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MOD PENDIDIKAN JARAK JAUH
IJAZAH SARJANA MUDA PERGURUAN DENGAN KEPUJIAN
MODUL ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING METHODOLOGY (ELTM) TSL3103
BAHASA INGGERIS MAJOR
INSTITUT PENDIDIKAN GURU KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA ARAS 1, ENTERPRISE BUILDING 3, BLOK 2200, PERSIARAN APEC, CYBER 6, 63000 CYBERJAYA Berkuat kuasa pada Jun 2011
Falsafah Pendidikan Kebangsaan Pendidikan di Malaysia adalah suatu usaha berterusan ke arah memperkembangkan lagi potensi individu secara menyeluruh dan bersepadu untuk mewujudkan insan yang seimbang dan harmonis dari segi intelek, rohani, emosi, dan jasmani berdasarkan kepercayaan dan kepatuhan kepada Tuhan. Usaha ini adalah bagi melahirkan rakyat Malaysia yang berilmu pengetahuan, berketrampilan, berakhlak mulia, bertanggungjawab, dan berkeupayaan mencapai kesejahteraan diri serta memberi sumbangan terhadap keharmonian dan kemakmuran keluarga, masyarakat, dan negara.
Falsafah Pendidikan Guru Guru yang berpekerti mulia, berpandangan progresif dan saintifik, bersedia menjunjung aspirasi negara serta menyanjung warisan kebudayaan negara, menjamin perkembangan individu, dan memelihara suatu masyarakat yang bersatu padu, demokratik, progresif, dan berdisiplin.
Cetakan Jun 2011 Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia
Hak cipta terpelihara. Kecuali untuk tujuan pendidikan yang tidak ada kepentingan komersial, tidak dibenarkan sesiapa mengeluarkan atau mengulang mana-mana bahagian artikel, ilustrasi dan kandungan buku ini dalam apa-apa juga bentuk dan dengan apa-apa cara pun, sama ada secara elektronik, fotokopi, mekanik, rakaman atau cara lain sebelum mendapat izin bertulis daripada Rektor Institut Pendidikan Guru, Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia.
MODUL INI DIEDARKAN UNTUK KEGUNAAN PELAJAR-PELAJAR YANG BERDAFTAR DENGAN BAHAGIAN PENDIDIKAN GURU, KEMENTERIAN PELAJARAN MALAYSIA BAGI MENGIKUTI PROGRAM PENSISWAZAHAN GURU (PPG) SEKOLAH RENDAH IJAZAH SARJANA MUDA PERGURUAN DENGAN KEPUJIAN. MODUL INI HANYA DIGUNAKAN SEBAGAI BAHAN PENGAJARAN DAN PEMBELAJARAN BAGI PROGRAM-PROGRAM TERSEBUT.
Cetakan Jun 2011 Institut Pendidikan Guru Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia
4 Language Acquisition and Learning Language learning process Language Learner Acquisition vs Learning 17 Topic 2 Theories of Language Learning 2.1 Learning Outcomes 2.2 Framework of Topics 188.8.131.52.1 2.0 Synopsis vi .3 1.Krashen’s Monitor Model 29 3.CONTENT Falsafah Pendidikan Kebangsaan Falsafah Pendidikan Guru Learner’s Guide Introduction Allocation of Topics Topic 1 Language acquisition and learning – key concepts and issues PAGE 1 1.1 Learning Outcomes 1.2 Framework of Topics 184.108.40.206 Topic 3 Behaviourism Cognitivism Social Constructivism Humanism Second Language Learning Theories (I) .2 1.0 Synopsis 1.3 2.1 1.2 2.2.0 Synopsis 2.2.2.
5 Natural Order Hypothesis Topic 4 Second Language Learning Theories (I) .1 Grammar-Translation Method 5.2.3.Universal Grammar 39 4.2 Framework of Topics 4.2 Direct Method vii .1 Learning Outcomes 5.1 Learning Outcomes 3.4 Monitor Hypothesis 3.3.3 Universal Grammar and first language acquisition 4.2 Framework of Topics 3.2.3 Krashen’s Monitor Model 3.3. Methods.3.4 Universal Grammar and second language acquisition 4.1 Input Hypothesis 220.127.116.11.2. and Techniques ELT Methods 58 18.104.22.168 Acquisition-Learning Hypothesis 3.2.2 Affective Filter Hypothesis 3.2 What does a Universal Grammar consist of? 4.5 Implications for teaching Topic 5 Overview: Approaches.2 Framework of Topics 5.0 Synopsis 5.1 Why a Universal Grammar? 4.1 Learning Outcomes 4.0 Synopsis 4.
4 Silent Way 5.2.2.Lexical and Eclectic Approaches.2 Eclectic approach 22.214.171.124 Techniques of Communicative Approach 6.7 Total Physical Response Topic 6 ELT Methods .Communicative Approach 82 6.1Learning Outcomes 8.0 Synopsis 126.96.36.199.0 Synopsis 7.6 Community Language Learning 5. learners and resources Topic 7 ELT Methods .1 Lexical Approach 7.3 Task-Based Learning (TBL) Topic 8 Syllabus Design – Malaysian Primary School English Curriculum 8.2 Principles of Communicative Approach 6. and Task-based Learning 91 7.5 Role of teacher.2 Learning Outcomes Framework of Topics 6.2.0 Synopsis 8.2.3 Audio Lingual Method 5.2.1 Learning Outcomes 7.2 Framework of Topics viii 99 .4 Strengths and Limitations of Communicative Approach 6.1 Concept of Communicative Approach 188.8.131.52 6.2 Framework of Topics 7.5 Suggestopedia 5.2.2.
2.1 Learning Outcomes 10.1 Alternatives to Presentation.2.2 The 2011 PRIMARY ENGLISH LANGUAGE CURRICULUM or better known as the Kurikulum Standard Sekolah Rendah (KSSR) 8.3 Scheme of Work – Weekly. Practice and Production 121 10.2 Teaching Implications of the Alternatives in the Primary School Classroom BIBLIOGRAPHY Module Writer Module Icons ix .1 Learning Outcomes 9.0 Synopsis 184.108.40.206 Synopsis 10.8.2 Framework of Topics 9.1 Issues of Second Language Learning 9.2.1 Syllabus Design .2.2 The PPP Approach Topic 10 Second Language Learning in the Classroom (II) 10. Semester 220.127.116.11 Sample lesson structure Topic 9 Second Language Learning in the Classroom (I) 114 9.2 Framework of Topics 10.Malaysian Primary School English Curriculum 8.
instead of racing through the tasks and the reading.LEARNER’S GUIDE This module has been prepared to assist you in organizing your own learning so that you may learn more effectively. This module gives you an opportunity to manage your own learning and to manage the way in which you use your resources and time. Tasks that have been set for Tutorial discussion or to be handed in during Tutorial Sessions will need to be completed before the tutorial takes place. Hence. iii . This component recognizes the fact that teaching in the classroom is an important aspect of learning to become a teacher. This will be a means for you (and your Tutor) to know how much progress you have made in your course. Some of these tasks will have answers and or suggested answers. You must recognize your own pattern and style of learning. A Session usually covers a certain number of topics. You will find that icons have been used to capture your attention so that at a glance you will know what you have to do. Self-directed learning requires that you make decisions about your own learning. Appendix A gives you an explanation of what the icons mean. It is therefore important that you approach this assignment and all other coursework assignment with the right attitude. How long you take to go through a Session or a topic clearly depends on your own learning style and your personal study goals. So. do take time to reflect on them. the assignments that you do for this component will form part of the overall assessment of your performance. Assignments that have to be handed in must be handed in according to schedule. There are tasks set within a Session to help you recall what you have learnt or to make you think about what you have read. The module is written in Sessions. In this way you will be able to proceed through the course quite easily. ought to be viewed as creating new opportunities for learning rather than as a sign of weakness. For tasks that do not provide answers you might find it helpful to discuss them with someone like a colleague. Another important component of this course is the project for School-based Assignment for the Major course only. Asking for help when you need it. You should bear in mind that the process of learning that you go through is as important as any assignment you hand in or any task that you have completed. Or to make notes of your answers and take them along to the next Tutorial Session. The School-based Assignment will be given in a separate document. It might be useful if you were to set your own personal study goals and standard of achievement. You may be returning to study after many years from formal education or you may possibly be unfamiliar with a self-directed learning mode.
Do the same when you visit a library. Set a time every day to begin and to end your study. 1. Spend as much time as you possibly can on each task without compromising your study goal 4. Once you have committed a set time. 2. Do not accept information at face value. Here are some useful hints for you to get you going. Find a quiet study corner so that you may set down your books and yourself to study. Start a filing system so that you know where you have kept that insightful article! 7. 5. Find a friend who could help you study. Consult sources other than what have been given to you. Revise and review what you read. iv . continue to read prescribed books or internet materials. The date and time will be made known to you when you sign up for the course. 6.There is an end of course examination that you will be required to do. The written examination is expected to take place in an examination venue to be identified. keep to it! When you have finished your module. 3. Take time to recollect what you have read.
and Technique. In Session 1. In Session 8.ELT Methods. Theories of Language Learning. you will learn the difference between language acquisition and learning. you will explore in greater detail the Communicative Approach in English Language Teaching Methods. and understand better the key concepts and issues related to language acquisition and learning. Program Pensiswazahan Guru (PPG) Mod Pendidikan Jarak Jauh (PPJ) English Language (Major) for Primary Schools. you will explore the different theories of language learning. Cognitivism. Social Constructivism and Humanism. It is offered to English language teachers who want to upgrade and enhance themselves in teaching English as a subject. you will explore further the Second Language Learning Theories (II).Malaysian Primary School English Curriculum. v . is one of the major subjects offered by the Institut Pendidikan Guru Malaysia (IPGM). The focus this time is on Universal Grammar. and Second Language Learning in the Classroom. Method. Syllabus Design – Malaysian Primary School English Curriculum. Second Language Learning Theories (iI) Universal Grammar. Overview: Approaches. and Techniques . It also provides an overview of the different the English Language Teaching Methods. In Session 2.INTRODUCTION Welcome to English! Teaching English is fun. In Session 4. Methods. What you need is to be skilful in using the language. It has six main topics: Language acquisition and learning – key concepts and issues. These topics are spread across ten sessions. In Session 6. Second Language Learning Theories (I) Krashen’s Monitor Model. you will study the Syllabus Design . There are seven modules offered for English Language (Major) for Primary Schools. namely Behaviourism. Session 5 defines the terms Approach. eclectic approach and task-based learning. and focus on the Session 7 will focus on the lexical approach. Session 3 will look into the Second Language Learning Theories (I) focussing on Krashen’s Monitor Model. This Module TSL3103 – English Language Teaching Methodology (ELTM) is a 3 credit hour module that will cover 45 hours.
you will be able to enhance your knowledge in English and become more confident in using it. be sure to have a dictionary with you because you will need to refer to it every now and then. we do recommend that you should have access to certain references and dictionary. You will also know your own strategies in teaching English. However. It would be useful if you have an ESOL Learners’ Dictionary and a Modern Teacher’s Reference Grammar of English. And Knowledge is Honour! Good Luck and Happy Working! vi . Happy working! We are sure that you are looking forward to begin this module with excitement. Practice.Sessions 9 and 10 will focus on second language learning in the classroom You will explore issues. There are no prescribed course books and the sessions are designed to be selfcontained. You should read the input notes carefully. discuss alternatives to Presentation. It is interesting to refresh your memory and obtain new ideas and knowledge. and teaching implications in the primary ELT classroom. Before you begin working on the content of these sessions. Remember by reading you will gain more knowledge. You should also do all the tutorial tasks and then discuss with your tutors during face-to-face interaction. and Production . By going through all the sessions diligently and doing the tasks given.
ALLOCATION OF TOPICS Code & Name of Course: TSL3103 – English Language Teaching Methodology (ELTM) There are six topics in this module and they are divided into ten sessions. hrs. 3 6 3 3 Total no. 1 2 3 6 3 3 3 6 3 3 6 vii . of hrs. The table below shows the allocation of topics through modular learning or/and faceto-face-interaction. Session Topic Language acquisition and learning – key concepts and issues Theories of Language Learning Sub-Topic Nature of language Language learning process Language Learner Acquisition versus learning Behaviourism Cognitivism Social Constructivism Humanism Second Language Learning Theories (I) Krashen’s Monitor Model 4 Second Language Learning Theories (II) Universal Grammar Acquisition-Learning hypothesis Monitor hypothesis Natural order hypothesis Input hypothesis Affective filter hypothesis Implications for teaching Why a Universal Grammar What does a Universal Grammar consist of? Universal Grammar and first language acquisition Universal Grammar and second language acquisition Implications for teaching Int.
semester Issues Presentation. Suggestopedia vi. Method. Methods. Grammar-Translation Method ii.5 Overview: Approaches. and resources Scheme of work – weekly. Practice. Total Physical Response Communicative Approach Lexical Approach Eclectic Approach Task-based Learning Principles Techniques Strengths/Limitation Role of teacher. Technique Principles Techniques Strengths/Limitation Role of teacher. and Techniques ELT Methods Concepts: Approach. Direct Method iii. and Production Teaching implications in the primary ELT classroom TOTAL 3 6 3 6 7 ELT Methods ELT Methods 3 3 3 3 8 Syllabus Design – Malaysian Primary School English Curriculum Second Language Learning in the Classroom 3 3 9 3 3 3 3 10 45 hrs viii . Practice. and Production Alternatives to Presentation. Community Language Learning vii. and resources Implications for Syllabus Design Planning activities for each approach/method i. Audio-Lingual Method iv. learners. Silent Way v. learners.
TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY TOPIC 1 LANGUAGE ACQUISITION AND LEARNING – KEY CONCEPTS AND ISSUES 1.2 FRAMEWORK OF TOPICS Language Acquisition and Learning – Key Concepts and Issues Nature of Language Language Learning Process Language Learner Acquisition versus Learning 1 . It provides insights to the nature of language.1 LEARNING OUTCOMES By the end of Topic 1. It also makes a distinction between language acquisition and language learning.0 SYNOPSIS Topic 1 introduces you to the key concepts and issues related to language acquisition and learning. 1. you will be able to: define the nature of language describe the language learning process in early childhood list the learner characteristics that affect second language learning differentiate between language acquisition and language learning 1. and characteristics of the effective language learner. language learning process.
idea or thought.1 Nature of Language Exercise 1: What is your definition of language? Write down in twenty-five-words-or-less a definition of language. symbols and words in expressing a meaning. primarily through oral and written communications as well as using expressions through body language. this knowledge of the nature of language and the language learning process would enable you to teach your learners to learn a second language more effectively. methods and classroom technique. Your understanding of what language is and how the learner learns will determine to a large extent.2.2. your approach. Your definition of language (in the above) probably yield something that sounds similar to the following composite definition: A language is considered to be a system of communicating with other people using sounds. Share your definition with another friend or in a small group.1 Language Acquisition and Learning – Key Concepts and Issues It is important for you to develop an awareness of the properties of language and an understanding L1 language development in children.TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY CONTENT SESSION ONE (3 Hours) 1. and how you teach English: your teaching style. 2 . 1. What is Language? There are many ways in which we could describe language. Compare differences and similarities. your philosophy of education. In short. This language can be used in many forms.
although these are also included. clauses. The semantic and communicative dimensions of language are more emphasized than the grammatical characteristics. these signs are the words which we employ in such a way that they may communicate ideas or feelings. sentences) grammatical operations (adding. There are many possible theoretical positions about the nature of language. 3 . The communicative view of language The communicative view of language is the view that language is a vehicle for the expression of functional meaning. joining or transforming elements) lexical items (function words and structure words) The target of language learning. sounds. 654). shifting. is the mastery of elements of this system. Commonly. 22)." (Webster New International Dictionary of the English Language. They are: The structural view of language The structural view of language is that language is a system of structurally related elements for the transmission of meaning. in the structural view. gestures or marks having understood meanings. three different views are explicitly or implicitly reflected in current approaches to language learning. These elements are usually described as: phonological units (phonemes) grammatical units (phrases.TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY Language is defined as "a systematic means of communicating ideas or feelings by the use of conventionalized signs. The target of language learning is to learn to express communication functions and categories of meaning. and "is a tool for communication" (Emmet. In most common use of language.
4 . Now. Note significant differences between your images. Then. take a break before you move on to the next topic. Tutorial Task: Language can be likened to an ocean. It carries people and their goods. language is never still. The target of language learning in the interactional view is learning to initiate and maintain conversations with other people. write down all the ways in which language reflects the image you see. It seems to be endless. Can you suggest another metaphor to describe language? What is your image of language? Make a simple sketch or drawing of your image of language. Like the ocean. It has many moods and shapes. Note features of your images which you have in common. Share your image with a friend.TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY The interactional view of language The interactional view of language sees language primarily as the means for establishing and maintaining interpersonal relationships and for performing social transactions between individuals.
multi-word sentences. ma-ma-ma or da-da-da.g.TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY 1. Single Words second stage is known as the one-word or holophase stage of language development around the age of 10 to 13 months children will begin to produce their first real words only capable of producing a few. single words at this point. from the earliest stage of producing cooing sounds through being able to produce complex. babbling or cooing stage period typically lasts from the age of three to nine months babies begin to make vowel sounds such as oooooo and aaaaaaa by five months.2. Babbling first stage of language development known as the pre-linguistic. but important to realize that they are able to understand considerably more infants begin to comprehend language about twice as fast as they are able to produce it Two Words third stage begins around the age of 18 months children begin to use two word sentences sentences usually consist of just nouns and verbs E. infants typically begin to babble and add consonant sounds to their sounds such as ba-ba-ba. “Where daddy?” "Puppy big!" 5 .2 Language Learning Process Children go through a number of different stages as language develops.
Developmental Sequences Developmental sequences reflect linguistic elements in children’s cognitive understandings Examples Grammatical Morphemes Negations Questions Grammatical Morphemes Roger Brown’s longitudinal study (1973) Present progressive –ing Plurals –s Irregular past forms possessive ’s Copula Articles the and a Regular past –ed Third person singular simple present –s Auxiliary be 6 . they continue to learn more new words every day. By the time they enter school around the age of five.TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY Multi-word Sentences around the age of two children begin to produce short. a child might say "Mommy is nice" or "Want more candy“ As children age.g. children typically have a vocabulary of 10. multi-word sentences that have a subject and predicate E.000 words or more.
” Stage 3: auxiliary or modal verbs (do/can) + not (Yet no variations for different persons or tenses) e..” Stage 2: subject + no – e. they show that their language is not just a list of memorized word pairs such as ‘book/books’ and ‘nod/nodded’. “No cookie.g.g. children demonstrate that they know the rules for the formation of plural and simple past in English. ii..” 7 .g.. “wug test” – i. “He don’t want it. “I can’t do it “. he_______.TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY Acquisition of Grammatical morphemes e. Now there are two of them. Yesterday. Acquisition of Negation Lois Bloom’s study (1991) – four stages Stage 1: ‘no’ – e. There are two ______. By generalizing these patterns to words they have never heard before. “Daddy no comb hair..g. Yesterday he did the same thing. John knows how to bod. Here is a wug. Through the tests. “No go”.
But sometimes double negatives are used e. He didn’t go. They begin to acquire less frequent and more complex linguistic structures such as passives and relative clauses.TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY Stage 4: correct form of auxiliary verbs (did/doesn’t/is/are) + not e.or three-word sentences with rising intonation (“Mommy book?” “Where’s Daddy?”) Stage 2: using the word order of the declarative sentence (“You like this?” “Why you catch it?”) Stage 3: “fronting” . I don’t have no more candies.. Acquisition of Questions By the age of 4: Most children are able to ask questions.g.. and create stories about imaginary ones with correct word order and grammatical markers most of the time. They have mastered the basic structures of the language or languages spoken to them in these early years. report real events.g. The six stages of children’s question-making can be illustrated as follows: Stage 1: using single words or single two. They begin to develop ability to use language in a widening social environment.putting a verb at the beginning of a sentence (“Is the teddy is tired?” “Do I can have a cookie?”) Stage 4: subject-auxiliary inversion in yes/no questions but not in whquestions (“Do you like ice cream?” “Where I can draw?”) 8 . give commands. She doesn’t want it.
TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY Stage 5: subject-auxiliary inversion in wh-questions. 9 . take a break before you move on to the next topic.”) Reflect on your own language learning experience First 3 years Pre-school years School years Then. Now. but not in negative wh-questions (“Why can he go out?” “Why he can’t go out?”) Stage 6: overgeneralizing the inverted form in embedded questions (“I don’t know why can’t he go out. share your thoughts with a friend.
The good language learner is realistic. She tries to find out what works for her and what doesn't.3 Language Learner A lot of research has been carried out into what makes a good language learner.TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY 1. The good language learner is independent. The good language learner is organized and active. She does not expect to learn English just by sitting in the classroom. For example. because she knows that these will help her. She is also not afraid of making mistakes. she asks the teacher. is concerned with both communicating and doing so as accurately as possible. she will try out different ways of learning vocabulary until she finds the way that suits her best. Source: © Copyright Paul Shoebottom (1996-2011) The Good Language Learner. The good language learner. She uses her time to learn English sensibly. The good language learner is willing to experiment and take risks. and is always looking for opportunities to develop her language both inside and outside of the classroom.edu 10 . Here is a brief summary of the latest theories: The good language learner thinks about how she is learning. She knows that it will take time and effort to become proficient in English. Some students are experts at communicating their thoughts but do not care that they make many mistakes in doing so. on the other hand. The good language learner has a balanced concern for communication and accuracy. there are still many other factors that influence how quickly a child will learn English.fis. and does not rely on the teacher to totally direct her learning. and that there will periods where she does not seem to be making much progress. from http://esl. Although these are the qualities that have been found in the most efficient language learners.2. Retrieved 8 December 2011. If she doesn't understand the purpose of a particular exercise.
They could stem from the learner’s own mind (internal factors) or from the environment he lives in (external factors). for example. motivation. mode of instruction. 11 . experiences. and the opportunity to interact with native speakers both within and outside of the classroom.TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY Factors affecting language learning There are various factors that affect successful language learning. age of the learner. External factors are those that characterize the particular language learning situation. cognition abilities and his native language. personality.some of which include the curriculum in use. Internal factors are those that the individual language learner brings with him or her to the particular learning situation.
17. 9. 11. Adding English: Helping ESL Learners Succeed. 7. Good Apple. to the family or to the environment of the second culture.TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY Exercise 2 The following are some factors that are known to affect second language acquisition and learning. 25. 12 . 19. 24. 5. 6. Use the following code: S = factors primarily in the student F = factors primarily in the family E = factors primarily in the environment of the second culture 1. (1997). 2. ISBN 1-56417-903-6. Age Socioeconomic status Classroom culture Cognitive development in L1 Family support Whether environment provides adequate L2 input Literacy level Opportunities for language use in school Motivation Proficiency in the home language Role models in the community Personality Whether student has enough opportunities to use English Teacher’s expectations Preferred learning styles _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ Adapted from Maitland. 4. 3. 20. Determine whether each factor is related mainly to the student. K. 15.
although they are often described as opposites. 13 . Iii. 14E. 3E. and individual differences in intelligence . Answers: 1S. Age is only one of the characteristics which affects the learner’s L2 learning. Find three most important and three least important learner characteristics. 9S. 6E. therefore. Learners should therefore be encouraged to “stretch” their learning styles so that they will be more empowered in a variety of learning situations. Learning styles exist on wide continuums. Are there personal characteristics that make you more successful than another learner? Which characteristics seem to you most likely to be associated with success in L2 acquisition? Share your opinion with your group members. and learning styles have also been found to be important determining factors in both rate of learning and eventual success in learning. 7F. 11E. the motivation to learn.e. 4S. 13E.TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY Now check your answers below. 2F. no one style is better than others. 5S. ii.both inside and outside the classroom).. The opportunities for learning (i. that is. there is no particular teaching or learning method that can suit the needs of all learners. 15S Tutorial Task: In your experience. 12S. personality . context . Individual Differences Research findings reveal that every person has a learning style. 10S. aptitude . 8E. as an English learner: i. Learning styles are also value-neutral.
is the process whereby children acquire their first language. It is the result of direct instruction in the rules of language. older children and adults need explicit teaching to learn their second languages. Children do not need explicit instruction to learn their first languages but rather seem to just ‘pick up’ language in the same way they learn to roll over. As you may well have noticed. In other words. crawl and walk. crawl and walk. Language Learning As opposed to acquisition. rather seem to just ‘pick up’ language in the same way they learn to roll over. therefore.4 Acquisition versus Learning It is sometimes thought that acquisition and learning refer to the same processes. We should not ignore the differences between language acquisition and language learning.TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY 1. learning occurs actively and consciously through explicit instruction and education. students have conscious knowledge of the new language and can talk about that knowledge.2. studies have shown that knowing grammar rules does not necessarily result in good speaking or writing. Language Acquisition Acquisition occurs passively and unconsciously through implicit learning. Experts suggest there is an innate capacity in every human being to acquire language. Language learning is the process whereby humans past the critical period learn second languages. Language acquisition in children just seems to happen. In language learning. While all children before the critical period can innately 14 . According to linguists there is an important distinction between language acquisition and language learning. However. Language acquisition. Their need to communicate paves the way for language acquisition to take place. children acquire their mother tongue through interaction with their parents and the environment that surrounds them.
TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY acquire their first languages. While L1 and L2 acquisition reveal some similarities. Nature vs Nurture Much debate has taken place concerning the importance of nature (what is innate) and nurture (environmental factors) in the acquisition of language. they also show differences. To understand these processes will enable the language teacher to be more sensitive to the factors involved. Similarities in First and Second Language Acquisition theories are of great interest to teachers and learners as they can be utilized to improve language teaching and learning methods. Is language acquisition and development innate or taught? The debate about nature versus nurture in language acquisition has drawn heated testimony from both sides. most older children and adults past the critical period must learn second languages through explicit education and instruction. The following chart compares nature and nurture in language acquisition. L1 and L2 acquisition are quite complicated processes. Nature Informal Parents & Society Experiences Nurture Formal Teachers Syllabus Environment Exposure Acquisition Classroom Systematic Learning 15 .
TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY Tutorial Task: Comparing First and Second Language Acquisition Activity 1: There are similarities and differences in first and second language acquisition. Discuss. Language teachers must have theoretical knowledge of how languages are acquired. it is our duty to make sure that our students ‘acquire’ rather than ‘learn’ the language. It is clear that a child or adult learning a second language is different from a baby acquiring a first language in terms of personal characteristics and conditions for learning. How is learning a second language like learning a first? How is it different? How will this knowledge help you plan classroom experiences? Write a paper (4-6 pages) citing at least four research articles to support text reading. 16 . Activity 2: As teachers.
it examines in detail the key principles of Behaviourism.2 FRAMEWORK OF TOPICS 17 . Cognitivism. Social Constructivism and Humanistic orientations to language learning. you will be able to: define terms relevant to some theories of language learning explain the main principles of each language learning theory distinguish the application of behaviourist.1 LEARNING OUTCOMES By the end of this Topic. cognitivist.0 SYNOPSIS Topic 2 provides you with an overview of four influential learning theories that underlie the instruction of a teacher’s classroom practice. More specifically. 2. constructivist and humanist principles in the classroom 2.TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY TOPIC 2 THEORIES OF LANGUAGE LEARNING 2.
In other words. They argued that behavior can be conditioned by altering the environment. Bandura and others.2 Theories of Language Learning The main goal of any teaching is to bring about learning. E. rewards and punish.F. language is a ‘conditioned behaviour’: the stimulus response process (Stimulus Response Feedback Reinforcement). According to the psychologist Skinner. by manipulating and giving a certain stimulus.2.1 Behaviourism The behaviourist approach in studying learning can be traced to the philosophic traditions of Aristotle.Skinner. cognitivism. Motivation to learn was assumed to be driven by drives such as hunger. Watson in the early 20th century.L. we have not been able to say with certainty how people learn languages although a great deal of research has been done into this subject. Generally. Thorndike. B. The founders and proponents include John B. a certain response can be produced.TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY CONTENT SESSION ONE (3 Hours) 2. The four main schools of thought which provide theoretical paradigms in guiding the course of language acquisition are: behaviourism. 2. The popular view is that children start out as clean slates and language learning is the process of getting linguistic habits printed on these slates through positive and negative reinforcement or punishment. social constructivism and humanism. Both positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement increase the probability that the antecedent behavior 18 . Various theories have emerged over the years to study the process of language acquisition. General perception is that there is no difference between the way one learns a language and the way one learns to do anything else. Descartes and Locke. Ivan Pavlov.
Provide immediate and frequent feedback for complex and difficult concepts Provide practice.Memorization . but rather if the correct response is given.Controlled drilling Reinforcement. Learning is defined as nothing more than the acquisition of new behaviour. In summary. They learn to speak by imitating the utterances heard around them and strengthen their responses by the repetitions. corrections. i. Therefore. The following is a list of behaviourist principles quite often applied in teaching and learning in the classroom: Use a system of rewards to encourage certain behaviours and learning. On the other hand. the behaviourist is not concerned with how or why knowledge is obtained.Repetition . Learning is controlled by the conditions under which it takes place and that. punishment decreases the likelihood that the antecedent behavior will happen again. drill and review activities to enhance mastery of facts Break down complex task into smaller and manageable subskills Sequence material from simple to more difficult to enhance understanding Model the behaviour students are to imitate and repeat demonstrations when necessary Reinforce when students demonstrate the modeled behaviour State the learning outcomes desired for the benefit of both teachers and students 19 .e. as long as individuals are subjected on the same condition. Imitation .TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY will happen again. language is practice based. and other reactions that adults provide. Learners are essentially viewed as passive and learn language step by step. they will learn in the same condition. The main focus is on inducing the child to behave with the help of mechanical drills and exercises.
TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY Establish a contract with students on the work to be done and what rewards will be given Critics of behavioural methods point to two basic problems that may arise in the classroom. A finite number of pre-practiced sentences are not enough to carry on a conversation. Also.2. Exercise 1 Which of the behaviourist principles listed in the above do you think are widely practised in the classrooms? Give specific examples. Using a reward system or giving one student increased attention may have a detrimental effect on other students in the classroom. take a break before you move on to the next topic. 2. Although behaviourism emphasized learning that was observable and measurable. another problem with this view of learning includes the fact that imitation does not help the learner in real-life situations. Cognitivists felt that it was necessary to investigate how learners make sense of what they learn even though such mental events are difficult to observe and measure objectively. 20 . Some teachers fear that rewarding students for all learning will cause students to lose interest in learning for its own sake. they did not account for what goes on in the minds of the learner when he or she is learning or thinking.2 Cognitivism In the 1950’s there was a realization that behaviourism did not fully explain human learning. Learners are continually required to form sentences they have never previously seen. Now.
but only as an indication of what is occurring in the learner’s head. People are rational beings that require active participation in order to learn. Changes in behaviour are observed. the cognitivst perspective focus more on the learner as an active participant in the teaching-learning process. Learning is most likely to occur when an individual can associate new learning with previous knowledge. they are actively involved in the learning process and can have control over their own learning. learning is defined as a change in the learners’ schemata. think and motivate themselves. Cognitive theories of learning. Therefore. assimilated. Cognitivism focus on the mind or ‘black box’ and attempt to show how information is received.TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY The term cognitivism refers to a group of psychological theories which draw heavily on the work in linguistics of Noam Chomsky. complex and dynamic process. it is important that teachers provide effective instruction to help the learner acquire knowledge more effectively by teaching students how to learn. In contrast to behaviourism. According to the cognitivists. In other words. is being processed. Unlike in behaviourism. people are not ‘programmed animals’ that merely respond to environmental stimuli. Cognitivists view learning is as a process of relating new information to previously learned information. remember. and leads to certain outcomes. Errors are also accepted as part of the learning process. learners are not passive receivers of environmental conditions. Cognitivism uses the metaphor of the mind as computer: information comes in. based on empirical evidence. indicate that learning is a multi-faceted. and whose actions are a consequence of thinking. stored and recalled. It believes that teachers can be more effective if they know what prior knowledge the student already possesses and how information is processed and structured in the learner’s mind. It replaced behaviourism in 1960’s as a dominant paradigm. Rather. 21 .
Cognitivist Focus View about the mind Teacher plans and sets S-T Roles goals for learning. . Basically alike’ Cognitivist An active organizer. The following table sums up very briefly what we have discussed so far: Behaviourist vs. One ‘best’ way of teaching. Motivation Reward is motivation.TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY The following is a list of cognitivist principles quite often applied in teaching and learning in the classroom: Present information in an organized manner Show a logical sequence to concepts Go from simple to complex when presenting new material Bring to mind relevant prior learning Provide for review and repetition of learning Provide opportunities for students to elaborate on new information. inquiry-oriented projects Help students process information in meaningful ways so that they can become independent learners (Staged scaffolding) Like Behaviourism. Students participate in planning and goal-setting. Cognitivism is also not without its critiques. Varied. It has been criticized for not accounting enough for individuality and for giving little emphasis on the affective characteristics of the learners. Teacher teaches with variety. 22 Learning is a motivator. e.g. with multiple intelligences and learning styles. Bahaviourist A blank slate.
Inc. Piaget and Vygoysky. Curriculum Content Teacher assess.2. Product and process are important Source: Diaz-Rico. 23 .) Boston: Pearson Education. Constructivism is a perspective of learning that has its origins in the works of Bruner. Exercise 2 Which of the cognitivist principles listed in the above do you think are being practiced in the classrooms? Give specific examples. Assessment Product is important. (2nd edn. A reaction to didactic approaches. L. Students are taught ‘what’ and ‘how’ Students are involved in peer and self-assessment.TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY Students are taught ‘what’. Constructivist Learning Psychology has been challenging the cognitive approach from the 1990’s. It is Vygotsky’s social development which is one of the foundations for constructivism. constructivism states that learning is an active.3 Social Constructivism Just as Cognitive Learning Psychology began replacing the predominant Behavioural Psychology in the 1970’s. CONTENT SESSION TWO (3 Hours) 2. contextualized process of constructing knowledge rather than acquiring it.(2008). Strategies for Teaching English Learners.
The following is a list of constructivist principles quite often applied in teaching and learning in the classroom: Encourage student autonomy and initiative Students take responsibility for their own learning Respect students’ ideas and encourage independent thinking 24 . thus students should be provided with authentic and challenging projects that encourage them to work together with one another. read and see based on their previous learning. social constructivism emphasizes the importance of the learner being actively involved in the learning process with the teacher playing the role as facilitator. They also argued that the responsibility of learning resides with the learner. In an authentic environment. learners assume responsibilities for their own learning. habits and experiences. beliefs and values with their peers and teachers. They believe that often it is social experiences rather than what is taught in schools which accounts for much of the variation in student learning. and have shared responsibility for applying what they know to new situations. Learning is enhanced when students learn how to learn. The aim is to create a situation more closely related to collaborative practice in the real world. engage in serious discussion. Students who do not have appropriate background knowledge will be unable to to accurately ‘hear’ or ‘see’ what is before them. Cooperative. What does this mean for classroom learning? As active learners exploring and going beyond the information given.TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY Constructivists emphasize that learning is a social activity. Unlike previous educational viewpoints where the responsibility rested with the teacher to teach and where the learner played a passive role. Authentic settings would provide learners with opportunities to see a problem from different perspectives as well as negotiate and generate solutions through sharing and exchange of ideas. collaborative and group investigation methods allow students to discuss ideas. Learners interpret what they hear.
take a break before you move on to the next topic. values and interpersonal skills. Now. attitudes. Perhaps the most well-known applications of humanism in ELT are those of Gattegno (1972) and Curran (1976). Exercise 3 Discuss some problems related to implementing constructivist principles in the classroom. justify and defend their ideas Engage students in meaningful learning Provide students opportunity to express their ideas Involve students in real-world situations The main critique of Social Constructivism is that it is often seen as being less rigorous than traditional approaches to instruction.2.TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY Promote higher order thinking amongst students Ask questions that will influence student response Challenge students to analyze.4 Humanism Humanism refers to a movement in psychology which emerged in the 1960’s and 1970’s. 2. Humanism has its roots in counseling psychology and focuses its attention on how individuals acquire emotions. Describe with specific examples. 25 .
Feeling and thinking are very much interlinked. is typified by the student taking responsibility and owning their learning. Humanists. led by such famous authors as Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers. are especially concerned with the idea of self-actualization. the growth of a person to achieve whatever degree of individual satisfaction they are capable of achieving. This form of education. As well as the student’s academic needs the humanist teacher is also concerned with the student’s affective or emotional needs. cooperation. much of a humanist teacher’s effort would be put into developing a student’s self-esteem. He or she creates an educational environment that fosters self-development. Learning is not an end in itself: it is the means to progress towards self-development. In particular. known as student-centred.TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY Humanistic psychologists believe that how a person feels about learning is as important as how the person thinks or even behaves. positive communications. The humanist teacher is a facilitator and not a disseminator of knowledge. The following are some principles in the classroom based on humanistic principles: 26 . and personalization of information. They describe behaviour not from the viewpoint of the teacher as do behaviourists but rather from the vantage point of the student who is performing the activity. the humanist teacher needs to have a thorough grasp of both how students learn and what motivates them to learn. Humanists believe that feeling positive about oneself facilitates learning. Hence. Participatory and discovery methods would be favoured instead of traditional didacticism. A student learns because he or she is inwardly driven (selfmotivation). and derives his or her reward from the sense of achievement that having learned something affords.
From these so-called schools have evolved modern thinking and practice about how learning occurs and how your instruction in the classroom ultimately affects that learning. Summary. Students are given choices (with limitations) and freedom (with responsibilities) to plan and carry out activities. performance-oriented. Exercise 4 To what extent do you think schools give attention to the affective (emotions. exploring and experimenting. discovery. De-emphasize rigorous. democratic. Provide learning experiences that will lead to the development of habits and attitudes that teachers want to foster. positive and non-threatening environment for the students to work in. feelings) aspects of learning? Discuss by citing specific examples. Provide opportunity for success. Teachers should be role models and set good examples for students to emulate. What conclusions can we draw from this discussion of various theories of learning? Instructional learning theories are centred on the major schools of educational psychology. Respect student’s feelings and aspirations. Learning is based on life experiences.TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY Establish a warm. Each has its own merits and each has 27 . Teacher facilitates the learning process and share ideas with students. test-dominated approaches. Students are allowed to set their own goals and follow their own pace Experiential learning is encouraged.
TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY
shortcomings that may make them inappropriate in certain learning situations. Your understanding of the basic principles and assumptions of Behaviourism, Cognitivism, Constructivism and Humanism is critical to your approach to classroom teaching. However, looking back over the current practices in our classrooms, it becomes abundantly clear that they are a composite of the many different theories we have learnt.
Tutorial Task Based on what you have read in this unit, compare the four major theoretical perspectives explaining human learning. Then, in your view as a teacher, state your personal beliefs about the teaching-learning process.
TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY
SECOND LANGUAGE LEARNING THEORIES (I) KRASHEN’S MONITOR MODEL
3.0 SYNOPSIS Topic 3 provides input on a predominant Second Language Learning Theory called Krashen’s Monitor Model. There are five components or hypotheses which form the basis of the model. These are Input Hypothesis, Affective Filter Hypothesis, Acquisition Learning Hypothesis, Monitor Hypothesis and Natural Order Hypothesis. The topic also deals with the implications of this model for teaching.
3.1 LEARNING OUTCOMES By the end of this session, you will be able to: 1. demonstrate an understanding of Krashen’s Monitor Model 2. explain the five hypothesis of the Monitor Model 3. identify the relationship between the five hypothesis of the Monitor Model 4. explain the implications of this model for teaching.
TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY
3.2 FRAMEWORK OF TOPICS
SESSION THREE (6 Hours)
Krashen’s Monitor Model Second language acquisition theory seeks to explain how and by what
processes individuals acquire a second language. A predominant theory of second language acquisition was developed by Steven Krashen from the University of Southern California. Krashen is a specialist in language acquisition and development and his influential theory is widely accepted in the language learning community. The following are some quotes from Krashen (1982) about language acquisition.
"Language acquisition does not require extensive use of conscious grammatical rules, and does not require tedious drill."
in other words what the learner hears and reads. The Natural Order Hypothesis 3. The Affective Filter Hypothesis 3. containing messages that students really want to hear." "In the real world. and not from forcing and correcting production. These methods do not force early production in the second language. The Monitor Hypothesis 5. but allow students to produce when they are 'ready'.which he calls hypotheses . The most useful form of input has to be understandable and it should be just a little 31 .as the basis for his language teaching model." “The best methods are therefore those that supply 'comprehensible input' in low anxiety situations. Each of the components relates to a different aspect of the language learning process.TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY "Acquisition requires meaningful interaction in the target language natural communication .in which speakers are concerned not with the form of their utterances but with the messages they are conveying and understanding." Krashen explains five fundamental components .3. The five components are as follows: 1.1 Input Hypothesis Krashen believes that the main factor in acquisition is not language use but language input. conversations with sympathetic native speakers who are willing to help the acquirer understand are very helpful. recognizing that improvement comes from supplying communicative and comprehensible input. The Acquisition Learning Hypothesis 4. The Input Hypothesis 2.
and if it is not far enough. Natural communicative input is the key to designing a syllabus. These include use of baby-talk and short simple sentences. If a learner is at a stage 'i'. As such. the learner will not pay attention to the input. the learner will learn nothing. Here “i” refers to the current language level the learners are at. Teacher-talk from a teacher to a language student.TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY beyond the learner's present capacity. Foreigner-talk from a sympathetic conversation partner to a language learner or acquirer 32 . acquisition takes place when he/she is exposed to 'comprehensible input' that belongs to level 'i + 1‘. language teachers must make input comprehensible by contextualizing it. If it is too far beyond. supported by visual cues and realia which gives it a context within which the learner may guess at the content. Adults roughly-tune to child’s level of linguistic competence. The learner improves and progresses along the 'natural order' when he/she receives second language 'input' that is one step beyond his/her current stage of linguistic competence. Teachers simplify their language to make L2 learners understand or go down to L2 learners’ comprehension. “i + 1” means a level higher than the level the students are at or the next level along the natural order. Karshen suggests that teachers should give rough-tuned input and a wide variety of materials. Adults speaking to children modify their language in order to aid comprehension. Evidences for the input hypothesis can be found in the following situations: Effectiveness of caretaker speech from an adult to a child/ people speak to children acquiring their first language in special ways. thus ensuring that each learner will receive some 'i + 1' input that is appropriate for his/her current stage of linguistic competence.
TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY Some of the ways a foreigner talks to a language learner include slower pronunciation. As for bilingual programmes. The more comprehensible input the greater the L2 proficiency. the affective filter falls into place and inhibits the learner from acquiring the new language. L2 learners often go through an initial Silent Period. the institution or the teacher. As such teaching methods work according to the extent that teachers use comprehensible input. omission of features of connected speech. These factors include motivation. self-confidence. and a high level of anxiety. confident. A learner is silent to build up competencies in 2nd language via listening. and anxiety. the teacher's job is to make language learning free of stress and enjoyable. learners who are motivated. These feelings become a kind of filter. 33 . they succeed to the extent teachers provide comprehensible input 3. which keeps the input out. Krashen indicates that the comparative success of younger and older learners reflects provision of comprehensible input. Barriers to learning can also be found in any negative feelings that a learner has about the language. the method used. heavier stress on key words. and relaxed about learning the target language have more success acquiring a second language. Hence.3.2 Affective Filter Hypothesis This hypothesis describes external factors that can act as a filter that impedes acquisition. One finds that immersion teaching is successful because it provides comprehensible input. short responses. Speaking only emerges after the learner has enough competence in the language. use of gestures and demonstrations. very low self-confidence. If a learner has very low motivation. The lack of comprehensible input delays language acquisition. On the other hand.
One example of the learned system is the studying the rules of syntax. The differences between acquisition and learning are depicted in Figure 1 below: Acquisition implicit.3 Acquisition-Learning Hypothesis Krashen elucidates two systems of language acquisition that are independent but related namely the acquired system and the learned system.TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY 3. When people learn their first language by speaking the language naturally in daily interaction with others the acquired system is at work. 1: Differences between acquisition and learning 34 . the learned system relates to formal instruction where students engage in formal study to acquire knowledge about the target language.3. On the other hand. The acquired system relates to the unconscious aspect of language acquisition. subconscious informal situations uses grammatical 'feel' depends on attitude stable order of acquisition Learning explicit. Here speakers are more concerned with the act of communicating meaning than the structure of their utterances. conscious formal situations uses grammatical rules depends on aptitude simple to complex order of learning Fig.
writing letters of application. Monitor underusers have not consciously learned or choose not to use their conscious 35 Using the monitor requires the speaker to slow down and focus on the form of language. There three types of monitor users – over-users. Knowledge of rules The learner must know the rules. According to Krashen. under-users and optimalusers. When second language learners monitor their speech.2. A learner may find it difficult to focus on meaning and form at the same time. Monitor over-users try to always use their monitor. and initiate their communication. the formal rule system acts as the Monitor in the acquired system. This action can only occur when speakers have ample time to think about the form and structure of their sentences. Focus on correctness of form The learner must be focused or thinking about the form of language.TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY 3. The Monitor is best used when: we have to be very careful when language is necessarily formal e. and are so concerned with correctness that they cannot speak with any real fluency. speaking to a hierarchical superior in a formal situation. they apply their understanding of learned grammar to edit.g. There are three conditions required by the Monitor: Time The learner must have time to use the monitor. plan. This means that the speaker must have had explicit instruction on the language form that he or she is trying to produce. .4 Monitor Hypothesis The monitor hypothesis seeks to explain how the learned system affects the acquired system.
36 . as they can often correct themselves based on a "feel" for correctness. Teachers should aim to produce optimal monitor users. but will use it in writing and planned speech. and the conditions under which the second language is being learned. Error correction by others has little influence on them. and concentrate upon the meaning that we wish to convey.2. Optimal monitor users can therefore use their learned competence as a supplement to their acquired 3. Krashen states that there is a natural order in which learners pick up a language and this order is roughly the same for all learners regardless of their linguistic background. the learner's native language. Research shows that this natural order seems to go beyond age. competence Krashen suggests that we should leave the monitor unemployed most of the time. but are very similar to the errors that children make when learning their first language. The mistakes that students make through time lie in a rough sequence. who use the monitor when it is appropriate and when it does not interfere with communication. rather than on the form of our utterances. Mistakes made by learners are a necessary part of language learning. the target language. These mistakes are not random.5 Natural Order Hypothesis According to this hypothesis there is a natural order to the way second language learners acquire their target language.TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY knowledge of the language. They do not use their conscious knowledge of grammar in normal conversation.
this indicates that there is a natural order in which learners pick up a language.the 's' of PTS. Chinese learning English make the same mistakes. teachers need to expose them to large amounts of authentic language.TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY In addition. In addition. but adapted to the students’ interests and 37 . The language need not be specifically graded in terms grammatical progression. the sequence of errors for acquired language is not the same as the sequence of learned grammar items. To enable learners to advance in language acquisition. Input hypothesis focuses on comprehensible input at “i + 1” level. The combined model of acquisition and production is shown in the diagram below.2. and that teaching grammar will not help them change the order. these mistakes will be made in the same order whether the learners have been taught the grammar or not. According to Krashen.6 Implications for Teaching Krashen’s Monitor Model has its implications for ESL/EFL teaching. and will learn in more or less the same order as the French. Some grammatical morphemes which appear simple from the learning point of view are in fact acquired late . Combined model of acquisition and production 3.
interviews. personal charts and tables are encouraged. language acquisition should be done in relaxing and friendly conditions. According to Krashen comprehension precedes production. In line with the Affective Filter Hypothesis. As such. L2 learners often go through an initial Silent Period. Teachers should provide time for silent period to allow learners to build up acquired competence in a language before they begin to produce it. Affective-humanistic activities such as dialogues. 38 . A wide variety of input. supported by visual cues and realia should be contextualized in a way that the learner can understand a large amount of spoken or written language.TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY purposes for learning the language. Tutorial Task How does the Krashen’s Monitor Model help a teacher better to understand how his/her second language students learn? Design materials and tasks suitable for primary school learners in relation to Krashen’s Monitor Model Relax and move on to the next topic when you are ready.
2 FRAMEWORK OF TOPICS UNIVERSAL GRAMMAR PRINCIPLES PARAMETERS UG AND FIRST LANGUAGE ACQUISITION UG AND SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION IMPLICATIONS FOR TEACHING 39 . reasons why it is termed as such and what does it consists of. It also aims to show how UG relates to first language and second language acquisition. 4.1 LEARNING OUTCOMES By the end of this Session. It also discusses its implications for English language teaching. you will be able to: define Universal Grammar explain why it is termed Universal Grammar explain what Universal Grammar consist of relate Universal Grammar and first language acquisition relate Universal Grammar and second language acquisition identify and discuss implications for teaching 4.0 SYNOPSIS Topic 4 introduces you to Noam Chomsky’s Universal Grammar(UG).TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY TOPIC 4 SECOND LANGUAGE LEARNING THEORIES (II) 4.
conditions. could be explained by a succession of trials. This model did not provide any model or frame work for understanding how the actual learning takes place. syntax and semantics. and rules that are elements or properties of all human languages”. In the late 1950s. ‘Universal’ imply that it is universal to all human beings and human languages and ‘grammar’ signify the facts about grammar (language rules) that humans are born knowing. 4.2. (Chomsky. like any other kind of learning.2. 1969) This means that a native speaker of a language knows a set of principles that can be applied to all languages and parameters that vary from one language to another.2 Why it is named ‘Universal Grammar’? Chomsky named this innate capacity as Universal Grammar. It was simply descriptive of the different levels of production. genetic endowment of language-specific knowledge consisting of the principles and parameters of language. and rewards for success. suggesting that language learning. Before the 1960s. morphology.TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY CONTENT SESSION FOUR (3 Hours) 4. namely: phonology. Skinner constructed his cognitive learning model: behaviorism which correlates with the notion. errors. Stimulus → response→ reinforcement and habit formation 40 . the Structuralist Model was very dominant. It also refers to an innate. Language was usually understood from a behaviourist perspective.1 What is Universal Grammar? Universal Grammar (UG) is “the system of principles.
He there is an assumption that all languages have a common structural basis. since expressions which violate those restrictions are not present in the input.TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY According to Skinner. Children learn the language their mother tongue by simple imitation. 41 . by hypothesis. indicated as such. listening to and repeating what adults said. the mind is a blank slate at birth. because they are. This set of rules is known as universal grammar. Poverty -of-the-stimulus Speakers proficient in a language know what expressions are acceptable in their language and what expressions are unacceptable. For example. absence of evidence that an expression is part of a class of the ungrammatical sentences in one's language—is the core of the poverty of stimulus argument. Language learners are consequently never tempted to generalize in an illicit fashion. How speakers should come to know the restrictions of their language is a mystery. Thus in 1960s Linguist Noam Chomsky puts forward that the human brain contains a limited set of rules for organizing language. Universal grammar offers a solution to the poverty of the stimulus problem by making certain restrictions universal characteristics of human languages. Children only hear a finite number of sentences but they are able to learn the abstract rules and principles of the language and produce an infinite number of sentences. in English one cannot relate a question word like 'what' to a predicate within a relative clause (1): (1) *What did Dan meet a man who build? Such expressions are not available to the English language learners. There are three main points of critique of Skinner by Chomsky: 1. ungrammatical and unacceptable for speakers of that language. This absence of negative evidence—that is. The logical problem of language acquisition is that the input is ungrammatical and incomplete and the output are grammatically acceptable.
no one has the cognitive ability to understand the principles of grammar as a system. Children. Patterns of development are universal When children develop their language. 3. If children only learned what they are taught. they learn the various aspects of language in a very similar order. can consistently produce and interpret sentences that they have never encountered before even before the age of 5. that is. which was the foundation for the Universal Grammar hypothesis that he proposed in the early 1960s. With the help of this detailed information we can now refer to 42 . These patterns are called universals.TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY 2. Phonological universals: Consonants. for example. We can find these similarities on many linguistic levels: i. It is this extraordinary ability to use language despite having had only very partial exposure to the allowable syntactic variants that led Chomsky to formulate his “poverty of the stimulus” argument. the order of what they learned would vary in different environments. His theory on language learning is facilitated by a predisposition that our brains have certain structures of language. At age 6. are distinguished also according to the location of their production. Constraints and principles cannot be learned Chomsky believes that the reason that children so easily master the complex operations of language is that they have innate knowledge of certain principles that guide them in developing the grammar of their language. But Brown (1973) found that there is a very specific order of MORPHEME acquisition. Morphemes are the smallest syntactic units that can carry a meaning such as the following examples: a) b) c) d) Prefixes “un” and suffix “-ed” in the word “unlimited” Present progressive –ing ( Daddy jumping) Plural –s ( as in ‘books’) Irregular past forms ( I run – I ran) Chomsky further explains that human languages exhibit remarkable similarities or principles. without having had any formal instruction. after the various organs of the vocal tract.
Pelukis itu melukis seekor burung helang. is a voiceless. orange. speech sounds. blue. pink. and meaning that heredity builds into the human language organ. green. Principles of Language are rules of the language or abstract principles that permit or prohibit certain structures from occurring in all human languages. labiodentals fricative. Study the following example: (English) (Bahasa Melayu) The artist drew an eagle.3 What does Universal Grammar consist of? Universal Grammar exists in the child’s mind as a system of principles and parameters. we need to establish the concept of phrase structure in the English Language. To illustrate this. Semantic universals: One semantic universal regards our notion of color. nouns. white. Sentence Noun Phrase Determiner The Noun artist Verb drew Verb Phrase Noun Phrase Determiner Noun 43 . the principle of structure dependency asserts that knowledge of language relies on the structural relationship in a sentence rather than on the sequence of the words. for example. The amount of all the principles cover grammar. purple. These phrases also break up into smaller constituents. For example. yellow. This sentence breaks up into a noun phrase (NP) “the artist” and verb phrase(VP) “drew an eagle”. adjectives and pronouns. and grey. The (NP) “the artist” consists of a determiner (Det or D) ‘the’ and a Noun (N) artist. It is the properties that all languages possess. brown. 4. while the NP “an eagle’ consists of a determiner ‘an’ and a Noun ‘eagle’. iii.TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY every consonant by its location and manner of articulation. There exist eleven basic color terms: black. red. [f].2. Syntactic universals: Most of existing languages have verbs. ii.
TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY an eagle The above example shows the existence of UG allows a speaker to follow certain rules of grammar (a sentence has to have a subject) to correctly construct a sentence in that language. 44 . the use of past tense in English and Arabic which is non-existent in Bahasa Melayu. Why did Chomsky named this innate component of the human mind as ’Universal Grammar’? Explain briefly with your own examples what is meant by ’principles’ in UG.1 a) b) c) d) e) In your own words. Semalam saya pergi ke pasar. For example. Explain briefly with your own examples what is meant by ’parameters’ in UG. Chomsky (1986) reiterates that UG is part of the human genetic endowment and is coded in the Language Acquisition Faculty(LAF). LAF is an innate component of the human mind that yields a particular language through interaction with presented experience. List and describe briefly the 3 points of critique by Chomsky on Skinner’s Behaviourist Model. define Universal Grammar. a device that converts experience into a system of knowledge attained: knowledge of one or another language. I went to the market yesterday. English ( change in verb ‘go’ to ‘went’) B. Look at the following example: i. Melayu ( no change in verb ‘ pergi’) ii. Whereas Parameters of Language are systematic ways in which human languages vary which determine the syntactic variability amongst languages. Tutorial Task Prepare your answer to the following questions for your tutorial session. Exercise 4.
In your own words. goed (meaning went). and to produce and use words to communicate. The processes in each stage of development show that children are able to learn the "superficial" grammar of a particular language unconsciously because all intelligible languages are founded on a "deep structure" of grammatical rules that are universal and that correspond to an innate capacity of the human brain. As illustrated by the example. Stages in the acquisition of a native language can be measured by the increasing complexity and originality of a child's utterances. Can you describe the various stages of language acquisition of a child? You may check your answers in Session 2 and references listed in the bibliography about First language acquisition.4 Universal Grammar and first language acquisition The main questions are how UG is used and what other procedures (knowledge. methods) play a role in the acquisition process. which studies infants' acquisition of their native language. what does language acquisition refer to? Let’s check your answer. answer the following question. children at first 45 .TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY Reflection Do you agree with Chomsky? Take a break before you move on to the next topic. It is the process by which humans acquire the capacity to perceive and comprehend language.2. which deals with the acquisition (in both children and adults) of additional languages. SESSION TWO (3 Hours) 4. This is different from second language acquisition. Before we proceed. Language acquisition usually refers to first language acquisition.
He claims that children are biologically programmed for language and that language develops in a child in just the same way that other biological functions develop(Lightbown and Spada. ii. how to conjugate regular verbs) and failed only to learn exceptions that cannot be predicted from a knowledge of the grammar alone. language is said to be innate because it has the following characteristics: i. A child does not decide to consciously acquire certain skills such as walking or learning a language. As one of humans’ biological functions. Although children usually learn the sounds and vocabulary of their native language through imitation. Are relatively unaffected by direct teaching and intensive practice. A child follows a sequence of stages before she is able to speak. grammar is seldom taught to them explicitly whereby they could acquire the ability to speak grammatically. walking. 1999). 46 . Do not appear as the result of a conscious decision. Exposure to language triggers the parameters to adopt the correct setting. iii. Most children learn to walk at about the same age as long as adequate nourishment and reasonable freedom of movement are provided. does not have to be taught. Although we correct children’s errors. Do not appear due to a trigger from external events. it does not help them learn the rules. suggesting that they have intuited or deduced complex grammatical rules (here. This supports the theory advanced by Noam Chomsky and other proponents of transformational grammar.TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY may overgeneralize grammatical rules for a form they are unlikely to have heard. Maturationally controlled This is because language emerge before they are critically needed and cannot be forced before scheduled. What would prompt a child to begin speaking? iv. Similarly language acquisition develops progressively naturally according to age due to the existence of the principles and parameters of UG. Besides.
from about 10 – 16 years. when acquisition is possible. Universal Grammar. Children who are profoundly deaf will learn sign language if they are exposed to it in infancy.ay even be located in a different part of the brain. Children achieve different levels of vocabulary. Among Chomsky’s arguments for his claim that children have this innate capacity. are as follows (Lightbown and Spada. and upbringings.TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY v. Generally observe a critical period for their acquisition. vi. but virtually all achieve mastery of the structure of the language spoken around them. The term ‘modular’ is sometimes used to represent the notion that the brain has different ‘modules’ which serve different kinds of knowledge and learning. but not native-like. creativity. and so on. This supports the hypothesis that language is separate from other aspects of cognitive development and m. there seems to be a critical period of the first five years. locations. during which children must be exposed to rich language input. 2. 47 . In spite of different backgrounds. social grace. most children follow the same milestones in acquiring language. abusive or rejecting parents). For first language acquisition. and some which might be expected to inhibit it( for example. caring. Children successfully master the basic structure of their native language or dialect in a variety of conditions: some which would be expected to enhance language development (for example. 1999): 1. and their progress in language acquisition is similar to that of hearing children. attentive parents who focus on the child’s language) . Follow a regular sequence of ‘milestones’ in their development. There is also a period. Even children with very limited cognitive ability develop quite complex language systems if they are brought up in environments in which people talk to them and engage them in communication. Virtually all children successfully learn their native language as a time in life when they would not be expected to learn anything else so complicated.
what are your reasons? Elaborate your reasons with suitable examples. Studies have point out how remarkable it is that human children.2 Do you agree with Chomsky? If you agree / disagree . 48 . Animals – even primates receiving intensive training from humans – cannot learn to manipulate a symbol system as complicated as the natural language of a three – or four-year-old human child. The language children are exposed to does not contain examples(or. Tutorial Task Prepare your answer to the following questions for your tutorial session. and without over reinforcement. Take a break before you move on to the next session. The above evidences show that direct teaching and correcting of grammar could not account for children’s utterances because the rules of grammar children were unconsciously acquiring are already endowed in the brain.TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY 3. in any case. 4. without explicit teaching. Children seem to accomplish the complex task of language acquisition without having someone consistently point out to them which of the sentences they hear and produce are ‘correct’ and which are ‘ungrammatical’. 5. Children learn language by applying this unconscious universal grammar to the sounds they hear. There are many kinds of computer languages. but they all have some fundamental similarities. Thus. A universal grammar can be equated with computer languages. Exercise 4. Universal grammar forms the foundation of all human language. by the age of three and four. create new and complex sentences never spoken and never heard before. not very many examples) of all the linguistic rules and patterns which they eventually know.
affective and social aspects of a human being. you are going to look into the following question: To what extent UG is available in second language acquisition? There are different positions that have been defended by various linguists ranging from complete availability of UG to complete unavailability. and why some learners appear to achieve native-like proficiency in more than one language.Communication strategies are employed by the learner to make use of existing knowledge to cope with communication difficulties. how learners create a new language system with limited exposure to a second language. general learning strategies. Variable factors such as motivation are influenced by external factors such as social setting and by the actual course of L2 development. why most second language learners do not achieve the same degree of proficiency in a second language as they do in their native language. Besides that. fixed factors such as age and language learning aptitude are beyond external control. Individual differences may include: (1) the rate of development and (2) their ultimate level of achievement.2. These processes serve as a means by which the learner constructs an interlanguage (a transitional system reflecting the learner’s current L2 knowledge).5 Universal Grammar and second language acquisition The study of second language learning examines how second languages are learned. Can you recall how second language is acquired? Learners acquire a second language by making use of existing knowledge of the native language. or universal properties of language to internalize knowledge of the second language.TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY 4. The main distinction between first and second or foreign language learning is what is learned and how it is learned. In this context. Learners differ with regard to variables relating to cognitive. One of the factors that affect L2 acquisition is individual differences. 49 .
there are strategies that learners use to make language learning more successful. Field independent learners are analytic and prefer to work alone. organize and recall information. answering in unison (responding with others). and 12. monitoring (self-correcting errors). 9. a device that converts experience into a system of knowledge attained: knowledge of one or another 50 .TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY Another factor that affects L2 acquisition is cognitive style.Social strategies include looking for opportunities to converse with native speakers. anticipatory answers (completing another’s phrase or statement). metacognitive and social. Learners who are field dependent operate holistically. 2. Metacognitive strategies are those which help with organizing a personal timetable to facilitate an effective study of the L2. Among the strategies used are cognitive. 10. self-directed and enjoyable. talking to self (engaging in internal monologue). 5. rhymes or sequences by rote). formulaic expressions (words or phrases that function as units i. LAF is “ an innate component of the human mind that yields a particular language through interaction with presented experience. Chesterfield & Chesterfield (1985) identified a natural order of strategies in the development of a second language. 7. verbal attention getters (language that initiates interaction). UG is part of the human genetic endowment and is encoded in the Language Acquisition Faculty(LAF). memorization (recalling songs. 6. 1. They like to work with others. appeal for assistance (asking someone for help). greetings). repetition (imitating a word or structure). Furthermore. Cognitive style refers to the way people perceive. As a set of principles and parameters that constrain all human languages. 3. 8. conceptualize.e. request for clarification (asking the speaker to explain or repeat). role-playing (interacting with another by taking on roles). Cognitive strategies relate new concepts to prior knowledge. 4. These deliberate behaviors or actions that learners use are called learner strategies. elaboration (information beyond what is necessary). 11.
TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY language. Will she laugh? The student who is taking good notes will get an A.30 October 2011). number." The subject "she" of the second sentence is only implied in Italian. For example. but on how these words are structured within the constituents of specific types. For example. subject-auxiliary inversion in English: a) b) She will laugh. which is either on or off for a particular language. Whereas a null-subject language is a language whose grammar permits an independent clause to lack an explicit subject. on the other hand. The logical problem of language acquisition is that. Thus children acquire properties of language that are not immediately obvious and that are not explicitly taught. "[She] does not want to eat. the null subject is controlled by the pro-drop parameter. "Maria does not want to eat". in Italian the subject "she" can be either explicit or implicit: Maria non vuole mangiare. the linguistic input available to children underdetermines the linguistic competence of adults. Such a clause is then said to have a null subject.Subject not want [to]-eat]. require an explicit subject in this sentence (Wikipedia . rendering a subject noun phrase redundant. Will the student who is taking good notes will get an A. An example of a principle of UG is the principle of structure dependency. Typically. null subject languages express person. grammatical rules do not depend on the linear ordering of the words in the sentence. In the principles and parameters framework. And an example of a parameter is the null subject parameter. it would seem impossible to arrive at he 51 . According to the principle of structural dependency. English and French. lit. If the child comes to the acquisition come to the acquisition solely equipped with abilities to make generalization from the input data. lit. Non vuole mangiare. many features of the adult language cannot be acquired.If the child possesses only some cognitive ability to make generalizations from input. 1986).”(Chomsky.[Maria not want [to]-eat]. and/or gender agreement with the referent on the verb.
containing principles and parameters which constrain grammar in various ways.. What does he believe that he said that he was reading? 3.(1989) tested the availability of UG in adult SLA. What would constitute evidence for UG in SLA? A learners’ knowledge of L2 goes beyond what could be induced from the input. subjacency is a constraint on movement.elements is cyclical. in addition.movement shows that derivation must be cyclic. the child appears to get little or negative evidence because adults react to meaning ad sociolinguistic appropriateness not to errors of form . Each cycle leaves an intermediate trace. What did he say that he was reading? 2. J. What are they claiming that she believes that he said that he was reading? 4. Cyclic: Each successively higher clause(=CP) forms a separate cycle in th e derivation of the question. A learners’ knowledge of L2 goes beyond what could be reconstructed from the L1 (e. there are two theories about the derivation of wh. There are no violations of UG in interlanguage ( no “wild grammars”). Noncyclic:Derivation occurs in one fell swoop.movement. for example.Therefore knowledge about what is and is not possible in adult language stems in part from an innate universal grammar. the movement of wh. the fact that there are barriers to wh.TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY correct generalizations without a great many errors. 52 . 1. The principle of Shachter. What do you think that they are claiming that she believes that he said that he was reading? In the above examples. It may not take place over more than one bounding node at a time. What did he say [t that he was reading t ?] 2. What did he say that he was reading t ?] Thus. 1. resetting parameters).g.
They concluded that UG must still be active. 53 . That Tom got an ‘A’ on his first exam pleased him. They don’t know why Sue tolerates Larry. *Who don’t they know why Sue tolerates? The above examples proved that L2 learners know about subjacency constraints on whmovement in English. iii. Bley-Vroman. If there is no movement in L1. This knowledge comes from L1. Barriers to wh-movement: embedded question They don’t know why Sue tolerates Larry. found that the low-intermediate group had not reset the parameter. Indonesians.in a study of native speakers of French acquiring English a second language. that is. Barriers to wh-movement: relative clause Bill found a principle that solves the problem of equilibrium. while a high-intermediate group did. Felix & Ioup (1988) also tested L2 learners knowledge of subjacency violations. Chinese and Koreans the results are mixed. Bill found a principle that solves the problem of equilibrium. Barriers to wh-movement: sentential subject That Tom got an ‘A’ on his first exam pleased him. *Which problem did Bill find a principle that solves? iv. *What did that he got on his first exam please Tom? ii. He concluded that UG is unavailable or of limited access in SLA. But in another test on syntax that Schachter (1989) has carried out on native speakers. The fact that you didn’t send your resume shows your lack of interest. adult second language learners have access to UG. Barriers to wh-movement: noun complement The fact that you didn’t send your resume shows your lack of interest.TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY i. *What does the fact that you didn’t send prove your lack of interest. White (1988). then the knowledge of adult second language learners must be innate.
Shachter (1988). There is no learning theory in UG.TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY Flynn (1996). 1. Clahsen and Muysken 1989) presents four hypotheses or positions to explain the role of UG in SLA (logical problem): i. but the learning principles are not. otherwise the L2 learner proceeds in the way as the L1 learner. UG only applies to “core “ grammar. sociolinguistic competence. In order to test UG we must find extremely rare grammatical structures. iii. phonology. “Partial Access” Hypothesis UG is partially available to the learner so adult L2 learner may be able to reset L1 parameters by means of general learning strategies. discourse structures. Even if we concede that the solution to the logical problem of language acquisition requires innate knowledge. learning takes place in terms of non-linguistic learning strategies ii. Only those parametric values characterising the L1 grammar are available. L1 provides learner with a ‘quick setting’ for the L2 parameter if the value is the same. 4. And what about the learning of lexicon. How does a learner identify particular bits of language as relevant to the setting of certain parameters? 2. Furthermore there are problems with UG as a theory of SLA. need that knowledge be in the specific form of UG? 54 . The differences in patterns of acquisition between L1 and L2 learners and the lack of completeness can be accounted for in other ways. but there is much more grammar to be learned than just the core. “Full Access” Hypothesis/ Complete Access UG is fully available so L2 learner have full access to UG principles. “No Access” Hypothesis UG is totally inaccessible to the adult L2 learner. Dual access L2 learners have access to UG but this is partly blocked by the use of general learning strategies. iv. Felix (1985). semantics. etc? 3.
Minimalist Theory proposes that languages are based on simple principles that interact to form often intricate structures. that this new theory is compatible with the approach to language acquisition embracing the principle and parameter setting model (into which also the SCH fits in). since these are supposed to reflect competence. Evidence in UG studies is obtained from grammatical judgments. and individual differences among learners are ignored. Initial state is to be understood as having a set of finite discrete principles available at any language specific ‘event’.2. Revisions in linguistic theory. Although it is argued that learning and acquisition are quite distinct processes. UG and L1 are indissociable from each other UG is only fully available until L1 is fully acquired. So.TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY 5. shed a new light on the role of UG in SLA. Strong Continuity Hypothesis: UG remains distinct from the language specific grammar and remains constant over time and is available continuously. This definition leads to two possible models of LA: Maturation Model: UG over time becomes the language specific grammar. proposing a Minimalist Program. learner’s judgments are unstable.6 Implications for teaching The discussion on how Universal Grammar relate to both L1 acquisition and L2 learning will give language teachers an idea on how to play their roles in the teaching-learning process in the classroom. expectations regarding the quality of learning should be set realistically. 4. The Language faculty is not redundant and can still be the basis for grammatical mapping integration of UG principles in the grammar of the specific TL. i. It seems though. it should be kept in mind that not everything taught becomes acquired. Another approach is to think of UG as the theory of the language faculty and also of the initial state. a language teacher should consider the possibility that extensive practice in the classroom can lead to acquisition. But there are many problems with grammatical judgments: they are just another kind of performance. 55 . However.e.
the learners of L2 are faced with inhibition and attitudes. Another issue to be considered is the acquisition order of language learning. teachers have to consider the level of learner’s development. whereas adults are faster and better learning in rules and pragmatics.TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY Based on the similarities and differences between L2 and L1 acquisition. To provide appropriate activities that promote language learning. The teacher plays an important role in the selection of comprehensible input to suit learners’ level. affective factors are related to the critical period. The Critical Period hypothesis is one of the key differences leading to the variations in L1 and L2 acquisition. By knowing that children are better in pronunciation. The affective states of our learners are very important 56 . the cultural and social environment. Knowledge of learners’ L1 may help teachers put in more time and effort on certain features of the TL that are not present in L1 when planning lessons. Furthermore. the ZPD or Zone of Proximal Development is another issue related to the similarities of L1 and L2 acquisition. Besides. Language teachers are the main source of input to learners in the classroom. And the last stage of developmental sequence is the application of semantic simplifications to the learners’ language. the role of developmental sequences in the cognitive development of learners is very crucial. teachers will give more practice on pronunciation for adult learners. The first stage is termed the silent period for learners to process language input whereby it promotes immature production. Thus the role of tests should be viewed as vital to gauge learners’ abilities. teachers have to be equipped with the knowledge and skills of teaching methodology. In order to select the appropriate input. This will help teachers understand the production of imperfect language with errors related to their L1. teachers may be able to sequence the order of content in the English Language syllabus to suit the learners. The second stage is the formulaic speech whereby learners are exposed to sample of useful and frequently phrases for learners to refer to in communication. This may be the reason why some learners resist or avoid to produce the language taught. Moreover teachers will have the insight into why some learners fail to learn or have difficulty in learning certain features of the TL. By knowing which structures are learned prior to others. Teachers have to assist their learners as much as possible by providing them with language necessary to pass to the next level of language competence. While it does not cause a problem in L1 acquisition.
Adult or young adult language learners need to be relaxed and comfortable to create positive attitudes to the language and the language learning process. In Malaysia. One should be aware that once fossilization takes place. British English is the TL. 2. It is important to make learners aware of the different varieties of the target language. More positive than negative feedback. there should be consistency. Exercise 4. more praise than criticism might be the first step. it is very difficult to get rid of.3 1. some forms in the target language of the L2 learners might be fossilized. but in terms of teaching. What are your roles as English language teachers of L2 learners in relation to Universal Grammar. it is the teacher's responsibility to decide on which variety of the target language to take as the norm. Tutorial Task Prepare your answer to the following questions for your tutorial session. Second language learners may choose to learn a language variety other than the standard form depending on the speech community they are taking as a reference. Therefore. Take a break before you move on to the next topic. Check your answers with your peers and tutor. Fossilization is another issue only attributable to L2 acquisition.TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY since these are the major factors intervening in language learning. social issues should be considered by teachers. Thus. 57 . Teachers can prevent fossilization by correcting repeated errors of their learners or they can practise problematic language more than non-problematic language. List the issues to be considered when teaching English language to Malaysian primary school learners. This can only be possible if they build up trust and understanding between themselves and their learners. In addition. teachers should act with caution and help their learners to prevent fossilization. Finally. While all L1 learners reach full competence in the target language. teachers need to free their learners from inhibitions so that learners can freely interact and use the language.
and their implications for syllabus design. strengths. techniques. describe learner-teacher interaction. plan activities for each approach/method 58 . limitations of each method.0 SYNOPSIS Topic 5 will provide the definition of three concepts: approach. method and technique and their relationship. METHODS AND TECHNIQUES – ELT METHODS 5. Each method will be discussed briefly with regards to basic principles. describe the strengths and limitations of each method. list and describe the features of each method. and. Besides you will be provided with suggested techniques to plan activities for each method. state the basic principles of each method.TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY TOPIC 5 OVERVIEW: APPROACHES. illustrate the techniques employed in each method. describe the implications for Syllabus Design. learner-teacher interaction. It will introduce to you seven methods of English language teaching.1 LEARNING OUTCOMES By the end of this Session. technique. 5. key features. you will be able to: define and explain the relationship between the concepts: approach. method.
An approach describes how language is used and how its constituent parts interlock – it offers a model of language competence. Methods. Methods. J. and Techniques – ELT Methods Harmer. about the conditions which will promote successful 59 . and Techniques – ELT Methods Grammar-Translation Method Direct Method Audio-Lingual Method Silent Way Suggestopedia Community Language Learning Total Physical Response CONTENT SESSION FIVE (6 Hours) 2. (2007) defines the concept of approach to refer to theories about the nature of language and language learning which are the source of the way things are done in the classroom and which provide the reasons for doing them.2 FRAMEWORK OF TOPICS Overview: Approaches. It also describes how people acquire their knowledge of the language and make statements language learning.TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY 5.2 Overview: Approaches.
J. However if a method takes procedures and techniques from a wide variety of sources. Elaborate explanations of vocabulary / grammar are always provided. Very little teaching in Target Language(TL). that is. Methods are decided according to students (background knowledge. Classes are taught in the students' mother tongue as a medium of instruction.TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY Harmer. A teaching method refers to ways of teaching (instruction) that are based on systematic principles and procedures.(2007) also defines ‘method’ as the practical realization of an approach. dating back to the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. and this may account for its heavy bias towards written work to the virtual exclusion of oral production. Reading of difficult texts is begun early in the course of study. and learning goals) which contribute towards the success of teaching-learning in the classroom. The use and mis-use of terms such as ‘approach’ or ‘learning’ to describe a method can make discussions of methodology confusing.1 Grammar-Translation Method The Grammar-Translation Method is one of the most traditional methods. Key Features 1. demonstration. recitation and memorization. 3. It varies depending on what information or skill the teacher is trying to convey through class participation. Vocabulary is taught in the form of isolated word lists.2. roles of teachers and learners and kinds of materials and various procedures and techniques which will be helpful for language learning. It is originally used to teach 'dead' languages (and literatures) such as Latin and Greek. However the main question for a teacher is “ Does each method achieve what it set out to achieve? 5. 4. it is difficult to describe it as a ‘method’. ‘Technique’ refers to a particular procedure or activity used to accomplish a particular objective(Richards and Rodgers (1986). 60 . which is an application of views on how a language is best taught and learned. environment. It describes the types of activities. This maybe due to new insights of how the method has been developed. 2.
61 . Strengths 1. Few demands on teachers as they do not have to be fluent in the TL. Often the only drills are exercises in translating disconnected sentences. without much feeling of progress in the mastery of the language. 3.TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY 5. 6. Limitations 1. learning – starts with teaching of reading Speech is neglected Often little contextualization of the grammar The type of error correction can be harmful to the students’ learning processes. Little or no attention is given to pronunciation. There is little learner initiation and little learner-to-learner interaction. 4. The average learner has to work hard at what he considers laborious and monotonous chores. and with very little opportunity to express himself through it. 11. An effective way for application of grammar and sentence structure. TL is quickly explained because translation is the easiest way of explaining meanings or words and phrases from one language into another. 8. 10. Less learners’ motivation Create frustration for learners No class time is allocated to allow students to produce their own sentences. 2. Shows the wrong idea of what language is /unnatural method of lang. 9. 4. 5. copy rules and write out exercises and correct them from the blackboard. Learners listen. 3. Authority of class is the teacher. Least stressful for students as they answer comprehension questions in the mother tongue. Little or no attention is paid to speaking or listening skills. 7. Learner-teacher Interaction Most of the interaction in the classroom is from teacher to the learners. He absorbs and then repeats what he has absorbed to satisfy his teacher. 7. 6. 2. He has a passive role in the classroom. Literary language is superior to spoken language. Focus on accuracy NOT fluency. Primary skills to be improved : reading & writing.
7. 3. 5. structure and correction. try the following quiz. they are less motivated to learn the language. GTM gives the correct idea of what language is. A lot of error correction may be harmful to students. Reading of difficult texts is begun early in the course of study. SCORE To find out how you fare. Translation of a Literary Passage Reading Comprehension Questions Deductive Application of Rule Cognates (words fr. Fill-in-the-blanks and memorization are techniques that illustrate GTM. Classes are taught in the students' mother tongue. A lot of attention is paid to the content of texts The only drills are exercises in translating disconnected sentences Pronunciation is given little or no attention An effective way for application of grammar and sentence structure. 2. 62 . Before we move on to the next teaching method. As GTM does not allow students to produce their own sentences.1 Put a (T) for statements which are true and put an (F) for false statements. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 GTM is originally used to teach 'dead' languages (and literatures) such as Latin and Greek. 9. GTM is emphasized more on oral work. This method implies that the teacher should be a ‘walking dictionary’ and proficient in both learners’ language and the target language. 6. 8. Vocabulary is taught in the form of isolated word lists Elaborate explanations of vocabulary / grammar are always provided. 4.TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY Application : Typical Techniques 1. same origin) Fill-in-the-blanks Antonyms/Synonyms Memorization Composition Use Words in Sentences Although there are various limitations of this method. check your answers. Quiz 5. GTM often provide little contextualization of the grammar. it may appeal to learners who respond well to rules.
5. Students are encouraged to think in the target language. think about it and then express their own ideas in correct English about what they have read and learnt. Instruction is conducted in the target language. This serves as a strong foundation for further learning. The teacher and learners have to interact with one another by relating the grammatical forms that they were studying to objects and pictures to establish meaning. An effective way in creating learners to be competent in using the target language communicatively because it makes the learning of English interesting and lively by establishing direct bond between a word and its meaning. 3. Psychologically it is a sound method as it proceeds from the concrete to the abstract. It is an activity/method facilitating alertness and participation of the pupils. 2. Learners are able to understand what they learn. Key Features 1. is a reaction to the grammar-translation approach in an attempt to integrate more use of the target language in instruction and in authentic situations. no translation. Oral and listening comprehension are taught. Grammar is taught implicitly. 6. Concrete vocabulary is taught through demonstration. Learners should be actively involved in using the language in realistic everyday situations as the vocabulary and sentences are ordinary. and pictures whereas abstract vocabulary is taught through association of ideas. objects. Can be usefully employed in both the best and weakest class. New items are taught through modeling and practice. which arrived at the end of the nineteenth century. Strengths 1.TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY 5.2. everyday language. It is the quickest way of getting started in learning a language because in a few months over 500 of the commonest English words can be learnt and used in sentences. 4. 4. 2.2 Direct Method The Direct Method. 3. Oral communication skills are organized with the emphasis on speaking styles and correct pronunciation. 6. 5. 63 .
by total immersion technique. 6. this method could not be properly applied and teaching in this method does not suit or satisfy the needs of individual students. grading or controlled presentation of vocabulary and structures) to suit learners. 4. 3. difficulty is experienced in providing readers of such kind. grammar is closely bound up with the reader.TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY 7.but this objection is illogical since L2 learner has already mastered his reading skills. 2. It rejects the use of the printed word . Need a lot of time and effort to prepare teaching materials (selection. It is designed with the assumption that L2 should be learned in way in which L1 was acquired . good pronunciation and power of expression are properly developed. from teacher to learners from learners to 64 . 5. Guidelines of Direct Method for teaching oral language • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Demonstrate Act/modelling Practice Ask questions Correct errors Use sentences Make students speak much Use lesson plan Follow plan Keep the pace of the students Speak normally Speak naturally Use of pictures Use of objects/ realia Learner-teacher interaction The initiation of the interaction goes both ways. Since in this method. Not all teachers were proficient enough in the foreign language. In larger classes. Fluency of speech. Limitations 1.
3. Only use the target language in class. grading or controlled presentation of vocabulary and structures) to suit learners. SCORE To find out how you fare. Reading is taught first and then speaking only and writing. 4. 6. although the latter is often teacher-directed. Learners converse with one another as well. Reading Aloud is a technique that illustrates DM.2 Put a (T) for statements which are true and put an (F) for false statements. 65 . 7. Question and Answer Exercise Reading Aloud Student Self-Correction Conversation Practice Fill-in-the-blank Exercise Dictation Paragraph Writing Map Drawing Before we move on to the next teaching method. Learners read texts aloud together. and all activity is closely linked with its use in speech and writing. 2. The classroom is continually filled with the sound of the foreign language. Students are encouraged to think in the target language. Application: Typical Techniques 1.TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY teacher. DM does not require teachers to be proficient in the foreign language. 5. The learner should be actively involved in using the language in realistic everyday situations. Quiz 5. try the following quiz. The teacher and the learners are thought of as partners in the teaching and learning process. 8. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 An attempt to integrate more use of the target language in instruction as a reaction to GTM. DM encourages students to speak normally and naturally. An effective way in creating learners to be competent in using the target communicatively A lot of time and effort is needed to prepare teaching materials (selection. check your answers.
From behavioral psychology it borrows the theory that constant repetition of behavior leads to habit formation.g. 6. 8. and train their ability of listening by dialogues and drills. in part as a reaction to the lack of speaking skills of the Reading Approach. Learners who need the written word to reinforce their speaking and listening may find ALM very confusing. Skills are sequenced in the following order: listening. Controlled drills may encourage shy students to speak. reading. It was popular in the 1960s but died out in the 70s. but learners are not allowed to use it at all.TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY 5. It focuses on students’ pronunciation. 10.“habit-forming” Some use of mother tongue by teachers is permitted. pronouns) and studied in small ‘chunks’. Learning of vocabulary in context but limited. 7. 3. 9. Immediate reinforcement (praise/reward) of correct responses Cultural background of target language is stressed Strengths 1. 2. tense. From structural linguistics it borrows the theory that language can be separated into different segments(e.2. language labs and visual aids Focus on native-like pronunciation . they may help create a sense of fluency for some students. 5. Teaching structural patterns by means of repetitive drills.3 Audio-Lingual Method The Audio-Lingual Method or Army Method was founded during World War II for military purposes in the USA. Because ALM lessons and drills tend to go very quickly.This method is based on the principles of behavioral psychology and structural linguistics. It adapted many of the principles and procedures of the Direct Method. speaking. Key Features 1. 66 . Dependence on mimicry and memorization of set phrases. writing. Use of tapes. Limitations 1. 2. Little or no explicit grammatical explanation because learners are supposed to infer grammatical rules. 4.
Learner-teacher Interaction There is learner-to-learner interaction in chain drills and when learners take different roles in dialogues. 5. but teachers still had to set up projectors and find places on tape. Some schools set up Specialist. Learners became better and better at pattern practice but were unable to use the patterns fluently in natural speech situations. extension leads. speech is standardised and learners turn into parrots who can reproduce many things but never create anything new or spontaneous. 9. worry and problems. Basic method of teaching is repetition. not as a teaching aid. Hardware involved extra time. Tendency to regard audio-visual materials as a teaching method in themselves. Audio-Visual materials were open to same sort of misuse.not sophisticated equipment of today. Equipment could break down. its use gradually faded away. ALM frequently uses non-authentic language. Mechanical drills of early Audio-Visual approach criticised as being not only boring and mindless but also counter-productive. 6. 8. carrying tape-recorders from classroom to classroom. tapes tangle .very few commercial materials were available in the early stages. Most interaction is between teacher and learners and is initiated by the teacher. and. Those that did exist stressed oral skills and didn't develop reading and writing skills. projector lamps explode.TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY 2. New materials necessitated extensive use of equipment with all associated problems of black-out. Some learners may be unable to make the transition from controlled drills to more open-ended and creative language use. 3. More subtle classroom skills were needed for pupils to assimilate material and use it creatively. Showed that this costly equipment did not improve performance of 11+ beginners. if used beyond initial introduction to new structure. 4. This final vital phase was often omitted by teachers. The teacher is like an orchestra 67 . when compared with same materials used on single tape-recorder in classroom. 7. Soon became clear to teachers that audio-visual approach could only assist in presentation of new materials. for these reasons alone. but this interaction is teacher-directed. Series of classroom studies threw doubt on claims made for language laboratory.Language rooms. New technology caught publishers and text-book writers unprepared .
using lots of repetition. Question-and-answer Drill Learners should answer or ask questions very quickly. when repeating the line. Application:Typical Techniques 1. Learners are imitators of the teacher's model or the tapes she supplies of model speakers. learners repeat each part starting at the end of the sentence and "expanding" backwards through the sentence. 3. adding each part in sequence. 2. Dialogue Memorization Learners memorize an opening dialog using mimicry and applied role-playing. 9. Transformation Drill Teacher provides a sentence that must be turned into something else. 5. Multiple-slot Substitution Drill Same as the Single Slot drill. Chain Drill Learners ask and answer each other one-by-one in a circular chain around the classroom.TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY leader. Single Slot Substitution Drill Teacher states a line from the dialog. 7. Grammar Games Various games designed to practise a grammar point in context. They follow the teacher's directions and respond as accurately and as rapidly as possible. then uses a word or a phrase as a "cue" that students. 4. Use of Minimal Pairs Using contrastive analysis. 8. Repetition Drill Learners repeat teacher's model as quickly and accurately as possible. directing and controlling the language behaviour of her learners. 68 . teacher selects a pair of words that sound identical except for a single sound that typically poses difficulty for the learners to pronounce and differentiate the two words. except that there are multiple cues to be substituted into the line. must substitute into the sentence in the correct place. etc. 10. an active sentence to be turned into a negative statement. She is responsible for providing her learners with a good model for imitation. Backward Build-up (Expansion Drill) Teacher breaks a line into several parts. for example a question to be turned into a statement. 6.
TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY 11. Caleb Gattegno. Based on the principles of behavior psychology. the founder of the Silent Way. Focus on learners’ pronunciation. of Egypt. try the following quiz.learners must find and insert. Use of repetitive drills to teach structural patterns. Before we move on to the next teaching method. Cultural background of target language is stressed. Vocabulary is taught in context. Learners are not allowed to use mother tongue at all. and train their ability of listening by dialogues and drills.4 Silent Way The Silent Way is one of new methods developed in the 70s to highlight the cognitive domain in language learning. Flashcards are used widely. Dependence on mimicry and memorization of set phrases. Quiz 5. Complete the Dialogue Selected words are erased from a line in the dialogue .2. devoted his thinking to the importance of problem solving approach in education. The best way of achieving this is to help students to be experimental learners. SCORE To find out how you fare. check your answers. He contends that the method is constructivist and leads the learners to develop their own conceptual models of all the aspects of the language. 69 . although he repeatedly insisted that "the Silent Way is not a method at all". 5. Correct responses are not given immediate reinforcement (praise / reward). There is little or no explicit grammatical explanation. Focus on native-like pronunciation. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Founded during World War II for military purposes in USA.3 Put a (T) for statements which are true and put an (F) for false statements. Dictation 12.
adjectives. Learning is facilitated by problem solving involving the material to be learned. This can be summarized by Benjamin Franklin’s words: “Tell me and I forget Teach me and I remember Involve me and I learn” A good SW learner is a good problem solver. 70 . As far as the presentation of language is concerned. remaining silent most of the times. verbs) and syntax (tense. They are used to introduce vocabulary ( colors. described by some as a "building-block" approach(Bowen. problem solving and the use of accompanying materials. numbers. leaving the learner struggling to solve problems about the language and get a grasp of its mechanism. The teacher’s role resides only in giving minimum repetitions and correction. (2011). as Silent Way is based on the premise that the teacher should be as silent as possible in the classroom in order to encourage the learner to produce as much language as possible.TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY The use of the word "silent" is also significant. 1. comparatives. T. Silent Way adopts a highly structural approach. The SW belongs to the tradition of teaching that favors hypothetical mode of teaching (as opposed to expository mode of teaching) in which the teacher and the learner work cooperatively to reach the educational desired goals(Bruner. creativity. 2. Learning is facilitated by accompanying (mediating) physical objects. 1966). with language taught through sentences in a sequence based on grammatical complexity. word order …) 3. plurals. Key Features The Silent Way (SW)is characterized by its focus on discovery. Learning is facilitated if the learner discovers or creates. Richards and Rodgers (1986:99) summarized the method into three major features. The SW uses colorful charts and rods (cuisinere rods) which are of varying length. The learner is not a bench bound listener but an active contributor to the learning process.
2. discovery. Neither the learners work with authentic. Other materials will have to be introduced. 4. The teachers' silence is to allow for this. The indirect role of the teacher highlights the importance and the centrality of the learner who is responsible in figuring out and testing the hypotheses about how language works. Minimum help on the part of the teacher because she offers neither praise nor criticism and does not allow questions makes learning inefficient. used in this method will certainly fail to introduce all aspects of language. 2. listening attentively to students' speech. setting up situations to "force awareness". the teacher is silent. culturally based materials nor they hear authentic speech in the instruction.TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY Strengths 1. increase in intelligent potency and long term memory. When the teacher does speak. He is still very active. it is to give clues. Learner-learner verbal interaction is desirable and is therefore encouraged. which are difficult to get. The SW is often criticised of being a harsh method. 3. The teacher constantly observes the learners and helps them overcome negative feelings which might interfere with learning. not to model the language. however. In other words teaching is subordinated to learning because good learning demands that any language learner carefully observe his or her own speech. Learning through problem solving looks attractive especially because it fosters creativity. The learner works in isolation and communication is lacking badly in a Silent Way classroom because it does not provide learners the language for everyday situations. Learner-teacher interaction For much of the learner-teacher interaction. and silently working with them on their production. The material (the rods and the charts (called ‘Fidels’). 71 . Limitations 1.
They gain autonomy in the language by exploring it and making choices. 3 SW is based on the premise that the teacher should be as silent as possible in the classroom in order to encourage the learner to produce as much language as possible. To find out how you fare. and provides a vehicle for learners to perceive meaning. The teacher uses the learners' errors to ascertain the language the learners are unclear about. (For lessons using Silent Way search on youtube. 2 The teacher constantly observes and interferes by correcting errors all the time. Ali. and provides a vehicle for learners to perceive meaning. check your answers. culturally based materials and hear authentic speech in the instruction. 5 The strength of SW is that the learner is given more importance and the centrality because he is responsible in figuring out and testing the hypotheses about how language works. 8 In the SW when the teacher does speak. and determines what to work on based on this. not to model the language. 1989) Learners learn the language through its sounds. try the following quiz.4 Put a (T) for statements which are true and put an (F) for false statements. Quiz 4. The teacher sets up situations that focus learner attention on structures. 7 In SW. Before we move on to the next teaching method. and determines what to work on based on this. communication is lacking badly as it does not provide learners the language for everyday situations. 1 The Silent Way emphasizes the importance of problem solving approach in education. 9 The teacher role is to set up situations that focus learner attention on structures. accompanied by(mediating) physical objects or by problem solving involving the material to be learned. it is to give clues. Learners take responsibility for their own learning. Learners receive a great deal of practice with a structure without repetition for its own sake. 72 . 4 In SW. 10 The teacher uses the learners' errors to ascertain the language the learners are unclear about.com). The color-coded Fidel Charts are used to help learners learn spellings that correspond to sounds and progress to reading and pronouncing words correctly. 6 Learners work with authentic. learning is facilitated if the learner discovers or creates.TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY Application:Technique ( Leela Mohd.
p. colour.in other words by removing distractions or negative feelings which may inhibit language learning. and he has his own training and certification facilities..] childlike openness. First Concert . 73 .5 Suggestopedia Suggestopedia is a teaching method which is based on a modern understanding of how the human brain works and how we learn most effectively.. music. in a foreign language course there might be the dramatic reading of a piece of text. and it is often claimed that it can teach languages approximately three times as quickly as conventional methods (Lozanov. 156). 1976. For example. 2001). However. accompanied by classical music. using four main stages as follows: Presentation A preparatory stage in which learners are helped to relax and move into a positive frame of mind. This act of lowering a learner's "affective filter" . art and the additional importance that is given to the learning environment as well as the authoritative behaviour of the teacher (Richards & Rodgers. with the feeling that the learning is going to be easy and fun.TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY 5.The term 'Suggestopedia'. It was developed by the Bulgarian doctor and psychotherapist Georgi Lozanov who believes that “Learning is a matter of attitude. music.2. etc. not aptitude”. etc. a positive expectation of success and the use of a varied range of methods: dramatised texts. however. active participation in songs and games. This method includes elements such as the use of relaxing music. G. is often used loosely to refer to similar accelerated learning approaches. derived from suggestion and pedagogy. Lozanov reserves the title strictly for his own method.). Suggestopedia was originally applied mainly in foreign language teaching. plasticity and creativity” by putting them into a state called “infantalization” (Stevick.. Application: Technique The key elements of Suggestopedia include a rich sensory learning environment (pictures. The most distinguishing feature of Suggestopedia."Active Concert" This involves the active presentation of the material to be learnt.1978). is the aim to “help the students achieve [. Suggestopedia adopts a carefully structured approach.
Initially. It is then activated by means of creative. It sets up a non-evaluative classroom atmosphere. grammar games. The processes of desuggestion and resuggestion requires the teacher to make deliberate and skillful use of the general learning atmosphere. etc. cheerful. interactive and communicative learning techniques. otherwise. Limitations Teacher needs to be well-trained and have the right personality. the learners only respond nonverbally or with a few target language words they have practised.e. Learner-teacher Interaction The teacher initiates interactions with the whole group of learners and with individuals right from the beginning of a language course. is now stored passively in the brain. The music is specially selected to bring the learners into the optimum mental state for the effortless acquisition of the material. role play. This new material which has been acquired 3 to 5 times faster than with traditional learning techniques. with the text being read very quietly in the background. puzzles. There are two phases incorporated in this approach: Learners learn new information very quickly and efficiently in a state of light relaxation accompanied by Baroque or classical music. Teachers need to be lively. It is unclear how successful this method would be with younger children(ibid. this method will not be completely effective. 1989). thus it also avoids both criticizing and praising. 1989). and efficient (Leela M. to review and consolidate the learning..TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY Second Concert ."Passive Review" The learners are now invited to relax and listen to some Baroque music. i. A. Practice The use of a range of games. Strengths It deals with the learners own often quite harmful and often quite negative feelings about their own abilities. Later the learners 74 . which contribute not only to recall and retention but also to the communication skills and personality development of the students. etc.
SCORE To find out how you fare. Before we move on to the next teaching method.6 Community Language Learning Community Language Learning(CLL) takes its principles from the “Counseling Learning Approach” developed by Charles A. The use of games in this method is for fun only. The teacher is the authority in the classroom. Learners interact with each other from the beginning in various activities directed by the teacher. “Infantalization” refers to the act of lowering a learner's "affective filter" by removing distractions or negative feelings which may inhibit language learning.Second Concert . Teacher need not be well-trained and have the right personality completely effective. Learners do not interact with each other from the beginning in various activities directed by the teacher. It follows Krashen’s Monitor 75 . with the text being read very quietly in the background. Quiz 4. Suggestopedia provides a nonevaluative classroom atmosphere. First Concert "Active Concert". The are four main stages of Suggestopedia : Presentation. so the teacher becomes a Language Counselor . check your answers. By avoiding both criticizing and praising. who understands them and leads them to overcome their fears. The learners must trust and respect her in order for the method to succeed. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Suggestopedia is a teaching method which is based on a modern understanding of how the human brain works and how we learn most effectively."Passive Review" and Practice.2. Curran. try the following quiz.5 Put a (T) for statements which are true and put an (F) for false statements.TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY have more control of the target language and respond more appropriately and may initiate interaction themselves. The teacher is the authority in the classroom. Second Concert ."Passive Review" is the second stage where the learners are now invited to relax and listen to some Baroque music. It was created especially for adult learners who might fear to appear foolish . The teacher initiates interactions with the whole group of learners and with individuals right from the beginning of a language course. 5.
The teacher does not correct errors immediately. thus. not competition. and D-Discrimination. 4. Learners become much more aware of their peers. and to learn at their own pace. Strengths 1. When a learner produces an incorrect utterance. not just when using CLL but all of the time. Small group activities encourage interaction among learners. Focus is on fluency rather than proficiency. R-Retention. The teacher is not in control of the class. Learning is achieved through cooperation. Cooperation is important. J. Grammatical correctness is less important. 2002) 1. AAssertion. 3. 5. The class often becomes a real community. Leela (1989) summarizes this method using the formula SAARRD: S-Security. Learning develops itself. CLL works especially well with lower levels who are struggling to produce spoken English. R-Reflection..TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY Theory (Affective Filter Hypothesis) and the Cognitive Theory where the human mind is active (Stevick. 1980).2004). the teacher provides a model by producing he correct utterance. their strengths and weaknesses and want to work as a team (Bertrand. Learners are viewed as whole persons. A-Attention. Learning is more important than teaching. 3. 2. the relationships and understanding among learners as a "knower-counselor" and the learner as a learner are responsible for bringing their own unique resources to the learning experience. Learners appreciate the autonomy CLL offers them and thrive on analysing their own conversations. 76 . and the learners only need occasional help. The purpose of using language is to convey messages and develop creative thinking. 2. Key Features (Open University Malaysia. CLL provides learners with opportunities to guide their own learning to decide what they want to learn.
4. Various activities are then conducted (e. examination of a grammar 77 . Building a relationship with and among learners is very important. Learners learn from their interaction with the teacher. In a trusting relationship. they are intimately involved with the material. By listening to the learners in structured feedback sessions. Thus the nature of learner-teacher interaction changes within the lesson and over time. We as teachers can find it strange to give our learners so much freedom and tend to intervene too much. In your efforts to let your learners become independent learners you can neglect their need for guidance. At times the teacher facilitates the learners' ability to express themselves. Learner-teacher Interaction It is neither learner-centered not teacher-centered but rather teacher-learner centered with both making decisions in the class. The chunks which the learners produce are recorded. and at times the teacher is incharge and providing direction. If the teacher lacks emotional or intellectual sensitivity or lacks skill at teaching.TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY 4. Meanwhile. not competition must prevail. and when replayed sound like a conversation. The teacher needs to be very good at both languages. and non-defensive learning is promoted. Limitations 1. 1989).g. the teacher attends more closely to the structuring of the class and to the highlighting of the materials. 3. Application : Techniques At the beginning learners speak in the native language and the teacher helps them express what they want to say by supplying them with the target language translations in chunks. A spirit of cooperation. this method will be rendered ineffective. the threat that learners feel is reduced. the teacher establishes an atmosphere of security which helps minimize behaviour problems( Leela. In the beginning some learners find it difficult to speak on tape while others might find that the conversation lacks spontaneity. By having the learners work with the content of their own choosing and creation. 2. Later a transcription is made and it becomes the "text" with which learners work.
78 . but initially on voice. 7 The nature of learner-teacher interaction changes within the lesson and over time.TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY point. Instruction is given in target language only. and non-defensive learning is promoted. learners are invited to say how they feel. and to learn at their own pace. check your answers. The emphasis is not on text or other media. 8 The teacher have to be emotionally or intellectually sensitive for learning to be effective. 5. 3 CLL encourages competition rather than cooperation. 2 CLL provides learners with opportunities to guide their own learning to decide what they want to learn. 10 Creates a trusting relationship between teacher and learner because the threat that learners feel is reduced. During the course of the lesson. 6 CLL works especially well with lower levels who are struggling to produce spoken English. 9 The teacher translates chunks of language from learners’ native language to the target language.6 Put a (T) for statements which are true and put an (F) for false statements. try the following quiz.7 Total Physical Response Total Physical Response (TPR). or creating new sentences with words from the transcript) that allow the students to further explore the language they generated. Before we move on to the next teaching method. SCORE To find out how you fare. 1 CLL takes its principles from the “Counseling Learning Approach” : a teacher is the counselor who understands learners and leads them to overcome their fears.2. in which the child gives physical responses when listening to language. TPR recognizes the value of language being associated with physical responses. action and gestures. Quiz 4. developed by Dr. TPR’s ultimate instructional goal is to teach oral proficiency and conversational fluency. working on the pronunciation of a particular phrase. 4 Focus is on fluency rather than proficiency 5 The teacher does not correct errors immediately but provides a model by producing he correct utterance when a learner produces an incorrect utterance. James Asher in 1977 is based upon principles of child language acquisition.
79 . 3. "TPR is aptitude-free". speech develops naturally and effortlessly out of it. while the left hemisphere watches and learns. Adult learners should use right-brain motor activities. Strengths 1. eventually moving towards learner composition. It is memorable. 2. It is inclusive working well with a mixed ability class. Second language learning is parallel to first language learning and should reflect the same naturalistic processes. Based upon principles of child language acquisition. which proposes that the human brain has a set pattern for learning language. Helps retention by associating movement with words. Key Features According to Asher. It is good for kinesthetic learners who need to be active in the class.TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY Follows a grammar-based view of language that focuses on meaning. Limitations 1. 6. some other more complex applications might. Allows learners to get up and move while learning and encourages a more relaxed learning environment that can easily incorporate humour. 7. Actions help strengthen the connections in the brain. Class size need not be a problem. Not as effective in higher levels of language learning. However. not form. 8. 2. Learners will enjoy getting up out of their chairs and moving around. 5. Simple TPR activities do not require a great deal of preparation on the part of the teacher. The principals that help elaborate his idea are: 1. Assessment types compatible with the method include evaluation of learner actions and gestures when given non-written prompt. Listening should develop before speaking. 4. It is a good tool for building vocabulary. Once listening comprehension has been developed. 4. It is fun and easy. 3. the language learning theories are similar to those of other behavioral psychologists. 9.
Initially. After learning to respond to oral commands. Learners perform actions together or individually. the learners become more verbal and the teacher responds nonverbally.TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY 2. It is also at the higher levels where preparation becomes an issue for the teacher. Application: Techniques In the first phase of the lesson. this avoids anxiety. if carried on too long. "Any novelty. As learners begin to speak. 80 . 4. While it can be used at higher levels TPR is most useful for beginners. The teacher may find that it is limited in terms of language scope. Before we move on to the next teaching method. people will tire of it." "No matter how exciting and productive the innovation. 3. they issue commands to. 5. It is easy to overuse TPR. Learners learn from each other. will trigger adaptation. then performs the actions with them. Does not promote independent language use outside of oral work modeled by teacher in classroom. 6. It can be a challenge for shy learners. Learners speak only when they are ready to do so. Learner needs for unrehearsed language not always met. Later on. the learners learn to read and write them. the interaction is characterized by the teacher speaking and the learners responding nonverbally. the instructor issues commands to learners. Learners are not generally given the opportunity to express their own thoughts in a creative way. Learner-Teacher Interaction The teacher interacts with the whole group of learners and with individual learners. learners demonstrate that they understand the commands by performing them on their own. Certain target languages may not be suited to this method. In the second phase." 7. their peers as well as to the teacher. try the following quiz. The teacher then combines elements from different commands to allow learners to develop flexibility in understanding unfamiliar utterances. 8. When learners are ready to speak they issue the commands.
Strengths . Discuss your rationale for choosing the method with regards to its strengths and how would you overcome t its weaknesses? For each method.Background . 4 It works well with a mixed ability class especially for kinesthetic learners.Principles . Create a GO to compare and contrast the 7 teaching methods with regards to : . II. 81 . III. 1 2 The emphasis in TPR is initially on voice. To find out how you fare.7 Put a (T) for statements which are true and put an (F) for false statements.Techniques . check your answers with your peers or tutor. 8 I.Limitations Choose one teaching method. not form. 9 From the beginning the instructor issues commands to learners and they perform the actions without any modeling. 5 Helps retention by associating movement with words because actions help strengthen the connections in the brain. 3 Speaking should develop before listening.Key features . action and gestures.TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY Quiz 4. 10 Learners speak only when they are ready to do so to avoid anxiety. 7 Learners are given the opportunity to express their own thoughts in a creative way.Roles of student and teacher . Take a break before you move on to the next topic. Tutorial Task 4. list the implications for English language teaching. 8 Interaction occurs between the teacher and learners and learners with other learners. 6 Does not promote independent language use outside of oral work modeled by teacher in classroom. TPR follows a grammar-based view of language that focuses on meaning.
identify the techniques used in the Communicative Approach 7. learners and resources in this approach.1 LEARNING OUTCOMES By the end of this session. learners and resources in the Communicative Approach 6. You will also look into the role of the teacher. 6. strengths and limitations of the approach. you will be able to: 5.0 SYNOPSIS Topic 6 introduces you to key concepts of Communicative Approach or presently known as Communicative Language Teaching. explain the role of the teacher. explain the principles of the Communicative Approach 6. It provides insights into the principles and techniques.TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY TOPIC 6 ELT METHODS: COMMUNICATIVE APPROACH 6. list the strengths and limitations of the approach 8.2 FRAMEWORK OF TOPICS 82 .
He proposed the two notions of 'competence' and 'performance' which were related to language learning. in other words. Chomsky reacted against the prevalent audio-lingual method and its views. cultural and social rules which discipline the use of speech.TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY CONTENT SESSION SIX (3 Hours) 6. Since the main aim of the approach is to prepare learners for meaningful communication. 1986) The communicative approach is a learner-centred approach to language learning. 2000) and fluency (Hedge. These two concepts were later developed by Hymes. 1986.2. the communicative approach provides learners with an opportunity to use language for communication purposes without focusing on accuracy. sociolinguistic or pragmatic competence. Dimensions of communicative competence include linguistic or grammatical competence. Hedge. into the term 'communicative competence'. errors made by learners are tolerated. knowing when and how to say what to whom. 2000). According to Bygate (2001). 83 .1 Concept of Communicative Approach The Communicative Approach which emerged in the early 1970s can be traced to the work of Chomsky in the 1960s. discourse competence and strategic competence (Richards & Rogers. It concerns not only the knowledge of language but also ability to put that knowledge into use in communication. The aims of the communicative approach are: ‘to make communicative competence the goal of language teaching’ ‘develop procedures for the teaching of the four language skills that acknowledge the interdependence of language and communication’ (Richards and Rodgers. According to Hedge (2000) communicative competence refers to the psychological.
84 . authentic texts serve as partial substitute for a community of native speakers. The target language is used as the medium for classroom management and instruction. manuals. telephone directories.2 Principles of Communicative Approach Below are some of the principles of the Communicative Approach. Classroom activities maximise opportunities for learners to use target language in a communicative way through meaningful activities. poems. Communicative approach seeks to use authentic resources as they are more interesting and motivating. Emphasis is on meaning (messages they are creating or task they are completing) rather than form (correctness of language and language structure). A variety of language forms are presented together with the emphasis on the process of communication. Authentic language/language used in real context is introduced. news bulletins. In the language classroom. videos. Students work with language at the discourse/suprasentential level – learn about coherence and cohesion. Newspapers and magazine articles.TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY 6.2. Part of being communicatively competent is figuring out speaker’s or writer’s intention. discussion programmes can be exploited in variety of ways. recipes. The target language is a vehicle for classroom communications not just the object of study.
which he will return to at a later point.TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY Games are important because they have certain features in common with real communicative events—there is a purpose for the exchange. Hence. the form of language becomes secondary. activities focus on fluency where the teacher does not correct the student. but simply notes the error. Teachers should provide opportunities for rehearsal of real-life situations and provide opportunity for real communication. Emphasis should be on creative role-plays/ simulations/ surveys/ projects/ playlets which produce spontaneity and improvisation and not mere repetition and drills Communicative interaction encourages cooperative relationships among students. The use of pair-work and group-work activities is common as well as individual and also teacher-led activities. Varied types of interaction are encouraged. As such constant correction is deemed unnecessary and sometimes even counterproductive. 85 . rather than only listening to the teacher. Learners doing their best to use the language creatively and spontaneously are certain to make errors. Students are given opportunities to express their ideas and opinions and to contribute as much as possible. Errors are tolerated and seen as a natural outcome of the development of communication skills. Learners hear more types of language from different sources. One of the teacher’s major responsibilities is to establish situations likely to promote communication. It gives students an opportunity to work on negotiating meaning. Thus. interact with more people and use language in context which further helps to build confidence in the students. Students are more involved. The speaker receives immediate feedback from the listener on whether or not he or she has successfully communicated Teaching is more learner-centered.
The grammar and vocabulary that the students learn follow from the function. or writing letters. The use of visual stimuli or resources is important to provoke practical communicative languages as they help to motivate and focus pupils' attention. for example talking to friends. situational context. Reading. drills and exercises. Students should be given opportunities to listen to language as it is used in authentic communication. Language is viewed and learned within its social and cultural context whereby learners need to develop knowledge of t h e l a n g u a g e in order to develop appropriate language use. a speaker has a choice not only about what to say. but not sufficient by itself. when and only when they are appropriate. Students need grammatical explanations. but also how to say it. The teacher acts as a facilitator in setting up communicative activities and as an advisor during the activities. Both fluency and accuracy are important as learning to use language forms appropriately is an important part of communicative competence. and the roles of the interlocutors. 86 . In communicating.TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY The social context of the communicative event is essential in giving meaning to the utterances. Both spoken and written languages are important. speaking and listening are all necessary parts of communicative competence. facilitating a meeting. writing. Grammar is necessary for communication to occur. They may be coached on strategies for how to improve their comprehension.
2. scrambled sentences . but which involve communication.TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY Tutorial Task: What are the implications of the principles above in your teaching context? Do you have other principles that support your teaching? 6. such as language games . puzzles social interaction activities include activities such as conversation and discussion sessions. information-gap activity 6. dialogues and role plays.3 Techniques of Communicative Approach Communicative Approach uses almost any activity or technique that allows students to be engaged in authentic communication. Below are some of the strengths of Communicative Approach: There is greater focus on the role of learners with a shift from teachercentered instruction to learner-centred instruction.4 Strengths and Limitations of Communicative Approach Communicative Approach like the other language teaching methods has its strengths and limitations. simulation. There is greater attention on the process of learning rather than the products that the learners produce.2. picture strip story. 87 . Littewood has distinguished two major activity types: functional communication activities: these activities are aimed at developing certain language skills and functions.
Helps to promote holistic learning. Below are some of the limitations of Communicative Approach: The communicative approach focuses on the use of language in everyday situations. There is greater focus on the diversity of learners and looking at the differences not as obstacles but as resources. 88 . Such concentration on language behavior may result in negative consequences in the sense that important structures and rules may be left out. Views learning as a life-long process rather than being exam-oriented. The approach relies extensively on the functional-notational syllabus which places heavy demands on the learners. Emphasis on the importance of meaning rather than drills and other forms of rote learning. or the functional aspects of language. The approach gives priority to meanings and rules of use rather than to grammar and rules of structure. The latter are taught by means of functions and notions.TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY There is greater attention on the social nature of learning rather than looking at learners as separate. critics believe that there needs to be some sort of "bridge" between the two in order for effective language learning. and less on the formal structures. This implies that every teacher should modify the syllabus to correspond with the needs of the learners. decontexualized learners. However. The requirements are difficult: availability of a classroom that can allow for group work activities and for teaching aids and materials. A major premise underlying this approach is its emphasis on learners' needs and interests. The various categories of language functions are overlapping and not systematically graded like the structures of the language.
2. 1981).5 Role of teacher.5. They are actively engaged in negotiating meaning—in trying to make them understood and in understanding others.5. learners and resources 6. Since the teacher’s role is less dominant than in a teacher-centered method. Authentic resources are used to: Provide cultural information about the target language Provide exposure to real language Relate more closely to learners’ needs Allow for a more creative approach to teaching 89 .2 Role of learners Students are communicators.2.TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY 6. In this role. During the activities he acts as an adviser. 6.2. He might make note of their errors to be worked on at a later time during more accuracy-based activities.1Role of teacher The teacher facilitates communication in the classroom. students are seen as more responsible managers of their own learning 6.5. answering students’ questions and monitoring their performance. At other times he might be a ‘co-communicator’ engaging in the communicative activity along with students (Littlewood. Communicative approach seeks to use authentic resources as they are more interesting and motivating.2.3 Role of resources One of the principles of Communicative Approach is the use of authentic resources. one of his major responsibilities is to establish situations likely to promote communication.
90 .TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY Tutorial Task: How useful are authentic resources in your classroom? What difficulties do you encounter when you use authentic resources? How do you prepare your students to achieve communicative competence? Relax and move on to the next topic when you are ready.
1 LEARNING OUTCOMES By the end of this session. you will be able to: 9.0 SYNOPSIS Topic 7 provides input on three different ELT methods namely the Lexical Approach.2 FRAMEWORK OF TOPICS 91 . explain what is Lexical Approach 10.TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY TOPIC 7 ELT METHODS 7. 7. explain what is Task-Based Learning 7. explain what is Eclectic Approach 11. Eclectic Approach and Task-Based Learning.
who termed the phrase lexical approach.” “I didn’t mean to make you jump. • Lexis is misunderstood in language teaching because it is assumed that grammar is the basis of language and as such mastery of the grammatical system is a requirement for effective communication. It was proposed by Dave Willis in 1990 and popularised by Michael Lewis in 1993.” and that these chunks become the raw data by which learners perceive patterns of language traditionally thought of as grammar.The most important difference is the increased understanding of the nature of lexis in naturally occurring language. The lexical approach focuses on developing learners’ proficiency through lexis. Lewis (1993). • The key notion of a lexical approach is that “language consists of grammaticalised lexis not lexicalised grammar. or words and word combinations.” rather than on originally created sentences . As such. and its potential contribution to language pedagogy. or “chunks. “I’m sorry. Lexis is deemed as central in creating meaning.1 Lexical Approach The Lexical Approach develops many of the principles advanced by the Communicative Approach. has suggested the following: • Lexis is the basis of language. The lexical approach to second language teaching is seen as an alternative to grammar based approaches.” or “That will never happen to me. such as. language instruction focuses on relatively fixed expressions that occur frequently in spoken language.” 92 .TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY CONTENT SESSION SEVEN (3 Hours) 7.2. According to Lewis (1993) an important part of language acquisition is the ability to comprehend and produce lexical phrases as unanalyzed wholes.
TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY • One of the central organizing principles of any meaning centered syllabus should be lexis. A vital element of language teaching is raising students' awareness of. . . pen) • polywords (e. . In this paper we explore . Finally . . It is the co-textual rather than the situational element of context which is of primary importance for language teaching.. . is prioritised. If I were you . The Present-Practice-Produce paradigm is rejected. That is not as .. The fact/suggestion/problem/danger was . The grammar/vocabulary dichotomy is invalid. as you think. I’ll get it. . .. in favour of a paradigm based on the Observe-Hypothesize-Experiment cycle. community service. involving the perception of similarity and difference. 93 ...g.g. and developing their ability to 'chunk' language successfully. Receptive skills. .g. are given enhanced status.g. .) Below are the key principles of the Lexical Approach: Language consists of grammaticalised lexis. Although structural patterns are known as useful. The central metaphor of language is holistic.. Grammar as a receptive skill. by the way.. upside down) • collocations. Collocation is integrated as an organising principle within syllabuses. absolutely convinced) • institutionalized utterances (e..g. lexical and metaphorical patterning are accorded appropriate status.g. book. We’ll see. . Lewis (1997) has also suggested the following taxonomy of lexical items: • words (e. or word partnerships (e.. Secondly . ) and even text frames (e. particularly listening. . not lexicalised grammar. Would you like a cup of coffee?) • sentence frames and heads (e. . much of language consists of multi-words 'chunks'. .. . Firstly . That’ll do.
Tutorial Task: Do you think the Lexical Approach can be implemented in your classroom? What possible challenges to do foresee in the implementation of the approach? 94 . • Guessing the meaning of vocabulary items from context. • Working with dictionaries and other reference tools. • Repetition and recycling of activities. • Noticing and recording language patterns and collocations. such as summarizing a text orally one day and again a few days later a r e d o n e to keep w ords and expressions that have been learned active.TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY Activities used to develop learners’ knowledge of lexical chains include the following: Intensive and extensive listening and reading in the target language. The logical implication of this premise is that we should spend more time helping learners develop their repertoire of phrases. • First and second language comparisons and translation are carried out chunk-for-chunk rather than word-for-word and this is aimed at raising language awareness. The language activities carried out with a lexical approach must b e directed toward language occurring naturally. What is important is raising learners’ awareness of the l e x i c a l n a t u r e of language. and less time on grammatical structures.
Task-Based Learning (TBL). A typical lesson might combine elements from a variety sources such as Total Physical Response (TPR). establishing a context for the presentation of new structures. Southern India. it is based on the belief that students may learn more effectively when their minds are focused on the task. e. The activity reflects real life and learners focus on meaning. with the students instructed to produce the instructions for an exercise manual. They then practise these using Total Physical Response (TPR). 7. and the structural-situational approach. rather than on the language they are using. e. The following is an example of a lesson using the eclectic approach. The class begins with an inductive activity with the students asked to identify the different uses of synonyms of movement based on a reading text. The teacher decides what methodology or approach to use depending on the aims of the lesson and the learners in the group. the communicative approach . Most course books have a mixture of approaches and methodologies.g. focusing on lexical chunks in a reading text. they are free to use any language they 95 . A task-based approach aims to provide learners a natural context for language use with the primary focus of classroom activity being the task and language is the instrument which the students use to complete it.g.2 Eclectic approach The eclectic approach is the label given to a teacher's use of techniques and activities from a range of language teaching approaches and methodologies. e. in opinion gap activities. the lexical approach.g.2.TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY 7. The task is an activity in which students use language to achieve a specific outcome.3 Task-Based Learning (TBL) Originally developed by N Prabhu in Bangalore. In the next lesson the input is recycled through a task-based lesson.2.
students may also be using a range of different communicative language skills. if the role play has a goal to it for example the students must come to an agreement or find the right solution within the given time limit then the role play can be considered a genuine task in TBL. brochures. In task-based lessons. The characteristic of all these tasks is that rather than concentrating on one particular structure. radio plays. solving a problem or sharing information or experiences. For instance. tasks have included projects for producing posters. websites and dramatic performances. oral presentations. However. This does not mean there will be no attention paid to accuracy. Teachers have a responsibility to enrich their students’ language when they see it is necessary but students should be given the opportunity to use English in the classroom as they use their own languages in everyday life.. a role play where students have to act out roles as sales person. teachers can develop the students’ ability to do things in English. which outlines a model for organizing lessons. work on language is included in each task and feedback and language focus have their places in the lesson plans. these tasks exploit a wider range of language. 96 . A role play which does not contain a problemsolving element or where students are not given a goal to reach is also not considered an authentic task. Many task-based lessons follow the task structure proposed by Jane Willis (1996). More recently. In many role plays students simply act out their restricted role. In many cases. pamphlets. in her book ‘A Framework for Task-Based Learning’. Relevant and authentic tasks include playing a game.TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY want. In TBL an activity in which students are given a list of words to use is not considered as a genuine task. The belief is that if the focus is taken away from form and structures. the tasks will generate their own language and create an opportunity for language acquisition. function or vocabulary group. videos.
TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY
Figure 1: The Willis TBL Framework (1996) Figure 1 shows that each task will be organized in the following way:
Pre-task activity an introduction to topic and task Task cycle: Task > Planning > Report Language Focus and Feedback
Task-based learning (TBL) is typically based on the three stages of Willis’s Model. The first of these is the pre-task stage, where the teacher introduces and defines the topic and the learners engage in activities that either helps them to recall words and phrases that will be useful for the main task or to learn new words and phrases that are essential to the task. This stage is followed by the "task cycle". Here the learners perform the task, which can be a reading or listening exercise or a problem-solving exercise, in pairs or small groups. They then prepare a report for the whole class on how they did the task and what conclusions they have reached. Finally, they present their findings to the class in spoken or written form. The final stage is the language focus stage, during which specific language features from the task are highlighted and worked on. Feedback on the learners’ performance at the reporting stage may also be appropriate at this point. A balance should be kept between fluency, which is what the task provides, and accuracy, which is provided by task feedback. 97
TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY
The main advantages of TBL are that language is used for a genuine purpose meaning that real communication should take place and that at the stage where the learners are preparing their report for the whole class, they are forced to consider language form in general rather than concentrating on a single form unlike the PPP model. The aim of TBL is to integrate all four skills and to move from fluency to accuracy plus fluency. The range of tasks available such as reading texts, listening texts, problem-solving, role-plays, questionnaires, etc. offers a great deal of flexibility in this model and should lead to more motivating activities for the learners. Learners who are used to a more traditional approach based on a grammatical syllabus may find it difficult, but if TBL is integrated with a systematic approach to grammar and lexis, the outcome can be a comprehensive approach that can be adapted to meet the needs of all learners. Task-based learning can be very effective at intermediate levels and beyond, but many teachers question its usefulness at lower levels. In general, the methodology requires a change in the traditional teacher's role.
Tutorial task: Which of the approaches above can you adapt to your own teaching context? What are the possible problems you may encounter in using the above approaches?
Relax and move on to the next topic when you are ready.
TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY
SYLLABUS DESIGN – MALAYSIAN PRIMARY SCHOOL ENGLISH CURRICULUM
8.0 SYNOPSIS As you already know about the Kurikulum Bersepadu Sekolah Rendah(KBSR) 2001, Topic 8 introduces you to the Kurikulum Standard Sekolah Rendah (KSSR) 2011. As education plays a very important role in achieving national unity, the KBSR was developed to attain national identity and unity. The national education policy is based on the Razak Report 91956) and the Rahman Talib Report(1960). These reports formed the bases of the Education Ordinance 1957 and the Education Act 1961 respectively. In introducing KSSR, this unit will also help you to recap your knowledge of the aims and objectives and features of KBSR. The discussion include the curriculum content: learning outcomes, language content and educational emphases of the KBSR. Pedagogical approaches which are employed in the teaching of English will also be taken into account. You will be exposed to the principles of KSSR, its aims and objectives and curriculum documents. Furthermore the modular approach will be explained. 8.1 LEARNING OUTCOMES By the end of this Session, you will be able to: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. state the aims and objectives in the KBSR English language Syllabus; identify and categorise the language components and skills by listing their reference numbers; state the goals and principles of the KSSR; list and briefly describe the curriculum transformation; explain the modular approach in teaching English in the primary school. 99
Learners.2 FRAMEWORK OF TOPICS KURIKULUM BERSEPADU SEKOLAH RENDAH 2001 (KBSR) CURRICULUM SPECIFICATION LEARNING OUTCOMES LANGUAGE CONTENT EDUCATIONAL EMPHASES KURIKULUM STANDARD SEKOLAH RENDAH 2011 (KSSR) CONTENT SESSION EIGHT (3 Hours) 8.Malaysian Primary School English Curriculum Principles Techniques Strengths/Limitations Role of Teacher. 100 .3 Syllabus Design . You have to read the extract of the KBSR English language Syllabus and answer all the questions that follow.TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY 8. and Resources Let’s recap what you know about KBSR.
The aims of the English language syllabus for the primary school is to equip pupils with basic skills and knowledge of the English language to enable them to communicate. By the end of Year 6. Check your answers with your tutor.of skills to be taught Check your answers with your tutor. study skills will be developed to enable pupils to locate and extract information from various sources. primary school pupils will be able to listen and understand simple spoken English in given contexts. primary school pupils will be able to read and understand different kinds of texts for enjoyment and information Teachers are encouraged to use a variety of texts. By the end of Year 6. 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 TASK 8.TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY TASK 8. both verbal and non-verbal in their lessons.2 Complete the grid below with reference to your KBSR English language syllabus. 1 2 3 English Language is taught as second language in all government-assisted schools. Language Skills Numbering No. pupils will be able to speak and respond clearly and appropriately using simple language. By the end of Year 6. Through the reading component. in and out of schools. The key feature in KBSR is the integration of skills and topics in the teaching-learning process. Proper pronunciation and the use of appropriate register are also emphasised in the development of oral skills. both orally and in writing. Listening 101 .1 State whether each statement is TRUE or FALSE in the spaces provided. Moral values should be inculcated in the teaching-learning process.
TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY TASK 8.7 Use the dictionary activities.10 Perform a variety of functions in a social context. 3. No Statement 1 The KBSR syllabus emphasized that language skills be taught in an integrated manner.3 Fill in blanks in the grid below. to explain. Ask for and give instructions.8 4. Pronunciation is taught through listening as well as the speaking component of the syllabus.2 Skills Developing auditory memory. Teachers are encouraged to use authentic texts in the classroom. numbers and sentences. to refute. There is provision for teaching pre-writing skills. processes 2. 4. to describe. Ref no.3 To identify. 1. 102 T/F . TASK 8. to get the appropriate meaning in context Check your answers with your tutor. Language Component Listening Scope Repeating sounds.4 State whether each statement is TRUE or FALSE. 2 3 4 5 The listening skill allows the development of inferencing skills.
Problem-solving skills are developed through the reading component of KBSR syllabus. Pupils are exposed to the skills of filling in forms in the writing component. Besides the language skills. Pupils are taught to use correct conventions of writing for different purposes.TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY 6 7 8 9 10 There is a scope for acquiring word attack skills in both the listening and reading skills components. the sound system. Check your answers with your tutor.4 The 2011 PRIMARY ENGLISH LANGUAGE CURRICULUM or better known as the Kurikulum Standard Sekolah Rendah (KSSR) 8. 8. grammar and word lists have to be acquired by pupils by the end of Year 6.1 KBSR ENGLISH 2001 Social skills Educational Emphases Multiple Intelligences Thinking Skills Contextualism Constructivism Listening Speaking Writing IT skills Grammar Sound System Vocabulary Reading Values and Citizenship 103 .4.
Speaking. Poetry & Drama (YEARS 4.2 & 3) LEVEL 1 Skills . 5 & 6) LEVEL 2 PRIMARY (YEARS 1. Speaking. Reading & Writing Vocabulary (includes Science & Maths themes as well as Grammar ) Language Arts Readers + (Literature) English at Play: Music.Listening. Reading & Writing Vocabulary Grammar (Year 3) (phonics & penmanship) Readers .Listening.TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY CURRICULUM GOAL By the end of primary schooling. Poetry & Drama STRAND 1 Pre-school STRAND 2 104 .Big Books -Lady Bird Series Music.2 PROPOSED NEW CURRICULUM MATRIX Language Focus Skills . the curriculum aims to produce a learner who is: • articulate • confident • of good character • knowledgeable 8.4.
4. basic listening and speaking • Learning is fun.TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY 8. meaningful. language use contexts. Taught in context . penmanship. e. purposeful – activities are contextualized. penmanship and decoding Grammar introduced formally from Year 3. 8.g. Educational Emphases and ICT skills Assessment . A modular approach with focus on language skills. entry behaviour) • Integration of salient new technologies – use of ICT to facilitate and encourage meaningful language practice 105 . fun-filled activities – Integration of skills • Teaching is learner-centred – learner’s needs and salient learner factors (environment. meaningful and purposeful.4 PRINCIPLES • Back to basics – building a strong foundation of competencies in basic literacy skills.3 PRESENT & FUTURE 2003 SYLLABUS One syllabus (SK and SJK) Curriculum Specifications (different for SK and SJK) Focus on 4 language skills through 3 broad areas:World of Self World of Stories World of Knowledge 3 levels of skills Integration of skills Educational Emphasis and ICT skills Grammar in context Sound System 2011 STANDARDS-BASED SYLLABUS Content Standards and Learning Standards (Common for SK and SJK) Focus on 4 language skills including language arts and grammar through 3 broad areas. grammar.a combination of formative and summative methods. family. & language arts Phonics in Years 1 and 2. Reinforcement of generic skills across languages.4. reading through phonics.
produce well-structured written texts.4.5 CURRICULUM TRANSFORMATION Modular approach Curriculum Standards Content Standards Learning standards Assessment – school-based. authentic Teaching and learning focus Language Skills Language Arts Phonics Grammar 8. 106 .6 GENERAL AIMS Primary ( exit after Year 6) The English Language Curriculum for Primary Schools aims to equip pupils with basic language skills to enable them to communicate effectively in a variety of contexts that’s appropriate to the pupils level of development Secondary (exit after Form 5) Pupils will be able to communicate effectively.TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY – creative and innovative use of the new technologies by pupils to enhance language learning in the classroom • Character-building infused – inculcating moral values 8. enjoy and respond to literary works and make confident presentations.4. read and respond to texts independently.
1. and use correct and appropriate rules of grammar in speech and writing.4. 1. read and comprehend a range of English texts for information and enjoyment.1.1.8 CONTENT AND LEARNING STANDARDS LISTENING & SPEAKING 1. 8.TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY 8. say aloud and recite rhymes or sing songs with guidance.3 Able to listen to. 1. 1. rhythm and intonation.7 OBJECTIVES By the end of Year 6.1 Pupils will be able to pronounce words and speak confidently with the correct stress.1 Able to listen and respond to stimulus given with guidance: (a) environmental sounds (b) instrumental sounds (c) body percussion (d) rhythm and thyme (e) alliteration (f) voice sounds (g) oral blending and segmenting 1.4. appreciate and demonstrate understanding of English language literary or creative works for enjoyment. pupils should be able to: communicate with peers and adults confidently and appropriately in formal and informal situations.4 Able to talk about a stimulus with guidance.2 Able to listen to and enjoy simple stories. style and form through a variety of media.1. write a range of texts using appropriate language. 107 .
1 Able to read simple texts with guidance: (a) fiction (b) non-fiction 2. medial and the final sounds in single syllable words within given context: (a) s a t p (b) i n m d (c) g o c k (d) ck e u r (e) h b f.4 Able to segment words into phonemes to spell.ll ss (f ) j v w x (g) y z.1 Able to read and apply word recognition and word attack skills by matching words with : (a) graphics (b) spoken words 2.5 Able to apply basic dictionary skills using picture dictionaries.2.1 Pupils will be able to form letters and words in neat legible print including cursive writing.3 Able to read and understand sentences (3-5 words) with guidance.2 Able to read and understand phrases in linear and non-linear texts. 2.1.2 WRITING 3. 2.zz qu 2. 2.3.4 Able to read a paragraph of 3 – 5 simple sentences. 2.1 Able to identify and distinguish the shapes of the letters in the alphabet.3 Able to blend two to four phonemes into recognisable words and read them aloud. 2. 1.1. 18.104.22.168 Able to listen to and demonstrate understanding of oral texts by: (a) giving Yes/No replies (b) answering simple Wh-Questions READING 2.TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY 1.2.ff l.3 Pupils will be able to read independently for information and enjoyment. 2.2 Able to recognise and articulate initial.2. 2. Pupils will be able to demonstrate understanding of a variety of linear and non-linear texts in the form of print and non-print materials using a range of strategies to construct meaning.1. 108 .2.3 Pupils will be able to understand and respond to oral texts in a variety of contexts.1. 2.1 Pupils will be able to apply knowledge of sounds of letters to recognise words in linear and non-linear texts.
(b) moving hands and fingers using writing apparatus (c) using correct posture and pen hold grip (d) scribbling in clockwise movement (e) scribbling in anti-clockwise movement (f) drawing simple strokes up and down (g) drawing lines from left to right (h) drawing patterns 3. 3.1 Able to listen to and enjoy nursery rhymes.3 Able to punctuate correctly: (a) capital letters (b) full stop (c ) question mark 3. 3.2 Pupils will be able to write using appropriate language.1 Able to create simple non-linear texts using a variety of media with guidance: (a) greeting cards (b) lists 8.2.1 Able to demonstrate fine motor control of hands and fingers by: (a) handling objects and manipulating them.2.1 Pupils will be able to enjoy and appreciate rhymes. 2.1. 3.1 Able to complete with guidance: (a) forms with personal details (b) lists 3. 109 .3.1.1. jazz chants and action song through non-verbal response.5 LANGUAGE ARTS 4.2 Able to copy and write in neat legible print: (a) small (lowercase) letters (b) capital (uppercase) letters ( c) numerals (d) words (e) phrases (f) simple sentences 3. form and style for a range of purposes.2 Able to write 3-5 word sentences with guidance. 4.3 Pupils will be able to write and present ideas through a variety of media.TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY 3. poems and Songs through performance.
1.1 Able to produce simple creative works with guidance based on: (a) nursery rhymes (b) action songs (c) jazz chants (d) stories 4.2 Pupils will be able to demonstrate understanding of and express personal response to literary texts. 110 .1.1 Able to listen to and talk about stories with guidance: (a) book covers (b) pictures in books 4. 4. 4.3.1 Pupils will be able to use different word classes correctly and appropriately.6 GRAMMAR 5.3 Pupils will be able to plan. 5. organize and produce creative works for enjoyment.2 Able to construct declarative sentences correctly.2 Able to listen to and recite nursery rhymes. 5.2. 4.3. jazz chants and sing action songs with correct pronunciation and rhythm.2 Pupils will be able to construct various sentence types correctly.1 (a) (b) (c) (d) Able to use nouns correctly and appropriately: common nouns proper nouns singular nouns plural nouns 5.TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY 4.1.2 Able to take part with guidance in a performance based on: (a) nursery rhymes (b) action songs (c) jazz chants (d) stories 8.
8 A MODULAR APPROACH LISTENING AND SPEAKING MODULE READING MODULE WRITING MODULE LANGUAGE ARTS MODULE GRAMMAR MODULE YEAR 1 YEAR 2 YEAR 3 YEAR 4 YEAR 5 YEAR 6 STAGE ONE (YEARS 1 – 3) STAGE TWO (YEARS 4 – 6) 111 .TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY 8.7 CONTENT CONFIGURATION D1 Theme 1 Theme 2 Theme 3 Theme 4 Theme 5 Theme 6 Theme 7 Theme 8 Theme 9 D2 D3 D4 D5 LANGUAGE ARTS LISTENING & SPEAKING GRAMMAR READING WRITING 8.
1 1.1.verbal response.1.1 Able to listen 2. 2. . POST-LISTENING Sequence pictures. Fill in the blanks with suitable words.g.2 Able to recognize and articulate initial. Repeat song or rhyme after the teacher.4 Able to talk about a stimulus with guidance.TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY 8.9 Scheme of Work – Weekly.1. ( Source : Curriculum Development Division. 2011) 112 . 4.2 Able to recite nursery rhymes and jazz chants.1 Able to read and apply word recognition and word attack skills by matching words with: a) graphics b) spoken words 8. Semester WEEKLY LESSON STRUCTURE WK THEME/ TOPIC WORLD OF SELF.9.1. Recite or sing rhymes/songs. WHILELISTENING Listen to rhymes/songs. Match pictures with phrases.1.1 Able to enjoy nursery rhymes . sing action songs with correct pronunciation and rhythm. Talking about a stimulus.1 SAMPLE LESSON STRUCTURE PRE-LISTENING Listening to environmental sounds.1.2 Able to copy and write in neat legible print: a) small (lowercase) letters DAY FOUR LANGUAGE ARTS 4. and respond medial and the final to stimulus sounds in single given with syllable words guidance: within given contexts: a.Six Satay Sticks DAY ONE LISTENING & SPEAKING DAY TWO READING DAY THREE WRITING 3. jazz chants and action songs through non.E. environmental a) s sounds 1.2. Listen to stories. FAMILY & FRIENDS .
5.TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY Tutorial Task TASK 8. 113 . 3.5 1. What is the teaching approach employed by KSSR? 6. Draw up suitable graphic organizers to compare and contrast between KBSR and KSSR. 2. Take a break before you move on to the next topic. Explain briefly the educational emphases included in the KBSR. 4. Is there any difference between the lesson structure proposed by KBSR and KSSR? Elaborate with concrete examples. Explain with your own examples what you understand by Language Arts. Check your answers with your peers and tutor. Briefly describe the importance of pronunciation in KSSR.
TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY
SECOND LANGUAGE LEARNING IN THE CLASSROOM
9.0 SYNOPSIS Topic 9 introduces you to some issues of second language learning pertaining to audiolingualism. It also introduces the PPP procedure in language learning.
9.1 LEARNING OUTCOMES By the end of this session, you will be able to: 1. identify some issues of second language learning pertaining to audiolingualism 2. explain the different stages in the PPP procedure 3. devise a teaching plan using the PPP procedure
9.2 FRAMEWORK OF TOPICS
TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY
SESSION NINE (3 Hours)
9.2.1 Issues of Second Language Learning The issues that will be discussed here are related to audiolingualism as it were these issues that resulted in the introduction and use of the PPP Approach or procedure in the Communicative Language Teaching Method.
Exercise 1: 1. 2. 3. 4. What is the language learning theory that audiolingualism is based on? State the principles of audiolingualism. Name three techniques used in audiolingualism. What are some of the shortcomings of audiolingulism?
You would have gone through in detail about audiolingualism or the audiolingual method in Topic 4. What we will discuss here briefly are the issues related to audiolingualism which resulted in the use of PPP Approach. Audiolingualism which is based on Behaviourist Learning Theory relied heavily on drills to form habits in language learning. Emphasis on accuracy of the language through repetition of correct utterances was supported by positive reinforcement. However much of the audio-lingual method of language learning remained at sentence level. There was limited placing of language in real-life context. Hence, there grew a need to place language in clear situational context. This lead to introduction of the PPP Approach.
TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY
9.2.2 The PPP Approach The "Three Ps" procedure is a variation of the audiolingual method. PPP stands for presentation, practice and production. It is based on structuralsituational teaching where the focus is to place language in clear situational contexts. It is very important to understand what "Presentation", "Practice" and "Production" really are, and to see how they work in together to create effective communicative language learning. Presentation is the beginning or introduction to learning language, with production being the end product of the learning process, whereby a learner becomes a "user" of the language in contrast to a "student" of the language. Practice is the process that helps a learner to progress from the initial stage through to the final one. This is how it works. At the beginning of a lesson, the teacher introduces a situation which contextualizes the new language to be taught. Then the language or linguistic "model" is presented. With this "model" in mind, the students practise the new language through a variety of "controlled" activities such as coral repetition, individual repetition and cue-response drills. After sufficient practice, the students move into "productive" activity, where a situation calls for the language to be used naturally without correction or control. For example the students can construct their own sentences. occur and flow smoothly from one stage to the next. PRESENTATION This is the first and the most crucial stage of the language learning process. Presentation involves the building of a situation requiring natural and logical use of the new language. When the students recognize and understand the "situation", they will then start building a conceptual understanding of the 116 In general, for communicative language learning to be most effective, the three stages need to
contextualized. memorable and realistic examples. The type of practice activities should be appropriate to the language being learned as well as the level and competence of the students. 117 . Practice is done to ensure that the students get the accurate language as well as to get the students to be familiar with the language. Hence an effective practice stage is one where repetition leads to competence and accuracy. It is this linguistic model or language presented that the students will go on to practise and achieve naturally during a productive activity without help. sufficient meaningful repetition. What is important is that these presentations should have at least some of the following features: meaningful. In some cases it is not used as a natural progression or step towards production. At primary levels. have logical connection. This may be due to a poor or no presentation stage.TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY meaning behind the new language. Sometimes this stage is “over-done" or used ineffectively. using pictures and body language are common ways of presenting new language. There are a various ways in which new language items or linguistic ‘models’ can be presented. are brief and can be recycled PRACTICE: The practice stage is the important middle stage to communicative language teaching. and why it will be relevant and useful to them. When the situation surrounding the new language and the conceptual meaning of it has been achieved. clear models. It is important for the teacher to build on whatever English the students have already learned or have some access to when introducing a situation and getting the students to build the concept underlying the new language. the new language is introduced through a linguistic "model". Dialogues and text can also be used when the students have progressed.
TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY Practice activities need to be clear and understandable and should promote a degree of confidence in the students. One of the most important things you have to remember is that production activities should not "tell" the students what to say. The situation should allow the students produce more personalized language. Practice activities should be challenging. As such it would be good if ‘real life" situations are given in the production stage. This is because if the practice stage is not able to build the students’ confidence in the language then they will naturally be hesitant to independently "use" it in the production stage. as teachers you should prepare well thought out and planned activities. Hence. A successful production stage depends on an effective practice stage. the students have most or all of the information required. Getting students engaged in productive classroom activities can require a certain level of cognitive ability. 118 . The production stage involves creating a situation which requires the students to use the language that was introduced in the presentation stage independently. In the practice stage. It is this communicative practice that leads to final stage of production. A well planned practice activity will generate the students' motivation. PRODUCTION: The production stage is the most important stage of communicative language teaching. closed pair-work and open pairwork. but in the production stage they do not have the information and therefore must think. but within the reach of the students. Practice activities usually involve moving the students from the individual drills to pair work such as chain pair-work. A good indicator of a successful production is when students move from being "students" or learners of the language to "users" of the language.
problem-solving. narratives. PRACTICE: The teacher gets the students to repeat the sentences in chorus.TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY Some good examples of effective production activities include situational role-plays. This is repeated with the other people in the picture. PRODUCTION: The teacher asks students to construct their own sentences e. The following demonstrates the use of the PPP procedure: PRESENTATION: The teacher shows the students the following picture and elicits some facts about it. discussions. The teacher points to the man carrying the Malaysian flag to elicit the sentence “He is carrying the Malaysian flag” by asking “What’s the man doing?” The teacher then models the sentence “The man is carrying the Malaysian flag”. think about what their family members are doing at the moment.g. descriptions. debates. The teacher picks individual students to repeat the sentences. quizzes and games. The teacher gives a cue (woman in yellow) and gets the students to respond. 119 .
120 . Relax and move on to the next topic when you are ready.TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY Tutorial Task Devise a teaching plan to show your understanding of the PPP procedure.
explain the alternatives to Presentation.2 FRAMEWORK OF TOPICS 121 . and Production 2.TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY TOPIC 10 SECOND LANGUAGE LEARNING IN THE CLASSROOM 10. It also deals with the teaching implications of these alternatives in the primary ELT classroom. and Production 3. Practice. 10. you will be able to: 1. and Production. Practice. name the alternatives to Presentation.1 LEARNING OUTCOMES By the end of this session. Practice. explain the teaching implications of the alternatives in the primary ELT classroom 10.0 SYNOPSIS Topic 10 provides you with input on alternatives to Presentation.
The fact is that the PPP procedure assumes learners learn ‘in straight lines’. Do you use the PPP procedure in your classroom? Why? What are the strengths of the PPP procedure? What are the shortcomings of the PPP procedure? One of the main criticisms of the PPP procedure is that it is teachercentred. Exercise 1: 1. Practice and Production The PPP Approach or procedure in the Communicative Language Teaching Method which was introduced in the mid 1960’s came under criticism in the 1990’s. This is in contrast with the humanistic and learner-centred approach that was prevalent in the 1990’s. Lewis (1993) was not in favour of the PPP approach as he felt that it did not reflect neither the nature of language nor the nature of learning. starting from no knowledge.2. through very structured sentence-based patterns straight to instantaneous production was not favourable to many. According to Woodward (1993) language cannot be broken down into small bits and pieces to learn as it is full of ‘interlocking variables and systems’. His suggestion called the ‘deep-end strategy’ was a variation of the PPP procedure.TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY CONTENT SESSION TEN (3 Hours) 10. 3. 2. He encouraged students into immediate 122 . It could also be a waste of time and demotivating especially if you might be teaching what the students already know. that is. One of the first people to suggest an alternative to the PPP procedure was Keith Johnson in 1982.1 Alternatives to Presentation.
Study and Activate as an alternative to the PPP procedure. Teachers can plan communicative activities to activate students’ knowledge. Byrne (1986) had similar views as Johnson. Getting the students emotionally engaged with what is going on is important to ensure effective Here the focus of the teaching and learning process is on how something is constructed. However. The teacher can draw the attention of students to the form of the language during a communicative task or the students themselves may notice the form of the language. in other words throwing them in the deep end. A stands for activate.TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY production. Figure 1 below shows Byrne’s alternative approach. Here teachers and students can decide at which stage to begin the procedure. practice and production into a circle. At this stage students are encouraged to use all or any of the language they know. . specific intonation patterns. learning. S stands for study. Figure 1: Byrne’s Alternative Approach Harmer (2007) suggested ESA: Engage. The teacher goes back to either the presentation or practice stage after the production stage if deemed necessary. The study may focus on forms of the language such as relative clauses. The teacher can see if and where the students have difficulties in the language in the production stage. developing a paragraph etc. 123 . Reading for pleasure or interest also helps students activate their language knowledge. E is for engage. he joined the three stages of presentation.
TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY There are three basic lesson procedures in ESA. pictures or other means. The study stage involves the explanation of meanings and forms of the language by the teacher. the students study some aspects of the language that were incorrectly used by them or what they lack. This procedure is sequential in nature. First the teacher gets the students emotionally engaged with the lesson. Activation of the new language is done when students use the language to form their own sentences. These may be followed by re-engaging the students and ending with more study on language forms. followed by activating their knowledge before studying some language forms before moving on to other activation activities. a simulation activity or a communicative game. The teacher may get the students engaged first. The teacher models the forms of the language and the students repeat and practise them. The second basic lesson procedure is called the ‘Boomerang’ procedure. After the activity. The final procedure is known as the ‘Patchwork’ lesson procedure. The teacher engages the students via the presentation of situations. Then the teacher gets the students to do a task for example a written task. The order here is EAS. 124 . The first is the ‘Straight Arrows’ lesson procedure. Here the teacher may follow various sequences.
List the alternatives to PPP procedure.2. As such. 3. teachercentred approach to a more humanistic and leaner-centred approach. teachers should minimize their criticism and encourage their young learners to be engaged in what is going on in the 125 . 2. Teachers should bear in mind that getting students emotionally engaged is vital for effective learning. Exercise 2: 1. Byrne’s alternative approach and Harmer’s ESA imply that teachers should shift from a sequential. 10.2 Teaching Implications of the Alternatives in the Primary School Classroom The various frameworks suggested as alternatives for the PPP procedure such as Johnson’s ‘deep-end strategy’. Explain the ESA procedure.TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY Figures 1 to 3 depicts the different lesson procedures of ESA. Discuss the similarities and differences between the three lesson procedures of ESA.
This is something that the teacher must be prepared for. activities should develop a desire for the students to communicate. The teacher should be creative to design communicative tasks that will activate students’ language knowledge. Students should have positive feelings about what and how they are learning. The teacher should be well-versed in the forms of the language. In other words preparing for eventualities for the study phase. These Tutorial Task Devise a teaching plan using any of the alternative frameworks discussed above. What are the possible challenges you might face in carrying out the teaching plan? Relax and move on to the next topic when you are ready. 126 . Activities prepared should encourage students to use of much knowledge of the language that they have.TSL3103 ELT METHODOLOGY classroom. There would be teachable moments where the teacher needs to focus on the forms of the language.
Lewis. London: Prentice Hall. 11. D. 3. Hallow: Longman 5. Implementing the Lexical Approach: Putting Theory Into Practice. J. Byrne. Lewis. (1987) Principles and Practice in Second Language Acquisition. P. S. Brown. 6. 8. (1999) How Languages are Learned 101 . (1986) Teaching Oral Skills. Diaz-Rico.TSL3103 ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING METHODOLOGY BIBIOGRAPHY 1. (1994) Principles of Language Learning and Teaching (3rd edn. (1997) Second Language Acquisition. (4th ed). Inc. M. Hedge. Oxford: Oxford University Press. (2nd edn. Strategies for Teaching English Learners. H. Essex: Pearson Edu. T. (2000) Teaching and Learning in the Language Classroom. Hove: Language Teaching Publications.(2008). (1993) The Lexical Approach Language Teaching Publication 10.) Boston: Pearson Education. D. Ellis. and Spada N. In Communicative Syllabus Design and Methodology Pergamon Institute of English Krashen. Lightbown. K (1982) The deep-end strategy in communicative language teaching.) New Jersey: Prentice Hall 2. Johnson. Oxford: Oxford University Press 7. Inc. Harmer. R. Michael (1997). L. (2007) The Practice of English language Teaching. 9.M. 4.
Cambridge: Cambridge Univeristy Press 14. (1996). 13. F. Source: © Copyright Paul Shoebottom (1996-2011) The Good Language Learner.fis. from http://esl. Cambridge. and Myles. (1998) Second Language Learning Theories. R. London: Longman Yule. 2nd Edition. A Framework for Task-Based Learning. 16. London: Arnold. Communicative Language Teaching.) Oxford: Oxford University Press. Willis. The Study of Language. Littlewood. Mitchell. Retrieved 8 December 2011. 12. CUP 15.edu Factors affecting language learning 102 . J. (1981). G. (2006).TSL3103 ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING METHODOLOGY (2nd edn. W.
Ed. Berpengalaman membina sukatan pelajaran Bahasa Inggeris NORZILAH BTE.com (PENGALAMAN KERJA) Pensyarah Kanan dalam bidang Bahasa Inggeris 20 tahun pengalaman sebagai pendidik guru di maktab/IPG 5 tahun pengalaman sebagai guru Bahasa Inggeris di sekolah menengah.com Kelulusan M.PANEL PENULIS MODUL PROGRAM PENSISWAZAHAN GURU MOD PENDIDIKAN JARAK JAUH (PENDIDIKAN RENDAH) NAMA ELIZABETH LIM GEOK CHIN PPPS DG52 elizabethlimgc@gmail.TEFL KELAYAKAN (PENGALAMAN KERJA) Pensyarah Kanan dalam bidang TESL 25 tahun pengalaman sebagai pendidik guru di maktab/IPG 7 tahun pengalaman sebagai guru Bahasa Inggeris di sekolah menengah Berpengalaman membina sukatan pelajaran serta menulis modul Bahasa Inggeris Major dan Minor bagi pelbagai program perguruan di maktab/IPG VASANTHI A/P SUBRAMANIAM PPPS DG 52 vasanthivj@gmail. MOHD. ED.Ed. Melayu) Certificate in Professional Development for Teacher Educators Sijil Guru ( PPAK (ING) (KELULUSAN) M. ZAIN PPPS DG48 zilahzain@gmail. Dip. (Hons) . SC. B.(Hons) B. (TESL) B. TESL ( Malaysian Trainers Development Programme) B.com (KELULUSAN) M.A.A. Ed TESL ( Major : TESL & Minor : B. Sc.
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. Dapatkan seberapa banyak maklumat di perpustakaan atau pusat sumber yang berdekatan. rajah. Akses CD-Rom untuk bahan-bahan seperti yang dinyatakan dalam modul.. Panduan kepada pengguna. Fikir mengenai soalan yang diberikan. Hasilkan interpretasi anda mengenai sesuatu bahagian yang telah dibaca dengan cara lukisan atau lakaran (peta konsep. Satu soalan yang dibentuk untuk membawa pelajar secara beransur-ansur ke isi pelajaran. . Itu saja yang perlu anda lakukan. Akses bahan pembelajaran dalam bentuk video atau VCD... lukisan)..Buatkan catatan atau nota-nota penting. jadual. Sediakan geraf yang sesuai supaya dapat memberi gambaran yang lebih jelas.. Senarai penerangan makna ba gi sesuatu istilah. Layari laman web untuk mendapatkan maklumat tambahan. Rujukan surat khabar.SELAMAT BERJAYA.
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