. and it should not be hung up without a cheese-cloth cover. in this case. for the blows work into such places very quickly. As soon as the salting is done. keep a smudge going under the carcass. If blows are discovered on the meat.. The fly that blows smoked meats is the same that starts '* skippers" in will take ten or cheese. and. prop open the abdominal cavity with a stick. It takes flies but a few minutes to raise Ned with venison. looking especially at all folds and nicks in the meat. ^.

110 CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT from below. better to scald up and skins the whole bird. as close to the skin as possible. and cut it off. Turkeys. and pull. Singe the down off quickly. then rubbed all over with the resin. inside of thighs. and the legs at the first joint. Then turn the squirrel over and cut a slit down along each ham. — tor gives ing. In dry pickhang the bird up by one leg. Put your foot on the tail. assist here a little with the knife. like chickens. and the whole thing is done in less than a minute. hold the rear end of the squirrel in your hand. Skin to the neck. Then cut off the fore feet. Make a lengthwise slit on back at base of neck and sever neck bone close to body. and then the pin-feathers and down are easily rubbed off. so as not to give an oily appearance to the skin. dry. Then pick out all pin-feathers and quills. also the membrane . the neck and giving one sweep of the open hand down one side of the body and then one down the other. and cut. it would be no job at all. Grasp only a few feathers at a time between finger and thumb. pluck first the pinions tail then the small feathers from shanks then the others. and cutting through the vertebrae close up to the body. then Thus to the nose till the teeth show. and grouse are usually dry picked. dipped in and out of boiling water seven or eight times. j^ but after they are cold it generally re^. and cut off the feet. ^ sults in a good deal of laceration of the skin so much so that sometimes the disgusted opera. stripping the skin Peel the skin from the hind legs. then skin to the ears. then skin till the blue of the eyeballs shows. It would be them first. To draw a bird: cut off the head. holding your left forefinger close in behind it. cut off the butts of the ears. . geese. and pull quickly toward the head. off to the fore legs. you get no hair on the meat. leaving only the hide on the top side. Ordinarily the down can be removed from a duck's breast by grasping the bird by and and feathers. If this could be done while the bodies were still warm. In plucking geese or ducks some use finely powdered The bird is plucked resin to remove the pin-feathers. ducks.

In a large trout the gills should ^. Make a lengthwise incision from breastbone to (and around) the vent. Next place the knife just below the belly fin and with a slant stroke cut off this. all in one piece. should be split open. holding to the corners of the skin with one hand. around the body. cutB llh ads *^^^ around the back fin. sever the backbone. the inside is then drawn out by . and a slit cut along the under side from head to fin. Then remove the back fin. and. steady sweeps. such tastes originated. A small trout is easily cleaned without washing by tearing out the gills and drawing the inside out with them. slit the skin behind and around the head. or impale it thus on the sharpened end of a little stake. wash it in cold water. scale first one side and then the other. Then peel the and Eels two corners of the skin well down. the side fins. and then from *^^^ point along the back to the tail. the gills. so you can easily draw the insides. are removed by moving the point of the knife crosswise to the fish's length. leaving the fish clean within. which must be done carefully.^ of head. for broiling. just forward of the tail. The idea that ducks and other game birds should hang until they If you want to know where smell badly is monstrous. is grasp it by the head. then pull. and. and the spines beneath it. work its edges loose. scrape off the slime. To skin an eel nail it up by the tail at a convenient height. and then wipe it dry with a clean cloth or towel. cut through the skin. Open the fish. be cut free from the lower jaw and back p. Venison keeps a long time without curing. pull the fish's body free from the skin with the other. Large fish. using a not over-keen. The ventral part is removed in the same way. To skin a bullhead: cut off the ends of the spines. stripping off the skin entire. read the annals of mediseval sieges. if the cliscale a fish: To knife that : .DRESSING GAME AND FISH 111 which holds the windpipe. with swift. by making a deep incision on each side of the fin and pulling the latter out. . and those near the fins. The scales below the gills. and the head. so as not to rupture the gall-bladder.

and hang them. Or. j^ rub a little salt along their backbones. Make a conical bark teepee on a tripod. behead. or basswood : leaves.112 CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT is and dry. in hot weather clean them as soon as you can after they are caught. Then p. and will seldom meddle with meat that is hung more than ten feet above the ground. but nowhere else. Ordinarily it is best not to salt meat. ^ the insides perfectly dry. - cheese-cloth. cool a current of air. In warm weather dust flour all over a haunch or saddle of venison. Bear meat. - . dry. nettles. * . . head down. To cure a deer's ham. until they are well smoked.: do not p skin them. etc. The meat of the deer tribe gets more tender and better flavored the longer it is hung up. : remove the backbones and entrails. Do not pile them touching each other. but remove the entrails. To dry fish for future use split them along the back. and insert a handy ful of dry salt." To keep fish that must be carried some distance. sew it up in a loose bag of cheese-cloth. requires much salt to cure it more than any other game animal. for salt draws the juices. wipe fj^. breezy place. wrap in paper. To keep fish in camp clean. and ivipe them dnj. is no crevice in the bag through which insects can penetrate. for salt draws the juices. squirrels. and hang them up on a frame over a smudge p. Game or fish suspended at a height of twenty feet will be immune from "blows. J. To ship rabbits. but between layers of is if there — : . It will keep sweet for several weeks. suspend the fish in it. divide the muscles just above the hock. however. and dry and smoke them over a small fire for three days and nights. in a cool. place the split fish in this and cover them with a weak brine for one or two nights. . then string them by a cord through their tails. It is a curious fact that blow-flies work close to the ground. hang it up by the shank. salt the fish. and hang it in a shady place where there mate „ . . and pack them back down. make a trough by hewing out a softwood log. and scale them.

the crop warm weather this will heat or should be removed. "Fish prepared in this way can be sent from Maine to New Orleans in August. and says that it is also a good way to pack venison Kill the fish as soon as caught. . Now put the roll in a stout paper bag. remove the gills and eyes. Colonel Park gives the following method for packing fish that are to be transported a considerable distance. such as a flour sack. wrap them in a thin rag.: DRESSING GAME AND FISH Never pack birds or or fish in 113 damp straw or grass. so that no first in ice can touch them. as they will quickly spoil after thawing. and anal cavity with this. fill this split with salt. The methods mounting. and will remain fresh and for nice. spread In the the fish over night on a board or log to cool. before sunrise. Reject all pieces of charcoal that are only half-burnt or have the odor of creosote. sewing up the ends and sides. preparing trophies pelts. and then in woolen blanketing. Food in a bird's crop soon sours. scrape the blood off from around the backbone. remove the entrails. will be described in other chapters. curing and making buckskin. Do not let them freeze. from the inside. split the fish through the backbone to the skin. and fill the abdominal Also fill the bill. wipe them clean and dry. eyes. To preserve birds in warm weather for shipment: draw them. ears. morning. for in sweat them. Birds stuffed in this way will keep sweet for a week in hot weather. wrap them thicknesses of paper or grass. dry thoroughly. and sew it up into a tight bag. and then take pieces of charcoal from the fireplace. wipe dry again. to keep off flies and prevent putrefaction." of jerking venison. fold the fish in dry towels. wash the inside perfectly clean. opening with powdered charcoal. If many you pack birds or fish in ice. so that there is a fold of towel between each fish and its neighbor. carefully wrap the whole package in a piece of muslin.

" Noah. because I know from experience that an amateur cook needs them. and as for eggs we have heard of eggs. "A good cook makes a contented crew.— — — CHAPTER XI CAMP COOKERY "A true epicure can dine well on one dish." "There is nothing between the high art of a cordon-bleu and a steak toasted on a stick. which you can procure for 50 cents (stamps not accepted) from the Superintendent of Documents. provided it is excellent Grimod de la Reyniere. When one can carry milk and butter and eggs. and ^ggs: nine-tenths of the recipes in a standard one or more of these ingredients. Some of the dishes here described surpass anything that can be had at the Waldorf or the Maison Doree. Full details are given for each dish. PORRIDGE. But it often happens to us campers that our "tin cow'" has gone dry. In such case. DRINKS IJOME cook-book cookery call for is based upon milk. Poor cookery is not so much the result of inexperience as of carelessness and inattention to details. he can also carry a standard cook-book. but for us they do not exist. * so I will not — burden these pages with many recipes other than the do-iuithout kind. D. BREAD. our butter was finished long ago. of its kind. A man who has never cooked a meal in his life can succeed with almost any of these recipes at the first or second trial. butter. or even privation. C." Lord Dunraven. 114 . or in an earth oven dug on the spot. Only such dishes are described as can be cooked with the most primitive utensils (or none at all) over an open fire. provided he follows the directions reli*The best all-round treatise on camp cookerj' with which I am acquainted is the Manual for Army Cooks. Let it not be thought that this spells misery. no ordinary cook-book is of any use to us. Washington.

and too (4) . (3) little heat at the start. and it is more likely than not to result from guessing at quantities instead of measuring them.) Build a fire of small sticks and bark from end to end. merely making a "one-night stand. and the rest is easy supper will be ready within twenty minutes.CAMP COOKERY giously. with coals or dry twigs in reserve. or too much thereafter. but let 115 him not discard the book and fall back upon the light of nature. handling or kneading dough made with baking powder. there must be some sort of rampart around the fire on which pots and pans will perch level and at the right elevation." in summer. Lay these bed-logs side by side. free from smoke and flame. flat sides toward each other. A O M Then you will have coals and boiling P water ready when you begin cooking. that will warp cast-iron and melt everything else. . It is quite impossible to prepare a good meal over a higgledy-piggledy heap of smoking chunks. and put your kettle on. there must be some way of regulating the heat. Half of cookery is the fire thereof. A bad mess is sure to follow from (1) a poor fire. (2) seasoning too much or too early in the game. One must have a small fire. and about 3 inches apart at one end and 8 or 10 inches at the other. about 6 feet long and 8 or 10 inches thick. all that is needed is a short chunk or thick rock at each end to support the irons. The bark of hemlock and of hardwoods is better fuel than wood when you want coals in a When — hurry. . P fierce blaze. and cut from it two logs. or over a ^. To make an outdoor range: fell a small. and perhaps a frame from which kettles can be suspended. Flatten the top and one side of each with the axe. straight tree. which is but another name for main strength and awkwardness. start a small cooking-fire the moment you stop ^^^ camping. It is a very simple matter to build the fire aright in the first place. (This is provided you have no fire-irons. or over a great bed of coals _. if you have.

pot-brakes. called them pot-hooks. Off to one side of such a as above. lay your bed-logs. hakes. which exercise his jaws with the is kekauviscoe saster. then shovel the fire in this trench with fire-irons or green sticks * It is curious how many different names have been bestowed upon Our forefathers the hooks by which kettles are suspended oyer a fire. and their tempers. to encourage draught. or where fuel is scarce. It is well to Know. rackan-crooks (a chain or pierced bar on which to hang hooks was called a rackan or reckon). he may (gypsy) term for pot-hook. and J know not what Among Maine lumbermen. there is level support for every vessel. trammels. If kettles were hung from the lug-pole itself. drive a nail in the small end of each. it can easily be regulated. These pot-hooks are to be of different lengths so that the kettle can be adjusted to different heights above the fire. invert the crotches. does not suflfice the amateur cook to express his If this catalogue ideas about such things. hangers. a hook for lifting kettles is a hook-stick. 12 inches deep. and you can wield a short-handled frying-pan over such an outdoor range without scorching either the meat or yourself.* Many and many a time I have watched old and experienced woodsmen spoil their grub. pot-crooks. by trying to cook in front of a roaring winter camp-fire. In windy weather. and 4 feet long. it brings bad luck to leave the waugan or spygelia standing. gibs or claws. and you would have to dismount the whole business in order to get one kettle off. and the Micmacs call the lug-stick a chiplok-waugan. green crotches from branches. and heresy to disbelieve. gallows-crooks. pot-hangers potpot-chips. called a lug-stick. Komany . with a little chimney of flat stones or sod at the leeward end. is a wambeck or a spygelia— the Red Gods alone know why! The frame built oyer a cooking-fire is called by the Penobscots kitchi-23lak-wagn. and a stick sharpened and driven into the ground at an angle so as to bend over the fire. and have marveled at their lack of common- Then about 4 fire. whichthe white guides have partially anglicized into waugan-stick. to suspend a kettle from. even heat from end to end. from the camp-fire enough hard coals to fill the space between the logs within three inches of the top. first for hard boiling. Build sense. You now have a steady. that. gib-crokes. too. it is best to dig a trench about 18 inches wide. such an implement is else besides. and then for simmering. this adjustment could not be made.116 CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT plant at each end of the fire a forked stake feet high and across the forks lay a crossNow cut two or three stick (lug-pole) of green wood. after boiling the kettle. and hang them on the lug-pole to suspend kettles from.

smooth it. and keep it burning hard for an hour or two. Now plaster wet clay thickly over all except the door. give it another coating. and close both the door and the flue with flat stones or bark. but enlarging the interior and arching its top. and cover with sticks laid on horizontally like a roof. and a frame above the kettles. It is best to drive the stake before excavating. or build a very small fire within and feed it only as needed to keep up a moderate heat. one behind the other. from the bottom of the face. At the rear. thus leaving a hole for flue. When the clay has hardened. to paraphrase Tom Hood. level of the oven. set up a round stake as core for the chimney. will be the bottom bank or steep Dig down the bank to Back from this front. wet the whole interior. no less in else- where. a vertical front. Let this dry naturally for a day in hot sunlight. If no bank or knoll lies handy. When you have a bed of coals that you want to save. then rake out the embers. build a form for your oven by first setting up a row of green-stick arches. To bake in such an oven: build a good fire in it of split hardwood sticks. to fill up the cracks that have appeared. and build a small fire in the oven to gradually dry and harden it. cover the coals with bark. Now. from choice) or on the naked floor. . as otherwise it might cause the roof of your oven to cave in from the shock of driving. drive a 4» or 5-inch stake down to what knoll near by. substitute can soon be if you have no oven. lay your dough on broad green leaves (basswood. dig a horizontal hole back to the flue. When the oven is finished. Then give it a final firing. made Draw the stake out. a good in a clay ^ " about 4 feet.CAMP COOKERY laid across it 117 for for the frying-pan. like exaggerated croquet wickets. In permanent camp. yet. this will leave plenty of ash on top. and there are not enough ashes in the fire. camp than Bread is the staff of life. keeping the entrance as small as you can.

! 118 CAMPING Who has x\ND WOODCRAFT not met with camp-made bread. but during the past year of almost continuous camping alone." Squeeze . Nor is any special knack required. For 2 doz. Split wood burns better than round. by leaning sticks on the leeward side of a large backHave spare log. dry sticks in reserve (slender ones) with which to replenish the fire. something invisible zipped through the air just then and nipped off that pig's tail These are best baked in a reflector (12Biscuit. unless a campBuild the fire high. then if you do fail it will be because of bad materials. 1 2 teaspoonful salt. Pay close attention to details. " " first thoroughly. powder with the flour. with big spoon or wooden paddle. or bear's grease). and my only failure is chargeable to a razorback who nosed into camp and upset my pan of dough. As for me. until there are no lumps left and no grease adhering to bottom of pan. Strange to say. Rub into this the cold grease (which may be lard. This is a little tedious. it makes biscuit "sad. 18-inch holds 1^ doz. cold pork fat. 1 scant pint cold water.. I was not born a cook. nor do I like to cook. 3 heaping teaspoonfuls baking powder. but don't shirk Then stir in the water and work it with spoon until it. biscuit: — 3 pints flour. tablespoonfuls cold grease. you have a rather stiff dough. Do none of the mixing Mix the baking with your fingers. cake can be baked before a log fire in the woods as in a kitchen range. making is a chemical process.). Grease the bake-pan with a bit of pork rind. stove is carried or an oven is dug. and then the salt. I have made some sort of bread or biscuit about every other day. from building the fire to testing the loaf with a sliver. as a chemist does. The notion that a man is either a born cook or a hopeBreadless " dodunk " at the business is all moonshine. Rolled out of putty and weighted with lead ? Just as good biscuit or johnnyIt need not be so. inch holds 1 doz. drippings.

The delicious corn bread of the South. and water. which not only bakes but cooks the dough in its own steam. also the edges Gently of can or can-cover used as biscuit cutter. with heavy iron cover. This time-honored utensil is a cast-iron pot on short legs. The — . salt. make enough extra biscuit dough so that you can drop the culls into the pot about half an hour before the meat is done. Too much water makes the dough sticky and prolongs the reflector. a closed oven. Flop the mass of dough to one side of pan. ten to fifteen in a Different brands of baking baking. If it were not for its weight it ought to be in every camp outfit. owes its excellence to the Dutch oven. powder vary in strength. The amount of water required varies somewhat according to quality of flour. If you are going to have boiled meat or a stew for dinner. flop dough dust flour on top of loaf. Don't expect to brown the tops Time. peeled sapling that you use as rolling pin. the biscuit and lay them in pan. Bake until edge of front row turns brown. Dumplings. Now rub some bread board. but are perhaps just as good) is to use enough water to make a thick batter. Royal is here assumed.CAMP COOKERY 119 or mold the dough as Httle as practicable. They make capital — dumplings. Another way to make biscuit (they taste different from the above. because the gas that makes a biscuit light is already forming and should not be pressed out. Do not stir the batter more than you can help. dust flour on bottom of pan. flour over the make biscuit of them too. Baking in Dutch Oven. reverse pan and continue until rear row is similarly done. for it is the best oven in the world for all kinds of baking. flour your hands. made from nothing but meal. and Flour the bottle or bit of gently lift loaf on board. and drop this from a big spoon into the pan. the rim of which is turned up to receive coals from the fire. Roll out the culls (what do women call those remaining fragments ?) and back over it. Stamp out roll loaf to three-quarter-inch thickness. twenty to twenty-five minutes in in a reflector.

1 quart flour. the stub of which will enter hole in end of handle. stand oven on them. and pour out at once into Dutch oven or bake-pan. Mix rapidly with spoon until smooth. with a short forked stick. 1 teaspoonful salt. and. As this is made without grease. flat loaves.120 juices of CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT meats cannot escape from such an oven. and is best eaten cold. Grease the bottom and sprinkle flour over it. remove it. When firm enough to keep its shape. so you can inspect the progress of baking from use the the fire. Grease or flour a frying-pan and put a embers out in front of the fire just long enough to form a little crust on bottom of loaf. 2 heaping teaspoonfuls baking powder. drmy Bread. This is the kind of bread to bake when you are laying in a threedays' supply. time to time. loaf in it. — If you have no reflector or make up dough handling as as for biscuit. put the bread in it. Turn loaf now and then. but not red. lest it warp so that it will never fit thereafter. Mix the ingredients thoroughly and stir in enough cold water (about one and a half pints) to make a thick batter that will pour out level. but little work it into as practicable. or until no dough adheres to a sliver stuck into the loaf. Have a stout hook to lift lid with. both sidewise and upside down. and the lid quite hot. place it and its hd separately on Get bottom of oven moderately hot. It is more wholesome than biscuit. it is easier to mix than biscuit dough. 1 tablespoonful sugar. Frying-pan Bread. Keeps fresh longer than yeast bread. To Dutch oven. Rake a thin bed of coals out in front of the fire. and cover the lid thickly with more live coals. Bake about fortyfive minutes. Then remove from embers. and does not dry up nor mold. prop pan up before fire at such angle that top of loaf will be exposed to heat. Replenish occasionally. and cover. oven. prop it by itself Rake some and put pan on them .

It is easy enough. wholesome. or a thick slab of non-resinous wood heated till the sap begins to simmer. will do. Quickly made. or a dried hide. a little salt in. and good for a change. to mix unleavened dough in the sack of flour itself. When sap simmers wind dough Turn occasionally. To Mix Dough without a Pan. score with knife. Build a good fire on a level bit of ground. Unleavened bread that is to be carried for a long time must be mixed with as little water as possible (merely dampened enough to make it adhere). fire to finish 121 baking. a bowl-shaped depression in top of flour. Unleavened Bread. Australian Damper. When bark will peel. it will mold. about two feet long and three inches thick. mix dough as above. though. and knead and pull Roll out thin as a soda cracker. — . and go on with a fresh lay in a two-days' supply. lift this out and pat and work it into a round cake about 2^ inches thick. leaning toward fire. holding over fire and turning. 1 Mix until lively. Bread for one man's eral sticks can be baking at once. When a thick. A sheet of canvas. sassafras. peel large end. A tin plate. If you have no utensil. with water to stiff dough. Keep the right hand moving round while you pour in a little Sprinkle water at a time from a vessel held in the left. may be In this way you can soon used in place of frying-pan. Keeps like hardtack. Get a club of sweet green wood (birch. tablespoonful sait. use a broad sheet of it.CAMP COOKERY before the loaf. Sevspirally around peeled end. adhesive dough has formed. work dough into a ribbon two inches wide. and bake as above. " sugar. maple). When it has burned to coals and the ground is thoroughly heated. for if any moisture is left in it after baking. sharpen the other and stick it into ground. meal can be quickly baked on a peeled stick as thick as a broomstick. Stand — the latter horizontally where Scoop it can't fall over. — 2^ pints 1 flour.

knead thoroughly. but is bread.! 122 CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT rake away the embers. Lungwort Bread. Then bake. keeping the pot turned as the loaf rises. When equally risen all around. when the dough must be mixed with it. In six to eight hours the whole will be in active fermentation. and as much warm water (milk. Mix a pail — of batter in a from plain flour and water. which makes wholesome and appetizing a welcome change after a long diet of baking-powder breadstuffs. taking care that To Bake Raised Bread in a — the heat be not too fierce at first. unless the rising is used immedibatter. put hot ashes under the pot and upon the lid. does not stick to the board. depending upon size of loaf. Make up your loaves. or in sunlight. They must be baked as soon as this second rising takes place." is the stand-by of Alaska miners. irreverently known as "pizened dog. The water must not be allowed to cool much below the original heat. not more. rake the embers back over the loaf until it is thickly embedded in them. lightly drop the loaf on the hot earth. Sour-dough Bread. is warm —This smells to heaven while it fermenting. more warm water being added to pan as required. and hang it up place until the batter sours. and place them before the fire to rise. it sinks to rise no more Set the dough to Pot. and keep them warmly covered near the fire till they rise. for. For a baking of two or three loaves take about a pint of moderately warm water (a pleasant heat to the hand) and stir into it as much flour as will make a good Add to this ^ teaspoonful salt. pat it smooth. if you have it) Knead the mass till it is tough and as you require. thicken with flour to a stiff dough. ately on reaching forever rise —selah its height. and some- — . Set the vessel in a pan of moderately warm water. Salt-rising Bread. within a little distance of a fire. On the bark of maples. work into small loaves. and let it bake from 1^ to 2 hours. Then add salt and soda (not baking powder). over a very few embers. not too thick. This is the next best thing to an ash-cake of corn meal which is a dish fit for a king.

The Camp in Order Just Stcuiing Out .


Pour from end of a big spoon successively enough batter to fill pan within one-half inch of rim. This an altogether different growth from the plants commonly called lungwort and liverwort I believe its is — Stida pulmonacea. 1 teaspoonful salt. set near the embers. Flapjacks made without milk or eggs are not equal to those that mother used to make. Stir well. and it can be kept good for months. and by morning it will be ready to bake. Rub — . dry. Leaven your dough with this (saving some of the sponge for a future baking). By evening it will have risen. This lichen is of fungus. When cake is full of bubbles and edges have stiffened. which is an excellent substitute for yeast. have no grease. Place this "sponge" in a warm can or pail. there grows a green. 2 teaspoonfuls sugar (to make 'em brown). beating it up with a spoon. lung-lichen. let the bread rise before the fire that night. in the northern woods. broad-leaved Hchen variously known as lungwort.CAMP COOKERY 123 times of beeches and birches. and set it near the fire to work. 2 heaped tablespoonfuls grease. pour off the infusion and mix it with enough flour to make a batter. get it quite hot. and lungmoss. scientific is name made up 1 quart flour. liverwort. but not too thin. or it will take all day to bake enough Set for the party. Make a smooth batter with cold water thin enough to pour from a spoon. Pan must be hot enough to make batter sizzle as it touches. to smoothe out lumps. night in lukewarm water. do without. but they fill the hiatus when a quick meal is demanded. 2 level tablespoonfuls baking powder. It takes but little of the original sponge to leaven a large mass of dough (but see that it never freezes). which does the business of partly Gather a little of it and steep it over raising dough. In the morning. but not near enough to get overheated. cover with a cloth. frying-pan level over thin bed of coals. and grease with piece of pork in split end of stick. If you in.

go through preliminary motion stiff of flapping once or twice to get the swing. John. and yellow meal requires one-half more water than white. and keep it so. never cut. from Boardman's Lovers I have modified a little Woods. baking. and Stir this into stir in 2 eggs and 1 tablespoonful salt. ^Pone or johnny-cake is easily and quickly made. other fellow's eye. tablespoonful evaporated stir in with them 1 big cream. . It is the invention of his guide. and 2 more cupfuls water. rejecting the it to soak in a medium-sized pail with a cupful of water. and catch Beginners generally lack the nerve it upside down. it serves him right for monkeying stir Grease pan anew and batter every time before pouring. more wholesome than baking-powder bread. Have the frying-pan snapping hot. and wish to produce something really fine. butter the size of an egg. Some time — when you really have eggs.124 shuffle CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT pan to make sure that cake is free below and enough to flip. or enough Just before to make the batter as thick as molasses. and buoy up the whole crowd. so near the cook. Bread left over should be freshened — by moistening and reheating. should be broken with the hands. remove from fire.. Now stir in 1 quart flour. try the following recipe. like all hot breads. If you land a hot cake on the to toss high enough. your crumb dope. John's Pancakes. The amount of water to be used depends upon whether the meal is freshly ground (moist) or old (dry). stir in 2 teaspoonfuls baking powder. Above Such cakes is a meal for two or three hungry men. etc. which of the a thick slice of stale bread. or the equivalent. or helper." To be eaten hot. more appetizing than unleavened wheat bread and it "sticks to the ribs. Plain Corn Bread. then flip boldly so cake will turn a somerset in the air. Then hold pan slanting in front of and away from you. and. 2 tablespoonfuls syrup. When the crumbs have soaked soft. so as not to burn. Melt carefully. Crumb up and put rest lightly on the cook's conscience. crust.

1 1 1


quart meal, teaspoonful


pint warm (but not scalding) water (1^ pints for yellow meal).

Bake to a nice brown all around, preferably in Dutch oven. Test with sliver. Done in about forty-five minutes, but improved by letting stand fifteen minutes longer, away from fire, Eat with bacon gravy. to sweat in oven. If you have no oven, plank the bread on hot slab before a high fire, having previously formed slight under crust by laying on hot ashes; or, make ash cake by forming into balls as big as hen's eggs, roll in dry flour, lay in hot ashes and cover completely with them. Time for ash cake, fifteen to twenty minutes. Corn Dodgers. Salt some white corn meal to taste. Mix with cold water to stiff dough, and form into cylindrical dodgers four or five inches long and one and a half inches diameter, by rolling between the hands. Have frying-pan very hot, grease it a little, and put dodgers on as you roll them out. As soon as they have browned, put them in oven and bake thoroughly to a crisp brown. Snow Bread. After a fall of light, feathery snow, superior corn bread may be made by stirring together
Stir together until light.

1 quart corn meal, ^ teaspoonful soda, " 1 salt,

1 tablespoonful lard.

Then, in a cool place where snow will not melt, stir into above one quart light snow. Bake about forty minutes in rather hot oven. Snow, for some unknown reason, has the same effect on corn bread as eggs have, two tablespoonfuls of snow equaling one egg. It can also be used in making batter for pancakes, the batter being made rather thick, and the snow mixed with
each cake just before putting in the pan. Corn Bread ivith Baking Powder. Mix together:

1^ pints yellow corn meal, ^ pint flour, 1 tablespoonful sugar, 1 teaspoonful salt, 3 heaping teaspoonfuls baking powdero




Add enough in a cupful of cold lard or grease. cold water or milk to make a stiff batter (about 2 Grease and flour your baking-pan, frying-pan, pints).


Dutch oven, pour the batter in, and bake forty Above makes a cake 9jx2 inches, weighing

3J pounds.

Buckwheat Cakes. Nobody knows what real buckwheat cakes are until he has eaten those baked by a Pennsylvania Dutchwoman from batter made with genuine dark-colored buckwheat flour ground in a country mill, and raised over night with yeast. There is as much difference between them and the city-restaurant kind as there is between a ripe fig and a dried codfish. However, we can't have them in camp; so

the next best:

pint buckwheat flour,

" wheat flour, 2 tablespoonfuls baking powder, \ teaspoonful salt.


to a thin batter with milk,

you have



wise water. Rice Cakes.

you have cold boiled rice left and half with flour, and proceed as with flapjacks. Cold boiled potatoes or oatmeal may be used in the same way. Rice cakes are best mixed with the water in which rice has been boiled. Oat Cakes. (1) Mix oatmeal with cold water and





it out as thin as poswith a spoon, and bake on the frying-pan. (2) Mix h pound oatmeal, 1 ounce butter, and a pinch of salt with enough water to make a moderately Roll to a thickness of J inch, bake in thick paste. frying-pan, and give it to the Scotchman he will bless


little salt

into a thick paste, pat



Fried Quoits. Make dough as for frying-pan bread. Plant a stick slanting in the ground near the fire. Have another small, clean stick ready, and a fryingpan of lard or butter heated sissing hot. There must be enough grease in the pan to drown the quoits. Take dough the size of a small hen's egg, flatten it



between the hands, make a hole in the eenler Hke that of a doughnut, and quickly work it (the dough, not the hole) into a flat ring of about two inches inside




into the hot grease, turn alin

most immediately, and

a few seconds
color, fish




out with your little stick and hang it on the slanting one before If the grease is of the right temthe fire to keep hot. perature, the cooking of one quoit will occupy just the same time as the molding of another, and the product If the grease is not hot will be crisp and crumpety. enough, a visit from your oldest grandmother may be expected before midnight. (Adapted from Lees and


of a light



Stale Bread. Biscuit or bread left over and dried out can be freshened for an hour or two by dipping quickly in and out of water and placing in the baker until heated through; or, the biscuit may be cut open, slightly moistened, and toasted in a broiler. If you

have eggs, make a French toast by dipping the slices in whipped eggs and frying them. With milk, make milk toast: heat the milk, add a chunk of butter and some salt, toast the bread, and pour milk over it.

Coi'ii'Meal Mush. Mix 2 level tablespoonfuls salt with 1 quart meal. Bring 4 quarts of water (for yellow meal, or half as much for fresh white meal) to a hard
boil in a 2-gallon kettle.



water to

Mix the salted meal with make a batter that will run from

the spoon;

this is to

from getting lumpy.

With a

large spoon drop the batter into the boiling

water, adding gradually, so that water will not fall below boiling point. Stir constantly for ten minutes. Then cover pot and hang it high enough above fire to insure against scorching. Cook thus for one hour,
stirring occasionally,
if it

and thinning with

hailing water

gets too thick.


Fried Mush. This, as Father Izaak said of another is "too good for any but very honest men." The




only drawback to this gastronomic joy is that it takes a whole panful for one man. As it is rather slow to fry, let each man perform over the fire for himself. The mush should have been poured into a greased pan the previous evening, and set in a cool place over night
to harden. Cut into slices J inch thick, and fry in very hot grease until nicely browned. Eat with syrup, or au naturel. Oatmeal Porridge. Rolled oats may be cooked much more quickly than the old-fashioned oatmeal; the latter is not fit for the human stomach until it has been boiled as long as corn mush. To two quarts boiling water add one teaspoonful of salt, stir in gradually a pint of rolled oats, and boil ten minutes, stirring constantly, unless you have a double boiler. The latter may be extemporized by setting a small kettle inside a larger one that contains some water. "Our parritch may nae be sae gude as the laird's, but it's as hot!" Boiled Rice. Good precedent to the contrary notwithstanding, I contend that there is but one way to boil rice, and that is this (which I first learned from a Chinaman, but is described in the words of Captain Kenealy, whose Yachting Wrinkles is a book worth

owning) To cook

rice so that

each grain


be plump, dry,



wash the measure

of rice thoroughly

it in a pot of furiously being added. Keep the pot boiling hard for twenty minutes, but do not stir. Then strain off the water, place the rice over a very moderate fire (hang high over camp-fire), and let it swell and dry for half an hour. Remember that rice swells enormously in cooking.

in cold salted water.

Then put

boiling fresh water,


Once when we camped '*'way down in Arkansaw," it came Bob Staley's turn to cook. Our commissariat was low; and Bob wanted a new dish. We had rice; and a Dutchwoman had given us some "suits" (dried apples). Bob put dry rice and unsoaked snits into a
pot till the vessel was almost full, poured cold water over them, and set the pot on the fire; then he went fishing. Rice and snits overflowed into White River,

and White River went out
Fact, I assure you!


banks that very

There are two ways of making good coffee an ordinary pot. (1) Put coffee in pot with cold water (one tablespoonful freshly ground to one pint, Watch or more if canned ground) and hang over fire. it, and when water first begins to bubble, remove pot from fire and let it stand five minutes. Settle grounds with a tablespoonful of cold water poured down spout.


Boiling extracts the tannin, the coffee boil. off the volatile aroma which is the most Bring precious gift of superior berries. (2) (Safer.) water to hard boil, remove from fire and quickly put




and drives

better way,

A steep ten minutes. seamless vessel that will stand dry heat, is to put coffee in, place over gentle fire to roast until aroma begins to rise, pour boiling water over the coffee, cover tightly, and set aside. Tea. Pour boiling water over tea (one teaspoonful tea to the pint), cover tightly, and steep awaij from fire Then strain into separate four minutes by the ivatch. If tea is left steeping more than five or six vessel. minutes the result is a liquor that will tan skin into
coffee in.





when you have a



The main secrets of good meals in camp are to have a proper fire, good materials, and then to imprison in each dish, at the outset, its natural juice and characteristic flavor. To season camp dishes as a French chef would is a blunder of the first magnitude. His
art is the outcome of siege and famine, when repulsive food had to be so disguised as to cheat the palate. The raw materials used in city cuisine are often of inferior quality, from keeping in cold storage or with chemical

spices, herbs,

so their insipidity must be corrected by and sauces, to make them eatable. In cheap restaurants and boarding houses, where the chef's skill is lacking, "all things taste alike," from



having been penned up together in a refrigerator and cooked in a fetid atmosphere. But, in the woods, our fish is freshly caught, our game has hung out of doors, and the water and air used in cooking (most important Such viands need no factors) are sweet and pure. masking. The only seasoning required is with pepper and salt, to be used sparingly, and not added (except in soups and stews) until the dish is nearly or quite done. Remember this: salt draws the juices, no matter what may be the process of cooking. The juices of meats and fish are their most palatable

and nutritious ingredients. making soups, stews, and

We extract them purposely
gravies, but in so doing


ruin the meat.


fish, flesh,

or fowl that

is fit

be eaten for the good meat's sake should be cooked



coagulating the outside (searing in a

bright flame or in a very hot pan, or plunging into

smoking hot grease or furiously boiling water) and then removing farther from the fire to cook gradually till done. The first process, which is quickly performed,

"the surprise."

It sets the juices,

and, in the case

of frying, seals the fish or

velope so that it will crisp when drained. The horrors of the frying-pan that has been unskillfully wielded are too well known. Let us campers, to whom the frying-pan is an almost indispensable utensil, set a good example to our greaseafflicted country by using it according to the code of health and epicurean taste. Game, and all other kinds of fresh meat, should be hung up till they have bled thoroughly and have cooled through and through they are tenderer and better after they have hung several days. All mammals from the 'coon size down, as well as duck and grouse, unless young and tender, should be parboiled from ten to thirty minutes, according to size, before frying, broiling, or roasting. Salt meats of all kinds should either be soaked over night in cold water or parboiled in two or three waters before cooking. Frozen meat or fish should be thawed in ice-cold water

meat in a grease-proof ennot become sodden but will dry

and then cooked immediately

—warm water would


their flavor.

at best;

Canned meats



they should at least be heated through, and are preferably served in hash or stews. Never eat canned stuff of any kind that has been standing open in the can: it is likely to sicken you. If any is left over, remove it to a clean vessel. The liquor of canned peas, string beans, etc., is unfit for use and should be thrown away; this does not apply to tomatoes. There is no excuse for serving hot food on cold plates. Put the plates in a pan of hot water, or fill them with boiling water. They will quickly dry themselves when emptied.

Meat, game, and fish may be fried, broiled, roasted, baked, boiled, or stewed. Frying and broiling are the quickest processes; roasting, baking, and boiling take an hour or two; a stew of meat and vegetables, to be good, takes half a day, and so does soup prepared from Tough meat should be boiled or the raw materials. braised in a pot. Do not try to fry over a flaming fire or a deep bed of


the grease would likely burn and catch aflame. Rake a thin layer of coals out in front


of the fire; or, for a quick meal, make small dry sticks, no thicker than your finger, boil water over the flame, and then fry over the quickly formed coals. If you have a deep pan and plenty of frying fat, it is much the best to completely immerse the material in boiling grease, as doughnuts are fried. Let the fat boil until little jets of smoke arise (being careful not to burn the grease) and until the violent first boil subsides. When fat begins to smoke continuously it is
fire of

decomposing, and will impart an acrid taste. When a bread crumb dropped in will be crisp when taken
out, the fat

of the right temperature.



drop in small pieces of the material, as not to check the heat. Turn them ing. Remove when done, and drop on coarse paper to absorb surplus them over a row of small sticks so Then season. The fry will be crisp,

one at a time so once while cookthem a moment



they can drain. and dry enough

keep on rubbing until smooth and brown. then add two cups boiling water and a dash of pepper. use it instead of water (a pint to the heaping tablespoonful of flour). fry in melted pork fat. to saute) in manner. when water is warm. drop the bacon in. the way Travelers must generally get along with shallow pans and this little grease. They will turn crisp on cooling. without getting the unfit for the stomach. Small fish should be fried whole. then removed. Rub the pieces in corn meal. parboiled until tender in a pot with enough water to cover. heat the dry it only enough to meat needs none). and stir around until water begins to simmer. and keep the meat from The material must be article gravy. not jabbing with a fork. then stir into the frying fat one-half cupful dry flour till a dark brown. . and ribs cut loose from backbone. Sprinkle with salt. with the backbone severed to prevent curling up large fish should be cut into pieces. . Cook quickly and turn frequently. so as to lie flat in pan. To fry (or. rub into the hot grease that is left in the pan a tablespoonful of flour. rabbits. bring to put game in dish. To make gravy that is a good substitute for butter. fry. and pour gravy over it. for that would let juice escape. saving the liquor. add parboiling liquor. properly. and season with pepper. If you have milk. throw out water. and flour (this for the sake of the gravy). half full of water Bacon venient pieces. Then remove bacon.132 CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT This is to handle without soiling the fingers. and the smaller birds are best sauted or fricasseed and served with then grease sticking (fat sodden and pan very hot. Remove slices while still translucent. dry when put in the pan (wipe fish with a towel) or it will absorb grease. Season when done. and serve piping hot. this makes a delicious white gravy. take out when done. and turn often. Chops. thinly and a boil. pepper. squirrels. fat meats. and do not let the flour brown. heat pan thoroughly. Put pan on fire. for small fish. Birds or squirrels for frying should be cut in conor salt pork should be sliced thin.

then broil before the fire. some pounding. slap in a thin slice of meat. A . and the result is an indigestible mass. even among men living otherwise wholesome lives in the open air! Fresh meat that is tender enough to escape the boiling pot or the braising oven should either be broiled or roasted before a bed of clear. Venison usually requires it g free . frier and the honored and strictly American way of frying has produced myriads of dyspeptics. hard coals. To broil enough for a party. aromatic-bitter "taste of the fire" which no pan nor oven can impart. basting it frequently with drippings from the pan below. Only tender pieces are fit for broiling. A steak 1 inch thick should be broiled five minutes.CAMP COOKERY 133 evenly (that browns them). Have a bed of bright in coals from smoke. Do not season until done. This timepieces of fish or fowl. 2 inches twenty minutes. Sear outside of meat by thrusting for a moment in the flame. when you have leisure for a good job. and insure that precise when you degree of browning which delights a gourmet. so as to seal pores of meat instantly. rather than over it. roast your meat.. What our average camper calls "frying" is to drop any old kind of grease into a shallow pan (perhaps even into a cold pan!). when you have no broiler. tasteless as a burnt chip or sodden with pork grease. without stabbing. so as to keep the surface moist and flexible. its natural flavor is lost. Turn meat often. clean the frying-pan thoroughly and get it almost red hot. Both of these processes preserve the characteristic flavor of the meat. but. Serve on hot dish with drippings poured over. or small and then torture both the fry over a blazing.. so as to catch drippings on a pan underneath. Fry in plenty of very hot grease to a golden brown. sprinkling lightly with pepper and salt just as the color turns. smoking fire. Cut the meat at least an inch thick. and turning. Broil are in a hurry. and add that piquant. Cover pan. Ij inches ten minutes. with clear flaming fire to one side. Thus the juices are all fried out of the meat. but don't gash doing so.

large venison steak will on hot juices over be done in ten minutes. Large fish should be planked as described under over them. When they are well heated. „ No kitchen range can compete with an . and place your slices of meat between the stones. greenwood stick. . and saves the juices. Place a log lengthwise of edge of coals. about three feet long. pit. and sharpen the tines. Bacon or pork. so that juices may not be lost. Another way is to cut some green hardwood sticks. should be soaked in cold water an hour or longer. sharpened at the end. Put pepper and salt. season with it. before broiling. slanting upward over the fire. To Grill on a Rock. sliced off Fillets of and impaled on — Roasting. . lay broiling sticks on this support. broiled over the coals. Baking is performed in an oven. the stick being constantly turned over the coals like a spit. — open fire for roasting. and pour Equal to meat broiled on a gridiron. To broil by completely covering the slice of meat with hot ashes and embers is really the best way of all. and build a fire around them. straight. Birds should be split up the back. drive tines through fish and pork. Lay a thin slice of pork inside each fish lengthwise. with a few pebbles between to keep them apart.134 CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT dish. forked at one end. or closed vessel. sweep away the ashes. Small fish may be skewered on a thin. place them one above the other. and lay a small log over their butts. Take two large flat stones of a kind that do not burst from heat (not moist ones) wipe them clean of grit. and basted with a piece of pork on tined stick held ducks or other large birds may be sticks with thin slices of pork. letting them through between ribs near backbone and on opposite sides of the latter then the fish won't drop off as soon as it begins to soften and curl from the heat. with a thin slice of bacon or pork between every two fish. To roast is to cook by the direct heat of the fire. as on a spit or before a high bed of coals.

which reached nearly to the ground. and shovel coals from it as required. a turkey. utilized. Just in front of the fire. build a bonfire of them to one side of your cooking-fire. The forward part of the saddle is the best roasting piece. Then skewer thin slices of pork to upper end. It will not do to check the cooking-fire. and tied the lower end into a noose.CAMP COOKERY 135 Build a rather large fire of split hardwood (softwoods are useless) against a high backlog or wall of rocks which will reflect the heat forward. and skewer some upper part. good way to suspend a large bird before the fire described by Dillon Wallace in his Lure of the Labrador Wild: is A George built a big fire much bigger than usual. of ribs. and baste with them^ This is better than roasting on a spit over the fire. When do not depend upon replenishing your roasting-fire from time to time. Sear the until outside of the roast (not a bird or fish) in clear flames outer layer of albumen is coagulated. hang roast before fire and close to it by a stout wet cord. If green wood or large sticks must be used. a stub of each stake being thrust through a slit cut between the ribs and under the backbone. — . and at each side. cut slices to and split backbone lengthwise so that hang flat. because the heat can be better regulated. or anything else that will require more than an hour of steady heat. press bits of knee. and on these rested a cross-pole. Trim off flanky parts and ends the whole wifl from side. the easily. he fixed a forked stake. catch drippings in pan or green-bark trough. unless you have a good supply of sound. gash thickest part of pork into them. To roast a shoulder. turn frequently. From the center of the pole he suspended a piece of stout twine. dry hardwood sticks of stove-wood size. and the drippings are A whole side of venison can be roasted by planting two stout forked stakes before the fire. roasting a large joint. At the back he placed the largest green log he could find. meat turned and held in position more the roast is not smoked. peel it off leg at flesh.

and — better flavored. and set it twirling again. a large turkey three hours. When plank is hot. leaving the ends to protrude on each side.136 CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT Then it was that the goose. . Sprinkle salt and pepper over the moisten with drippings. fish. Now and then George gave it a twirl so that none of its sides might have reason to complain at not receiving its share of the heat. Reverse ends of plank from time to time. he slipped the noose at the end of the twine over the ends of one of the pins. a duck about forty-five minutes. a woodcock or snipe fifteen to twenty minutes. it is done. unless it be planked. George took the goose off. Baste continuously with a bit of pork on a switch held above it. since the — fish is basted in its own juices. seeing which. Roast in front of a good fire. and smoothe a slab of sweet hardwood two or two feet long. and superior in resulting flavor. Through it at the wings George stuck a sharp wooden pin. skin side down. Planked Fish. A goose or a middling-sized turkey takes about two hours to roast. This process is simpler than baking. and is delicately browned is by direct action of the fire. by evaporating the gravy. just as you would bake Be careful not to overroast and dry the fish biscuit. Clean. entire length. The lower end roasted first. More expeditious than baking. Through the legs he stuck a similar pin in a similar fashion. but do not cut clear through the belly. Fish Roasted in a Reflector. and somewhat wider than the opened fish. tack it. a pheasant twenty to thirty minutes. reversed ! — it. If the flesh Split three inches thick. was brought forth. And lo and behold the goose was suspended before the fire. pan and add two or three morsels of grease around it. and wipe it quite dry. just high enough to permit the placing of a It hung low dish under it to catch the gravy. nicely prepared for the cooking. There is no better way to cook a large fish. is flaky when pierced with a fork. The surface of the fish lightly moistened with lard (you would use butter or Then place the fish in the olive oil if you had them). Prop it in front of a bed of coals Split the fish down the back its till it is sizzling hot. spread fish out like an opened book. This being done. to the plank and prop before fire.

flesh nor fowl should be baked in an oven. let it be by one of the outdoor processes described below. Neither fish. and so on till you have a stack two feet high. however. shovel coals around and over it. in pieces. will all burn down to coals together. Baking in a Hole. In case It beats a bake-oven. Have your hole in the ground glowing hot. of rain. In this case it is best to have the hole lined with flat stones. This is a modification of braisDig a hole in the ground. Place kindling in it.CAMP COOKERY and serve on the hot plank. if desired. put meat in. 137 No better dish ever was Braising Meat. and let it alone over night. cover first with green grass or leaves. cover all with a few inches of earth. — — . cut off what you want and sew it up in a piece of the hide. not touching each other. add a chunk of fat pork the size of your fist. or a covered pot or saucepan. Set fire to it. is made by pouring the grease from the adding a little water and salt. Cover and cook. Tough meat. then with the — The gravy pot. put in the kettle. When baking is resorted to. This process lies between baking and frying. If the beast is too large to bake entire. and rubbing flour into it with a spoon. season. and over the hole build a cob house by laying split hardwood sticks across. It is preeminently the way to cook bear meat. Add some chopped onion. put kettle in. if of uniform size. pour in enough water to cover. set before an epicure. cover with bark. then another course over these and at right angles to them. or whatever it is. The air will circulate freely. say eighteen inches ing. Baking an Animal in its Hide. about fifteen minutes to the pound. and the sticks. for seasoning. rake coals out of hole. is improved by braising in a Dutch oven. Cut the fowl. put lid on kettle. season it with salt and pepper. A half hour before the meat is done. square and deep. Rake out embers. venison shoulders and rounds. Put the meat in the oven or pot with about two inches of hot water in the bottom.

If it be a large bird. as a duck or goose. This method has been practiced for ages by the gypsies and other primitive peoples. and had best be placed in bake-hole over night. and cover it with more ashes and Half an hour. if liked. that the fish may not be burnt. This hermetically seals the meat while cooking. but leave the skin and hair on. neck down. and is better than baking in a kettle. cut off head and most of neck. and the flesh will be found clean and palatable. also feet and pinions. ready a good bed of glowing hardwood coals. Larger animals require more time. pull out tail feathers and cut tail off (to get rid of oil sac). cover it with a thin layer of ashes. feather or hair projects. fectly clean — — . other birds in proportion. leaving the meat perclay. accordcoals. well seasoned with salt and pepper. Draw it. Place in fire and cover with good bed of coals and let it remain with fire burning on top for about an hour. stuff with bread crumbs or broken biscuit. do not slit the belly season with salt and Have pepper. Roll it out in a sheet an inch or two thick and large enough to comCover the latter so that no pletely incase the animal. A teal will require about half an hour. and build a fire on top. A deer's head is placed in the pit. but leave smaller feathers on. Draw the animal.— 138 CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT hot coals and ashes. but do not remove the feathers. When done. break open the hard casing of baked The skin peels off with it. On removing the fish. is required. stuff with Indian meal. — and baked to perfection in its own juices. When done. Baking in the Embers. if a fish or small bird. Wet the feathers by dipping the bird in water. Moisten and work some clay till it is like softened putty. and. ing to size. do not scale. To bake a fish. is baked in much the same way. If you like stuffed duck. If a fish. Lay the fish on this. Baking in Clay. for example a duck. remove the skin. pull off the skin. A bird. clean it if it is large enough to be emptied through a hole in the neck. more or less. then bury it in the ashes and coals. and baked in the same way: time about six hours.

. bacon. add them at such time that they will just finish cooking when the meat is done (potatoes twenty to thirty minutes before the end. water. one to one and a half hours) Remember this: put fresh meat in hard boiling water for only five minutes. Turn the meat several times while boiling. carrots and turnips. because water boils at a lower and lower temperature the higher we climb. This makes their flesh firmer and better flavored. and one degree for 560 feet above that. sliced. salt or corned meats. and soup bones Watch during first half hour. thereafter they should be allowed to barely simmer. The meat (except hams) should be cut into chunks of not over five pounds each. Season a short time before meat is done. and are gradually brought to a boil. however. free. especially if vinegar is added. off all scum as fast as it rises. and those intended for stews or soups in cold water. At high altitudes it is impossible to cook satisfactorily by boiling. six to seven minutes to the pound is generally time enough. do — . CAMP COOKERY The broader the it 139 it is. Save the broth for soup-stock. to set the juices. was boiled. when the water needs replenishing. A to the boiling water tablespoonful or two of vinegar added makes meat more tender and fish firmer.. should be placed in boiling salted water. then remove to greater height over the fire and boil very slowly to let it boil hard all the time would make it tough and indigestible. Fish. The decrease is at the rate of about one degree for every 550 feet up to one mile. and skim well cracked. Salt meats go in cold water at the start. or until a fork will pierce easily (ten pounds take about two and a half hours). and salt pork require fifteen to twenty minutes per pound. Meat that is to be eaten cold should be allowed to cool in the liquor in which it boils. pot. Ham. and the blacker the quicker Fresh meats should be started in boiling water. it If with boiling. not cold. They cook quickly this way. or it will settle and adhere Fresh meat should be boiled until bones are to meat. If vegetables are to be cooked with the meat.

Add condiments to suit the taste. To steam meat or vegetables: build a large fire and throw on it a number of smooth — . First brown it with some hot fat in a frying-pan. Stewing. potatoes. drop them into the fat and "jiggle" the kettle until the surface of the meat is coagulated by the hot fat. The only condiments actually necessary are pepper and salt. sweet herbs. — Steaming in a Hole. the while. Now cover the kettle closely and hang it where it will only simmer for four Stews may be thickened with rice^ or five hours. and vegetables may be added turnips. 193. and chopped onion.5° at 5. Flavor with salt. celery. put a — couple of ounces of chopped pork in a kettle and get it thoroughly hot. Then empty the fry-pan into a stew-pan and add boiling water to cover the meats and let it simmer gently for two or three hours. cut into small pieces and browned with the meat. adding a small quantity of granulated sugar. Do not boil it furiously as is sometimes done. water boils at 202. Heat the contents of the kettle to boiling. etc. and season with salt. Have a hot fry-pan ready. With the air at 32° F. called by the French a ragout. but it requires the knack. and should be reserved for tough meats.000 feet. like all other culinary processes. Other flavorings are luxuries.000 feet. pepper. couple of ounces of flour.3° at 10.. but I take the liberty of adding another by Captain Kenealy. cut the meat up into small squares and put it (without any dripping or fat) into the pan. cut your meat into small pieces. The method given above is the one I have followed.000 feet. or oatmeal. Let it brown well..5° at 15. which I believe may be superior: Stewing is an admirable way of making palatable coarse and tough pieces of meat. not to burn it. and 184. This dish may be thickened with browned flour. The result will be a savory dish of tender meat. pepper.140 CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT is the temperature 70°. and mix it thoroughly with the fat. Use lean meat only. A ragout is nothing but a highly seasoned stew. The sugar improves the flavor vastly. curry powder or what you will. or. or it will become tough. then a pint of water or soup-stock. Cook until the onions are tender and well colored. This process is slow. carrots. as well as with flour. and sliced onions to taste. being careAdd a thickening of a ful. It is easy to prepare it this way.

Soak in cold water one hour. level them. letting the food steam This is the Chinook method of cooking until tender. and then cover all with a good layer of earth. Cut into small pieces. pour in some water. into slices | inch thick. Remove Boil two hours. has one— deer have none. — Skewer and Tongue. cloth. 141 in the Dig a hole ground near the fork fire. place the meat or potatoes on this layer. and flour cover with boiling water. or stews. wipe dry. boil. dip each slice in flour seasoned with salt and pepper. and . and roast before the fire. what has gone before. fibrous tissue. Soak for one hour. cover with green or wet leaves. careful reading of the preceding pages Fry them. The following additional details are supplementary to amma s. broil. skewer some of the caul fat around it. Marrow plain Bones. —Carefully remove gall-bladder. cover with more leaves. Milt (Spleen). and immediately stop up the hole. then fry with bacon. and water. camass. put the liver on a spit. rinse well in warm water. and presuppose a Deer's Brains. push out marrow. off the bitter Wash well. and serve with dry a piece of bacon to it. and paste. if the animal and skim scum that rises. and fry. over which tie place bones upright in kettle. skim. or branches. cut the liver liver. and drop each piece into cold water. or. or boil slowly half an — —Remove — valves and tough. bring to a continue boiling moderately two hours. not of the bomb-shell kind. or cut into small pieces and use in soups Kidneys. soak it one hour in cold salt water. — in fresh water. Parboil the Liver. hour. as cut.: CAMP COOKERY stones. Heart. them into the hole. rinse put in a kettle of cold water. or. grass. Now bore a small hole down to the food. —Cover ends with small pieces of dough made with a floured cloth toast. When the stones are red-hot. then braise. then stew.

if Cook slowly. of squirrels. and gash a needful. I append direc- Brunswick Stew. are: . by mincing the raw meat with half as much salt pork. Turn the squirrels as required. sharpen the points. Choose young. that the juices easily may flow. into little pats. if necessary. so that the four stakes will form a rectangle. —Parboil. but remove the ashes for a final When little the squirrels are done. and fry like sausages. cutting through the ribs. with plenty tables you may have. stout switches of some wood that does not burn easily beware of poison sumach). Lay two poles across the fire from crotch to crotch of the posts. eighteen inches above the ground. As squirrels are usually hunted in regions where canned goods can tions for a be procured. spreading out the sides. then fry in pork grease. begin basting with a piece of pork on the end of a switch. — make good. on one side. parboil them Prepare spits by cutting until tender but not soft). tender squirrels (if old ones must be used. and another spit similarly on the other side. season with pepper and sage. by scattering ashes thinly over the coals. peel (sassafras is best them. Build a hardwood fire between At each end logs lying about two feet apart.142 CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT deer. Utilize the tougher parts of the game. besides several squirrels. browning. of the fire drive two forked stakes about fifteen inches apart. and across these lay your spitted squirrels. Impale — two large — each squirrel by thrusting a spit through flank. and. and harden them by thrusting for a few moments under the hot ashes. Then try stewing them along with any vegeFor a large party. or other Venison Sausages. Very Squirrels. tempering the heat. This dish soon palls. prepare a Virginia Barbecue. and make gravy as directed under Frying. As soon as these are heated through. —The ingredients needed. The forks should all be about like the legs of a table. butter them. belly. and shoulder. so that the squirrel will lie open and flat.

skin and draw. Then add the butter. Add the tomatoes and sugar. Remove rabbit to For frying. and wipe dry. rinse in fresh cold water. potatoes. " Cayenne ^ 1 tablespoonful salt. Then put in the onion. Season with pepper. hours. cut into bits the size of a walnut and rolled in flour. and fry brown on both sides. Then serve at once. minced small. soak in cold salted water for one hour. parboiled and sliced. and squirrels. " butter beans or limas. or parboil and pepper. 2 tablespoonfuls white sugar. Cut off legs at body joint. Boil ten minutes. To roast in reflector: cut as above. 6 potatoes. salt pork (fat). and stew an hour longer. Rabbit. and let it boil one minute. and cut the back into three pieces. Stir in gradually one or two tablespoonfuls of browned flour. The rabbit may be roasted whole before the fire. and add one cup boiling water. This is — select only young rabbits. 143 can tomatoes. the heart and liver (previously parboiled . butter. Cover closely. stir well. pork (cut in fine strips). game than squirrels. stirring frequently to prevent burning. ^ lb. an hour in cold salted water. and nutmeg. 1 pt. lay a slice of pork on each piece. ^ lb. 1 onion.CAMP COOKERY 1 qt. and stew very slowly two and a half Soak the squirrels half Add the salt to one gallon of water. and baste frequently. beans. Pour it over the rabbit. Remove the head. 1 teaspoonful black pepper. a famous huntsman's dish of the Old DominOne can easily see how it can be adapted to other ion. corn. 1 pt. salt first with a dish kept hot over a few follows: coals. " green corn. and boil five minutes. salt. To bake in an oven: stuff with a dressing made of bread crumbs. Sprinkle with flour. Make a gravy as Put into the pan a small onion previously parboiled and minced. pepper.

outside of a scientific treatise. Pack sweet potatoes fits tightly. pepper and salt for seasoning. Rabbit is good stewed with onion. seasoned salt. is Possum is his is an affectation. as their backs are then infested with warbles. Pour a pint of water into the oven. and pull the hair out with your fingers. and a minced and mixed together. into which throw two pods of red pepper. but not if in Dutch oven. except This is how to serve "possum in desperate extremity. nor is he to be served without sweet potatoes. put the lid on. and nutmeg. clean. Draw. and bake with very moderate heat. hot. the pot juice. nutmeg. this country He is not good until you have freezing weather. Parboil for one hour in this pepper." Stick him. black pepper. and hang him up to freeze for two or three nights. Possmn. which is then thrown out and the kettle is refilled with fresh water. lay him on a plank. A tub is half filled with hot water (not quite scalding) which drop the possum and hold him by the tail Take him out. Then place him in a 5-gallon kettle of cold water. A do no harm. back uppermost. place him in a large salt. and hang him up to bleed until morning. lay thin slices of fat pork on back. dredge with flour. as directed above. Pour into pan a pint or more of boiling water (or stock. steam some sweet potatoes.water. with pepper. wherein he While this is going on. Bake slowly . into until the hair will strip. dash of lemon will around him. some fat salt pork. over rabbit. which are the larv8e of the rabbit bot-fly. name wherever he over. and slightly moistened with the water in which heart and liver were parboiled. known and hunted. slice and is boiled one hour. rub butter or dripping small onion. —To call our possum an opossum. if you have it).144 CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT amount all in a small of water). one hour. sprinkle him with and a pinch or two of sage. Sew up the opening closely. and place it in pan or Dutch oven. Rabbits are unfit to eat in late summer. and see that it Dutch oven. Take the possum out. basting every few minutes if Prepare a gravy with in pan.

of out of ginger. which is twisted and untwisted to give a rotary motion. and bake as previously directed. salt. and dress him. Stuff with stale bread and sage. Roast to a delicate Serve with fried sweet potatoes. without . in which case any plantation darky can show you how to make "ginger tea" Corn bread. is now. I quote from Nessmuk: "And do not despise the fretful porcupine. He will be done in about an hour. red pepper. roast the possum before a high bed of coals. plaster over him an inch of stiff clay. having suspended him by a wet string." The porcupine may also be baked in clay. with dressing like a turkey. and constantly baste it with a sauce made from When you and vinegar. It is said that possum left when eaten that none is cold. Serve hot. Take him to camp. Bourbon whiskey is the only orthodox accompaniment. unless you are a teetotaler. is not hard to digest even but the general verdict seems to be ever over to get cold.CAMP COOKERY until 145 brown and crisp. If you have a tart apple. to those who know him best. It is easily done. parboil him for thirty minutes. course. and add to the dressing. Stuff or two waters. juicy. be baked in clay. Possum may also Coon. Remove the "kernels" (scent raccoon. and roast or broil him to a rich brown over a bed of quarter it brown. — glowing coals. give him a show before condemning him. with his hide on. he is better than he looks. molasses and water. there are no quills on the belly. Porcupine. ivithout gravy. Skin and dress him. Parboil in one in small of back. Shoot him humanely in the head. — It is likewise pedantic to call this animal a Coon he always has been. and the skin peels as freely as a rabbit's. glands) under each front leg and on either side of spine Wash in cold water. have no oven. If you happen on a healthy young specimen when you are needing meat. only better. He will and you will find need no pork to make him him very like spring lamb. depending upon the animal's age. and shall ever be.

" a woodchuck ?" "Reckon I don't know what them "Ground-hog. basting frequently. The rough. and cook until done. Simmer slowly over fire until half done. The French-Canadians found that is not half bad. Woodchuck." "O la! dozens of 'em. You may be driven to this. or boil until tender. but the gray ones! man. fust water then pepper 'em. of my I asked old Uncle neighbors in the Smokies: — Bob Flowers. The following recipe is from Abercrombie & Fitch's catalogue: "Skin and clean carefully four muskrats." Muskrat may also be broiled over the hot coals. being par- skinning him. It is of a gelatinous nature. some pepper and salt. a little julienne (or fresh vegetables. A young beaver. The red ones hain't good. — ticular not to rupture musk or gall sac.146 CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT the quills and skin peel off with the hard clay covering. and sage 'em. and is considered very strengthening food. out long ago. and then I don't want nobody there but me!" Beaver Tail. one "Did you ever eat is. place in pot with a httle water. leaving the tail clean. some day. basting with a bit of pork held on a switch above the beastie. and will then learn that muskrat. Take the hind legs and saddles. Then roast.^" "Cut the leetle red kernels out from under their fore all the strong is left in the legs. they'd jest make yer mouth water!" "How do you cook them. . then bile 'em. and a few slices of pork or bacon. if you have them). properly prepared. Remove to baker. white. scaly hide will blister — — — — and come and solid. place water from pot in the baking pan. and bake 'em to a nice rich brown. and put 'em in a pan. This will be found a most toothsome dish. Muskrat. off in sheets. more's the pity! Impale tail on a sharp stick and broil over the coals for a few minutes. This tid-bit of the old-time trappers will be tested by few of our generation. tastes somewhat like pork.

— — Do not boil the fish or it will get hard. Season highly with pepper (no salt) and dry mustard if liked. cook till potatoes are soft. melt. Mix some flour into a smooth batter with cold water. and with white sauce made ually until soft. Use one pint of fish to one quart of raw potatoes. and pour into the camp kettle. Canned UTlQCi £ ISn. melt it. if not. Put a little pork fat in a frying-pan. x\dd onions. Cut meat into slices. the best part of the animal. cover with boiling water. salt potatoes and onions. Put in pot of fresh. and beat light with a fork. broiled on a stick and seasoned with butter. r> when +-j j£ui?-i j you have tired game and hsh tail. If the meat has much fat. and fry in very hot fat deep — enough to cover. Shape into flattened balls. Beaver tail may also be soused in vinegar. Soak over night in plenty of cold water. add hash. Codfish Balls. and pepper. old ones have a pecuHar flavor that is unpleasant to those not accustomed to such diet. These are good to fall back on i. season with pepper and salt. and heat through. drain water off. after boilThe liver of the animal. Shred the fish into small pieces. cold water. Put them in a pot. and heat gradwith sliced onions. Add a tablespoonful of butter and season with pepper. . mash with codfish as above. salt. as directed under Fish. fine —Chop some canned corned beef pork and bacon. —Prepare When soft. potatoes. into the kettle. 1 11 Mash up with freshly boiled two parts potatoes to one of meat. season with pepper. and cook until nearly dry and a brown crust has formed. Peel some potatoes. and fry until brown. Evaporated potatoes and onions can be used according to directions on packages. mash fish and potatoes together. is ^ J n/r X Meat. and 1 ot salt Corned Beef Hash. Serve with boiled potatoes. put Stir the whole well together. Peel and slice some onions. and fry like corned beef hash. is good. Stew ivith Canned Meat.CAMP COOKERY wStuffed 147 and baked in its hide. ing. Codfish Hash. or baked with beans. melt a little pork fat. Stewed Codfish.

put them in a pot with enough cold water to cover. with either of the dressings mentioned below. Any kind of bird may be fricasseed as follows: Cut it into convenient pieces. and sew up the body. parboil them in enough water — — -J. and singe. Wipe the bird inside and out. Roasted. stirring until it becomes a dark brown. and flour. tail. Toast on a stick over the coals. allowing room for the filling to swell. mince them. and serve with potatoes. dropping in a little vinegar. then pour over it the liquor in which the bird was boiled (unless it was a fish-eater). Meantime cleanse the gizzard. and place a pan under it to catch drippings. slices of remove from Fry two or three with Sprinkle the pieces of bird until brown. Pluck. (1) Clean. of dry flour. Freshen the flakes of fish by soaking for an hour in cold water. Wild Turkey. and remove the skin. more or less. and bring the mixture to a boil. J to cover. thicken with one or two tablespoonfuls of flour that has been stirred up in pork salt. — . pepper. draw. and skin. Stuff the crop cavity. (2) Scald in boiling water till the skin curls up. the pot and drain. and stew gently until tender. Put the bird in a hot dish. Truss wings to body with wooden skewers. then place where they will keep warm until wanted. as previously described. Clean well. Tie a string around the neck. Tie a clean rag on the end of a stick to baste with. and pour gravy over it. frying fat half a cup. Roast until well done (two to three hours). Put into frying-pan with a little butter and lard. then remove head. liver. Broil over the coals.148 CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT Broiled Salt Fish. and heart of the turkey thoroughly in cold water. then the body. before a high bed of hardwood coals. Fry gently a few minutes. add the giblets with the water in which they were stewed to the drippings in pan. Smoked Herrings. and stir into the in the pork fat. Turn and baste frequently. when tender. and fry to a dark brown Take up the bird. When the turkey is done. Pin thin slices Suspend the fowl of fat pork to breast in same way.

and serve with the turkey. leaving enough skin to turn over the stuffing. Put the bird into enough hot water to cover it. Hence the tail should always be removed before cooking. and skewer them firmly. and the flesh red. Baked Duck. When done. Season with salt. save the wild turkey should be stuffed. on a green switch. wash inside with warm water. other birds according to size. Waterfowl have two large oil glands in the tail. and chopped onion. Add and some pepper. Stuff breast as above. The bird should be dry-picked. but no other dressing. disagreeable flavor to the bird soon after it is killed. remove shells. Stuffing for Turkey. and the head left on. Remove scum as it rises. This is the way to bring out the distinctive flavor of a canvasback. Put a little pepper and salt inside the bird. and mash. impale them. To Cook a Large Bird iii a Hurry. Draw sinews from legs. and mix with the chopped pork. Lay duck on its back in the bake-pan.CAMP COOKERY 149 milk or water and browned in a pan. with which they oil their feathers. broil over the coals. unless you deliberately wish to disguise the natural Boiled Turkey. Serve with sauce. Seasoning and stuffing destroy all that. No game bird flavor. sage. Put no water in the pan. but not hot enough to burn. and cut off Press legs into sides feet just below first joint of leg. Baste frequently while cooking. — (1) If chestnuts are procurable. Mix well soak stale (2) bread or crackers in hot water. and stuff the bird with them. roast a quart of them. the duck should be plump. The oil in these glands imparts a strong. The oven must be hot. test with the hand. Chop some fat salt pork very fine. and wipe dry. not blue. A canvasback requires about thirty minutes. season with pepper and salt. — — — . singe. Boil gently one and one-half to two hours. a teaspoonful of together. Slice off several fillets from the breast. salt. draw. mash smooth. Pluck. pepper. with slices of pork. Cut off head and neck close to backbone.



Stewed Duck.

— Clean well and divide into convenient

Place pieces (say, legs, wings, and four parts of body). Add salt, in pot with enough cold water to cover.
pepper, a pinch of mixed herbs, and a dash of WorcesCut up jBne some onions and potatoes tershire sauce. Put a few of these (carrots, too, if you can get them). in the pot so they may dissolve and add body to the dish (flour or corn starch may be substituted for thick-

Stew slowly, skim and stir frequently. In minutes add the rest of the carrots, and in fifteen minutes more add the rest of the onions and Stew until potatoes, also turnips, if you have any. meat is done. A plainer camp dish is to stew for an hour in water that has previously been boiled for an hour with pieces

of salt pork.


Fish-eating Ducks. The rank taste of these can be unless very strong, by baking with an

Use plenty of pepper, inside and out. Mud-hens and Bitterns. Remove the breast of a coot or rail, cut slits in it, and in these stick thin slices
onion inside.

of fat salt pork; broil over the embers.

broiled breast of a young bittern is good. Fish caught in muddy streams should be cut up and soaked in strong salted water. Never put live fish on a stringer and keep them in water till you start for home. Does it not stand to reason that fish strung through the gills must breathe with difficulty and be tormented? Why sicken your Kill every fish as soon as fish before you eat them ? caught and bleed it through the throat. Fish Chowder. Clean the fish, parboil it, and rePlace the dry serve the water in which it was boiled. pot on the fire; when it is hot, throw in a lump of When the butter and about six onions sliced finely. odor of onion arises, add the fish. Cover the pot closely for fish to absorb flavor. Add a very small quantity of potatoes, and some of the reserved broth. When cooked, let each man season his own dish. Ask a blessing and eat. (Kenealy.) Roasted Eel. Cut a stick about three feet long and




an inch thick; spHt it about a foot down from one end; draw the eel, but do not skin it; coil it between the two forks of the stick, and bind the top of split end with green withes; stick the other end in the ground before a good fire, and turn as required. Stewed Eel. Skin the eel, remove backbone and cut the eel into pieces about two inches long; cover these with water in the stew-pan, and add a teaspoonful of

strong vinegar or a slice of lemon, cover stew-pan and boil moderately one half hour. Then remove, pour off water, drain, add fresh water and vinegar as

and stew

until tender.



add cream

a stew, season with pepper and salt (no butter), boil again for a few minutes, and serve on (Up De Graff.) hot, dry toast. Fish Roe. Parboil (merely simmer) fifteen minutes; let them cool and drain; then roll in flour, and fry. Frog Legs. First after skinning, soak them an hour in cold water to which vinegar has been added, or put them for two minutes into scalding water that has


— —

vinegar in




roll in flour

Drain, wipe dry, and cook as below: seasoned with salt and pepper

and fry, not too rapidly, preferably in butter or Water cress is a good relish with them.

To grill: Prepare 3 tablespoonfuls melted butter, J teaspoonful salt, and a pinch or two of pepper, into which dip the frog legs, then roll in fresh bread crumbs, and broil for three minutes on each side.




and most


(land) are
far better



eat, the


snapper being

than he looks.

by cutting throat or
This does not


by shooting the head
of killing

the brute immediately, of course, but



common way

by dropping a

turtle into boil-

ing water I do not like. Let the animal bleed. Then drop into a pot of boiling water for a few seconds. After scalding, the outer scales of shell, as well as the skin, are easily removed. Turn turtle on its back, cut

down middle of under Throw away across.
and pepper


from end





to end, and then head, and claws. Salt Boil a short time in the


Remove when

the meat has cooked free from Cut up the latter and boil slowly for three hours with some chopped onion. If a stew is preferred, use less water, and add some salt pork cut into the shell.

These are the " craw-feesh !" of our streets. extreme end of tail, bringing the entrail with it. Boil whole in salted water till the crayfish turns red. Peel and eat as a lobster, dipping each crayfish at a time into a saucer of vinegar, pepper,






general rules for cooking vegetables are few and

(1) Do not wash fresh vegetables until just before they are to be cooked or eaten. They lose flavor quickly after being washed. This is true even of


Green vegetables go

into boiling salted water.

Salt prevents their absorbing too




water should be boiling fast, and there should be plenty of it. They should be boiled rapidly, with the lid left off the pan. If the water is as hot as it should be, the effect is similar to that which we have noted in the case of meats: the surface is coagulated into a waterproof envelope which seals up the flavor instead of In making soup, the rule is letting it be soaked out.

Dried vegetables, such as beans and peas, are be cooked in unsalted water. If salted too soon they become leathery and diflScult to cook. Put them


in cold, fresh water, gradually heated to the boiling



boil slowly.

Desiccated vegetables are first soaked in cold water, according to directions on package potatoes require long soaking, and they should be boiled in three waters. Place in boiling water slightly salted, and proceed as with fresh vegetables. To clear cabbage, etc., from insects, immerse, stalk upward, in plenty of cold water salted in the proper-

tion of a large tablespoonful to


may be

used instead of


two quarts; vinegar Shake occasionally. The

bottom of pan. keep vegetables, put them in a cool, dry place Keep (conditions similar to those of a good cellar). each kind away from the other, or they will absorb each other's flavor. Pick them out as nearly as possiPotatoes, Boiled. ble of one size, or some will boil to pieces before the others are done; if necessary, cut them to one size. Remove eyes and specks, and pare as thinly as possible, for the best of the potato lies just under the skin. As fast as pared, throw into cold water, and leave until wanted. Put in furiously boiling salted water, then hang kettle a little higher where it will boil moderately, but do not let it check. Test with a fork or sliver. When the tubers are done (about twenty minutes for new potatoes, thirty to forty minutes for old ones)
insects will sink to


drain off all the water, dust some salt over the potatoes (it absorbs the surface moisture), and let the pot stand uncovered close to the fire, shaking it gently once or twice, till the surface of each potato is dry and powNever leave potatoes in the water after they are dery. done; they would become watery. Potatoes, Boiled in their Jackets. After washing thoroughly, and gouging out the eyes, snip off a bit from each end of the potato; this gives a vent to the steam and keeps potatoes from bursting open. I prefer to put them in cold water and bring it gradually to a boil, because the skin of the potato contains an acid poison which is thus extracted. The water in which potatoes have been boiled will poison a dog. Of course we don't "eat 'em skin and all," like the people in the nursery rhyme; but there is no use in driving the bitterness into a potato. Boil gently, but continuously, throw in a little salt now and then, drain, and dry before the fire.

and work


—After boiling, mash the potatoes,

them some butter and cream, gin you have any. Then beat them up light with a fork. However it may be with "a woman, a dog, and a walnut


it is

true of


potatoes, that "the

more you

beat 'em, the better they be." After you have once learned the Potatoes, Steamed. knack, you will find that the best of all ways to cook potatoes is by steaming in a hole in the ground, as No danger of them being directed in the last chapter. watery then.

Nessmuk's description cannot be "Scoop out a basin-like depression under the fore-stick, three or four inches deep, and large enough to hold the tubers when laid side by side; fill it with bright hardwood coals, and keep up a strong




heat] for half an hour or more. Next, clean out the hollow, place the potatoes in it, and cover them with

hot sand or ashes, topped with a heap of glowing coals, and keep up all the heat you like. In about forty minutes commence to try them with a sharpened hardwood sliver; when this will pass through them they Run the are done, and should be raked out at once. sliver through them from end to end, to let the steam escape, and use immediately, as a roast potato quickly

becomes soggy and

Fried Potatoes. Boiled or steamed potatoes that have been left over may be sliced | inch thick, and They are better h la Lyonnaise: fry one or fried. more sliced onions until they are turning yellowish, then add sliced potatoes; keep tossing now and then
until the potatoes are fried


somewhat yellow;

salt to

Peel, and slice into pieces h Potatoes, Fried Raw. inch thick. Drop into cold water until frying-pan is ready. Put enough grease in pan to completely immerse the potatoes, and get it very hot, as directed under Frying. Pour water off potatoes, dry a slice in a clean cloth, drop it into the sizzling fat, and so on, one slice at a time. Drying the slices avoids a splutter in the pan and helps to keep from absorbing grease. If many slices were dropped into the pan together, the

heat would be checked and the potatoes would get soggy with grease. When the slices begin to turn a faint brown, salt the potatoes, pour off the grease at

once, and


brown a


in the dry pan.



of each slice will then be crisp

and the

insides white

deliciously mealy. Sweet Potatoes, Boiled. Use a kettle with lid. Select tubers of uniform size; wash; do not cut or break the skins. Put them in boiling water, and continue boiling until, when you pierce one with a fork, you find it just a little hard in the center. Drain by raising the cover only a trifle when kettle is tilted, so as to keep in as much steam as possible. Hang the kettle high over the fire, cover closely, and let steam ten minutes. Sweet Potatoes, Fried. Skin the boiled potatoes and cut them lengthwise. Dust the slices with salt and pepper. Throw them into hot fat, browning first one side, then the other. Serve very hot. Potatoes a7id Onions, Hashed. Slice two potatoes to one onion. Parboil together about fifteen minutes


in salted water.


off water,




time be frying some bacon. When it is done, remove it to a hot side dish, turn the vegetables into the pan, and fry them to a light brown. Then fall to, and enjoy a good thing! Beans, Boiled. Pick out all defective beans, and wash the rest. It is best to soak the beans over night; but if time does not permit, add J teaspoonful of baking soda to the parboiling water. In either case, start in fresh cold water, and parboil one pint of beans (for four men with hearty appetites) for one-half hour, or until one will pop open when blown upon. At the same time parboil separately one pound fat salt pork. Remove scum from beans as it rises. Drain both; place beans around the pork, add two quarts boiling water, and boil slowly for two hours, or until tender. Drain, and season with salt and pepper. It does not hurt beans to boil all day, provided boiling water is added from time to time, lest they get dry and scorch. The longer they boil the more digestible they become. Baked Beans. Soak and parboil, as above, both the

beans and the pork. Then pour off the water from the pork, gash the meat with a knife, spread half of it



over the bottom of the kettle, drain the beans, pour them into the kettle, put the rest of pork on top, sprinkle not more than ^ teaspoonful of salt over the beans, pepper liberally, and if you have molasses, pour a tablespoonful over all; otherwise a tablespoonful of sugar. Hang the kettle high over the fire where it will not scorch, and bake six hours; or, better, add a little of the water that the beans were boiled in, place kettle in bake-hole as elsewhere directed, and bake all night. Baked beans are strong food, ideal for active men in cold weather. One can work harder and longer on pork and beans, without feeling hungry, than on any other food with which I am acquainted, save bear meat. The ingredients are compact and easy to transport; they keep indefinitely in any weather. But when one is only beginning camp life he should be careful not to overload his stomach with beans, for they are rather indigestible until you have toned up your stomach by hearty exercise in the open air. Onions, Boiled. More wholesome this way than Like potatoes, they should be of as fried or baked. uniform size as possible, for boiling. Do not boil

Put them in enough boiling Cover the kettle and boil gently, lest the onions break. They are cooked when If you wish a straw will pierce them (about an hour) them mild, boil in two or three waters. "When cooked, drain and season with butter or dripping, pepper, and



an iron


salted water to cover them.



Green Corn. If you happen to camp near a farm in the " roasting-ear " season, you are in great luck.
off the

quickest way to roast an ear of corn is to cut butt of the ear closely, so that the pith of the cob is exposed, ream it out a little, impale the cob lengthwise on the end of a long hardwood stick, and turn over the coals. To roast in the ashes: remove one outer husk, stripping off the silk, break off about an inch of the silk end, and twist end of husks tightly down over the broken end. Then bake in the ashes and embers as
directed for potatoes.


Time, about one hour.

Break into convenient pieces. now and then.CAMP COOKERY To boil: prepare as above. if dandelion. and pouring this. and a little salt to the grease. ' olive oil. salt and serve. and put into enough boiling salted water to cover. rubbing then add by degrees the vinegar. One who camps early in the season can Greens. gradually is dissolved. thus: 1 tablespoonful vinegar. but plain in bowl. I black pepper. and boil A . then drain well. Prepare a simple French dressing. In default of oil. cut off the butt and remove the shucks. necessary. over the greens. although this abstracts some of the flavor. Like potatoes. pepper. use cream and melted butter. They may be preCold boiled corn or mixed with — pared in various ways. Put salt and pepper aid mixing till salt add oil. adding vinegar. here are a few: As a salad (watercress. bacon. Put in enough boiling salted w^ater to cover the ears. mashed potato and fried. To boil them separately: first soak in cold salted water for a few minutes.): wash in cold salted water. may be cut from the cob and fried. rejecting tough stems. etc. dry immediately and thoroughly. Boil thirty by over-boil- When cooked. to his menu by gathering fresh greens in the woods and marshes. Pour the dressing over the salad. this preserves the sweetness of the corn. Cover. scalding hot. peppergrass. Greens may be boiled with salt pork. frying. corn is injured minutes. turn the latter upside down. and pepper will do. or other meat. scalded salad is prepared in camp by cutting bacon into small dice. sorrel. 3 tablespoonful s best i teaspoonful salt. 157 but tie the ends of husks. add a toothsome dish. pressing them down until the pot is full. Many of these are mentioned in my chapter on The Edible Plants of the Wilderness. mix well vinegar. stirring continuously one minute. ing.

and serve. then drain. if much older than this. chop very fine. cover with melted butter. and offer a great variety of flavors. with colored illustrations. some pepper. try a pint of tomatoes add butter twice the size of an egg. and heat in frying- pan as directed above. place over moderate fire.158 CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT which may be from twenty minan hour. Put some bread crumbs or toast in a dish. and lay in cold water for an hour. They should not be over four inches long. and should show only a tuft of leaves at the top. Atkinson's. drain. or until tender.) Follow recipes in book. and steam thus twenty minutes. depending upon kind of greens used. Jerusalem artichokes must be watched when boiling and removed as soon as tender. Mushrooms. dust with pepper and salt. Canned Tomatoes. If the plants are a little older salted. Every one who camps in summer should take with him a mushroom book. if left longer in the water. Some greens are improved by chopping fine after boiling. Poke stalks are cooked like asparagus. this: — To . Mushrooms are very easy to prepare. lay on buttered toast. (Such a book — in pocket form. Boil about five minutes. and pour tomatoes over them. such as Gibson's. parwater to which a little baking soda has been added. and a tablespoonful of sugar. steadily until tender. very little salt. and stirring until thoroughly heated. putting in hot frying-pan with a tablespoonful of butter and some salt and pepper. put in kettle with one cup water. they harden. is a desideratum. scrape them. When you can get butter. shake and press out adhering water. they are poisonous. cover kettle. cook quickly. Wash the stalks. or Nina Marshall's. and continue boiling in plain water. utes to boil in than they should be. then tie loosely in bundles. drain. Dock and sorrel may be cooked like spinach: pick over and wash. put in a kettle of boiling water and boil three-fourths of an hour. then drain.

easily Cut up any kind of small game into joints. This is a delicious Creole dish. and stew them. handling as little as possible. in a few minutes mix in with it slices of canned corned beef. corned beef. add fragments of hardtack. and have sliced some potatoes. a soft biscuit Slumgullion. add some minced ham or bacon. not mere broths or meat exwhich are fit only for invalids "Soup. "requires time. Add a cup of cream. which. prepared. topping off with dough. but omitting sugar and bread. and a solid basis of the — —soup soldier. try this sailor's dish.CAMP COOKERY 159 Canned Sweet Corn. Meantime you have been boiling meat or game. and so on until the pot is nearly full. When the commissariat is reduced to bacon. by admitting cold air. another of dough. — When Napoleon 5. Roll into a sheet. cutting two or three little holes through each to let steam escape. and hardtack. | teaspoonful baking powder to ^ and add 1 teaspoonful lard by rubbing it in. said that "soup makes the he meant thick. and boil one-half hour. When half done. then another layer of meat and vegetables." that sticks to ^ ' . cover tightly. also a pinch of salt. j pint rice. Pot Pie. and cut into strips about 1^ inch wide and 3 inches long. and being careful not to mix too thin. if convenient. and season with pepper and Serve with tomaIf rabbit is used. together. substantial soup the ribs tracts. When the meat is within one-half hour of being done. — — toes as a sauce. without lifting the pot cover. Nessmuk." says or to coax an indifferent stomach. would make the dough "sad. or butter —Take sift pint of flour." Parsley helps the pot. when you can get it. pour off the broth into another vessel and lift out most Place a layer of meat and potatoes in of the meat. Jambolaya. Same as tomatoes. season well with pepper and salt. and partially cover with strips of the dough. and stir briskly over the fire. Pour the hot broth over this. salt. Make dough of this. add onions. described by Jack London: Fry half a dozen slices of bacon. bottom of kettle. then two cups of water.

Soup should be skimmed for some time after it has started simmering. cover with cold water. the froth from the the soup begins to boil. Pea Soup. Bean Soup. scrape the sixth one into the soup for thickening. to remove grease and scum." of game may be used in a similar way. Soup is improved by first soaking the chopped-up meat in cold water. Put the meat into a five-quart kettle nearly filled with water. We used to throw this away. you can fish up bones with no meat on them. Have ready a three-tined fork made from a branch of birch or beech. but don't wash them. and the best material is the bloody part of the deer. and some pepper. Return pork to kettle. adding ^ pound Any kind — — lean bacon or ham cut into dice. stirring frequently Season with little salt but so that it may not scorch. In the morning put them in a kettle with close-fitting cover. cut five of them into quarters. Pare six large. stirring it in slowly as the kettle simmers. then take out the pork and mash the beans into a paste. When. as previously directed. Wash well one pint of split peas. until the beans are tender enough to crack open. provided that none but lean meat be used. add a cup of flour mixed thin with cold water. and with this test the meat from time to time. Boil with pork. Pour over them 3 quarts cold water. when it parts readily from the bones. we have right material. smooth potatoes. Cut about four pounds of the bloody into convenient pieces. learned better. where the bullet went through. Season with salt and white pepper ^to taste. and drop them into the kettle. the soup is cooked. and the kettle may meat be set aside to cool. 1 teaspoonful salt. and raise it to a lively boiling pitch. skim surface. Boil slowly an hour longer. Let it boil for two hours.160 CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT Venison is the basis. slice in a large onion. plenty of pepper. by skirmishing with the wooden fork. and wipe them as clean as possible with leaves or a damp cloth. and let them soak over night. Cook slowly three to four till When hours. stirring occasionally the peas are all dis- . and using this water to boil in thereafter.

enough Drop the batter into the pan of stewing apples. — — — and use no shortening. sugar. one — ^ pound raisins (stoned. a large spoonful at a time. Plain Plum Duff. and boil two hours. plunge it into cold water Suet for an instant. Prepare knepp as directed for pot-pie dough. nor in tin. Spices . to check the boiling. without cooking. This is a Pennsylvania-Dutch Suits uud Knepp. Let it get quite thick. and apply flour well to the inside. Fruit should not be cooked in an iron vessel. and two tablespoonfuls of sugar. drop in small squares of toasted bread or biscuits. Just before serving. if it can be avoided. adding quickly while the bread is Vegetables may be added one-half hour before hot. and a good one for campers. only make a thick batIt is best to add an egg ter of it instead of a dough. wring it out. Add half a cup of sugar and some spice. turning the bag several times to prevent its scorching against the bottom or sides of the pot. Take some dried dish. Soak over night in cold water. add boiling water to keep the bag covered. may be used to advantage instead of pork fat. but the old-fashioned dried apples of the country) and soak them over night. not fast Boil about one-half hour. apples (not evaporated ones. the soup is done. If necessary. Dip a cloth bag large enough to hold the pudding into boiling water. or chopped). leaving a little room in the bag for the pudding to swell. When done take the pudding from the pot. Put into a basin one pound of flour. one heaping teaspoonful of baking powder. Season with butter. and then turn it out to be eaten.CAMP COOKERY solved. and cinnamon. Dried Fruit. Put in the pudding and fasten it up. 161 and adding a little more boiling water to keep up the quantity as it boils away. Add half a pint of water and mix well together. if possible). just enough to cover too much water makes them insipid. Boil until tender. Now place the whole in enough boiling water to cover the bag. simmer until done. which are tasteless. They are quite eatable then. three- quarters of a pound of fat of salt pork (well washed and cut into small dice.

Bake as you would biscuits. instead of laughing at you. It is not to — {Kenealy. press the edges of upper and lower crust together all around. Then prick a number of small slits in the top crust. and the boys. if you have made the crust too thick for a pie. Doughnuts. 1 teaspoonful baking powder.. Fry in very hot fat. From this sheet cut a piece large enough for bottom Pie. to give a vent to the steam when the fruit boils. if and molasses duff. your thumb-prints leaving scallops around the edge. with great circumspection and becoming reverence. Don't give the thing a name until it is baked. rubbing in 4 heaped tablespoonfuls of lard. Into this put your fruit (dried fruit is previously stewed and mashed) and add sugar and spice to taste. 162 CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT also. lay on top of all this your upper crust. then. Make a batter of this with four beaten eggs and enough milk to make smoothe. ^ teaspoonful salt. Then. Beat thoroughly and add enough flour to make a soft dough. but it is easy to make a wholesome and very fair piecrust in an irregular way. will ask for more. which is as follows: Make a glorified biscuit dough by mixing thoroughly 1 pint flour. as thin as you can handle. and that it will swell. and want a richer be presumed that a mere male pie-crust in the regular way. here and there. Roll out into a sheet half an inch thick and cut into rings or strips. observe the rules given under Biscuit. In doing this. call it a cobbler or a shortcake. The above quantity is enough for a pie filling an 8x12 reflector pan. one tablespoonful of baking powder and one pint of granulated sugar. with your thumb. turn when necessary. Now. Roll the dough into a thin sheet. Mix one quart of flour with one teaspoonful of salt. Note that this dough contains baking powder. and do the rolling as gently as you can. which may be twisted into shape. and making into a soft dough with cold water. Trim off by running a knife around edge of pan. Drain and serve hot — .) camper can make a good crust and lay it in the greased pan. and half a nutmeg grated. The sheet should be big enough to lap over edge of pan. you have them.

It is the tall. give a quick Virtually it has flirt to empty it. while ^* the other fellow does the dish-washing! Gilbert Hamerton. Then pick it up. which grows in wet places and along banks throughout the northern hemisphere. and hang it up. if first wiped with a handful or two of moss. primarily. Greasy : : dishes are scraped as clean as may be. as I should be sure to make her an offer. simply jab them once or twice into the ground. Cease painting for the day. excepting this: After 5 p. and will dry itself if let alone. has a gritty surface that makes an excellent swab. mix with less 163 late as explained And water into a stiff dough. use first the dirt side of the moss as a scourer. and manipuunder Fried Quoits. or it may be scoured out with sand and hot water. then the top. which consists. dwells lovingly upon all the little details of camp life. . and let it boil over. and a cleaner way as to the frying-pan. There is a desperately hard and disagreeable way of washing dishes. which takes up the grease. Rusty ones can be burnished by rubbing with a freshly cut potato dipped in wood ashes. Dine dinner the woeful drudgery of cleaniQg-up! At this period of the day am seized with a vague desire to espouse a scullerymaid. To scour greasy knives and forks. M. The scouring rush (Equisetum hymenale).CAMP COOKERY Or. place it level over the coals. jointed. An obdurate pot is cleaned by first boiling in it some wood ashes. an easier. having done my share. First. unless in the holy state of matrimony: hope no scullery-maid will pass the hut when I am engaged in washing-up. pipe-stem-like . in "going for" everything alike with the same rag. in his Painter'' s Camp. There is another. cleaned itself. . which generally is greasiest of all pour it nearly full of water. the lye of which makes a sort of soap of the grease. Greasy dishes can even be cleaned without hot water. and then wiped. and wiping grease off one dish only to smear it on the next one. . now. it being impossible to accommodate one in the hut without scandal. washed with scalding water. I will loll back at mine ease and smoke mine pipe. green.

consists in first cleaning off nearly all the grease before using your dish-cloth on it.164 CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT weed that children amuse themselves with. by pulling In brief. run short in an average outfit. Then the cloth will be Dish-cloths are the supplies that first fit to use again. . the art of dish-washing the joints apart.

summing up what is now known of the life history of malaria165 . and midges. CUMMER who twilight brings the mosquito. the thirst for blood. chiggers. the querulous sing-song. the sleeping-sickness of Africa is transmitted by insects. are enough of themselves to make the mosquito a thing accursed. Strange to say. We have learned. while his spouse madame and the whole legion of bloodthirsty. or on sugared spirits. far north or far south. that all the suffering and mortality Such disreputable habits — from malaria. not among mosquitoes only. sips daintily of nectar and minds is his own business. but among ticks. yellow fever. stinging flies — of gin she is inordinately fond. There is no longer any guesswork about this: it is demonstrated fact. such as port. it is only the female that attacks man and beast. Rather I should say that we have her. Professor Kellogg. when we go we have him with us both by day and night. for the male mosquito is a gentleman. venomous virago.CHAPTER PESTS OF THE XII WOODS In fact. within the past few years. the mosquito is not only a bloodsucker but an incorrigible winebibber as well she will get helplessly fuddled on any sweet wine. but these are by no means the worst counts in our indictment against her. fleas carry the bubonic plague. peevish. and the practice of getting dead drunk at every opportunity. Flies spread the germs of typhoid fever and malignant eye diseases. a whining. while fleas. that goes about seeking whose nerves she may unstring and whose blood she may devour. and filariasis (including the hideous and fatal elephantiasis of the tropics) is due to germs that are carried in no other way than by mosquitoes. the poisoned sting. Stranger still.

tropics. in Siberia. the arctics or the that the farther we push toward worse becomes this pest of dangerous inIt is into just such countries that.. sledge-dogs. Mosquitoes are bad enough in the . and in future. which in summer are the breeding-grounds of unending clouds of mosquitoes whose biting powers exceed those of any Even if the insects known in the United States. all animals leave for the snow-line as soon as the mosquito pest appears. and Alaska. The swamps and shoaly lakes in the surrounding country breed mosquitoes in such incredible hosts that reindeer.166 CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT bearing mosquitoes (Anopheles) says: "When in malarial regions. muskeg land were not a morass. this plague of mosquitoes would forever render it uninhabitable in summer. we must go in order to get really firstclass hunting and fishing. but they are at their worst in the coldest regions of the earth. which is the arctic pole of cold (where the winter temperature often sinks to-75° Fahr. avoid the bite of a mosquito as you would that of a rattlesnake one can be quite as serious — in its results as the other. are actually tormented to death by them." The is worst of it. but the enemy follows them even Deer and to the mountain tops above timber-line. Harry de Windt reports that at Verkhoyansk. . in May. Throughout a great part of central and western Canada. Consequently the problem of how best to fight our insect enemies becomes of ever increasing importance to all who love to hunt over and tropics. the explore the wild places that are still left upon the earth. called by the Indians muskegs. The insects come out of their pupae at the first sprouting of spring vegetation. and has been known to reach-81°) the mosquitoes make their appearance before the snow is off the ground. and throughout the three summer months. make life almost unbearable to the wretched natives and exiles. and remain until destroyed by severe frosts in September. nowadays sects. and sometimes even the natives themselves. In Alaska. there are vast tundras of bog moss. from a sportsman's view-point.

" by which elegant name we mean any preparation which. But even in the more accessible woodp lands north and south of us the insect pest is by far the most serious hardship that fishermen and other summer outers are obliged to meet. repeating their attacks. Headnets and gauntlets are all very well in their way. (2) Liquids or semi-fluid unguents that are supposed to protect by their odor alone. others find the tincture of ledum palustre (a . cloves. Consequently everybody tries some kind or other of "flydope. push through the brush. lavender. The latter vary a great deal.PESTS OF THE WOODS 167 moose are killed by mosquitoes. trate such regions are not the kind that would allow toil or privation to break their spirit. is supposed to discourage insects from . and must be renewed several times a day. eucalyptol is favored by some. but one can neither hunt. nor even smoke. that they become savage. if (1) to a tenacious glaze on the the wearer abstain from washing. It is safe to say that everything in the pharmacopoeia that seemed in the least promising has been tried. are totally blinded. They may be classified in two groups: Thick ointments that dry skin. and even their marrow is reduced to the The men who peneconsistency of blood and water. paddle. Animals that survive have their flesh discolored all through. Bears are driven frantic. being rubbed over the exposed parts of one's skin. mire in the mud. but they become so unstrung from days and nights of continuous torment inflicted by enemies insignificant in size but infinite in number. p. gi-ass The oils of pennyverbena and lemon- are often used singly. Pj The number of such dopes is legion. In regions so exceptionally cursed with mosquitoes no mere sportsman has any business until winter sets in. citronella. which settle upon them in such amazing swarms that the unfortunate beasts succumb from literally having the blood sucked out of their bodies. royal. fish. when so accoutered. and sometimes even weep in sheer helpless anger. and starve to death. desperate.

. received last year from Col. When I had established a good glaze on the skin. castor together over a slow fire. I have had some interesting correspondence on this topic with sportsmen in various parts of the world. . each has its coterie that swears by it. while mixtures of camphor (1) and paraffin oil (3). A crushed dock or caribou leaf gives temporary relief. He says this about it: pine tar. vial full in a season. pennyroyal oil. A good safe coat of this varnish grows better the longer it is kept on and it is cleanly and wholesome. give two recipes: (1) Pure pine tar Oil pennyroyal Vaselin ounce. and after you have established a good glaze. or of creosote and glycerin. wet the corner of your handkerchief and rub it off. " 3 ounces. One ounce has lasted me six weeks in the woods. Rub it in thoroughly and liberally at first. ta^. . it I have never 1 known to fail: 3 oz. Sometimes I make it 1^ oz. . The personal equation seems to cut some figure in such matters: what works satisfactorily with some people is of no avail with others. oil. Among the glazes. Aside from my personal tests of many dopes. And don't fool with soap and towels where insects are plenty. and never used either a single time. . If you get your face or hands crocky or smutty about the camp-fire. from one letter. Last summer I carried a cake of soap and a towel in my knapsack through the North Woods for a seven weeks' tour. a little replenishing from day to day will be sufficient. and bottle for use. . If you wish. published in his Woodcraft. when is Fure pine tar trout streams of Michigan on a warm May the insects are abundant and %acious by far the best repellant when properly used. you can add 3 per cent.168 CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT European relative of our Labrador tea) efficacious. 2 oz. 1 1 Mix cold in a mortar. Nessmuk's recipe. not forgetting to apply the varnish at once wherever you have cleaned it off. is perhaps as well known and as widely used as any. carbolic acid to above. . Fletcher of Louisville: I quote Norman Upon the swampy day . or of sweet oil (16) and carbolic acid (1). Simmer all — . oz. . You will hardly need more than a 2-oz. it was too valuable to be sacrificed for any weak whim connected with soap and water It is a soothing and healing application for poisonous bites already received.

oil of citronella. without being worried too much by the insects. . and wash the palms of your hands as often as may be necessary. . and do not wash You can off until leaving the place where the pests abound. and when cool add ounce. at least none that sting or bite. oil of verbena or of lemon-grass or of pennyroyal mixed with vaselin will keep them oft". not copyrighted. joining states there are In the high mountains of North Carolina and adno mosquitoes. very bad. but the above are Now as to use of above: apply freely as good as any and frequently to all exposed parts of person. of a discovery. by the heat of the body. . I have been so tormented by these nimble allies of Auld Reekie. that I have arisen in desperation and rubbed myself from head to foot with kerosene. The fruit of my own experiments thus far is that tar dopes are the most effective ones in comparatively cool climates. . That settled the Here I may offer a bit fleas. but if you wish to be When immune. . . and midges with tar in it the best. if the mixture is applied frequently. and almost settled me. I can stand the tar for a few days. Camphorated oil is also used by some.PESTS OF THE (2) WOODS 2 ounces... the chance is good that he will arise covered with fleas. . this is simply sweet oil with gum camphor dissolved in it: the camphor is volatile and Now I don't much like tar dope besoon evaporates cause I can not wash my face and hands as often as I could w ish but when it is necessary to get some trout. . because when one perspires freely both by night and day. but if a man sits down on a log. These essential oils are quickly evaporated. . however. black-flies. don't wash any other exposed parts you get accustomed to it you will find some compensating comfort . but that they are of little avail in hot countries. there is no chance for a glaze to be established. . " 3 1 169 Pure pine tar Castor oil Simmer for half an hour. that I believe is new: . wash your eyes in the morning. Oil pennyroyal There are many others of similar nature. I know that where mosquitoes are not . . it may be five miles from any house. . I have had to contend with mosquitoes. deerand have found "dope" flies. when spending a night in a herder's cabin on the summit of the Smokies.

till after three or four months you know that he has done so by the swelling up of the bitten part into a fair-sized boil. is the _ screw. The black-fly (Similium molestum) is a stout. Several fatalities from this cause have been reported in our country. She keeps busy until late in the afternoon. poisoning everything that she attacks. let us hope. the Lake region. though fortunately rare in the North (it has been known to reach Canada). and even in the nostrils of sleeping men. This is a blow-fly which has the sickening habit of laying its eggs in wounds. don't try to crush him or examine him {lier. and drown. and go to meet her reward. from one-sixth to one-quarter inch long. I should say) but keep a tight grip until you get your thumb and finger into some water. from which issues a maggot of perhaps an inch and a half in length. driving animals frantic and setting up an inflammatory fever that may prove fatal. then let go. Blackflies and their ilk are easily driven away by smudges. fleas can't swim. which sometimes appear in incredible numbers. the Adirondacks.worm fly (Compsomyia macel. black termagent with transparent wings. humpbacked. and she will sink." Another . they have been much more numerous in South America. This creature is a common nuisance of the forests and along the streams of northern New England. In northern forests that attack man. makes the blood flow Worst of all flies. you know not when. we have several species of The deer-fly or "bull-dog" flies is a small gad-fly that drives her daggerlike mandibles into one's skin so viciously that she takes out a bit of flesh and freely. and Canada. related species are the buffalo-gnat and turkey-gnat of the South.170 CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT . a bright metallic-green insect with golden reflections and four black stripes on the upper part of the body. and raising a Closely painful lump as big as a dime at every bite. When you catch one. laria). is a warm one. which. The gusanero of tropical America is described by a traveler as "a beast of a fly that attacks you.

relieving the mosquito at sunrise. . The great Cortez. It is the great scourge of the Amazons. are not haK so bad as a cloud of mosquitoes.PESTS OF THE WOODS 171 Amazonian fly of similar habits is the birni. infinitely numerous on the Jurua. can easily be killed with one's fingers. Humboldt estimated there were a million to a cubic foot of air where he was. and. Their favorite region is said to be on the Cassiquiare and upper Orinoco. They are (3) The maruim. outro like "and then.i i_ J J needs camp withm a hundred miles ^ ^^^ or so of home. While I am on this topic. . most of them working at night. Many a paradisaic spot is converted into an inferno by its presence. "gentlemen often go to o mundo" (the other world). The motuca of it. which leave a small. but one black fellow with white feet is diurnal. wind keeps the lower Amazons clear of the winged pests. after all his victories. It works by day. . which resembles the pium." said a native. ^ irCStS 01 tll6 •. Doctor Spruce experimented upon himself. but soon after leaving Manaos. (4) The mutuca. which follow one another in succession through the day. dark-colored dipter with two triangular. The ceaseless irritation of these ubiquitous creatures makes life almost intolerable. . . . whose larva generates a grub in one's skin that requires careful extraction. spiders six inches in diameter. circular red spot on the skin. (2) The pium. horny lancets. and especially on the Maranon in the rainy season. species. it may add a little to the contentment of those outers who are unable to seek adventure in faraway lands. and centipedes running on all dozens. called tdbono on the Maraiion {Hadaiis . 1 • •! . . all of them being diurnal. Scorpions with cocked tails. lest it be crushed in the operation. . and found that he lost. . ways similar to those of our black-fly. but must . by letting the blood-letters have their own way. * But the most numerous and most dreaded of all animals in the middle Amazons are the insects. or sand-fly. if I transcribe from the pages of a well-known naturalist the following notes on some of the impediments to travel in the tropics: Brazil has . the traveler becomes intimately acquainted with haK a dozen insects of torture: There are several (1) The sanguinary mosquito. There are several species. three ounces of blood per day. Nearly all kinds of The strong trade articulate life here have either sting or bite. could not forget his struggles with these despicable enemies he could not conquer. It is a minute. a species of tromhidium called mosquito in Peru.

black and yellow wasps. which it took a week. but they make agriculture almost impossible. . and on the skin causes an intolerable itching. proboscis. I do not know what be the northern limit of these most unlady- but have made their acquaintance on in Pennsylvania. They are quite at home on the prairies of southern Illinois. but particularly the Andean. . On . The Pacific slope is worthy of being called flea-dom.. innumerable in species and individuals. as she is vari- ^ ^- may ously called. they are accordingly most abounding on the mountains. but serious sores. often result. (6) Carapdtos. re- sembling a minute crab under the glass. These few forms of insect life must forever hinder the settleBesides these there are ants ment of the valley.. . . . and bury their jaws and heads so deeply in the flesh that it is difficult to remove them without leaving the proboscis behind to fret and fester. jigger. or ticks {Ixodes). but rarely causes death. is invisible like creatures. and a formidable . . red-bug. from the little red ant of the houses to the mammoth tokandera. The sailbas are not carnivorous. . The chigger. the Tapajos lives the terrible fire-ant whose sting is likened to the puncture of a red-hot needle. . unless you know just what to look for. . There are . tion of our The moquim mentioned above answers the descripown chigger. . Doctor Spruce likens the pain to a hundred thousand nettles. sandy localities. . . pp. 484-487. even ulcers. In sucking one's blood they cause no pain. Lice find a congenial home on the unwashed Indians of every tribe. . color. . Jiggers and fleas prefer dry. hairy caterpillars should be handled with care. — CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT resembling a small horse-fly.. a microscopic scarlet acarus. (5) The moquim . . . and of all sizes. . . Cockroaches are great pests in the villages. . Orton. . . which is an entirely different beast from the real chigger or chigoe of the tropics. An hour's walk through the grassy streets of Teffe was sufficient to cover my entire body with myriads of moquims. Swatara Creek on one's skin. which mount to the tips of blades of grass. It swarms on weeds and bushes. The large. . and repeated bathing with rum. The latter bites fiercely. and are perhaps worst of all in some parts of Texas. as the irritation caused by the nettling hairs is sometimes a serious matter. . attach themselves to the clothes of passersby. as I shall call her. . to exterminate. The Andes and the Amazons. exist in myriads on the Ozarks. 172 lepidotus). . . . . . an inch and a half long. of a bronze-black with the tips of the wings transparent. and throughout the lowlands of the South. . .

and she resembles. If one takes a bath in salt water every night before what is in store for night. . as Orton says. Then she prospects for a good place. not contenting herself. especially under- neath the nail of the great toe. I found that chloroform. nor oil. swells The insect burrows there. is a larger and more formidable pest than our little red-bug. nor turpentine. preferably. nor anything else that I have tried will kill them. and you can diswhat looks like a fine grain of red pepper. . which continues for a week or two. and fumigates it thoroughly with the smoke of burning tobacco stems. The country people sometimes rub themselves with salty bacon-rind before going outdoors. and South America. The victim is not aware of him until he goes to bed that begins a violent itching. becomes enormously from the development . gerous if incautiously used. The chigoe or sand-flea of Mexico. but going in body and soul. will stop the itching for about six hours. After much experiment.PESTS OF THE tinguish WOODS 173 Get her on a piece of black cloth. neither salt. J^ ChVoes between the encysted. where the skin is thin and tender. nor carbolized ointment. no chigger will touch him. both of which are danretiring. dropped or rubbed on each separate welt. Put her under a microscope. like a tick. and toes. puts the suit in a closet. also that kerosene will do as well. Then he can keep fairly rid of these unwelcome but once they have burrowed underneath the skin. Alas! that the preventives should all be so disagreeable. guests. It is quite harmless. I have had two hundred of these tormenting things in my skin at one time. and claim that this is a preventive. save mercurial ointment or the tincture of stavesacre seed. the feet. If one keeps an old suit of clothes expressly for chigger-time. She lives in the grass. and pleasant enough to apply. Central America. with merely thrusting her head in and getting a good grip. It attacks. to return no more. and straightway proceeds to burrow. and on the under side of leaves. a minute crab. dropping off on the first man or beast that comes her way.

. or flame. If the female is crushed or ruptured in the tumor she has formed. but of quite different color and habits. and thence are detached to the person of a passer-by just as chiggers are. are true no wise related to the wood-ticks. or The punky p . About 1872 it was introduced into Africa. and spread with amazing rapidity over almost the entire continent. according to my learned . and then are hard to remove because they are so small and fragile. It will probably soon invade southern Europe and Asia.. not true insects. bloodsuckers that. to create a nasty sore. its head will break off and remain in the epidermis. and are likely to infest any log that a tired man sits on. They are _." They are hard to discover until they have inflamed the skin. leathery-skinned creatures of about the same size and shape as a bedbug. and cattle-ticks. in and horses. They also abound in old mulchy wood. like the chiggers. The wood-ticks that fasten on man are. fatal disease The cattle-tick is responsible for the among cattle that is known as Texas fever. "no-see-um" of the northeastern minute wildwoods. bats. Preventive measures are the same as for chiggers. needle. They "use" on the under side of leaves of low shrubs. sheep. or stand naked in the dense smoke of a green wood fire. . They hang on like grim death. to The way to get rid of them is drop oil on the bug. up an intolerable itching in the victim's skin. The meanest ticks to get rid of are the young. and her cousin the stingare ing midge of western forests. She should be removed entire by careful manipulation with a This chigoe is a native of tropical America. and if you try to pull one out of your skin. The ticks that infest birds. insects. or clap a quid of moistened tobacco on her. or use whiskey externally. the result is likely to be amputation of the toe. related to the scorpions and spiders. dog-ticks. if nothing worse. but seems to be gradually spreading northward. but arachnids. or touch her with nicotine from a pipe.174 CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT and thus sets of her young. which are known as "seed-ticks. in either case the tick will back its way out. or hot water.

black gunpowder in Burning but it is not so prompt nor so sportsmanlike. To get rid of flies. then boiled. and can be dropped and made snug all around the bottom before you turn in. g six or eight inches in diameter. A good smudge is raised by using cedar "cigars." made as follows: Take long strips of cedar bark and bunch them together into a fagot . live. and in flowing from gist. They will not cross a broad line drawn with chalk or charcoal. in. soaked in water for some hours. p to the skins of horses or other animals. ground pepper. bruised and sweetened. Ignite one end at the camp-fire. pour kerosene on their runways. and choke to death. bind them with strips of the inner bark of green cedar. Punkies are particularly annoying about sunset." With all due deference to this distinguished entomolomust aver that they don't live there when I am around. to you want mosquitoes little . though. the leaves. I wounded trees. is to keep them out from the first. they seem particularly fond of sap flowing from wounded fishermen. Dope will keep them from biting you. but it won't keep them out of your eyes. Insects insect . hurry. explode a T . prevent their being worried by flies. Black walnut leaves will drive fleas out of a bed. which is hung up out of the way in the daytime. if you have milk. of citronella If is Oil the best preventive of their attacks. If ants are troublesome about a permanent camp. The fresh leaves of the Kentucky coffee tree. by the device mentioned in White's book The Forest: have an inside tent of cheese-cloth. are good to poison flies. under fallen leaves. The best way. of sugar and 2 oz. Oil of sassafras sprinkled about will keep flies and ants out of a cabin. about one strip in three being dry and the others watersoaked. add to 1 pint of milk \ lb. "under the bark of sap decaying branches. in the tent is also effective.PESTS OF THE friend Professor WOODS 175 Comstock. the flies will eat greedily. powder . and set up two or more such cigars on different sides of will and applied . leave your tent in a it. place in a shallow dish.

upward and forward. hood of St. especially in rainy weather. relieved pain or itching caused by insect bites is quickly by rubbing the spot with a lump of indigo. having a penchant for crawling into bedding. dark places generally. boots. and proof against the poison If you get stung. . or by rubbing a bit of raw onion over it. where they abound. in dead inches. and do their foraging at night. A toadstool as large as one's two fists will hold fire for six or eight hours. and. it can soon be dried out before the fire. too damp at first. coat sleeves. these are peculiarly repellent to punkies. I have elsewhere referred to smudges made of dried toadstools. tobacco locally applied eases the pain and reduces the Tobacco juice. large one. Louis little red fellows corpions. if the scorpion was a you have a good excuse for drinking Ordinarily a quid of moist all the whiskey you want.176 CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT the camp. or by touching it with glycerin or ammonia. trousers' legs. is fatal to scorswelling. except to small children. the burning end out. The — and in moist. press the hollow with force over the puncture. Scorpions are not uncommon as far north as MisI often used to find them in the neighborsouri. A piece of one can be carried suspended by a string around If the fungus is one's neck. take a hollow key or small thereafter. they grow to a length of 6 or 7 They hide by day under flat rocks. etc. always They carry their tails curled fighting to the death. The ammoniacal vapors from a smudge of dried cow-dung is particularly effective. They are very belligerent. by the way. Pimky wood piled on a bed of coals is also good. causing the poison and a little blood to exude. After a person is stung a few times he is inoculated. so far as I know. about 4 inches long. hold firmly in place for several minutes. that of a large one is more serious. tube. They are sometimes unpleasantly familiar trees. but never fatal. The sting of a small scorpion is about as severe as that of a hornet. In the southwest. and can only strike upward and backward. according as the wind may shift. around camp.

I first witnessed the leaping powers of a tarantula one night when I was alone not in a deserted log cabin in southern Missouri.PESTS OF THE pions. considering the venomous arachnids are extremely abundance of the pests in some and their habit of secreting themselves in and bedding. . attracted there to prey on the bugs. Cases of men being injured by either of these rare. tarantula that spread as broad as my hand jumped out of the straw that I was lying on and it was hard to tell which was quicker. just then. forest. the tarantula would be on the other side. He seemed disturbed about something. It is all very well to be blandly told by gentlemen who think they know all about it that the . been occupied for fifteen and there was no furniture in it. The fangs are in its mouth. as I suppose: one evil as a set-off to another. Well. and a snake crazy. A the lightning being almost a continuous glare. cabin somehow stuck to terra firma. Not being — able to fight the tornado. p . WOODS will set 177 and centipedes. I have had no personal experience Paul Fountain says: ^ with centipedes. clothes absolutely game * to the last. he or the lightning. tarantulas. I took after the big spider with an old stumpy broom that happened to be in the When the broom would land at one side of the room. The centipedes were an intolerable nuisance for they had a nasty habit of hiding among the bed-clothes and under the pillows. The tarantula's habits are similar to the scorpion's. But the centipedes were something more than a mere nuisance. but presently he popped into a hole somewhere. drop a scorpion and a tarantula into the same box. I had scarcely made my bed on the board floor when a tornado struck the It was a grand sight. the electric plant was working finely. and both are countries. If you want to see a battle royal. but scared me stiff. I was afraid he would spring for my face. The bite is very severe. and vanished. The cabin. They will spring for each other in a flash. but not fatal to an adult. The cabin had years. and I returned to my pallet.

but leave a painful swelling for many days after. but it is confoundedly painful.178 CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT and scorpions are not dangerous. which will not only make you dance at the time of infliction. bites of centipedes V . accompanied by great disturbance of the system. Yet that is to be preferred to a centipede bite. It may not be particularly dangerous to have a red-hot wire applied to your flesh.

and his pace is correspondingly long. with rather rigid hips. with less fret and exertion than one who is accustomed to smooth. A woodsman. you ride a goat. joints. and heels striking first. on the contrary. It is an exhausting gait as soon as its normally short pace is lengthened by so much as an inch. and the manner of planting one's feet. The carriage is erect. It is chiefly TT X a difference of hip action. The townsman's stride is an up-and-down knee action. When you have no donkey. walking through a primitive forest.) — Creole Saying. monte jamhe. and worming his way amid fallen timber. walks with a rolling motion. Quand na pas cabri. When you have no goat. his hips swaying an inch or more to the stepping side. *• TN There is somewhat the same difference between a townsman's and a woodsman's gait as there is between a soldier's and a sailor's. you ride a donkey. monte cdbri. looseness of J.! CHAPTER Xin FOREST TRAVEL—KEEPING A COURSE Quand na pas choual. because one's weight falls first upon the heel alone. so long as one is walking over firm. you ride your legs. the toes pointing outward. monte hourique. the movement springy and graceful. an Indian or a white woodsman can wear out a town-bred athlete. and at that instant the walker has little command of his balance. This hip ^ — 179 . edging through thickets. unobstructed paths. level footing but beware the banana-peel and the small boy's sliding-place This is an ill-poised gait. although the latter may be the stronger man. This is because a man who is used to the woods has a knack of walking over uneven and slippery ground. (When you have no horse. Quand na pas hourique.

not so likely." There is another advantage in walking with toes pointing straight ahead instead of outward: one gains ground at each stride. this will stones. . The white man acquires this habit. or even a trifle inward. center of gravity is covered by the whole foot. stretched out rebandaging. but an Indian is molded to it in the cradle. If a stick his movements. but the latter walks with a heel-and-toe step. and the smaller toes. I have often noticed that an Indian's stride gains in this manner. If you examine the way in which a papoose is bound to its cradle-board. the statue would probably stand balanced on one foot. whereas an Indian's or sailor's In the latter case the step is more nearly flat-footed. H. . as well as from his rolling motion on the hips. and not by reason of the impact. as he would be if the feet formed hooks by pointing outward.180 action CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT may be noticed to an exaggerated degree in the a professional pedestrian. enables him to put his moving foot down as gently as you would lay an egg on the table. all work and one is assist in balancing. and other traps. its bowlegged little limbs are laid as straight as possible. This gait gives the limbs great control over He is always poised. Often the squaw removes the bandages and gently drags and works on the baby's limbs and spine to make them as straight as possible. do their share of Walking in this manner. The toes are pointed straight forward. to trip over projecting roots. Then. The necessity is obvious in snowshoeing. Dulog. be made Immediately after birth the infant is on the board. He goes silently on. care is always taken that the toes shall point straight forward. if he ever gets it. stride of so that the inside of the heel. cracks under him it is because of his weight. The poise is as secure as that of a rope-walker. . G. and the feet are placed exactly perpendicular and close together before being swaddled. in clear. either. once remarked: "If the Indian were turned to stone while in the act of stepping. . the outside of the ball of the foot. A fellow sportsman. and with His steady balance great economy of force.

preferably in hot salted water. and. . it pays. . but from loss of sleep He is probwell the first night or two in the open. dust some talc powder inside your stockings. — in before starting. but on the second morning it will seem as if he could not drag one This is the time foot after the other. and that the shoes were well broken limber up. strained. labored or exertion becomes t>. . stride 181 of wearing moccasins also increases the beyond what it would be if one wore When ^ o." Every morning before starting. •. if you want to travel far. do not overHalt whenever your breathing is very ^ . Over-Stram. and from drinkMore serious still. The underwear should also be dusted inside with powdered soapstone. or rub some vaselin. not only from unaccustomed for few men sleep exertion. tallow. and there is quite as much common sense in treating yourself with the same consideration. there are certain rules of pedestrian hygiene that should be observed from the word "go.FOREST TRAVEL The custom normal boots. the downright necessity of seeing that one's shoes and stockings fit well. Then wash your feet every evening. by this time is worn. One who p . when the above remarks do not apply. one uses the gad and goes ahead he will soon But by the morning of the third day it is The novice likely that complications will have set in. think of driving them ahead when they show signs of distress. or soap on the inside of them.1 Rig your pack at the start so that it can for a moment's sit down whenever you be flung off Nobody who understands horses would rest. exert yourself. xi painful. - is unused first pretty well the ^ for if to long marches may get along day. This latter ailment is not so much due to his feet being tender at the start as from Aside from his not having taken proper care of them. at all places . if they feel rub them with whiskey. he ing too much on the march. carrying a pack on your back. probably has sore feet. Over-exertion is particularly disi . or otherwise treated like the stockings. astrous in mountain-climbing. ably constipated from change of diet.

do not merely prick it and squeeze the water out. is not to follow well-beaten ^ One must often make his own and go where the going is hardest. As he travels through the unbroken woods he may come. The way to find game. paths. Socks should be washed every other day. melt the snow first by holding it in the mouth. non. if no fire can be made. ^. This may be relieved somewhat by chewing a green leaf. If a blister has formed on the foot. or to get the best of anything . but a much better thirst-quencher is a bit of raw onion carried in the mouth. but thread a needle with soft cotton or worsted. trails. In warm weather. One can go a long time without drinking if he has an onion with him. but the raw sap of the tree). but by a fever of the palate. This will prevent the skin being rubbed off. and a consequent painful wound. and the view so unobstructed that he can see to shoot for a hundred yards in any direction. Never try to satisfy thirst by swallowing snow or ice. or by carrying a smooth.absorbent pebble in the mouth. -^ . clean rag greased with vaselin. else that the forest hides. Corns may be removed by a plaster of pine turpentine (not spirits. or tallow rubbed up with a little whiskey. snip off the ends about one-fourth inch from the blister. relatively. most of the time. which is not caused by the stomach's demand for water. one's first few days in the open air will bring an inordinate thirst. to a glade where the trees do not crowd each other. and leave the thread there to act Then cover the part with a soft. draw the latter partly through the blister. Drink as often as you please. as are safe anchorages and deep-water harbors along the But. such spots may be about as common. sip it slowly so as not to chill the stomach. a wanderer in the forest coast. now and then. this also prevents one's lips from cracking in alkali dust.182 CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT where the garments are likely to chafe. where the undergrowth is sparse. primeval must pick a way for his feet over uneven . but not very much at a time. If the water is cold. . as a drainage tube.

but Comfortable Down the Snoiv-ichite Alleys .Crude.


like bayo- menacing his eyes. blackberry and raspberry briers. poplars. the sharp. and other debris. was true only to a limited extent. leaving nothing but stumps. the Mississippi. scrub oaks. if he be so unwise as to try to force a passage.FOREST TRAVEL ground that roots. .wood is a nasty place to pass through. used in summer in the nets. working around impenetrable tangles. and is as mean to flounder through. and the Missouri. or a laurel or rhododendron "slick. T^. A hrule or burnt. thorny vines." wherein a man will soon exhaust his strength to no purpose. This . parting bushes. or trying to find a foot-log or a ford. Every foot of ground that is not covered by charred snags. As a general rule.. He is forever busy seeking openings. An have been chopped out. Where the fire has occurred on one of those barren ridges that was covered with dwarfish oaks (post. young red cherries. fire-hardened stubs of limbs protrude. were highways for down-stream travel. Unless the traveler knows his ground there is no telling when he may come to a *' windfall" where several acres of big timber have been overthrown by a hurricane and the great trees lie piled across each other in an awkward snarl. brushing away cobwebs. course.. loose stones. quaking aspens. or gray pines. and still are. Rivers are often spoken of as having been man's natural highways in the days before railroads. 183 is covered with stubs. fending off springy branches. or fallen trunks and limbs. bristles with a new growth of fireweed. or a canebrake or a cypress slough. Or maybe there is an alder thicket or a cedar swamp in the way. A few great rivers such as the Hudson. mixed downwood. There is no such thing as a shortIt is beyond the power of man to steer a straight cut. at the height of one's face. the Ohio. a mile and a half an hour of actual progress is "making good time" in the woods. or to keep up a uniform cadence of his steps. sHppery crooked saplings. white birches. old "lumber works. ." where the trees . black. or blackjack). and smaller waterways were. tree-tops. grows up with the same rank tenants as a burntwood. crawling over or under fallen trees. and tough.

they will have many fords to make. where land travel is imBut the genpracticable until everything freezes up. not only . if they try to follow either bank of the main stream. It is assumed that a party afoot Evior with horses desires to advance from A io G. and CF the main divide or summit of watershed separating it from another river basin.184 CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT muskeg country of the North. eral rule of aboriginal travel was to keep away from streams and follow the ridges between them. represents a river. In this figure. pack-train in a country where there are no bridges. This rule still holds good when a party travels afoot or with Fig. AG dently. A glance at the accompanying diagram will show why. 8.

and be plentiful and large. and every here and there a coign of vantage will be climbed from which a far outlook can be had over the surrounding fallen trees will country. The are chief precaution to follow a divide where there many intersecting trails. if the river runs through a mountainous country. they would soon find themselves in a cul abutting ridge. a wretched tangle of bushes. be observed in trying to no trail. the party will never have an outlook. at the points B and D there gap between knolls or peaks. where diffs. the footing will be much better because vegetation is thinner on the more sterile. and tall grass. may be in each case a de sac. A comparatively easy way around all of these difficulties is shown by the dotted line ABDEG. If the party were enticed along either of these leads. but fording or swimming the main stream itself. The vegetation up to the very bank of the river will be exceedingly rank. it will never know what lies beyond the next bend of the river. there will be no mud or quicksand or miry bogs. the fallen trees will be smaller. and the lead to the left might easily be mistaken for the main divide. bogs. In any case. on account of its trending in the desired direction. vines. or impenetrable thickets make one of the banks impassable. and this will necessitate long detours. or where there is not to stray off on some is Thus. Leaving the river by a ridge that leads to the main divide. . briars. or to run over fathomless mud as dangerous as quicksand. and following the crest to a similar abutting ridge that runs down to the valley at the objective point.FOREST TRAVEL crossing tributaries 185 here and there. the mouths of its tributaries are likely to be deep. and the party may find itself marooned where it can neither go forward nor backward. At any time a heavy rainstorm may send the river out of its banks. it is probable that the travelers will come to a canon that will compel them to retreat. many times. If the region through which the river runs is wide bottom-land. there will be no fords to make. On the other hand. windswept heights.

or icy. in going uphill. but demands an adjustment of balance which implies an unnecessary outlay of muscular effort. 800 ft. or for any reason. do not try to recover your lost ground quickly. to which I have already referred. where the slope is tolerably uniform.500 ft. If you cannot talk without catching your breath. If you have to cross a deep. of vertical ascent in an hour is good work. pecuHarly exhausting in mountain-cHmbing.. or fallen tree. body upon to spring from the toe of the lower foot. in seven hours. 186 CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT The is city man's gait. . To descend rapidly and safely without exertion. so that the whole length of the foot can be planted fairly on any hold that offers.000 ft. or if its sur- wet. Under favorable conditions a good climber can ascend from a height of 7. for a moderate distance. the pace. nor will he be likely to slip if he is always prepared to fall. rocky ravine or dangerous mountain stream by passing over a high foot-log p face if. To remain stationary. If you slip on a loose stone. Thus keep up the rhythm of your footfall. however slow.000 ft. In Dent's Mountaineering are given some useful hints to climbers that I take the liberty of condensing here: In walking up a steep hill. then. but distributing the strain between several groups of muscles.000 ft. A man will never sprain his ankle when he expects to do so at any moment. or treacherous with loose bark. and the climber has no long journey before him. On a steep slope one should descend sideways. in an hour is quick walking. to 14. a certain looseness of joints should be cultivated. at greater altitudes the pace will slacken. not only necessitates a fresh start. should be continuous. an ascent of 1. an hour is quick walking. He is .. go slowly and steadily. On a good trail. don't is . On an average mountain. That throws nearly the whole weight of the the muscles of the calf of the leg. . and swinging or rolling the hip at each stride. In descending a mountain. In beginning a long climb. a mis- accustomed adjustment of strain that would soon wear out even a native mountaineer. The latter walks uphill with a woodsman's gait. but slip away until your foot is checked a few inches below. even for a moment. at if the log is tilted an uncomfortable angle. thus not only gaining an inch or two in his pace. 1. you fear dizziness or faintness. -_ p. it is a sure sign that you are going too fast. planting the whole foot on the ground.

but letting it adhere by the bark so that the settlements. The under side of the leaves. every now and then he should Trail. Marks like these can be made without slacking one's pace. bend a green bush over in the direction he IS going. carrying you on his own back and crawling with you. in turn. and. When a ventures into strange woods far from a tree here and there along his course. under side of the bushy top will "look at him" when he returns. It is not nice to break a limb or a jaw when you are in a country so rough that your comrades may have to pack you out. snapping the stem or clipping it with the hatchet. he should blaze man Fig. Even when a man is bewildered he can remember ''A blaze means a-way from. being of lighter shade than the upper. by each. between the Breaking a blazes.'' . hunching and thighs. if they will. Let your companions laugh. Have it mutually understood that a single blaze on a tree is always to be made on the side away from camp. two blazes mean to-ward. makes such a bush-sign conspicuous in the woods.FOREST TRAVEL yourself along with hands 187 be ashamed to get down and straddle the log. 10. and that if the side toward camp is marked at all it should be with two blazes.

Then they can keep on down-stream as long as they pass fresh blazes.188 CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT Never leave your bed without making sure that you have your pocketbook. with no branches . Trees of all All dense woods look much alike. and your waterproof matchbox filled. in any case. Learn what is the custom in the land where you travel. every night when you wind your watch. forty feet of the ground. a pause. jackknife. ^ within. This is because they cannot live without sunlight for their leaves. and to a greater extent their characteristic habits of branching. its lower limbs * atrophy and drop istic off. To some extent the character- markings of the trunk that distinguish the different species when they grow in the open. In a treeless country piles of rock or freshly upturned earth can be used. or signals that will attract attention from a great distance can be made ^ with smoke. Make a practice of loading the latter. and they can only reach sunlight by growing tall like their neighbors that crowd around them. are neutralized dense forest.m. have some signal agreed upon so that your comrades will understand it. In cold weather do not leave camp without your hunting hatchet. in open country. This gunshot code is reversed in some countries. watch. their trunks being commonly straight and slender. if it needs it.. The distress signal with a gun is a shot. and then two shots in quick succession. have it understood by your companions that you will blaze a tree on the bank about every half mile. say. at which hour the campkeeper (in a fixed camp) should blow his horn. say. but. may be puzzled to distinguish them in aboriginal forin when they grow can readily a man who tell . If you leave a boat for the purpose of hunting along the bank while the boat drifts on her way. Consequently one species from another. 4 p. according to a prearranged code. As the young tree shoots upward. by their bark and branching habits. species grow very tall in a forest that has never been cut over. from one to three smudges being made. It is disregarded until after.

Such self-training.. or retracing one's course. in the long run. . the lichens and mosses that cover the est. must be supplemented by considerable experience in the real wilderness before one can say with confidence." to observe to effect. I do not like those phrases. "extraordinary direct bearing upon the art of following a course. nothing more than that some individuals are quicker than others. give them a sameness of aspect." the J. first from books and secondly from studies of trees themselves in city parks or in country wood-lots. would be more serviceable to the amateur woodsman than to get a good manual of American trees and then go about identifying the species in his neighborhood. reason more surely from cause and keep their lieve that this is far minds more alert. will make him observant of a thousand and one little marks and characteristics that are sign-boards and street-numbers in the wilds. "phenomenal memory of landmarks. I do not know any study that. This sort of knowledge has the wilderness. and the other is a sugar tree. that certain is men are born with a "gift. some men are more adept than others who have had equal advantages. Having gained some facility in this. . amounting to what we call genius. then let him turn to studying peculiarities of individual growth. if by them is meant that sense." of certain woodcraftsmen. by merely glancing at the bark." And yet. We hear much about the bump of locality. which can be carried out almost anywhere. in J. and I bemore due to their taking unusual than to any partiality of interest in their surroundings Mother Nature in distributing her gifts. so that there is some excuse for the novice who says that "all trees look alike " to him." a sixth I do not believe that In the art of wilderness travel. boles of trees." the "preternatural sense of direction. any man is a "born woodsman.FOREST TRAVEL 189 Moreover. in the deep shade of a primitive wood. as in other things. and a few possess almost uncanny powers. The knowledge of trees that can be gained. . To my notion this means denied to others. "that is a soft maple.

He knows what is common. notes how the sun strikes him when facing the mark. This disregard for the common eliminates at once threefourths. until his eye is riveted by a curly birch.. whether he be red. big thickets. it relieves his memory of burden. but let him come across one such tree on top of the ridge. as a woman notices the crumbs on her neighbor's carpet. and other places where the course is necessarily very tortuous. interests etc.190 CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT had some preliminary all After a novice has training of the kind I have indicated. or a hundred of them. so that he need make no effort to remember the thing. Ordinarily a traveler in the in fact forest does not use a compass lint and A . And so on. to ^. A woodsman notices such things as infallibly. seldom used. white. plants. him. In thick woods. perhaps nine-tenths. but invaluable in an emergency. of the trees. His memory will be swamped! It is utterly impossible for any man. and thenceforth . canebrakes. In the bottom lands he will scarcely see a sour gum. he will meet another difficulty. He will pass a hundred birch trees without a second glance. and from his consideration. . and pays no attention to it it. or piebald. through all categories of woodland features. Why riveted ? Because curly birch is valuable. he knows what it is uncommon. compass is like a pistol. black. a compass is of no use while one is on the march. catches his eye at once. swamps. J- I never knew a native of the wilderness who ever used one he relies chiefly on the sun and the general lay of the land to guide him. „ . and he will just that much wonder how it chanced to stray so far from home. and with as little conscious effort. — ^. rocks. say nothing of the infinite diversity that he encounters in a long journey. here is just where a skilled woodcraftsman has an enormous advantage over any and all amateurs. fixes — Wherever the traveler can get an outlook he on some landmark in advance. Now. to store up in his mind all the woodland marks and signs that one can see in a mile's tramp. so that things in the woods no longer look alike to him.

It will P . thing that has particularly caught his eye. Half-way between the hour-hand and 12 o'clock will then be the south point.FOREST TRAVEL 191 averages up his windings as well as he can. and slowly twirl it around.. To find the sun on a cloudy day hold a knife-blade perpendicularly on the thumb-nail. The compass is only of service when he can no longer see the sun. or on a watch-case. rather than under the trees. i-ii J i in very dark. South of the equator this would indicate the north point. When to . and is in doubt as to the direction he is traveling in. 11. unless the day is ^ Guides. ' 1 the woods for this. want In the wilderness one never knows when he may Hence. cast a faint shadow. and don't try it near noon. then. PioleStsr Dipper Fig. Choose an open spot : . when the sun is shining. . when passing anyto retrace his steps. determine the points of the compass from a The watch being set by local (sun) time. turn the face of the watch to the sun in such position that the hour-hand shall point To watch: the sun. when scarcely any shadow would be cast anyway. let him turn and see how it looks from the other side. .

the shadow of the rod will gradually grow shorter until noon. after which'it will grow longer until. the north star. To Find the Meridian by Sun. following Then from the base 5 as a center. bowl point toward a conspicuously bright star almost in line with them. testing with a plummet.) mark accurately the extremity C of the shadow BC thrown by the rod. and plant in it a straight rod AB.192 the use. the sun being at S. and higher. describe with a string a circle on the ground. 12. truly At an hour perpendicular. the When Fig. method will be found more accurate than an ordinary pocket compass: Level a piece of ground a few feet square. As the sun's altitude increases. rough-and-ready methods of determining the meridian are not precise enough for one's purpose. with the radius BC. the CDF shadow will again . CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT sun is near the zenith this method is of little To find the pole star: In the constellation of the Great Bear. or two before noon (say at 10:30 a.m. the seven stars called the "Dipper" never The two stars forming the front of the dipper's set. which is Polaris. when the sun has reached the position S'.

" cut a piece of fat pork about CD 1x1x4 inches. for handle. in north latitude. and from E. A good torch is made by winding cotton yarn or rags around a forked stick. but makes a good enough temporary flare. and soaking in oil or melted tallow. draw the line BE. at D. of course. if necessary. when exploring caves. double or fold them two or three times if the strips are long. E being. . north. and place these bunches in the split end of a stick. Southern Indians. chop off one of the old stubs of limbs.FOREST TRAVEL the arc 193 reach the circumference of the circle. and light the slit ends. A bark torch is made by peeling several strips of birch bark four or five inches wide. When traveling in the dark. cutting deep into the ^ trunk at the joint. slit each end about 1^ inches. This line will approximate closely to the true meridian. If a dead pine tree can be found. Divide into two equal parts. drive a sharpened stick through the center of the strip. in the form of a ball. To make a "pig-afire. Cut a few splinters on this big end. It does not last long. a point equidistant from C to D. and light it. used joints of cane filled with deer's tallow and supplied with wicks. so as to get as much of the heavy resinous bulb as you can. torches may be needed.

especially in lands that are heavily timbered. The most conspicuous and durable waymarks that can easily be made are blazes on the trees. the object usually is to expose a good-sized spot of the whitish sap wood of the tree. until snow falls. being superseded by others. when men have once picked out a course through the woods that they intend to follow again. sometimes suddenly.CHAPTER XIV BLAZES—SURVEY LINES—NATURAL SIGNS OF DIRECTION T^HE * chief difficulty in forest travel. set in the dark framework of the outer bark. at least while fresh. which. white is the most conspicuous color in the woods. Not only do new growths spring up. an upward and a downward clip must be made. Hence. perhaps several of them. in the woods themselves by which a trained woodsman flat can follow a route that he traversed not long before. as by flood or flre. a blaze is made by a single with the trunk. sure to attract attention. 194 downward _ stroke. because. is the lack of natural outlooks from which one could get a view of Although there are plenty of marks distant landmarks. but if the bark is thick. Outside of white birch forests. On a thin-barked tree. but old ones are swept away. This kind of blaze. yet these signs are forever changing. vanishing. is a staring mark in the woods. If a blaze is made merely on the outer bark. they leave permanent marks along the way for future guidance. in any case. it will not show so plainly by contrast. the axe being held almost parallel . It is of no little consequence to a traveler in the wilds that he should know something about blazes and the special uses made of them in the backwoods.

however slight. be made through the bark into the sap wood of the tree. Years after the blaze was made. a sign that takes practised eyes to detect and read. not by stretching it. . Old blazes that are completely grown over can only be proven by chopping into the wood until they are unoriginal marks of the axe are then and the age of a blaze can be determined to within. distance apart. when an inscription has been penciled or painted on a fresh . by the number of rings that have grown over it. the fiber of which is very covered.. at most. may be preferred for some purposes. the wound will be covered by new annual layers of wood. for example. a few years. because the resin deposited by the ooz*• 1. will be covered over. J. and this will gradually spread inward over the gash. nothing will show on the surface but a slight scar. So. and the injury. a healing process will at once set in. This is a slow process. 195 however. where two or more spots have been cut in the same tree. A blaze always remains at its original height above the ground.BLAZES. as well as by new outer bark. no matter how much the tree may grow. as soon as a blaze is made that exposes the wood. and. by a trapper who does not want to call everybody's attention to where his traps are set. preserving its original outlines and distinctness. But if a wound. Once this new skin has formed. in time. SURVEY LINES. ETC. . so long as the bark itself endures. . Similarly. ^ Followmg a . then a sort of lip of smoothe new inner bark will form. so that the sap. except in the case of tupelo and winged elm trees. First the edges of the cut will widen.1 j ing sap leaves a very noticeable and durable mark. An old line of blazes on spruce or pine trees is much easier to follow than if made on non-resinous trees. exudes. irregular. The plainly visible. the tree begins at once to cover up its scar. which is the tree's blood. A barkblaze has the peculiarity that it lasts unaltered. they will always stand at the same This is because a tree increases its height and girth only by building on top of the previous growth.

a long slash is on that side of the tree which faces the new falling. This ought not to be very difficult when one knows what classes of men have preceded him in this Generally speaking. but not to escape ordinary . a line spotted particular forest. there nothing more common in the annals of misadventure than for a novice to stray off on a deer trail. so that a person it. and must be brushed It is diflScult to follow away to is to find the blaze. one should keep his eyes glancing horizontally along a plane about breasthigh. or from a boat during time of overflow. often of much consequence to a traveler remember such facts as these. a line of blazes when snow is because the wind drives the damp flakes against the tree. For example. (2) a lumberman or timber-looker. which. when one for what strikes a strange trail. look for blazes along the path. leads nowhere in particular When undecided. on a cattle trail. in a wide forest that as yet has no farmers' clearings is likely to have been made by either (1) a trapper. In heavily timbered regions. used as a highway by white men is almost sure to have been blazed. although seductively plain at first. such as we are now considering. -r. what its nature is purpose it was made and thus be able to figure out whether it is likely to lead directly to a settlement or camp. where they adhere. or. it is often of moment to determine. because that leave their marks. the sap glazes over the mark and makes it almost imperishable. to another. any trail that is. in southern forests. When made following might otherwise overrun direction. usually leads from one stream or lake _.196 CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT blaze on a pine tree. In searching out a line of blazes. Again. The line probably meanders a good deal. or ever has been. it is Now. is the height at which surveyors and others usually follow the custom. unless the line has been spotted by a man on horseback. and soon dwindles to nothing. — — - . The blazes are likely to be inconspicuous. or (3) a surveyor. a blazed line turns abruptly.

at right angles. (I am assuming primitive operations in a remote wilderness. then.. but this offset is also a straight line. or the ruins of such shacks. and has a township map of the locality he is in. and other reasons that presently will appear. For this. . of course. a surveyor's line can never be mistaken for any other. like other seekers after bonanzas. there are probably rude shanties containing supplies. If one understands the merest rudiments of public surveying. for. is always absolutely straight. the signs of an old "tote road" can be discerned. SURVEY LINES. such as a swamp or a cliff. then. they would merely mark the easiest route for a prospective road from the river to some their — . At J most. . an offset is made to right or left. at intervals of eight or ten miles. leading toward a settlement from which supplies were transported. and dragged to the river or sawmill. and can seldom be of any use to a wayfarer. Where logging operations have already begun. Such a line does not lead to any settlement. trees barked along the way by whiffle-trees. wherever a stump stands it will not be hard to determine the direction in which the logs were twitched to the nearby "lizard road. not disdaining 197* a steep climb for a short-cut. whenever he runs across a section line. if the line is no longer used. The lizard road will show ruts.) The lizard road was blazed when first laid out. Timber-lookers may or may not leave evidence of wanderings more likely not. he . they may have excellent reasons for not doing so. ETC. BLAZES. Logs are never dragged uphill if that can be avoided consequently the trend of the road will be downhill. or on wagons. "bunch" of timber.f^ reaches an impassable obstacle. obstacles. or on a level. > . the latter being continued in the original direction as soon as the obstacle has been passed. to the main one." where they were loaded on lizards (forks of timber used as sleds). When it . Along its coursie. Once the old lumbercamp site is reached. even though it be deserted. and other characteristic marks.

but not to prevent growth.. Bushes on or near the line are bent at right angles therewith.i. all trees that stand directly on the line of survey have two chops or notches cut on each side of them. meridians allows. Starting from an established corner. When the course is obstructed by swamps. or by traverse. etc.040 _ acres). and marking township sections is usually that adopted by the public land surveys. as nearly as convergence of . lakes. there the line of sight to not be enough trees actually intercepting make such a line conspicuous. each one mile square. or coinciding in direction with the line where the Blazes are not omitted where trees stand very near it. the line is prolonged across by taking the necessary right angle offsets. which. a brief description of which follows: can soon just direct route to The public lands of the United States are generally divided into townships of six miles square (23.<: Township and „ * x i. site sides of the line are here and two trees on oppomarked with a blaze and notch facing the post. At the intersection of lines on both margins. until the line is regained on the opposite side. • -. trees two inches or more in diameter are found. as a general rule. and what is the most any other point in the neighborhood. . subdividing. on either side of it. without any other marks whatever. are blazed on two sides diagonally. are numbered as shown in the first diagram here given. 198 CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT tell where he is.. In those parts of the United States that are still wild enough to offer attractions to campers. and are legally subdivided as indicated in the second diagram. and receive a blow with the axe at the usual height of blazes from the ground. sufficient to leave them in a bent position. or quartering toward the line. or other impassable objects. but on the margins of navigable . These are called "sight trees" or Since "line trees" (sometimes "fore and aft trees"). the method of numbering. a post is set may for a witness point. A township is sub^(^ divided into thirty-six sections. . a sufficient number of other trees standing within not more than two rods of the line. as nearly as may be.


(3) Posts and witnesses. the projecting part being squared. thus: T. and section. 2 W. the at least (4) — post side is set is cornerwise to the lines. and a marked stone. range. This projects two feet above the ground. plus the letters Four different modes W. witness pits are dug. For quarter-section boundaries. Township Corner Post. . (4) Meander corners. directed to be meandered. in opposite directions. T. near the ground. When the corner is common to four townships. and with the number of township. where procurable. Witness corners bear the same marks as those of true corners. or a charred stake. with a notch at the lower end. A mound is erected around the corner post. The latter are trees ad- jacent.. S. wherever lines intersect banks of rivers. range. be at least 14 inches long. ("bearing tree"). Blazes may be and omitted from smoothe-barked trees. Posts and mounds. C. in the following order of choice: (1) Corner trees. etc. one foot deep. township. figures are Arabic used exclusively. and section. is deposited a foot below the surface on the side toward which the line runs. Stones 14 to 18 inches long are set two-thirds and larger ones three-fourths of their length in the ground. and range. These must (2) Stone corners. (2) For section boundaries. two feet square.. P ^ (3) . each with a smoothe blaze facing the corner. six miles. or some charcoal. below this. 36. at intervals of every at inter- The (1) following corners are marked: For township boundaries. and on each fiattened marked the number of the township. R.200 CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT marked with the number of rivers or lakes the trees are the fractional section. on a smoothe blaze are marked the letters B. at intervals of one-half mile (with exceptions). vals of every mile. of perpetuating corners are employed. when a tree not less than five inches in diameter stands immediately in place. Where there are no trees. 1 S..

" and nearly every one has heard „. that "moss grows thickest on the north side of a tree. but none on the north and west edges. country. Range 2 West. ample. Section corner stones are merely notched. other systems of marks may be used." or pits. stones are merely notched. four sections. the numbers of sections being marked on the surfaces facing them. The position of all township corner posts is witnessed by four " bearing trees. ^ and "witnessed. but the general On arriving in a new principles are much the same. south. C. or stones. SURVEY LINES. In older sections of the United States." Six notches are cut on each of the four edges. it pays to inquire about the methods of marking survey lines that are there in vogue. and on the northeast face the number of township and range is inscribed. terior of a township have as many notches on the south and east edges as they are miles from the south and east boundaries of the township. All mile-posts on township lines have as many notches on the two corresponding edges as they are miles distant from the Section posts in the inrespective township corners. 201 This example reading "Township 1 South. tion. six notches are cut on each of the east. his bearings ." Red chalk is used to make marks more conspicuous. where the line does not continue straight ahead. This is a question on which there has ?. When the corner is common to Section Corners. but is offset to allow for convergence of meridians. ("closing corner") is cut on the surface.i ^ s been much discussion in the sportsmen of DirecEvery one has heard.BLAZES. common — — Are there any natural signs of direction that give a -T will man . this closing corner being to two townships south of the base line. All section posts are "witnessed" as above. If the post is on a closing corner. and west sides. Bearing trees are marked like the post. These are merely marked Quarter-section Corners. ETC. . the sky • • is obscured ? ^ Natural Signs . and C. Section 36. the post is set cornerwise to the lines. ^. and in Canada. but none on the north. when . » . for express.

to follow such signs. the habits of shade-loving and moisture-loving plants (and their opposites). and so on. but when our novelreader goes into the woods. the lay of the land. another on the east. the tendency of certain plants to point their leaves or their . another on the south. but no one plant of itself will tell him the story. There are certain this as flatly contradicted." I shall endeavor to show that there is more in this matter than is generally credited." The Indians and white frontiersmen of fiction never have any difficulty in finding their way by noting where moss grows thickest on the trees. he will probably be disgusted to find that. But let us clearly understand what is involved in this use of nature's compass-marks. and puts the thing to actual test. some patience. and other local conditions. It It is this averaging that demands genuine skill. takes into account the prevailing winds of the region. can steer his course without a compass. and without help from sun or stars. shadows and shelter of nearby mountains. depth or sparseness of forest growth. if there were none. to signs of direction regions. not woodcraft. A botanist can tell the north side of a steep hill from the south side by examining the plant growth. and a fair knowledge of the life habits of trees and plants.202 CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT The general opinion seems be that such signs are "important if true. No universal rule can be established from such signs as the growth of moss on trees. He is then ready to declare that the old saying is a "fake. Such things are modified by prevailing winds. in densely shaded primeval forest. there seems to be no regularity in the growth of moss. or even a stranger who has good powers of observation. one tree having a thick layer of it on the north side. it would be child's play. Everywhere exceptions will be found. compass in hand. the branches on one side of a tree. or the direction preponderance of toward which the tips of tall conifers point. No one sign is infallible. So a woodsman works out his course by a system of averaging the signs around him. so that that are fairly constant in given by their help a native.

as a general rule. just as he would give no heed to the growth on prostrate logs.BLAZES. would ignore leaning trees. that on those sides the moss would preponderate. Moss favors ^ longest. the growth of bark as influenced by sun and shade. bossy knots. Does it follow. These factors are. He would give special heed to the evidence of trees that were isolated enough to get direct sunlight throughout a good portion of the day. then. independent of the points of the compass. SURVEY LINES. consequently. He would single out for examination the straight shafted old trees of rather smooth bark. not necessarily the part that receives the most moisture. and on their buttressed bases. ETC. while those that were in the shade of cliffs or steep mountains so that they . dependtree upon the general character of the country traversed. as to the time-honored subject of moss confusing real moss with the parasitic lichens that ing : — -^ incrust rocks and trees. and other natural phenomena. on rough bark than on smooth bark. in studying any one sign. knowing that on them there would be fairly even lodgment for moisture all around. uncommonly rough bark. a nice discriminaLet us glance at a few extion must be exercised. and. amples not First. and the bases of tree trunks. and in the forks of trees. forks of limbs. tips persistently in 20i5 a certain direction. seeking a sign of direction from the moss on trees. but the part that retains it Consequently it grows more abundantly on the upper side of a leaning tree than on the under side. of course. that part of a tree that holds the most moisture. Moreover. that exposure has nothing to do with the growth of moss ? Not at all. the morning and evening flight of birds. It merely follows that a competent woodcraftsman. and that the wet would evaporate least from the north and northeast sides of the tree. on top of projecting burls rather than on the lower side. He would expect to find such difference more pronounced on the edge of thick forests than in their densely shaded interior. the nesting habits of certain animals.

a little south of There are exceptions. is that the feathery tip. narrow valleys. — — generally found this to be the case in three-fourths of the trees examined." wrote Leonardo. though one that a traveler seldom has opportunity to test. regardless of surroundings. "show how many years they have lived. the topmost little branch. which is more pronounced on the north than on the south side This has been noted in widely separated of a tree. points toward the rising sun. and how much less he would have to puzzle over contradictory evidence. but those ten would be more trustworthy for his purpose than their ninety neighbors. or on wind-swept I do not know whether it is characteristic of crests. mentioned by Leonardo da Vinci. north and northeast sides than on the other A more reliable indicator of direction. You see how much more swiftly and surely such a man could reach a decision than could one who tried to take into account all kinds and conditions of trees. of course. but I have east. wherever I have had a chance to study it. that universal genius who was scarcely less celebrated as an engineer and * "The rings scientist than as an artist and litterateur. of a towering _. but I commend this peculiar phenomenon of old trees to travelers. A rule that holds good in the main. exists nowhere outside of Leatherstocking Tales. This is woodcraft the genuine article as distinguished from the mysterious and infallible "sixth sense" of direction that. for observation. that is to say. I think. They also . is the thickness of ^ annual rings of wood growth. parts of the earth. leaving out of consideration those growing in deep. of trees. all conifers. and their greater or smaller size shows whether the years were damper or drier. throughout their ranges.pine or hemlock. is The bark generally thicker on the sides. and has been known for many cenMore than four hundred years ago it was turies.204 CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT could only catch the sunbeams in the morning or the afternoon would be ruled out of court. Among a hundred trees he might only examine ten. _ . ..

would get their bearings by feeling the leaves of the compass-plant. and for this reason the center of the tree is nearer the bark on the south than on the north side. ETC. sun towards the west as is characteristic I have often used the compass- plant as a guide. in fact. It is a tall plant with long. if they chanced to get lost on a dark night. it will be found that the great majority of them present their radical leaves north and south. from Minnesota to Texas. thick stems point. and show no such tendency leaves. If plants are examined that grow thus in the open. Some plants show a decided polarity in their habit of growth. noting in each case the compass-point toward which the longest radius of wood growth 471 81 106 pointed. 205 show the direction in which they were turned. 658 27 6 8 42 94% 6% These figures deserve more than a passing glance. The compass-plant phium or rosin-weed {Sil- p laciniatum) that once abounded p^ on the prairies of the Mississippi valley. the old settlers on the prairies. . especially those in the little swales where they are not fully exposed to fierce winds." to the eastward. Its natural habitat is the open. . like the hemlock's "finger. which directed its foresters to examine the regularity of the northward thickening of annual rings in the black spruce of the Adirondacks. shadeless prairie. is a con- spicuous example." In 1893 this matter was put to a definite test by the New York State Forest Commission. Total north and east. of varying exposure. . that to follow the of many plants. The foresters examined 700 trees. The 1 result was: South Southeast North Northeast East West Southwest Northwest Total south and west. The large flower heads on short.BLAZES. because they are larger on the north side than on the south. SURVEY LINES. stiff do not grow horizontally but with their edges perpendicular. and never was led astray by it.

. bucn savages a state ot nature. velop keen perceptive faculties is no more remarkable entirely different motives than that a carpenter should hit a nail instead of the That they should notice and study signs that no modern hunter or scientist would bother his head about is a matter of course. . show a similar polarity. This characteristic is lost if the plants are grown where they receive much shade. 4. . and. that determines their position. it is the sunlight. and on the plain. However. just we have lost their acquaintance with the habits of animals now extinct. but that were well known to p 1. but observation urged by _ Lost Arts. tionably as we have lost many arts of wildcraft that were daily practised by our ancestors of the stone age. It is a superficial judgment to rate as an old-wives' tale every story of exploits in the past that we cannot at present duplicate. Probably no white man of the and it future will ever equal Jim Bridger as a trailer is but natural to suppose that Bridger himself had superiors among the savages from whom he learned his craft. m . would inevitably acquire a woodland lore different from ours. we need not go to novelists to find out how such things were done. Of course. but quite That they should deas thorough in its own way. received on the two sides of the leaves alternately. . Unques- thumb that steadies it. . some profit as well. I am of the opinion that there are natural compasssigns in the forest. I believe. .206 CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT The closely related prairie dock (Silphium terebinthinaceum) and that troublesome weed known as prickly lettuce {Laduca scariola). and directed toward different ends. There is much pleasure to be gained in seeking to recover some of the lost arts of a primitive age. c men. from those of our naturalists. . terrestrial magnetism has nothing to do with the polarity of plants. dependent from childhood upon close observation of their environment. that we are ignorant of.

Instantly the unfortunate man is overwhelmed by a sense of utter isolation. there comes to him the thudding consciousness that he cannot tell. hopelessly. he will be anxious at once. Nervously he consults his compass. but in a better sense he is at home all the time. he may be lost all the time. he —that But exploring moment new does he territory is all. and loses the trail. east. aspra e forte! "l^THEN ^ ^ a man fixes up his pack and strikes out alone into strange woods. south. as though leagues and leagues of savage forest surrounded him on all sides. not caring where he may come out. on his nerves. if one sets out for a certain destination. until he drops from exhaustion and starvation. in one sense. This is an unpleasant plight to be in. Still we would hardly him is so long as he retains a good idea of the general direction in which he should travel. when. but no sign of footprint can he detect. and the longer this continues. Not is for a worry about the future. the more call it will get lost. He starts to retrace his steps. or west. only to realize that it is of no more service to him now than a brass button. just for a little adventure. suddenly (it is always suddenly). He is seized with a panic of fear. to save his life. whether he should go north. at any time.CHAPTER XV GETTING LOST—BIVOUACS Quesla selva selvaggia. expect- ing to reach it by a given time. the first time that it is experienced the outlook will seem actually desperate. as irrational but quite as urgent as that which swoops upon a belated urchin while he is passing a country A man really lost 207 . through which he must wander aimlessly.

Then I got to drawing diagrams on the ground. which. I . From my own experience I know that this is a mistake. and will remember nothing that has been told him. But I did remember what old Barnes had told me: "If you get lost. and rain. and for half an hour to think it over. except cold. or even a few matches and a jackknife. pitiless niggard though it be to the weak-minded or disabled. The danger is not from the wilderness. Making no headway at this. robbed the woods of their spooks. a man is really in serious peril.208 CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT It will take a mighty effort of and check a headlong stampede. it is the victim's own fault. Then the actual situation flashed upon me. and I felt the same impulse to rush madly toward it that one feels to dash for the door when there is a cry of "fire!" in a theater. and hunger. thousands of wayfarers have been lost for much longer periods than that without losing their selfcommand. We hear it said that no one ever was lost for more than twenty-four hours without suffering a derangement of mind. sit down! sit down and give yourself I sat down. There is no valid excuse for an able-bodied man losing heart from being lost. to rein himself in In such predicament as this. But it is literally true that a lost man who permits panic to conquer him is likely either to perish If that or to come out of the woods a gibbering idiot. Something seemed to tell me that camp lay in a certain direction. and presently I was myself again. — saw just how I had got into this scrape. I have heard old woodsmen say that there is no use in offering advice to novices about what they should do if they get lost. and knew that . does happen. I began considering how to pass the night if I remained just where I was. This cleared my mind. I was rattled and shook all over." five minutes could not think of anything. anyway. can yet be forced to yield food and shelter to him who is ablebodied and who keeps his wits about him. because a lost man is an insane man. No: the man's danger is from himself. so long as he has a gun and ammunition. will graveyard at night. The first time that I was lost. This is not true.

maybe so. flooding sixty miles inland. white or red.— GETTING LOST—BIVOUACS if 209 I made a trail. If an Indian is seldom at fault as to his course it is because he pays close attention to business. circuit of the Before this 200 yards radius I would strike it had seemed at least two miles it. The latter experiences were hair-raising. And yet. ^^*^® ^^ ^°^' ^^^^ above the clouds (in Tfi "R' kthe sense that I did not know on which side to descend from an aiguille or bare pinnacle of of flight. I have been with a first-class woodsman when he got mixed up on his own home hunting-ground an overflow from the Mississippi. or for several nights. but the fact that I am still on deck may be some excuse for offering a little counsel as to what to do if you should get lost. subsiding. he may as well take it for granted that. it had even altered the drainrock). even Indians and white frontiersmen sometimes get lost. he will get lost and have to stay out over night. although I have scorched the back of more than one coat from lying too near a bivouac fire. in the first place. sooner or later." Men who are interested in the guiding business may say otherwise. I demon — — and three times in caverns. I have been lost several times since then twice in canebrakes. There is no man. and changed the appearance of the country. Had I listened to would have plunged into one of the worst canebrakes in all Arkansas. the Well. had swept away old landmarks. I found all right. twice in flat woods. alone. for one who pretends to tell others how to keep from getting lost! Well. away. but the others were only incidents to chuckle over in retrospect. . you will say. nor is his mind ever so concentrated on an object of pursuit that he fails to notice irregular or uncommon things along the way. I do not think that one can get the best of wild life if he does not often "go it alone. A bad record. If one does go it alone. twice in the laurel. replaced them with new ones. and might have struggled there till I died all within a mile and a half of my own camp. who is not liable to lose his bearings in strange woods if he is the least bit careless. then. he does not lose himself in reverie.

strikes the river at Z. if he does not get lost. I shall never again It is a matter of taste. in Fig. 14 a man leaves camp morning. a man may return within 200 yards of his own camp and pass by it. bearings are such as have traveled little in "strange londes. divide. If he follows its . . There is little excuse for getting lost. You may — — Those who scout the idea of their ever losing else. have the willyjigs as I had 'em that first time. let ABC be a main into each other. . 13. Anyway. He consults his compass at intervals during the day. A stranger who had spent the day on the upper mountains might return toward evening to B. it will be because he thinks more about avoiding it than he does about anything age of the land. and. in fair weather. then than be forever hanging on to a guide's coat-tail. and where the vegetation. or from Florida it matters not where place him in a country where outlooks are few. In flat woods. In Fig. tries to allow for his windings. marks rare. going ahead with hurrying pace as he becomes more and in the more anxious." or have never ventured far without a native Personally. going in the direction indicated by the dotted line. ^ TTT J * ^ . might turn down at e. I would rather get lost now and guide. unless one ^ gets on the wrong side of a divide that JVioiinL9. by mistake. and the general features of the country. returning in the evening. when I was actually within forty rods of a plain trail. Flat Woods. thinking to follow the creek from / to X. and travel a considerable distance before he realized that he was going in the wrong direction. and let be the location of the camp. in a mountainous or undulating country where there are plenty of watercourses. BD a spur to the southward separating two streams that eventually flow in opposite directions. X -^ ' X . the rocks and soil. where the watercourses are few and very meandering. are strange to him. and land1^.iris separates two streams which do not run Thus.^. and. let us say. the vegetation rank and monotonously uniform in appearance. get In fog or snowstorm anybody can take a professional guide from New Brunswick.210 CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT lost. and.

14 we will assume that the current runs from A toward Z. and. Not long afterward he reaches the river again at Z. ing that the boat got ahead of him while he was making his detour. meanwhile. apparently. he hurries on down stream. .GETTING LOST—BIVOUACS bank in either direction. going ashore to hunt along the bank. : Another easy way to get bewildered is as follows In Fig. has been rounding a great ox-bow curve. that a party unfamiliar with the river is descending it in a boat. The boat. and the homeward-bound hunter should reach the stream at V l- ^^X B. At he comes to the mouth of a deep X creek. If the camp were A. he would be dumfounded to find himself. or tion. thinkFig. after hallooing and firing a shot or two. but getting no answer. on the wrong bank of the river. and that one of the men leaves the boat at A. 211 he is Hkely to spend the night at alone in the woods. or some other obstruc- he starts game that leads him back into the woods. 14. and may be a couple of miles behind the man ashore.

but it is not so bad as those great tracts of rhododendron which. "Huggins's hell." . His account of it gave it the name that I could give many it bears to-day. so that it is quite impossible to make a way through it without cutting." The rhododendron is worse than laurel. They were two days in just east of Thunderhead. has ever been. because it is more stunted and grows much more densely. "we swum. Two powerful mountaineers starting from the Tennessee side to cross the Smokies were misdirected and proceeded up the slope of the Devil's Court House.212 CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT In each of these examples the country is assumed be fairly easy to traverse." he replied. notwithstanding that they could see out all the time and pursued the shortest possible course. slick not very far away. This is no exaggeration. "We couldn't crawl. I asked one of them how they managed to crawl through the thicket. making the ascent. was lost for three days. a matter of three or four miles. . A bush bent over. He struggled until almost completely exhausted. In another top." to . and the wood is very tough. here and there. foot by foot." "yaller patches. At no time had he been half a mile from the cabin. The natives call such wastes "laurel slicks. in the region between Clingman Dome and the Balsam Mountains (Tennessee and North Carolina) cover mile after mile of steep mountainside where no white man. "lettuce beds. One of my companions was once lost from early morning until after nightfall in a thirty-acre patch of blue cane. and in each case the misadventure might have been avoided by a little forethought. there are places where a good man can get badly muddled in a forty-acre tract." and "hells. a blaze on a tree where the underbrush was dense." "woolly heads. at least. an old hunter and trapper who was born and bred in these mountains." meaning that they sprawled and floundered over the These men were not lost at all. although the slick was not more than a mile square. would have saved all that. Without such precautions. A canebrake is bad enough. and when we found him he looked like a scarecrow.

where you were sure . for you do know that this spot is only so many hours from camp by back trail. Do this even though there be several hours of daylight ahead. . and browse. Tk ® it was since you were What X to Do. Think how long nri.GETTING LOST—BIVOUACS such instances. and mark on it the estimated location of such watercourses and other landmarks as you have passed. Having recovered your mental balance. i. and that you must not do. do not look close to your feet. One does not go far before he realizes that he is off his course. but rather an interesting adventure. The first thing that one should do when he realizes that he has lost his bearings is to stop and sit down.^ ambitious in such matters. above ground. natural shelter. If you start out to recover a trail. is one the Everglades. and the hospitahties that it night-bound traveler. make bush-marks as you go along. 1 acter of its vegetation. Then blaze a tree on four sides make big blazes that can be seen from any direction. if you should not turn up before morning. Suppose you have traveled half an hour after leaving a known landmark. it is no killing matter. the direction of its drainage. In searching for a trail. then take note of the lay of the land around you. in the way of drinkingwater. What is half an hour in the woods You are not more than three-quarters of a mile from that place. but these there If is still 213 will suffice to show that virgin ground in some of our oldest states. he might tackle Swamps are the worst places of all. for it will otherwise be the easiest thing in the worid to lose that blazed tree.. and although you have no present intention of staying here. the char. sound downwood. alone in the woods. and that you may have good reason to return to it. This blazed tree will be of great assistance to your camp-mates in searching for you. but fifteen or twenty feet ahead of offers to a — . 4. So keep your shirt on. Probably not a long time. oi your location. Don't take one more step until you have recovered your wits so that you can trace on the ground with a stick your probable course since leaving camp. Then make up your mind that if you must stay out all night.

as well as when approaching at right angles. Now try to get an outlook over the surrounding country. In flat woods this will be difficult. -^ Select one that has a slender tree growing beside it from which to clamber into the limbs of the larger one. and holding But we . average up your windings. so as not to slip through). some inches above the ground. wet the band. Now. stand in the stirrups. and steer for your destination. raising your legs. If the creeks are very meandering. the ends. If you P can risk climbing a tall tree. allow for the westward motion of the sun. little. mapping them on a bit of paper. Do not venture aside into one of those . then. pass every ten minutes. note how the sun strikes it. as you travel. or if their banks are very brushy. take the compass direction. and so go clambering up. from side to side. suppose that you find no trail. The courses of small streams show where the main valley lies. putting it around the tree. press the band against the tree. also. for a lost man's memory is treacherous. Decide where to go. look for a divide. for a faint trail is more readily seen at that angle than by looking straight down upon it. bearing in mind what a trail ought to look like when you walk parallel with it. for it may be important thereafter to return to the place where you Consult your comfirst realized that you were lost. or oftener if the timber and underbrush are thick. . make bush-marks and blazes along your course. spread the legs a get your withe in position with a good grip as high up as you can reach. A tree trunk of large girth can be climbed by twisting a withe of hickory or other tough wood. Having gained your outlook. and descend. will . Cast your eyes. The descent is in reverse order. fix the feet in the stir- rups. do so. note the compass direction of watercourses and other landmarks. Do not neglect this.214 CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT you. If necessary (and you have a hatchet) chop partly through one side of the slender tree and lodge it against the other. It will assist the feet if you make from some part of your clothing a strong band with a loop in each end for a stirrup (the feet should fit tightly.

on top of which lay other poles to hold the roof in place. slanting sharply behind the hot. he does not nor is it is possible to keep a course by compass when the fog is thick or a blizzard In such case. pignut hickory. basswood. make a bed of browse or boughs in front of the windbreak. bivouac where you are. a large rock. Look first for a wind-break it may be a cliff. balsam fir. balsam. and If it piling against by driving them several stakes into saplings or downwood five or six threatens to rain. arborvitse. . and No know ^ signs nor in compass can aid a man what " direction his destination lies. lay inches thick and seven some poles over upward and projecting over your bed. or when an all-night rain is coming. ash. but when the temperature is below freezing. Have ready some evergreen boughs you as a screen if to plant in front of the fire gets too Now get in plenty of long poles for night-wood. or the ground sticks of feet long. The best kinds of bark for such purpose are paper birch." tree. hemlock. and lie parallel with the fire. this backing. or other easily Build your fire split wood. This is no hardship in warm weather. a fallen tree. for the higher it is (within reason) the more good it will do you. or with browse. Build this fire above the level that you sleep on. chestnut. chestnut. basswood. If one has an axe he can soon rive enough boards or slabs from cedar. if you cannot find one ready-made. white ash. runs disappears into a knot-hole. cotton wood. woodland trails that.GETTING LOST—BIVOUACS attractive 215 says. fire. it may put one to his trumps. there. slippery elm. or at least lay some poles or a coupfe of logs A very small fire. — wall of rocks. and shingle them with sheets of bark. and wait for clearing weather. I have never seen a rainproof roof of browse. and the Stake a couple of backlogs less smoke you will get. as Nessmuk up a if "peters out into a squirrel track. white elm. spruce. spruce. to make a good shelter. on the leeward side of this wind-break and within about four feet of it (if the weather be cold). construct one by piling up a two-foot raging.

build the fire. Dig out a triangular space of about seven feet base and eight feet long. At the smaller end. In very cold weather. using the toe of a snowshoe. and lie on them over the hot ground. the inside of a dead tree is very inflammable. snake nor skunk had preempted the den. but I think they must be drunk. close to it. A standing hollow tree is all right. After it has burned down. The smoke will then have a tendency to blow away in columns parallel with your body. But don't light a fire in such a place. spread boughs where the first fire was. build a fire first against the wind-break. This can be done several times alternately through the night. On a prairie where there is no wind-break. hence do not struggle on until dark in the hope of finding camp. and get between them. I have spread my blanket inside a hollow cypress where three men could have stretched out at ease. will keep a man warm in bitterly cold weather if he lies lengthwise with it. provided there is no prospect of a high wind. or a riven board. The Indians of dime novels often sleep in hollow logs. for a shovel. lay excellent wind-break all around. '" . If the snow is deep. which should be downhill. rebuild the fire in front. it would surely be alive with insects. you must shovel down to the ground.216 if it is CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT kept up. Make a bed at the upper end. A hollow log is about the last place I would think Even though no of crawling into to spend the night. There is no danger whatever of freezing. and the draught through it would be most unwholesome. and has browse underneath and a log behind him. Such preparations take an hour of smart work. rake the embers forward. poles over the wide end and cover with browse. The walls of snow make an If it be snowing. build two fires at right angles to the wind.

When a man is faint from hunger his stomach must not be forced to any uncommon stunts. and every part of every article. has weight. I have tried several kinds of army emergency rations. and that weight. The best of them. go to explore an untracked wilderness. in tortured imagination. there can be no such thing as a trifle in their outfit. it must neither nauseate nor clog the system. And so I hold that a half ration of palatable food that 217 is readily assimi- . and such small deer. When used continuously they make one's stomach rebel. small though it be. Every article in it. The stuff must be digestible. as an article of steady diet it is not as palatable nor as wholesome as an equal weight of bacon and hardtack. One cannot live on Swiss cheese or the yolks of hard-boiled eggs.CHAPTER XVI EMERGENCY FOODS— LIVING OFF THE COUNTRY But mice and rats. save as an accessory. against its weight in meal. but have not found any that is suitable for explorers' use. Have been Tom's food for seven long year. however nutritious they A/I7HEN men ^ ^ may be in theory. The very buckle on one's belt may some day be balanced. is the pea-meal sausage that is known by its German name of Erhsivurst. with no equipment but what they must carry on their own backs a good part of the time. but. I think. although it makes a good soup or porridge for an occasional quick meal. The problem of an emergency ration is not merely one of condensing the utmost nutriment into the least bulk and weight. should be sternly challenged as to whether it is indispensable. whether something more essential might not be substituted for it.

It is my opinion that the best efforts of army commissary and medical departments in this respect fall far below the emergency foods that have been used by the Indians of North and South America for many thousands of years. The Indian knew the edible plants of the forest. have also been the mainstays of all our white frontiersmen and explorers who became adept in wildcraft. jerked meat. not for a few days only. The consequence was that many The survivors learned to starved in a land of plenty. and how to extract good food from roots that were rank or poisonous in their natural state. . but he could not depend wholly upon such fortuitous findings. or where it was unsafe to hunt. This was not unless from other motives than hunger. without buying or begging from anybody. nor how to utilize them. in the forms of parched meal. quota of stuff that Military precedent in such matters is not a safe guide for explorers. Canned meat. who. and pemmican. and without robbing. but for weeks and months at a time. for example. ing. These latter preparations. His mainstay on long journeys was a small bag of parched and pulverized maize. and is likely to sicken the man who persists in using it For those who go far from civilization.218 CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT more good than a full lated does taxes a man's gastric strength. were past masters of the art of going "light but right. but they did not know the resources of American forests. is unfit for the human stomach. Some of them had been old campaigners in civilized lands. There were merely due to the abundance of game large tracts of the wilderness where game was scarce. The first European settlers in this country were ignorant of the ways of the wilderness. who may be cut off from their base of supplies. pocket their pride and learn from the natives. the only emergency food worthy the name is such as is nutritious and wholesome to a man who has been weakened by much toil and fasting. and such as can be eaten with relish at the hundredth consecutive servas a steady diet. however contemptible they might seem in other respects.'* An almost naked savage could start out alone and cross from the Atlantic to the Mississippi.

Ibd«iu^ The Old.- But a Good Daif's Luck Lands Them . Old Storij.


/I T cake. wrote the first Rockahominy is nothing but Indian corn parched without burning. a Man needs not encumber himself with more than 8 or 10 Pounds of Provisions. however." Roger did not affirm. out of which they take three spoonsful a day. In Virginia this preparation was known by another Indian name. relied upon this . and this being very dry. said that a spoonful of nocake mixed with water made him "many a good meal." a corruption of the Indian word William Wood. These and his Gun will support him very well during the time. In New England it went by the name of "no_ 1. but a quite different thing). the founder of Rhode Island. Thus haK a Dozen Pounds of this Sprightful Bread will sustain a Man for as many Months. in 1634. By what I have said. sufficed 219 a spoonful of which. it is afterwards beaten to powder and put into a long leatherne bag trussed at the Indian's backe like a knapsacke.EMERGENCY FOODS at a draught. the ashes being sifted from it. as I said before. leaving the Strength of it behind. becomes much lighter for carriage and less liable to be Spoilt by the Moist Air. a synonym for plain hominy. All of our early chroniclers praised this parched meal as the most nourishing food known. tho' he continue half a year in the Woods." Roger Williams. The as best of our border hunters and warriors. and swallowed him for a meal when nature's storehouse failed. That most entertaining of our early woodcraftsmen. such Boone and Kenton and Crockett. The Fire drives out all the Watery Parts of the Corn. nor did he mention the size of his spoon. may be Safely eaten without any Bread at all. that it made him a square meal. "rockahominy " (which is not. speaks of it as follows: nookik. without the least danger of keeping one Single Fast. as our dictionaries assume. topographical account of the Massachusetts colony. Colonel Byrd of Westover. which. provided he husband it well. stirred in water. and always spare it when he meets with Venison. who ran the dividing line between Virginia and North Carolina in 1728-29. who. and reduced to Powder. says of nocake that "It is Indian corn parched in the hot ashes.

It is the only form in which you can carry an ecjual weight and bulk of nutriment on which alone one can. or when undertaking forced marches more formidable than any that regular troops could have withstood. S. one of in the Great Smoky Mountains expressed his surprise that any one should be ignorant of so plain a necessity of the hunter's life. live continuously for weeks." By the Delawares it was called citamon. instead of distending the meal so much with water and heat. as generally called. "our contemporary ancestors. Quite recently. T. though at the table the dewrinkling of your abdomen may have reached the hurting point. might do worse than read the simple annals of that trip by Lewis and Clark. In some parts of the South and West the pulverized parched corn was called "coal flour" or "cold flour. and start out for a hard tramp. from which.American countries. The Indians of Louisiana gave it the name of gofio. the food of the desert. published a very practical article on emergency rations in a weekly paper. author of The Still Hunter and other well-known works on field sports. I take the liberty of making the following quotation del desierto. But if. you will feel hungry in an hour or two. and who think it needful to command a small army of porters and gun-bearers when they go into savage lands. principle of pinole is very simple. Van Dyke. pee-no-lay. you had simply mixed it in cold water and it is . or pinole. So did Lewis and Clark on their ever-memorable expedition across the unknown West. if they care to learn what real pioneering was. my camp-mates mountain climbing. if necessary. In Mexico it is known as pinole (Spanish pronunciation. and even months." Southern Appalachians. Modern explorers who do their outfitting in London or New York. . the standby of native and is used by those hardy hunters. It is still English. He claims that no other food is "so good for a man's wind" in in the travelers in Spanish. La comida . pie-no-lee). If you should eat a breakfast of corn-meal mush alone. knocks the hind sights off all American condensed food. Some years ago Mr. .: 220 CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT Indian dietary when starting on their long hunts. as it is now buried where few can consult it. The without any disorder of stomach or bowels.

but the small Enterprise spice mill will do it. bug and fly proof. Wheat and corn are hard to grind. as flour would be. The Mexican rover of the desert will tie a small sack of pinole behind his saddle and start for a trip of several days. If he has jerky. but if he has not he will go through the longest trip and come out strong and well on pinole alone. A few raisins. . and grinding just fine enough to mix so as to be drinkable. but four seem about enough at a time for an ordinary man). ble? Your granny's nightcap! You must remember that it is "werry fillin' for the price. p. Ten per cent. makes it very fine. but not pasty. Four heaping tablespoonfuls (4 ounces) stirred in a pint of water is enough to fill the stomach. a little on the principle of dried apples. . I pulverize the corn in a hominy-mortar.— EMERGENCY FOODS drunk it. drinks it in five seconds. with popped corn. though it is quite an improvement. instead of raw corn-meal. and perhaps better. Common rolled oats browned while the mixture is very good. The hole in the mortar is of smaller diameter at the bottom than at the top. he chews that as he jogs along. Vol. and a wooden pestle. and thus it is evenly pulverized. It works especially if you have a heavy rifle on your back. and is fed for five or six hours. . and not too suddenly. Suppose. I often carry a small bag of this parched meal when mountaineering. This is easily done by parching to a very light brown before grinding. of popped com ground in with it will improve the flavor so much that your children will get away with it all if you don't hide it. we make it not only drinkable but positively good. Indigestiwhich. A coffee mill may do if it will set fine enough. with a hole burnt and gouged in the top. Wherever he finds water he stirs a few ounces in a cup (I never weighed it. 221 you could have taken down three times the quantity You would not feel the difference in one-tenth of the time. It is the lightest of food. There is no danger of explosion. now. . . XX. . Now for the application. . which is only a three-foot cut off of a two-foot log. . it swells demand. Not having any spice mill. You may also mix some ground chocolate with it for flavor. at your waistband. or a chunk of sweet chocolate or maple sugar. Generally I prefer to use . to suit the ." and go slow with it until you have found your coefiicient. 248. make the meal quite satisfactory. in a pan in the oven and run through a spice mill is as good and easy to make it out of as anything. and in the most portable shape. Shooting and Fishing. but you would feel it mightily in your legs. and everything. sandproof. so that each blow of the pestle throws most of the corn upward. Good wheat is as good as corn.

place the flakes of meat on the inside of the hide. select only the tender parts of the meat. of course. The proportions of water in some other common foods are bacon 17 per cent. Do not let the fire get hot enough to cook the meat. meaning flesh cut in flakes and dried without salt. because it imparts a pleasant flavor. and under them build a small fire to dry and smoke the meat.. but only to partially cook it. Lay the strips of meat across the poles." It is an anglicized form of the -. These condiments are not necesCover the sary. espeto fork. Lay two poles across from fork and across these lay thin poles about two inches apart. otherwise use all of the lean. The best fuel is birch. and mix with them about a pint and a half of salt for a whole deer. wheat bread 35. . and let it stand thus for about two hours to let the salt work in. Cut it in strips about half an inch thick. cially black birch. must be exhausted. fat salt pork 8. proceed as follows If you can afford to be particular. dried beans 12^. and take it oftener during the day. In ordinary dried beef this is only partially done. because the pieces are too thick. Then drive four forked stakes in the ground so as to form a square of eight or ten feet.: 222 CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT ^ only half the above quantity at a time. the forks being about four feet from the ground. the water. corn-meal 12^. water. If you have If time. so that the flesh becomes dry as a chip. It is the same as the African biltong. not. "Jerky" or jerked meat has nothing to do with our common word "jerk. . meat with the hide. but are added merely for seasoning. To jerk venison or any other kind of lean meat. Spanish charqui. parallel. also some pepper. fresh . to keep flies out. which is itself derived . potatoes 63. Those who have not investigated the matter may be surprised to learn that the round of beef is 61 per cent. wheat flour 12. and that even the common dried and smoked meat of the butcher shops contains 54 per cent. you may soak them a day in strong brine. water. To condense the nutritive properties of these substances. from the Quichua (Peruvian) ccharqui. or two or three quarts for an elk or moose.

t the pemmican thus prepared would keep sweet for years in the cool climate of the North. and it may be dried in the sun. would make a meal for two men. with one pound of flour added. or by a flail on a sort of hide threshing-floor with the edges pegged up. meat does not putrefy. The lean meat was then cut into thin strips. as well as that of deer.EMERGENCY FOODS This half. and a man can live on it exclusively without suffering an inordinate craving for bread. it will retain When pounded pretty fine. be as but. is pemmican. as for jerky. The staple of hunters commissary supply of arctic travelers. without fire. This was for men performing the hardest . or. This is at least when . in the following manner: First a sufficient number of bags. p not so palatable as jerky. in any case. the usual allowance of pemmican was 1| to 1^ pounds a day per man. A piece as large as one's fist. about 2x1 § feet. When there was flour in the outfit. when soaked and cooked. The fat and marrow were then melted and mixed with the powdered lean meat to a paste. were made from the hides of old bulls that were unfit for robes. Elk flesh dried in the sun does not keep hours. of course. of You may The meat reduce the weight of the meat about oneit so that it will keep indefinitely. on account of the fat mixed with it. but it is good enough as it is. until it was hard and brittle. In the dry air of the plains. The old-time Hudson Bay pemmican was made from buffalo meat. and dried in the sun for two or three days. or over a fire. the bags were filled with the lean and then the fat was run in on top. even when unsalted. carelessly prepared. jerky makes excellent soup. and the bags were sewed up tight. It was then pounded to a powder between two stones. will 223 and will cure an old bull will. its flavor and sustenance. After this the mass was well rammed down. No salt was used. but it contains more nutriment. and is better suited for cold climates. have to keep up the fire for twenty-four tough as sole leather. in a given bulk. and and traders in the far Northwest.

and let it simmer gently until it comes to a thick jelly. and 23 pounds of dried meat. sometimes boiled with flour into a thick soup or porridge called rohihoo. place it over a moderate fire. a total of 117 pounds. when cold. and for arctic expeditions then packed so as to exclude moisture. place the vessel over boiling it water. equivalent to six pounds of fresh beef. to subsist If a man tried he would starve to death. But there is a way of concentrating much of the nourishment of beef or veal in the form m""^^*^ ^^ of little cubes of a gluey consistency from which a strengthening soup can quickly be prepared. mican costs it is known as rascho. wide stew-pan. Pemmican is sometimes eaten raw. When it gets so thick that there may be danger of scorching it. it Cut this substance have the consistency of glue. It is compressed into cakes. 47 pounds of second-class pemmican. It is superior to the concentrated soups sold Take a leg of young beef. then ground fine and mixed with beef suet. and a few currants. veal. CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT and whose appetites were enormous. beef. until the meat is reduced to rags. "Officers' Service berries were sometimes added. mixed with flour and water and fried like sausage. Pemmican nowadays is made from Cameron gives the following details: A Bleasdell beef dressing 698 pounds yields 47 pounds of first-class pemmican. the grease that arises. Pare off every Boil bit of fat and place the lean meat in a large pot. or. weight to one-sixth that of the fresh beef. from time Then pour this strong to time. venison (old meat will not jelly easily). was made from buffalo humps pemmican" and marrow. Such pem- the Canadian government about forty cents a pound. skimming off. broth into a large. The pemmican made nowadays is prepared from the round of beef cut into strips and kiln-dried untilfriable. into small cubes and lay them singly where they can . and will stir it very frequently until. or in our markets. on it • steadily and gently for seven or eight hours. including tongues.224 labor. a little sugar. Ordinary beef extract is not a food. The total nutritive strength is thus reduced in dried.

can keep in good health and perform the hardest kind of work on a diet of either meat alone or cereals alone. if by the time my meal was half gone I had not found game or fish. and a hot one for the latter. Personally." This will at first cause some bowel troubles. at first. When a man deliberately stakes his life upon the chance of finding food in an unknown land. The above can be made in camp. to as«jur . thereby hoarding his packed rations. some tea.EMERGENCY FOODS become thoroughly jelly into 225 dry. but this soon wears off when one's system is in a healthy condition. when opportunity offers. A small piece allowed to melt in one's mouth is strengthening on the march. run the sausage skins and tie up the ends. as every one knows who has partaken freely of venison as soon as he got to the woods. This is a very old recipe. and these are not always at hand when most wanted. no less than savages. being mentioned in Byrd's History of the Dividing Line. rather than fall back upon unaccustomed food as a last extremity when his stomach has been seriously weakened by starvation. He should especially get used to living on "meat straight. if you prefer. and recommended along with rockahominy. A cube or thick slice of this glaze. as it takes at least half a day to make good soup from the raw materials. he should other than begin early in the game to habituate his digestive organs to whatever nutriment the country may afford. It has been demonstrated times without number that civilized men. Or. dissolved in hot water. Straight " . thus laying in enough concentrated soup stock to last a month. I would cut out utensils save an uninhabited a small aluminum and a tin cup. it would be time to retreat. It is a curious fact that a man who has been eating nothing but game and fish for several months is unable. and would carry no provisions some rockahominy in a waterproof silk bag. which is quite convenient. for. makes an excellent soup. a cold climate being more favorable for the former. pail if I were going afoot into all land. I would carry no meat at all. and a little hoard of salt.

Now. wildcats. especially when young. eating birds can be made palatable. bear and 'possum. Properly dressed. and that of the skunk is equal to roast pig. more sparingly than his appetite will be troubled with indigestion for a week or more. venison. of "game. The lynxes. The flesh of the porcupine is good. It goes without saying that men traveling through a barren region cannot be fastidious in their definition „„ . but how many would think to remove the scent-glands before roasting a 'coon. it must be confessed that dog meat takes a high rank in the wonderful variety of cuisine afforded to the gourmand and the gourmet by the prolific mountains. woodchucks. Doctor Hart Merriam declares that panther flesh is better than any other kind of meat. but the boiled liver and tail are famous tid-bits wherever the beaver is found. . excellent. and he will suffer from constipation. also as to some that are not to be recommended. parboiled in two or three waters. Probably most sportsmen know that 'coon is not bad eating. and. if it is properly prepared. A man would have to be hard pressed to tackle any of the other fur-bearers as food. and fishi. who lived in the Far West in the time of Bridger and the Sublettes and Fitzpatrick. Beaver meat is very rich and cloying. says: "Throwing aside all the qualms and conscientious scruples of a fastidious stomach. he when he returns to it." All's meat that comes to a hungry man's pot. and in old animals is rank. mountain mutton. excepting.^ These glands should be sought for and extracted from all animals that have them. when the bill of fare offers such tempting viands as buffalo beef. before the meat is put in the pot. A few words here Yi may not be amiss as to the edible qualities of certain animals that are not commonly regarded as game. flesh of all members is of the cat tribe. The Englishman Ruxton. but which merit an explorer's consideration from the start. of course. bread and vegetables will lie on his stomach like lead. even muskrats.226 CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT eats similate the food of civilization Even though he demands. Prairie-dog is as good as squirrel. if necessary. and panthers.

" Lewis and Clark say of dog flesh: "The greater part of us have acquired a fondness for it. and all ... S.. etc. I think prejudice plays a large part here. with the exception of bears. hares. preferable to lean deer or elk. Once when he was on the U." he said. or. and other good qualities. 2 in the list richness of meat. but the animals that they speak of were such as had been specially fattened by the Indians for food. at any rate." I am assured by more than one white man who has eaten them that the flesh of snakes and lizards is as good as chicken or frogs' legs. and not starved and hard-worked sledge animals. flesh No. — put together. more likely. wet dog smells.. the station assigned to dog as No." But it seems that tastes differ." ers and residents in the early West commended dog meat. One of my friends. people will consider this a dish more extraordinary than appetizing. While we subsisted on that food we were fatter. wildfowl. fat . rabbits. healthy diet. that all wolves are not alike. grouse. and much superior to horse flesh in any state. Geological Survey he came near starving in the desert. being the of panthers. beaver-tails. 1 in delicacy of fla\or. "a big. we though we might as Although most well try the hearts at the same time. we found the meat far better than we expected." Many other travelsince leaving the buffalo country. etc. Again they say: "It is found to be a strong. which surpasses every other. fat really looked so white and good that we felt inclined to taste it. as. stronger.EMERGENCY FOODS can be well appreciated 227 turkey. and had to swallow his scruples along and it is gummy and with a snake diet. draws the line at the prairie rattler. and if we did that. however. otherwise offensive. and in general enjoyed better health than at any period ." They reported that horse flesh was "unwholesome as well as repellant. Ivar Fosheim of Sverdrups second Norwegian polar expedition says: "They were two she-wolves in very much better condition than beasts The of prey usually are. "Probably. One who was says that it driven by starvation to eat wolf's flesh "tastes exactly as a dirty.

with but to reach out and press a and grubs? I tell get to picking the skippers out of your pork. hardihood of him who first And if snails are good. it's no comparison puff-adder. but the little prairie rattler is too sweetish foi to puff-adder. why swallowed a raw oyster! not locusts. Those who have not tasted couscoussou of cat have never tasted anything. our boiled cabbage and sauerkraut. and intestines. wild meat that is not carrion is clean and wholesome." says one of them. . rats. It is the testimony of gourmets who survived the siege of Paris that cats. The great gray owl is good roasted.^ The . putrid cheeses. Caspar Whitney. tail. and "high" game.228 CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT rattler diamond might be all right. and as I sit here at my desk writing." Anyway. but when Dan Beard speaks approvingly of hellbenders as a side dish. raw Hamburgers. . the domestic fowl (soft-shell turtles deposit their eggs on sandbars about the third week in June). my boy. you from experience that when you and begrudge them the holes they have made in it." The flesh of the whippoorwill for be!" Turtles' eggs are better than those of is excellent. is out of sight!" This much I can swallow. but of such a downright filthy animal as the pig we eat ears. "is by far more delicious than stewed rabbit. lambfries. to set up standards as to the fitness or unfitness of things to eat. nose. who are we. and mice are the most misprized of all animals. by proxy. my taste. ''Stewed puss. How about our moldy and feet. . dragon flies. Another of my acquaintances declares that the prejudice against crow (real Corvus) is not well founded. you will agree that any kind of fresh. after describing his menu of frozen raw meat in the Barren Grounds. despite what it may be when "biled. says: "I have no doubt some of my readers will be disgusted by this recital. from a culinary point of view. I must confess that I'm like Kipling's elephant when the alligator had him by the nose: "This is too buch If Dan ever really ate a hellbender he is the most reckless dare-devil I ever heard of.'* We shudder with horror at the idea of eating dog or cat.

but is used for seasoning the food after it is served.EMERGENCY FOODS 229 button for dinner. burn the outside of meat and sprinkle „ . but in this age of smokeless powder we are denied even that consolation. such as tobacco. . I believe who. but think of the predicament of that poor wight he was a missionary to the Eskimo. is to lack salt and tobacco. and the wax skimmed off. even civilized ones like the Qualla Cherokees. . in army bread. and essaying to eat his boots. The ashes of plants rich in nitre. it is not so bad to learn new dishes. as a substitute for Kinnikinick. did incontinently sneeze his false teeth into the middle of Baf- — — Bay! Perhaps the greatest privation that a civilized man suffers. Strange to say. ¥^" ^^^ "^^. One must starve to know what one will eat. etc. sunflower. "To obtain the ash the stem and leaves were first rolled up into balls while still green. next to having no meat. maple syrup not only takes the place of salt in cooking. being cast adrift on an ice floe. and the ashes of hickory bark. ^^^^^^^ ^^^ g^ ^ good while hungry without much grumbling. and burned. so long as the weed holds out. especially maple sugar or syrup. boiled. Among some of the northern tribes. luncheon what I will I can hardly realize that only a few months ago I choked an Indian until he gave up a piece of muskox intestine he had stolen — — from me. Wild honey. After all. has frequently served me in place of sugar in my tea. In the old days they used to J. have been recommended." Many Indians. and after being carefully dried they were placed on top of a very small fire on a rock. Coville says fin's . gunpowder on it in lieu of salt." I trust that none of my readers may be cast down by reading this somewhat lugubrious chapter. One soon can accustom himself to eat it even on meat. that the ash of the palmate-leaf sweet coltsfoot (Petasites palmata) was highly esteemed by western Indians salt. do not use salt to this day. the best substitute for salt is sugar. Indian corn.

called sacacommis by the Canadian traders. when cares attack. The dried inner bark is aromatic and very pungent.230 CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT Thou who. is A more highly prized kinnikinick made from the leaves of the bear-berry or uva-ursi (Ardostaphylos uva-ursi). or is cut very fine with a knife and mixed with tobacco in the proportion of two of bark to one of the latter. green inner bark is scraped off with the back of the knife and put aside for use. or such of the older branches as still keep the thin. who sell it to the northern Indians for more than the price of the best tobacco. resembling leaf tobacco. sumac {Rhus glabra) Inferior substitutes are the the smoothe crumbled dried leaves of and the fragrant . Young shoots are chosen. substitutes is the red osier dogwood (Cornus stoloni- But let Substitutes for : ! fera) or the related silky cornel (C sericea) commonly These shrubs are very abunmiscalled red willow. red outer skin. dant in some parts of the North. Among the latter may be rated Tea. tea is smoked It is said to by many a poor fellow in the far North cause a most painful irritation in the throat. the The leaves are gathered in summer months. and they are in a bad way! it may be divided into those that are a bit better than nothing and those that are worse. being then milder than in winter. at the horseman's back Perching. for it is full of tannin. and thrown away. if wanted immediately. or. brittle. Certainly it can have no such effect on the nerves as tobacco. which is aggravated by the cold air of that region. and produces in those unused to it a heaviness sometimes approaching stupefaction. unseatest! tobacco play out. This skin is shaved off with a keen knife. it is left hanging to the stem in little frills and is crisped before the It is then rubbed between the hands into a form fire. highly narcotic. Then the soft. Kinnikinick is usually made of poor tobacco mixed with the scrapings or shavings of other plants. Yes. Bidd'st them avaunt! and Black Care. and tannin destroys nicotin. although Chief of the the latter are sometimes smoked alone.

A Strcnj Goo.s-e Wanders Near Where Lurl's the Lusty Trout .


one at a time. with a forked stick (or with one beathed in the fire. free from knots or "eyes. that it will not leak. Thus let the snowballs melt into the bucket until the vessel is filled above the pins that hold it together. .EMERGENCY FOODS sumac (R. is to boil the water in a bucket made of birch bark. chop out of it a trough. and on each fork place a snowball. Place the bucket in the snow before the fire. contain so tannin that they generally produce bronchial tion or sore throat. aromatica). at its middle. below the waterline. which will be news to many. and drop them one by one into the water. pour water in. which many have heard of. In front of it set a It number of little forked sticks. set the bucket on a bed of fresh coals that do not flame. and the water will boil in a few moments. pick them up. and let it hum. One of them. To do this successfully. heated by direct action of the fire. but. which. one must choose such stones as will neither burst in the fire nor shiver to pieces when dropped in the water. as illus- trated in another chapter. but few have seen. Then set the bucket on the coals. slanting backward over the bucket." and make a trough-shaped bucket. how could one boil water withf °* out a kettle? There are two ways of ]^ w doing this. Take a thin sheet of birch bark. Pin the folds with green Pour the water in. twigs below the toaterline. Another way. but the thing can be done when you know how. is to split a log. heat a number of stones red hot. The only difficulty about this is in so fastening the sheet of bark. pile coals around it up almost to the waterline. 231 much irrita- In my chapters on Camp Cookery are described many processes for cooking without utensils. so it will not warp from the heat. might seem impossible to melt snow in such a bark utensil. and bent into hairpin shape). Hke tea. it may be asked.

in the same way that garden vegetables are used by us. in many cases. for. Now it is quite as important. which is used with the same impunity as other species. in time of famine or invasion.CHAPTER XVII EDIBLE PLANTS OF THE WILDERNESS T^HERE is a popular notion that onr Indians in olden *times varied their meat diet with nothing but wild roots and herbs. otherwise. such as are left. in fact. nor who would know how to cook them if such were given to him. lived in villages and cultivated corn. contains a milky sap that is Take. particularly such nations as the Iroquois and Cherokees. such as the "horse Indians" and "diggers" of the Far West and not all of them. The "forest Indians" east of the Mississippi and south of the Great Lakes. Still. or a tomato vine instead of the fruit. the cassava or manioc. and. there is probably not one white hunter or forester in a thousand who can pick out the edible plants of the wilderness. This. wild plants and roots were often used even by these semi-agricultural peoples. still 232 . for example. one might make as serious a mistake as if he ate the vine of a potato instead of its tuber. which is the staple food of most of the inhabitants of tropThe root ical America and is largely used elsewhere. to know how to cook a wild plant as it is to be able to find it. Nor are many of our botanists better informed. To-day. produce all the native plants that were known to the redmen. beans. was the case only among those tribes that pursued a roving life and had no settled abodes. squashes and pumpkins. although our wild lands. of the bitter manioc. they were sometimes almost the sole means of — sustenance.

Many are easily identified by those who know nothing at all of botany. not knowing. which we ourselves eat. started and then concluded his to say "Huh! 'tain't bad" remark with what we good. have become naturalized in the region north of the southern boundary of Virginia and east of the Rocky Mountains. or Brazilian arrowroot. or farina. somehow discovered that this one of the most viruThe Indians sap is volatile and can be driven off by heat. He remembers when some older boy grudgingly allowed him the tiniest nibble of this sacred vegetable. Their taste in a raw state. there are .WILDERNESS EDIBLE PLANTS charged with prussic acid and lent vegetable poisons is 233 known to science. Every country schoolboy thinks he knows all about this innocent looking bulb. them. sliced. with descriptions — and illustrations sufficing to identify itself quire by a book at least as large as this. that if it had not been for the art of a red savage. and how he. as may be. generally speaking. and feed to our children and invalids. dried on hot metal plates or stones. when properly prepared for the table. or. and the result is the tapioca of commerce. Another example. as wild plants. I cannot say that all of them are palatable. powdered. grown-up people utter when we jab the black-ink pen into the red-ink bottle! However. perchance. not all of our wild food-plants are acrid or poisonous in a raw state. the starch separated from the meal. grated. but most of them are. is no more of a criterion than is that of raw beans or asparagus. is the common Indian turnip. nor is it dangerous for any one with a rudimentary knowledge of botany to experiment with them. would reI have only space to give the names and edible properties of those that I know of which are nativeto. and which really is of delicious flavor when rightly prepared. The root is cleaned. Besides those mentioned below. the recipient of the favor. the stuff taken into our stomachs would have caused almost instant death. To give a detailed account of the edible wild plants of the United States and Canada. not of a poisonous but of an extremely acrid root that the Indians used for bread.

scarlet. Spanish bayonet. pimple mallow. orcoontie. as it contains an illustration of every plant. water. S. chestnut. cacti. The months named under each plant are those in which it flowers. those producing bitter mast are the black. swamp white. manzanita. and especially those of one of its officers. many pine seeds. bur. V. New York). scrub chestnut. rock chestnut. palm. aloe. screw bean. F. is of the first assistance to an amateur in identiWherever Gray's nomenclature differs. wild sago. The eastern oaks that yield sweet mast are the basket. but essentially . and willow oaks. shingle. added in parentheses. Those who wish further details should examine the publications of the U. kouse root. tribes of western Indians who extract the tannin from even the — most astringent acorns and make bread out process varies somewhat it is as follows among The of their flour. tule plant.: 234 CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT the others which among yam. In the case of wild fruits. Coville. bread root. which. grow only in the southern or western states. it is fying. juniper nuts. month and the later SUBSTANTIAL FOODS Acorns. the earlier month in each case being NoHhern States the flowering in the plant's southernmost range. red. Mr. Department of Agriculture. pin. post. western camass. and white oaks. the months are those in which the fruit ripens. the acorns of chestnut and post oaks being sweetest. mesquite. because without of Britton and Brown in their Illustrated Flora of the and Cai%ada (Scribner's Sons. of which the black and water oak acorns are most astringent. as human food. piiTons. None of these can be used raw. have given the botanical name of every plant cited it there would be no guarantee The nomenclature adopted is that of identification. Spanish. squaw berry. It is necessary to remember that most of the edible plants become tough and bitter when they have reached full bloom. difterent tribes. lycium berry but the list is long enough. I herein. black jack. overcup. one that of the northernmost. who has made — special studies in this subject. without more But there are or less ill effect from the tannin contained. more important being the palmetto.

to set The meal is removed by hand as much as free the tannin. mode is to make the dough into small balls.S. 3. The peasants of southern Europe make bread from the meal of chestnuts alone the large European chestnut. when the tannin has been removed. The dough is cooked in two ways: first. These balls are then placed in hot ashes. mash them in a basket with a billet. and wankapins may like chestnuts. then water is poured over the remainder to get it together. but rather insipid. care being taken that they do not mold. which are wrapped in green corn leaves. The Cherokee method. is high. possible. or eaten cold. spread out to dry in the sun. some green leaves of corn are laid over them. Hudson in the Amer. to U. Acorns possess remarkable fattening power. flat basket or strainer on a pile of gravel with a drain underneath.) Nuts. Anthropologist. W. (Coville. VII. The second it is sweet and wholesome. placing the flour in a filter and letting water percolate through it for about two hours. are poisonous.WILDERNESS EDIBLE PLANTS 235 The acorns are collected when ripe. Among the Cherokees. when they have corn also. The kernels are then pulverized in a mortar to a fine meal. Naturalist. and thus little is wasted. mixing them with enough corn-meal dough to hold them together. untU the whole is ground to a fine flour. 597. or until the water ceases to have a yellowish tinge. Water is added. Hazel nuts. is to use the chestnuts whole. The tannin is then dissolved out by this being essential. Our like acorns. then hull and peel them. 1900. but when dried. One form of filter is contrived by laying a coarse. but lies heavily on one's stomach — — until he becomes accustomed to it. and stored until the kernels are dry. and then baking cakes of this material enclosed in corn husks. who add 5 per cent. pecans. These. beech nuts. in a raw state. in Ai}ier. and hot ashes are placed on the top. pp. Rather fine gravel is now scattered thickly over the bottom and up the sides of the strainer. like tamales.— Palmer. Another method. The oil expressed from beech nuts be used is little . and the cakes are thus baked. the resulting porridge being not unlike yellow corn-meal mush in appearance and taste. powdered. Herbarium. I have eaten bread made from chestnuts. Indians also have made bread from the kernels of buckeyes. they yield an edible and nutritious flour. of red earth to the dough. by boiling it in water as we do corn-meal mush. of course. XII. and also in Italy and in the Austrian Tyrol. and then leach them. being used. Such bread is palatable and nutritious. little by little. with frequent siftings to remove the coarser particles. used by the Pomo Indians. 775-6. and their nutritive value. The resulting paste may be baked. The meal by this time has the consistency of ordinary dough. Cantrib. The method is to first roast the nuts. is described by J. No. and the meal laid thickly over the gravel. cracked. and freed from their poison by filtration.

Hickory nut oil was easily obtained by crushing the whole nuts. and skimmed off the oil. Me.. All nuts are more digestible when roasted than when eaten raw. were an important article of food among Indians. They pounded the ripe kernels. Arum are much of the greatnesse and taste of Potatoes. Swan or Swamp Potato. and being roasted.leaved pine cone is edible and of an agreeable taste. The method of cooking this root. The oil from butternuts and black walnuts used to be highly esteemed by the eastern Indians. * Abrowhead. and skimming off the oily milk. p. and Ont. on each side. Iowa. and yet in sommer they vse this ordinarily for bread.) Cold bogs. Nova Scotia to Minn. or as a frying fat. to Mich." which was used as we use cream or butter.." Tne acridity of pine seeds can be removed by roastmg. under the name oi Taw-ho. to Mexico. July. The kernel of the long. Roots bitter when raw. In one day a Salvage will gather sufficient for a week. boiled them in water. . 87: "The chiefe root they haue for food is called Tockawhoughe. Roots very large. it will prickle and torment the throat extreamely. and then cover all with earth in the manner of a Cole-pit [charcoal pit]. acrid when fresh. when the tubers float up and are gathered. Water. {Calla yallustris. over it.. Tuberous roots as large as hens' eggs. ditches. Many western pines have edible "nuts. They vse to cover a great many of them with Oke leaues and Feme. Leaves acrid. May-Jline. Throughout North America. undulata. except extreme north. It groweth like a flagge in Marishes. These roots Arum.. Peltandra Virginica (P. Broad-leaved. and that of the Golden Club. Missen bread is made in Lapland from the roots of this which are acrid when raw. Virginicum) Swamps or shallow water. Raw it is no better than poyson. Wis. In shallow water. south to Fla.236 CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT inferior to the best olive oil for table use. except it be tender and the heat abated." Arum. and will keep sweet for ten years. precipitating the broken shells in water. mixed with sorrell and meale or such like. are extremely well washed. Wild Calla. Excellent when cooked with meat. Sagittaria latifolia (S. variabilis). plant. . Rootstock used by eastern Indians for food. Green Arrow. or sliced and dryed in the Sunne. is thus described by Captain John Smith in his Historie of Virginia (1624). south to Va. Indians gather them by wading and loosening roots with their feet. They are taken up in spring when the leaves come forth. May-June.Sep. they continue a great fire 24 houres before they dare eat it. but rendered sweet and palatable by boiling. using the remaining paste as bread. and La. either to mix with their food. The nut of the ironwood (blue beech) is edible.

Stretch-berry. Orontium aquaticum. .. to Minn.. Sporobolus crypAlso Barnyard or Cockspur Grass (Panicuvi Crus- When the seeds. When the fresh roots are bruised. Camass. Smilax Bona-nox. It is then left standing for three or four days. Roots resemble artichokes. and then ground.. The meal is boiled slowly. The ripe seeds are collected. ing succulent. Drop-seed. Panicum. which are gathered in great quantities by western Indians. and continually stirred like mush. mostly near coast. .. with an agreeable mucilaginous taste. they prevent thirst and afford nourishment. who pound the roots and make bread of them. to N. to Pa. This is then bruised and chopped into pieces as small as peas or oatmeal. AprMay. and La. cleaned by winnowing." (Palmer. and very nutritious. Pa.) when the acridity disappears. WILDERNESS EDIBLE PLANTS 237 and then dried. and the remainder dried in an oven. Mass. but are much larger. Flour made from the dried root is white. when dried in the sun are ready for use. Greenbrier. Also made into gruel and mush. Also eaten dry. Bristly. plains. they answer for food and drink on these sandy Ariz. Grass. Louisiana.. and consequently nearly all is very white and succulent.). who when cooked like peas. which. in Old World. Eastern. and Texas. ground. indeed. Throughout North America. and boiled. Tule-root. they afford a good syrup. June-Aug. Golden Club. mixed with water. south to Ala. Great. sweet. . The fibrous parts are removed. Quamasia hyacynIn meadows and along streams. Wild Hyacinth. south to Texas. mixed with water or milk and baked into bread or made into mush. Floating Manna. (Lankester. thia {Camassia Fraseri). lon L. and the mass is kneaded into hard cakes. several species.) Bulrush. and. Scirpus lacusPonds and swamps.. Grass. they are of good flavor and nutritious. Eaten raw. Panic. Mat-rush. Ty. Orobanche Ludoviciana (AphylSandy soil. The Taw-kee of coast Indians. also tris. "All the plant except the bloom grows under ground. The raw root edible when cooked like arrow-arum. tandrus. The Pah BeUtes consume great numbers of them in summer. Broom-Rape. 111. Apr -May. June-Sep. Sand Drop-seed. Cal. . water added. galli) liked the dried seeds is acrid. ground into flour. Swamps and ponds. are often called sand-food. Fanicularia fluitans (Glyceria The seeds are of agreeable flavor and highly nutritious material for soups and gruels. W. A great favorite with the western Indians. like the above. south to Fla. are parched. Root is very nutritious. but becomes Grass.

ordained that if an Indian dug ground-nuts on land occupied by the English. and is then a very fine reddish flour or meal. or sandy thickets. is afterwards dried in the open air. which settles to the bottom of the second vessel.. and Texas. to Neb. taux of the Osages. west to Minn. becomes a beautiful. then being mixed with clean water. Apios Apios (A. This is the famous hopniss of New Jersey Indians.. The seeds in the pod can be prepared like common peas. they strain it through baskets. if one but touch the tip of his tongue to it. tuberosa). Moist woods and thickets. south to Fla. A small quantity of this. Md. . La. tubers vary from the size of cherries to that of a hen's They grow in strings of perhaps 40 together. and modo of the Sioux. New Bruns. Mass. mixed with warm water and sweetened with honey. They also mix it with fine corn flour. and Texas.. June-July.238 CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT Thickets. while others recommend baking. of our early annals.. and for The Pilgrims. Fruit ripe. Indian Potato. The sediment. very nourishing and wholesome. Neither alone . Greenbeier. tuberous rootstocks are said to have been used by the Indians. to be whipped. south to Fla." Ground-Nut.. April-June. When boiled they are quite palatable and wholesome. lum (Arum triphyllum). Some writers state that the acridity of the root is destroyed by boiling. in a few seconds that unlucky member will sting as if touched to a nettle. which they call Dry be confounded with coontie or wild sago]. when cool. during a second offence. who ground them into meal and made bread or gruel of it. cooling sort of jelly. which being fried in fresh bear's oil makes very good hot cakes or fritters. west to Minn. lived The on these roots. Jack-in-the-Pulpit. In the South a drink is made from them. south to La. scherzo of the Carolinas. the saagaban of the Micmacs. under one or other of which names it is frequently met by students In 1654 the town laws of Southampton. openauk of Virginia tribes. delicious jelly. The root of this plant is so acrid when raw that. Indian Turnip. Nova Scotia to Florida. Mass.. or larger. . Arisoema triphylegg. March-Aug. Bartram says that the Florida Indians prepared from this plant "a very agreeable." conte [not to . Moist ground. Wild Bean. July-Sep. this is prepared from the root of the China brier {S77iilax PseudoThey chop the roots in pieces which are China). resembling conunon potatoes in shape. ' ' their first winter. and Kansas. Smilax Pseudo-China. in a tray or trough. Long-Stalked. taste. Kan. Yet it was a favorite bread-root of the Indians. The large. and odor. to Fla. Apr -July. afterwards well pounded in a wooden mortar. and Kan. he was to be set in the stocks. I have found bulbs as much as 11 inches in circumference and weighing half a pound.

Texas. Showy. It is said that the Indians also cooked and ate the berries. Nelumbo. which are one or two feet long. Neb. Lily. Yellow Pond. then peeled. etc. Tubers of root somewhat resemble sweet potatoes. were parched without Orchis. Both of these lilies have fleshy.) Lily. slightly sweet.-Sep. The pulverized seeds of the plant are made into bread or gruel. The green and succulent half -ripe seed-pods are delicate and nutritious. having been reduced to a starchy substance resembling arrowroot. The Indians use them. south to Fla. Nova Scotia to Minn. Apr. Swamps. When green they look and taste somewhat like raw green corn on the ear. and. or baked as long. NympfuBa advena (Nuphar ad. Even if the fresh root is only grated finely and let stand exposed to air until it is thoroughly dry. which resemble hazel nuts.. and Indian women dive for them.-June. Ponds and slow streams. These were mixed with fat and made into a palatable soup. to easily extricate the kernels. and the kernels eaten thus.).. the inner part will The root still be as uneatable as a spoonful of red pepper. Wankapin or Yoncopin.. but often roasted separately. Lilt. edible bulbs. La. Then if it is heated again. Wild Yellow. Me.WILDERNESS EDIBLE PLANTS will do. Ponds and swamps. They are very porous. south to Ga. mealy seeds. south to N. the acridity will have evaporated with the juice. or parched and eaten like popcorn. Canada Lily. and are highly prized food little inferior to them when well boiled. Mo. and Tenn. The ' nuts " were first steeped in water. Lilium superbum. soups. Generally boiled with wild fowl. Jvly-Aug. Tdrk's-Cap. Ty. Lilium Canadense. Muskrats store large quantities for winter use. dried.... and their houses are frequently robbed by the Indians. while the outer portion will have a characteristically pleasant flavor. and glutinous. Nelumbo lutea. Meadows and marshes. The roots. south to Ga. Ala. Locally east from Ontario to Fla. C. Rich woods.. to Minn. grow four or five feet under water. or let stand for a day or two.. half chestnut. Utah. and pounded in a mortar. Water Chinquapin. Orchis spectabilis. etc. meadows and fields. June-July. to thicken stews... 239 The bulb may be boiled for two hours. Apr. The roots may be preserved for a year by storing in damp sand. Brunsw. American. Nova Scotia to Rocky Mts. half potato. and then parched in sand. Frequently they steeping.. instead of flour. From the sweet. it becomes bland and wholesome. abundant west to Mich. to Minn. (Thoreau. of the Indians. should either be roasted or boiled. New . or otherwise reduced to flour. the Indians made bread. July- Aug.. Ind. or were ground into ' A flour and baked. Spatter-dock. Ky.

Wild or Goose Tansy. June-Od. It is then spread out to cool.) Peanut. May-Sep. out for a few hours to dry. The grain will keep indefinitely.) SiLVERWEED.. one propelling the canoe. The a thick.000 of our northern Indians.. to N. The grains and hulls are separated by tossing the mixture into the wind from baskets. June. meanwhile being evenly and constantly stirred. or as gruel. Before cooking. and the one in the stern gently pulling the plants over the canoe and beating off the The seed. generally the size of a hen's egg. farinaceous tuber. Roots gathered in spring and eaten either raw or roasted. When roasted or boiled their taste Anserina. S. Palatable in any form. turnip. to remove the smoky taste. Rice. and now on the market as a breakfast food. Zizania aquatica. Starchy and wholesome. New Brunsw. winter use." (Lounsberry. has been cultivated as a vegetable. The seeds of these plants form one of the staple * * . U. to Manitoba. and as such finds favor with the country people [of the South] in the preparation of a highly nourishing food for children. Prairie. Wild peanut. Wild. Neb. leathery envelope.240 ' CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT ' One of the orchids that springs from a tuberous root. to Fla. Psoralea Potato. water. 50 of the Bureau of Plant Industry. or made into bread. is spread ripe seed with two sticks. Potentilla river banks. cortiosa). and beating or punching it with heavy sticks. Mex. "An acre of rice is nearly or quite equal to an acre of wheat in nutriment. has easily separable from the smoothe internal parts. and is then parched in a kettle over a slow fire for half an hour to an hour. Dep't. The underground pod (Porcher. to Texas. Sunflower. Helianihus. Goose-grass. La. with sweetish. The harvesting is usually done by two persons working together.) Aug -Sep. starchy flour. it should have several washings in cold It is cooked with game. Shores and salt meadows. After this it is hulled by putting about a bushel of the seed into a hole in the ground. Prairie The pamme Manitoba and N. etc. Often sliced and dried by the Indians for turnip-like taste. Indian or Missouri blanche of the voyageurs. The chief farinaceous food of probably 30. resembles chestnuts. when gathered. Swamps. thickets." (For details see Bulletin No. or merely eaten dry. west to Neb. Hog. Prairies. Breadroot. south to Fla. many species. La. of Agriculture. south along Rocky Mts. Alaska. west to Lake Superior.. esculenta. Its food value is equal to that of our common cereals. July-Sep. Moist New Falcata comosa (Glycine Brunsw.. which become friable when dry and are readily pulverized. marshes and Greenland to N. affording a light. and Cal. Dak. J. lined with staves or burnt clay... Texas. Prairies.

135. The meal or flour is also made into thin cakes and baked in hot These cakes are of a gray color. to Fla.. .. Wis. the Apaches eat it either green or dried. Valeriana edulis. being baked in the ground for about two days. The agreeable oily nature of the seeds renders them very palatable. May-June. Violet.. Wet open places. Bell WORT. Was used as food by the Indians. Mo. Mar -May. the principal edible root among the Indians inhabit the upper waters of the streams on the western side of the [Rocky] mountains. Sometimes used for greens. Having eaten of the bread made from sunflowers. La. rather coarse looking. perennis). Thickets. and they gather them in great quantities. . but palatable and very nutritious. and in Rocky Mts. Mex. Edible.WILDERNESS EDIBLE PLANTS 241 articles of food for many Indians... In the following list will be found many that are introduced weeds. howan agreeable one. the kooyah or tobacco-root {Valeriana edulis). It has a very strong and remarkably peculiar taste and odor. Indians to have very strong poisonous qualities. ever.) the corn bread eaten by whites. When parched and ground they are highly prized. to N. south to O. Ark. Yellow. "1 ate here. To others. and Miss. Ontario to B. Valerian. Phaseolus polystachyus (P. May-Aug. the taste is rather p.) POT-HERBS AND SALADS All of the plants hitherto mentioned are native to the regions described. Adder's-Tongue. . of which it is deprived by a peculiar process." The oil expressed from sunflower seeds is a good substitute for olive oil. Neb. and which to who extremely offensive... but a considerable proportion of these foundlings may now be seen in clearings and old burnt tracts in the woods. Erythronium Americanum." (Fremont. and I was afterwards always glad when it formed an addition to our scanty meals. I must say that it is as good as much of (Pahner. ashes. July-Sep. west to Minn. which I can compare to no other vegetable that I am acquainted with. and Ariz. far from regular settlements. south to Fla. Canada to Fla. Tobacco-root. Directions for cooking greens are given in the chapter on Camp Cookery. In its unprepared state it is said by the It is full of nutriment. Dog's-tooth. Moist woods and thickets. for the first time. some persons is . Wild Kidney. and are eaten on hunting excursions. Uvularia perfoliata. Nova Scotia to Minn.. Exploring Expedition^ 1845. Bean. Quebec and Ont. C. Moist woods and thickets.

July-Oct.. or. N. into cakes. July-Sep.242 CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT when roots of this and other species of Uvularia are edible cooked. Wild Succory..) asparagus. meadows. and waste places. A naturalized weed. anti-scorbutic. Makes good greens when gathered young. Arctium Lappa. Chickweed. to impart flavor. Brooklime. or cut into pieces about two inches long. Naturalized everywhere. common everywhere. Avr. or with soy. minus)." Clover.. Great. Wild Mustard. Cal. Trifolium. Waste places. Ex-tensively used as a pot-herb. salad plant equal to the watercress. Mo. Naturalized. June. south sides. Delightful in The "A flavor. CoMFREY. form a delicate vegetable when boiled. and woods. with vinegar.. with vinegar and salt. May-Nov. fields. Fields and waste places. tender shoots. when peeled. cultivation. test as a salad herb. Amer. and quite as good. south to Symphytum officinale. and the roots sliced in long strips. or the boiled root is mashed. the it is capable of being turned to good account. before flowering. Veronica Americana..). many species.-Sep. so rank in appearance and odor that nothing but stark necessity could have driven people to experiment with it as a vegetable. . The "Deserves fresh leaves and stems are used. aids digestion. The stalks cut before the flowers open. Y. Waste places. The coast Indians of California use clover as a food. can be eaten raw like radishes. Waste places. Yet. Chichorium Iniybus. is used as an adulterant of cofiFee. Alsine media (Stellaria m. RoadNova Scotia to Minn. New Brunsw. healthful. Naturalized. All parts of the plant are wholesome. to N. and the young shoots are a good substitute for (Porcher. and boiled with salt and pepper.Aug.. and fried like oyster plant. like the skunk cabbage. Brooks and swamps. The root. C. common burdock (A. can be used as a salad. Md. Jan-Dec. and stripped of their rind. preparing it as follows: The skin is scraped or peeled off. American. July-Oct. made Burdock. Mex. The young leaves make a good salad. plstrum). Vigna Sinensis. similar in flavor to asparagus. China Bean. Neb. seeds are edible. The raw root has medicinal properties. Escaped from to Texas and Ga. ground and roasted. Used like spinach..) Cockle-bur. or may be cooked as a pot-herb like dandelion. Cow The Pea. but the Japanese eat the cooked root." (Sci. south to Pa. Chicory. and locally in the Not nearly so widely distributed as the smaller interior. In spring. and Mo. Brassica arvensis {B. SinaCharlock. to southern N. to Minn. Newf. Anticosti to Alaska.

Curled. The plant produces an abundance of seeck. which Indians grind into flour for bread or mush. Ranunculus Crowfoot. naturalized. Y. Apr. Nova Scotia to Manitoba. phylla. Meadow Bitter-cress. root. Scurvy Grass. is a real starch. with a spicy flavor like Eaten with salt. Two-leaved Toothwort. he says. scraped and pounded. Bitter Cress. Fields and waste places everywhere.-Dec. The young leaves make good pot-herbs. Dock. In boiling. Ferns. Has a pungent savor and is used like water cress. nale). caustic that it will raise a blister. Naturalized from Europe. cultivated. Barbarea praecox.. Apr. A well-known salad herb. Taraxacum Taraxacum {T. Waste Southern N. and the pulp soaked in a considerable quantity of water. Pacific coast. are tender. Car. and two drops taken interYet the boiled or baked nally may excite fatal inflammation.. officinale). and before the leaves have uncurled. sceleratus. Dandelion. The young. abundant along the coast. occasionally cultivated as a salad plant. vulgaris). tender leaves make a fair salad. watercress. Porcher cites this as a good example of the destruction of The fresh juice is so acrid and poisonous juices by heating. When cleansed. change the water two or three times. Yellow Rocket.. Labrador to Va. south to Va. Winter. -Nov. Crispus. Cardamine pratensis. Cress. The young stems of ferns.-Aug. and Mo. Dentaria di- Rich woods and meadows. is edible. when washed and dried. Jan. when boiled like asparagus are delicious.. Fields and waste places. Cuckoo-Flower. New Brunsw. Many species. May. naturalized.. Common pot-herb. but inferior to the winter cress. Rocket. also blanched for salad. to Fla. Wet meadows and swamps. Apr. or mixed as a salad. west to Minn. J. places. The leaves and stems are eaten raw with salt. The rootstocks are crisp and fleshy. Crinkle-Rooi. June-Aug. Labrador to northern N. and locally in interior. BarbaFields and waste places. Highly esteemed as a winter salad and pot-herb. -May.. south to S. Am. Nova Scotia to Mmn. C. and locally westward to Minn.WILDERNESS EDIBLE PLANTS 243 Cress. sometimes Cress. like celery. naturalized. and Ky. Water. Roripa Nasturtium (Nasturtium officiBrooks and other streams. Pa. . as a relish. and southward. also on uralized.-June. which. Celery-Leaved or Ditch. Apr -June. and B. and Rumex everywhere. a white sediment is deposited. Natrea Barbarea {B. gathered before they are covered with down. Swamps and wet ditches.

Typha latifolia. The flowering ends are very tender in the spring. New Brunsw.. and after being baked resemble the dough of wheat. Canada Potato. Cat-tail. their flavor is not very pleasant. Girasole. caria. south to Ga. Waste places. "The top bulbs are superior to the common onion for pickling. Medeola Virginiana. Ground-nut. May-J line. English Smartweed. or when boUed in water make a good soup. HoNEwoRT.. Panax trifolium (Aralia Moist woods and thickets.. New Brunsw. 111. Nova Scotia to Ga. Throughout North America except in extreme north. Pohjgonum PerslWaste places throughout the continent. used in soups. Moist soil. The root is eaten as a salad. are used as asparagus. Waste places. trifolia). Ty. somewhat and are like also Lady's Thumb. Naturalized. The tubers are edible and pungent.-June. Cultivated for salad and as a pot-herb. and are eaten raw. to Minn.." Indian Cucumber. like chervil. Hop. horizontal. Allium Canadense.. Apr-July. a relic of cultivation by the aborigines. south to Fla. south to Fla. Wild or Meadow. "Often occurs along roadsides in the east. Valerianella Locusta.. Naturalized. and Tenn. W. pickled.. Corn Salad. They are eaten as vegetables. damp woods and thickets. JulySep. A good substitute for garlic. C. tasting celery root. Top- Helianthus tuherosus. The young leaves are very tender. The tubers are and edible either raw or cooked. Tenn. June-July. Ark. Y. west to Minn.244 CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT The rootstocks of ferns are starchy. Marshes." Ginseng. "The Cossacks of the Don peel oft' the outer cuticle of the stalk and eat raw the tender white part of the stem extending about 18 inches from the root. Woods. "The common name alludes to the succulent. Dwarf. New Brunsw. to Va. Flag. and Ark. but they are by no means to be despised b}^ a hungry man. and was in all (Mathews. Moist meadows and thickets. but pleasant and cooling taste." Now cultivated and for sale in our markets.. May-June. except ex- . to N.) probability relished by the Indians." Gaelic. inambour. Cannabis saliva. to Minn. Iowa. Deringa Canadensis (Cryptotcenia C). La. Rich. Kansas. and Texas. Nova Scotia to Minn. N. "In Belgium the young shoots of the plant just as they emerge from the ground. to Minn. Used for yeast. and La. south to Ga. Me." Jerusalem Artichoke. In the spring this is a wholesome green. etc.. June-July. south to N. large. white tuberous root. Apr... which tastes like cucumber. Fetticus. It has a somewhat insipid.

Apr. Mo. Vermont. Chenopodium album. June-Aug. and boiling it down. Dry. May.-June. The number of edible species is legion. White Pigweed. The thick. which are not unpleasant when eaten raw. Lupinus perennis. Wild.. Marigold. are a good substitute for asparaKalm says that a good brown sugar has been made by gus. Althoeea officinalis. sandy soil. Caltha Swamps and meadows. Salt marshes.. Native of Pacific coast. Cornuti). Claytonia perfoliata. south to Fla. Cowslip. Spanish. Lamb's Quarters. and are equally nutritious. It . and south to Iowa. has familiar use as a be confection. to N. Asclepias Syriaca {A. very mucilaginous root. Mo. and may be eaten with impunity. Used as an early salad plant in the southern mountains. Also other species. May eaten raw. Me. may be dried. Mushrooms. like the above. expressing the dew. Sandy west to north N. June. Newfoundland to S. -May. often an abundant weed. Mass. Malva aerticillata Waste places. ground. to Fla. A good palustris. swamps. range universal.. Marsh. to Minn. but spreading eastward. Me. Wild Pea.Sep.. Make a good addition to a salad.. cooked like domestic peas. Deer Grass. Used as a spring vegetable. The flower buds are sometimes pickled as a substitute for capers. the young plant being thoroughly boiled for greens. A fine summer green and pot-herb. west through Canada to Rocky Mts. La. tender and succulent. Whorled or Curled. In a raw state makes an excellent salad also cooked with salt and pepper. The young shoots. C. Naturalized. as greens. Apr.. Mallow. Meadow-gowan. Lettuce. Lupine. July-Sep. Beware of mistaking for this plant the poisonous white hellebore (Veratrum viride) Meadow Beauty. Fields and waste places generally. Rhexia Virginica. crispa). Summer. the first water being thrown away. Should be boiled about 20 minutes. gathering the flowers while the dew was on them. Y.. yet acidulous taste. The leaves have a sweetish. Mallow. Waste places. IVIarsh. The whole plant is eaten by western Indians and by whites. Milkweed. and made They resemble buckwheat in color and into cakes or gruel. (M. Naturalized. June. Summer. taste. 245 June- Naturalized. in spring. pot-herb. owing to its bad taste.. The small seeds. J. Sep. WILDERNESS EDIBLE PLANTS treme north. La.. Edible. 111. also used in medicine as a demulcent. Indian or Miner's Lettuce.

Masterwort. " pistillaris. It would be well for every outer to learn the easily distinguishable beefsteak fungus (Fistidina hepatica) and sulphur mushroom (Polyporus sulpkureus) that grow from the trunks of old trees and stumps. Juhj-Oct. All mushrooms on the following list are of delicious A flavor. " vermicularis. in some countries.246 is CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT difficult to distinguish the poisonous ones. Ty. many species. Wild. used as a pot-herb. when the leaves are quite young and tender. " hovinus. Bessey reports that in the Mississippi Valley the little black berries are made into This plant same degree pies. It is. Rich woods. and other species. " cinerea. however. Coprinus comatus. Urtica dioica. Mustard. JuneJuly. banks and hillsides. Alaska to Cal. several species. also the Sow Fields and waste places. Cow. with gloves. moist meadows and thickets. used with soups. and in China the young shoots and berries are eaten. Nettle. Labrador to N.MeduscB. and very "filling.. the Woody Nightshade or Bittersweet {S. Lactarius volemus. Black or Garden. Boletus mibaureus. for a few of the common species are deadly. perhaps. Nightshade. Heracleum lanatum. Naturalized. caput. or as spinach. Russula alutacea. Waste places. C. Moist ground. Solarium nigrum. Should be gathered. salt meat. Hydnum " repandum. and for some of them no remedy is known. Nova Scotia to N. " deliciosus. Morchella esculenta. though not to the as its relative from Europe. Used like the domestic onions. Clavaria botrytes. as they are very common. Sonchus oleraceus. " virescens. The young leaves are used for greens. Tricholoma personatum.. like spinach. " deliciosa. in Europe. beginner would do well. W. nourishing and mildly aperient pot-herb. is reputed to be poisonous. Thistle. . very large. Onion." Fields and waste Brassica. " incequalis. commonly in cultivated soil. when one has not studied a good text-book. south to Fla. Allium. Cantharellus cibarius. and Mo. " Marasmius oreades. Dulcamara). to avoid all of the genus Amanita. but no one should take chances with fungi untn he has made such study. adds a piquant taste to other greens. Parsnip. Hypholoma appendiculatum. A pleasant. suhsanguineous. Largely used for such purposes places. and Texas.

before Indians] for green food In eating these." naturalized w eed Plajvtain. leaving a slimy but sweet and succulent pulp which sustains life. Slender. When the leaves are roasted in hot ashes. soups. but when boiled or baked it is edible. Lepidium Virginicuin. Primrose. Keerless. In early spring the young shoots and leaves make an ex- A A cellent substitute for asparagus. Amaranthus retroflexus. Texas. along roadsides. The ripe fruit is eaten raw. Fields Pigweed. ceding. is rejected.WILDERNESS EDIBLE PLANTS m 247 "The tender leaf and flower stalks are sweet and very agreeably aromatic. Common. Opuntia. and the The berries juice of the old plant is an acrid purgative. Should be gathered with tongs. of general range. common weed east Pokeweed. June-Sep. A weed of the same wide range as the prechlorostachys). which in the middle can be extemporized by bending a green stick and beathing it over the fire. Aug. The raw root is poisonous (this is destroyed by heat). June-Oct.. Phytolacca decandra. Pleurisy-Root.. Plantago major. cresses. Amarantkus hyhridus {A. The tender young shoots may be used like asparagus. I'he raw tuber is medicinal. west to Rocky Mts. Naturalized. Asclepias Tuherosa. Now cultivated in of the Mississippi and west of Texas." Peppergrass. Pigweed. . soil. The unripe fruit. May-Nov. like the preceding. Me. Expensively used in the South. and may be used for greens. is easily removed. Several species. Throughout the continent. south to Fla. sandy Along eastern coast. like celery. and waste places. to Minn. and are used in Europe either raw or stewed. the outer skin. south to Fla. Evening. this is sometimes used as a winter or early spring salad. Onagra biennis {Oenothera h. and the wild shoots are sold in our eastern markets. Young sprigs are mucilaginous flavor. Naturalized. Usually in dry soil. Like the cultivated peppergrass. France. as a salad plant. Roots have a nutty and can be eaten as salad.-Oci. Quebec Fields and and Mexico. Beet-root. becomes soft and resembles apple-sauce. Dry. Rough. except extreme north. and on western prairies and plains.. are harmless. Related to the beet and spinach. in early spring. if boiled ten or twelve hours. but it is much inferior to other The spicy pods are good seasoning for salads. Dry fields. and are therefore much sought after [by coast spring and early summer. Wild. the outer skin the flowers have expanded. with its thorns. to Minn. Ariz. Used as early spring greens. Aug -Oct. under the name of "keerless. May-Sep. etc.). Prickly Pear.. Labrador to Fla.

Portulaca oleracea. to Mich. R. mts. to Colo. Pussley. April-July. sides.248 places. A good substitute for spinach. Greenland to Alaska. Also used as a seasoning for soups. The root of this foul-smelling plant was baked or roasted by eastern Indians. who is very root. The raw plant is medicinal. The seeds. and west to Minn. Naturalized.. May-Sep. Seal. with a slight acid flavor. ejccept in extreme north. scutatus. Throughout the east. Bursa Bursa-pastoris (Capsella B. Skunk Cabbage. damp north C. and is still so used in Europe. Summer. and sometimes R. Feb. Indians boiled the young shoots in spring and ate them. Woods and New Brunsw.-April. Oxalis Acetosella. ground to flour. Taste somewhat like string beans. but is much more delicate. All may be fried in butter. The buds and tender pods are pickled in vinegar. salad. The Sorrel. south to Fla. to N. Saxifraga micranthidifolia. Appalachian Mts. Va. Patientia. MayJune. Swamps and wet soil. Delicious when blanched and served as a salad. C. also dried the mature roots in fall. Mountain. Eaten by Carolina mountaineers as a salad.). Jan. etc. from Pa. Polygonatum biflorum. Acetosa. Cold. Young shoots may be eaten as a leaves are very acid. The European sorrels cultivated as salad plants are R. Ceroid Canadensis. and used as a breadDoubtless they got the hint from the bear. have been used by Indians in the form of mush. July-Sep. or pickled. Sorrel. woods. Fields and waste places everywhere. and baked them into bread. one of the first green things to appear in spring. fond of this. or made into fritters. Spathyema fcetida (Symplocarpus /. and W. In Saxifrage. south to White Mts.Dec. Sorrel. This weed was used as a pot-herb by the Greeks and Romans. Nova Scotia to Manitoba. The young shoots should be gathered when from 2 to 5 inches long. Sheep. A pleasant addition to salads." Shepherd's Purse. under the name of "lettuce. and in Rocky Mts. Lettuce. Tastes somewhat like cabbage. Oxyria digyna. White Wood. "The pleasant acid taste of the . and Iowa. French-Canadians use the acid flowers of this tree in salads. Rumex Acetosella. of N. May-July. to extract the juice. May also be used as a salad. ground or pounded them. Red-Bud.). cold brooks. H. Fields and waste A weed of almost world-wide distribution. and Not related to the above. shore of Lake Superior. of N. CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT PuESLANE. Dry fields and hill- Throughout the continent. Solomon's thickets.

loamy soils and in dry waste places.. Scotia to Minn. as it contains binoxafevers. several species. cracking from within. mostly Me. Reappears after being picked off. Prairies. resembling a cocoanut or the bark of a hickory tree. places and fields. refreshing flavor. southward. Pachyma cocos. Dry soil. Aprilplant is May. Wash. Used like spinach. Wake-robin. J. excellent pickles. south to Ga. Native in Mississippi Valley from Iowa and 111. and south to Fla. Vetch. The popular notion that these plants are poisonous They make good greens when cooked. south to N. is very useful in scurvy.. Blitinn capitatum (Chenopodium c). Yields the druggist's late of potash. J. and does not become woody for a long time. abundant in the west. correct. It contains no starch. Colo. Nova Scotia to Alaska. undulatum and T. The young June-Aug. cher. WILDERNESS EDIBLE PLANTS 249 leaves. J." The fresh plant. pp. Gore in Smithsonian Report.. which is poisonous. Utah. Hydrophyllum Virginicum. H. grandiflorum. Used as food by the Indians. to N. May-Aug. but in drying it becomes very hard. Astragalus. The Indians made bread of it. Pin-clover. fleshy mass. Locally in the east. imparts an agreeable. and makes a cooling drink for Should be used in moderation. and is employed by negroes under the name of "wild okra. white. plant is gathered by western Indians and eaten raw or cooked. Dry soil. Woods. Early Blue. The seed-pods.) very mucilaginous. C. such as old roots. and Ark. see an article by Prof." (Por- Waterle. moist and yielding when fresh. Quebec to Alaska. A subterranean fungus which grows on decaying vegetable matter. and N. when mixed with salads. Trillium. 111.vf." . The inside is a compact. 687-701. Kan. April-June... or a "lemonade" made from it. C. The for thickening soup. Woods. woody. some places. April-Sep. Me. but is composed largely of pectose. while yet tender. south to S. Sometimes cultivated for greens.. The pea is huUed and in -woods." Storksbill. July-Sep. "salt of lemons... Trillium eredum. Waste Erodium cicutarium. (For details. Nev. Nova also T. Cultivated in make May-Aug. Naturalized. It is found in light. Milk. "Furnishes good greens. Violet. to Minn. The Apaches gather the half-ripe pods of a related species and use them for food. Viola palmata. but Outwardly it is not in very old fields or in woodlands. 1881. proboscidea) Waste places. and it is sometimes caUed Indian Bread. boiled. Strawberry Elite. Beth-root. Martynia Louisiana (M.) Unicorn Plant. is in- TucKAHOE.

Naturalized. Virginiana. Jidy-Aug. Bristly Blackberry.. setosus. V. Common Barberry. pallidum. Jidy-Aug. V. JuneJuly.-Sep. G. Aug. Vaccinium caespitosum. Low Black Blueberry. virgatum.Sep. July-Aug. membranaceum. or require no special treatment in cooking. R. July-Aug. V. July-Aug.: 250 CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT WILD FRUITS would extend this chapter beyond reasonable limits if I were to give details of all the wild fruits It native to the region here considered. Jidy-Aug. Mountain Blueberry. Berberis Canadensis. Mountain Blackberry. 'pumila. frondosa. Rhamnus Caroliniana. Black Huckleberry. Lepargyrcea argentea. P. Millspaughii. vacillans. P. Dwarf Blueberry. Aug. R. Box Huckleberry. Black Blueberry. July-Aug. Jidy-Aug. Rubus Baileyanus. As fruits may be eaten raw. V. High Bush Blueberry. Choke Cherry. Aug. Aug. Millspaugh's Blackberry. Cuneijolius. June-July. Vitis-Idaea. Aug. with the time of ripening. Tangleberry. demissa. V. villosiis. a mere list of them. Prunus cuneata.) Sand Cherry. Alleghaniensis. June-July. July-Aug. must suffice Carolina Buckthorn. G. Naturalized. Canadensis. Jidy-Aug. Canada Blueberry. Cerasus. Bumelia languinosa. Southern Black Huckleberry. R. nigrum. G. Egriot. Sand Blackberry. Appalachian Cherry. Aug. Dwarf Bilberry. R. P. R. Aug. V. P. July-Aug. V. (Edible later. trivialis. Besseyi. ovalifolium. Low Blueberry. Canadense. corymbosum. duviosa. Aug. July. Oval-leaved Bilberry. Woolly-leaved Buckthorn. . Windberry. Sep. P. Berberis vulgaris. July-Aug. Western Wild Cherry. V. Buffalo-berry. Western Sand Cherry. R. High Bush Blackberry. ^^. Bailey's Blackberry. Mountain Cranberry. V. Dewberry. June-July. uliginosum. Thin-leaved BUberry.-Sep. Great Bilberry. Pennsylvanicum.-Sep. brachycera. jR. V. R. Hispid Blackberry. Sep. atrococcuvi. July-Aug. Sour Cherry. July. Gayhissacia resinosa. V. July-Aug. Low Bush Blackberry. American Barberry. July-Aug. ' Dwarf Huckleberry. hispidus.

triloba.Apple. frost. Aug. Sep. Downy Grape. Summer. Red H. Celtis occidentalis. Aug. Curlew-berry. Mandrake. Wild Black Currant.-Oct. angusiifolia. Virginiana. Porter's Plum. Scarlet Haw. Black Haw. P. V. Malu^ coronaria. M. Wild Black Cherry. Sep. Passiflora incamata. V.-Oct. Vitis Baileyana. Cranberry Tree. Soulard Crab-Apple.WILDERNESS EDIBLE PLANTS 251 Wild Cherry. Pawpaw. Southern Mountain Cranberry. eryihrocarpus.-Oct. V. Western Crab-Apple. Elderberry. P. Small Cranberry. Crowberry. Sep. loensis. Aug -Sep. Missouri Gooseberry. palmata. Sep. Also P. angustijolia. Oxycoccus macrocarpus. Aug. V. vulpina.-Oct Narrow-leaved Crab. Sweet-scented C.-Sep. Alleghaniensis. July. Naturalized. rotundifolium. Northern Gooseberry. rupestris.-Oct. July-Aug. P. July-Aug. V. Oct. May-July.-Oct. lutea. JulyOct. May Apple. Aug.Apple.-Nov. Diospyros Fruit edible when frost-bitten. Crataegus mollis. Viburnum prunifolium. R. V. Low Plum. Canada Plum. Soulardi. M. Avium. Bog C. floridum. Ribes Cynosbati. Viburnum Opulus. Sep. Sep. wstivalis. R. gracilis. R. Podophyllum peltatum. V. Swamp Gooseberry. Crab Cherry. Southern Fox Grape. gradle. Ground Cherry. Blue Grape. Hudsonianum. Aug.-Oct. rubrum. Buffalo or Missouri C. nigra.-Sep. JulySep. July-Aug. Aug. O. Oct. P. Phy sails. Sep. Summer Grape. rotundifolia. bicolor. Hackberry. Empetrum nigrum. V. Golden Currant. cinerea. Aug. Round-leaved Gooseberry. Riverside Grape. M. Bailey's Grape. Frost Grape. Sugar G. R. Sweet-scented G. Berries dry but edible. R. Northern Fox Grape. . Labrusca. Fruit edible after Beach Plum. Dogberry. Wild Gooseberry. Pennsylvanica.-Sep. Ribes aureum. Missouri Grape. Sambucus Canadensis. oxyacanthaides. Sand Grape. O. American Crab. Chickasaw Plum. V. R. R. known as Maypops. Winter G. P. Northern Black Currant. American Cranberry. Fruit Passion-flower. several species. July-Aug. Wild Red Cherry. serotina. P. Aug. Oxycoccus. Aug. P. Red Currant. Aug.-Sep. cordifolia. Prunus maritima. Asimina Persimmon. lacustre.

-Sep. Botryapium. July-Sep. Scarlet Thorn. chicory. Aug. alnifoUa. ginseng. from the leaves of chicory. Eloeagnus argentea. Scarlet S. MISCELLANEOUS All substitutes for coffee are unsatisfying. Thimble-berry. Oct. Northwestern June-berry. A. June-July. Berries have flavor of sweet birch. P. Fragaria Americana. Canadensis. Wild Red Raspberry. R. Low June-berry. dried sweet potatoes. Sep. hortulana. and cinquefoil.-Oct. Purple Wild Raspberry. July-Aug. cotton-seed. Americanus. Sep. F. Aug. None of our wild plants contain principles that act upon the nerves like caffein or thein. Americana. Black Thorn. A. A. strigosus. and the seeds of the Kentucky coffee-tree." and the parched and ground seeds of okra. P. Rubus occidentalis. Wild Red Plum. July-Sep. Black Raspberry. C. Watsoni. Creeping Snowberry. the seeds of the coffee senna (Cassia occidentalis) called "Magdad coffee. Cloudberry. C. Astragalus crassicarpus. punctata. In the South during the Civil War many pitiful expedients were tried. R. July-Aug. Dwarf Raspberry. parviflorus. R.-Oct. Amelanchier Canadensis. Shad-bush. but the best were found to be rye. Virginia Strawberry. Wild Goose Plum. P. rotundifolia. the sweet goldenrod (Solidago odma). R. Purple-flowering Raspberry. Chamaemorus. odoratus. July-Sep. so-called. of very good flavor can be made from the dried root-bark of sassafras. Virginiana. July. Sep -Oct. June-July. Aug. American Wood Strawberry. and is eaten raw canus. MexiUnripe fruit resembles green plums. neglectus. R. wheat. Northern Wild Strawberry. Service-berry. Yellow P. dandelionseed. Silver berry. July-Aug. Pear Haw. Salmon-berry. or cooked. F. Teas. R.-Oct. persimmon-seed. June-berry. such as parched meal. or from its early buds. Chiogenes hispidma. from the bark and leaves of spicewood. spicata. Other plants used for the pur- . A. Round-leaved June-berry. Large-fruited Thorn. Crataegus tomentosa.252 CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT Watson's Plum. Ground Plum. coccinea. also A.



pose are Labrador tea, Oswego tea, and (inferior) New Jersey tea. Our pioneers also made decoctions of
chips of the arbor-vitse (white cedar), the dried leaves of black birch, and the tips of hemlock boughs, sweetening them with maple sugar. The list of medicinal
is unending. Agreeable summer drinks can be made by infusing the sour fruit of the mountain ash {Pijrus Americana), from sumac berries (dwarf and staghorn), and from The sweet sap of both the fruit of the red mulberry.


hard and


maples, box elder, and the birches (ex-

cept red birch) is potable. Small beer can be made from the sap of black birch, from the pulp of honey locust pods, the fruit of the persimmon, the shoots and root-bark of sassafras, and the twigs of black and red Cider has been made from the fruit of crabspruce.

apples and service-berries. Sugar or syrup is made by boiling down the sap, not only of sugar maple, but of red and silver maples, box elder, the birches, butternut, and hickory, and from honey locust pods. Vinegar also can be made from these saps, as well as from fruit juices, by dilutThe very ing with water and adding a little yeast. sour berries of sumac turn cider into vinegar, or they

may be

used alone.

The Far North is Famine Land, the world over, to it we must look for examples of what men can subsist on when driven to the last extremity.
In all northern countries, within the tree limit, it is customary, in starving times, to mix with the scanty

hoard of flour the ground bark of trees. It is possible The Jesuit misto support life even with bark alone. sionary Nicollet reported, more than two centuries ago, that an acquaintance of his, a French Indian-agent, lived seven weeks on bark alone, and the Relations of the order, in Canada, contain many instances of a like expedient. Those were hard times in New France! Such an experience as this was dismissed with a single



"An eelskin was deemed a sumptuous supper; I had used one for mending a robe, but hunger obHged me to unstitch and eat
sentence, quite as a matter of course:
birch, Hnden,

Another brother says: "The bark of the oak, and that of other trees, when well cooked and pounded, and then put into the water in which fish had been boiled, or else mixed with fish-oil, made Again: "they [the Indians] some excellent stews." dried by a fire the bark of green oak, then they It seems pounded it and made it into a porridge." that the human stomach can stand a lot of tannin, if it has to do so. The young shoots of spruce and tamarack, the inner bark (in spring) of pine, spruce, and hemlock, young leaf-stems of beech, hickory and other trees, and wild rose buds, are nutritious; but these can be had only, Far better than oak bark are the of course in spring. inner barks of alder, quaking aspen, basswood, birch, sweet bay, cottonwood, shppery elm (this especially is

nutritious), white elm, pignut hickory, yellow locust,

striped maple,

and sassafras. The Chippewas boil the bark of the shrubby bittersweet or stafftree (Celastrus scandens) and use it for food. The following entry in the diary of Sir John Franklin
thick, sweetish

sounds naive, when stripped of its context, but there is a world of grim pathos back of it: "There was no tri'pe de roche, so we drank tea and ate some of our shoes for supper." The rock tripe here referred to (Umbilicaria ardica or Dillenii) is one of several edible lichens that grow on rocks and are extensively used as human food in lands beyond the arctic tree limit. Reindeer moss (Cladonia rangiferina) and the well-


Iceland moss {Cetraris Icelandica) are other examples. These are starchy, and, after being boiled for two or three hours, form a gelatinous mass that is digestible, though repulsive in appearance, one of the
early Jesuits likening

to the slime of snails,


another admitting that "it eyes to eat it."
It is pleasanter to turn,

necessary to close one's

now, to the wild condiments
Sassafras, oil of

that our fields


forests afford.

birch, wintergreen,


peppermint and spearmint will Balm, sweet marjoram, summer occur to every one. savory and tansy are sometimes found p,. in wild places, where they have escaped from cultivation. The rootstock of sweet cicely has a spicy taste, with a strong odor of anise, and is Sweet gale gives a pleasant flavor to soups and edible. dressings. The seeds of tansy mustard were used by the Indians in flavoring dishes. Wild garlic, wild onions, peppergrass, snowberry and spicewood may also be used for similar purposes.



starting to fell a tree, clear away all underbrush and vines that are within reach of the extended axe, overhead as well as around you. Neg-


precaution may cripple a man for life. Next decide in which direction you wish the tree to fall. This will be governed partly by the lay of the ground
lect of this




should be as far above c as the intended depth of the Then chop out your kerf, making as big ce.
chips as you can.

To do


chop alternately


the notches d and

out the block between with a downward blow of the axe. A green axeman is known by the finely minced chips and haggled stump


that he leaves.

Beginners invariably over-exert themselves in chopand are soon blown. An accurate stroke counts A for much more than a heavy but blundering one. good chopper lands one blow exactly on top of the other with the precision and regularity of a machine; he chops slowly but rhythmically, and puts little more effort into striking than he does into lifting his axe for the blow. Trying to sink the axe deeply at every stroke is about the hardest work that a man can do,



spoils accuracy.

such wood as is easy to cut, make the cut ce as nearly square across the butt as you can. To do this keep the hand that holds the hilt of the axeIf the tree is of

But if the tree is hard and stubborn helve well down. to fell, or if you are rustling firewood in a hurry, it is easier to make this cut in a slanting direction, so as
not to chop squarely across the grain. Having finished this south kerf (which is two-thirds the labor of felling the tree), now begin the opposite one, B, at a point three or four inches higher than the other. By studying the diagram, and taking into account the tree's great weight, you can see why this method will infallibly throw the tree to the south, if it stands anywhere near perpendicular, and if there is Comparatively few blows not a strong wind blowing. are needed here. When the tree begins to crack, step Never jump in a direction opposite that to one side.

which the

tree falls.




has been killed

in that way.

Sometimes a

falling tree, striking against

one of

like lightning.

neighbors, shoots backward from the stump Look out, too, for shattered limbs. If a tree leans in the wrong direction for your purpose, insert a billet of wood in the kerf B, and drive a

wedge or two above


in the direction of the kerf.



tons can be forced to
fall in

tree weighing


desired direction by the proper use of wedges; and a
in open woods, can throw a tree with such accuracy as to drive a stake previously stuck in the ground at an agreed position. He can even do this when a considerable wind is blowing, by watching

good axeman,

the sway of the tree and striking his final blow at the


the tree is down and you go to log it up, make the outside chip not less in length than the diameter of the log. This will seem absurdly ^^ ^^ ^ ^* long, until you have cut a log in two.


With a narrow cut you would be wedging your axe before you were nearly half through; and your work would be harder, anyway, because you would be cutting more nearly across the grain of the wood, inIn making these side it. be sure to make them perpendicular to the ground; otherwise you will soon find that the upper side of the log is cut away, but that you have no way of getting at When cutting close to the ground, the under side. look out for pebbles. A nick in the axe will make your work doubly hard. Before felling a tree on stony ground it is well worth while to place a small log across the way for the butt of the tree to fall on, so as to keep This will also make it easier to logit off the ground. up. Speaking of nicks in the axe, beware how you cut into hemlock knots; in trimming limbs close to a hemlock trunk, you can ruin the best steel that ever was made. In logging-up a large tree it is necessary for the axeman to stand on the prostrate trunk, with his legs well This, to a apart, and to cut down between his feet. beginner, looks like a risky performance; but I have seen one of my woodland neighbors, who professes to be "only a triflin' hand with an axe," stand on a slender tree-trunk that was balanced about ten feet over a gulch, whack away between his feet, with the trunk swaying several inches at every stroke, nor did he step over on the main trunk until two or three light blows sufficed to cut the end log free. But such a performstead of diagonally with



tame compared with the

feats of

that regular choppers and river drivers as a mere matter of course.

axemanship do every day

Certain woods, such as cedar, can be riven into an axe; but in general, if one has much splitting to do, he should make a maul and some r^ y^ gluts, steel wedges being, presumably, unobtainable. When one has no augur with which to bore a hole for the handle, a serviceable maul can be made in club shape. Beech, oak, and hickory are good materials, but any hardwood that does not splinChoose a sapling about five inches ter easily will do. Dig a little thick at the butt, not counting the bark. below the surface of the ground and cut the sapling (The wood is off where the stools of the roots begin. very tough here, and this is to be used for the large end of the maul, which should be about ten inches long.) From this, forward, shave down the handle, which should be twenty inches long. Thus balanced, the maul will not jar one's hands. Gluts are simply wooden wedges. The best woods for them are dogwood and hornbeam or ironwood, as they are very hard and tough, even when green. Chop
serviceable boards with no other tool than

a sapling of suitable thickness, and make one end wedge-shaped; then cut it off square at the top; and so continue until you have all the gluts you want. It takes no mean skill to chop and shave a glut to a true wedge shape, and much depends upon getting the
angles and surfaces correctly proportioned. is apt to make a glut too short and thick.


in hot



well be fire-hardened,

by placing them

ashes until the sap has been driven out, but leaving the surface only slightly charred.




log, start the


in the smaller or top

end of the


If there is

a crack or large check at the

right place, drive

two wedges into

as the log will

probably split best that way. If not, then with the axe in one hand and maul in the other, make a crack across the end of the log. Drive the wedges home, and others in^o the crack along the side of the log. The general

however. is to split around. by working after the method shown in Figure 4. shown in the lower eighth is used. in the main. it would be worse than useless to try to split shingles from cherry. though. the remaining section is then halved as before. being turned under in flooring. or from hemlock. the wood will Peculiarities of soil and split waney. or the rough shingles For splitting such wide. detaching the latter now and then by the axe at right angles to the splits. With some woods. then split the quarters through the middle. for example. tupelo. and others are or the method split from the remaining segments. but if they are spiral. thin called shakes.260 CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT rule in riving rails is to split a stick through the middle. with a wooden handle set at right angles. according to the dimensions required. is so tough that it would be impracticable to continue the split through the core. Much depends upon the right selection of wood for the purpose in hand. then quarter it. the wood will have a corresponding straight grain. it being a heavy steel blade. if the ridges and furrows of the bark run straight up and down. or winged elm. A timberman can tell whether a tree will split well or not by merely scanning the bark. upon the individual tree. Figure 2 shows. and so on until the required dimensions are reached. A cut of the desired length is sawed from the log and stood on end. because they cannot be split at all. and the round side left as it is. it is not difficult to rive out slabs that are flat on both sides. The usual way. . for it splits spirally. first halved along the line ab. It may then be quartered. however. Much depends. or not at all. The heart of oak. In splitting puncheons the log is merely halved. for example. are riven. and from each quarter the shakes may be split off by placing the edge of the froe on the end of the billet and striking it with a mallet. Figure 3 shows how clapboards. or from sour gum. but not through the core. pieces a tool called a froe is used. the rails are split off in the direction ef. then the rail bed is split off. because it splits irregularly. the method of The quarter of log is splitting rails from a large log. For instance.

Yellow Birch. Sycamore.AXEMANSHIP 261 climate also affect the riving qualities of wood. and to trees native to the region north of Georgia and east of the Rocky Mountains. A few simple tables are here given. Service-berry. Crab-Apple. Mountain Laurel. even up to the length of four or five feet. for example. Sourwood. Red Maple. Elm. . Black Birch. Hickory. Black Haw. (hardest). The data refer to the seasoned wood only. Black Jack Oak. Silver Maple. but specified. Beech. one after the other. Red-bud. Very Hard Woods Persimmon. Winged Elm. it is hoped. Hornbeam. Honey Locust. Sugar Maple. like saw teeth. Yellow Locust. Sour Gum. and of uniform depth. may be of assistance. The working qualities of common woods ought to be known by every one who has occasion to use timber. who may at ^ . Osage Orange Dogwood. In the southern mountains. Cherry. Pecan. Plum. Yellow Pine. which. - ^^y time be driven to shifts in which a mistake in choosing material may have disagreeable consequences. Hackberry. one may see thousands of shingles and palings or clapboards split from hemlock. Post Oak. mine are confined to the qualities of most account to A w campers and explorers. Walnut. Holly. Overcup Oak. except where green is Such tables might easily be extended. Ash. Hard Woods Other Oaks. Mulberry. then split or hew off the remaining blocks until the log is flattened as desired. Tupelo. Chestnut Oak. and especially by a woodsman. Only common native trees are included. To make a puncheon out of a log that will not split straight: cut deep notches along one side.

Loblolly Pine. Arbor. Catalpa. Tupelo. Honey Locust. Black Birch. Hornbeam. Very Yellow Birch. Balsam Poplar. Shellbark Hickory. Beech. White Ash. Sour Gum. Red Pine. Sugar Maple. Elm. . Yellow Birch. Paper Birch. Silver Maple. Cherry. Birch. Beech. Paper Birch.vitse (softest). Tough Woods Black Ash. Osage Orange. Rock Ehn. Stiff Woods Yellow Pine. Chinquapin. Dogwood. woods not mentioned above are of medium soft- Very Strong Woods Yellow Locust. Spanish Oak. Overcup Oak. Aspen. Black Walnut. Basswood. Red Ash. Pignut Hickory. Strong Woods Other Oaks. Plum. Black Birch. Hornbeam. White Elm. Bittemut Hickory. Hickory. Very Tough Woods Beech. Tamarack. Spanish Oak. Chestnut Oak. Yellow Birch. Shellbark Hickory Yellow Pine. Yellow Locust. Cottonwood. Sugar Maple. Persimmon. Paper Birch.262 CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT Very Soft Woods Spruce. (Common ness. Big-bud Hickory. Dogwood. Basket Oak. Balsam Fir. Sour Gum. Water Oak. Basswood. Service-berry. Slippery Elm. Water Locust. Tamarack. Red Maple. Pawpaw. White Pine.) Buckeye. Shingle Oak. Osage Oraiijge.

. White Oak. Service-berry. Cedar. Woods Black Ash. Swamp White Oak. Black Ash. Overcup Oak. Spruce. Hendock. Buckeye. Liquidambar. Cottonwood. Basswood. (green). Red Oak. Chestnut. Flexible. Bur Oak. Sycamore. that Split Easily Ash. Honey Locust. Woods Arbor-vitse. Tamarack. 263 Liquidambar. Witch Hazel. Yellow Pine. Cherry. White Oak. Basket Oak. Elm Dogwood Balsam (green). Hickory. Springy Woods White Ash. White Elm. Black Walnut. Spruce. Difficult to Split Box Elder. Basket Oak. Sour Gum. Hackberry. Hackberry. Paper Birch. White Pine. Hornbeam. Slippery Beech (when White Birch. Silver Maple. Winged Elm (unwedgeable). The Soft Pines. green). Hackberry. Pliable Woods Basswood. Red-bud. Honey Locust (seasoned). Yellow Poplar. Yellow Locust. that Separate Easily into Thin Layers Basket Oak. Cypress.AXEMANSHIP Hornbeam. Elm. Black Walnut. Red Maple. Woods Basswood. Black Birch (green). Buckeye. Sugar Maple (seasoned). Cedar. Yellow Poplar Red Birch. Chestnut. Osage Orange. Butternut. Big-bud Hickory. Wild Cherry. Easily Wrought Black Birch. Tupelo (unwedgeable). Fir. Catalpa. Woods Blue Ash (seasoned).

.264 CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT Woods Liable to Check in Seasoning Beech.

birch. maple. cedar. yellow birch. mulberry. ash. oak. locality depending on ing. cypress. for gunstocks. their individual peculiarities. etc. pignut hickory (bark). mulberry. bur oak. for anything requiring a very hard and close-grained wood. hickory. arbor-vitse. cedar. plum. hickory. dogwood. maple. tamarack(for bottoms) for oars or paddles. slippery elm. yellow poplar. sugar maple. One will choose. hickory.AXEMANSHIP Naturally. j x . (green) hornbeam. birch. i oak. for the first course of logs. black ash is best. red maple. gray pme. yellow poplar. sassafras. slippery elm (bark). In building a log cabin. beech. hornbeam. sassafras. for ski. helves. spruce. ash. sour gum. for wooden bowls or trenchers. yellow wood. similarly. choose timber that is not only straight but light in weight. or service-berry. black walnut.. . proper wood for shingles may be selected by consulting the tables for a wood that is both easy to split and dur. for runners.vitae. elm. ash and spruce. cypress. slippery elm. just as people have. and tamarack. Osage orange. and. at least. Osage orange. rock elm. winged elm. dogwood. laurel. and black walnut. chestnut. birch. oak. . winged elm. _p Purposes. yellow birch. 265 Trees have The best woods for dugouts are butternut. black ash. rock elm. cherry. according to what is available on the For snowshoe bows. persimmon. service-berry. white pine. beech. for toboggans. Those best for the ribs and frames of canoes and boats are . service-berry. of course. for treenails. for axe(if from green wood) hornbeam. hickory. honey locust. large tupelo. pick out wood that will not rot easily when in contact with the ground such are easily determined by using the tables here given. cucumber. for sheath- paper birch (bark). spot. these are only general guides. sour gum. sycamore. for sledge frames. locust. holly. ash. for any such purpose as a wheel-hub. sourwood. requiring toughness. yellow locust. Osage orange. maple. sassafras. yellow locust. white cedar. cucumber. spruce (bark). ^ arbor. for fishing rods. for handspikes. liquidambar. dogwood. post oak. and strength. birch. thorn. and available species.

Ordinarily." This also makes the wood. Small pieces can be merely immersed in a kettle of hot water. it can be secured by merely sticking the two ends of the The ^ wood into the ground and letting upright to dry.. . a wedge of soft wood will ^ . the bow stand To wedge a wooden pin in an auger-hole. but if it is -> . in an axe-helve. by throwing red-hot stones into it. This is called by raftsmen "witchwedging. CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT For a raft. hold better. and makes it more durable. Then drive stout stakes into the ground in the outline desired. or by fastening it to a straight form. spht the top of the pin before driving. some timbers." By the way. if you can find them.^ desired that they should retain their new shape. such as black walnut and sour gum will not float at all when green. so pliable that it can be bent into any required shape. . Green wood can quickly be seasoned by heating it embers of the camp-fire till the sap sizzles out. The weight of seasoned wood is no criterion logs of of the weight of the green wood : for example. but a freshly cut log of will scarcely float in water. for instance. that it may dry more readily. The old English word for such treat„ ^ ment of wood was "beathing. pick out. If a simple bow-shape is all that is wanted. application of heat. in the . the dry is wood of the sequoia or big tree of California it. they should be steamed. . and drive in a small wedge. then seat it.266 able. or it can be straightened by hanging a weight from one end. dry any very light wood. large ones may be steamed in a trench partly filled with water. without deeply charring. for the time being. also hardens green wood. small pieces of green wood can be bent to a required form by merely soaking the pieces for two or three days in water. with small sticks underneath to keep the wood from contact with the ground. full of sap. as in building a raft. . lighter than white pine. than one of hard wood. and bend the suppled wood over these stakes. .

basswood. First girdle the tree just above the swell of the butt. and some basswood trees can be found that will peel even in winter. however. bark has so many uses. by cutting through into the sap wood. although elm peels through eight months of the year. . It is only when the sap is up (spring and summer) that bark will peel freely. soft inner bark being used. only the tough. choose one with bark that is thick and with few and small "eyes. in the same way that he would roofs drive iron spikes. select a large tree with smoothe and faultless trunk. Cedar bark may do. but for nice jobs the bark should be treated as described below. If only a moderate sized sheet is needed. makes good and temporary . and lay them overlapping. balsam fir. Connect these two rings by a vertical slit through the bark. cottonwood. The bark T. But. of the following trees shelters. if one wishes to strip bark in cold weather. and the rough outer bark (except in case of birch) must be removed. elm. the tree may not have to be felled. that a knowledge of how to select and manipulate it is one of the essentials of a woodsman's education. with alternately the convex and concave sides out. as a rule. this is your . he will have to roast a log carefully without burning the outside. But for nicer jobs the bark must be flattened. In the real wilderness. white ash. chestnut. buekeye." For a temporary roof it will be enough merely to skin the bark off in long strips eight or ten inches wide. spruce. as in the Adirondacks. Remember that barking a tree generally kills it. . or wedge-shaped) into softwood logs. Before stripping bark. fibrous._ and is useful for many other purposes: paper birch. but it is very inflammable. hickory. and that it is illegal in some regions. hemlock. Then girdle it again as high up as you can reach.AXEMANSHIP When wood 267 one has no auger. he can readily drive hardpins (sharpened at the point. Now cut into wedge -shape the larger end of a four-foot length of sapling. If it is birch. For rough work the outer bark may simply be "rossed" off with a hatchet.

then folded over in several overlaying laps. and tied with bark straps. and a 3-foot "spud" or barking free along Fig. 17. that can be made from bark. and sew a bark bowl to it with . and thus proceed around the tree till the whole sheet falls off.. 16. I have no space in which to describe all the utensils. middle part to stiffen the vessel. The bark is laid on the ground for a few days to dry in the sun. .j!7^ Fig.- . which supples it and makes the inner bark easy to remove from the outer. heat the fork.268 CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT tool. To make a dipper: take a forked stick of green wood. etc. gathered up somewhat in the shape of a canoe's bow and stern.- that will hold liquids is quickly made by rossing off the outer ends of a sheet of suitable size. bend and bind it into bow form. tree will afford one 5x9^ feet. a tree 2 feet in diameter will thus yield a sheet about 5x6^ feet. bark from the but leaving it on the The rossed ends are &4. and is then soaked in water. If the girdles are 5 feet apart. A tray or trough T> . One or two simple examples must suffice. With it gently work the bark one edge of the upright slit.

. 18.B»fflf»l Fig.^ .AXEMANSHIP 269 (h.

The sewed seams of bark buckets. folded lengthwise. leatherwood (remarkably strong). opened out. Very good ropes and ^ twine can be made from the fibers of r rT^ an ^ win ^^^ inner bark of the slippery. the shoulder blade . A roughand-ready dipper is made in three minutes as shown A sheet of bark. and Osage orange. Straps. stiffened with hoops or withes of pliable wood. the second finger placed behind A. pery elm especially makes a pliable rope. the fold upward made as shown. strap through slits at four upper corners to hold the sides together. elm. which softens the fiber so it can be manipulated without breaking. red cedar. and a split stick added as handle. The Indians first separate the bark in long strips. say 8x10 inches. and then boil it in a lye of sifted wood ashes and water.. for example. and hickory shoots. matting. red mulberry. soft to the touch. the pignut and other hickories. are closed with a mixture of pine resin or spruce "gum" and grease or oil. yellow locust. or a slender straight stick can be bent into shape for a frame. One who has not examined the finished work would scarce believe what strong. Add a bark sling-strap. Fold this through the middle. it can be closely braided. remove the woody outer layer. white. laid on while hot. braided tumplines. and winged elms. and is very durable.. soft. After it is dried it can be separated into small filaments by pounding. etc. The concavity of the bark holds the edges together without sewing. and basswood are the best barks to use. etc. are made from the whole bark of pawpaw. is trimmed to spade-shape. A bark bucket for carrying fish or berries is quickly made by taking from a young poplar.270 CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT rootlets or similarly bark twine. and buckeye. the Slipstrings running with the grain for several feet. a sheet of bark twice as long as the intended depth of Pass a barkbucket. and garments can be made from such materials by proper manipulation. fish-nets. durable cordage. in the illustration. If the woody splinters and hard fragments have not been entirely removed by pounding. and the upper edges are Birch. fish-stringers. and . and even thread.

not only for ropes. and separating it into two parts. and exceedingly strong. and thus escaped from what seemed to the on-lookers as certain death by starvation. bast or inner rind of basswood (linden) makes good rope. after is easily removed. leaving the yellowish-brown fiber ready to be picked apart and A rope made from it is and keeps longer in water. Mulberry and Osage orange bast yield a fine. than one made from common hemp. is soft. white. almost all over the continent. It was formerly used by the Indians. The fibers of the nettle were also similarly used. and bunches of the boiled bark are pulled filaments are then put backward and forward through the hole. used.AXEMANSHIP of a deer drilled is 271 through fastened to an upright post. when they are permitted to unite and twist into a cord. an inch hole is it. with bark adhering. strands are twisted in to make the length of cord Twine and thread are made from the bark desired. and garments. between the American and Canadian falls of Niagara. of young sprouts. while they were in a drunken sleep. In the southern Appalachians. flax-like fiber. that used to be spun by squaws to the thickness of packthread and then woven into garments. so as tightly to twist the pair of strands. which the bark is washed stronger. collected in the fall. threads. The up in hanks and hung aside for use. being boiled to supple them when needed. but for nets. off. two Indians whose canoe had drifted. then the bast. it is not many years mountain white women used to make bedcords (perhaps you know how strong such cords must since the . Bark twine is made by holding in the left hand one end of the fiber as it is pulled from the hank. ward over both. upon Goat Island. More than a century ago. The inner bark of Indian hemp (Apocynum cannabinum). let themselves down over the face of the cliff by a rope that they made from bass- The wood bark. Other the left hand drawing it away as completed. The woody stems are first soaked in water. silky. which are laid across the The palm of the right hand is then rolled forthigh.

cedar. split. divided roots are called by northern Indians watab or watape. like your ropes." they said. are similarly used. and slip more easily through our hands. are used by In- ^ J dians to stitch together the bark plates of their birch canoes. damped. most durable and costliest of all the ingenious products of the abstrongest original basket-maker. and utensils that will hold water. The twigs .. The fiber is when well moistened. and and Cottonwood." The fibers of tamarack roots. The long. Baskets made of them are the strongest. strands for fish-nets being sometimes made as much as fifty yards in length. "are always rather greasy in the water. 272 be) of CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT by twisting or plaiting together long. P y. The old-time Indians used to say that bark cords were better than hemp ropes. up bark finely tents. Nor do they cut the skin. Grapevine rope is made in a manner similar to bark rope. when leather. J and suppled in water. as they did not rot so quickly from alternate wetting and drying. the seams being smeared with the resin that exudes from also for sewing the tree. when anything has to be pulled. Twine and stout cords are also made of this material. slender splits hickory wood (preferably mocker-nut) that they suppled by soaking. The American wistaria (Kraunhia frutescens) is so tenacious and supple that it was formerly used along the lower Mississippi for boats' cables. tough rootstocks of sedge or saw-grass are much used by our Indians as substitutes for twine. nor were they so harsh The and kinky. about the size of a quill. The remarkably tough and pliable rootlets of white spruce. became as supple as "Our bast cords. but. of hemlock. Such bed-cords are in use to this day. A is favorite basket plant of the the ill-scented is Apaches and Navajos sumac or skunk-bush (Rhus trilohata) Illinois which common from westward. Lastly. it can be knotted with ease. when barked. they feel rather warmer in winter.

chop a notch in the log. for instance. this material are so made that they will hold water. when the wood is full of sap and pliable. To fasten a withe to a log. cut the wood into sticks as wide along the rings as the splints are to be. For such purpose as basketmaking. a good soaking is necessary. by dropping hot stones in the water. If the material is to be kept for some time before weaving. when green. when beaten with mallets. and perhaps two inches thick. These are then bent layers of . and witch hazel.AXEMANSHIP of 273 Baskets are soaked in water. cedar. are made from tall shoots of hickory or other tough wood. etc. dogwood. trim the butt of the sapling to fit loosely. making it a little wider at the bottom than at the those of top. birch. the supple-jack {Berchemia scanThe fibers of the red-bud dens). then twist. arbor-vitse. jnakes good withes. narrow strips. In any case. and then are soaked. raft logs. and the work should be done while the withes are still wet and soft. The best hoops are made from hickory. and they are often used to cook in. withes should be gathered in spring or early summer. liquidambar. willow. The Indians. Large withes for binding rails. tree are said by basket-makers to equal in strength palm or bamboo. Black ash and basket oak. and then split. The strips are kept in coils until wanted for use. scraped. Splints are easily made from slippery elm. A sapling as thick as one's wrist can be twisted in this way. and drive a wedge in alongside of it. separate easily into thin sheets or ribbons along the line of each annual ring of growth.. making the withe pliable so that it can be knotted. A southern shrub. by taking saplings or limbs three or four inches in diameter. it should be buried in the ground to keep it fresh. Other good woods for withes are leatherwood. then cutting these into thin. and hammering them with ^ a wooden mallet until the individual * wood are detached from those underneath. white or black ash. by twisting at one end with the hands until the fiber separates into strands. in making splint baskets. alder.

and drive the blade of the axe into the ground up to the eye. to be used chiefly in logging-up big trees. and it is much more secure at all times. when you have no sandpaper. and there you are. is — . over an open camp. lash the stump firmly with a rope. Then. from preference. a log hut is more comfortable than any tent. knock out the wedges. . Now it often happens Ax6-Hclvcs TT that the stub of old handle cannot be be burnt removed by ordinary means: it must To do this without drawing the temper of the steel might seem impracticable. insert the article to be held. or a little more. when they part into thin strips. For a cold. If the axe is double-bitted. and a very serious one until a new helve is „. Then build a fire around the out. with wedges. A broken axe-helve is a not uncommon accident in the woods. dig a little trench about six inches deep and the width of the axe-eye. in their axes such handles full four feet long. cover both blades with two inches of earth. Two feet eight inches is a good length for ordinary chopping. axe-head that is all. leaving a square-topped stump of convenient height. but the thing is as simple as rolling off a log. use loose sand in a piece of buckskin. . straight handles I have seen single-bitted axes at that. do not bother to make a crooked one like the store pattern. from the top. made and . The saving in firewood. To make a vise: cut a good-sized hardwood sapHng. Split the stump through the middle as Trim the upper part. like a tourniquet. and build a small fire on top. — — To smoothe any article made of wood. Thousands of expert axemen use. when you see it done. Pick out a spot where the earth is free from stones and pebbles. In making a new axe-helve.weather camp. nearly or quite as many of them as there are rings of growth. far as necessary. about eighteen inches if needful for the purpose. fitted.274 CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT sharply in the plane of the radius of the rings. Lay the axe flat over it. and twist split Open the it tight with a stick.

see Wicks's book Log Cabins and Cottages (Forest & Stream Pub. kneading. but translucent together. moss mixed with clay or tenacious mud is suflScient. tree to If 275 keep up a you intend to build a cabin. yellow clay will do." These are poles laid over the butts of the shakes and immediately over the stringers of the roof. until the pit is almost full of embers." and fasten them down with "binders" or "weight- you have no shingles. bark roof is only fit for or a roll of roofing paper. a temporary lodge. Better. To hold a shingled roof in place. take along either a crosscut saw and a froe for splitting shingles. pouring water over the mass. If you cannot carry window panes and a knock-down sash into the woods. mix in a chimney. for it takes a good-sized good all-night fire before a lean-to.AXEMANSHIP immense. dig a pit 5 feet square by 3 feet deep and build a fire in it. and then letting the fire do the rest. as it soon gets leaky. Keep adding fuel as the fire burns down. one made by pound- ing mussel shells to a fine powder. mixing this with clay freed from pebbles. Then pile on split sticks of uniform size until the pile . Co. this makes a particularly hard and durable cement. the ends of binders and stringers being withed tightly For details in the construction of log cabins. For the former. logs. however. This may be as good a place as any in which to describe some rough-and-ready but effective ways of prop. tatterdemalion. thoroughly blue clay and wet sand. overlap the shakes like ordinary but with several inches more "to the weather. A cabin without a window is a cheerless. A recipe for the latter is given in the next chapter. and there is seldom good excuse for such shiftlessness. and inflammable. curing charcoal and lime. A tenacious mortar is swamp mixed may be made with deer's hair. from the slime of a feathers. but this should not be used __ For such purpose. For chinking between logs. take along some oiled paper or parchment. A if nails. and many designs from the rudest to large club-houses. etc.. New York). fusty den.

it will be found nearly full of charcoal. to If it mix mortar for ure with brush to facilitate kindling the kiln. After letting the pit cool for twenty-four hours. cover the top with sods to make the calcination slow and regular. Keep it going for two days and nights. whereupon shovel over the earth that was dug out of the pit. then fill with alternate layers of dry hardwood and limestone broken into moderate-sized pieces. Lime can be made. cover the bottom of this inclosing charcoal.276 CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT stands a foot above the ground. . inclose a circular space of 5 feet diameter by a rude stone wall 3 feet high. pihng the top into Light the pile and when it is well going conical form. wherever there is limestone. without much trouble. by a process similar to that of burnit you want enough of a cabin chimney.

turn the head to one side and insert the knife between the base of the skull and the first or atlas vertebra. Now. just back of the antlers. Then make a straight cut to the base of each antler. ^ the large blood-vessels in doing so. instead of the throat. skin of the neck. If the head is that of a moose. make an opening cut from the center of the top of the skull. severing the muscles and tendons. so as to leave Sever the cartilage the cartilage attached to the skin. back to the end of the neck skin. and the skull is detached. and slit the skin along the top of the neck. free from the skull. BUCKSKIN. Cut off the cartilage of the ears close to the skull.CHAPTER XIX TROPHIES. Then peel the skin off as far as the lips. so that no seam may show in the finished trophy. After cutting around the neck. AND RAWHIDE skinning the head of any animal of the deer tribe. until the eye sockets are reached. the slit should be made up the back of the neck. give a wrench. cut close to the bone all around. The skin is now of the nose well back of the nostrils. to be given to a taxidermist for mounting. reached. 277 . the result being a Y-shaped Then work off the incision as shown in the figure. and cut and pry the skin away from the base of each antler. inserting under the skin a wedge-shaped Peel off the skin stick and pounding a little on it. use the small blade of your pocketknife and work deliberately. taking pains not to cut the skin where When the lips are it sinks into the pit below the eye. then turn the head in the opposite direction and perform a similar operation there. Be careful here not to cut the eyelids. close to the shoulders and brisket. being careful not to rupture any of '• TN if it is .

278 split CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT the bell all the way down on off all the flesh. wash the latter clean Then cut and scrape all of blood and wring it dry. Now get a stiff stick small enough to enter the hole in the base of the skull. 20. any rate skin up the back side as then the salt will get in its flesh that you can Disarticulate the lower jaw so skull. and skin them clear to the tips if you can. and clean it. especially the back side. splinter one end of it by beating it. Split the lips on the inside to allow the salt to penetrate. work and keep the hair of the ears from slipping. far as you can do so. but at Fig. work better. How to Skin a Deer's Head. Pare from the butts of ears. Detach the skin of the back of the ears from the cartilage. and work this end around inside the skull so as to break up and from the . lips and nose. but do not trim away the cartilage. Having carefully trimmed off all flesh that adheres to the skin.

TROPHIES. using water to assist you. that the opening . . Remove the skin with the bones feet must be opened. ® do not stretch it nor hang it up by the c!^-^ ^* The next morning examine it nose. well out of reach of dogs and Never dry a skin by the fire nor in the sun. would shrink the skin. spread is out on the ground. A bear is of the feet Remove the skull and in position. salt into fix Pelts of soft state. split rub ing Next mornit and roll it up. All told. the lips from the inside. any kind can be preserved indefinitely in a without any slipping of the hair. shave these down and rub salt into them. ^ The bottoms of the angles of the jaws. Now hang up the skin and . and adding to each gallon one ounce by measure of sulphuric acid. it may take fifteen pounds Do not use any alum. rub some cornmeal or ashes on it and thoroughly scrape off the fat. To cure the skin. some water. if you have If salt and blood once get into caribou hair they one. save slit is made by extending the belly cut up along the throat between the „. flesh to flesh. turn the ears wrong side out and wash the skin well to remove blood stains. then roll the skin up and let it lie until morning. RAWHIDE 279 remove the brain. cause a rust that cannot be eradicated. still clean it. pack the skin in a sack. On arriving at camp. up a sapling for a "beam" (as described below). Hides should not be salted if it is intended to make . Let the liquor cool besalt to fore immersing the skins. a shady place. turn the skin inside out while it is still damp and soft. skinned in the same manner as a deer. by keeping them immersed in a liquor prepared by boiling it. skull in vermin. dissolving salt in in the proportion of one quart of the gallon. p p . throw the skin over it. carefully for soft spots where the salt has not struck in and hardened the tissues. When all is dry. flesh side up. for it of salt for a moose head. wash out the inside of the skull and tie the lower jaw in place. then salt the skin again and roll it up. rub 'plenty of fine salt over every inch of the inner surface of the skin. BUCKSKIN.

collects no burs. not tanned at all. It is warmer than cloth. hunting shirts. leggings. When of good quality it can be it is well for everj big washed is Its only fault is that it like a piece of cloth. on the contrary. purposes buckskin is superior to any leather. with no materials save those furnished on the spot by the forest. Different Indian tribes have different methods of making buckskin. propimitation. Tanned leather has erly speaking. Neither tannin nor any substitute for it has touched a piece of buckskin. if for no other reason than to avoid being humbugged. from the tannin or other chemicals used in converting it from the raw hide to Buckskin. pliable as kid. Much of the so-called buckskin used by glovers and others is a base Genuine Indian-tanned buckskin is. its fibers have been loosened and rendered permanently soft and flexible. but game hunter to understand the process. In color and pliability it is somewhat like what is called chamois skin. the stream. noiseless against bushes. it can easily be made as soft For some as ever by merely rubbing it in the hands. It was used by our frontiersmen. Not even salt is used in its manufacture. its pores have been closed up.280 CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT The latter is buckskin from them. that has been made supple and soft by breaking up the fibers mechanically and has then merely been treated with brains and smoke to preserve its softness. for moccasins. but there has been little or no chemical change from the raw state of the skin and consequently it has no tendency to rot. (2) depilating and flesh- . . wears like iron and its soft neutral color renders the wearer inconspicuous amid any surroundings. undergone a chemical change. very unpleasant to wear in wet weather. but against this is the consideration that buckskin can be prepared in the wilderness. . is still a raw skin leather. but the essential processes are the same. as well as by the Indians. namely: (1) soaking. although it shrinks some after wetting and gets stiff in drying. but it is far stronger and has the singular property that. a hard job. and the animal itself. proof against thorns. gun covers and numerous other purposes.

the neck is caught between the notch and — . If the short notched log is used. the latter instrument being used like a spokeshave. to prevent slipping. After soaking. RAWHIDE ing. Or. or of the attached bones of a deer's foreleg with the front end of the ulna scraped sharp. is first soaked in ^ water from three to five days. (3) stretching 281 and treating with brains. if the point of the blade be driven into a stick so as to give a handle at each end. The back of a thin butcher-knife does well enough. almost anything with a scraping rather than a cutting edge will answer the purpose.TROPHIES. a short log may be used one that will reach to a man's chin when stood on end. Sometimes a large. (4) smoking. for example. of the sharpened rib or scapula of an animal. After they could get iron. the squaws made skin-scrapers shaped as in the accompanying illustration. In fact. and the small end sticking in the ground about two feet from the tree. Dealers in taxidermists' supplies sell scrapers made specially for this purpose. It was formerly made of hardwood. the handle being about a foot long. and presses his weight against it. leaving the smoothe end about waist high. The skin is placed on the graining log with the neck drawn over the upper end of the log about six or eight inches. of flint. A graining-knife is now required. in which case a notch is cut in the butt by which the stick is braced against the limb of a small tree. like a tanner's beam. the operator places a flat stick between the neck and his body. A favorite instrument was an adze or hoeshaped tool made from the fork of an elk antler. The bark is removed from the thick end and the other end is stuck under a root or otherwise fastened in the ground at an angle. strong mussel shell was used. which is simply a piece of sapling or small tree about 8 feet long and 6 or 8 inches thick at the butt. BUCKSKIN. depend„ ing upon temperature. with smoothe surface facing the operator. the hide is taken to a graining log. Elk or buffalo hides were immersed in a lye of wood ashes and water or rolled up in ashes moistened with warm water. The skin of a deer. with repeated soaking and drying.

as thin and pliable After cleaning in this manis ner the skin over night. by removing all superfluous tissue and working the skin down to an even thickness throughout. The hide is now turned over and fleshed with a sharp knife. and worked in every direction g. CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT The off scraped hair and grain (black epidermis) are by working the knife down the skin the the hair runs. which is coarser than the flesh side. which have been removed by splitting the skull lengthwise half in two. . Softeninff the twisted. If the hair is stubborn. she would patiently work way — Fig. In olden times. down a deerskin until is it was almost as a piece of cotton cloth. hide. until it becomes white and soft. This operation must be performed with extreme care or the buckskin will have thick and stiff spots which make it comparatively worthless a point to be considered in buying buckskin. being allowed to simmer over a slow fire while the lumps are rolled between the fingers till they form a paste which will dissolve more freely.282 the limb. 21. a little ashes rubbed into such spots will offer resistance to the knife and will make the grain slip. after which the operator rubs into it the brains of the animal. Sometimes the brains are first dissolved in tepid water. when a squaw wanted to make something particularly nice. This solution is then rubbed into the hide on the hair side. The skin is pulled. Indian Skin-Scraper. allowed to dry and then re-soaked comes the job of stretching and softening the There is only one recipe for this: elbow-grease ^^^ plenty of it. Now .

or a twisted sinew Large and refractory hides them firmly on elevated frames and dancing on them. which will it is is hung by the fire to dry. till it is wringing out. and twisting into a hard knot leaving it to dry. When wanted for dressing a hide. but he can accomplish it by throwing the wet skin over a convenient limb. for heating would ruin the skin. by soaking it in the solution. drying and re-soaking penetrated. the smudge must not be allowed to break out in flame. g narily the skin is made its own smoke„. and rubbed. that is. . the macerated liver Deer brains of the animal is added to the brains. dissolved in hot water A skin may be treated and the moss is removed. until the fiber is thoroughly loosened and every part becomes as pliIf two men are available they able as chamois skin. It is a hard job for one man to soften a large hide. when smoke without flame. A small hole is dug in the ground and a smudge started in it. some discrimination must be used in selecting the fuel. kneaded. If a particular shade of yellow or brown is desired. may be preserved by mixing them with moss so as to make the mass adhere enough to be formed into a cake. house. . the more pliable it becomes. stretched. forming a loop at the other end. The oftener a skin is wet and softened. The final process is smoking. The best smudge is made from "dozed" wood. from wood affected with dry rot until dried. lariat. gives it the desired color. BUCKSKIN. toughens the skin. as thick as one's finger. then he re-soaks it and repeats the operation as often as necessary. if there is not be enough for the job. passing a stout stick through it.TROPHIES. thoroughly After this process the skin must again be pulled. Several small poles are stuck around the hole and the skin is wrapped around them somewhat like a teepee . Such a cake keep for years. which closes the pores. gives out a pale blue it is spongy. saw the hide back and forth over the sharpened edge of a plank or over a taut rope. Above all things. this.. may be softened by stretching — . and insures Ordiits drying soft after a wetting. RAWHIDE The likely to 283 brains act as a sort of dubbing.

This is all. in which case rub into it convenient thoroughly a mixture of oil and tallow. a good way to smoke them is to loosely baste best. not necessary for deerskins. when practicable. extending it in all directions as tightly as possible.. the outside of the skins forming the inside of the bag and the after part of the skins forming its bottom. pared. . This sets the color. the deep cut of the being at the lower side so that no . 284 CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT it cover. Then remove the hair and stretch the hide with great force on a frame or on the side of a building. to the edges of the open end sew a cloth their edges together in the it open. but elk hides are comparatively weak and inferior material. Dry in the shade. the neck end being left open. so as to have plenty of room around and above the smudge. A way making a stretching frame in the woods is to go where two trees grow at the right distance apart. Suspend this bag from bottom to a tree or pole. unless you wish to make the rawhide supple. Bend a small green stick into a hoop and place it within the bottom of the bag. so that when it it dries it taut as a drumhead. Inspect the inside of the skins from time to time and when they are smoked to a deep yellow or light brown the process is finished. made by adding wood ashes to water. is smoke two or more skins at once. the edges being sewed or skewered together. otherwise. notch them at the proper height to receive a strong. sometimes both sides of the skins are smoked. Rawhide is Soak . or in a weak lye J. The alkali is until the hair will slip. Antelope. under the mouth of the bag place a pan containing the continuation. will be as use no salt or other preservative. deer. of stiff sapling that has been cut to latter fit the notches. leaving its smouldering wood (the cloth mouth is to prevent the skin from heating). When two skins of about equal size are ready. The skins of antelope or any of the deer tribe are treated in the same way. moose and caribou hides make good buckskin. to form of a bag. making it permanent. fold the skins with the smoked side within and lay them away for a few days to season. often useful in camp and is easily pre- the fresh hide in water.

sewing this up with the lace-leather. similarly fit another pole into reversed notches just above the ground. make rawhide trunks or boxes which would stand any amount of abuse in packing and travel. soaking the skin until it is quite soft. (Our dictionthe voyageurs parfleche. and not quite half as much salt. An sum- mer coon's very good for this purpose. and are old for shoestrings and whangs. cut slits in the edges of the hide and from them stretch thongs or very strong cords to the trees and poles. Woodchuck good --. and let it stand about two days and a night." with the accent In these rawhide receptacles the thickest hides of to dry. aries surmise that this is a French adaptation of some Indian word. then filling the bucket with dry sand or earth and letting it A stand till dry. and then take a large tablespoonful of alum. but it makes the strings too slippery thereafter. prepare a hide for whang-leather soak it until the hair will slip. To : for lye will weaken the hide. The plains Indians used to The word making is commonly pronounced by Americans on the last syllable.) "par-flesh. because it was from rawhide that the Indians made their almost impenetrable shields. These were called by p ^. hide bucket can be made by cutting off from the rawhide some thin strips for lacing. and makes them draw dampness till they rot. buffalo bulls were dehaired. BUCKSKIN. wildcat's skin is best of all. fitting to it a handle of twisted or plaited hide. twisting them up tightly. Do not use wood ashes unless you must.TROPHIES. Soften by rubbing over the edge of a plank or shake.. skins are proverbially tough. Remove the hair. Then pull and work it until dry. skin is Squirrel skins can be used for thinner ones. cover with a cloth to keep moist. meaning an arrow-fender. Roll up the skin. . but it is simply Canadian-French. RAWHIDE force can pull the pole 285 down. and rub this into the flesh side. . Some use soap in tanning such skins. shaping from it a bag. cut into the required shapes and stretched on wooden forms they then re- tained their shapes and were almost as hard as iron.

edge foremost. acting as a gauge. To preserve its pliability. then fasten the strips to a tree and plait them to a uniform circumference and tightness of twist. With a pair of compasses (a forked stick with pencil or metal scoring point attached to one leg will serve) draw a circle on a piece of hide. this is more easily done while the gut is still warm from the animal. A 30-foot riata will require two large cowhides if it is to be made three-stranded. stretch it thoroughly. and then grease it. Wash it and then scrape it with a blunt knife to remove slime and grease. To make a rawhide riata: select carefully skinned hides that have no false cuts in them. Having removed the hair. When the rope is finished. and inclining a little to the rear. draw the cut strip between the awl and the knife and steadily pull away the round leather will revolve as the knife cuts its way. inside and out. stick the knife. ^ * . keep it continually greased. the width of the strip not exceeding one-half inch. wet each strip. keeping them well stretched and constantly wetted so as not to harden. Thoroughly cleanse the intestine from all impurities. and the awl. Keep the strands and plaited portion wet. then lay the round bit of hide in front of the knife. but it can be made from the intestines of almost any good-sized animal. which are . any more than chamois skin is made from chamois. make a starting cut of the desired width on the edge of the circular piece of Drive an awl or a slender round nail into a hide. The catgut of commerce is never made from cats. Cut up the hide in the manner of laces. board and alongside of it. stake the hides out on level ground. or four small ones if four-stranded.286 CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT Lace-leather is cut of uniform width by the following means. so as to loosen both the inner and outer membranes. when cut. cut out this round piece with a keen knife. keep them pegged out two days. and wrap it around a stick. at precisely the width of the lace. then steep it in running water for a day or two. a Mexican fills his mouth with water which he squirts slowly over the work and materials. will insure a uniform width of lacing.

firmly lash each end of the gut to one of these notched ends. pliable and durable sewing thread is made from sinew. and. It splits into even threads. . For bowstrings and heavy sewing. cord. A very strong. . flat pieces of wood into the shape of knife-blades. when the weight of the water will cause the gut to become inverted. thin enough to enter the saw-cuts. Such receptacles have many uses in wilderness camps. these being coarse in texture. particularly in sewing leather or buckskin. It is then washed free from lye and can either be split into thin fibers when it has dried or may be twisted into a bowstring or similar To twist it. for finer work they chose . ^ ^ . such as a tool and its handle. The paunches of aniby oiling. inflation with air and drying to preserve them. BUCKSKIN. is easy to work with when damp. Bladders only need cleaning. . can be expanded . to prevent their running back. By alternately twisting these and fixing them in the saw-cuts. The fibrous inner membrane is then soaked three or four hours in water to which wood ashes have been added. to hold bear's oil. and other fluid or semi-fluid substances. pliable .- Membranes. where the former has no eye. drying. hence it is a better material than any vegetable fiber for certain kinds of sewing. wild honey.TROPHIES. and then the elk.. RAWHIDE 287 then removed by scraping. plant two stout stakes in the ground. invert this. a little wider apart than the length of the gut. alter cleanmg. mals. To turn the gut inside out. with grass until dried. it shrinks tightly and becomes almost as hard as horn. and notch one end of each. where bottles and cans are unobtainable. They may then be made . the Indians preferred the sinews of the buffalo or the moose. double back a few inches of one end. and for binding together any two parts. * ^ . the gut may be evenly and smoothly twisted like a single-strand cord. cut two narrow. make a saw-cut in the top of each stake. Let it dry and then rub it smoothe with a woollen rag and a little grease. for example. take the bag thus formed between finger and thumb and dip water up into it till the double fold is nearly full. on J.

if necessary. [Dried sinews may readily be shredded by wetting.288 CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT The sinew was esteemed as the those of the deer. from the thin skin of a medium-sized animal. preparatory to the separation of the fibers or threads by twisting in similar twisting motion. this can be done in the wilp . and fastening the iron or flint heads of arrows. and. this has been displaced by the common sailor's needle. during the process. at the needle end. The aboriginal method of preparing and using sinew is thus described by Isham G. As suggested. Make the parchment like ordinary rawhide. derness. etc. of the panther or mountain-Hon finest and most durable. the fiber the overstitch is that most commonly employed in aboriginal sewing. rubbing with thin skins of the elk or deer to soften them." It may sometime happen that one wishes to prepare a sheet of parchment on which to write an important document. making it firm and . by gentle hammering. the hands. say a fawn or a wildcat. The ligaments that extend from the head backwards along each side of the spinal process were preferred to those of the legs. By the same or and by pulling. and. can be extended to a reasonable length. the sinews are made sufficiently fine for use in fixing the guiding feathers. antelope. hard point.] Cords or small ropes are made by twisting many fibers together between two forked sticks fastened in the ground. and. like that of a shoemaker's bristle. rolled on the knee with the palm of the hand to a fine. the largest cord I have seen made in this manner was one-fourth of an inch in diameter. water-worn pebble and with it rub every part of one surface (hair side) of the skin. and bighorn. it is then stretched on a board or lodge-pole and left to dry for an hour or so. of sandstone or pumice-stone. the sinew is wet. and in wrapping of clubs. Formerly the awl used in sewing was of bone taken from the leg of the eagle. To prepare it for sewing. if one can kill some animal that has a gall-bladder. Rub it down with a flat piece Then get a smoothe. Allen: "The sinew is prepared for use by first removing all adhering flesh with the back of a knife.

289 Then give this a coat of gall diluted with The old-fashioned way of making ox-gall was : as follows take the gall of a newly killed ox and after having allowed it to settle twelve or fifteen hours in a basin. use equal parts Canada balsam (fir balsam) and turpentine: this dries slowly. day by day. A coating of it sets lead-pencil or crayon marks so that they cannot be removed. without undergoing any alteration. Or. white Another method is to soak a thin skin of parchment in a strong lye of wood ashes. made as directed Unsized paper or a thin skin is made waterproof and by applying lightly to both sides a varnish made by putting ^ ounce gum mastic in 6 ounces best spirits of turpentine. and keep up a boiling heat until the liquor is somewhat thick. water. after it is dry. until you find that it is partly transparent. or ivory. and the _. -x £ oi eggs. boiled honey. but is flexible like map varnish. ^ Parchment. The bottle should be kept in a warm place while contents are dissolving. paper. put the latter in a larger vessel that has a little boiling water in the bottom. pour the floating liquor off the sediment into a small pan or cup. then spread this substance on a dish and place it before a In this state it can be fire till it becomes nearly dry. kept for years in a pot covered with paper. It makes ink or watercolors spead evenly on parchment.TROPHIES. until dissolved. . then stretch This will be improved it on a frame and let it dry. To make parchment translucent. dissolve a piece the size of a pea in a tablespoonful of water. as for a window: take a raw skin. often wringing it out. To use it. curried. . dissolve J ounce beeswax in ^ pint turpentine. . BUCKSKIN. you coat it on both sides with a clear mastic varnish. i and made rain-proof below. and dried on a stretcher without any preservative steep it in an infusion of water. and shaking it up thoroughly. translucent if. RAWHIDE smoothe. Or. It is also used for taking out spots of grease or oil.

to relax a dried skin. and let it lie over night. if the skinning has been carefully done. the skin could to remove. Next thoroughly rub into the flesh side plenty Double the skin. be immersed in it for an hour and then dried. simply sponge the tan liquor on the flesh side from time to time. The pelt is now ready for tanning. depending upon temperature of water and quality of fur. the hair or fur will slip particularly if the water be warm. will help to remove grease. best is The work — A greasy skin will not take the tan. at the same time very good resuits may be obtained by the simpler j -u j u below. of table salt. Hot corn-meal. roll it up.CHAPTER XX TANNING PELTS—OTHER ANIMAL PRODUCTS "\\7"HILE the methods used by regular furriers in ^ ' tanning pelts with the fur on are complicated . but be particular not to get it on the fur. Cleanse all blood and dirt from the pelt by soaking it in running water from one to four hours. hot sand.) the process. means described i done with skins fresh from the animal. then 1 ounce of sulphuric If you prefer to keep the fur dry through acid added. fur side out. The easiest way to do this is to soak it at least two days in the tan liquor (One quart of salt described in the preceding chapter. or sawdust. h the Fur on. If a skin be immersed too long. the Soaking is necessary fur can be cleaned by sponging. keeping it moistened thus for 290 . _ woods. Then work it over a beam with the scraper. or. carefully removing all flesh and fat. for it may be hard If benzin were to be had. boiled in a gallon of water. and beyond the resources "th of men in the R ^.

but not tightly enough to make the fur thin. then rinse out the superfluous salt — . work it once more over the plank. but keep this out of the fur. fur side out. as described above.TANNING PELTS 291 a couple of days. or the skin will turn damp thereafter in moist weather. Give the pelt a hard shaking and hang it fur side out. until the fiber is broken up. and comb out the fur. a bear's head with the mouth open the skin of the head should not be tanned. then place it in a stretcher and draw it tightly in every direction. for example. but merely salted. on a board or the side If the skin has hardened of a building in a shady place. In preparing a rug on which the animal's head is to be mounted as. To stretch a dressed skin so that it will lie flat on the floor. Smear the flesh side with a paste of flour. then rub into it a good sprinkling of powdered alum. first cleanse it and rub salt into it. oatmeal. After a skin has thoroughly dried it may be worked down as thin and soft as desired by rubbing with a piece of sandpaper folded over a block of wood. tack it. then work it with a knife. work it over the edge of a plank or a square bar of iron. — — . Let the skin become partially dry and then work it over the edge of a plank or a tightly stretched rope. to draw out and soften every part of the skin. finish off with sandpaper or pumice-stone. After this. and. when dry again. When it is about half dry. when it is relaxed. Thoroughly rinse all soap from the fur. Afterwards place the stretched skin in a damp place. until the superfluous salt comes out in beads of brine on the flesh side wash this off. Roll the skin up and let it lie at least two days preferably longer. and water. to dry. with clear water. now work oft' the paste with a dull knife. to which a little ammonia has been added (the water should be as hot as the hand can bear). for alum makes it hard to wash afterwards. then dry the skin again thoroughly. and let it dry thoroughly in the shade. so that there will be no wrinkles. moisten the flesh side with water. To tan a pelt with alum. wash and scour it with yellow soap and water. but let as little water get on it as possible.

after the Indian method. To render the skin soft and pliable the chipping is stopped every little while and the chipped surface smeared with brains of buffalo. trimmed. This is a long and tedious process and no one but an Indian would go through it. yet not cut too deep. and softening process is completed. „falo robes has been described by Col." Sometimes. and sometimes smoked. out of is its now ready . When very great care and delicacy are required the skin is stretched vertically on a frame It is claimed that the chipping process can of poles. „ Dodge as follows: "The skin of even the youngest and fattest cow is. but it is harr^ work. marrow grease. it has a short handle of wood or elkhorn. being unwieldy and lacking pliability. and pounded roast liver was thickly spread on the flesh side and allowed to dry in. and is used with one hand [this was before iron or steel tools were obtainable]. a mixture of boiled brains. and in finally obtaining a uniform thickness and perfectly smoothe and even inner surface.292 CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT It is possible to make a soft and pliable robe without tanning. It for use. With this tool the woman chips at the hardened skin. after the fleshing of the hide was completed. hard from the action of the sun. The skill in the whole process consists in so directing and tempering the blows as to cut the skin. the woman goes to work with a small implement shaped somewhat like a carpenter's adze. tied on with rawhide. be much more perfectly performed on a skin stretched in this way than on one stretched on the uneven and unyielding ground. dampened with warm water. but the latter is used for all common When the thinning robes. rolled up and laid away After this the hide was slowly dried in the for a day. The method employed on buf. the robe is taken frame. much too thick for use. then the hide was rubbed with fat. . because it is the easiest. which are thoroughly rubbed in with a smoothe stone. This thickness must be reduced at least one-half and the skin at the same time made soft and When the stretched skin has become dry and pliable. cutting off a thin shaving at every blow. in its natural condition.

TANNING PELTS 293 sun or very carefully before a fire. then. then bound . the . . by leaving the horns in hot springs until they were perfectly malleable. Two buffalo horns were pieced in the center and riveted. process is then repeated until there is a considerable bulb of glue on the end of the stick. A _ snake's skin is easily tanned. the stick is dipped in hot water and then rubbed on the object to be glued. this . T-. bows of buffalo horns. ^ . The western Indians used to make superior and from those mountain sheep. If ^^. as shown in the diagram.. To make a horn cup: Select a large horn with a sharp bend in it. the skin can be "squee-geed" to the planed surface and it will A tack on each side cling to the board naturally. moved. which is allowed to harden. either with the tan liquor or with alum. not even salt. To use it. Furs that one intends to sell to a furrier should be stretched and dried without any preservative. A stick is then cut about six inches long and as thick as one's little finger. and rolled up until wanted. saw through the greater part of the horn. a smooth e board be procurable. The Indian method of making and using glue may come in handy at times when one is far in the wilderThe glue is made from the hoofs ness. . the skin is then re-soaked and washed clean with soap and water. back from this. or any other hoofed animals. but leave enough of the top for a handle. by boiling. All foreign matter is scraped from it. then straightening them and cutting them into strips of suitable width. at a distance equal to the proposed height of the cup. trim the butt end smoothe and even for the bottom of the cup. being frequently and thoroughly rubbed over a riata while drying. Horn is easily manipulated by soaking it in boiling water. one end of this is dipped in the melted glue. of deer. of the strongly at the splice with sinew. every eight or ten inches will keep it in place while After two or three days the skin can be redrying. softened with oil.

Morris Select a cow's A Hunte^^^^ ^^ ^^ jg . and it is pleasanter to latter strip LP Fig. Horn Cup. press with thumb on doubtful places to see if there is any spring. man's horn how to make a huntscondensed from one given some years ago by D. taking care to hit it fairly. can be ornamented with scrimshaw carvings. 22. Scrape the handle gradually down to J inch thickness Then soak the handle in a strong boiling at the end. it stands the hard knocks of out. travel better than a metal one.^^ ^. j2 jj^^jj^g man s Horn. scrape and sandpaper the cup inside and Such a cup is light.^j^ ^ j^^^^ ^^^^^ determine ^^ how far the hollow extends and saw off the tip about an inch above that point.294 CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT being about 6 inches long and f inch wide. bend it backward around a stick and bind the end fast to base of handle at top. M. With a gimlet bore down The following description of is : to the hollow. A powerful cement or lute for such purpose. It drink hot coffee from. Work down the neck as much as it will safely bear.^^j^^g j^j^g. ^. until it has cooled and hardened. is made by kneading with a stick a strong solution of newly slaked lime into a doughlike mass with glue or blood or white of egg. Dress the horn down with a half-round file but do not scrape it. Before putting in the bottom. then fit a wooden bottom in it. Ream out the hole from } to 5-16 inch diameter. and tack and lute it in place. solution of lime until it is soft. A brass ferrule . Be To avoid workcareful to get a fair and even surface. as well as for mending broken vessels. ing the horn too thin.

but that of woodchucks. squirrels. as it is thin and brittle. grasping the horn with the left hand. Then get from any dealer in musical instruments an E flat or cornet mouthpiece. If shorter. Never use a vegetable oil on a firearm it is sure to gum. A good horn may be heard three to three and a half miles. Long horns produce flat sounds. occasionally rubbing it lengthwise. It is easy to make excellent gun oil from the fat of almost any animal. The best horns have a double curve (crooks in two directions)... The stem of the mouthpiece should be f to 1 inch long. the stem of the mouthpiece from splitting polish the horn : Now. Rattlesnake ^. highly colored. or from the marrow of a deer's leg bones. the sound will be too harsh. This shape will look well. and the top will be thick enough to rest easily against the lips. or with black or dark points. 'coons. drive it in tightly and your horn is complete. twist it round and round from end to end. Or take the small end of another horn. fit it perfectly. A fine oil can also be made from the fat of the ruffed grouse. to take a piece of sandpaper 2 or 3 inches square. The hole should be about the size of a rye straw. P oil has more body than almost any other animal oil. and with a sharp and round-pointed pocketknife work out a conical cavity at the large end. gradually tapering from butt to tip. in the palm of the right hand. or the piece sawed off. Work off the outside. shaping it in the form of a cone the sides of which are concaved near the base and convexed toward the stem. then put it out in the hot — — — . then. etc. and make a hole through the small end for the stem.TANNING PELTS should 295 now be fitted tighly around the neck to prevent it. A part of the butt must always be removed. and a little finer than the file. Put the fat on a board and with a sharp knife cut it up fine. if longer. is good. shorter ones sharp sounds. The shape of the mouthpiece and the size of the hole provided it be large enough do not materially affect the horn. Continue this process with finer grades of sandpaper till the very finest has been used and complete the polishing with pumice or rotten stone and water. too soft and not far-sounding.

Rattlesnake ^ i\. sore eyes generally. No salt is added. rather than running down into the chamber of the gun so as to leave unprotected spots in the barrel. so as not to scorch the fat. and then straining off. Repeat. A large squirrel will yield over an ounce of tried oil. I happen to be rendering some bear's grease at the time of this writing.296 CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT fire. The Indians. It is rendered by cooking in a pot hung high over a slow fire. A rheumatism. . when mixed with sugar and spread on bread. A heavy deposit will fall. phobia. by the way. a fat woodchuck nearly a pint. by adding the inner bark of the slippery elm (1 drachm to a pound of grease). is better than lard for shortening biscuit and for frying. put it in a bottle with a charge of shot. or through a strong cloth bag by squeezing it. is not a bad ^. and can be used with impunity by people whose stomachs will not endure pork fat. or in a pot sunk in the earth). Bear's oil is superior to olive oil for the table.atti6snaK6 .. to ten The yield is a gallon of oil pounds of fat. and you will then have an oil equal to that of watchmakers. rmgworm. or some shavings of lead. They also used sassafras bark and wild cinnamon for the same purpose. keeping them heated together for a few minutes.. oil is solemnly regarded by the oldfashioned Pennsylvania Dutch as a spe- ^. To clarify it so that it will never become viscid. substitute for butter and syrup. which would give off an acrid smell and make the oil less bland. and stand the bottle where the sun's rays will strike it. fat snake yields from two to two tor 'n cifac p i •• • x* . and a bear several gallons eight gallons of grease have been procured from a big grizzly. ^ the the oil warm it now force gently (do not let it get hot) before — . the oil will keep sweet without it. sunlight. used to preserve it so that it would not turn rancid even when they were traveling in summer. Bear's oil. and even for hydrolarge. unless in very hot weather (when it should be kept in a cool room. and. or in a spring. sties. but with enough body to stay where it is put. who were very fond of bear's grease.

a mussel shell. or. a length of the rush then placed in a lighted. When dry. The Dutch are reported to have a curious way of telling whether the snake has bitten itself and thereby poisoned its fat. but if it separates into small beads and the milk gathers in thick white flakes. water. derness. is at best a smoky and stinking affair. They drop a little of the oil into a glass of milk. i i • Grease can be freed from salt by boiling it in This is a much better arrangement than to use a shallow dish. 297 A piece of muslin is stretched over a glass jar. wrapping around this a strip of soft cotton cloth. which resembles that of a The hot summer sun renis spread on this. Candles factory candles can be made by the following process. and whose fat is no excuse but laziness Very satis^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ illumination. or other animals is Wherever tallow. i * j v. and letting the end of the immersed wick project over one side. as though soured. are procurable. and the fat. elk." For wicking. If the oil floats as a film on top it is good. T Slush-Lamps. While I am on the subject of animal fats and oils. although it was the best that many of our pioneers had in the olden days. ders it. it is a sign that the snake bit itself. or dry deer. there . or any kind of clip. The estimation in which it was held by those who had to use it may be judged from the fact that in Enghshspeaking countries it has universally been known as a "slut. slush-lamp A is made by taking a tin can.TANNING PELTS and a half ounces of oil. split stick. "bitch. use cotton cord loosely unwound. where they call it a salt." except in the Klondike. I may as well say something about extemporized lights for a fixed camp that is far in the wil. „. where it will drip grease. But such a light. which is called "dipping. sticking in it a thin rod of pine or other inflammable wood." A rush-light is made by soaking the pith of rushes is in melted tallow. as some have done. and filling the can with melted fat which contains no chicken. half filling it with sand or earth. . and the muslin strains it.

repeat the prosticks twist your wicking : until the candles are of desired thickReplenish the tallow as needed. a couple of inches apart. boiling water. split the end of a stick for several inches. cut some ports. the loop projecting at one side. slip the loop over the candle rod and twist the other way. taking it off the fire. Or. and. then again crosswise. Then melt down any kind of animal fat (do not have the kettle more than half full). This is the way our foremothers made candles before they got candle molds.298 CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT Put your tallow in a kettle with shredded bark. and thus dip each row of wicks in turn. while it is hot. rough-and-ready way is to boil is wood and grease.. Soap can be made wherever there A . and remove wedges. put a loop of bark in the cleft end of a stick. Evaporate this by boiling until it is strong enough to float an egg. sharpen the other end of the stick. making a firm wick. put about sLx wicks on each rod. and gouge a hole for the candle in the opcess. Lay two poles sidewise and about a foot apart on sup- One be about as high from the ground as the top of an ordinary chair. then pour it into any flat vessel and let it ^ Tjr ]r' ^* . so that they shall about 15 or 18 inches long for candle rods. If allowed to cool too fast they will crack so work slowly. posite end. Scald and skim twice. When the first dipping has hardened. wood ashes from the camp-fire in a little water and allow them to settle. For a candlestick. insert candle. add it to the boiling lye. then double it. open these segments by pushing a flat. Continue boiling and stirring until the mixture is of about the consistency of thick porridge. the clear liquid being decanted off. this can be done from day to day until the required quantity of weak lye has accumulated. Or.. one way. thin stick down each. place the rod across the two long poles. and so on ness. Dip a row of wicks into the melted tallow. and jab it into the ground wherever wanted. for each dip. of course. cut the end of a large potato square off. some part of hog's lard to three of tallow may improve the product. Each will have time to cool and harden between the dips.

Take a section of hollow tree. Tilt the board a little and fasten it so that the liquor from the barrel will follow the grooved channel to the end of the board and thus trickle into a pail set below Now put two or three layers of small round sticks it. in the proportion of two or three A little powdered rosin pints to five gallons of soap. you have merely to stir into the above. cob-house fashion. Soap can be made without boiling. ashes in the barrel. tamping them down firmly as they are shoveled in. beech and buckThe poisonous kernels of buckeye are soapy and eye. the bottom of the barrel and out to one end of the board. it may be worth while to put up an ash-hopper at a permanent camp. will make the soap firmer. make a funnel-shaped depression in the top and pour a bucket of water into it. It will be from half a day to a day before the leach will run. and for other purposes. as soon as it is poured out. Stand it on or a barrel with both heads knocked out. before mixing with the lye. laying each course crosswise of the one below. If the ashes have been firmly tamped. As lye is often useful to a backwoods tanner. can be used to cleanse fine fabrics. in the bottom of the barrel. a wide board that is elevated high enough for a bucket Cut a groove in the board around to stand below it. To make hard soap. some salt.TANNING PELTS 299 The result is soft soap. adding only when the other water has disappeared. and on top . and that is what you want. those of resinous woods will not mix with the fat in boiling. cool. of this lay now put your . The first run will be strong enough to cut grease. sugar maple. a couple of inches of straw or coarse grass. Thereafter keep some water standing in the depression. later runs should be put through twice. The woods richest in potash are hick'^ ^* ^ ory. but it takes longer. Such lye needs no boiling down. Only the ashes of hardwoods are good for lye. added gradually to the melted tallow. ash. the leach will only trickle through.

and with no special surgical appliances. As for the patient himself. Place him in a comfortable position. and make him feel that you have no doubt that you can pull him through all right. act promptly. teeth were filed in the back of the saw. if there the wound. If you cannot otherwise remove the clothing quickly and without hurting him. then cleanse a cut or torn wound.CHAPTER XXI ACCIDENTS—THEIR BACKWOODS TREATMENT npHE * present chapter of is boiled down for the use of no surgical experience. Not a man Fine in the party knew how to take up an artery. Pluck has carried many a man triumphantly through what seemed the forlornest hope. then apply a sterilized dressing. the iron was made white-hot. if for an example or two. having fractured his right arm bone protruded. when far from any physician. Kit Carson once helped to amputate a comrade's limb when the only instruments available were a razor. then bandage it in place. and expose the wound. and the kingbolt of a wagon. rip it up the seam. and being alone in 300 . or with an injured companion on their hands. and —the patient re- covered. In operating upon a comrade. provided there is any chance of getting one. who may suddenly find themselves wounded. Let me take space First stop the bleeding. men is any. let him never say die. Of course. the stump seared so as to close the blood-vessels. the arm was removed. if the injury is serious. the main things are to keep cool. then close it. Lummis. you will immediately send a messenger hot-footed for a surgeon. a handsaw. so badly that the Charles F.

Stop the flow of blood temporarily by raising the injured part as high as you can above the heart. head. buckled it around a cedar tree. before he could get food. If it comes from a vein. ^* tient can do this for himself. He fainted. strip of clothing) around the wounded mem- . belt. and finding that gangrene was setting in. having his leg shattered in an Indian fight. He survived. but the bone was set. If an artery is cut. proceed as follows: Tie a strong bandage (handkerchief. and can There is control the bleeding until his hand gives out. or any other place where a tourniquet can be applied. gave his canteen strap two flat turns about the wrist. and watch if this checks the flow. Then. sawed the bone. having rigged splints to the injured member with his left hand and teeth. filed the other into a saw. whetted one edge of his big hunting knife. and will flow in a steady stream. rope. then. and Try to locate the artery it will probably spurt in jets. you find the artery. the vein below the wound. set his heels upon the edge. if the wound be in leg. if he had let go for a minute he would have bled to death. and threw himself backward. mounted a nearby rock. arm. and seared the arteries with a hot iron. Richardson tells of a Montana trapper who. suspender. the blood will be dark red or Press upon purplish. the blood will be bright red. he walked fifty-two miles without resting. and pressing very firmly with thumb or finger The paeither on or into the wound. and with his own hands cut the flesh. and finished the 700-mile tramp to Los Angeles with the broken arm slung in a bandanna. above the wound (between it and the heart) by pressing very hard where you think the artery may pass close When to a bone. record of an Austrian soldier who stopped bleeding from the great artery of the thigh for four hours by plugging the wound with his thumb.ACCIDENTS 301 the desert. then prepare a clean pad (compress) and bind it upon the wound firmly enough to stop the bleeding permanently. Observe whether the bleeding is arterial or venous.

permanently closed by tying one or both To do this you must have at of the severed ends. If the position of the artery above the wound cannot be determined. wherever a tourniquet cannot be used. but pass the right hand end of the thread hvice around the other. in case of a gaping wound that would be hard to plug. it is better to push a plug hard down in the wound itself. must be ligated that is to say. In case of a punctured wound. Then thrust a stout stick under the bandage. place a heart. The lump serves two purposes: it brings the most pressure where it will do the most good. and twist it very tight indeed. and draw tight. Powdered alum. This must be done. and gangrene will ensue. and twist until the wound stops bleeding. The above expedients are only temporary. instead Slip this of once (surgeon's knot it will never slip). and it allows passage of enough blood on either side to keep the limb from being strangled to death. Then take a piece of strong thread that has been sterilized in boiling salt water. it — — will close better. such as a bullet hole. piece of stick. and then shaping and fire-hardening the ends.— 302 ber. or other hard lump. This can only be done for a short time. it will kill the limb. if prolonged. tamped hard into a wound will stop . leaving the outer end projecting so that a bandage will hold the plug firmly on the artery. make a little pair of tongs by heating the middle of a green hardwood stick. for a cut artery. anyway. a cartridge. Perhaps you may have to extemporize them if you have no iron. cut it clean in two before operating. then. while you are preparing to ligate the artery. When an artery is merely ruptured. ligate both. apply the tourniquet without any lump. if of any considerable size. loop down over the forceps and around the end of the artery. Under it. least a pair of sharp-pointed forceps or strong tweezers. Get hold of the end of the artery with this. and have some one hold it. CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT and between the wound and the directly over the artery. not severed. make a loop in it as for a common knot. and smoothe pebble. bending over. If the vessel bleeds from both ends. draw it out.

boil it. there be any doubt about the water. cleanse the wound of any foreign substances that may have entered it. After stopping the flow of blood. slip the point of ^ small knife-blade under the protruding end and catch it with the thumb nail. Leave the plug in place several hours. and let the end protrude. After picking out dirt. If wash the injured part with perfectly clean water. A clean cut needs no washing. If a finger or toe is cut off. and remove very gently. Try sometimes uncontrollable by ordinary the arms above the head and snuffing up alum water or salt water. no matter how small. Do not use cobwebs. and thus do more harm than good. let it alone. simply draw the edges together and fasten them in place. nor the woolly inside of puffballs these old-fashioned styptics are — likely to infect a wound with micro-organisms. pack the lower part of plug more tightly. and withdraw. are grease-coated and favor the growth of germs. down upon . If a bullet is deeply imbedded. If there is leakage backward into the mouth. So will substances rich in tannin. clap it quickly into place and bind it there. A fish-hook imbedded in the flesh should be pushed on through. then loosen with warm water or oil. If this fails. Hairs. make a plug by rolling up part of a half-inch strip of cloth. shave the skin for some distance around the wound. Push this plug as far up the nose as it will go. as with an axe. such as powdered sumac leaves (dried over the fire. Whenever it can be done. then nip or file off the barb. Hold the water a few inches above it and let a small stream gently trickle it. pack the rest of the strip tightly lifting into the nostril. bits of cloth. Do not mop the wound with a rag. it may grow on again. Cleansinff remove a splinter. leaving one end dangling. is Nosebleed means. or other matter '^^ Wounds that would make the wound sore and slow to heal. the chances are that it will do no harm. if green) and pulverized oak or hemlock bark.ACCIDENTS 303 bleeding from all but a large artery.

in case of not covering the wound. except about a quarter of an inch of the inner margins. or vinegar will do in a pinch. J. as in the case of a foot almost severed by an axe cut. The only legitimate uses . leaving spaces between. if you have regular surgeon's plaster. If an ordinary needle and thread must be used.) Do not sew continuously over and over. is as follows: Lay a broad strip on each side of the cut. inflames the part. and then stick the inner margins down. unless it really is necessary. thereafter. and makes the place difficult to cleanse _. Stick these strips firmly in place. with surgeon's knot. We may as well say that they are present everywhere. are due to living germs. . sterilize them by soaking in a boiling solution of salt and water. go back and tie them. In the latter case the cut may be crossed with narrow strips of plaster. To prevent their entrance is much easier than . the surface dirt and dead Never cover a wound with court plaster. All inflammation of wounds. (It is here assumed that no better antiseptic agents are available. which are left loose for the present. Such sewing is easy to remove when the proper time comes. or. until enough stitches have been taken. These germs are not born in the wound. and blood poisoning.^ ^ for sticking plaster are to hold dressings in place where bandaging is difficult (as on the buttock). but make a deep stitch and snip off the thread. so they'll not pull out) so as to draw the edges of the wound together.304 CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT off Shaving also scrapes scales of skin. half an inch apart. a cut. to keep the edges closed without sewing the skin. but a better way. It prevents the free escape of suppuration. and extending beyond the wound at each end. Sugar and water. say within about six days. ^ . one after another. Repeat this at proper intervals. . and to nothing else. leaving enough at each end to tie with by and by. suppuration. With needle and thread lace the strips (deep stitches. then. but enter from the outside. Sewing a wound should be avoided by inexperienced persons.

surgically clean. made by folding a strip of cloth in several layers) then bandage. Do wound. time that the how I cannot too to bandage any part of the body. Directions for bandaging cannot be given here from lack of space. at a glance. The micro-organisms that cause inflammation of a wound. but cut around it and flood . The cuts printed on the triangular bandage in a soldier's first-aid packet show. applied with absorbent cotton or a If clothing sticks to the it. A three per cent. or are otherwise provided with sterilized dressings or antiseptics. do not try to remove Prick blisit with oil. hold the material of the compress over a clear A little fire until it is fairly scorched. being careful not to break the skin. The unparalleled medical means sterilize and was surgical record of the Japanese in their late chiefly war due to unparalleled cleanliness in camp and field. everything used about a wound (by heat. cannot be seen with the eye. and weighs practically nothing. Druggists supply an ointment known as "solidified carron oil " that is easier to carry. highly recommend that every woodsman carry one of It costs but a these packets in his pouch or pocket. is them once they have gained only guarantee of a it antiseptic —that wound to healing nicely to The make That is say. is carron oil (equal parts linseed oil and limewater). then let it cool. quarter. not trusting that anything is germ-free merely because it looks clean. not use a mere bandage directly on an open First. good application for a burn.. in fact. putrefaction. Of course the compress is to be renewed every wound is dressed. is no larger than a purse. fever. if you have no antiseptics). including sunburn. and remove the water by gentle A pressure. solution of carbolic acid. and they may lurk anywhere. burn. charring of the surface will do no harm. ters at both ends with a perfectly clean ^ needle. ACCIDENTS to kill 305 foothold. charcoal is itself a good application to the surface of a wound. Unless you have a first-aid packet. cover the injury with a compress (soft pad.

washing soda. or dust flour over the burn. wet Raw. or sassafras. Do not remove the dead skin until new skin has formed underneath. To prevent a poultice from sticking. to be reheated as it cools. the the salve known as unguentine. use any kind of clean oil or unsalted grease. Our frontiersmen. and many other trees or plants. If you have none of these. You may (he was "Hawkeye" then) * Baking soda is the bicarbonate. They meal. or plain soda. which are likely to form abscesses. then spread on cloth. saturate a cloth with this. Renew from time to time as it cools. lean meat applied to the part will prevent cloths. Poultices may be needed not only for bruises but for felons. the mucilaginous inner bark of which. are easily made from corn-meal or oat- etc. . woods themselves afford plenty of materials for good Chief of these is slippery elm. or smear the It is a good idea to dust some charbruise with oil.* some in as little water as is required to take it up. often treated wounds by merely applying the chewed fresh leaves of alder. like the Indians. is soothing to inflammation and softens poultices. striped remember Leatherstocking is maple (moosewood). Good poultices can also be made from the soft rind of tamarack. or use moist earth. afterwards . Dissolve next best thing is common baking soda. CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT is an excellent application. boils. carbuncles. Another good application for burns is the scrapings of a raw potato. Ordinary bruises are best treated with cold. the root bark of basswood or Cottonwood.306 bandage. the carbonate: do not confuse them. Mix by adding a little at a time to boiling water and stirring to a thick paste. and apply. the tissues. discoloration. boiled in water and kneaded into a poultice. should be covered with cloth wrung out in water as hot as can be borne. Better still is Lacking these. with hot poultices. preferably clay: then cover with cotton cloth. renewed when it feels hot. The coal over a sore before putting the poultice on. cover the under surface with clean mosquito netting. Severe bruises.

In case of necessity. raw hquidambar or sweet turpentine from any pine tree.ACCIDENTS advising a alder will 307 wounded companion that "a little bruised work like a charm. The pain and inflammation of a sprained ankle are much relieved by dipping tobacco leaves in water and binding them around the injured part. then put the joint in a hot. The inner bark of kinnikinick. and the resin procured by "boxing" (gashing) a cypress or hemlock tree.. a sprain of the ankle can be ivalked You may shudder. A ally . oil. As a soothing application for sprains. A decoction (strong tea) of the bark is easily made. or finger. and support the limb in an elevated position. otherwise known as red willow or silky cornel. or the arm carried In a day or two begin gently moving in a sling. in a few hours. or ^ * vaselin. Similarly I have overcome. an attack of lumbago. reheat from time to time. but the thing has been done more than once. . so is the honey-like gum of the Salves. treatment is to plunge a sprained ankle. or a poultice can be made from it. bruises. . wrist. the leg being stretched as high as the hip. The regular medical .. . etc. and kneading the joint. ing to a wound." Balsam obtained by pricking the little blisters on firs is a good application for a wound. though I had to start almost on all-fours. the virtues of witch hazel are well known. or by boiling a knot of the wood and skimming off the All of these resins are antiseptic and soothsurface. into water as hot as can be borne at the start. . It was better than lying around a damp camp for a week decidedly better after I got limbered up. / gum ^^ tree. Continue for half an hour. — makes an excellent astringent poultice for sprains. off. and to raise the heat gradually thereafter to the limit of endurance. and rub with liniment. jy. . . the bark of balsam „ . wet bandage. dislocation of the finger can generbe reduced by pulling strongly and at the same time pushing the tip of the finger backward.

If the bone is broken in only one place. do not try to reduce the fracture. seam. have the man he down. facing him. if you can possibly get a surgeon. an assistant pull. and keep him perfectly quiet. Bark. and sup- port with soft pads. and Get it does not protrude. and steadily pull the broken parts in opposite resting It may directions. however. place a pad in his armpit. basswood. It is well. Place the man in a comfortable position. elm. apply the . to cushion the limb and prevent The edges of splints should not quite meet irritation. in some cases. about two inches wide. It may take a strong When the two pieces are end to end. must gently work them till they fit. so as Cover the conto clamp the connecting joints as well. for makes the best splints an arm or leg. or other soft padding. and swing the arm toward his body till a snap is heard or felt. dry moss. without the slightest twisting. Pick out a sapling (chestnut. pull on his arm. This will be announced by a slight thud. and bandage them so as to hold the injured member immovable while the fracture heals. grasp the dislocated arm in both hands. If a bone is broken. cave insides with cloth.308 If CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT I a shoulder is thrown out of joint. Then get a long bandage. to have these somewhat longer than the bone that is broken. wrung out in hot water. vertical slits. Having set the bone. Rip the clothing up the splints and bandages ready. and a surgeon can be summoned within a couple of days. do not meddle with the joint. and seat yourself by his side. and simultaneously push with your foot. be. the injury is not serious. and gradually increase the strain. for unskilled handling may do more harm than good. Begin gently. spruce) as near the size of the limb Remove the bark in two equal pieces by as possible. Then apply splints. that you must act the surgeon yourself. then put your foot in his armpit. cedar. the injured part on a pad. For any other dislocation. around the limb. remove your shoe. crumpled grass. when it can be peeled. but surround it with flannel cloths.

stroking the extremities toward „the heart. transporting him. to the extremiand over the stomach. In default of bark. a tablespoonful of whiskey and hot water. it. and bandage them firmly enough but by no means so tightly as to im- pede circulation. in crossing uneven places. Do not give any stimulant that would drive blood to the brain. Then give hot tea or coffee. as for shock. repeating three or four times an hour. Sprinkle his face with cold water and rub his arms with consciousness returns. bundles of rushes. . When plenty of fresh air. but keep the head cool with wet ^ cloths. etc. stones. Loosen tight clothing. lest the sharp edges of the bones saw off an artery or pierce an important organ. or : . if there is no bleeding. . If a bone is broken in more than one place. where it is not wanted. For an attack of dizziness. fright treat first as for fainting. and let him have _. . padded. position same as for . Lay the patient in a cool place. sticks. or if it protrude through the skin. give him a stimulant. Apply hot plates. then make one shaft a little shorter than the other. In case of collapse following an accident. and attached to a frame swung between two poles. bottles of hot water. bend the head down firmly between the knees. almost anything will do for splints that is stiff enough to hold the parts in place barrel staves. operation. but if the latter must be used.— ACCIDENTS splints 309 on each side. ties wrapped in towels. The best litter is a big trough of bark. with head somewhat raised. A two-horse litter is better than a travois. Lay the patient on his back. with feet higher than his head. Then rub the limbs with flannel. to hold in place. so that. and you cannot fetch a — surgeon to the patient. then get him out of the woods The utmost pains must be taken in at all hazards. Concussion of the brain: Lay the man on his back. or. thin boards. the shock will not all come at one jolt. Apply heat.

stimulant or hot drink when you get to camp (but not until then).. then on his body. if possible. To toast frost-bitten fingers or toes before the fire would bring chilblains. A hot decoction of the green bark of witch hazel is useful. Chilblains should be rubbed with whiskey or alum water. . remove Hold a clothing. A p . and feed but a small . Prepare some broth. have cured cases two or three days old.310 stunning. . If the skin is cool (a bad sign) apply warmth. specific for poison ivy or poison I sumac is tincture of grindelia. Rub the frozen part with snow. Dissolve plenty of the soda in hot water. and immediately eat something. Continue until consciousness returns. water serves as well. vals. Do not let a starved person eat much at a time. Then rest between blankets to avoid catching cold. and the liquor . and let it stand until cool. Give very little the first day.. CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT If the skin is hot. Renew if symptoms recur. when the excess will be pre- Prompt Weak ammonia will be a saturated solution. until the natural color of the skin is restored. or a gruel of corn-meal or oatmeal thoroughly cooked. i • or with ice-cold water. application of a saturated solution of baking soda will generally check the trouble at the start. apply as cipitated. Then treat as a burn. and _ thawing out a badly frozen part would Freezing ^* probably result in gangrene. and give stimulating drinks. Keep away from heat. ^* spoonful. or at vessel or hatful of cold water four or five feet above him and pour a stream first on his head. making amputation necessary. where both eyes were swollen shut and other parts correspondingly affected. repeating at intervals of a few minutes. Take a Excessive Fatigue. or there will be bloating and nausea. least loosen it. but at frequent interBathe him. Allow the sufferer only a spoonful of water at a time. and last on his extremities.

ACCIDENTS 311 Other woodland remedies are hot as can be borne. animal is a trifling matter. hands and other exposed parts of their persons. In such cases. and is borne out by the reports of army The facts seem to be. to a tumblerful of lukewarm water. add a tablespoonful of common salt. before going out. then drink enough whiskey to counteract the shock. To make an emetic. bathe face and hands freely. if necessary. or cauterize it to the bottom with a hot iron. or the baking soda solution. Becoming mad. or powdered mustard. requires instant and heroic treatment. ^ the common remedy.. and their bites would usually be iiifiicted upon the men's faces. that men and other animals have occasionally been stricken mad by skunk-bite and have died therefrom. is very likely to cause hydrophobia is in the Southwest. or a The bite of a mad dog. and then cut out the whole wound with a knife. as explained by W. or weak ammonia water. and the bite of a healthy * The notion that skunk-bite common surgeons. in their turn. decoctions of sassafras root. or of the bark and berries of common spice bush. strain. Wade in the American Naturalist. skunk. but oil of sassafras is better. To render the skin proof against these irritant poisons. very tight above the wound. * wound. artificial respiration as for drowning. since none of the poisonous saliva was wiped off by clothing. in which skunks. . or a mixed with saliva. but this has only happened during an epidemic of rabies. Immediately twist a tourniquet . The druggist's prescription is: add powdered sugar of lead (lead acetate) to weak alcohol (50 to until 75%) no more will dissolve. followed by whiskey or strong coffee. the remedy is an emetic. and. If one swallows a vegetable poison. or a slice of ^f^^ paste of clay. and apply a raw onion. if left in the solution of baking soda. the result was almost certain death. in salt water. and wash the affected parts with it several times a day. being slow-moving and utterly fearless creatures. A watch key or other small hollow tube pressed with force over the puncture and held there several minutes will expel a good deal of the poison. fell easy prey to rabid dogs or wolves. But rabies is very exceptional among skunks. taken both internally and externally. they would bite men sleeping in the open. ^.* P . . wolf. Ammonia is moist quid of tobacco. Extract the sting. or other animal subject to rabies.

. that other notion that a rattlesnake's bite is not a serious matter is moonshine. Hke the story of the hoop-snake and the snake with a poisonous sting in its tail. but their bite is not fatal to a healthy adult. nostril The notion that the bite of a puff-adder Head of Rattlesnake. are somewhat venomous. copperhead. unless the snake be quite large. is all moonshine. The Gila monster of the Southwest is a dangerous lizard the only one that is the rattlesnake. The small coral snake (har„ lequin. in the snake. However. and to the amount venom that enters the circulation. (After Stejneger. because the snake puffs up its neck and hisses like a goose. and the Sonoran coral snake of New Mexico and Arizona. . bead snake) of the Gulf states.sn The . as three . even if no treatment is given. Men who know nothing about other rattlers than the little prairie rattlesnake are not competent to express an opinion on the subject. A bite that does not pierce an important blood vessel is seldom fatal. the copperhead. too. and cottonmouth are all easily distinguished from all other snakes. The rattlesnake. or that the common watersnake is a moccasin and consequently venomous. reptiles their is of a mouse.) must be dangerous. A of bite propoiiion to the size of from any venomous snake is dangerous. CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT only dangerous snakes in the United States are and the cottonmouth moccasin. — —but can scarcely be provoked to All other of our country and Canada are harmless— no more to be feared than that bite venomous bite.

that In the coral snakes they are permanently erect. and Nebraska) to Kansas. with two small dark-brown spots close together on the forehead at upper part of head-shield. Its venom is as deadly as that of the rattlesnake. Head. Color of back. and Texas. the shape being somewhat like that of a dumb-bell with very short handle. This mark is the jyit. which are narrow on the back and expand to wide blotches on the flanks. broad and triangular head quite distinct from the neck. pointing backward. slender. and. and are erected by the reptile in striking. but it is not secreted in as large quantity as that of the larger rattlers. Iowa. the copperhead is a particularly dangerous creature. The fangs are in the upper jaw only. They are long. the front opening being exactly like that base from run through. long. and with a cream-colored band around the mouth.. Auxiliary fangs lie in a sac underneath the regular fang on each side. The copperhead inhabits the mountainous and hilly regions from Massachusetts southward to the Gulf. upland moccasin. dark colored. small snake. consequently the wound is not likely to be so serious. with 15 to 20 darker bands. Indian Ty."^ and connected by a duct with the venom glands which lie behind the eyes. a bright copper-red. a new fang will be ready for business within on the outside or a few days. and no harmless ones have them. or rather a pair of marks. tail short. in case the latter is broken off or extracted. and pointed. and self or by my companions within the past was perforated throughout. Still. as our three deadly snakes are collectively called: adder. Here are a few characteristics of the pit vipers. examined many mature fangs of timber rattlesnakes killed by myevery fang month. either grooved perforated. and westward (south of Michigan. They are mistaken. Copperhead (also called deaf pilot snake. a bronze hazel or light reddish brown. but in the other venomous snakes here named they lie flat against the roof of the mouth. chunk head). Wisconsin. A is * High authorities have declared that the fang of the rattlesHake I have not perforated. sinking into the upper jawbone. no other animal possesses. but only grooved.ACCIDENTS of 313 them bear a peculiar mark. Its position is shown in the accompanying cut. because 1. with moderately thick body. sharply pointed. A fine I to point. wire can be of a hypodermic needle. when not in use. . All venomous snakes have fangs. which is a deep cavity on each side of the face between the nostril and the eye. 2 to 3 ft.

The little prairie rattlesnake. Doctor Stejneger says: "They are a substitute for a voice. westward through Kentucky. which is not very dangerous. Stout like that of the copperhead head shaped and similarly body. but only two of them. are found in the eastern and central states. The other species are confined to the southwest and the Pacific coast. Of rattlers we have no less than sixteen species. states. the massasauga and the banded or timber rattlesnake. Their office is not clearly understood. Only one species. and showing the white interior (hence the name "cottonmouth").. and on this account is more dreaded by the negroes than the larger species. 3. ' ' . nor. Back brown. and often on low limbs overhanging the water. ordinarily about 3 ft. Not so poisonous as the larger kinds of rattlesnakes. but its bite is seldom fatal to grown people. If alarmed when it is wide-awake. The great diamond rattlesnake of the South. but holds its and springs at any intruder. with distinct from the neck. so long as it thinks itself concealed. it strikes like lightning. or pairs of bars. striking at everything within reach. These generally last only long enough to become 8 or 10 jointed. it always springs its rattle before striking. reddish. as if to intimidate. Rattlesnake. More aggressive than the rattlesnake. The other so-called "moccasins" are either the copperhead or harmless snakes. Cottonviouth moccasin larger snake. and does its rattling afterward. 11 to 15 rather inconspicuous bars. It does not strike unless provoked. with light centers on each flank. but Quite numerous in the southern still dangerous to human life. Belly brownish-yellow mottled A with dark blotches. ground (water moccasin). of dark brown. or olive.314 it CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT my ob- gives no warning of its presence. does it try to get out of the way. and gives only a faint warning. is the most formidable member of this group. The small ground rattlesnake of the southern states is aggressive. The number of rattles does not indicate the snake's age. which sometimes grows to a length of nearly nine feet. North Carolina southward to the Gulf. to Oklahoma and eastern Texas. and dark brown or banded. Habitat. sometimes 4 ft. and IVIissouri. Rattles with as many as 15 or 18 joints are quite rare. If the reptile is trodden on when asleep. first opening its mouth widely for some seconds. but usually rather deliberate about striking. 2. the sound being very similar to that made by our common locust" or cicada. it generally lies quiet to escape observation. Only one species." When a rattlesnake sees a man approaching. long. Usually found near water. pointed. Rattlesnakes are easily identified by their rattles. Tail short. is abundant on the plains west of the Missouri River. according to servation. southern Illinois.

if it misses its mark. but if the quantity of venom injected be large. unless it has the advantage of striking downA hill or from some purchase on a rock or bush. A bite in the extremities is rarely fatal. within twenty minutes. and probably against that of other poisonous reptiles.ACCIDENTS 315 Unfortunately for us. and will sometimes coil up alongside of a sleeping man. Much depends upon the part struck. for it will promptly grow new ones. in fatal cases. nor can it strike more than two-thirds its own length. then the breathing apparatus. but it from any position. ous snake is immune against its own poison. with great pain. but nonpoisonous snakes are not immune. At the same time it rots the blood-vessels. The bite of even lightning rapidity. It is not rendered permanently harmless by extracting A venomits fangs. In a large majority of cases the wound . however. but. and. the No a newly-born snake of venomous species is serious. will coil first. They are prone to seek the warmth of bed-clothes. and turpentine. If this early depression passes over. unless attacked very suddenly or taken at a disadvansnake does not intentionally throw its venom tage. recovery is often sudden. The victim soon becomes dull and languid. The venom first enfeebles the heart. Snakes despise musk. in man. the poisonous snakes sleep in the day time and hunt at night. and destroying its power to clot. The tendency of the poison is to spread very rapidly through the system. breathing with diflSculty. The blow is delivered with A . The bite of a venomous reptile is intensely painful. Mosquito netting is an effective bar against snakes. is A can snake strike not obliged to coil before striking. making the blood thin. Bites on the bare skin are more dangerous than those received through the clothing. the act of hissing may throw the poison several feet. In some cases a whole limb is soaked There is always to the bone with decomposed blood. tobacco. death may follow. and the fangs are instantly sunk into snake can leap entirely from the ground. victim. inflammation around the wound. snake does not expend all its venom at one blow. causes a general seepage of blood throughout the system.

if practicable (the poison is harmless. The only known positive antidotes for snake venom.: 316 CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT does not touch an important blood-vessel. Cedron seed (the fluid extract). from entering the system. whiskey in moderate doses. Whiskey is not an antidote. Then cut the wound wide open. If a great quantity is guzzled all at once it will do more harm than good. and suck the wound. and as a bracer to the victim's nerves. This. As for . such positive and respectable testimony to the efficacy of the following three plants that I would like their properties thoroughly tested 1. and repeat this alternate tightening and loosening for a considerable time. Many species of wild plants are popularly supposed to have the property of neutralizing the venom of serpents. a one per cent. administered hypodermically. When a man is bitten he should instantly twist a tourniquet very tightly between the wound and the heart. its service is simply as a stimulant for the heart and lungs. to keep the poison. but scientific research has failed to demonstrate that any of them have any effect on the poison at all. and strychnin. notwithstanding that probably all of the reputed "snake-masters" have been identified and their physiHowever. thus helping the system itself to throw off the poison. Sanicle (Sanicula Marylandica). so it may bleed freely. Loosen the ligature before long to admit fresh blood to the injured part. but at frequent intervals. are chromic acid. solution is used. and a free bleeding and sucking of the wound. it has no effect at all on the venom. or through a hollow tooth). but tighten it again very soon. The object is to admit only a little of the poison Meantime drink at a time into the general circulation. 3. I have received ological action determined. and the patient will recover with no other treatment than a ligature promptly applied. helping him over the crisis. Of the former. in the form of drugs. but not if it gets into the circulation through an abrasion in the mouth. as far as possible. if swallowed. 2. Common violet (Viola Cucullata). potassium permanganate.

and I have frequently seen recommendations that it be carried in that way. after ligating. and a hypodermic syringe. As for the use of the hypodermic syringe. These four remedies are: First Potassium permanganate in half-grain tablets. to be dissolved in water be- be merely rubbed into the opened wound. I do not believe that the crystals can be brought into close enough contact with the seat of the wound fore injecting. may Fresh permanbe depended upon to cure the bite. Promptitude with these remedies. into the fat. reptile or snake bite. Dissolve the tablet to — — USE— be used in the proper amount . — — one-fifth grain. nor that they will enough in blood. to do very much good. These four remedies are all that are absolutely necessary for emergencies." is to carry a solution of the permanganate in a glassstoppered tube. minor surgical operations. I here copy. My own practice. and allaying intense pain. ganate solution should be made at intervals to avoid Chronic acid does not precipitate. exhaustion. Third Morphin in one-quarter-grain tablets. precipitation.ACCIDENTS 317 the permanganate. such as venomous insect. The object of hypodermic medication is to get the rernedy into the blood as quickly as possible and to introduce it as near as may be to the seat of injury or the pain. in other words. or to dissolve quickly (bottom of puncture) with certainty. Fourth Strychnia in one-fortieth-grain tablets. But a man may be struck when he is far from water. one-fortieth grain. and published in Aber- crombie & Fitch's catalogue: THE USE OF THE HYPODERMIC SYRINGE The following article gives directions for using the syringe and four remedies which are most likely to be needed. by permission. soda chlor. morphin. it is easy to carry in crystallized form. a clear and concise article on this subject prepared expressly for explorers and other campers by Dr. shock. when traveling in a "snake country.. Second Cocain and morphin tablets composed of cocain. heart failure. Plympton. one-fifth grain. the medicine should be injected just between the skin and the muscles underneath. together with a similar tube containing a solution of strychnin. H. To insure its rapid assimilation by the blood.

or you may force a piece into the needle and spoil PRECAUTIONS— Ten it. three-eighths of an inch long. Also in the bend of the elbows and knees and in the armpits are vessels that would be injured by the careless use of the syringe.318 CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT of water. red spot. and with the thumb press on the little hole made by the needle. as the shin bone. as when boring a hole with an awl. line with the line of the fold and it will be in correct position. Screw the needle firmly on the end of the syringe from which the cap was removed. dissolve especially any one if tablet. and A . A short needle. simply jabbed quickly and firmly as deep as it wiU go straight into any one of the big muscles. insert the needle with a rotary motion of the syringe. Be sure that the tablet is thoroughly dissolved. or put any solution to be used into a teaspoon or what you may have that will hold it. Remove the cap from the end of the syringe and suck up the solution from the teaspoon by drawing out the piston of the syringe. or on the back of the hand. LOCATION K the injection be made between the skin and the muscles. This is to force all the air out of the syringe. Hold the syringe with the needle pointing upwards and press gently will find clear. After using the syringe. and before removing the needle. and as. the calf of the leg. Exercise the same amount of care as in administering medicine by the mouth and no harm can be done. unless by direction. and anywhere on the back are all places where the needle may be used without hesitation. Do not use more tablets than this. as described. fifteen will suffice for any two. Now press firmly on painlessly. the piston and force it in slowly until the contents have been Withinjected. even the hollow of the hand in an emergency. and the shoulder. in the case of a rattlesnake wound. A leaf properly folded will do. the big muscles of the buttocks. it would be worth taking the chance. The needle will slip through the skin quickly and almost Push it in its full length. The outside of the forearm or the upper arm. Now take up a fold or pinch of skin between the thumb and forefinger. it may be made anywhere on the body. draw up little vasesome water and eject it to clear the needle. although just over a bone that is close to the surface. The dangers in the use of the hypodermic are practically — nothing. You a fine wire run through the hollow needle to keep it this. accompanies most outfits. being careful not Keep the needle in a to press on the piston while so doing. the advantages are so immeasurably ahead of any treatment by the mouth. being careful to keep the syringe in position. even if it were dangerous. Remove on the piston until the fluid begins to come out of the needle. with the first and second fingers rub the swelling made by the injected fluid for a few moments and it will disappear. drops of water will the water be warm. and this may be used without taking up a fold of the skin. are places to be avoided. or the thigh. draw the needle. leaving nothing but a tiny.

each of them being about half a As syringeful and all between the wound and the bandage. Two more injections must now be made in the immediate neighborhood of the wound. there is no danger of a serious result. Large amounts of whiskey will not cure snake-bite. The bowels should be made to move freely by means of catharCheerful and encouraging suggestions tic pills. midway between the elbow and the shoulder and just under the skin. a heavy handkerchief. the binder may be gradually and after half an hour it may be removed entirely. This condition must be treated by tablespoonful doses of brandy or whiskey at half-hour intervals. and if there is a continuance or recurrence of "shallow" or quick breathing. or a bandage. salts or oil. this is manifestly impossible. but will do much harm. — pulse and rapid breathing. The patient should not be allowed to sleep for more than two hours continuously durmg the first twenty-four hours. Careful investigation and close observation of properly authenticated cases of rattlesnake poisoning have led to the positive conclusion that a man in good general health will stand an even chance of recovery from a rattlesnake strike without any treatment whatever. Fill the syringe and inject at once half the contents directly into the swelling made by the bite. Prepare the syringe. Dissolve sible. or the breathing becomes more nearly normal. the swelling of the limb increases. one one-half-grain tablet of potassium permanganate in two teaspoonfuls of water. FIRST For venomous insect and snake bite. the second syringeful of strychnia should be injected into the arm as before.) Tighten this binder by twisting a stick in it till the binder sinks into the flesh and This is to stop circulation as much as posis quite painful. shallow breathing and drowsiness. quickened loosened. Use Inject the remainder about an inch nearer the body. Three doses will be enough. (one-fortieth of a grain) in about fifteen drops of water and inject it into the outside surface of the upper arm. will do much to counteract the depression following the absorption of the poison. deep injection if possible. using a short needle. With a hypodermic syringe and proper remedies at hand. otherwise just under the skin. tie a piece of small rope. — . the body. This strychnia injection may be repeated at fifteen-minute intervals one tablet at each injection until five tablets have been given.^ Note the symptoms. The first symptoms are excitement. The condition of the respiration must be carefully watched.ACCIDENTS lin 319 or gun grease on the wire will prevent the needle from rusting. followed by depression. loosely around the limb two and one-half inches from the wound and between (If the wound be on the face or the wound and the heart. Immediately after giving the injection of potassimn permanganate dissolve one tablet of strychnia sulph. Dissolve another strychnia tablet and prepare it in the syringe.

the breathing is shallow and quick. hunger. Do not let him cling around your neck or arms to endanger you. except in very severe weather. shock. however. . him by the coat collar. that is likely to end abruptly. and is likely to last. S. Inject half the quantity under the skin. not deep. a cold perspiration covers the face. whether from great exertion. The surface benumbed by each injection will be about the size of a 25-cent piece. but if a second is necessary fifteen minutes afterward do not hesitate SECOND—For — THIRD— FOURTH— to give it. [A traveler should examine the syringe as to ensure that it is in working order. If the pain is caused by some injury. If. a second tablet may be given in fifteen minutes and a third one twenty minutes later. For exhaustion. RESUSCITATION— FrrsL. Make a sufficient number of injections to cover the part to be cut. strychnia should be used as follows: Dissolve the tablet in ten drops of water and inject into the outside of the arm. and tow him at arm's length to boat or shore. the above dose is enough. The patient is pale. has caused a marked depression of the heart's action and the nervous system is noticeably affected. Volunteer Life-Saving Corps. Duck him until unconscious if necessary to break a dangerous hold upon you: but do not strike to stun him.: 320 morphin CAMPING AND WOODCRAFT minor surgical operations the cocain and tablet should be used as follows: Dissolve one tablet in one teaspoonful of water and take up a syringeful of the solution. great fatigue. such as cramps. Pain is the antidote for morphin. or hunger. For allaying intense pain and physical suffering morphin should be used by dissolving one tablet (one-quarter grain) in about ten drops of water and injecting it under the skm as near the seat of the pain as possible. ex-posing them to the wind. such as a broken bone or a severe burn. so that an incision can be made without causing pain. ^* follows RESCUING— Approach seizing the drowning man from behind. and as long as pain exists there is no danger from a much larger dose than the above. or a woman by the back hair. the pain arises from some cause. One injection will show a decided efl'ect. which are as . Almost immediately the skin this will indicate that the part is bewill become waxlike numbed. The condition of exhaustion. midway between the elbow and the shoulder. where the cut is to be made. and get the water out of the body. and the pulse is faint and very rapid.Immediately loosen the clothing about the neck and chest. loss of blood.] from time to time so On this subject I can do no better than reprint the instructions issued by the U. heart failure.

but most cases revive within thirty minutes. and the legs rubbed briskly upwards. and brisk rubbing and warmth applied to the entire body. wrap in warm blanket or hot cloths. occasionally slapping the soles of the feet with the open hand. so as to produce a Do this sixteen or eighbellows movement upon the lungs. drawing them backwards straight. from foot to knee. Keep the mouth Then roll the body gently from side to side clear of liquid. proceed as follows Second Lay the body with its weight on the stomach. Persons have revived after two hours' steady work. hot tea. a keg. . if no immediate result. Grasp the arms at the middle of the forearms. pressing the arms on the lower part of the ribs and sides. Third Laying the body on the back. patient. so as to relieve the pressure on the stomach. But give no spirits internally until after breathing and circulation are The clothing should be removed. or ammonia to the nose. box. To encourage circulation. Do this several times to force the water from the stomach and throat. brandy or any spirits may be given in small doses. place it under the shoulders of patient. or death is pronounced certain by a physician. folded across the stomach. may be applied to the nostrils to excite breathing. then back to the stomach. then forward overhead to the sides again. drawing the tongue forward with handkerchief or cloth so as to let the water escape. Then kneel at the head of the allowing the head to fall back. or when breathing is restored. — Keep at work until recovery. boat. try a severe slap with the open hand upon the chest and soles of feet. in the open air. with care to avoid strangulation. make a roll of coat or any garment.: ACCIDENTS 321 First try tickling in the throat by a straw or feather. Fourth On signs of life. raise the arms over the head to a — — perpendicular position. timber or your knee. camphor or ammonia teen times a minute. Open the mouth quickly. the body dried. Smelling salts. with the head hanging down. across any convenient object. restored.


f i' {) .

) ( .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful