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PHYSICS – Std. XI & XII Preamble
According to NCF 2005, the curriculum of the subject Physics is upgraded for higher secondary stage. This curriculum is comparable to the international standards which are useful for the students in Maharashtra State for different types of competitive examinations conducted in India. All the units of the subject from NCERT curriculum are divided into two years conveniently in Maharashtra State. Continuity in the curriculum is maintained in Std. XI & XII, which is not in NCERT curriculum. All the students appear for the competitive examinations only after +2 stages throughout India. This syllabus has been designed in accordance with the guidelines shown in the final version of common core syllabii of COBSE, Delhi. Accordingly few additional sub units have been added. Objectives – 1. Emphasis on basic conceptual understanding of the content. 2. Emphasis on use of SI units, symbols, nomenclature of physical quantities and formulations as per international standards. 3. Providing logical sequencing of units of the subject matter and proper placement of concepts with their linkage for better learning. 4. Reducing the curriculum load by eliminating overlapping of concepts/content within the discipline and other disciplines. 5. Promotion of process-skills, problem-solving abilities and applications of Physics concepts. 6. Strengthen the concepts developed at the secondary stage to provide firm foundation for further learning in the subject. 7. Expose the learners to different processes used in Physics-related industrial and technological applications. 8. Develop process-skills and experimental, observational, manipulative, decision making and investigatory skills in the learners. 9. Promote problem solving abilities and creative thinking in learners. 10. Develop conceptual competence in the learners and make them realize and appreciate the interface of Physics with other disciplines.
1. Measurements Introduction, Need for measurement, Units for measurement, System of Units, S.I. Units, Fundamental and derived units, Dimensional analysis, Order of magnitude and significant figures, Accuracy and errors in measurement.
2. Scalars and Vectors Addition and subtraction of vectors, Product of vectors.
3. Projectile motion Uniformly accelerated motion along straight line, Non uniform motion, Position time graph and velocity-time graph, Equation of a projectile path, Time of flight, Horizontal range, Maximum height of a projectile, Relative velocity.
4. Force Types of forces, General idea of gravitation, electromagnetic and nuclear forces, Law of conservation of momentum, Work done by a variable force. Work-energy theorem, Elastic and inelastic collisions in one and two dimensions, Inertial and non-intertial frames, Moment of force, Couple and properties of couple, Centre of mass, Centre of gravity, Conditions of equilibrium of a rigid body.
5. Friction in solids and liquids Origin and nature of frictional forces, Laws of static friction, Laws of kinetic friction, Pressure due to fluid column, Pascal‟s Law and its applications, Effect of gravity on fluid pressure, Viscosity, Streamline flow, Turbulent flow, Viscous force, Newton‟s formula, Stokes‟ law, Equation for terminal velocity, Raynold‟s number, Bernoulli‟s principle and its applications.
6. Sound Waves Waves and oscillations, Progressive waves, Characteristics of transverse waves, Characteristics of longitudinal waves, Sound as longitudinal wave motion, Relation between v, f and, ƛ Newton‟s formula for velocity of sound, Laplace‟s correction.
7. Thermal properties of matter Temperature and heat, Measurement of temperature, Ideal-gas equation and absolute temperature, Thermal expansion, Specific heat capacity, Calorimetry, Change of state, Latent heat, Heat transfer.
8. Refraction of Light Refraction of monochromatic light, Snell‟s law, Total internal reflection, Critical angle, Optical fibre, Dispersion of light, Prism formula, Angular dispersion and dispersive power, Rainbow, Scattering of light, Blue colour of sky, Colour of sun at sunrise and sunset. Elementary idea of Raman effect.
9. Ray optics Reflection of light by spherical mirrors, Refraction at single curved surface, Lens maker‟s equation, Combination of thin lenses in contact, Concept of conjugate focii, Correction of eye defects, Magnifying power of simple microscope, Magnifying power of compound microscope, Magnifying power of telescope, Reflecting telescope - schematic diagram with explanation.
10. Electrostatics Frictional electricity, Charges and their conservation, Coulomb‟s law and dielectric constant, Forces between multiple electric charges, Superposition principle of forces, Continuous distribution of charges, Concept of charge density, Electric field intensity, Potential energy, Electric potential due to point charge, Relation between electric field intensity and potential, Potential difference, Volt and electron volt, Electric dipole and dipole moment, Electric lines of force. Equipotential surfaces, P.E. of single charge and system of charges.
11. Current electricity Ohm‟s law, Resistance, Specific resistance, Temperature dependence of resistance, Colour code of carbon resistor, Series and parallel combination of resistors, E.M.F. and internal resistance of cell, Work done by electric current, Power in electric circuit, Cells in series and in parallel, Elementary idea of secondary cells.
12. Magnetic effect of electric current Oersted’s experiment, Biot Savart‟s law, Right hand rule, Magnetic induction at the centre of circular coil carrying current, Magnetic induction at a point along the axis of a coil carrying current, Fleming‟s left hand rule, Force between two infinitely long current carrying parallel conductors, Definition of Ampere, Force acting on a conductor carrying current in magnetic field, Torque on a current loop in magnetic field.
13. Magnetism Origin of magnetism due to moving charges, Equivalence between magnetic dipole and circular coil carrying current, Definition of magnetic dipole moment and its unit, Torque acting on a magnet in uniform magnetic induction, Bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, Magnetic field lines, Magnetic induction due to bar magnet at a point along the axis and at a point along equator, Earth‟s magnetic field and magnetic elements, Electromagnets and factors affecting their strength.
14. Electromagnetic waves Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics, Transverse nature of electromagnetic waves, Electromagnetic spectrum, Space communication, Propagation of electromagnetic waves in atmosphere.
Physics List of Practicals Std. XI
1. Use of Vernier Callipers. 2. Use of Screw gauge. 3. To determine radius of curvature of a given spherical surface by a spherometer. 4. To find the weight of a given body using parallelogram law of vectors. 5. To study the relationship between force of limiting friction and normal reaction and to find co-efficient of friction between a block and a horizontal surface. 6. To determine resistance per cm of a given wire by plotting a graph of potential difference versus current. 7. To find the value of „v‟ for different values of „u‟ in case of a „concave mirror and to find the focal length. 8. To find the focal length of a convex lens by plotting graphs between „u‟ and „v‟or between „1/u‟ and „1/v‟. 9. To find the focal length of a convex mirror, using a convex lens. 10. To find the focal length of a concave lens, using a convex lens. 11. To determine angle of minimum deviation for a given prism by plotting a graph between angle of incidence and angle of deviation. 12. To determine refractive index of a glass using a travelling microscope. 13. To find refractive index of a liquid by using (i) concave mirror, (ii) convex lens and plane mirror. 14. To determine specific heat capacity of a given (i) liquid (ii) solid, by method of mixtures.
Physics List of Activities Std. XI
1. To make a paper scale of given least count, e.g. 0.2 cm, 0.5 cm. 2. To determine mass of a given body using a meter scale by principle of moments. 3. To plot a graph for a given set of data, with proper choice of scales and error bars.
To note the change in level of liquid in a container on heating and interpret the observations. current (AC) and check continuity of a given circuit using multimeter. To obtain a lens combination with the specified focal length by using two lenses from the given set of lenses. on a screen by using a candle and a screen (for different distances of the candle from the lens/mirror). To study the variation in range of a jet of water with angle of projection.4. To observe refraction and lateral deviation of a beam of light incident obliquely on a glass slab. 9. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 115 . To measure the force of limiting friction for rolling of a roller on a horizontal plane. 8. 10. 5. 6. 7. To study the nature and size of image formed by (i) convex lens (ii) concave mirror. voltage (AC/DC). To measure resistance.
M. Composition of two S. Effect of impurity and temperature on surface tension. Differential equation of linear S. Capillarity and capillary action..M.H.M. Simple pendulum. Elasticity General explanation of elastic property. Physical significance of M.H. Rotational motion Definition of M.H. Circular motion Angular displacement. Elastic energy. XII 1. Behaviour of metal wire under increasing load.M. Centripetal and centrifugal forces.. Torque. Projection of satellite. K. Hooke‟s law. on any diameter.H. Projection of U. in S. Oscillations Explanation of periodic motion. Weightlessness condition in orbit. Kinematical equations for circular motion in analogy with linear motion. 3. Angle of contact. Definition of stress and strain.E. Angular velocity and angular acceleration.. Poisson’s ratio. of rotating body. Rolling motion. Radius of gyration. Gravitation Newton‟s law of gravitation. Determination of „Y‟.E. Deformation. Periodic time.‟s having same period and along same line. 6. Variation of „g‟ due to altitude. Phase of S. Principle of parallel and perpendicular axes. depth and motion.M. Vertical circular motion due to earth‟s gravitation. Statement of Kepler‟s laws of motion. Uniform circular motion. Plasticity. Relation between linear velocity and angular velocity.. Binding energy and escape velocity of a satellite.C. Surface tension.H. Radial acceleration. Equation for velocity and energy at different positions of vertical circular motion.M. Wave motion 116 . 5. Angular momentum and its conservation. K. Surface tension Surface tension on the basis of molecular theory. 4.I.M. Elastic constants and their relation.I. of some regular shaped bodies about specific axes. Communication satellite and its uses. lattitude. Banking of roads. 2.H.E. 7.PHYSICS (Upgraded syllabus) Std. M. S. and P. Damped S.I. Surface energy.. Applications of elastic behaviour of materials.
10.Wein’s displacement law. Effect of dielectric on capacity. Plane polarised light. 2nd law of thermodynamics. Dielectrics and electric polarisation. Refraction at plane surface. Doppler effect in light. Derivation for pressure of a gas. Huygens‟ Principle. Stationary waves Study of vibrations in a finite medium. Kinetic theory of gases and Radiation Concept of an ideal gas. Resonance. Electrostatics Gauss‟ theorem proof and applications. 1st law of thermodynamics. Condensers in series and parallel. 13. 8. Mechanical force on unit area of a charged conductor. Resolving power of a microscope and telescope. Stefan’s law. Green house effect. Capacity of parallel plate condenser. Reflection of transverse and longitudinal waves. Polaroids. Wave theory of light Wave theory of light. Free and Forced vibrations. 11. Measurement of wavelength by biprism experiment. Energy density of a medium. Doppler effect in sound. Change of phase. Polarisation. Diffraction due to single slit. Wave front and wave normal. Heat engines and refrigerators.Simple harmonic progressive waves. Mean free path. Superposition of waves. Study of vibrations of air columns. Assumptions of kinetic theory. Energy of charged condenser. Concept of condenser. Difference between interference and diffraction. Derivation of Boyle‟s law. Degrees of freedom. 12. Brewster‟s law. Conditions for producing steady interference pattern. Current electricity 117 . Interference and diffraction Interference of light. Reflection at plane surface. Analytical treatment of interference bands. Rayleigh‟s criterion. 9. Thermodynamics.Thermal equilibrium and definition of temperature. Qualitative idea of black body radiation. Law of equipartition of energy and application to Specific heat capacities of gases. Young‟s experiment. Formation of stationary waves on string. Maxwell distribution. Formation of beats. Construction of plane and spherical wave front. van-de-Graaff generator.
Resonant circuit. Hydrogen spectrum. Reactance and impedance. Davisson and Germer experiment. 14. Magnetic effects of electric current Ampere‟s law and its applications. Transistor 118 . LC oscillations (qualitative treatment only) Power in a. I-V characteristics of LED. Wattless current. 15. Curie temperature. Voltmeter. Cyclotron. Continuous and characteristics X-rays.Kirchhoff‟s law. Magnetism Circular current loop as a magnetic dipole. Coil rotating in uniform magnetic induction. 16 Electromagnetic inductions Laws of electromagnetic induction. Wavelength of an electron. Potentiometer. I-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias. de Broglie hypothesis. Einstein‟s equation. Photodiode. P-N junction diode. Sensitivity of moving coil galvanometer. Transformer. Rutherford‟s model of atom. P-type and N-type semiconductor. Magnetisation and magnetic intensity. Molecules and Nuclei Alpha particle scattering experiment. Particle nature of light. per nucleon and its variation with mass number.dØ dt Eddy currents. Diamagnetism.c circuit with resistance. inductance and capacitance. AC generator.E. Solar cell. Rectifiers. Intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors. Ammeter. Zener diode as a voltage regulator. Wheatstone‟s bridge. mass-energy relation. Paramagnetism. Magnetic dipole moment of revolving electron. mass defect. e = . 18 Atoms. proof of. Moving coil galvanometer. 17 Electrons and photons Photoelectric effect. Matter waves – wave nature of particles. B. Hertz and Lenard‟s observations. Need for displacement current. Decay law. Composition and size of nucleus. Alternating currents. Ferromagnetism on the basis of domain theory. Radioactivity. 19 Semiconductors Energy bands in solids. Nuclear fission and fusion. Meter bridge. Bohr‟s model. Self induction and mutual induction.
Oscillators and Logic gates (OR.NOT. space communication.NAND. bandwidth of transmission medium. Production and detection of an amplitude modulated wave. Transistor as an amplifier (CE mode).action and its characteristics. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 119 . Need for modulation.Transistor as a switch.NOR) 20 Communication systems Elements of communication system. bandwidth of signals. Propagation of electromagnetic waves in atmosphere.AND.
2. 9. To verify the laws of combination (series/parallel) of resistances using a metre bridge. To study the relationship between the temperature of a hot body and time by plotting a cooling curve. To study the relation between frequency and length of a given wire under constant tension using sonometer. 10. 5. 12. 6.Physics List of Practicals Std. 8. 120 . 13. To study the relation between the length of a given wire and tension for constant frequency using sonometer. 15. To draw the I-V characteristic curves of a p-n junction diode in forward bias and reverse bias. To determine the internal resistance of given cell using potentiometer. 7. To determine the surface tension of water by capillary rise method. To determine Young‟s modulus of elasticity of the material of a given wire. 11. To draw the characteristic curve of a zener diode and to determine its reverse break down voltage. To find resistance of given wire using metre bridge and hence determine the specific resistance of its material. 14. 3. XII 1. To find the speed of sound in air at room temperature using a resonance tube. To compare the emf of two given cells using potentiometer. To find the force constant and effective mass of helical spring by plotting T 2--m graph using method of oscillations. 4. To determine resistance of galvanometer using metre bridge. To study the characteristics of a common-emitter npn or pnp transistor and to find out the values of current and voltage gains.
3. a fuse and a power source. three (on/off) switches. 6. To draw the diagram of a given open circuit comprising at least a battery.Physics List of Activities Std.R. To study the effect of detergent on surface tension by observing capillary rise. 4. ammeter and voltmeter. diode.D. To study the effect of load on depression of a suitably clamped meter scale loaded (i) at its end (ii) in the middle. Mark the components that are not connected in proper order and correct the circuit and also the circuit diagram. (iii) see the unidirectional flow of current in case of a diode and an LED (iv) check whether a given electronic component (e. 121 .g. and 1C. XII 1. To observe polarization of light using two polaroids. To measure the resistance and impedance of an inductor with or without iron core. 7. To study the factors affecting the rate of loss of heat of a liquid. 5. To study the variation in potential drop with length of a wire for a steady current. 2. 1 l. a resistor and a capacitor from mixed collection of such items. Use of multimeter to (i) identify base of transistor (ii) distinguish between npn and pnp type transistors. To study effect of intensity of light (by varying distance of the source) on an L. 9. To identify a diode. transistor or IC) is in working order. resistor/ rheostat. To assemble a household circuit comprising three bulbs. a transistor. an LED. To study dissipation of energy of a simple pendulum by plotting a graph between square of amplitude and time. key. 8. 12. 10.
CHEMISTRY (Upgraded syllabus) Std. 7) To apprise students with interface of chemistry with other disciplines of science such as Physics. industries and agriculture. The revised syllabus has taken care of new formulations and nomenclature of elements. engineering. 2) To make students capable of studying chemistry in academic and professional courses (such as medicine. modern techniques are given importance. etc. 5) To develop problem solving skills in students. etc. 6) To expose the students to different processes used in industries and their technological applications. technology) at tertiary level. 122 . 3) To expose the students to various emerging new areas of chemistry and apprise them with their relevance in their future studies and their applications in various spheres of chemical sciences and technology. Engineering. environment. XI & XII Preamble RATIONALE According to NCF 2005. 4) To equip students to face various changes related to health. Geology. The syllabus contains areas like physical. the new and updated curriculum is introduced at +2 stages. symbols and formulations. after the +2 stage. population. OBJECTIVES The broad objectives of teaching Chemistry at Senior Secondary Stage are to help the learners : 1) To promote understanding of basic facts and concepts in chemistry while retaining the excitement of Chemistry. organic. New nomenclature. industrial. analytical and polymer chemistry. The syllabus is comparable to the international level. There is a need to provide the sufficient conceptual background of chemistry which will help the students to appear for different common entrance test at state level and national level. weather. Biology. This new syllabus will make them competent to meet the challenges of academic and professional courses like medicine. fundamental concepts. technology. nutrition. engineering. compounds and IUPAC units of physical quantities. inorganic.
periodic trends in properties of elements atomic radii. laws of chemical combination. Boyle‟s law. no mathematical derivations). Inert gas radii nomenclature of elements with atomic number greater than 100. Rutherford‟s model and its limitations. electron gain enthalpy. empirical derivation of gas equation. atoms and molecules. empirical and molecular formula. Pauli‟s exclusion principle and Hund‟s rule.CHEMISTRY Std. stoichiometry and calculations based on stoichimetry. electronegativity. chemical reactions. 123 . Ideal behaviour. proton and neutron. Gay Lussac‟s law. brief history of the development of periodic table. concept of orbitals. valence. Unit 4 : Periodic Table Significance of classification. XI (Theory) Unit 1: Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry General Introduction: Importance and scope of chemistry. atomic number. rules for filling electrons in orbitals – Aufbau principle. stability of half filled and completely filled orbitals. Historical approach to particulate nature of matter. dual nature of matter and light. Ionization enthalpy. electronic configuration of atoms. Kinetic energy and molecular speeds (elementary idea) Liquid State – Vapour pressure. Unit 3 : Structure of Atom Discovery of electron. de Broglie‟s relationship. Deviation from ideal behaviour. Dalton‟s atomic theory : concept of elements. Atomic and molecular masses mole concept and molar mass : Avogadro‟s law and Avogadro number.Enthalpy: Explanation and definition of term. Critical temperature. Unit 2 : States of Matter : Gases and Liquids Three states of matter. isotopes and isobars. Heisenberg‟s uncertainty principle. shapes of s. modern periodic law and present form of periodic table. quantum numbers. type of bonding. liquefaction of gases. ionic radii. Role of gas laws in elucidating the concept of the molecule. Ideal gas equation. Bohr‟s model and its limitations. viscosity and surface tension (qualitative idea only. p and d orbitals. concept of shells and subshells. Charles law. percentage composition. Intermolecular interactions.
preparation. Ionic equilibrium: Ionization of acids and bases. factors affecting equilibrium. covalent character of ionic bond. colloids and suspensions. VSEPR theory. isotopes. properties of colloids. Le Chatelier‟s principle. ionic bond. Lewis structure. p and d orbitals and shapes of some simple molecules. heavy water. preparation. valence bond theory. Unit 6: Chemical Equilibrium Equilibrium in physical and chemical processes. law of mass action. Unit 8 : Nature of Chemical Bond Valence electrons. covalent and interstitial. colloidal state : distinction between true solutions. emulsion – types of emulsions. Brownian movement. electrophoresis. coagulation. geometry of covalent molecules. redox reactions. Balancing redox reactions. Born Haber cycle : covalent bond parameters. strong and weak electrolytes. Buffer solutions. concept of hybridization involving s. solubility product common ion effect (with illustrative examples. acid strength. Unit 9 : Hydrogen Position of hydrogen in periodic table. dynamic nature of equilibrium. properties and structure. multimolecular and macromolecular colloids. hydrogen as a fuel.) Handerson equation. hydrogen bond. properties and uses of hydrogen. catalysis : homogenous and heterogeneous.Unit 5: Redox Reactions Concept of oxidation and reduction. activity and selectivity: enzyme catalysis. in terms of loss and gain of electrons and change in oxidation number. concept of pH. physical and chemical properties of water. Tyndall effect. ionization of polybasic acids. factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids. Elementary idea of nanomaterials. Uses of hydrogen peroxide 124 . molecular orbital theory of homonuclear diatomic molecules (qualitative idea only). polar character of covalent bond. Unit 7 : Surface Chemistry Adsorption – physisorption and chemisorption. resonance. oxidation number. equilibrium constant. Hydrolysis of salts (elementary idea). Lyophilic. Lyophobic. hydrides-ionic. occurrence. degree of ionization. Hydrogen peroxide.
Homolytic and heterolytic fission of a covalent bond. Important compounds of silicon and their uses: silicon tetrachloride. trends in the variation of properties (such as ionization enthalpy. anomalous properties of the first element of each group. oxidation states. Aluminium.carbocations. trends in chemical reactivity. Melting point and boiling point. occurrence. electronic configuration. boric acids. Boron-physical and chemical properties. boron hydrides. atomic and ionic radii). free radicals. biological importance of Magnesium and Calcium. carbanions. Unit 11 : p-Block Elements Group Introduction to p-Block Elements Group 13 elements : General introduction. uses. sodium hydroxide and sodium hydrogen carbonate. anomalous properties of first element of the group. variation of properties. occurrence. some important compounds: borax. biological importance of sodium and potassium. trends in chemical reactivity with oxygen. trends in chemical reactivity. water. Carbon – catenation. Calcium oxide and calcium carbonate (CaO) (CaCO3) and industrial uses of lime and limestone. electromeric effect. oxides. oxidation states. silicates and zeolites and structure of silicates Unit 12: Basic Principles and Techniques in Organic Chemistry General introduction. Preparation and properties of some important compounds: Sodium carbonate. inductive effect. anomalous behavior of first element. hydrogen and halogens. resonance and hyper conjugation.Unit 10: s-Block Elements (Alkali and Alkaline earth metals) Group 1 and Group 2 elements: General introduction. silicones. Group 14 elements: General introduction. reactions with acids and alkalies. physical and chemical properties. types of organic reactions. electronic configuration. Electronic displacements in a covalent bond. Variation of properties. Classification and IUPAC nomenclature of organic compounds. uses of some important Compounds. occurrence. diagonal relationship. uses. methods of qualitative and quantitative analysis. 125 . electrophiles and nucleophiles. allotropic forms. electronic configuration.
structure of double bond (ethane).Unit 13 : Alkanes Classification of hydrocarbons – Nomenclature. geometrical isomerism. Friedel Craft‟ alkylation and acylation. Chemical reactions. 126 . oxidation. combustion and pyrolysis. chemical reactions in atmosphere. effects of depletion of ozone layer. UNIT-17: Environmental chemistry Environmental pollution. physical properties. green house effect and global warming. addition reaction of – hydrogen. smog. conformations (ethane only). Unit 15: Alkynes Nomenclature. water. Unit 16 : Aromatic compounds Introduction. chemical properties. water and soil pollution. strategy for control of environmental pollution. chemical reactions: acidic character of alkynes. mechanism of electrophilic substitution. green chemistry as an alternative tool for reducing pollution. acid rain. major atmospheric pollutants. resonance aromaticity. methods of preparation. isomerism. ozone and its reactions. sulphonaiton. IUPAC nomenclature. hydrogen halides. Carcinogenicity and toxicity. Pollution due to industrial wastes. halogens. mechanism of electrophilic addition. – nitration. halogen. Unit 14 : Alkenes Nomenclature. addition of hydrogen. physical properties. benzene. halogenation. physical properties. water. structure of triple bond (ethylene).air. hydrogen halides (Markovnikoff‟s addition and peroxide effect) ozonolysis. Methods of preparation. chemical reactions including free radical mechanism of halogenation.
) 2. benzoic acid. D. Comparing the pH solutions of strong and weak acid of same concentration. C. (acetone. Operating pinch cork B. bases and salts using pH paper or universal indicator. Basic Laboratory Techniques 1. methyl acetate. E. (b) Study of the role of emulsifying agents in stabilizing the emulsion of oil. arseneous sulphide. Oxalic acid. Bending glass tube 3. Determination of melting point of an organic compound. Experiments related to pH change (a) Any one of the following experiments: Determination of pH of some solutions obtained from fruit juices. acetic acid. naphthalene. Surface Chemistry (a) Preparation of one lyophilic and one lyophobic sol: Lyophilic sol-starch and gum. resorcinol. copper sulphate. Study of burner 5. water) 3. Study the pH change in the titration of a strong base using universal indicator. (b) Study the shift in equilibrium between [Co(H2O)6]2+ and chloride ions by changing the concentration of either of the ions. β-naphthol. benzoic acid. ferric hydroxide. (p-toludine. Cutting glass tube and glass rod 2. Chemical equilibrium Any one of the following experiments: (a) Study the shift in equilibrium between ferric ions and thiocyanate ions by changing the concentration of either ion. Determination of boiling point of an organic compound. Characterization and purification of chemical substances 1. xylene (o. Drawing out a glass jet 4.p). Crystallization of impure sample of anyone of the following compounds. 127 . Lyophobic sol–aluminium hydroxide. Alum. varied concentrations of acids.Chemistry Practical Syllabus Std-XI A.m.
Detection of nitrogen. Ca2+. Al3+. Preparation of standard solution of oxalic acid. chlorine bromine and iodine in an organic compound. Quantitative estimation Using a chemical balance. Determination of strength of a given solution of hydrochloric acid by titrating It against standard sodium carbonate solution. PO43C2O42CH3COO(Note: Insoluble salts excluded) H. Ba2+. sulphur.(b) Study of pH change by common ion effect in case of weak acids and bases. NH4+ Anions – CO32SO32SO42NO2NO3Cl-. F. G. Sr2+. Mg2+. Ni2+ . Qualitative analysis Determination of one cation and one anion in a given salt: Cations – Pb2+. Mn2+. Determination of strength of a given solution of sodium hydroxide by titrating it against standard solution of oxalic acid. Zn2+. Cu2+. Fe3+. 128 . Preparation of standard solution of sodium carbonate. Br-. I-. Co2+.
4 Investigation of the foaming capacity of different washing soaps and the effect of addition of sodium carbonate on them. Note: Any other investigatory project can be chosen with the approval of the teacher. fluoride. depending upon the regional variation in drinking water and the study of causes of presence of these ions above permissible limit (if any). 5 Study of the acidity of different samples of the tea leaves. 3 Testing the hardness. 7 Study of the effect of acids and bases on the tensile strength of fibers. 8 Analysis of fruit and vegetable juices for their acidity. chloride etc. presence of iron.PROJECT Scientific investigations involving laboratory testing and collecting information from other sources. A few suggested Projects 1 Checking the bacterial contamination in drinking water by testing sulphide ion. 2 Study of the methods of purification of water. 6 Determination of the rate of evaporation of different liquids. 129 .
sublimation. factors affecting rate of reaction. molecular. energy.Raoult’s law elevation of boiling point. Kohlrausch‟s Law. types of systems. Unit 5: Chemical Kinetics Rate of reaction (average and instantaneous). dry cell –electrolytic and Galvanic cells. osmotic pressure. conductors and semiconductors and insulators and n and p type semiconductors. variations of conductivity with concentration. Band theory of metals. packing in solids. state functions. Relation between Gibb’s energy change and emf of a cell. XII (Theory) Unit 1: Solid State Classification of solids based on different forces. colligative properties –relative lowering of vapor pressure. Unit 3 : Chemical Thermodynamics and energetic Concepts of system. solid solutions. electrical and magnetic properties. expression of concentration of solids in liquids. determination of molecular masses using colligative properties. lead accumulator. extensive and intensive properties.unit cell in two dimensional and three dimensional lattices. concentration. Work. concept of 130 . Nernst equation and its application to chemical cells. ionic. order and molecularity of a reaction.Van’t Hoff factor and calculations involving it. integrated rate equations and half life (only for zero and first order reactions). formation.CHEMISTRY Std. rate law and specific rate constant. Hess‟ law of constant heat summation. temperature. fuel cells. conductance in electrolytic solutions. electrolysis and laws of electrolysis (elementary idea). corrosion. Unit 2 : Solutions and colligative properties Types of solutions. free energy change for spontaneous and non spontaneous processes. solubility of gases in liquids. specific and molar conductivity. Phase transition. surroundings. combustion. atomization. calculation of density of unit cell. and solution and dilution Introduction of entropy as a state function. standard electrode potential. number of atoms per unit cell in a cubic unit cell. EMF of a cell. Second and third law of thermodynamics Unit 4: Electrochemistry Redox reactions. amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea). voids. enthalpy of bond dissociation. heat. and equilibrium constant. catalyst. abnormal molecular mass. First law of thermodynamics – internal energy and enthalpy. depression of freezing point. point defects. covalent and metallic solids. ionization.
electronic configuration. reduction electrolytic method and refining. oxidation states. electronic configuration. Occurrence. properties and uses. occurrence. preparation and properties of ammonia and nitric acid. trends in physical and chemical properties. compounds of nitrogen. Group 16 elements: General introduction. electronic configuration. copper. Arrhenius equation. trends in physical and chemical properties. preparation. Group 18 elements: General introduction. occurrence. oxidation states. compounds of halogens. oxides of nitrogen (structure only). oxidation states. occurrence and principle of extraction of aluminium.PCl5) and oxoacids (elementary idea only). preparation. compounds of sulphur. properties and uses of chlorine and hydrochloric acid.Activation energy. zinc and iron Unit 7: p-Block Elements Group 15 elements: General introduction. trends in physical and chemical properties. sulphurc acid. oxidation. preparation and properties of phosphine. occurrence. electronic configuration. industrial process of manufacture. Sulphur – allotropic forms. simple oxides.collision theory (elementary idea. preparation. nitrogen – preparation. oxoacids of sulphur (structures only). properties and uses. halides (PCl3. no mathematical treatment). 131 . uses. trends in physical and chemical properties. compounds of phosphorous. properties and uses. Ozone. dioxygen. Unit 6 : General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements Principles and methods of extraction – concentration. interhalogen compounds. Phoshorous-allotropic forms. Classification of oxides. oxoacids of halogens (structure only). properties and uses of sulphur dioxide. Group 17 elements: General introduction.
general trends in properties of the first row transition metals – metallic character. Ethers : Nomenclature. alloy formation preparation and properties of K2Cr2O7 and KMnO4. extraction of metals and biological systems). freons. nature of C-X bond. R-S and d-l configurations. colour. uses of phenols. tetrachloromethane. acidic nature of phenol. uses of methanol and ethanol.CFT. identification of primary. Phenols and Ethers Alcohols: Nomenclature. methods of preparation. Actinoids – Electronic configuration. Phenols: Nomenclature. occurrence and characteristics of transition metals.R-S and d-l configuration Haloarenes : Nature of C-X bond. physical and chemical properties. (Structural and stereo) importance of coordination compounds (in qualitative analysis. methods of preparation. IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds. interstitial compounds. methods of preparation. electronic configuration. coordination number. Werner’s theory. Uses and environmental effects of – dichloromethane. magnetic properties. physical and chemical properties. DDT.Stability of carbocations. oxidation states.Unit 8 : d and f Block Elements d-Block Elements General introduction. uses. ionic radii. Unit 9: Coordination Compounds Coordination compounds – Introduction. oxidation states. mechanism of substitution reactions. electrophillic substitution reactions. 132 . Comparison with lanthanoids. secondary and tertiary alcohols. bonding. Unit 10 : Halogen derivatives of alkanes (and arenes) Haloalkanes : Nomenclature. chemical reactivity and lanthanoid contraction and its consequences. catalytic property. isomerism. oxidation states. ligands. ionization enthalpy. mechanism of dehydration. magnetic properties and shapes. colour. VBT. iodoform. Unit 11 : Alcohols. physical and chemical properties (of primary alcohols only). f-Block ElementsLanthanoids – Electronic configuration. substitution reactions (directive influence of halogen for monosubstituted compounds only) stability of carbocations. physical and chemical properties. thrichloromethane.
oligosaccharides (sucrose. identification of primary. methods of preparation. enzymes. Nucleic Acids: DNA and RNA Unit 15: Polymers Classification . methods of preparation. classification. acidic nature. lactose. Lipids and Hormones (elementary idea) excluding structure. nature of carbonyl group. and rubber. natural and synthetic like polythene. polypeptides. tertiary structure and quaternary structures (qualitative idea only). Some important polymers. their classification and functions. secondary. nylon. peptide. polyesters. Diazonium salts: Preparation. mechanism of nucleophilic addition.natural and synthetic. glycogen). Ketones and Carboxylic Acids Aldehydes and Ketones : Nomenclature. bakelite. physical and chemical properties. uses. chemical reactions and importance in synthetic organic chemistry. structure. uses. Physical and chemical properties. structure of amines-primary. maltose). cellulose. reactivity of alpha hydrogen in aldehydes. Vitamins: Classification and functions. methods of polymerization (addition and condensation). methods of preparation.Unit 12 : Aldehydes. Proteins: Elementary idea of -amino acids. Unit 14: Biomolecules Carbohydrates: Classification (aldoses and ketoses). linkage.Biodegradable and non biodegradable polymers. physical and chemical properties. uses. Carboxylic Acids: Nomenclature. copolymerization. secondary and tertiary amines. monosaccahrides d-l configuration (glucose and fructose). Cyanides and Isocyanides: Will be mentioned at relevant places in context. denaturation of proteins. importance. Unit 13: Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen Nitro compounds-General methods of preparation and chemical reactions Amines : Nomenclature. 133 . proteins. polysaccharides (starch.
iv] Heat of displacement of Cu from CuSO4 by Zn.Unit 16: Chemistry in Everyday life : 1. 3. tranquilizers. ii] Enthalpy of neutralization of strong acid (HCI) and strong base (NaOH). antacids. iii] Determination of enthalpy change during interaction (hydrogen bond formation) between acetone and chloroform. Chemicals in food: Preservatives. 134 . Chemistry Practical Syllabus Std. KIO3 and sodium sulphite (Na2SO3) using starch solution as indicator (clock reaction). (c) Acid hydrolysis of ethyl acetate. Electrochemistry Variation of cell potential in Zn|Zn2+||Cu2+|Cu with change in concentration of electrolytes (CuSO4 or ZnSO4) at room temperature (demonstration). disinfectants. artificial sweetening agents. Thermochemistry Any one of the following experiments: i] Enthalpy of dissolution of copper sulphate or potassium nitrate. antihistamines (elementary idea of antioxidants) 2. cleansing action. (b) Study of reaction rate of any one of the following: (i) Reaction of iodide ion with hydrogen peroxide at room temperature using different concentration of iodide ions. B. antifertility drugs. Chemical Kinetics (Any one of the following) : (a) Effect of concentration and temperature on the rate of reaction between sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid. Cleansing agents: Soaps and detergents. antiseptics. Chemicals in medicines: analgesics. antimicrobials. (ii) Reaction between potassium iodate. C. antibiotics. XII A.
Sr2+.Napthol aniline dye. (ii) Preparation of potassium ferric oxalate. Tests for the functional groups present in organic compounds Unsaturation. (iii) Iodoform (iv) Phthalic or succinic anhydride. (ii) Separation of constituents present in an inorganic mixture containing two cations only (constituents having large difference in Rf values to be provided). H. Ni2+. ketonic. Co2+. Qualitative analysis 1) Determination of two cations from a given mixture of salts. phenolic. Cations – Pb2+. Zn2+. J. carboxylic and amino (primary) groups. fats and proteins in pure samples and their detection in given food stuffs. 2) Determination of two anions from a given mixture of salts. Preparation of Organic Compounds (i) p-Nitrocetanilide (ii) Aniline yellow or 2. 135 . aldehydic. Mn2+. Determinaiton of concentration/molarity of KMnO4 solution by titrating it against a standard solution of: (i) Oxalic acid (ii) Ferrous ammonium sulphate (Students will be required to prepare standard solutions by weighing themselves). Mg2+. I. Chromatography (demonstration) (i) Separation of pigments from extracts of leaves and flowers by paper chromatography and determination of Rf values. Ca2+. E. alcoholic. As3+. NH4+. Cu2+. Ba2+. F. Fe3+. Al3+. (v) Di-benzal acetone G. Preparation of Inorganic Compounds (i) Preparation of double salt of ferrous ammonium sulphate or potash alum. Characteristic tests of arbohydrates.D.
Anions – CO32-. 4 Study of the effect of potassium bisulphate as food preservative under various conditions (temperature. gram flour. 136 . carrot juice. SO42-. etc. can be chosen with the approval of the teacher. butter. 2 Study of quantity of casein present in different samples of milk. 6 Comparative study of the rate of fermentation of following materials: wheat flour. time etc). A few suggested Projects: 1 Study of presence of oxalate ions in guava fruit at different stages of ripening. effect of pH and temperature on it. potato juice. effect of temperature. Br-. SO32-. Ajwain (carum). concentration. 8 Study of common food adulterants in fat. Illaichi (cardamom). 5 Study of digestion of starch by salivary amylase and. 7 Extraction of essential oils present in Saunf (aniseed). 3 Preparation of soybean milk and its comparison with the natural milk with respect to curd formation. Cl-.) PROJECT Scientific investigations involving laboratory testing and collecting information From other sources. sugar. chilli powder and pepper. etc. I-. No2NO3-. turmeric powder. Note : Any investigatory project. PO43C2O42CH3COO(Note : Insoluble salts excluded.
Recently. Delhi. communities. Living organisms exhibit extremely complex functional system. the science of biology has undergone a paradigm shift that has transformed it from a collection of loosely related facts into a modern applied science. Objectives: The prescribed syllabus is expected to: Promote the inherent skill of observation. Organisms seldom occur as isolated individuals. Help students to understand the functioning of organisms. They are organized into populations and biological communities. Guide students to perform easy experiments for better understanding of biological principles and to develop experimental skills required in practical work. The entire unit “Ecology and Environment” has now been added under Botany and Zoology sections. Understanding of biology will help in the sustainable development of the environment and will also ensure the existence of earth with all its amazing diversity.BIOLOGY. Make students aware of issues of global importance. 137 . ecosystems and environment constitute unique set of natural resources of great importance. Organisms. Assist to understand the underlying principles of biological sciences and thereby develop scientific attitude towards biological phenomena. The present syllabus reinforces the concepts introduced in lower classes.Std. Create awareness about the contribution of biology to human welfare. Hence it has been prepared in accordance with the guidelines shown in the final version of common core syllabi of COBSE. Knowledge of biology helps us to understand a common thread which holds all these components together. Accordingly some additional topics from state Board syllabus have been deleted whereas the lacking topics have been added. This syllabus is designed to prepare students for various examinations conducted at state and national level. XI & XII Preamble Higher secondary is the most crucial stage of education because at this juncture specialized disciplines of science are introduced.
Chapter 2 . characters. 2. lipids and nucleic acids in brief. Diversity in living organisms-Brief idea.Algae. – XI: Biology (Upgraded syllabus) Section I . examples and importance. Types. Bryophyta. Basic chemical constituents of living bodies. 3. Concept of species. Chapter 4 Cell Division 1. systematics. significance and examples. characters. general properties. Economic importance and list of viral diseases. importance and list of gardens and herbaria in India. Botanical gardens and herbaria . Enzyme action and factors affecting enzyme activity in brief. Systematic and binomial system of nomenclature . Taxonomic hierarchy with examples. 4. Gymnosperms and Angiosperms (Dicotyledons and Monocotyledons).Definitions. 3. Three to five salient features and two examples of each category. Need of classification. 5. 2. Unit 1 Diversity in Living World: Chapter 1.Botany . proteins. Salient features of major plant groups . Three domains of life. Enzymes . Cell cycle 2. Structure and function of carbohydrates. Mitosis 3. Pteridophyta. Meiosis 138 . Lichens . classification and nomenclature.Std. 2. Viruses and viroids . Classification of living organisms (five Kingdom classification) – Major groups and principles of classification for each Kingdom with examples.Kingdom Plantae 1. Unit 2 Structure and function of cell Chapter 3 .Biochemistry of cell: 1. Binomial nomenclature explanation. types with examples.Meaning.meaning of the terms taxonomy.Meaning.Definition.Diversity in organisms 1.
Translocation of sugars through phloem brief account. Nitrogen Metabolism (nitrogen cycle. Active and passive absorption in brief. nutrients and gases. de. mechanism of opening and closing of stomata. Elementary idea of Hydroponics. Definition and characteristics of growth.macronutrients and micronutrients and their role.differentiation. Differentiation. Role of water and minerals . fruit and seed. inflorescence. Conditions of growth.auxins.tension theory. ethylene and abscissic acid (role in brief) Photoperiodism. cytokinines. Germination . stem. Unit 4 Plant Physiology: Chapter 6 . 2. Plant tissues.Hypogeal. Guttation Ascent of sap. Movement of water. gibberellins.Absorption of water and minerals. epigeal and viviparous. biological nitrogen fixation) Chapter 7 .Roots.Apoplast and Symplast Pathways.Unit 3 Structural organization in plants: Chapter 5 . redifferentiation Sequence of developmental process in a plant cell Growth regulators .Plant Growth and Development: Seed dormancy. food. Mineral deficiency symptoms.. Phases of growth. flower. Photomorphogenesis including brief account of Phytochromes (Elementary idea) Vernalization. Mineral toxicity. Transpiration – structure of stomata. anatomy and functions of different parts . Morphology. leaf.Plant Water Relation and Mineral Nutrition 1. root pressure concept and cohesion .Morphology of Plants 1. Role of K+ ions 3. 139 . (To be dealt along with the relevant practicals of the practical syllabus) 2.
Cyclostomata. .structure and examples. Ribosome and Centrioles (ultrstructure and functions).(Areolar.Study of Animal Tissues 1. Hemichordata. Cartilage and Bone). Cell organelles: Plastids. 5. Amphibia. columnar. nucleolus and nucleoplasm.brief account 2. Adipose.compound epithelium (stratified and transitional). b) Connective tissue . Coelenterata. Unit 3 Structural organisation in Animals: Chapter 10. Mollusca. Salient features of major phyla under kingdom Animalia. Golgi complex.XI Section II – Zoology Unit 1 Diversity in Living World: Chapter 8 . Tendons. Platyhelminthes. Aves and Mammalia. 3. Ciliated. Plant cell and animal cell. Zoological parks and Museums . Cell wall and cell membrane . . glandular). Lysosomes.(fluid mosaic model).General idea with list. 6. Nemathelminthes.Std. cytoskeleton. Classification of phylum chordata upto class level with three to five salient features and two examples of each category: Urochordata.Kingdom Animalia: 1. cuboidal. cilia and flagella. Classification of following phyla with three to five salient features and two examples of each category: Porifera. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell . Echinodermata and Unit 2 Structure and function of cell: Chapter 9 . Microbodies. Cell theory .Organization of Cell: 1. Nuclear organization . Endoplasmic reticulum. Ligaments.types: a) Epithelial tissues . Mitochondria. Arthropoda. 2. Reptilia. Chondrichthyes. Animal tissues . 140 . Cephalochordata.Nucleus. Annelida. Vacuoles. 4.simple epithelium (squamous. Osteichthyes.
141 . and diarthroses. d) Nervous tissue (Neurons. nervous. Chapter 11. amphiarthroses. Calorific value of proteins. vomiting and diarrhoea Chapter 13. Jaundice. respiration and common respiratory disorders: Respiratory organs in animals (Recall only) i) Respiratory system in brief ii) Breathing.c) Muscular tissue . indigestion. assimilation and egestion vi) Nutritional and digestive disorders – PEM. respiratory.(Smooth. carbohydrates and fats v) Absorption. Morphology.Asthma.Study of Animal Type: 1. Digestion. Emphysema and occupational lung diseases. Peristalsis. Regulation iii) Exchange of gases. glial cells and types of neurons).inspiration and expiration.Human Nutrition: 1. circulatory. and reproductive systems of cockroach (Brief account only) Unit 4 Human Physiology: Chapter 12. gastrointestinal hormones. Regulation of Respiration. anatomy and functions of digestive.Human Respiration: 1Breathing. Chapter 14. transport of CO2 and O2 and tissue respiration.synarthroses. striated and cardiac). Respiratory volumes iv) Respiratory disorders. constipation.Human skeleton and Locomotion: Brief account of human skeleton: A] Axial Skeleton B] Appendicular Skeleton (Details to be dealt with the relevant practical) Types of joints . absorption and nutritional disorders: ii) Digestive system in brief iv) Physiology of digestion.
XI Biology Practicals Syllabus (A) List of experiments: 1. 7.ball and socket. arthritis. of dicot (sunflower) and monocot roots and stem to study different plant tissues. 5 Study of osmosis by Potato osmometer 6. 2. Std. Fabaceae and Liliaceae with respect to types of root-(tap and adventitious). leaf (arrangement.Types of diarthroses . hinge. Types of Movement. muscular dystrophy tetany and gout. Study of parts of compound microscope. Preparation of T. starch. stem (herbaceous and woody). S. 3 Study and describe three locally available flowering plants from the families-Solanaceae. venation. Study of plasmolysis in epidermal peels. Flagellar. condyloid. Osteoporosis. Muscular Mechanism of muscle movement: Contractile proteins and Muscle contraction Skeletal and muscular disorders – Myasthenia gravis. proteins and fats from suitable plant and animal materials. 142 . 4. Study of structure and distribution of stomata in upper and lower surface of leaf. pivot. 8) To study the digestion of starch by salivary amylase under different conditions of temperature and pH. saddle and gliding joints. shape. simple and compound) and floral characters. To test the presence of sugar.Ciliary.
sclerenchyma. 11. 4. hand bones and foot bones) and different types of joints (synovial. Shark. Rohu. epiphytic root and pneumatophores). Funaria. 5. Hydra. Lizard. yeast. Leech. Study of human skeleton (except skull. parenchyma. Study of imbibition of seeds/raisins. Study of different modifications of root (fusiform root. mammalian blood smear. 2. Star-fish. 143 . 6. 8 Study of tissues and diversity in shapes and sizes of plant and animal cells. runner. parasitic root. Ascaris. Earthworm. Snail.(B) Study/ Observation of the following (Spotting): 1. Amoeba. through temporary or permanent slides. Cycas. xylem. Nephrolepis. muscle fibres. Study of different modification of leaf (leaflet and stipular tendril). Prawn. Spirogyra. Balanoglossus. 9. Observation and comments on experimental set up on: a) Phototropism b) Suction due to transpiration. squamous epithelium. Silkworm Honey bee . Liverfluke. 3. phyllode). Agaricus. leaf Spines. Oscillatoria. Usnea. Study of specimens and identification with reasons: Bacteria. cartilaginous and fibrous joint with one suitable example). guard cells. 7 Study and identification of different types of inflorescence. phloem. Pigeon and Rat. c) Apical bud removal 10. Study of specimens and their identification with reasons – Sycon. Frog. Study of different modifications of stem (stem tuber. Comparative study of rates of transpiration in upper and lower surface of leaf. sunflower and maize.palisade cells. collenchyma. Riccia. Rhizopus. and tendril).
13.Genetic Basis of Inheritance: Mendelian inheritance. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Std. DNA Packaging. Application of Biotechnology in Agriculture – BT crops Biosafety Issues (Biopiracy and patents) Unit 3: Biology and Human Welfare Chapter 4 . central dogma. Translation-Genetic Code. 144 . Study of mitosis in onion roots tips and animal cells (grasshopper) from permanent slides. Unit 2: Biotechnology and its application Chapter 3 . Producing Restriction Fragments.12 Study of external morphology of earthworm.Biotechnology: Process and Application Genetic engineering (Recombinant DNA technology): Transposons. Plasmids.Enhancement in Food Production: Plant Breeding Tissue Culture: Concept of Cellular Totipotency. expression and regulation: Modern concept of gene in brief-cistron. . Preparing and cloning a DNA Library.incomplete dominance. muton and recon.XII Biology (Upgraded syllabus) Section I – BOTANY Unit 1: Genetics and Evolution Chapter 1 . Elementary idea of polygenic inheritance. Protein Synthesis. co-dominance. Transcription. multiple alleles and Inheritance of blood groups). RNA: General structure types and functions. Deviations from Mendelian ratio (gene interaction. structure of DNA as given by Watson and Cricks model. Bacteriophages. DNA as genetic material. cockroach and frog through models. Pleiotropy. Chapter 2 . semi conservative replication of eukaryotic DNA.Gene: its nature. Gene Expression and Gene Regulation (The Lac operon as a typical model of gene regulation). Gene Amplification (PCR).
TCA Cycle and Electron Transport System) and Anaerobic Respiration. Unit 4: Plant Physiology Chapter 6 . Microbes as Biocontrol Agents. Respiratory quotient of Nutrients. Photorespiration. uniparental modes-vegetative propagation. Significance of Respiration. Chapter 7 . Law of limiting factors. Asexual reproduction. Microbes in Sewage Treatment.Respiration: ATP as currency of Energy Mechanism of Aerobic (Glycolysis. Fermentation Exchange of gases Amphibolic pathway. Light-Dependent Reactions (Cyclic and non-cyclic photophosphorylation) Light-Independent Reactions (C3 and C4 Pathways) Chemiosmotic hypothesis.Microbes in Human Welfare: Microbes in Household food processing Microbes in Industrial Production. Factors affecting Photosynthesis. Suspension Culture.Requirements of Tissue Culture (in brief). Microbes as Biofertilizers. micropropagation 145 .Reproduction in Plants: Modes of Reproduction (Asexual and Sexual). Microbes in Biogas (energy) Production. Biofortification Chapter 5 . Callus Culture.Photosynthesis: Autotrophic nutrition Site of Photosynthesis Photosynthetic Pigments and their role. Unit 5: Reproduction in Organisms Chapter 8 . Single Cell Protein.
Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance: The Chromosomal Theory. Unit 6: Ecology and Environment: Chapter 9: Organisms and Environment -I Habitat and Niche Ecosystems: Patterns. case studies (any two). 146 . Spontaneous. ozone depletion. development of seed and formation of fruit) Special modes-apomixis. solid waste management. Biological Evidences. Environmental issues: agrochemicals and their effects. Origin and Evolution of Human being. polyembryony. pollen-pistil interaction. Gene flow and genetic drift.Origin and the Evolution of Life: Origin of Life: Early Earth. assembly of organic compounds. parthenocarpy. Outbreeding devices. Post-fertilization changes (development of endosperm and embryo. components. Double Fertilization: Process and Significance. oxygen release. productivity and decomposition. biomass. Pollination: Types and Agencies. Significance of seed and fruit formation. Evolution: Darwin‟s contribution.Hardy-Weinberg principle. nutrient cycling (carbon and phosphorous). . Modern Synthetic Theory of evolution. Chapter 11 . pollination.XII Biology Section II .Sexual Reproduction: structure of flower Development of male gametophyte. deforestation. Development of female Gametophyte. Adaptive radiation. Green house effect and global warming. Std. energy.ZOOLOGY Unit 1: Genetics and Evolution Chapter 10 . Ecological succession. Mechanism of evolution. Ecological services-carbon fixation. energy flow. Structure of anatropous ovule. pyramids of number. Chromosomes.
Ascariasis. Gene Therapy. Sex-linked Inheritance (Haemophilia and colour blindness). Vaccines. Common cold and ring worm). Typhoid. Antigen-Antibody Complex. Adolescence.Human Health and Diseases: Concepts of Immunology: Immunity Types. Bee-Keeping. Genomics and Human Genome Project. Unit 2: Biotechnology and its application Chapter 12. Pneumonia. Dairy. Structure of Antibody. Animal Breeding. Antigens on blood cells. Sericulture Lac culture 147 . Unit 3: Biology and Human Welfare Chapter 13.Animal Husbandry: Management of Farms and Farm Animals. drug and alcohol abuse. Chromosomal disorders in human: Down’s syndrome.Mendelian disorders in humansThalassemia. honey bee. Chapter 14. Transgenic animals. Filariasis. Cancer and AIDS. Biotechnological Applications in Health: Human insulin and vaccine production. Sex Determination in Human being.Linkage and Crossing Over. birds. Poultry.Genetic Engineering and Genomics: DNA Finger Printing. Malaria. Fisheries. Turner’s syndrome and Klinfelter’s syndrome. Pathogens and Parasites (Amoebiasis.
Blood groups Structure and pumping action of Heart. Kidney stone (renal calculi). Reflex action. cretinism. Disorders. Pulmonary and Systemic Circulation. Blood related disorders: Hypertension. ureotelism. Acromegaly. exopthalmic goiter. Cardiac output.Unit 4: Human Physiology Chapter 15. Transmission of nerve impulse. Transplantation. Dialysis. Uraemia. Hormones and their functions.Control and Co-ordination: Nervous System: Structure and functions of brain and Spinal cord. brief idea about PNS and ANS. ECG. Sensory perception. Rhythmicity of Heart beat. and heart failure. general idea of other sense organs Endocrine System: Endocrine glands. Chapter 17. goiter.Circulation: Blood composition and coagulation. Blood Vessels. Diabetes mellitus.Excretion and osmoregulation: Modes of excretion-Ammonotelism. Lymphatic System (Brief idea): Composition of lymph and its functions. ADH and Diabetes inspidus. Heart beat and Pulse. atrial natriuretic factor. Addison’s disease) 148 . uricotelism. Sensory receptors (eye and ear). role of other organs in excretion. Chapter 16. Role of Kidney in Osmoregulation. Mechanism of hormone action Hormones as messengers and regulators. Hormonal imbalance and diseases: Common disorders (Dwarfism. angina pectoris. nephritis. Excretory System Composition and formation of urine. coronary artery disease. Regulation of cardiac activity. Kidney failure. Regulation of kidney function: renin-angiotensin.
Amniocentesis. importance. Environmental issues: air pollution and its control. Threats to and need for biodiversity conservation . biosphere reserves.concept. loss.red data book . age distribution. placenta. Hotspots.MTP. birth rate and death rate. Reproductive cycle. water pollution and its control and radioactive waste management. GIFT (elementary idea for general awareness). ZIFT. patterns. national parks and sanctuaries.Biodiversity. Production of gametes. Reproductive health-birth control. endangered organisms.Unit 5: Reproduction in Organisms Chapter 18. Pregnancy. Infertility and assisted reproductive technologies.Human Reproduction: Reproductive system in male and female. Biodiversity and its conservation. Histology of testis and ovary. (Case studies any two) ---------------------------------------------------------------- 149 . fertilization. parasitism. Embryo development up to three germinal layers.extinction.IVF. population attributes. Unit 6: Ecology and Environment Chapter 19-Organisms and Environment-II Population and ecological adaptations: population interactions-mutualism. parturition and lactation (Elementary idea). Contraception and sexually transmitted diseases. competition.growth. implantation. predation.
6. Collect water from two different water bodies around you and study them for pH. insect) 2 Study of pollen germination on stigma through a permanent slide. 9. Correlate with the kinds of plants found in them. Study of plant population density and frequency by quadrate method. 4 Exercise on controlled pollination . 2.. 6 Study plants found in xerophytic and aquatic conditions with respect to their morphological adaptations. Study the presence of suspended particulate matter in air at the two widely different Sites. To test the presence of urea and sugar in urine. Collect and study soil from at least two different sites and study them for texture. 5. tagging and bagging 5 Study meiosis in onion bud cell or grass hopper testis through permanent slide. Prepare a temporary mount of onion root tip to study mitosis.Std.Emasculation.(Two plants each) 150 . Study pollen germination on a slide. 3 To Study Mendelian inheritance using seeds of different colour/size of any plant. pH and water holding capacity of soil. Study/observation of the following (Spotting): 1 Study of flowers adapted to pollination by different agencies (wind. 3. clarity and presence of any living organisms. 11To test the presence of albumin and bile salts in urine. 8. XII (Upgraded) Biology Practicals Syllabus Experiments: 1. Separation of plant pigments by paper chromatography 7 To study the rate of respiration in flower buds/leaf tissue and germinating seeds. 10. Dissect the given flower and display different whorls. 4. moisture content. Dissect anther and ovary to show number of chambers.
Ascaris and ring worm through permanent slides or specimens. of blastula through permanent slide. Study of V. widow‟s peak. 9 To study prepared pedigree charts of genetic traits such as rolling of tongue. 8. Comment on symptoms of diseases that they cause. 10 To identify common disease causing organisms like Plasmodium. colour blindness. Blood groups.S. of testis and T. T. (Two animals each) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 151 .S. ovary through permanent slides (from any mammal).S. 11 Study of animals found in xeric (desert) and aquatic conditions with respect to their morphological adaptations.7 Study and identify stages of gamete development. Entamoeba .
5) To acquaint students with different aspects of Mathematics used in real life. Mathematics is the backbone of all sciences and it is an inseparable part of human life. removal of social barriers. 6) To develop an interest in students to study Mathematics as a discipline. Motivating topics from real life situations and other subject areas. Objectives: To enable the students 1)To acquire knowledge and critical understanding. terms. Hence to fulfill the needs of students. protection of an environment. 7) To develop awareness of the need for national integration. by more than one method. principles. particularly by way of motivation and visualization of basic concepts. This will help them in developing Mathematical tools to be used in the professional education. Higher Secondary is a launching stage from where students would go to either for academic education in Mathematics or professional courses like Engineering and Computer Technology. 4) To develop interest in Mathematics by participating in various related competitions and selflearning. analyze and articulate logically.Upgraded Syllabus MATHEMATICS AND STATISTICS (For Arts and Science) Std. it is utmost important to make the study of Mathematics more meaningful by acquainting the student with many branches of mathematics. symbols and mastering the underlying processes and skills. major thrust is also on application of various concepts. Physical and Biological Sciences. The proposed syllabus has been designed in accordance with National Curriculum Framework 2005 and as per guidelines given in Focus Group on Teaching of Mathematics 2005 which is to meet the emerging needs of all categories of students. 3) To develop positive attitude to think. 2) To apply the knowledge and skills in Mathematics and related problems from other subjects. 152 . XI & XII Introduction: Mathematics is the language of all sciences and is perhaps the only subject which merits this distinction. elimination of sex biases and observance of small family norm.
9) To develop interest in the subject by participating in related competitions. periodicity of functions. 300. intercepts of a line. θ is in radians) (without proof). 5. two point form. Formulae for conversion of sum or difference into products. shift of the origin. revision of different forms of equations of a line. 600. y = a cos bx.PART – I 1. Area of the sector of a circle A = ½ r2. slope intercept form. formulae for conversion of product into sum or difference. graphs of trigonometric functions. θ. equation of lines. trigonometric functions of half angles. circular system. general form. 6. provided A and B are not both zero. slope point form. always represents. Trigonometric functions of compound angles : Introduction. simultaneously. 900. Reduction of general equation of a line into normal form. double intercept form other forms of equations of a line. angles in quadrant & quadrantal angles. trigonometricfunctions of sum and difference. MATHEMATICS AND STATISTICS (ARTS AND SCIENCE) STD. 3. Straight Line : Revision. Trigonometric functions with the help of standard unit circle. Theorem: Radian is a constant angle. Theorem 2 : Every straight line has an equation of the form Ax +By + C = 0. slope of a line. trigonometric functions of multiple angles (upto double and triple angles only). trigonometric functions of negative angles. relation between degree measure and radian measure. normal form. θ is in radians (without proof). 2700. where A. Revision of directed angle (+ve and –ve angles). B and C are constants (without proof). fundamental identities. signs of trigonometric functions in different quadrants. Definition and equation of locus. trigonometric functions of angles of a triangle. 450. Factorization Formulae: Introduction. 153 . Sexagesimal system. straight angle. 4. parametric form. Trigonometric functions: Need & concept. Length of an arc of a circle (s = r. zero angle. coterminal angles. Theorem : A general linear equation Ax + By+ C =0. Graph of Y = a sin bx. 1800. XI . θ. Locus : Introduction. points of locus.straight line. domain and range of trigonometric functions. trigonometric functions of particular angles (00. Measurement of Angles : Need & concept. parallel to coordinate axes. 2.8) To develop reverence and respect towards great mathematicians for their contribution to the field of Mathematics. angles in standard position. 3600). Inclination of a line.
magnitude of a vector. solution of linear in equations in two variable & graphical solution. family of lines. centre-radius form. symmetric & skew symmetric matrices. notations. Determinants : Revision. equal vector. collinear vectors. product of vectors. negative of a vector. 10. standard equation. square matrix. area of a triangle. equation of family of lines through the intersection of two lines. perpendicular lines. applications of determinants condition of consistency. Vectors : Definition. 8. workdone by force. ellipse. multiplication of a matrix by a scalar. equations of bisectors of angle between two lines. transpose of a matrix. parallelogram law. parametric equations. Linear in equations in two variable – solution of linear inequation in one variable & graphical solution. properties. standard equation. moment of a force. equation of a straight line parallel to a given line. Circle and Conics : Revision. polygon law. determinant of order three–definition. coplanar vectors. condition for concurrency of three lines. parallel lines. properties of transpose of a matrix (A ) A. 9. Conics Napees – Intersection of Napees of a cone and Plane. column matrix. properties. addition. equation of a straight line perpendicular to a given line. standard equation. types of vectors. subtraction. hyperbola. free and localized vectors. expansion. types of matrices – zero matrix. diagonal matrix. like and unlike vector. distance between two parallel lines.intersection of two lines. solutions of system of linear in equations in one variable. properties of addition of vectors. simple properties. ellipse. 7. focus-directrix property of parabola. three dimensional co-ordinate geometry. 11. Transposition. resolved part of a force. solutions of system of linear inequations in two variables. zero vector. unit vector. singular & non-singular matrices. simple application. diameter form. identical lines. 154 . order. row matrix. scalar matrix. properties of determinants. parametric equations. Matrices : Introduction. angle between lines. coinitial vector. unit vectors along axes. operations on matrices – equality. determinant of a square matrix. scalar product. Replacement of a set or domain of a set. multiplication of matrices – definition. Application of conic section. triangle law. triangular matrices. (KA) KA . standard equation (different forms of parabola). introduction. coordinate axes & coordinate planes in space. distance between two points in a space. identity matrix. Linear Inequations : Linear in equations in one variable – solution of linear inequation in one variable & graphical solution. definition. general equation. concepts. co-ordinates of a point in space. hyperbola. (AB) BA. vector product. scalar multiple of a vector. definition. position vector of a point in space. properties of matrix multiplication. minors & co-factors. parameter equations of standard equation. Cramer‟s rule for system of equations in three variables. distance of a point from a line. parabola.
No. equivalent sets. laws of logarithms. rational function. Relations and Functions : Set – Revision. Cartesian product of two sets. equality of ordered pairs. Relations – ordered pairs. polynomial function. binary equivalence relation. domain. properties. one-one. domain and range of these functions. proper. algebra of complex numbers – equality. Logarithms : Introduction. constant function. properties of complex numbers – properties of addition of complex numbers. onto function. 4) Existence of additive identity. into function. improper. cube roots of unity – solution of quadratic equations in the complex number system. pictorial diagrams. 1) Closure Property.PART – II 1. imaginary parts. polar representation of complex numbers. in plane. method of finding mantissa. subset. exponential function. identity function. definitions –(real parts. codomain and range of a relation.5) Existence of additive inverse. empty set. 3. 3) Associative law. equal functions. functions with their graphs. real valued function of the real variable. product quotient of functions. Cartesian product of the reals with itself. addition. logarithmic function. subset and their properties. fundamental theorem of algebra. definition. scalar multiplication. binary operations. Sets. change of base. Venn diagrams. characteristics & mantissa – method of finding characteristics. intersection. power set. powers and square root of a complex number – higher powers of i. codomain and range of a function. complement of a set. domain. types of relations. subtraction. many-one. types of functions. geometrical meaning of modulus and argument. square root of a complex number. difference of two sets. universal set. signum & greatest integer. argument). disjoint sets. multiplication. Argand Diagram – representation of a complex number as a pt. definition of relation. complex conjugates. of elements in the Cartesian product of two finite sets. modulus function. finite & infinite sets. sum.2) Commulative Law. equal sets. Demoivre‟s formula – (without proof). Properties of product of complex numbers –Existance of multiplicative identity – Existence of multiplicative inverse properties of conjugate & modulus of complex numbers. even & odd functions. inverse function. method of finding antilogarithm. 2. division. modulus. 155 . cube roots of unity. functions – function as a special kind of relation. Complex Numbers : Introduction. difference. pictorial representation of a function. one-one function. need for complex numbers. union. composite function.
particular cases of binomial theorem. 7. limits at infinity – concepts.M. product and quotient. independent events.. Limits : Introduction of concept. variance. quartile & quartile deviation (for grouped and ungrouped data). multiplication theorem. Means – arithmetic mean. meaning of x a. properties. axiomatic definition of probability. P. Baye‟s theorem. rules of differentiation – derivative of sum. properties of binomial co-efficient with simple application. 8. H. Statistics : Measures of dispersion – range. exponential & logarithmic series. geometric progression – introduction. standard deviation. exponential functions. fundamental principle of counting. derivative at a point. algebraic functions. harmonic mean.P.M. rules of integration. 10. mean deviation about mean. logarithmic functions. as a special type of A.. permutations. H. circular permutations. sum of the first „n‟ terms. mutually exlusive events. Sum of first n terms of A. the limit of a function. sum of cube of first n natural. Probability: Revision.. simple applications. simple problems.. Sequences & Series : Revision sequence.P. Differentiation : Definition of a derivative. addition theorem – for any two events A and B. Integration: Definition (of integration) as antiderivative. 5. Conditional probability – definition. types of events – events and algebra of events. combinations – definition. factorial notation. 11.P. physical significance (velocity as a rate of change of displacement). fundamental theorem on limits. 9. when all r objects are distinct. relations between permutations and combinations. geometrical significance of derivative.4.P. derivatives from first principle of trigonometric functions.P. algebra of integrals – integrals of some standard functions. algebra of limits – standard limits. properties of A. co-efficient of variation. A. general term. geometrical interpretation of indefinite integrals. special series. difference. 156 . mutually exclusive and exhaustive events. relation between A. G. binomial theorem – binomial theorem for positive integers. combined variance and standard deviation. with proof. containing finitely many terms & sum to infinite terms properties of G. n terms from the end of G. odds in favour and against. 6. simple applications. Mathematical Induction and Binomial Theorem : Principle of mathematical induction. general term.. sum of cube of first n odd natural nos. simple applications. effect of change of origin and scale on variance and standard deviation. Result on compatible events. geometric means. mean deviation about median (for grouped & ungrouped data).P. comparison of two frequency distributions with same mean.. Permutations & combinations : Introduction. simple applications. particular term.M. binomial theorem for any index (without proof). when all r objects are not distinct. Arithmetic-Geometric sequence.
13. Applications of determinants. Numerical problems using laws of logarithms. 7. Mathematical induction. Applications of Conics II. Problems on locus. 17. Linear inequation. 11. 18. Differentiation. Binomial theorem. Permutations and combinations. 6. Algebra of matrices. 14. Measures of dispersion. 20. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 157 . Applications of Conics I. 3. Examples on special series. Limits. Tracing of graphs of functions. 15. 10. 5. 9. 4.List of Practicals: XI 1. Integration. Applications of vectors (Dot and cross product). 16. Family of lines. Probability. 12. 8. cube root of unity. 19. 2. Power and square root of a complex number.
Introduction. condition for parallel lines. 158 . tan . inverse trigonometric functionsdefinitions. biconditional. Napier Analogues. cosine rule. homogenous equation. compound statement. range. inverse. truth tables of compound statements. acute angle between the lines (without proof). implication/ conditional. cos cos . projection rule. truth value of statement. solution of Trigonometric equations. tan2 tan2 . application-solution of system of linear equations by – reduction method. identity law. logical equivalence. 4. elementary column transformation. open sentences and truth sets. condition for perpendicular lines. graphs of inverse trigonometric function. a cos b sin c solution of a triangle-polar coordinates. elementary row transformation. XII PART – I 1. logical equivalence. condition of parallel and perpendicular lines. application. difference between converse. sine rule. inversion method. condition that the equation ax2+2hxy+by2+2gx+2fy+c=0 should represent a pair of lines (without proof). commutative law. 3. examples related to real life and mathematics. negation of compound statement. inverse by elementary transformation. duality. properties of inverse functions. there exists. pair of lines not passing through origin-conbined equation of any two lines. complement law. adjoint method. contrapositive. point of intersection of two lines. negation. sentences and statement. quantifier and quantified statements. inverse of a matrix-existance and uniqueness of inverse of a matrix. contrapositive. angle between the lines represented by ax2+2hxy+by2=0. application-introduction to switching circuits (simple examples). distributive law. domain. Hero‟s formula.MATHEMATICS AND STATISTICS STD. statement patterns and logical equivalence-tautology. sin 0. Trigonometric functions : Trigonometric equations-general solution of trigonometric equation of the type. contradiction. disjunction. cos 0. tan tan . 2. involution law. logical connective-conjunction. sin sin . Mathematical Logic : Statements . theorem-the joint equation of a pair of lines passing through origin and its converse. Matrices : Elementary transformation of a matrix-revision of cofactor and minor. area of a triangle. sin2 sin2 . cos2 cos2 . Pair of straight lines : Pair of lines passing through origin-conbined equation. demorgan‟s laws. principle values. contradiction. contingency. algebra of statements-idempotent law. converse. associative law.
tangents to a circle from a point outside the circle. locus of points from which two tangents are mutually perpendicular. director circle. Vectors : Revision. section formula-section formula for internal and external division. condition of collinearity of two vectors. equation of line passing through two given points. feasible and infeasible 159 . 7. ellipse.5. 8. equation of plane passing through the intersection of two given planes. properties of tangents and normals to conics (without proof). objective function. hyperbola. ellipse. 11. diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each other and converse. 9. centroid formula. properties. application of vectors to geometry-medians of a triangle are concurrent. formula.P. Line : Equation of line passing through given point and parallel to given vector. condition for the coplanerity of two lines. normal to a circle-equation of normal at a point. equation of plane passing through the given point and parallel to two given vectors. angle between line and plane. tangents in terms of slope for parabola. Three dimensional geometry : Direction cosines and direction ratios-direction angles. median of trapezium is parallel to the parallel sides and its length is half the sum of parallel sides. condition of tangency for parabola. optimization. distance of a point from a plane (vector approach). Conics : Tangents and normals-equations of tangent and normal at a point for parabola. relation between direction ratio and direction cosines. midpoint formula. angle bisectors of triangle are concurrent.2) general circle. Circle : Tangent of a circle-equation of a tangent at a point to 1) standard circle. hyperbola. Linear programming problems: Introduction of L. condition of perpendicular lines. geometrical interpretation of scalar triple product. ellipse. tangents from a point outside conics. constraint equations. distance between two skew lines. non-negativity restrictions. direction cosines. of a point from a line. angle between two lines. definition of constraints. dist. 10. direction ratios. condition of tangency only for line y mx c to the circle x2 y2 a2 . conditions of coplanerity ofthree vectors. Plane : Equation of plane in normal form. equation of plane passing through three non-collinear points. angle between two planes.P. 6. length of tangent segments. distance between two parallel lines (vector approach). equation of plane passing through the given point and perpendicular to given vector. hyperbola. altitudes of a triangle are concurrent. angle subtended on a semicircle is right angle. Collinearty and coplanerity of vectors-linear combination of vectors. scaler triple product-definition.
every differentiable function is continuous but converse is not true. problems. evaluation of definite integral 1) by substitution. 2) integration by parts. discontinuity of a function. c) higher order derivative-second order derivative d) f (x) g x 3. fundamental theorem of integral calculus (without proof). definite integral-definite integral as a limit of sum. second derivative test. XII . 2. Rolls theorem.revision of derivative. trigonometric. relationship between continuity and differentiability-left hand derivative and right hand derivative (need and concept). continuity in interval-definition.P. algebra of continuous functions. integration by parts-integration by parts. b) quotient of functions. integration by partial fraction-factors involving repeated and non-repeated linear factors. Integration : Indefinite integrals-methods of integration.P. Application of derivative : Geometrical application-tangent and normal at a point. graphical solutions for problem in two variables. Derivative of composite functionchain rule. approximation (without proof). exponential and logarithmic function-derivative of functions which are expressed in one of the following form a) product of functions. types of discontinuity.region. Maxima and minima-introduction of extreme and extreme values. properties of definite integrals properties of definite integrals. definition of a continuity of a function at a point. 4. continuity of some standard functionspolynomial.P. integrals of the type. rational. right hand limit. increasing and decreasing function. first derivative test. optimum feasible solution. STD. Differentiation : Revision. maxima and minima in a closed interval.P. Continuity : Continuity of a function at a point-left hand limit. derivative as rate measure-introduction. integrals of type (reduction formulae are not expected). exponential and logarithmic function. and Mean value theorem and their geometrical interpretation (without proof). substitution method. derivative of inverse function derivative of inverse trigonometric function. Derivative of implicit function definition and examples.PART – II 1. 160 . Mathematical formulation-mathematical formulation of L. different types of L. derivative of parametric function – definition of parametric function . non-repeated quadratic factors. feasible solutions.
mean. bacterial colony growth.f. Bernoulli trials and Binomial distribution : Definition of Bernoulli trial.).bivariate data. Statistics: Bivariate frequency distribution . Probability distribution : Probability distribution of a random variable-definition of a random variable.). Newton‟s laws of cooling. conditions for Binomial distribution. Differential equation : Definition-differential equation. area bounded by two curves. 9. binomial distribution (p. 8. Inverse of a matrix by adjoint method and hence solution of system of linear equations. variance and standard deviation. particular solution of differential equation. tabulation of bivariate data. distribution function of a continuous random variable. calculation of probabilities (without proof). 2. 4. List of Practicals : XII 1. 6. covariance of or ungrouped data. covariance for bivariate frequency distribution. cumulative probability distribution of a discrete random variable. Inverse of a matrix by elementary transformation and hence solution of system of linear equation.d. variance and standard deviation of a discrete random variable. probability distribution of a discrete random variable.m. Applications of logic.m. surface area. standard normal variable. 7. order.5. Normal distribution .d. Applications of definite integral: Area under the curve .f. radioactive decay. variance and standard deviation. expected value. 161 . Solutions of a triangle. volume of solid of revolution-volume of solid obtained by revolving the area under the curve about the axis (simple problems). probability density function (p. degree.p. Karl Pearson‟s co-efficient of correlation. scatter diagram. general solution. applications-population growth. 3. simple problems (without proof). homogenous differential equation (equation reducible to homogenous form are not expected). Linear differential equation.f.area bounded by curve and axis (simple problems). probability mass function (p. solution of first order and first degree differential equation-variable separable method.f.). discrete and continuous random variable. formation of differential equation-formation of differential equation by elimmating arbitary constants (at most two constants). mean.
Applications of differential equations. 6. Applications of definite integrals . Applications of derivatives – Rate. 20. 17. Binomial distribution. 19. Formations and solutions of LPP. measure. Tracing of tangents and normals for circles and parabola. 10.D of random variable. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 162 .Maxima and minima 14. 12.5. Bivariate frequency distribution. Applications of scalar triple product of vectors.line. 7. Three dimensional geometry .volume. 9. 11.Limit of sum. Tracing of tangents and normals for ellipse and hyperbola. 8. Applications of derivatives . Applications of derivatives (Geometric applications). variance and S. 13. 15. Three dimensional geometry . Applications of definite integrals . Expected value. 18.plane. 16.Area. Applications of definite integrals .
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