Upgraded Syllabus

PHYSICS – Std. XI & XII Preamble
According to NCF 2005, the curriculum of the subject Physics is upgraded for higher secondary stage. This curriculum is comparable to the international standards which are useful for the students in Maharashtra State for different types of competitive examinations conducted in India. All the units of the subject from NCERT curriculum are divided into two years conveniently in Maharashtra State. Continuity in the curriculum is maintained in Std. XI & XII, which is not in NCERT curriculum. All the students appear for the competitive examinations only after +2 stages throughout India. This syllabus has been designed in accordance with the guidelines shown in the final version of common core syllabii of COBSE, Delhi. Accordingly few additional sub units have been added. Objectives – 1. Emphasis on basic conceptual understanding of the content. 2. Emphasis on use of SI units, symbols, nomenclature of physical quantities and formulations as per international standards. 3. Providing logical sequencing of units of the subject matter and proper placement of concepts with their linkage for better learning. 4. Reducing the curriculum load by eliminating overlapping of concepts/content within the discipline and other disciplines. 5. Promotion of process-skills, problem-solving abilities and applications of Physics concepts. 6. Strengthen the concepts developed at the secondary stage to provide firm foundation for further learning in the subject. 7. Expose the learners to different processes used in Physics-related industrial and technological applications. 8. Develop process-skills and experimental, observational, manipulative, decision making and investigatory skills in the learners. 9. Promote problem solving abilities and creative thinking in learners. 10. Develop conceptual competence in the learners and make them realize and appreciate the interface of Physics with other disciplines.

110

PHYSICS

(Upgraded Syllabus)
Std. XI
1. Measurements Introduction, Need for measurement, Units for measurement, System of Units, S.I. Units, Fundamental and derived units, Dimensional analysis, Order of magnitude and significant figures, Accuracy and errors in measurement.

2. Scalars and Vectors Addition and subtraction of vectors, Product of vectors.

3. Projectile motion Uniformly accelerated motion along straight line, Non uniform motion, Position time graph and velocity-time graph, Equation of a projectile path, Time of flight, Horizontal range, Maximum height of a projectile, Relative velocity.

4. Force Types of forces, General idea of gravitation, electromagnetic and nuclear forces, Law of conservation of momentum, Work done by a variable force. Work-energy theorem, Elastic and inelastic collisions in one and two dimensions, Inertial and non-intertial frames, Moment of force, Couple and properties of couple, Centre of mass, Centre of gravity, Conditions of equilibrium of a rigid body.

5. Friction in solids and liquids Origin and nature of frictional forces, Laws of static friction, Laws of kinetic friction, Pressure due to fluid column, Pascal‟s Law and its applications, Effect of gravity on fluid pressure, Viscosity, Streamline flow, Turbulent flow, Viscous force, Newton‟s formula, Stokes‟ law, Equation for terminal velocity, Raynold‟s number, Bernoulli‟s principle and its applications.

111

6. Sound Waves Waves and oscillations, Progressive waves, Characteristics of transverse waves, Characteristics of longitudinal waves, Sound as longitudinal wave motion, Relation between v, f and, ƛ Newton‟s formula for velocity of sound, Laplace‟s correction.

7. Thermal properties of matter Temperature and heat, Measurement of temperature, Ideal-gas equation and absolute temperature, Thermal expansion, Specific heat capacity, Calorimetry, Change of state, Latent heat, Heat transfer.

8. Refraction of Light Refraction of monochromatic light, Snell‟s law, Total internal reflection, Critical angle, Optical fibre, Dispersion of light, Prism formula, Angular dispersion and dispersive power, Rainbow, Scattering of light, Blue colour of sky, Colour of sun at sunrise and sunset. Elementary idea of Raman effect.

9. Ray optics Reflection of light by spherical mirrors, Refraction at single curved surface, Lens maker‟s equation, Combination of thin lenses in contact, Concept of conjugate focii, Correction of eye defects, Magnifying power of simple microscope, Magnifying power of compound microscope, Magnifying power of telescope, Reflecting telescope - schematic diagram with explanation.

10. Electrostatics Frictional electricity, Charges and their conservation, Coulomb‟s law and dielectric constant, Forces between multiple electric charges, Superposition principle of forces, Continuous distribution of charges, Concept of charge density, Electric field intensity, Potential energy, Electric potential due to point charge, Relation between electric field intensity and potential, Potential difference, Volt and electron volt, Electric dipole and dipole moment, Electric lines of force. Equipotential surfaces, P.E. of single charge and system of charges.

112

11. Current electricity Ohm‟s law, Resistance, Specific resistance, Temperature dependence of resistance, Colour code of carbon resistor, Series and parallel combination of resistors, E.M.F. and internal resistance of cell, Work done by electric current, Power in electric circuit, Cells in series and in parallel, Elementary idea of secondary cells.

12. Magnetic effect of electric current Oersted’s experiment, Biot Savart‟s law, Right hand rule, Magnetic induction at the centre of circular coil carrying current, Magnetic induction at a point along the axis of a coil carrying current, Fleming‟s left hand rule, Force between two infinitely long current carrying parallel conductors, Definition of Ampere, Force acting on a conductor carrying current in magnetic field, Torque on a current loop in magnetic field.

13. Magnetism Origin of magnetism due to moving charges, Equivalence between magnetic dipole and circular coil carrying current, Definition of magnetic dipole moment and its unit, Torque acting on a magnet in uniform magnetic induction, Bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, Magnetic field lines, Magnetic induction due to bar magnet at a point along the axis and at a point along equator, Earth‟s magnetic field and magnetic elements, Electromagnets and factors affecting their strength.

14. Electromagnetic waves Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics, Transverse nature of electromagnetic waves, Electromagnetic spectrum, Space communication, Propagation of electromagnetic waves in atmosphere.

113

Physics List of Practicals Std. XI
1. Use of Vernier Callipers. 2. Use of Screw gauge. 3. To determine radius of curvature of a given spherical surface by a spherometer. 4. To find the weight of a given body using parallelogram law of vectors. 5. To study the relationship between force of limiting friction and normal reaction and to find co-efficient of friction between a block and a horizontal surface. 6. To determine resistance per cm of a given wire by plotting a graph of potential difference versus current. 7. To find the value of „v‟ for different values of „u‟ in case of a „concave mirror and to find the focal length. 8. To find the focal length of a convex lens by plotting graphs between „u‟ and „v‟or between „1/u‟ and „1/v‟. 9. To find the focal length of a convex mirror, using a convex lens. 10. To find the focal length of a concave lens, using a convex lens. 11. To determine angle of minimum deviation for a given prism by plotting a graph between angle of incidence and angle of deviation. 12. To determine refractive index of a glass using a travelling microscope. 13. To find refractive index of a liquid by using (i) concave mirror, (ii) convex lens and plane mirror. 14. To determine specific heat capacity of a given (i) liquid (ii) solid, by method of mixtures.

Physics List of Activities Std. XI
1. To make a paper scale of given least count, e.g. 0.2 cm, 0.5 cm. 2. To determine mass of a given body using a meter scale by principle of moments. 3. To plot a graph for a given set of data, with proper choice of scales and error bars.

114

To measure the force of limiting friction for rolling of a roller on a horizontal plane. 9. 8. 6. current (AC) and check continuity of a given circuit using multimeter. voltage (AC/DC).4. To obtain a lens combination with the specified focal length by using two lenses from the given set of lenses. To measure resistance. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 115 . on a screen by using a candle and a screen (for different distances of the candle from the lens/mirror). To study the variation in range of a jet of water with angle of projection. 7. 10. To study the nature and size of image formed by (i) convex lens (ii) concave mirror. To observe refraction and lateral deviation of a beam of light incident obliquely on a glass slab. To note the change in level of liquid in a container on heating and interpret the observations. 5.

Differential equation of linear S. depth and motion. and P. Kinematical equations for circular motion in analogy with linear motion. 3. M.M. K. 5. Angular velocity and angular acceleration.M.H. Physical significance of M. S. Projection of satellite.M. Determination of „Y‟. Capillarity and capillary action. Applications of elastic behaviour of materials. Phase of S.E. Surface energy. of some regular shaped bodies about specific axes. Circular motion Angular displacement. Behaviour of metal wire under increasing load. Radius of gyration. Periodic time. Elasticity General explanation of elastic property. Centripetal and centrifugal forces.I. Equation for velocity and energy at different positions of vertical circular motion. Effect of impurity and temperature on surface tension. on any diameter. Communication satellite and its uses. XII 1.M. Weightlessness condition in orbit.‟s having same period and along same line. Statement of Kepler‟s laws of motion. 6. Variation of „g‟ due to altitude. Torque.H. Deformation. Damped S. 4. Elastic constants and their relation.M.C. Rolling motion.H.E. Poisson’s ratio. 2. Principle of parallel and perpendicular axes. Projection of U. Angular momentum and its conservation. Hooke‟s law.M. Simple pendulum.PHYSICS (Upgraded syllabus) Std. of rotating body.. Definition of stress and strain. Uniform circular motion. K. Vertical circular motion due to earth‟s gravitation.M. 7.. Angle of contact.I.I.H..E. Radial acceleration. Banking of roads. Binding energy and escape velocity of a satellite. Surface tension Surface tension on the basis of molecular theory.H. Plasticity. lattitude. Wave motion 116 . Rotational motion Definition of M. Composition of two S. Surface tension. in S.H.. Elastic energy. Gravitation Newton‟s law of gravitation. Relation between linear velocity and angular velocity. Oscillations Explanation of periodic motion..

Stationary waves Study of vibrations in a finite medium. Rayleigh‟s criterion. Free and Forced vibrations. Degrees of freedom.Wein’s displacement law. Wave front and wave normal. 12. Electrostatics Gauss‟ theorem proof and applications. Dielectrics and electric polarisation. Stefan’s law. Construction of plane and spherical wave front. Law of equipartition of energy and application to Specific heat capacities of gases. Conditions for producing steady interference pattern. Concept of condenser. Reflection at plane surface. Polarisation.Simple harmonic progressive waves. Derivation of Boyle‟s law. Measurement of wavelength by biprism experiment. Difference between interference and diffraction. Wave theory of light Wave theory of light. Brewster‟s law. Condensers in series and parallel. Formation of beats. Refraction at plane surface. Change of phase. Young‟s experiment. Qualitative idea of black body radiation. Polaroids. 13. Formation of stationary waves on string. 9. Mechanical force on unit area of a charged conductor. Superposition of waves. Derivation for pressure of a gas. 8.Thermal equilibrium and definition of temperature. Assumptions of kinetic theory. Study of vibrations of air columns. 1st law of thermodynamics. Kinetic theory of gases and Radiation Concept of an ideal gas. Green house effect. Analytical treatment of interference bands. Resolving power of a microscope and telescope. Energy of charged condenser. Diffraction due to single slit. Energy density of a medium. Interference and diffraction Interference of light. 11. Reflection of transverse and longitudinal waves. Plane polarised light. Current electricity 117 . Doppler effect in light. Effect of dielectric on capacity. Maxwell distribution. 10. 2nd law of thermodynamics. Heat engines and refrigerators. Capacity of parallel plate condenser. Thermodynamics. Huygens‟ Principle. van-de-Graaff generator. Mean free path. Doppler effect in sound. Resonance.

18 Atoms. Intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors. 16 Electromagnetic inductions Laws of electromagnetic induction. P-N junction diode. e = . Nuclear fission and fusion. Voltmeter. Wavelength of an electron. Transistor 118 .E. Paramagnetism. Ammeter. Ferromagnetism on the basis of domain theory. mass defect. Reactance and impedance. Davisson and Germer experiment. Magnetic effects of electric current Ampere‟s law and its applications. Alternating currents. Matter waves – wave nature of particles. Rutherford‟s model of atom. Moving coil galvanometer. LC oscillations (qualitative treatment only) Power in a. Particle nature of light. AC generator. Zener diode as a voltage regulator.dØ dt Eddy currents. Magnetism Circular current loop as a magnetic dipole. mass-energy relation. P-type and N-type semiconductor. Continuous and characteristics X-rays. Diamagnetism. Molecules and Nuclei Alpha particle scattering experiment. Coil rotating in uniform magnetic induction. Hydrogen spectrum. Curie temperature. Rectifiers. Composition and size of nucleus. Wheatstone‟s bridge. Decay law. Transformer. Self induction and mutual induction. Radioactivity. Einstein‟s equation. Bohr‟s model. I-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias. Potentiometer. proof of. Resonant circuit. Meter bridge. Cyclotron. Solar cell. Sensitivity of moving coil galvanometer. 19 Semiconductors Energy bands in solids.c circuit with resistance. Magnetisation and magnetic intensity. inductance and capacitance. I-V characteristics of LED. 15. 17 Electrons and photons Photoelectric effect. Photodiode. de Broglie hypothesis. B. Hertz and Lenard‟s observations.Kirchhoff‟s law. Wattless current. 14. per nucleon and its variation with mass number. Magnetic dipole moment of revolving electron. Need for displacement current.

action and its characteristics.NOT. bandwidth of transmission medium.NAND. Production and detection of an amplitude modulated wave. Oscillators and Logic gates (OR.AND. space communication.NOR) 20 Communication systems Elements of communication system.Transistor as a switch. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 119 . Propagation of electromagnetic waves in atmosphere. bandwidth of signals. Transistor as an amplifier (CE mode). Need for modulation.

To draw the I-V characteristic curves of a p-n junction diode in forward bias and reverse bias. 10. 4. 5. 2. 6. To determine the surface tension of water by capillary rise method. To draw the characteristic curve of a zener diode and to determine its reverse break down voltage. To compare the emf of two given cells using potentiometer. 8. To study the relationship between the temperature of a hot body and time by plotting a cooling curve. To study the characteristics of a common-emitter npn or pnp transistor and to find out the values of current and voltage gains. XII 1. To find the force constant and effective mass of helical spring by plotting T 2--m graph using method of oscillations. To determine the internal resistance of given cell using potentiometer. To find the speed of sound in air at room temperature using a resonance tube. 11. 14. 9. To study the relation between frequency and length of a given wire under constant tension using sonometer. To verify the laws of combination (series/parallel) of resistances using a metre bridge. 13. 15. To study the relation between the length of a given wire and tension for constant frequency using sonometer. To determine Young‟s modulus of elasticity of the material of a given wire.Physics List of Practicals Std. 3. 120 . 12. To find resistance of given wire using metre bridge and hence determine the specific resistance of its material. 7. To determine resistance of galvanometer using metre bridge.

XII 1. diode. 121 . 10. 5. 2. To assemble a household circuit comprising three bulbs. Use of multimeter to (i) identify base of transistor (ii) distinguish between npn and pnp type transistors. 3. 4. To observe polarization of light using two polaroids. key. three (on/off) switches. 7. ammeter and voltmeter. To study the effect of detergent on surface tension by observing capillary rise. a resistor and a capacitor from mixed collection of such items.Physics List of Activities Std. (iii) see the unidirectional flow of current in case of a diode and an LED (iv) check whether a given electronic component (e. a transistor. To study the factors affecting the rate of loss of heat of a liquid. 6. 12. To study dissipation of energy of a simple pendulum by plotting a graph between square of amplitude and time. an LED. 8.R. To study the variation in potential drop with length of a wire for a steady current. resistor/ rheostat. To draw the diagram of a given open circuit comprising at least a battery. 9. To study the effect of load on depression of a suitably clamped meter scale loaded (i) at its end (ii) in the middle. To identify a diode. To study effect of intensity of light (by varying distance of the source) on an L. 1 l. a fuse and a power source. To measure the resistance and impedance of an inductor with or without iron core.g.D. transistor or IC) is in working order. and 1C. Mark the components that are not connected in proper order and correct the circuit and also the circuit diagram.

inorganic. etc. 5) To develop problem solving skills in students. New nomenclature. symbols and formulations. compounds and IUPAC units of physical quantities. industrial. 4) To equip students to face various changes related to health. industries and agriculture. technology) at tertiary level. 3) To expose the students to various emerging new areas of chemistry and apprise them with their relevance in their future studies and their applications in various spheres of chemical sciences and technology. engineering. Engineering. technology. population. modern techniques are given importance. Geology. 122 . 7) To apprise students with interface of chemistry with other disciplines of science such as Physics. XI & XII Preamble RATIONALE According to NCF 2005. There is a need to provide the sufficient conceptual background of chemistry which will help the students to appear for different common entrance test at state level and national level. the new and updated curriculum is introduced at +2 stages. 2) To make students capable of studying chemistry in academic and professional courses (such as medicine. The revised syllabus has taken care of new formulations and nomenclature of elements. analytical and polymer chemistry. The syllabus is comparable to the international level. after the +2 stage. OBJECTIVES The broad objectives of teaching Chemistry at Senior Secondary Stage are to help the learners : 1) To promote understanding of basic facts and concepts in chemistry while retaining the excitement of Chemistry. etc. 6) To expose the students to different processes used in industries and their technological applications. organic. This new syllabus will make them competent to meet the challenges of academic and professional courses like medicine. engineering. weather. nutrition. Biology.CHEMISTRY (Upgraded syllabus) Std. The syllabus contains areas like physical. fundamental concepts. environment.

brief history of the development of periodic table. Intermolecular interactions. Historical approach to particulate nature of matter. percentage composition. quantum numbers. Kinetic energy and molecular speeds (elementary idea) Liquid State – Vapour pressure. Role of gas laws in elucidating the concept of the molecule. isotopes and isobars. Charles law. Pauli‟s exclusion principle and Hund‟s rule. proton and neutron. periodic trends in properties of elements atomic radii. valence. stoichiometry and calculations based on stoichimetry. Gay Lussac‟s law. rules for filling electrons in orbitals – Aufbau principle. atoms and molecules. viscosity and surface tension (qualitative idea only. de Broglie‟s relationship. type of bonding. Dalton‟s atomic theory : concept of elements. empirical and molecular formula. electronic configuration of atoms. liquefaction of gases. empirical derivation of gas equation. p and d orbitals. ionic radii. no mathematical derivations). Heisenberg‟s uncertainty principle.Enthalpy: Explanation and definition of term. 123 . laws of chemical combination. electronegativity. Ideal behaviour. Ionization enthalpy. Inert gas radii nomenclature of elements with atomic number greater than 100. modern periodic law and present form of periodic table. Unit 4 : Periodic Table Significance of classification.CHEMISTRY Std. stability of half filled and completely filled orbitals. chemical reactions. Boyle‟s law. Unit 3 : Structure of Atom Discovery of electron. XI (Theory) Unit 1: Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry General Introduction: Importance and scope of chemistry. concept of shells and subshells. atomic number. Critical temperature. electron gain enthalpy. concept of orbitals. Ideal gas equation. Bohr‟s model and its limitations. dual nature of matter and light. Atomic and molecular masses mole concept and molar mass : Avogadro‟s law and Avogadro number. shapes of s. Unit 2 : States of Matter : Gases and Liquids Three states of matter. Rutherford‟s model and its limitations. Deviation from ideal behaviour.

multimolecular and macromolecular colloids. ionic bond. law of mass action. VSEPR theory. covalent character of ionic bond. Ionic equilibrium: Ionization of acids and bases. Unit 9 : Hydrogen Position of hydrogen in periodic table. Lyophilic. emulsion – types of emulsions. acid strength. hydrogen as a fuel. coagulation. catalysis : homogenous and heterogeneous. concept of hybridization involving s. properties and structure. colloids and suspensions. concept of pH. properties and uses of hydrogen. resonance. covalent and interstitial. molecular orbital theory of homonuclear diatomic molecules (qualitative idea only). isotopes. activity and selectivity: enzyme catalysis. ionization of polybasic acids. Lyophobic. factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids. in terms of loss and gain of electrons and change in oxidation number. Tyndall effect. polar character of covalent bond. colloidal state : distinction between true solutions. dynamic nature of equilibrium.preparation. properties of colloids. oxidation number. physical and chemical properties of water. Buffer solutions. Hydrogen peroxide. factors affecting equilibrium.Unit 5: Redox Reactions Concept of oxidation and reduction. preparation. p and d orbitals and shapes of some simple molecules. degree of ionization. hydrides-ionic. Lewis structure. geometry of covalent molecules. Balancing redox reactions. electrophoresis. Elementary idea of nanomaterials.) Handerson equation. Uses of hydrogen peroxide 124 . Le Chatelier‟s principle. heavy water. Unit 8 : Nature of Chemical Bond Valence electrons. Hydrolysis of salts (elementary idea). Unit 6: Chemical Equilibrium Equilibrium in physical and chemical processes. Born Haber cycle : covalent bond parameters. redox reactions. valence bond theory. hydrogen bond. strong and weak electrolytes. occurrence. solubility product common ion effect (with illustrative examples. Unit 7 : Surface Chemistry Adsorption – physisorption and chemisorption. Brownian movement. equilibrium constant.

anomalous behavior of first element. variation of properties. Group 14 elements: General introduction. Aluminium. carbanions. electronic configuration. biological importance of Magnesium and Calcium. oxidation states. electromeric effect. some important compounds: borax. anomalous properties of the first element of each group. Classification and IUPAC nomenclature of organic compounds. hydrogen and halogens. oxides.Homolytic and heterolytic fission of a covalent bond. biological importance of sodium and potassium. electronic configuration. uses. occurrence. boron hydrides. trends in the variation of properties (such as ionization enthalpy.carbocations. silicates and zeolites and structure of silicates Unit 12: Basic Principles and Techniques in Organic Chemistry General introduction. boric acids. methods of qualitative and quantitative analysis. resonance and hyper conjugation. uses of some important Compounds. inductive effect. Important compounds of silicon and their uses: silicon tetrachloride. anomalous properties of first element of the group. Carbon – catenation. reactions with acids and alkalies. sodium hydroxide and sodium hydrogen carbonate. trends in chemical reactivity. uses. trends in chemical reactivity. occurrence. diagonal relationship. oxidation states. atomic and ionic radii). electrophiles and nucleophiles. Preparation and properties of some important compounds: Sodium carbonate. allotropic forms. Electronic displacements in a covalent bond. Melting point and boiling point. Boron-physical and chemical properties. electronic configuration. silicones.Unit 10: s-Block Elements (Alkali and Alkaline earth metals) Group 1 and Group 2 elements: General introduction. Calcium oxide and calcium carbonate (CaO) (CaCO3) and industrial uses of lime and limestone. physical and chemical properties. Unit 11 : p-Block Elements Group Introduction to p-Block Elements Group 13 elements : General introduction. free radicals. Variation of properties. types of organic reactions. water. 125 . occurrence. trends in chemical reactivity with oxygen.

Chemical reactions. Unit 16 : Aromatic compounds Introduction. resonance aromaticity. halogenation. ozone and its reactions. chemical reactions: acidic character of alkynes. Friedel Craft‟ alkylation and acylation. mechanism of electrophilic substitution. benzene. smog.air. Unit 14 : Alkenes Nomenclature. physical properties. isomerism. sulphonaiton. mechanism of electrophilic addition. halogen. structure of triple bond (ethylene). combustion and pyrolysis. green chemistry as an alternative tool for reducing pollution. – nitration. oxidation. chemical reactions in atmosphere. structure of double bond (ethane). acid rain. water and soil pollution. 126 . physical properties. UNIT-17: Environmental chemistry Environmental pollution. hydrogen halides. halogens. physical properties. addition of hydrogen. Methods of preparation.Unit 13 : Alkanes Classification of hydrocarbons – Nomenclature. effects of depletion of ozone layer. major atmospheric pollutants. conformations (ethane only). hydrogen halides (Markovnikoff‟s addition and peroxide effect) ozonolysis. addition reaction of – hydrogen. strategy for control of environmental pollution. Unit 15: Alkynes Nomenclature. geometrical isomerism. Pollution due to industrial wastes. water. chemical properties. Carcinogenicity and toxicity. methods of preparation. chemical reactions including free radical mechanism of halogenation. IUPAC nomenclature. water. green house effect and global warming.

p). Determination of boiling point of an organic compound. Alum. Comparing the pH solutions of strong and weak acid of same concentration.) 2. Operating pinch cork B. (p-toludine. naphthalene. D. Crystallization of impure sample of anyone of the following compounds. Determination of melting point of an organic compound. Experiments related to pH change (a) Any one of the following experiments: Determination of pH of some solutions obtained from fruit juices. benzoic acid. Characterization and purification of chemical substances 1. 127 . copper sulphate. acetic acid. E. bases and salts using pH paper or universal indicator. resorcinol. Study the pH change in the titration of a strong base using universal indicator. ferric hydroxide. Cutting glass tube and glass rod 2. Drawing out a glass jet 4. xylene (o. arseneous sulphide. benzoic acid. β-naphthol. (b) Study the shift in equilibrium between [Co(H2O)6]2+ and chloride ions by changing the concentration of either of the ions. water) 3. Oxalic acid. Bending glass tube 3. Chemical equilibrium Any one of the following experiments: (a) Study the shift in equilibrium between ferric ions and thiocyanate ions by changing the concentration of either ion. (acetone. Surface Chemistry (a) Preparation of one lyophilic and one lyophobic sol: Lyophilic sol-starch and gum. (b) Study of the role of emulsifying agents in stabilizing the emulsion of oil. Study of burner 5. methyl acetate.Chemistry Practical Syllabus Std-XI A. Basic Laboratory Techniques 1. Lyophobic sol–aluminium hydroxide. varied concentrations of acids.m. C.

Preparation of standard solution of oxalic acid. G. I-. 128 . Co2+. NH4+ Anions – CO32SO32SO42NO2NO3Cl-. Ba2+. Quantitative estimation Using a chemical balance. Detection of nitrogen. Mn2+. Qualitative analysis Determination of one cation and one anion in a given salt: Cations – Pb2+. PO43C2O42CH3COO(Note: Insoluble salts excluded) H. Ca2+. F. Zn2+. sulphur.(b) Study of pH change by common ion effect in case of weak acids and bases. Ni2+ . Cu2+. chlorine bromine and iodine in an organic compound. Br-. Determination of strength of a given solution of hydrochloric acid by titrating It against standard sodium carbonate solution. Preparation of standard solution of sodium carbonate. Sr2+. Mg2+. Determination of strength of a given solution of sodium hydroxide by titrating it against standard solution of oxalic acid. Fe3+. Al3+.

4 Investigation of the foaming capacity of different washing soaps and the effect of addition of sodium carbonate on them. 129 . Note: Any other investigatory project can be chosen with the approval of the teacher. fluoride. depending upon the regional variation in drinking water and the study of causes of presence of these ions above permissible limit (if any). presence of iron. 5 Study of the acidity of different samples of the tea leaves. 3 Testing the hardness. 7 Study of the effect of acids and bases on the tensile strength of fibers. 8 Analysis of fruit and vegetable juices for their acidity. A few suggested Projects 1 Checking the bacterial contamination in drinking water by testing sulphide ion. chloride etc. 2 Study of the methods of purification of water. 6 Determination of the rate of evaporation of different liquids.PROJECT Scientific investigations involving laboratory testing and collecting information from other sources.

fuel cells. ionic. integrated rate equations and half life (only for zero and first order reactions).CHEMISTRY Std. factors affecting rate of reaction. Kohlrausch‟s Law. First law of thermodynamics – internal energy and enthalpy. abnormal molecular mass. variations of conductivity with concentration. solid solutions. expression of concentration of solids in liquids. depression of freezing point. EMF of a cell. formation. standard electrode potential. amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea). combustion. order and molecularity of a reaction. voids. and equilibrium constant. packing in solids. Unit 3 : Chemical Thermodynamics and energetic Concepts of system. Unit 5: Chemical Kinetics Rate of reaction (average and instantaneous). concentration. XII (Theory) Unit 1: Solid State Classification of solids based on different forces.Van’t Hoff factor and calculations involving it. specific and molar conductivity. osmotic pressure. sublimation. Relation between Gibb’s energy change and emf of a cell. molecular. extensive and intensive properties. enthalpy of bond dissociation. covalent and metallic solids. free energy change for spontaneous and non spontaneous processes. electrical and magnetic properties. types of systems. surroundings. Unit 2 : Solutions and colligative properties Types of solutions. rate law and specific rate constant. electrolysis and laws of electrolysis (elementary idea).Raoult’s law elevation of boiling point. atomization. Hess‟ law of constant heat summation. point defects. concept of 130 . heat. calculation of density of unit cell. and solution and dilution Introduction of entropy as a state function. catalyst. conductance in electrolytic solutions. Work. Second and third law of thermodynamics Unit 4: Electrochemistry Redox reactions. number of atoms per unit cell in a cubic unit cell. determination of molecular masses using colligative properties. state functions. Band theory of metals. conductors and semiconductors and insulators and n and p type semiconductors. ionization. energy. solubility of gases in liquids. Phase transition. temperature.unit cell in two dimensional and three dimensional lattices. colligative properties –relative lowering of vapor pressure. dry cell –electrolytic and Galvanic cells. lead accumulator. corrosion. Nernst equation and its application to chemical cells.

simple oxides. oxoacids of sulphur (structures only). Arrhenius equation. Sulphur – allotropic forms. properties and uses. oxidation states. trends in physical and chemical properties. industrial process of manufacture. reduction electrolytic method and refining. occurrence. compounds of nitrogen. occurrence and principle of extraction of aluminium. interhalogen compounds. preparation. electronic configuration. preparation and properties of ammonia and nitric acid. electronic configuration. 131 . properties and uses of sulphur dioxide. trends in physical and chemical properties. compounds of phosphorous. occurrence. Phoshorous-allotropic forms. dioxygen. Ozone. oxidation states. oxides of nitrogen (structure only). Group 18 elements: General introduction. preparation. compounds of halogens.collision theory (elementary idea. sulphurc acid. properties and uses.PCl5) and oxoacids (elementary idea only). oxidation states. electronic configuration. preparation and properties of phosphine. copper. trends in physical and chemical properties. Classification of oxides. properties and uses. oxidation. properties and uses of chlorine and hydrochloric acid. zinc and iron Unit 7: p-Block Elements Group 15 elements: General introduction. Group 17 elements: General introduction. compounds of sulphur. uses. Occurrence. occurrence. nitrogen – preparation. halides (PCl3. oxoacids of halogens (structure only). preparation.Activation energy. Group 16 elements: General introduction. electronic configuration. Unit 6 : General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements Principles and methods of extraction – concentration. trends in physical and chemical properties. no mathematical treatment).

nature of C-X bond. physical and chemical properties (of primary alcohols only). 132 . substitution reactions (directive influence of halogen for monosubstituted compounds only) stability of carbocations. physical and chemical properties. methods of preparation. oxidation states. magnetic properties and shapes. methods of preparation.Stability of carbocations. mechanism of substitution reactions. Phenols and Ethers Alcohols: Nomenclature. electrophillic substitution reactions. chemical reactivity and lanthanoid contraction and its consequences. colour. general trends in properties of the first row transition metals – metallic character. ligands. methods of preparation. (Structural and stereo) importance of coordination compounds (in qualitative analysis.R-S and d-l configuration Haloarenes : Nature of C-X bond. DDT. Actinoids – Electronic configuration. Werner’s theory. ionic radii. Comparison with lanthanoids. freons. oxidation states. uses of methanol and ethanol. f-Block ElementsLanthanoids – Electronic configuration. iodoform. mechanism of dehydration. coordination number. interstitial compounds. uses of phenols. R-S and d-l configurations. thrichloromethane. physical and chemical properties. Unit 11 : Alcohols. catalytic property. Ethers : Nomenclature. isomerism. alloy formation preparation and properties of K2Cr2O7 and KMnO4. occurrence and characteristics of transition metals. ionization enthalpy. identification of primary. acidic nature of phenol. uses. magnetic properties.CFT. extraction of metals and biological systems). colour. tetrachloromethane. Phenols: Nomenclature. Unit 9: Coordination Compounds Coordination compounds – Introduction. bonding. Uses and environmental effects of – dichloromethane. VBT. electronic configuration. secondary and tertiary alcohols. oxidation states. IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds.Unit 8 : d and f Block Elements d-Block Elements General introduction. physical and chemical properties. Unit 10 : Halogen derivatives of alkanes (and arenes) Haloalkanes : Nomenclature.

natural and synthetic. Physical and chemical properties.Unit 12 : Aldehydes. Some important polymers. secondary and tertiary amines. copolymerization. methods of preparation. nature of carbonyl group. structure. reactivity of alpha hydrogen in aldehydes. Diazonium salts: Preparation. mechanism of nucleophilic addition. nylon. uses. structure of amines-primary. importance. oligosaccharides (sucrose. polyesters. physical and chemical properties. classification. polysaccharides (starch. methods of preparation. maltose). peptide. polypeptides. secondary. glycogen). methods of preparation. acidic nature.Biodegradable and non biodegradable polymers. Carboxylic Acids: Nomenclature. proteins. Vitamins: Classification and functions. Cyanides and Isocyanides: Will be mentioned at relevant places in context. monosaccahrides d-l configuration (glucose and fructose). and rubber. natural and synthetic like polythene. cellulose. lactose. Unit 14: Biomolecules Carbohydrates: Classification (aldoses and ketoses). identification of primary. tertiary structure and quaternary structures (qualitative idea only). bakelite. denaturation of proteins. linkage. physical and chemical properties. 133 . methods of polymerization (addition and condensation). Unit 13: Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen Nitro compounds-General methods of preparation and chemical reactions Amines : Nomenclature. Nucleic Acids: DNA and RNA Unit 15: Polymers Classification . Proteins: Elementary idea of -amino acids. uses. their classification and functions. enzymes. Ketones and Carboxylic Acids Aldehydes and Ketones : Nomenclature. uses. chemical reactions and importance in synthetic organic chemistry. Lipids and Hormones (elementary idea) excluding structure.

3. Electrochemistry Variation of cell potential in Zn|Zn2+||Cu2+|Cu with change in concentration of electrolytes (CuSO4 or ZnSO4) at room temperature (demonstration). 134 . Chemical Kinetics (Any one of the following) : (a) Effect of concentration and temperature on the rate of reaction between sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid. artificial sweetening agents. antacids. KIO3 and sodium sulphite (Na2SO3) using starch solution as indicator (clock reaction). XII A. Chemistry Practical Syllabus Std. antihistamines (elementary idea of antioxidants) 2. Chemicals in medicines: analgesics. Chemicals in food: Preservatives. (c) Acid hydrolysis of ethyl acetate. cleansing action. antibiotics. (b) Study of reaction rate of any one of the following: (i) Reaction of iodide ion with hydrogen peroxide at room temperature using different concentration of iodide ions. tranquilizers. iii] Determination of enthalpy change during interaction (hydrogen bond formation) between acetone and chloroform.Unit 16: Chemistry in Everyday life : 1. Thermochemistry Any one of the following experiments: i] Enthalpy of dissolution of copper sulphate or potassium nitrate. ii] Enthalpy of neutralization of strong acid (HCI) and strong base (NaOH). antifertility drugs. antimicrobials. B. iv] Heat of displacement of Cu from CuSO4 by Zn. Cleansing agents: Soaps and detergents. C. (ii) Reaction between potassium iodate. antiseptics. disinfectants.

alcoholic. Fe3+. As3+. ketonic. carboxylic and amino (primary) groups. Ni2+. 135 . aldehydic. Preparation of Organic Compounds (i) p-Nitrocetanilide (ii) Aniline yellow or 2. Cations – Pb2+. H. Qualitative analysis 1) Determination of two cations from a given mixture of salts. Chromatography (demonstration) (i) Separation of pigments from extracts of leaves and flowers by paper chromatography and determination of Rf values. Al3+. (ii) Preparation of potassium ferric oxalate. Tests for the functional groups present in organic compounds Unsaturation. NH4+. 2) Determination of two anions from a given mixture of salts. phenolic. Zn2+. F. Characteristic tests of arbohydrates. (iii) Iodoform (iv) Phthalic or succinic anhydride.D. J. (v) Di-benzal acetone G. fats and proteins in pure samples and their detection in given food stuffs. Co2+. Ba2+. (ii) Separation of constituents present in an inorganic mixture containing two cations only (constituents having large difference in Rf values to be provided). Mg2+. Ca2+. Determinaiton of concentration/molarity of KMnO4 solution by titrating it against a standard solution of: (i) Oxalic acid (ii) Ferrous ammonium sulphate (Students will be required to prepare standard solutions by weighing themselves).Napthol aniline dye. I. E. Cu2+. Sr2+. Mn2+. Preparation of Inorganic Compounds (i) Preparation of double salt of ferrous ammonium sulphate or potash alum.

4 Study of the effect of potassium bisulphate as food preservative under various conditions (temperature. carrot juice.Anions – CO32-. 7 Extraction of essential oils present in Saunf (aniseed). sugar.) PROJECT Scientific investigations involving laboratory testing and collecting information From other sources. PO43C2O42CH3COO(Note : Insoluble salts excluded. butter. 2 Study of quantity of casein present in different samples of milk. I-. SO32-. Note : Any investigatory project. concentration. potato juice. Br-. 136 . 8 Study of common food adulterants in fat. effect of temperature. No2NO3-. chilli powder and pepper. 3 Preparation of soybean milk and its comparison with the natural milk with respect to curd formation. A few suggested Projects: 1 Study of presence of oxalate ions in guava fruit at different stages of ripening. effect of pH and temperature on it. turmeric powder. time etc). 5 Study of digestion of starch by salivary amylase and. Ajwain (carum). etc. Cl-. Illaichi (cardamom). 6 Comparative study of the rate of fermentation of following materials: wheat flour. etc. can be chosen with the approval of the teacher. gram flour. SO42-.

The entire unit “Ecology and Environment” has now been added under Botany and Zoology sections. They are organized into populations and biological communities. Recently. Make students aware of issues of global importance. Guide students to perform easy experiments for better understanding of biological principles and to develop experimental skills required in practical work. Organisms. the science of biology has undergone a paradigm shift that has transformed it from a collection of loosely related facts into a modern applied science. Living organisms exhibit extremely complex functional system. Help students to understand the functioning of organisms.BIOLOGY. Objectives: The prescribed syllabus is expected to: Promote the inherent skill of observation. XI & XII Preamble Higher secondary is the most crucial stage of education because at this juncture specialized disciplines of science are introduced. Create awareness about the contribution of biology to human welfare. Accordingly some additional topics from state Board syllabus have been deleted whereas the lacking topics have been added. 137 . Hence it has been prepared in accordance with the guidelines shown in the final version of common core syllabi of COBSE.Std. Assist to understand the underlying principles of biological sciences and thereby develop scientific attitude towards biological phenomena. communities. Organisms seldom occur as isolated individuals. ecosystems and environment constitute unique set of natural resources of great importance. Understanding of biology will help in the sustainable development of the environment and will also ensure the existence of earth with all its amazing diversity. This syllabus is designed to prepare students for various examinations conducted at state and national level. The present syllabus reinforces the concepts introduced in lower classes. Knowledge of biology helps us to understand a common thread which holds all these components together. Delhi.

2. Pteridophyta. Meiosis 138 .meaning of the terms taxonomy.Botany . Concept of species.Kingdom Plantae 1. general properties. proteins. Need of classification. Chapter 4 Cell Division 1. classification and nomenclature. lipids and nucleic acids in brief. Basic chemical constituents of living bodies. importance and list of gardens and herbaria in India. 2. Unit 2 Structure and function of cell Chapter 3 . Mitosis 3. Chapter 2 . Unit 1 Diversity in Living World: Chapter 1. Cell cycle 2. – XI: Biology (Upgraded syllabus) Section I .Definition. Bryophyta. Structure and function of carbohydrates.Definitions. Types.Algae. Gymnosperms and Angiosperms (Dicotyledons and Monocotyledons). Lichens . 2. Enzymes . significance and examples.Meaning. Viruses and viroids . Diversity in living organisms-Brief idea. Salient features of major plant groups . 4. 5. Three domains of life. characters. 3. Taxonomic hierarchy with examples. Systematic and binomial system of nomenclature . examples and importance. 3.Biochemistry of cell: 1. Binomial nomenclature explanation. Three to five salient features and two examples of each category. Classification of living organisms (five Kingdom classification) – Major groups and principles of classification for each Kingdom with examples. types with examples.Meaning.Std.Diversity in organisms 1. systematics. Economic importance and list of viral diseases. Botanical gardens and herbaria . Enzyme action and factors affecting enzyme activity in brief. characters.

. ethylene and abscissic acid (role in brief) Photoperiodism. nutrients and gases. Translocation of sugars through phloem brief account.differentiation.auxins. Phases of growth. Mineral toxicity. Morphology.tension theory. food. Active and passive absorption in brief. Plant tissues. 139 . Definition and characteristics of growth. root pressure concept and cohesion . redifferentiation Sequence of developmental process in a plant cell Growth regulators .Unit 3 Structural organization in plants: Chapter 5 . fruit and seed. stem. Role of K+ ions 3. leaf. flower.Hypogeal.macronutrients and micronutrients and their role.Absorption of water and minerals.Roots. Movement of water. cytokinines. Mineral deficiency symptoms. biological nitrogen fixation) Chapter 7 . anatomy and functions of different parts . Germination . Guttation Ascent of sap.Plant Water Relation and Mineral Nutrition 1. epigeal and viviparous. inflorescence. Elementary idea of Hydroponics. Unit 4 Plant Physiology: Chapter 6 . (To be dealt along with the relevant practicals of the practical syllabus) 2. mechanism of opening and closing of stomata. Transpiration – structure of stomata. de. Conditions of growth. Role of water and minerals .Apoplast and Symplast Pathways. Photomorphogenesis including brief account of Phytochromes (Elementary idea) Vernalization. gibberellins. 2. Differentiation.Morphology of Plants 1.Plant Growth and Development: Seed dormancy. Nitrogen Metabolism (nitrogen cycle.

Mollusca. Endoplasmic reticulum. Nemathelminthes. Hemichordata. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell . Mitochondria. Unit 3 Structural organisation in Animals: Chapter 10.simple epithelium (squamous.Organization of Cell: 1. nucleolus and nucleoplasm. Annelida. cilia and flagella. Echinodermata and Unit 2 Structure and function of cell: Chapter 9 . Cephalochordata. Classification of phylum chordata upto class level with three to five salient features and two examples of each category: Urochordata. Ribosome and Centrioles (ultrstructure and functions). Zoological parks and Museums . Lysosomes. cytoskeleton.types: a) Epithelial tissues . 3. Amphibia.Study of Animal Tissues 1. Coelenterata. Cell organelles: Plastids. columnar. Adipose.Kingdom Animalia: 1. Reptilia. Vacuoles. b) Connective tissue . 4. 2. Cyclostomata. Plant cell and animal cell. Chondrichthyes. 5. .(Areolar. Classification of following phyla with three to five salient features and two examples of each category: Porifera. Cell wall and cell membrane . Golgi complex.General idea with list. Nuclear organization . Salient features of major phyla under kingdom Animalia. Ligaments. . Arthropoda. Animal tissues .Std. 140 .Nucleus.(fluid mosaic model). Aves and Mammalia. Platyhelminthes. 6.brief account 2. Cell theory . glandular).structure and examples.XI Section II – Zoology Unit 1 Diversity in Living World: Chapter 8 . Microbodies. Cartilage and Bone). Tendons. Ciliated. cuboidal. Osteichthyes.compound epithelium (stratified and transitional).

Emphysema and occupational lung diseases. nervous. Respiratory volumes iv) Respiratory disorders.Study of Animal Type: 1. and diarthroses.Human skeleton and Locomotion: Brief account of human skeleton: A] Axial Skeleton B] Appendicular Skeleton (Details to be dealt with the relevant practical) Types of joints . carbohydrates and fats v) Absorption. Jaundice. gastrointestinal hormones. Digestion. assimilation and egestion vi) Nutritional and digestive disorders – PEM. Chapter 14. Regulation of Respiration. absorption and nutritional disorders: ii) Digestive system in brief iv) Physiology of digestion.inspiration and expiration. transport of CO2 and O2 and tissue respiration. glial cells and types of neurons). amphiarthroses.Asthma.Human Nutrition: 1. anatomy and functions of digestive. Chapter 11.Human Respiration: 1Breathing. Morphology. constipation. respiration and common respiratory disorders: Respiratory organs in animals (Recall only) i) Respiratory system in brief ii) Breathing. striated and cardiac). 141 .c) Muscular tissue . Regulation iii) Exchange of gases. indigestion.synarthroses. vomiting and diarrhoea Chapter 13. circulatory. and reproductive systems of cockroach (Brief account only) Unit 4 Human Physiology: Chapter 12. respiratory. Peristalsis.(Smooth. Calorific value of proteins. d) Nervous tissue (Neurons.

starch. 5 Study of osmosis by Potato osmometer 6. 7. stem (herbaceous and woody). arthritis. Muscular Mechanism of muscle movement: Contractile proteins and Muscle contraction Skeletal and muscular disorders – Myasthenia gravis. proteins and fats from suitable plant and animal materials. XI Biology Practicals Syllabus (A) List of experiments: 1. Types of Movement.ball and socket. 3 Study and describe three locally available flowering plants from the families-Solanaceae. Osteoporosis.Ciliary. saddle and gliding joints. hinge. To test the presence of sugar. 4. venation. Study of structure and distribution of stomata in upper and lower surface of leaf. Std. 2. 142 . shape. pivot. Study of plasmolysis in epidermal peels. muscular dystrophy tetany and gout. Preparation of T. of dicot (sunflower) and monocot roots and stem to study different plant tissues. Study of parts of compound microscope. condyloid. leaf (arrangement. Fabaceae and Liliaceae with respect to types of root-(tap and adventitious). simple and compound) and floral characters. 8) To study the digestion of starch by salivary amylase under different conditions of temperature and pH. Flagellar.Types of diarthroses . S.

(B) Study/ Observation of the following (Spotting): 1. xylem. hand bones and foot bones) and different types of joints (synovial. c) Apical bud removal 10. parenchyma. Spirogyra. Observation and comments on experimental set up on: a) Phototropism b) Suction due to transpiration. 9. phyllode). phloem. Cycas. Rohu. 8 Study of tissues and diversity in shapes and sizes of plant and animal cells. guard cells. mammalian blood smear. Study of specimens and identification with reasons: Bacteria. epiphytic root and pneumatophores). Study of different modifications of stem (stem tuber. Comparative study of rates of transpiration in upper and lower surface of leaf. cartilaginous and fibrous joint with one suitable example). through temporary or permanent slides. Ascaris. Lizard. sunflower and maize. Oscillatoria. Study of different modifications of root (fusiform root. 143 . Study of imbibition of seeds/raisins. Silkworm Honey bee . Balanoglossus. and tendril). squamous epithelium. Star-fish. 3. Liverfluke. Shark. Study of different modification of leaf (leaflet and stipular tendril). 7 Study and identification of different types of inflorescence. Riccia. Funaria. Hydra. 11. collenchyma. Leech. muscle fibres. 2.palisade cells. Study of human skeleton (except skull. leaf Spines. 6. Pigeon and Rat. Snail. Nephrolepis. Study of specimens and their identification with reasons – Sycon. parasitic root. 4. runner. 5. Amoeba. Rhizopus. Earthworm. Prawn. yeast. Usnea. Agaricus. Frog. sclerenchyma.

Protein Synthesis.12 Study of external morphology of earthworm.Biotechnology: Process and Application Genetic engineering (Recombinant DNA technology): Transposons. Gene Expression and Gene Regulation (The Lac operon as a typical model of gene regulation). Pleiotropy. Plasmids.XII Biology (Upgraded syllabus) Section I – BOTANY Unit 1: Genetics and Evolution Chapter 1 . expression and regulation: Modern concept of gene in brief-cistron. Bacteriophages. Deviations from Mendelian ratio (gene interaction.Enhancement in Food Production: Plant Breeding Tissue Culture: Concept of Cellular Totipotency. DNA as genetic material. DNA Packaging. muton and recon. Chapter 2 . Transcription. multiple alleles and Inheritance of blood groups). semi conservative replication of eukaryotic DNA. Application of Biotechnology in Agriculture – BT crops Biosafety Issues (Biopiracy and patents) Unit 3: Biology and Human Welfare Chapter 4 . 144 . Preparing and cloning a DNA Library. Gene Amplification (PCR). Producing Restriction Fragments. structure of DNA as given by Watson and Cricks model. central dogma.Gene: its nature. 13.Genetic Basis of Inheritance: Mendelian inheritance. RNA: General structure types and functions. Unit 2: Biotechnology and its application Chapter 3 . cockroach and frog through models. . Elementary idea of polygenic inheritance. Study of mitosis in onion roots tips and animal cells (grasshopper) from permanent slides.incomplete dominance. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Std. Translation-Genetic Code. co-dominance.

Requirements of Tissue Culture (in brief). Microbes in Sewage Treatment. Microbes as Biocontrol Agents. Unit 5: Reproduction in Organisms Chapter 8 . Microbes in Biogas (energy) Production.Respiration: ATP as currency of Energy Mechanism of Aerobic (Glycolysis.Reproduction in Plants: Modes of Reproduction (Asexual and Sexual). TCA Cycle and Electron Transport System) and Anaerobic Respiration. Light-Dependent Reactions (Cyclic and non-cyclic photophosphorylation) Light-Independent Reactions (C3 and C4 Pathways) Chemiosmotic hypothesis.Photosynthesis: Autotrophic nutrition Site of Photosynthesis Photosynthetic Pigments and their role. Photorespiration. Factors affecting Photosynthesis. Biofortification Chapter 5 . Chapter 7 . Respiratory quotient of Nutrients. Microbes as Biofertilizers. micropropagation 145 . uniparental modes-vegetative propagation. Callus Culture. Asexual reproduction.Microbes in Human Welfare: Microbes in Household food processing Microbes in Industrial Production. Unit 4: Plant Physiology Chapter 6 . Fermentation Exchange of gases Amphibolic pathway. Law of limiting factors. Suspension Culture. Single Cell Protein. Significance of Respiration.

Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance: The Chromosomal Theory. polyembryony. Modern Synthetic Theory of evolution. Gene flow and genetic drift.Sexual Reproduction: structure of flower Development of male gametophyte. Std. Ecological services-carbon fixation. pollen-pistil interaction.Hardy-Weinberg principle. energy. Environmental issues: agrochemicals and their effects. . oxygen release. Chapter 11 . pyramids of number. Chromosomes. Origin and Evolution of Human being. biomass. nutrient cycling (carbon and phosphorous). Significance of seed and fruit formation. development of seed and formation of fruit) Special modes-apomixis. Development of female Gametophyte. Biological Evidences. case studies (any two).Origin and the Evolution of Life: Origin of Life: Early Earth. assembly of organic compounds.XII Biology Section II . Ecological succession. Mechanism of evolution. Green house effect and global warming. deforestation. Outbreeding devices. Unit 6: Ecology and Environment: Chapter 9: Organisms and Environment -I Habitat and Niche Ecosystems: Patterns. pollination. Spontaneous. Structure of anatropous ovule. Post-fertilization changes (development of endosperm and embryo. Adaptive radiation. ozone depletion. Double Fertilization: Process and Significance. parthenocarpy. Evolution: Darwin‟s contribution. energy flow. 146 . Pollination: Types and Agencies. components.ZOOLOGY Unit 1: Genetics and Evolution Chapter 10 . productivity and decomposition. solid waste management.

Poultry. Dairy. Fisheries. drug and alcohol abuse. Bee-Keeping.Animal Husbandry: Management of Farms and Farm Animals. Adolescence. Animal Breeding. Sericulture Lac culture 147 . Sex-linked Inheritance (Haemophilia and colour blindness). Pathogens and Parasites (Amoebiasis. Common cold and ring worm). Turner’s syndrome and Klinfelter’s syndrome. Chapter 14.Mendelian disorders in humansThalassemia. Gene Therapy. Vaccines. Sex Determination in Human being. Typhoid.Human Health and Diseases: Concepts of Immunology: Immunity Types. Biotechnological Applications in Health: Human insulin and vaccine production. Antigen-Antibody Complex. Pneumonia. Antigens on blood cells. Genomics and Human Genome Project. Unit 3: Biology and Human Welfare Chapter 13. honey bee. Structure of Antibody. Chromosomal disorders in human: Down’s syndrome. Cancer and AIDS. Ascariasis. Transgenic animals. birds. Unit 2: Biotechnology and its application Chapter 12. Malaria.Linkage and Crossing Over.Genetic Engineering and Genomics: DNA Finger Printing. Filariasis.

Circulation: Blood composition and coagulation. Rhythmicity of Heart beat. Kidney failure. uricotelism. Mechanism of hormone action Hormones as messengers and regulators. Excretory System Composition and formation of urine. role of other organs in excretion. Blood Vessels. Transplantation. Chapter 16. brief idea about PNS and ANS. Regulation of cardiac activity. Disorders. Role of Kidney in Osmoregulation. Hormones and their functions. Diabetes mellitus. Cardiac output. Uraemia. ADH and Diabetes inspidus. Blood groups Structure and pumping action of Heart. Kidney stone (renal calculi). Lymphatic System (Brief idea): Composition of lymph and its functions. ureotelism. Sensory perception. angina pectoris.Excretion and osmoregulation: Modes of excretion-Ammonotelism. Transmission of nerve impulse. general idea of other sense organs Endocrine System: Endocrine glands. Reflex action. Blood related disorders: Hypertension.Unit 4: Human Physiology Chapter 15. nephritis. Pulmonary and Systemic Circulation. Regulation of kidney function: renin-angiotensin. Sensory receptors (eye and ear). Acromegaly. goiter. Chapter 17. Addison’s disease) 148 . coronary artery disease. cretinism. Dialysis. ECG. Hormonal imbalance and diseases: Common disorders (Dwarfism. Heart beat and Pulse. atrial natriuretic factor. exopthalmic goiter.Control and Co-ordination: Nervous System: Structure and functions of brain and Spinal cord. and heart failure.

Production of gametes. Unit 6: Ecology and Environment Chapter 19-Organisms and Environment-II Population and ecological adaptations: population interactions-mutualism. birth rate and death rate. (Case studies any two) ---------------------------------------------------------------- 149 . Environmental issues: air pollution and its control. predation. Histology of testis and ovary. ZIFT.IVF. Pregnancy. patterns. Embryo development up to three germinal layers.extinction. Contraception and sexually transmitted diseases. parasitism. loss. Infertility and assisted reproductive technologies.growth. Amniocentesis. Reproductive cycle. fertilization. population attributes. endangered organisms. competition.MTP. importance.Human Reproduction: Reproductive system in male and female. biosphere reserves. parturition and lactation (Elementary idea). water pollution and its control and radioactive waste management.Biodiversity. GIFT (elementary idea for general awareness).Unit 5: Reproduction in Organisms Chapter 18. Hotspots. Biodiversity and its conservation. implantation. Threats to and need for biodiversity conservation . Reproductive health-birth control. age distribution.concept.red data book . placenta. national parks and sanctuaries.

Separation of plant pigments by paper chromatography 7 To study the rate of respiration in flower buds/leaf tissue and germinating seeds. 4 Exercise on controlled pollination . 6. 10. Study the presence of suspended particulate matter in air at the two widely different Sites. clarity and presence of any living organisms.. tagging and bagging 5 Study meiosis in onion bud cell or grass hopper testis through permanent slide. Study pollen germination on a slide. 2. XII (Upgraded) Biology Practicals Syllabus Experiments: 1. Study of plant population density and frequency by quadrate method. To test the presence of urea and sugar in urine. 3 To Study Mendelian inheritance using seeds of different colour/size of any plant. Study/observation of the following (Spotting): 1 Study of flowers adapted to pollination by different agencies (wind. Correlate with the kinds of plants found in them. 3. 6 Study plants found in xerophytic and aquatic conditions with respect to their morphological adaptations. Prepare a temporary mount of onion root tip to study mitosis. 4. Collect and study soil from at least two different sites and study them for texture. moisture content. Collect water from two different water bodies around you and study them for pH. 9. 8. insect) 2 Study of pollen germination on stigma through a permanent slide. pH and water holding capacity of soil. 11To test the presence of albumin and bile salts in urine. Dissect anther and ovary to show number of chambers. Dissect the given flower and display different whorls.Std.(Two plants each) 150 .Emasculation. 5.

(Two animals each) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 151 . 10 To identify common disease causing organisms like Plasmodium. 11 Study of animals found in xeric (desert) and aquatic conditions with respect to their morphological adaptations.Ascaris and ring worm through permanent slides or specimens. T. 8. colour blindness. 9 To study prepared pedigree charts of genetic traits such as rolling of tongue. ovary through permanent slides (from any mammal). Entamoeba .S. of blastula through permanent slide.S. widow‟s peak. Study of V. Comment on symptoms of diseases that they cause.7 Study and identify stages of gamete development. of testis and T. Blood groups.S.

Physical and Biological Sciences. analyze and articulate logically. XI & XII Introduction: Mathematics is the language of all sciences and is perhaps the only subject which merits this distinction. 152 . Mathematics is the backbone of all sciences and it is an inseparable part of human life. 5) To acquaint students with different aspects of Mathematics used in real life. principles. 7) To develop awareness of the need for national integration. terms. it is utmost important to make the study of Mathematics more meaningful by acquainting the student with many branches of mathematics. by more than one method. protection of an environment. The proposed syllabus has been designed in accordance with National Curriculum Framework 2005 and as per guidelines given in Focus Group on Teaching of Mathematics 2005 which is to meet the emerging needs of all categories of students. 6) To develop an interest in students to study Mathematics as a discipline. removal of social barriers. 2) To apply the knowledge and skills in Mathematics and related problems from other subjects. Hence to fulfill the needs of students. 4) To develop interest in Mathematics by participating in various related competitions and selflearning. 3) To develop positive attitude to think. particularly by way of motivation and visualization of basic concepts. Objectives: To enable the students 1)To acquire knowledge and critical understanding. Motivating topics from real life situations and other subject areas. This will help them in developing Mathematical tools to be used in the professional education. Higher Secondary is a launching stage from where students would go to either for academic education in Mathematics or professional courses like Engineering and Computer Technology. major thrust is also on application of various concepts. symbols and mastering the underlying processes and skills. elimination of sex biases and observance of small family norm.Upgraded Syllabus MATHEMATICS AND STATISTICS (For Arts and Science) Std.

straight line. Inclination of a line. two point form. 5. 4. Measurement of Angles : Need & concept. zero angle. Trigonometric functions with the help of standard unit circle. trigonometric functions of particular angles (00. parallel to coordinate axes. 153 . formulae for conversion of product into sum or difference. revision of different forms of equations of a line. Straight Line : Revision. Theorem: Radian is a constant angle. slope intercept form. trigonometric functions of multiple angles (upto double and triple angles only). slope point form. slope of a line. fundamental identities. 1800. angles in standard position. θ. parametric form. Reduction of general equation of a line into normal form. provided A and B are not both zero. equation of lines. trigonometricfunctions of sum and difference. Theorem 2 : Every straight line has an equation of the form Ax +By + C = 0. Trigonometric functions of compound angles : Introduction. 3600). Definition and equation of locus. 3. XI . angles in quadrant & quadrantal angles. 2700. points of locus. Trigonometric functions: Need & concept. 9) To develop interest in the subject by participating in related competitions. straight angle. circular system. 300. y = a cos bx. Factorization Formulae: Introduction. 6. always represents. periodicity of functions. θ. Theorem : A general linear equation Ax + By+ C =0. general form. where A. B and C are constants (without proof). double intercept form other forms of equations of a line. coterminal angles. Area of the sector of a circle A = ½ r2. signs of trigonometric functions in different quadrants. intercepts of a line. MATHEMATICS AND STATISTICS (ARTS AND SCIENCE) STD. Formulae for conversion of sum or difference into products. 600. shift of the origin. Revision of directed angle (+ve and –ve angles). simultaneously. Locus : Introduction.PART – I 1. graphs of trigonometric functions. trigonometric functions of half angles. relation between degree measure and radian measure.8) To develop reverence and respect towards great mathematicians for their contribution to the field of Mathematics. Graph of Y = a sin bx. domain and range of trigonometric functions. θ is in radians) (without proof). 900. Sexagesimal system. trigonometric functions of negative angles. Length of an arc of a circle (s = r. θ is in radians (without proof). 450. normal form. 2. trigonometric functions of angles of a triangle.

notations. singular & non-singular matrices. Matrices : Introduction. column matrix. family of lines. applications of determinants condition of consistency. standard equation (different forms of parabola). product of vectors. simple application. perpendicular lines. equations of bisectors of angle between two lines. row matrix. focus-directrix property of parabola. negative of a vector. operations on matrices – equality. simple properties. coplanar vectors. three dimensional co-ordinate geometry. Circle and Conics : Revision. general equation. distance between two points in a space. angle between lines. 8. multiplication of matrices – definition. diagonal matrix. 154 . 10. transpose of a matrix. ellipse. ellipse. position vector of a point in space. workdone by force. introduction. addition. equal vector. hyperbola. standard equation. properties of transpose of a matrix (A ) A. Application of conic section. expansion. unit vectors along axes. triangular matrices. parametric equations. unit vector. properties of determinants. free and localized vectors. Vectors : Definition. definition. coinitial vector. solutions of system of linear in equations in one variable. definition. minors & co-factors. coordinate axes & coordinate planes in space. parallelogram law. parameter equations of standard equation. scalar multiple of a vector. Linear Inequations : Linear in equations in one variable – solution of linear inequation in one variable & graphical solution. (KA) KA . properties. identical lines. centre-radius form. area of a triangle. subtraction. polygon law. symmetric & skew symmetric matrices. condition for concurrency of three lines. properties of addition of vectors. scalar matrix. 7. diameter form. properties. like and unlike vector. Replacement of a set or domain of a set. parametric equations. square matrix. magnitude of a vector. distance of a point from a line. standard equation. moment of a force. standard equation. order. identity matrix. solution of linear in equations in two variable & graphical solution. determinant of order three–definition. Determinants : Revision. Transposition. hyperbola. distance between two parallel lines. zero vector. scalar product. co-ordinates of a point in space. Linear in equations in two variable – solution of linear inequation in one variable & graphical solution. 11. multiplication of a matrix by a scalar. types of vectors. solutions of system of linear inequations in two variables. Conics Napees – Intersection of Napees of a cone and Plane. (AB) BA. triangle law. properties of matrix multiplication. types of matrices – zero matrix. equation of family of lines through the intersection of two lines. vector product. 9. resolved part of a force. equation of a straight line parallel to a given line. collinear vectors.intersection of two lines. Cramer‟s rule for system of equations in three variables. equation of a straight line perpendicular to a given line. concepts. parallel lines. parabola. determinant of a square matrix.

pictorial diagrams. Relations – ordered pairs. onto function. signum & greatest integer. 1) Closure Property. constant function. properties. 3) Associative law. 155 . scalar multiplication. subset and their properties. codomain and range of a relation. algebra of complex numbers – equality. disjoint sets. definition of relation. characteristics & mantissa – method of finding characteristics. properties of complex numbers – properties of addition of complex numbers. square root of a complex number.2) Commulative Law. even & odd functions.5) Existence of additive inverse. Logarithms : Introduction. method of finding antilogarithm. 4) Existence of additive identity. laws of logarithms. equivalent sets. subtraction. intersection. definition. difference of two sets. cube roots of unity. equal functions. sum. functions with their graphs. power set. Argand Diagram – representation of a complex number as a pt. complement of a set. Demoivre‟s formula – (without proof). Properties of product of complex numbers –Existance of multiplicative identity – Existence of multiplicative inverse properties of conjugate & modulus of complex numbers. into function. 3. in plane. difference. modulus. equality of ordered pairs. union. rational function. Complex Numbers : Introduction. one-one. pictorial representation of a function. Sets. binary operations. universal set. method of finding mantissa. types of relations. finite & infinite sets. Cartesian product of two sets. exponential function. multiplication. inverse function. powers and square root of a complex number – higher powers of i. Cartesian product of the reals with itself. domain. logarithmic function. empty set. imaginary parts. many-one. product quotient of functions. domain. change of base. composite function. subset. addition. of elements in the Cartesian product of two finite sets. types of functions. identity function. codomain and range of a function.PART – II 1. fundamental theorem of algebra. cube roots of unity – solution of quadratic equations in the complex number system. polynomial function. division. modulus function. Relations and Functions : Set – Revision. definitions –(real parts. proper. improper. complex conjugates. domain and range of these functions. functions – function as a special kind of relation. polar representation of complex numbers. argument). geometrical meaning of modulus and argument. equal sets. binary equivalence relation. real valued function of the real variable. one-one function. need for complex numbers. No. 2. Venn diagrams.

Permutations & combinations : Introduction. binomial theorem – binomial theorem for positive integers. simple applications. rules of integration. mutually exclusive and exhaustive events. P. sum of cube of first n natural. 11. H. physical significance (velocity as a rate of change of displacement). variance. G. permutations..4. Conditional probability – definition. binomial theorem for any index (without proof). Means – arithmetic mean. quartile & quartile deviation (for grouped and ungrouped data). 6. relations between permutations and combinations. n terms from the end of G. A. Differentiation : Definition of a derivative. circular permutations. geometrical interpretation of indefinite integrals. algebra of integrals – integrals of some standard functions. combined variance and standard deviation. as a special type of A. combinations – definition. particular term. Integration: Definition (of integration) as antiderivative.M. sum of the first „n‟ terms. Mathematical Induction and Binomial Theorem : Principle of mathematical induction.P.M. geometric progression – introduction. standard deviation. algebra of limits – standard limits. 5. independent events. Statistics : Measures of dispersion – range. harmonic mean. general term.P. Baye‟s theorem. properties. odds in favour and against. H. types of events – events and algebra of events. exponential functions.. exponential & logarithmic series. simple applications. mutually exlusive events. limits at infinity – concepts.P. 7. 9. Sum of first n terms of A. properties of A. simple applications. Result on compatible events. relation between A.. when all r objects are distinct. containing finitely many terms & sum to infinite terms properties of G. comparison of two frequency distributions with same mean. derivatives from first principle of trigonometric functions.P. product and quotient. Limits : Introduction of concept. mean deviation about median (for grouped & ungrouped data). derivative at a point. difference. particular cases of binomial theorem. simple problems.. simple applications. Probability: Revision. Arithmetic-Geometric sequence.. axiomatic definition of probability. with proof. geometric means. fundamental theorem on limits. Sequences & Series : Revision sequence. meaning of x a. fundamental principle of counting. sum of cube of first n odd natural nos. general term.P. special series. 10. addition theorem – for any two events A and B. 8.P.. geometrical significance of derivative. algebraic functions. rules of differentiation – derivative of sum. factorial notation. the limit of a function. 156 . properties of binomial co-efficient with simple application.M. co-efficient of variation. logarithmic functions. effect of change of origin and scale on variance and standard deviation. mean deviation about mean. multiplication theorem. when all r objects are not distinct.

19. Integration. Examples on special series. 2. 11. 9. 18. Differentiation. 14. Family of lines. Applications of determinants. 8. Applications of vectors (Dot and cross product). cube root of unity. 17. Numerical problems using laws of logarithms. 16. Tracing of graphs of functions. Linear inequation. Mathematical induction. 5. Probability. Problems on locus. Measures of dispersion. 20.List of Practicals: XI 1. Power and square root of a complex number. 4. Applications of Conics II. 6. Applications of Conics I. 13. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 157 . 3. 10. 15. Algebra of matrices. Limits. Permutations and combinations. 12. Binomial theorem. 7.

application-solution of system of linear equations by – reduction method. 3. inversion method. logical connective-conjunction. area of a triangle. truth tables of compound statements. truth value of statement. complement law. properties of inverse functions. sentences and statement. inverse by elementary transformation. inverse trigonometric functionsdefinitions. 158 . sin 0. condition for parallel lines. adjoint method. Trigonometric functions : Trigonometric equations-general solution of trigonometric equation of the type. elementary row transformation. elementary column transformation. condition of parallel and perpendicular lines. XII PART – I 1. associative law.MATHEMATICS AND STATISTICS STD. logical equivalence. angle between the lines represented by ax2+2hxy+by2=0. biconditional. range. contingency. inverse. cosine rule. application-introduction to switching circuits (simple examples). involution law. inverse of a matrix-existance and uniqueness of inverse of a matrix. sine rule. Matrices : Elementary transformation of a matrix-revision of cofactor and minor. theorem-the joint equation of a pair of lines passing through origin and its converse. domain. sin2 sin2 . projection rule. cos cos . logical equivalence. implication/ conditional. Hero‟s formula. a cos b sin c solution of a triangle-polar coordinates. commutative law. negation. point of intersection of two lines. cos2 cos2 . algebra of statements-idempotent law. Napier Analogues. 2. distributive law. sin sin . open sentences and truth sets. duality. identity law. Mathematical Logic : Statements .Introduction. compound statement. principle values. pair of lines not passing through origin-conbined equation of any two lines. Pair of straight lines : Pair of lines passing through origin-conbined equation. quantifier and quantified statements. tan2 tan2 . contrapositive. cos 0. examples related to real life and mathematics. tan . acute angle between the lines (without proof). demorgan‟s laws. condition that the equation ax2+2hxy+by2+2gx+2fy+c=0 should represent a pair of lines (without proof). graphs of inverse trigonometric function. tan tan . contradiction. difference between converse. solution of Trigonometric equations. converse. contrapositive. 4. homogenous equation. contradiction. disjunction. there exists. statement patterns and logical equivalence-tautology. condition for perpendicular lines. application. negation of compound statement.

locus of points from which two tangents are mutually perpendicular. formula. scaler triple product-definition. Line : Equation of line passing through given point and parallel to given vector. ellipse. 10. 8. equation of plane passing through the given point and parallel to two given vectors. tangents in terms of slope for parabola. hyperbola. distance between two skew lines. feasible and infeasible 159 . application of vectors to geometry-medians of a triangle are concurrent. equation of plane passing through the intersection of two given planes. of a point from a line. equation of plane passing through three non-collinear points.5. objective function. direction ratios. condition of tangency only for line y mx c to the circle x2 y2 a2 . Circle : Tangent of a circle-equation of a tangent at a point to 1) standard circle. angle subtended on a semicircle is right angle. relation between direction ratio and direction cosines. Collinearty and coplanerity of vectors-linear combination of vectors. 9. length of tangent segments. ellipse. tangents to a circle from a point outside the circle. condition of collinearity of two vectors. Conics : Tangents and normals-equations of tangent and normal at a point for parabola.P. Linear programming problems: Introduction of L. median of trapezium is parallel to the parallel sides and its length is half the sum of parallel sides. equation of plane passing through the given point and perpendicular to given vector. hyperbola.2) general circle. geometrical interpretation of scalar triple product. altitudes of a triangle are concurrent. properties. 11. conditions of coplanerity ofthree vectors. distance between two parallel lines (vector approach). normal to a circle-equation of normal at a point. non-negativity restrictions. constraint equations. dist. diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each other and converse. ellipse. angle between two planes. Three dimensional geometry : Direction cosines and direction ratios-direction angles. angle bisectors of triangle are concurrent. centroid formula. director circle. condition of tangency for parabola. Plane : Equation of plane in normal form. Vectors : Revision. equation of line passing through two given points. distance of a point from a plane (vector approach). definition of constraints. section formula-section formula for internal and external division. hyperbola. 6. optimization. condition for the coplanerity of two lines. angle between line and plane. properties of tangents and normals to conics (without proof).P. condition of perpendicular lines. direction cosines. midpoint formula. tangents from a point outside conics. angle between two lines. 7.

approximation (without proof). Rolls theorem. c) higher order derivative-second order derivative d) f (x) g x 3. 2) integration by parts. rational. integration by parts-integration by parts. feasible solutions. integrals of type (reduction formulae are not expected). and Mean value theorem and their geometrical interpretation (without proof). XII . derivative as rate measure-introduction. problems. optimum feasible solution. exponential and logarithmic function. STD. first derivative test. b) quotient of functions. exponential and logarithmic function-derivative of functions which are expressed in one of the following form a) product of functions.P. evaluation of definite integral 1) by substitution. definite integral-definite integral as a limit of sum. substitution method. 160 . derivative of inverse function derivative of inverse trigonometric function. Differentiation : Revision. continuity of some standard functionspolynomial. properties of definite integrals properties of definite integrals. types of discontinuity.P. Continuity : Continuity of a function at a point-left hand limit.PART – II 1. second derivative test. Maxima and minima-introduction of extreme and extreme values.revision of derivative. every differentiable function is continuous but converse is not true. non-repeated quadratic factors. Derivative of implicit function definition and examples. integrals of the type. definition of a continuity of a function at a point.region. trigonometric. graphical solutions for problem in two variables. Application of derivative : Geometrical application-tangent and normal at a point. increasing and decreasing function. integration by partial fraction-factors involving repeated and non-repeated linear factors. fundamental theorem of integral calculus (without proof). derivative of parametric function – definition of parametric function . Derivative of composite functionchain rule. 2. 4.P. maxima and minima in a closed interval. continuity in interval-definition. different types of L. relationship between continuity and differentiability-left hand derivative and right hand derivative (need and concept). right hand limit. Mathematical formulation-mathematical formulation of L. algebra of continuous functions. Integration : Indefinite integrals-methods of integration. discontinuity of a function.P.

variance and standard deviation.5. 4. probability mass function (p. bacterial colony growth.f. general solution.bivariate data. scatter diagram. Statistics: Bivariate frequency distribution . homogenous differential equation (equation reducible to homogenous form are not expected). 2. expected value.m.area bounded by curve and axis (simple problems). 3. 6. particular solution of differential equation. formation of differential equation-formation of differential equation by elimmating arbitary constants (at most two constants).d. Applications of logic. radioactive decay. Karl Pearson‟s co-efficient of correlation. volume of solid of revolution-volume of solid obtained by revolving the area under the curve about the axis (simple problems).). variance and standard deviation. tabulation of bivariate data. binomial distribution (p. mean. variance and standard deviation of a discrete random variable. Inverse of a matrix by adjoint method and hence solution of system of linear equations. cumulative probability distribution of a discrete random variable. area bounded by two curves. surface area. Normal distribution . simple problems (without proof).). 9. distribution function of a continuous random variable. probability distribution of a discrete random variable. mean.p. calculation of probabilities (without proof). Inverse of a matrix by elementary transformation and hence solution of system of linear equation. solution of first order and first degree differential equation-variable separable method. Applications of definite integral: Area under the curve . 7. Bernoulli trials and Binomial distribution : Definition of Bernoulli trial. standard normal variable. Linear differential equation.f.m.f.). covariance of or ungrouped data. Probability distribution : Probability distribution of a random variable-definition of a random variable.f. Newton‟s laws of cooling.d. Solutions of a triangle. degree. Differential equation : Definition-differential equation. List of Practicals : XII 1. discrete and continuous random variable. covariance for bivariate frequency distribution. order. conditions for Binomial distribution. 161 . 8. applications-population growth. probability density function (p.

17. Applications of derivatives (Geometric applications). Three dimensional geometry .line. 18. Three dimensional geometry . 19. Tracing of tangents and normals for circles and parabola.volume. Applications of scalar triple product of vectors.5. Formations and solutions of LPP. 10. Applications of definite integrals . Bivariate frequency distribution. 13. Applications of derivatives .Area. Expected value. variance and S. 15. 20. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 162 . 6. 16.plane. 11.Maxima and minima 14. Tracing of tangents and normals for ellipse and hyperbola. Applications of definite integrals .D of random variable. Applications of definite integrals . 9. Binomial distribution. measure. Applications of differential equations. 7. Applications of derivatives – Rate. 12.Limit of sum. 8.