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PHYSICS – Std. XI & XII Preamble
According to NCF 2005, the curriculum of the subject Physics is upgraded for higher secondary stage. This curriculum is comparable to the international standards which are useful for the students in Maharashtra State for different types of competitive examinations conducted in India. All the units of the subject from NCERT curriculum are divided into two years conveniently in Maharashtra State. Continuity in the curriculum is maintained in Std. XI & XII, which is not in NCERT curriculum. All the students appear for the competitive examinations only after +2 stages throughout India. This syllabus has been designed in accordance with the guidelines shown in the final version of common core syllabii of COBSE, Delhi. Accordingly few additional sub units have been added. Objectives – 1. Emphasis on basic conceptual understanding of the content. 2. Emphasis on use of SI units, symbols, nomenclature of physical quantities and formulations as per international standards. 3. Providing logical sequencing of units of the subject matter and proper placement of concepts with their linkage for better learning. 4. Reducing the curriculum load by eliminating overlapping of concepts/content within the discipline and other disciplines. 5. Promotion of process-skills, problem-solving abilities and applications of Physics concepts. 6. Strengthen the concepts developed at the secondary stage to provide firm foundation for further learning in the subject. 7. Expose the learners to different processes used in Physics-related industrial and technological applications. 8. Develop process-skills and experimental, observational, manipulative, decision making and investigatory skills in the learners. 9. Promote problem solving abilities and creative thinking in learners. 10. Develop conceptual competence in the learners and make them realize and appreciate the interface of Physics with other disciplines.
1. Measurements Introduction, Need for measurement, Units for measurement, System of Units, S.I. Units, Fundamental and derived units, Dimensional analysis, Order of magnitude and significant figures, Accuracy and errors in measurement.
2. Scalars and Vectors Addition and subtraction of vectors, Product of vectors.
3. Projectile motion Uniformly accelerated motion along straight line, Non uniform motion, Position time graph and velocity-time graph, Equation of a projectile path, Time of flight, Horizontal range, Maximum height of a projectile, Relative velocity.
4. Force Types of forces, General idea of gravitation, electromagnetic and nuclear forces, Law of conservation of momentum, Work done by a variable force. Work-energy theorem, Elastic and inelastic collisions in one and two dimensions, Inertial and non-intertial frames, Moment of force, Couple and properties of couple, Centre of mass, Centre of gravity, Conditions of equilibrium of a rigid body.
5. Friction in solids and liquids Origin and nature of frictional forces, Laws of static friction, Laws of kinetic friction, Pressure due to fluid column, Pascal‟s Law and its applications, Effect of gravity on fluid pressure, Viscosity, Streamline flow, Turbulent flow, Viscous force, Newton‟s formula, Stokes‟ law, Equation for terminal velocity, Raynold‟s number, Bernoulli‟s principle and its applications.
6. Sound Waves Waves and oscillations, Progressive waves, Characteristics of transverse waves, Characteristics of longitudinal waves, Sound as longitudinal wave motion, Relation between v, f and, ƛ Newton‟s formula for velocity of sound, Laplace‟s correction.
7. Thermal properties of matter Temperature and heat, Measurement of temperature, Ideal-gas equation and absolute temperature, Thermal expansion, Specific heat capacity, Calorimetry, Change of state, Latent heat, Heat transfer.
8. Refraction of Light Refraction of monochromatic light, Snell‟s law, Total internal reflection, Critical angle, Optical fibre, Dispersion of light, Prism formula, Angular dispersion and dispersive power, Rainbow, Scattering of light, Blue colour of sky, Colour of sun at sunrise and sunset. Elementary idea of Raman effect.
9. Ray optics Reflection of light by spherical mirrors, Refraction at single curved surface, Lens maker‟s equation, Combination of thin lenses in contact, Concept of conjugate focii, Correction of eye defects, Magnifying power of simple microscope, Magnifying power of compound microscope, Magnifying power of telescope, Reflecting telescope - schematic diagram with explanation.
10. Electrostatics Frictional electricity, Charges and their conservation, Coulomb‟s law and dielectric constant, Forces between multiple electric charges, Superposition principle of forces, Continuous distribution of charges, Concept of charge density, Electric field intensity, Potential energy, Electric potential due to point charge, Relation between electric field intensity and potential, Potential difference, Volt and electron volt, Electric dipole and dipole moment, Electric lines of force. Equipotential surfaces, P.E. of single charge and system of charges.
11. Current electricity Ohm‟s law, Resistance, Specific resistance, Temperature dependence of resistance, Colour code of carbon resistor, Series and parallel combination of resistors, E.M.F. and internal resistance of cell, Work done by electric current, Power in electric circuit, Cells in series and in parallel, Elementary idea of secondary cells.
12. Magnetic effect of electric current Oersted’s experiment, Biot Savart‟s law, Right hand rule, Magnetic induction at the centre of circular coil carrying current, Magnetic induction at a point along the axis of a coil carrying current, Fleming‟s left hand rule, Force between two infinitely long current carrying parallel conductors, Definition of Ampere, Force acting on a conductor carrying current in magnetic field, Torque on a current loop in magnetic field.
13. Magnetism Origin of magnetism due to moving charges, Equivalence between magnetic dipole and circular coil carrying current, Definition of magnetic dipole moment and its unit, Torque acting on a magnet in uniform magnetic induction, Bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, Magnetic field lines, Magnetic induction due to bar magnet at a point along the axis and at a point along equator, Earth‟s magnetic field and magnetic elements, Electromagnets and factors affecting their strength.
14. Electromagnetic waves Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics, Transverse nature of electromagnetic waves, Electromagnetic spectrum, Space communication, Propagation of electromagnetic waves in atmosphere.
Physics List of Practicals Std. XI
1. Use of Vernier Callipers. 2. Use of Screw gauge. 3. To determine radius of curvature of a given spherical surface by a spherometer. 4. To find the weight of a given body using parallelogram law of vectors. 5. To study the relationship between force of limiting friction and normal reaction and to find co-efficient of friction between a block and a horizontal surface. 6. To determine resistance per cm of a given wire by plotting a graph of potential difference versus current. 7. To find the value of „v‟ for different values of „u‟ in case of a „concave mirror and to find the focal length. 8. To find the focal length of a convex lens by plotting graphs between „u‟ and „v‟or between „1/u‟ and „1/v‟. 9. To find the focal length of a convex mirror, using a convex lens. 10. To find the focal length of a concave lens, using a convex lens. 11. To determine angle of minimum deviation for a given prism by plotting a graph between angle of incidence and angle of deviation. 12. To determine refractive index of a glass using a travelling microscope. 13. To find refractive index of a liquid by using (i) concave mirror, (ii) convex lens and plane mirror. 14. To determine specific heat capacity of a given (i) liquid (ii) solid, by method of mixtures.
Physics List of Activities Std. XI
1. To make a paper scale of given least count, e.g. 0.2 cm, 0.5 cm. 2. To determine mass of a given body using a meter scale by principle of moments. 3. To plot a graph for a given set of data, with proper choice of scales and error bars.
To note the change in level of liquid in a container on heating and interpret the observations. 5. To study the variation in range of a jet of water with angle of projection. To obtain a lens combination with the specified focal length by using two lenses from the given set of lenses. 7. on a screen by using a candle and a screen (for different distances of the candle from the lens/mirror). 10. 9. voltage (AC/DC). 6. To study the nature and size of image formed by (i) convex lens (ii) concave mirror. To measure the force of limiting friction for rolling of a roller on a horizontal plane. 8.4. current (AC) and check continuity of a given circuit using multimeter. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 115 . To observe refraction and lateral deviation of a beam of light incident obliquely on a glass slab. To measure resistance.
in S. Principle of parallel and perpendicular axes. M. Determination of „Y‟.M. Poisson’s ratio. Physical significance of M. Surface tension Surface tension on the basis of molecular theory. Hooke‟s law. Torque.H. Plasticity.. Elastic constants and their relation. Simple pendulum.M. Rolling motion. Angular velocity and angular acceleration. Relation between linear velocity and angular velocity. Surface tension. of some regular shaped bodies about specific axes. Projection of satellite.C. Binding energy and escape velocity of a satellite. 4. Variation of „g‟ due to altitude. Communication satellite and its uses. Effect of impurity and temperature on surface tension. Rotational motion Definition of M.M. Definition of stress and strain. and P. Radial acceleration. XII 1.M. Deformation. Kinematical equations for circular motion in analogy with linear motion. K. Surface energy. of rotating body. S.M. depth and motion. Centripetal and centrifugal forces..I.. 7. Uniform circular motion. 6. K.I.H. 2..M. Gravitation Newton‟s law of gravitation. 3. Phase of S. Differential equation of linear S.E. Angle of contact. Banking of roads. Vertical circular motion due to earth‟s gravitation. Projection of U. Wave motion 116 .E.PHYSICS (Upgraded syllabus) Std. Equation for velocity and energy at different positions of vertical circular motion. Damped S. Angular momentum and its conservation. Circular motion Angular displacement. Oscillations Explanation of periodic motion. lattitude. Applications of elastic behaviour of materials.H.H. Statement of Kepler‟s laws of motion.E. Weightlessness condition in orbit.M. Behaviour of metal wire under increasing load. on any diameter. Capillarity and capillary action.H.I. Periodic time. Composition of two S. Elastic energy. Radius of gyration.. Elasticity General explanation of elastic property. 5.‟s having same period and along same line.H.
Refraction at plane surface. Effect of dielectric on capacity. Derivation of Boyle‟s law. Construction of plane and spherical wave front. Reflection at plane surface. Polaroids. Law of equipartition of energy and application to Specific heat capacities of gases. Brewster‟s law. Resolving power of a microscope and telescope. Mean free path. Interference and diffraction Interference of light. Condensers in series and parallel. Electrostatics Gauss‟ theorem proof and applications. Plane polarised light. Superposition of waves. Qualitative idea of black body radiation. Capacity of parallel plate condenser. 8. Heat engines and refrigerators.Thermal equilibrium and definition of temperature. 13. Difference between interference and diffraction. Maxwell distribution. Formation of beats. Resonance.Wein’s displacement law. Free and Forced vibrations. Mechanical force on unit area of a charged conductor. Doppler effect in light. Green house effect. Energy of charged condenser. Assumptions of kinetic theory. Wave front and wave normal. Measurement of wavelength by biprism experiment. 12. Stationary waves Study of vibrations in a finite medium. 10. Doppler effect in sound. Degrees of freedom. Polarisation. Formation of stationary waves on string. Derivation for pressure of a gas. Change of phase. Young‟s experiment. Analytical treatment of interference bands. Current electricity 117 . Study of vibrations of air columns. 2nd law of thermodynamics. Thermodynamics. Stefan’s law. Conditions for producing steady interference pattern. Reflection of transverse and longitudinal waves. Kinetic theory of gases and Radiation Concept of an ideal gas. 9. 11. Wave theory of light Wave theory of light. Rayleigh‟s criterion. Huygens‟ Principle. van-de-Graaff generator. Energy density of a medium. 1st law of thermodynamics.Simple harmonic progressive waves. Concept of condenser. Diffraction due to single slit. Dielectrics and electric polarisation.
mass defect. 19 Semiconductors Energy bands in solids. P-N junction diode. Transformer. LC oscillations (qualitative treatment only) Power in a. de Broglie hypothesis.Kirchhoff‟s law. Zener diode as a voltage regulator.c circuit with resistance. 18 Atoms. I-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias. I-V characteristics of LED. inductance and capacitance. per nucleon and its variation with mass number. 16 Electromagnetic inductions Laws of electromagnetic induction. e = . Bohr‟s model. Cyclotron. Need for displacement current. Wavelength of an electron. Particle nature of light. Rutherford‟s model of atom. Meter bridge. 14. 15. mass-energy relation. Rectifiers. Matter waves – wave nature of particles. Alternating currents. Curie temperature. Hydrogen spectrum. Photodiode. Decay law. Magnetic effects of electric current Ampere‟s law and its applications. Paramagnetism. Wheatstone‟s bridge. Coil rotating in uniform magnetic induction. Potentiometer. Self induction and mutual induction. 17 Electrons and photons Photoelectric effect.dØ dt Eddy currents. Diamagnetism. AC generator. B. Wattless current. Composition and size of nucleus. Intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors. Ammeter. Voltmeter. proof of. P-type and N-type semiconductor. Davisson and Germer experiment. Resonant circuit. Moving coil galvanometer. Nuclear fission and fusion.E. Magnetism Circular current loop as a magnetic dipole. Solar cell. Magnetisation and magnetic intensity. Reactance and impedance. Continuous and characteristics X-rays. Transistor 118 . Radioactivity. Einstein‟s equation. Molecules and Nuclei Alpha particle scattering experiment. Magnetic dipole moment of revolving electron. Hertz and Lenard‟s observations. Ferromagnetism on the basis of domain theory. Sensitivity of moving coil galvanometer.
AND. bandwidth of transmission medium. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 119 . Transistor as an amplifier (CE mode). bandwidth of signals. Propagation of electromagnetic waves in atmosphere. space communication.action and its characteristics.NOT.NOR) 20 Communication systems Elements of communication system. Production and detection of an amplitude modulated wave.NAND. Oscillators and Logic gates (OR.Transistor as a switch. Need for modulation.
To find resistance of given wire using metre bridge and hence determine the specific resistance of its material. 8. To draw the I-V characteristic curves of a p-n junction diode in forward bias and reverse bias. To study the relationship between the temperature of a hot body and time by plotting a cooling curve. 13. 14. 2. To study the characteristics of a common-emitter npn or pnp transistor and to find out the values of current and voltage gains. 5. To find the force constant and effective mass of helical spring by plotting T 2--m graph using method of oscillations. 15. 6. To determine Young‟s modulus of elasticity of the material of a given wire. 12. 3. To verify the laws of combination (series/parallel) of resistances using a metre bridge. 9. To study the relation between the length of a given wire and tension for constant frequency using sonometer. To determine the internal resistance of given cell using potentiometer. 7. XII 1. To determine the surface tension of water by capillary rise method. To determine resistance of galvanometer using metre bridge. 4. To compare the emf of two given cells using potentiometer. 10. To study the relation between frequency and length of a given wire under constant tension using sonometer. 11. 120 . To find the speed of sound in air at room temperature using a resonance tube.Physics List of Practicals Std. To draw the characteristic curve of a zener diode and to determine its reverse break down voltage.
4.R. 7. 5. 2. 6. an LED. 121 . and 1C. XII 1. To draw the diagram of a given open circuit comprising at least a battery. (iii) see the unidirectional flow of current in case of a diode and an LED (iv) check whether a given electronic component (e. To study the effect of detergent on surface tension by observing capillary rise. diode. transistor or IC) is in working order. 9. To study the factors affecting the rate of loss of heat of a liquid. To observe polarization of light using two polaroids. a fuse and a power source. 10. 12.Physics List of Activities Std. To study the variation in potential drop with length of a wire for a steady current. To study effect of intensity of light (by varying distance of the source) on an L. To assemble a household circuit comprising three bulbs. To measure the resistance and impedance of an inductor with or without iron core. To identify a diode. a transistor. Use of multimeter to (i) identify base of transistor (ii) distinguish between npn and pnp type transistors. ammeter and voltmeter. To study the effect of load on depression of a suitably clamped meter scale loaded (i) at its end (ii) in the middle.g. 1 l. three (on/off) switches. To study dissipation of energy of a simple pendulum by plotting a graph between square of amplitude and time. 8. a resistor and a capacitor from mixed collection of such items. resistor/ rheostat. Mark the components that are not connected in proper order and correct the circuit and also the circuit diagram. 3. key.D.
nutrition. 4) To equip students to face various changes related to health. engineering. The syllabus contains areas like physical. OBJECTIVES The broad objectives of teaching Chemistry at Senior Secondary Stage are to help the learners : 1) To promote understanding of basic facts and concepts in chemistry while retaining the excitement of Chemistry. industrial. 3) To expose the students to various emerging new areas of chemistry and apprise them with their relevance in their future studies and their applications in various spheres of chemical sciences and technology. engineering. The syllabus is comparable to the international level. 5) To develop problem solving skills in students. Biology. technology) at tertiary level. organic. The revised syllabus has taken care of new formulations and nomenclature of elements. population. symbols and formulations. Geology. This new syllabus will make them competent to meet the challenges of academic and professional courses like medicine. after the +2 stage. weather. inorganic. Engineering.CHEMISTRY (Upgraded syllabus) Std. 7) To apprise students with interface of chemistry with other disciplines of science such as Physics. 122 . XI & XII Preamble RATIONALE According to NCF 2005. analytical and polymer chemistry. modern techniques are given importance. the new and updated curriculum is introduced at +2 stages. industries and agriculture. compounds and IUPAC units of physical quantities. 6) To expose the students to different processes used in industries and their technological applications. New nomenclature. There is a need to provide the sufficient conceptual background of chemistry which will help the students to appear for different common entrance test at state level and national level. etc. 2) To make students capable of studying chemistry in academic and professional courses (such as medicine. technology. fundamental concepts. environment. etc.
liquefaction of gases. Ideal behaviour. 123 . Ideal gas equation. quantum numbers. Dalton‟s atomic theory : concept of elements.Enthalpy: Explanation and definition of term. percentage composition. periodic trends in properties of elements atomic radii. de Broglie‟s relationship. XI (Theory) Unit 1: Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry General Introduction: Importance and scope of chemistry. Unit 3 : Structure of Atom Discovery of electron. Bohr‟s model and its limitations. Deviation from ideal behaviour. isotopes and isobars. electronegativity. no mathematical derivations). Rutherford‟s model and its limitations. Kinetic energy and molecular speeds (elementary idea) Liquid State – Vapour pressure. dual nature of matter and light. Critical temperature.CHEMISTRY Std. concept of shells and subshells. stoichiometry and calculations based on stoichimetry. Ionization enthalpy. type of bonding. stability of half filled and completely filled orbitals. Unit 4 : Periodic Table Significance of classification. Heisenberg‟s uncertainty principle. Gay Lussac‟s law. rules for filling electrons in orbitals – Aufbau principle. shapes of s. atomic number. ionic radii. Charles law. electron gain enthalpy. proton and neutron. chemical reactions. p and d orbitals. empirical derivation of gas equation. electronic configuration of atoms. valence. atoms and molecules. Boyle‟s law. Unit 2 : States of Matter : Gases and Liquids Three states of matter. Inert gas radii nomenclature of elements with atomic number greater than 100. Atomic and molecular masses mole concept and molar mass : Avogadro‟s law and Avogadro number. Historical approach to particulate nature of matter. Pauli‟s exclusion principle and Hund‟s rule. laws of chemical combination. modern periodic law and present form of periodic table. Intermolecular interactions. Role of gas laws in elucidating the concept of the molecule. viscosity and surface tension (qualitative idea only. concept of orbitals. empirical and molecular formula. brief history of the development of periodic table.
law of mass action. physical and chemical properties of water. Hydrolysis of salts (elementary idea). concept of hybridization involving s. in terms of loss and gain of electrons and change in oxidation number. Lyophilic. oxidation number. Lyophobic. Unit 7 : Surface Chemistry Adsorption – physisorption and chemisorption. Uses of hydrogen peroxide 124 . Hydrogen peroxide.) Handerson equation. Unit 6: Chemical Equilibrium Equilibrium in physical and chemical processes. preparation. ionization of polybasic acids. factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids. p and d orbitals and shapes of some simple molecules. Lewis structure. dynamic nature of equilibrium. properties and uses of hydrogen. heavy water. factors affecting equilibrium. Brownian movement.Unit 5: Redox Reactions Concept of oxidation and reduction. properties and structure. acid strength. polar character of covalent bond. occurrence. covalent and interstitial. ionic bond. emulsion – types of emulsions. Balancing redox reactions. Tyndall effect. covalent character of ionic bond. Le Chatelier‟s principle. colloids and suspensions. coagulation. degree of ionization. activity and selectivity: enzyme catalysis. hydrogen bond. solubility product common ion effect (with illustrative examples. Ionic equilibrium: Ionization of acids and bases. redox reactions. hydrides-ionic. VSEPR theory. Born Haber cycle : covalent bond parameters. geometry of covalent molecules. Unit 9 : Hydrogen Position of hydrogen in periodic table. Buffer solutions. molecular orbital theory of homonuclear diatomic molecules (qualitative idea only). catalysis : homogenous and heterogeneous.preparation. isotopes. Unit 8 : Nature of Chemical Bond Valence electrons. Elementary idea of nanomaterials. valence bond theory. strong and weak electrolytes. hydrogen as a fuel. equilibrium constant. colloidal state : distinction between true solutions. electrophoresis. concept of pH. properties of colloids. multimolecular and macromolecular colloids. resonance.
anomalous properties of first element of the group.carbocations. atomic and ionic radii). boron hydrides.Homolytic and heterolytic fission of a covalent bond. trends in chemical reactivity. resonance and hyper conjugation. electronic configuration. types of organic reactions. electromeric effect. Group 14 elements: General introduction. variation of properties. allotropic forms. Aluminium. electronic configuration. trends in chemical reactivity with oxygen. Important compounds of silicon and their uses: silicon tetrachloride. inductive effect. trends in the variation of properties (such as ionization enthalpy. free radicals. biological importance of Magnesium and Calcium. boric acids. electronic configuration. occurrence. Unit 11 : p-Block Elements Group Introduction to p-Block Elements Group 13 elements : General introduction. oxidation states. silicones. oxidation states. biological importance of sodium and potassium. carbanions. physical and chemical properties. anomalous behavior of first element. uses. methods of qualitative and quantitative analysis. water. occurrence. uses. electrophiles and nucleophiles. Calcium oxide and calcium carbonate (CaO) (CaCO3) and industrial uses of lime and limestone. hydrogen and halogens. silicates and zeolites and structure of silicates Unit 12: Basic Principles and Techniques in Organic Chemistry General introduction. Preparation and properties of some important compounds: Sodium carbonate. uses of some important Compounds. Electronic displacements in a covalent bond. Variation of properties. some important compounds: borax. trends in chemical reactivity. Classification and IUPAC nomenclature of organic compounds. anomalous properties of the first element of each group. Boron-physical and chemical properties. reactions with acids and alkalies. Melting point and boiling point. occurrence. sodium hydroxide and sodium hydrogen carbonate.Unit 10: s-Block Elements (Alkali and Alkaline earth metals) Group 1 and Group 2 elements: General introduction. 125 . Carbon – catenation. diagonal relationship. oxides.
benzene. ozone and its reactions. UNIT-17: Environmental chemistry Environmental pollution.Unit 13 : Alkanes Classification of hydrocarbons – Nomenclature. Unit 16 : Aromatic compounds Introduction. Methods of preparation. Friedel Craft‟ alkylation and acylation. effects of depletion of ozone layer.air. halogens. acid rain. mechanism of electrophilic addition. green chemistry as an alternative tool for reducing pollution. Carcinogenicity and toxicity. chemical reactions including free radical mechanism of halogenation. addition reaction of – hydrogen. halogenation. physical properties. 126 . physical properties. water. chemical reactions in atmosphere. chemical reactions: acidic character of alkynes. structure of double bond (ethane). Chemical reactions. major atmospheric pollutants. chemical properties. IUPAC nomenclature. mechanism of electrophilic substitution. water. isomerism. oxidation. conformations (ethane only). green house effect and global warming. water and soil pollution. Pollution due to industrial wastes. hydrogen halides (Markovnikoff‟s addition and peroxide effect) ozonolysis. geometrical isomerism. sulphonaiton. strategy for control of environmental pollution. resonance aromaticity. – nitration. combustion and pyrolysis. Unit 14 : Alkenes Nomenclature. hydrogen halides. addition of hydrogen. methods of preparation. physical properties. smog. Unit 15: Alkynes Nomenclature. halogen. structure of triple bond (ethylene).
D. Study the pH change in the titration of a strong base using universal indicator.) 2. C. resorcinol. β-naphthol.p). E. Basic Laboratory Techniques 1. xylene (o. Study of burner 5. copper sulphate. methyl acetate. ferric hydroxide. Lyophobic sol–aluminium hydroxide. bases and salts using pH paper or universal indicator. 127 . naphthalene. (b) Study of the role of emulsifying agents in stabilizing the emulsion of oil. Drawing out a glass jet 4. Experiments related to pH change (a) Any one of the following experiments: Determination of pH of some solutions obtained from fruit juices. acetic acid. (p-toludine. Operating pinch cork B. benzoic acid. Chemical equilibrium Any one of the following experiments: (a) Study the shift in equilibrium between ferric ions and thiocyanate ions by changing the concentration of either ion. (b) Study the shift in equilibrium between [Co(H2O)6]2+ and chloride ions by changing the concentration of either of the ions. arseneous sulphide. water) 3. Bending glass tube 3. Determination of melting point of an organic compound. (acetone.Chemistry Practical Syllabus Std-XI A. varied concentrations of acids. Characterization and purification of chemical substances 1. Comparing the pH solutions of strong and weak acid of same concentration.m. Crystallization of impure sample of anyone of the following compounds. benzoic acid. Alum. Cutting glass tube and glass rod 2. Determination of boiling point of an organic compound. Surface Chemistry (a) Preparation of one lyophilic and one lyophobic sol: Lyophilic sol-starch and gum. Oxalic acid.
Co2+. Al3+. Mn2+. Quantitative estimation Using a chemical balance. Zn2+. F. Preparation of standard solution of sodium carbonate. PO43C2O42CH3COO(Note: Insoluble salts excluded) H. sulphur. Ca2+. Fe3+. Detection of nitrogen. Sr2+. Determination of strength of a given solution of sodium hydroxide by titrating it against standard solution of oxalic acid. Qualitative analysis Determination of one cation and one anion in a given salt: Cations – Pb2+. Ni2+ . Ba2+. NH4+ Anions – CO32SO32SO42NO2NO3Cl-. Br-. chlorine bromine and iodine in an organic compound. 128 . I-. Determination of strength of a given solution of hydrochloric acid by titrating It against standard sodium carbonate solution. Preparation of standard solution of oxalic acid.(b) Study of pH change by common ion effect in case of weak acids and bases. G. Mg2+. Cu2+.
Note: Any other investigatory project can be chosen with the approval of the teacher. 6 Determination of the rate of evaporation of different liquids. 2 Study of the methods of purification of water. 4 Investigation of the foaming capacity of different washing soaps and the effect of addition of sodium carbonate on them. 3 Testing the hardness. 129 . fluoride. depending upon the regional variation in drinking water and the study of causes of presence of these ions above permissible limit (if any). 7 Study of the effect of acids and bases on the tensile strength of fibers. 5 Study of the acidity of different samples of the tea leaves.PROJECT Scientific investigations involving laboratory testing and collecting information from other sources. 8 Analysis of fruit and vegetable juices for their acidity. chloride etc. presence of iron. A few suggested Projects 1 Checking the bacterial contamination in drinking water by testing sulphide ion.
concept of 130 . sublimation. Unit 3 : Chemical Thermodynamics and energetic Concepts of system. Nernst equation and its application to chemical cells. temperature. XII (Theory) Unit 1: Solid State Classification of solids based on different forces. extensive and intensive properties. osmotic pressure. Work. energy. and solution and dilution Introduction of entropy as a state function. solubility of gases in liquids.unit cell in two dimensional and three dimensional lattices. Second and third law of thermodynamics Unit 4: Electrochemistry Redox reactions. order and molecularity of a reaction. surroundings.Van’t Hoff factor and calculations involving it. formation. point defects. combustion. dry cell –electrolytic and Galvanic cells. Relation between Gibb’s energy change and emf of a cell. variations of conductivity with concentration. molecular. depression of freezing point. atomization. fuel cells. Unit 5: Chemical Kinetics Rate of reaction (average and instantaneous). conductance in electrolytic solutions. amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea). factors affecting rate of reaction. free energy change for spontaneous and non spontaneous processes. concentration. electrical and magnetic properties. corrosion. First law of thermodynamics – internal energy and enthalpy. electrolysis and laws of electrolysis (elementary idea). rate law and specific rate constant. covalent and metallic solids. determination of molecular masses using colligative properties. calculation of density of unit cell. standard electrode potential. and equilibrium constant. specific and molar conductivity.CHEMISTRY Std. Phase transition. lead accumulator. number of atoms per unit cell in a cubic unit cell. abnormal molecular mass. conductors and semiconductors and insulators and n and p type semiconductors. solid solutions. catalyst. state functions. colligative properties –relative lowering of vapor pressure. types of systems. Kohlrausch‟s Law. voids.Raoult’s law elevation of boiling point. packing in solids. heat. enthalpy of bond dissociation. ionic. Unit 2 : Solutions and colligative properties Types of solutions. EMF of a cell. expression of concentration of solids in liquids. Hess‟ law of constant heat summation. Band theory of metals. integrated rate equations and half life (only for zero and first order reactions). ionization.
131 . oxoacids of sulphur (structures only). zinc and iron Unit 7: p-Block Elements Group 15 elements: General introduction. Ozone. dioxygen. oxidation states. oxoacids of halogens (structure only). industrial process of manufacture. preparation and properties of phosphine. preparation and properties of ammonia and nitric acid. preparation. occurrence and principle of extraction of aluminium. trends in physical and chemical properties. interhalogen compounds. simple oxides.Activation energy. properties and uses. compounds of nitrogen. halides (PCl3. Group 17 elements: General introduction. oxidation states. oxidation states.collision theory (elementary idea. reduction electrolytic method and refining. Sulphur – allotropic forms. Phoshorous-allotropic forms. properties and uses. properties and uses. trends in physical and chemical properties. occurrence. uses. electronic configuration. compounds of phosphorous. occurrence. oxides of nitrogen (structure only). occurrence. compounds of sulphur. Occurrence. preparation. trends in physical and chemical properties. Unit 6 : General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements Principles and methods of extraction – concentration. Group 16 elements: General introduction. Group 18 elements: General introduction. electronic configuration. Arrhenius equation. trends in physical and chemical properties. properties and uses of chlorine and hydrochloric acid.PCl5) and oxoacids (elementary idea only). compounds of halogens. sulphurc acid. electronic configuration. oxidation. preparation. nitrogen – preparation. copper. no mathematical treatment). electronic configuration. properties and uses of sulphur dioxide. Classification of oxides.
electronic configuration. Phenols and Ethers Alcohols: Nomenclature. acidic nature of phenol. nature of C-X bond. Unit 11 : Alcohols. Werner’s theory. iodoform. alloy formation preparation and properties of K2Cr2O7 and KMnO4. Ethers : Nomenclature. physical and chemical properties. freons. mechanism of substitution reactions. magnetic properties. thrichloromethane. mechanism of dehydration. physical and chemical properties. physical and chemical properties (of primary alcohols only). methods of preparation. substitution reactions (directive influence of halogen for monosubstituted compounds only) stability of carbocations. extraction of metals and biological systems). isomerism. uses. Unit 10 : Halogen derivatives of alkanes (and arenes) Haloalkanes : Nomenclature. chemical reactivity and lanthanoid contraction and its consequences. 132 .CFT.Unit 8 : d and f Block Elements d-Block Elements General introduction. methods of preparation. oxidation states. oxidation states. methods of preparation. general trends in properties of the first row transition metals – metallic character. VBT. secondary and tertiary alcohols. IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds. identification of primary. occurrence and characteristics of transition metals. electrophillic substitution reactions. Actinoids – Electronic configuration. uses of phenols. f-Block ElementsLanthanoids – Electronic configuration. uses of methanol and ethanol. ionic radii. colour. R-S and d-l configurations. Phenols: Nomenclature. bonding. interstitial compounds. colour. coordination number. Uses and environmental effects of – dichloromethane. ionization enthalpy. ligands. physical and chemical properties. magnetic properties and shapes. DDT. catalytic property. Comparison with lanthanoids.R-S and d-l configuration Haloarenes : Nature of C-X bond. oxidation states. tetrachloromethane. (Structural and stereo) importance of coordination compounds (in qualitative analysis.Stability of carbocations. Unit 9: Coordination Compounds Coordination compounds – Introduction.
Physical and chemical properties. and rubber. uses. methods of polymerization (addition and condensation). importance. bakelite. their classification and functions. peptide. uses.natural and synthetic. Unit 14: Biomolecules Carbohydrates: Classification (aldoses and ketoses). structure. physical and chemical properties. Cyanides and Isocyanides: Will be mentioned at relevant places in context. lactose. Proteins: Elementary idea of -amino acids. Nucleic Acids: DNA and RNA Unit 15: Polymers Classification . identification of primary. Lipids and Hormones (elementary idea) excluding structure. secondary and tertiary amines. natural and synthetic like polythene. reactivity of alpha hydrogen in aldehydes. uses. acidic nature. tertiary structure and quaternary structures (qualitative idea only). methods of preparation. physical and chemical properties. methods of preparation. glycogen). proteins. Diazonium salts: Preparation. methods of preparation. structure of amines-primary. polysaccharides (starch. secondary. Unit 13: Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen Nitro compounds-General methods of preparation and chemical reactions Amines : Nomenclature. Ketones and Carboxylic Acids Aldehydes and Ketones : Nomenclature. polyesters. denaturation of proteins. nature of carbonyl group. mechanism of nucleophilic addition. maltose). 133 . Vitamins: Classification and functions. chemical reactions and importance in synthetic organic chemistry. classification. linkage. cellulose. nylon. Some important polymers. oligosaccharides (sucrose. Carboxylic Acids: Nomenclature. monosaccahrides d-l configuration (glucose and fructose). enzymes.Unit 12 : Aldehydes. polypeptides.Biodegradable and non biodegradable polymers. copolymerization.
tranquilizers. Chemicals in food: Preservatives. (b) Study of reaction rate of any one of the following: (i) Reaction of iodide ion with hydrogen peroxide at room temperature using different concentration of iodide ions. artificial sweetening agents. antacids. 134 . B. antiseptics. XII A. (c) Acid hydrolysis of ethyl acetate. cleansing action. iv] Heat of displacement of Cu from CuSO4 by Zn. Chemicals in medicines: analgesics. antibiotics. antimicrobials. KIO3 and sodium sulphite (Na2SO3) using starch solution as indicator (clock reaction). Chemistry Practical Syllabus Std. disinfectants. Thermochemistry Any one of the following experiments: i] Enthalpy of dissolution of copper sulphate or potassium nitrate. C. (ii) Reaction between potassium iodate.Unit 16: Chemistry in Everyday life : 1. ii] Enthalpy of neutralization of strong acid (HCI) and strong base (NaOH). antifertility drugs. antihistamines (elementary idea of antioxidants) 2. iii] Determination of enthalpy change during interaction (hydrogen bond formation) between acetone and chloroform. Chemical Kinetics (Any one of the following) : (a) Effect of concentration and temperature on the rate of reaction between sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid. Electrochemistry Variation of cell potential in Zn|Zn2+||Cu2+|Cu with change in concentration of electrolytes (CuSO4 or ZnSO4) at room temperature (demonstration). 3. Cleansing agents: Soaps and detergents.
H. (iii) Iodoform (iv) Phthalic or succinic anhydride. E. Tests for the functional groups present in organic compounds Unsaturation. Determinaiton of concentration/molarity of KMnO4 solution by titrating it against a standard solution of: (i) Oxalic acid (ii) Ferrous ammonium sulphate (Students will be required to prepare standard solutions by weighing themselves). Preparation of Inorganic Compounds (i) Preparation of double salt of ferrous ammonium sulphate or potash alum. 2) Determination of two anions from a given mixture of salts. Cations – Pb2+. (ii) Preparation of potassium ferric oxalate. Mn2+. Al3+. aldehydic. Zn2+. Preparation of Organic Compounds (i) p-Nitrocetanilide (ii) Aniline yellow or 2. Cu2+. Ni2+. Mg2+. 135 .Napthol aniline dye. F. phenolic.D. Characteristic tests of arbohydrates. Sr2+. Qualitative analysis 1) Determination of two cations from a given mixture of salts. ketonic. fats and proteins in pure samples and their detection in given food stuffs. (ii) Separation of constituents present in an inorganic mixture containing two cations only (constituents having large difference in Rf values to be provided). alcoholic. Ca2+. carboxylic and amino (primary) groups. NH4+. I. As3+. Fe3+. (v) Di-benzal acetone G. Chromatography (demonstration) (i) Separation of pigments from extracts of leaves and flowers by paper chromatography and determination of Rf values. Co2+. Ba2+. J.
Ajwain (carum). 8 Study of common food adulterants in fat. turmeric powder. chilli powder and pepper. 7 Extraction of essential oils present in Saunf (aniseed).Anions – CO32-. can be chosen with the approval of the teacher. Br-. SO32-. 6 Comparative study of the rate of fermentation of following materials: wheat flour. I-. etc. potato juice. 5 Study of digestion of starch by salivary amylase and. etc. sugar. 136 . SO42-. carrot juice. A few suggested Projects: 1 Study of presence of oxalate ions in guava fruit at different stages of ripening. gram flour. butter. effect of pH and temperature on it. time etc). concentration. Cl-. PO43C2O42CH3COO(Note : Insoluble salts excluded. Note : Any investigatory project. No2NO3-.) PROJECT Scientific investigations involving laboratory testing and collecting information From other sources. Illaichi (cardamom). effect of temperature. 4 Study of the effect of potassium bisulphate as food preservative under various conditions (temperature. 3 Preparation of soybean milk and its comparison with the natural milk with respect to curd formation. 2 Study of quantity of casein present in different samples of milk.
They are organized into populations and biological communities. Understanding of biology will help in the sustainable development of the environment and will also ensure the existence of earth with all its amazing diversity. Accordingly some additional topics from state Board syllabus have been deleted whereas the lacking topics have been added. Recently. Delhi. The present syllabus reinforces the concepts introduced in lower classes. Organisms seldom occur as isolated individuals.Std. ecosystems and environment constitute unique set of natural resources of great importance. Objectives: The prescribed syllabus is expected to: Promote the inherent skill of observation. Make students aware of issues of global importance. Assist to understand the underlying principles of biological sciences and thereby develop scientific attitude towards biological phenomena. the science of biology has undergone a paradigm shift that has transformed it from a collection of loosely related facts into a modern applied science. Create awareness about the contribution of biology to human welfare. This syllabus is designed to prepare students for various examinations conducted at state and national level. 137 . Living organisms exhibit extremely complex functional system. Guide students to perform easy experiments for better understanding of biological principles and to develop experimental skills required in practical work. XI & XII Preamble Higher secondary is the most crucial stage of education because at this juncture specialized disciplines of science are introduced. Hence it has been prepared in accordance with the guidelines shown in the final version of common core syllabi of COBSE. Organisms.BIOLOGY. Help students to understand the functioning of organisms. communities. Knowledge of biology helps us to understand a common thread which holds all these components together. The entire unit “Ecology and Environment” has now been added under Botany and Zoology sections.
Botanical gardens and herbaria . 2. Types.Meaning. Three to five salient features and two examples of each category. Systematic and binomial system of nomenclature . Taxonomic hierarchy with examples. Classification of living organisms (five Kingdom classification) – Major groups and principles of classification for each Kingdom with examples.Definitions. systematics. Concept of species. characters. Salient features of major plant groups . Lichens . Cell cycle 2. proteins.meaning of the terms taxonomy. Pteridophyta. Chapter 4 Cell Division 1. general properties.Kingdom Plantae 1. Meiosis 138 . 3. Mitosis 3. Three domains of life. 5.Std. lipids and nucleic acids in brief. Unit 2 Structure and function of cell Chapter 3 . Bryophyta.Biochemistry of cell: 1. Need of classification. Structure and function of carbohydrates. characters. 2. Enzyme action and factors affecting enzyme activity in brief. – XI: Biology (Upgraded syllabus) Section I .Diversity in organisms 1. classification and nomenclature. Diversity in living organisms-Brief idea. 4. Enzymes . Gymnosperms and Angiosperms (Dicotyledons and Monocotyledons).Algae. 2.Definition. Basic chemical constituents of living bodies.Botany . types with examples. examples and importance.Meaning. Unit 1 Diversity in Living World: Chapter 1. Binomial nomenclature explanation. Chapter 2 . significance and examples. Viruses and viroids . Economic importance and list of viral diseases. 3. importance and list of gardens and herbaria in India.
Role of K+ ions 3. Elementary idea of Hydroponics.Plant Growth and Development: Seed dormancy. biological nitrogen fixation) Chapter 7 . leaf.differentiation.Absorption of water and minerals.Plant Water Relation and Mineral Nutrition 1.Apoplast and Symplast Pathways. gibberellins. Guttation Ascent of sap. Morphology. Unit 4 Plant Physiology: Chapter 6 .tension theory. Phases of growth. mechanism of opening and closing of stomata. Differentiation. nutrients and gases. stem. ethylene and abscissic acid (role in brief) Photoperiodism.Roots. root pressure concept and cohesion . food. inflorescence.macronutrients and micronutrients and their role. Definition and characteristics of growth. flower. anatomy and functions of different parts .Hypogeal. Plant tissues. Transpiration – structure of stomata. Mineral toxicity.Morphology of Plants 1. Translocation of sugars through phloem brief account. de. (To be dealt along with the relevant practicals of the practical syllabus) 2. Mineral deficiency symptoms.auxins. Germination .Unit 3 Structural organization in plants: Chapter 5 . cytokinines. 2. Nitrogen Metabolism (nitrogen cycle. Role of water and minerals . epigeal and viviparous. 139 . fruit and seed.. Movement of water. Active and passive absorption in brief. Photomorphogenesis including brief account of Phytochromes (Elementary idea) Vernalization. Conditions of growth. redifferentiation Sequence of developmental process in a plant cell Growth regulators .
Std. Cartilage and Bone). Cyclostomata. cuboidal. Classification of following phyla with three to five salient features and two examples of each category: Porifera. Amphibia. Cell theory . Adipose. Cephalochordata. Salient features of major phyla under kingdom Animalia. 4. Golgi complex. b) Connective tissue . Hemichordata. Arthropoda. columnar. Aves and Mammalia. . Vacuoles.General idea with list.(fluid mosaic model). .types: a) Epithelial tissues . Plant cell and animal cell. Cell wall and cell membrane . Animal tissues . Osteichthyes. Lysosomes. glandular).compound epithelium (stratified and transitional). Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell . cytoskeleton.Nucleus. 5. Nemathelminthes. Platyhelminthes.simple epithelium (squamous. Chondrichthyes. Endoplasmic reticulum. Ligaments. 140 . Mollusca. Nuclear organization .Study of Animal Tissues 1. Microbodies. Reptilia. Cell organelles: Plastids. Coelenterata. Echinodermata and Unit 2 Structure and function of cell: Chapter 9 . Classification of phylum chordata upto class level with three to five salient features and two examples of each category: Urochordata.(Areolar. Unit 3 Structural organisation in Animals: Chapter 10. cilia and flagella. nucleolus and nucleoplasm.Kingdom Animalia: 1.structure and examples.XI Section II – Zoology Unit 1 Diversity in Living World: Chapter 8 . Zoological parks and Museums . Mitochondria. Annelida. 3. 2. Ribosome and Centrioles (ultrstructure and functions). Tendons. 6.brief account 2.Organization of Cell: 1. Ciliated.
c) Muscular tissue .Study of Animal Type: 1.Asthma. Peristalsis. Calorific value of proteins. absorption and nutritional disorders: ii) Digestive system in brief iv) Physiology of digestion. vomiting and diarrhoea Chapter 13.synarthroses. anatomy and functions of digestive.(Smooth. assimilation and egestion vi) Nutritional and digestive disorders – PEM. Morphology. Digestion. respiration and common respiratory disorders: Respiratory organs in animals (Recall only) i) Respiratory system in brief ii) Breathing.inspiration and expiration. gastrointestinal hormones. transport of CO2 and O2 and tissue respiration. circulatory. Chapter 14. and diarthroses. amphiarthroses. and reproductive systems of cockroach (Brief account only) Unit 4 Human Physiology: Chapter 12. indigestion. Regulation of Respiration. glial cells and types of neurons). Regulation iii) Exchange of gases. Respiratory volumes iv) Respiratory disorders. Jaundice. constipation. Chapter 11. respiratory. Emphysema and occupational lung diseases. striated and cardiac). 141 . nervous. d) Nervous tissue (Neurons.Human Respiration: 1Breathing.Human Nutrition: 1.Human skeleton and Locomotion: Brief account of human skeleton: A] Axial Skeleton B] Appendicular Skeleton (Details to be dealt with the relevant practical) Types of joints . carbohydrates and fats v) Absorption.
Preparation of T. 2. Fabaceae and Liliaceae with respect to types of root-(tap and adventitious). saddle and gliding joints. venation. of dicot (sunflower) and monocot roots and stem to study different plant tissues. Osteoporosis.Types of diarthroses . muscular dystrophy tetany and gout. 4. Study of parts of compound microscope. starch. leaf (arrangement. Study of plasmolysis in epidermal peels.Ciliary. stem (herbaceous and woody). proteins and fats from suitable plant and animal materials.ball and socket. Std. 7. To test the presence of sugar. 8) To study the digestion of starch by salivary amylase under different conditions of temperature and pH. hinge. pivot. condyloid. simple and compound) and floral characters. arthritis. Study of structure and distribution of stomata in upper and lower surface of leaf. Types of Movement. 3 Study and describe three locally available flowering plants from the families-Solanaceae. Flagellar. shape. 142 . S. XI Biology Practicals Syllabus (A) List of experiments: 1. 5 Study of osmosis by Potato osmometer 6. Muscular Mechanism of muscle movement: Contractile proteins and Muscle contraction Skeletal and muscular disorders – Myasthenia gravis.
xylem. Oscillatoria. 2. Riccia. 8 Study of tissues and diversity in shapes and sizes of plant and animal cells. cartilaginous and fibrous joint with one suitable example). muscle fibres. leaf Spines. Snail. parenchyma. Comparative study of rates of transpiration in upper and lower surface of leaf. Study of specimens and identification with reasons: Bacteria. sclerenchyma. 11. 7 Study and identification of different types of inflorescence. Amoeba. Pigeon and Rat. 3. Leech. mammalian blood smear. parasitic root. Frog. Silkworm Honey bee . Study of imbibition of seeds/raisins. Liverfluke.palisade cells. Funaria. squamous epithelium. Rhizopus. Prawn. phloem. Study of different modification of leaf (leaflet and stipular tendril). guard cells. Earthworm. yeast. Star-fish. Balanoglossus. Usnea. c) Apical bud removal 10. 143 . Study of different modifications of stem (stem tuber. sunflower and maize. Study of different modifications of root (fusiform root. through temporary or permanent slides. Study of specimens and their identification with reasons – Sycon. Hydra. Observation and comments on experimental set up on: a) Phototropism b) Suction due to transpiration. Shark. epiphytic root and pneumatophores). Lizard. 4. Ascaris. Spirogyra. and tendril). Agaricus.(B) Study/ Observation of the following (Spotting): 1. Nephrolepis. 6. runner. Study of human skeleton (except skull. 9. Cycas. hand bones and foot bones) and different types of joints (synovial. 5. collenchyma. phyllode). Rohu.
Gene Amplification (PCR). co-dominance. 13. Protein Synthesis.Gene: its nature.Biotechnology: Process and Application Genetic engineering (Recombinant DNA technology): Transposons. Application of Biotechnology in Agriculture – BT crops Biosafety Issues (Biopiracy and patents) Unit 3: Biology and Human Welfare Chapter 4 . Producing Restriction Fragments. multiple alleles and Inheritance of blood groups). Gene Expression and Gene Regulation (The Lac operon as a typical model of gene regulation). structure of DNA as given by Watson and Cricks model. cockroach and frog through models. Deviations from Mendelian ratio (gene interaction.Enhancement in Food Production: Plant Breeding Tissue Culture: Concept of Cellular Totipotency. Unit 2: Biotechnology and its application Chapter 3 . Elementary idea of polygenic inheritance. Plasmids. muton and recon. 144 . Preparing and cloning a DNA Library.XII Biology (Upgraded syllabus) Section I – BOTANY Unit 1: Genetics and Evolution Chapter 1 . central dogma. Transcription. DNA Packaging. RNA: General structure types and functions. Translation-Genetic Code. . ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Std. DNA as genetic material. expression and regulation: Modern concept of gene in brief-cistron. Pleiotropy. semi conservative replication of eukaryotic DNA. Bacteriophages.Genetic Basis of Inheritance: Mendelian inheritance. Study of mitosis in onion roots tips and animal cells (grasshopper) from permanent slides. Chapter 2 .incomplete dominance.12 Study of external morphology of earthworm.
Respiration: ATP as currency of Energy Mechanism of Aerobic (Glycolysis. Respiratory quotient of Nutrients.Reproduction in Plants: Modes of Reproduction (Asexual and Sexual). Asexual reproduction.Microbes in Human Welfare: Microbes in Household food processing Microbes in Industrial Production. Callus Culture.Photosynthesis: Autotrophic nutrition Site of Photosynthesis Photosynthetic Pigments and their role. TCA Cycle and Electron Transport System) and Anaerobic Respiration. Significance of Respiration. Unit 5: Reproduction in Organisms Chapter 8 . uniparental modes-vegetative propagation. Biofortification Chapter 5 . Factors affecting Photosynthesis. Microbes as Biofertilizers. Suspension Culture. micropropagation 145 . Microbes in Biogas (energy) Production. Chapter 7 . Photorespiration. Fermentation Exchange of gases Amphibolic pathway. Single Cell Protein. Unit 4: Plant Physiology Chapter 6 . Law of limiting factors. Microbes as Biocontrol Agents. Microbes in Sewage Treatment.Requirements of Tissue Culture (in brief). Light-Dependent Reactions (Cyclic and non-cyclic photophosphorylation) Light-Independent Reactions (C3 and C4 Pathways) Chemiosmotic hypothesis.
Origin and Evolution of Human being. Mechanism of evolution. deforestation. Chromosomes. case studies (any two). Development of female Gametophyte. Significance of seed and fruit formation. biomass. . energy. Spontaneous. Outbreeding devices. Std. components. Adaptive radiation. Gene flow and genetic drift. oxygen release.XII Biology Section II . polyembryony. ozone depletion. Pollination: Types and Agencies. solid waste management. Environmental issues: agrochemicals and their effects. Ecological succession. nutrient cycling (carbon and phosphorous). Chapter 11 . Structure of anatropous ovule. Biological Evidences. pyramids of number. pollen-pistil interaction. Double Fertilization: Process and Significance.Hardy-Weinberg principle. Modern Synthetic Theory of evolution.Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance: The Chromosomal Theory. assembly of organic compounds. Post-fertilization changes (development of endosperm and embryo.Origin and the Evolution of Life: Origin of Life: Early Earth.Sexual Reproduction: structure of flower Development of male gametophyte. Unit 6: Ecology and Environment: Chapter 9: Organisms and Environment -I Habitat and Niche Ecosystems: Patterns. Green house effect and global warming. productivity and decomposition. pollination. Evolution: Darwin‟s contribution. development of seed and formation of fruit) Special modes-apomixis. Ecological services-carbon fixation.ZOOLOGY Unit 1: Genetics and Evolution Chapter 10 . 146 . energy flow. parthenocarpy.
Filariasis.Animal Husbandry: Management of Farms and Farm Animals. Vaccines. Sericulture Lac culture 147 . Common cold and ring worm).Genetic Engineering and Genomics: DNA Finger Printing. Gene Therapy. Turner’s syndrome and Klinfelter’s syndrome. Adolescence. Transgenic animals. Typhoid. Chromosomal disorders in human: Down’s syndrome. Unit 3: Biology and Human Welfare Chapter 13. Chapter 14. drug and alcohol abuse. Structure of Antibody. honey bee. Genomics and Human Genome Project. Pathogens and Parasites (Amoebiasis. Biotechnological Applications in Health: Human insulin and vaccine production. Pneumonia. Animal Breeding. Ascariasis. birds. Malaria. Sex-linked Inheritance (Haemophilia and colour blindness).Linkage and Crossing Over. Dairy. Bee-Keeping. Fisheries. Cancer and AIDS. Antigen-Antibody Complex. Unit 2: Biotechnology and its application Chapter 12. Antigens on blood cells.Human Health and Diseases: Concepts of Immunology: Immunity Types.Mendelian disorders in humansThalassemia. Sex Determination in Human being. Poultry.
Unit 4: Human Physiology Chapter 15. general idea of other sense organs Endocrine System: Endocrine glands. atrial natriuretic factor. Hormones and their functions. and heart failure. Hormonal imbalance and diseases: Common disorders (Dwarfism.Control and Co-ordination: Nervous System: Structure and functions of brain and Spinal cord. Transplantation. Dialysis. angina pectoris. Role of Kidney in Osmoregulation. Pulmonary and Systemic Circulation. Disorders. Reflex action. Chapter 17.Excretion and osmoregulation: Modes of excretion-Ammonotelism. Acromegaly. Diabetes mellitus. exopthalmic goiter. Addison’s disease) 148 . Kidney failure. Uraemia. role of other organs in excretion. Blood related disorders: Hypertension. Blood Vessels. brief idea about PNS and ANS. Heart beat and Pulse. Cardiac output. Lymphatic System (Brief idea): Composition of lymph and its functions. nephritis. Chapter 16. Sensory receptors (eye and ear). Blood groups Structure and pumping action of Heart. Excretory System Composition and formation of urine. uricotelism. ECG. coronary artery disease.Circulation: Blood composition and coagulation. Regulation of cardiac activity. goiter. ADH and Diabetes inspidus. Sensory perception. Rhythmicity of Heart beat. Regulation of kidney function: renin-angiotensin. ureotelism. Kidney stone (renal calculi). Mechanism of hormone action Hormones as messengers and regulators. Transmission of nerve impulse. cretinism.
fertilization. Histology of testis and ovary. age distribution. loss.red data book . parturition and lactation (Elementary idea). Infertility and assisted reproductive technologies.concept.Human Reproduction: Reproductive system in male and female. Biodiversity and its conservation. birth rate and death rate.MTP. Reproductive cycle. Pregnancy. Threats to and need for biodiversity conservation . Production of gametes. ZIFT. biosphere reserves. Unit 6: Ecology and Environment Chapter 19-Organisms and Environment-II Population and ecological adaptations: population interactions-mutualism. implantation. Embryo development up to three germinal layers.Unit 5: Reproduction in Organisms Chapter 18. national parks and sanctuaries. (Case studies any two) ---------------------------------------------------------------- 149 . Environmental issues: air pollution and its control.IVF. predation. competition. placenta. Hotspots. Contraception and sexually transmitted diseases. population attributes. water pollution and its control and radioactive waste management. endangered organisms. Reproductive health-birth control. parasitism.growth. GIFT (elementary idea for general awareness). importance.extinction.Biodiversity. patterns. Amniocentesis.
Prepare a temporary mount of onion root tip to study mitosis. 10.. To test the presence of urea and sugar in urine. Correlate with the kinds of plants found in them. Collect and study soil from at least two different sites and study them for texture. 5. 3 To Study Mendelian inheritance using seeds of different colour/size of any plant. XII (Upgraded) Biology Practicals Syllabus Experiments: 1. 3. Study the presence of suspended particulate matter in air at the two widely different Sites. 9.Std. insect) 2 Study of pollen germination on stigma through a permanent slide. 4 Exercise on controlled pollination . tagging and bagging 5 Study meiosis in onion bud cell or grass hopper testis through permanent slide. 4. 2. Dissect the given flower and display different whorls. 6.(Two plants each) 150 . Dissect anther and ovary to show number of chambers. pH and water holding capacity of soil.Emasculation. clarity and presence of any living organisms. 8. moisture content. Study of plant population density and frequency by quadrate method. Separation of plant pigments by paper chromatography 7 To study the rate of respiration in flower buds/leaf tissue and germinating seeds. Study pollen germination on a slide. Collect water from two different water bodies around you and study them for pH. 11To test the presence of albumin and bile salts in urine. Study/observation of the following (Spotting): 1 Study of flowers adapted to pollination by different agencies (wind. 6 Study plants found in xerophytic and aquatic conditions with respect to their morphological adaptations.
7 Study and identify stages of gamete development. 10 To identify common disease causing organisms like Plasmodium.S. widow‟s peak.S. colour blindness. 8. Entamoeba . Blood groups.S. Study of V. T. 11 Study of animals found in xeric (desert) and aquatic conditions with respect to their morphological adaptations. 9 To study prepared pedigree charts of genetic traits such as rolling of tongue. (Two animals each) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 151 . Comment on symptoms of diseases that they cause. ovary through permanent slides (from any mammal). of testis and T.Ascaris and ring worm through permanent slides or specimens. of blastula through permanent slide.
by more than one method. Objectives: To enable the students 1)To acquire knowledge and critical understanding. symbols and mastering the underlying processes and skills. 3) To develop positive attitude to think. Motivating topics from real life situations and other subject areas. 152 . XI & XII Introduction: Mathematics is the language of all sciences and is perhaps the only subject which merits this distinction.Upgraded Syllabus MATHEMATICS AND STATISTICS (For Arts and Science) Std. major thrust is also on application of various concepts. This will help them in developing Mathematical tools to be used in the professional education. protection of an environment. Physical and Biological Sciences. particularly by way of motivation and visualization of basic concepts. 7) To develop awareness of the need for national integration. 5) To acquaint students with different aspects of Mathematics used in real life. 6) To develop an interest in students to study Mathematics as a discipline. 4) To develop interest in Mathematics by participating in various related competitions and selflearning. The proposed syllabus has been designed in accordance with National Curriculum Framework 2005 and as per guidelines given in Focus Group on Teaching of Mathematics 2005 which is to meet the emerging needs of all categories of students. Mathematics is the backbone of all sciences and it is an inseparable part of human life. 2) To apply the knowledge and skills in Mathematics and related problems from other subjects. principles. it is utmost important to make the study of Mathematics more meaningful by acquainting the student with many branches of mathematics. elimination of sex biases and observance of small family norm. terms. analyze and articulate logically. Higher Secondary is a launching stage from where students would go to either for academic education in Mathematics or professional courses like Engineering and Computer Technology. removal of social barriers. Hence to fulfill the needs of students.
intercepts of a line. revision of different forms of equations of a line. y = a cos bx. 300. angles in quadrant & quadrantal angles. angles in standard position. shift of the origin. graphs of trigonometric functions. Inclination of a line. coterminal angles. 3. relation between degree measure and radian measure. MATHEMATICS AND STATISTICS (ARTS AND SCIENCE) STD. 2700. fundamental identities. trigonometricfunctions of sum and difference. Trigonometric functions of compound angles : Introduction. 6. Revision of directed angle (+ve and –ve angles). 1800. zero angle. 450.straight line. Locus : Introduction. Formulae for conversion of sum or difference into products.PART – I 1. B and C are constants (without proof). double intercept form other forms of equations of a line. 4. two point form. simultaneously. Trigonometric functions: Need & concept. signs of trigonometric functions in different quadrants. always represents. periodicity of functions. slope point form. general form. Trigonometric functions with the help of standard unit circle. θ. provided A and B are not both zero. Theorem 2 : Every straight line has an equation of the form Ax +By + C = 0. θ is in radians (without proof). parametric form. trigonometric functions of multiple angles (upto double and triple angles only). trigonometric functions of negative angles. Straight Line : Revision. Reduction of general equation of a line into normal form. equation of lines. 3600). Theorem : A general linear equation Ax + By+ C =0. Measurement of Angles : Need & concept. Definition and equation of locus. circular system. θ is in radians) (without proof). Factorization Formulae: Introduction.8) To develop reverence and respect towards great mathematicians for their contribution to the field of Mathematics. 9) To develop interest in the subject by participating in related competitions. Theorem: Radian is a constant angle. normal form. θ. trigonometric functions of particular angles (00. points of locus. trigonometric functions of angles of a triangle. where A. formulae for conversion of product into sum or difference. Length of an arc of a circle (s = r. Area of the sector of a circle A = ½ r2. 600. 2. straight angle. Sexagesimal system. parallel to coordinate axes. 5. trigonometric functions of half angles. 153 . slope intercept form. 900. XI . Graph of Y = a sin bx. slope of a line. domain and range of trigonometric functions.
general equation. 9. definition. types of vectors. 7. definition. Replacement of a set or domain of a set. scalar product. equations of bisectors of angle between two lines. order. diagonal matrix. position vector of a point in space. solutions of system of linear inequations in two variables. properties of transpose of a matrix (A ) A. parallelogram law. Application of conic section. column matrix. properties. determinant of order three–definition. parabola. unit vector. three dimensional co-ordinate geometry. (AB) BA. Matrices : Introduction. standard equation. coinitial vector. Conics Napees – Intersection of Napees of a cone and Plane. focus-directrix property of parabola. standard equation. 11. workdone by force.intersection of two lines. properties of matrix multiplication. symmetric & skew symmetric matrices. diameter form. solution of linear in equations in two variable & graphical solution. ellipse. properties. collinear vectors. Circle and Conics : Revision. family of lines. addition. introduction. notations. perpendicular lines. scalar multiple of a vector. Cramer‟s rule for system of equations in three variables. resolved part of a force. unit vectors along axes. moment of a force. triangular matrices. polygon law. identical lines. expansion. parametric equations. simple properties. concepts. parametric equations. square matrix. types of matrices – zero matrix. centre-radius form. distance between two points in a space. standard equation. transpose of a matrix. equation of a straight line perpendicular to a given line. multiplication of matrices – definition. standard equation (different forms of parabola). scalar matrix. vector product. equal vector. coplanar vectors. hyperbola. co-ordinates of a point in space. hyperbola. ellipse. 154 . identity matrix. operations on matrices – equality. minors & co-factors. negative of a vector. singular & non-singular matrices. (KA) KA . distance between two parallel lines. like and unlike vector. 10. solutions of system of linear in equations in one variable. zero vector. angle between lines. area of a triangle. determinant of a square matrix. equation of family of lines through the intersection of two lines. multiplication of a matrix by a scalar. parameter equations of standard equation. product of vectors. condition for concurrency of three lines. free and localized vectors. triangle law. Linear in equations in two variable – solution of linear inequation in one variable & graphical solution. Determinants : Revision. properties of addition of vectors. distance of a point from a line. equation of a straight line parallel to a given line. properties of determinants. Vectors : Definition. magnitude of a vector. applications of determinants condition of consistency. row matrix. Transposition. 8. simple application. Linear Inequations : Linear in equations in one variable – solution of linear inequation in one variable & graphical solution. subtraction. coordinate axes & coordinate planes in space. parallel lines.
laws of logarithms. 4) Existence of additive identity. square root of a complex number. constant function. binary equivalence relation. subset. many-one. algebra of complex numbers – equality. intersection. of elements in the Cartesian product of two finite sets. properties of complex numbers – properties of addition of complex numbers. difference. cube roots of unity. onto function. binary operations. 3. powers and square root of a complex number – higher powers of i. codomain and range of a relation. imaginary parts.PART – II 1. Cartesian product of the reals with itself. properties. subset and their properties. Complex Numbers : Introduction. types of relations. Cartesian product of two sets. identity function. equivalent sets. definition. exponential function.5) Existence of additive inverse. subtraction. No. universal set. composite function. into function. signum & greatest integer. Sets. scalar multiplication. product quotient of functions. proper. Argand Diagram – representation of a complex number as a pt. empty set. cube roots of unity – solution of quadratic equations in the complex number system. real valued function of the real variable. Demoivre‟s formula – (without proof). sum. method of finding mantissa. equality of ordered pairs.2) Commulative Law. polar representation of complex numbers. inverse function. types of functions. characteristics & mantissa – method of finding characteristics. Logarithms : Introduction. codomain and range of a function. 2. argument). definition of relation. complex conjugates. power set. union. even & odd functions. modulus function. addition. fundamental theorem of algebra. 1) Closure Property. one-one function. Relations and Functions : Set – Revision. finite & infinite sets. domain. functions – function as a special kind of relation. 3) Associative law. Properties of product of complex numbers –Existance of multiplicative identity – Existence of multiplicative inverse properties of conjugate & modulus of complex numbers. equal sets. method of finding antilogarithm. difference of two sets. equal functions. multiplication. pictorial representation of a function. need for complex numbers. 155 . Venn diagrams. domain and range of these functions. modulus. division. disjoint sets. geometrical meaning of modulus and argument. logarithmic function. functions with their graphs. complement of a set. in plane. domain. improper. Relations – ordered pairs. one-one. polynomial function. definitions –(real parts. pictorial diagrams. rational function. change of base.
simple applications. mutually exclusive and exhaustive events. Sum of first n terms of A. geometrical significance of derivative. effect of change of origin and scale on variance and standard deviation. simple problems. as a special type of A. factorial notation. sum of cube of first n natural. variance. Arithmetic-Geometric sequence. difference. meaning of x a. properties of binomial co-efficient with simple application. 156 . physical significance (velocity as a rate of change of displacement). fundamental principle of counting. addition theorem – for any two events A and B. geometric means. properties of A. containing finitely many terms & sum to infinite terms properties of G. combinations – definition.. comparison of two frequency distributions with same mean. relations between permutations and combinations. derivatives from first principle of trigonometric functions. independent events. mutually exlusive events. 8. geometric progression – introduction. simple applications. 5. exponential functions. Limits : Introduction of concept.P. Probability: Revision. the limit of a function. circular permutations. properties.P. multiplication theorem. particular term.. with proof. logarithmic functions. exponential & logarithmic series. when all r objects are distinct. simple applications. A. types of events – events and algebra of events.M.. Baye‟s theorem.4. Differentiation : Definition of a derivative. n terms from the end of G. algebraic functions. 7. sum of cube of first n odd natural nos.. 6. general term. standard deviation. fundamental theorem on limits. product and quotient. general term. algebra of limits – standard limits. quartile & quartile deviation (for grouped and ungrouped data). Means – arithmetic mean. permutations.. odds in favour and against. Mathematical Induction and Binomial Theorem : Principle of mathematical induction. geometrical interpretation of indefinite integrals. combined variance and standard deviation. relation between A. rules of differentiation – derivative of sum. Permutations & combinations : Introduction. derivative at a point.P. Result on compatible events. limits at infinity – concepts. binomial theorem – binomial theorem for positive integers. sum of the first „n‟ terms.P.M.. 10. Integration: Definition (of integration) as antiderivative. binomial theorem for any index (without proof). Sequences & Series : Revision sequence. G. particular cases of binomial theorem. Statistics : Measures of dispersion – range. mean deviation about mean. H. special series.M. algebra of integrals – integrals of some standard functions. Conditional probability – definition. H.P. mean deviation about median (for grouped & ungrouped data). P. when all r objects are not distinct. rules of integration.P. simple applications. 11. co-efficient of variation. axiomatic definition of probability. harmonic mean. 9.
2. 4. Examples on special series. Tracing of graphs of functions. 19. 14. 13. Differentiation. Numerical problems using laws of logarithms. 6. Permutations and combinations. Applications of vectors (Dot and cross product). --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 157 . Mathematical induction. Applications of Conics II. 7. 12. Limits. Problems on locus. Probability. 16. 20. cube root of unity. Power and square root of a complex number. 15. Linear inequation. 17.List of Practicals: XI 1. 3. 11. Measures of dispersion. Binomial theorem. Applications of determinants. 5. 8. Family of lines. Integration. 10. 18. Algebra of matrices. 9. Applications of Conics I.
involution law. contrapositive. cos2 cos2 . 4. associative law. negation. commutative law. a cos b sin c solution of a triangle-polar coordinates. principle values. homogenous equation. tan tan . elementary row transformation. demorgan‟s laws. angle between the lines represented by ax2+2hxy+by2=0. disjunction. solution of Trigonometric equations. contradiction. implication/ conditional. 2. tan2 tan2 . application. open sentences and truth sets. application-introduction to switching circuits (simple examples). inverse by elementary transformation. truth value of statement. sin 0. identity law. sine rule. quantifier and quantified statements. examples related to real life and mathematics. domain. Trigonometric functions : Trigonometric equations-general solution of trigonometric equation of the type. logical equivalence. there exists. elementary column transformation. acute angle between the lines (without proof). Napier Analogues. inverse trigonometric functionsdefinitions. difference between converse. sin sin . Mathematical Logic : Statements . graphs of inverse trigonometric function. condition that the equation ax2+2hxy+by2+2gx+2fy+c=0 should represent a pair of lines (without proof). sin2 sin2 . condition for parallel lines. pair of lines not passing through origin-conbined equation of any two lines. contrapositive. application-solution of system of linear equations by – reduction method. cos cos . adjoint method. sentences and statement. XII PART – I 1. condition for perpendicular lines. converse. point of intersection of two lines. Pair of straight lines : Pair of lines passing through origin-conbined equation. inverse. theorem-the joint equation of a pair of lines passing through origin and its converse. distributive law. negation of compound statement.MATHEMATICS AND STATISTICS STD. condition of parallel and perpendicular lines. Hero‟s formula. contradiction. projection rule. inverse of a matrix-existance and uniqueness of inverse of a matrix. logical equivalence. logical connective-conjunction. cos 0. contingency. algebra of statements-idempotent law. 158 . range. Matrices : Elementary transformation of a matrix-revision of cofactor and minor. tan . cosine rule. statement patterns and logical equivalence-tautology. inversion method. compound statement.Introduction. properties of inverse functions. truth tables of compound statements. complement law. 3. biconditional. duality. area of a triangle.
hyperbola. 8. 10. length of tangent segments. Three dimensional geometry : Direction cosines and direction ratios-direction angles. 7. direction ratios. ellipse. dist. centroid formula. properties of tangents and normals to conics (without proof). Linear programming problems: Introduction of L. 9. condition of tangency only for line y mx c to the circle x2 y2 a2 . properties. diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each other and converse. conditions of coplanerity ofthree vectors.5. optimization. scaler triple product-definition. tangents to a circle from a point outside the circle. equation of plane passing through the given point and perpendicular to given vector. hyperbola. ellipse. Conics : Tangents and normals-equations of tangent and normal at a point for parabola. equation of line passing through two given points. hyperbola. section formula-section formula for internal and external division. altitudes of a triangle are concurrent. distance between two skew lines. condition for the coplanerity of two lines. definition of constraints. objective function. Plane : Equation of plane in normal form. normal to a circle-equation of normal at a point. angle between two lines. direction cosines. median of trapezium is parallel to the parallel sides and its length is half the sum of parallel sides. condition of collinearity of two vectors. relation between direction ratio and direction cosines.P. of a point from a line. angle between line and plane. ellipse. non-negativity restrictions. tangents from a point outside conics.P. distance between two parallel lines (vector approach). equation of plane passing through the intersection of two given planes. locus of points from which two tangents are mutually perpendicular. equation of plane passing through the given point and parallel to two given vectors. 11. geometrical interpretation of scalar triple product. midpoint formula. application of vectors to geometry-medians of a triangle are concurrent. Line : Equation of line passing through given point and parallel to given vector. angle bisectors of triangle are concurrent. angle subtended on a semicircle is right angle.2) general circle. constraint equations. equation of plane passing through three non-collinear points. 6. director circle. Vectors : Revision. angle between two planes. feasible and infeasible 159 . distance of a point from a plane (vector approach). condition of perpendicular lines. Circle : Tangent of a circle-equation of a tangent at a point to 1) standard circle. tangents in terms of slope for parabola. Collinearty and coplanerity of vectors-linear combination of vectors. condition of tangency for parabola. formula.
derivative of inverse function derivative of inverse trigonometric function. 4. 160 . algebra of continuous functions. evaluation of definite integral 1) by substitution. Derivative of implicit function definition and examples.P.P. right hand limit. first derivative test. definite integral-definite integral as a limit of sum. integrals of type (reduction formulae are not expected). every differentiable function is continuous but converse is not true. 2. different types of L. Differentiation : Revision.revision of derivative. substitution method. integration by parts-integration by parts. rational. properties of definite integrals properties of definite integrals. graphical solutions for problem in two variables. Rolls theorem. feasible solutions. c) higher order derivative-second order derivative d) f (x) g x 3. definition of a continuity of a function at a point. continuity in interval-definition. Maxima and minima-introduction of extreme and extreme values. optimum feasible solution. maxima and minima in a closed interval. Application of derivative : Geometrical application-tangent and normal at a point. derivative as rate measure-introduction. XII .PART – II 1. exponential and logarithmic function.P. continuity of some standard functionspolynomial. integrals of the type. Mathematical formulation-mathematical formulation of L.region. relationship between continuity and differentiability-left hand derivative and right hand derivative (need and concept). integration by partial fraction-factors involving repeated and non-repeated linear factors. approximation (without proof). b) quotient of functions. Integration : Indefinite integrals-methods of integration. trigonometric.P. problems. non-repeated quadratic factors. 2) integration by parts. STD. types of discontinuity. Derivative of composite functionchain rule. derivative of parametric function – definition of parametric function . fundamental theorem of integral calculus (without proof). Continuity : Continuity of a function at a point-left hand limit. second derivative test. increasing and decreasing function. exponential and logarithmic function-derivative of functions which are expressed in one of the following form a) product of functions. discontinuity of a function. and Mean value theorem and their geometrical interpretation (without proof).
p. Linear differential equation. mean. Karl Pearson‟s co-efficient of correlation. variance and standard deviation. formation of differential equation-formation of differential equation by elimmating arbitary constants (at most two constants). expected value. mean. Inverse of a matrix by adjoint method and hence solution of system of linear equations. cumulative probability distribution of a discrete random variable. probability distribution of a discrete random variable. distribution function of a continuous random variable. Applications of definite integral: Area under the curve .area bounded by curve and axis (simple problems). radioactive decay.d.f. variance and standard deviation. discrete and continuous random variable. Probability distribution : Probability distribution of a random variable-definition of a random variable.). Differential equation : Definition-differential equation. probability mass function (p. Bernoulli trials and Binomial distribution : Definition of Bernoulli trial. Solutions of a triangle. solution of first order and first degree differential equation-variable separable method. List of Practicals : XII 1. 9. simple problems (without proof). tabulation of bivariate data. general solution. variance and standard deviation of a discrete random variable.f. Inverse of a matrix by elementary transformation and hence solution of system of linear equation. Newton‟s laws of cooling. standard normal variable. probability density function (p. 3. Normal distribution . particular solution of differential equation. 8. covariance of or ungrouped data. degree.f. Statistics: Bivariate frequency distribution . Applications of logic. volume of solid of revolution-volume of solid obtained by revolving the area under the curve about the axis (simple problems).5. order. covariance for bivariate frequency distribution. homogenous differential equation (equation reducible to homogenous form are not expected). applications-population growth.f.m. 6. 4. scatter diagram.d. 2. 161 . area bounded by two curves. binomial distribution (p. 7.). conditions for Binomial distribution.m. bacterial colony growth. calculation of probabilities (without proof). surface area.bivariate data.).
10. Applications of derivatives (Geometric applications). Applications of derivatives . 18. Applications of differential equations. variance and S. Three dimensional geometry .Area. 12. Binomial distribution.D of random variable. Expected value.Limit of sum. Applications of scalar triple product of vectors. Bivariate frequency distribution. 11.line. Applications of definite integrals . 7. 16. 13. 17.5.Maxima and minima 14. 9. Applications of derivatives – Rate. 6. 19. Three dimensional geometry . measure. Tracing of tangents and normals for circles and parabola. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 162 . 20.plane.volume. Formations and solutions of LPP. 8. Applications of definite integrals . 15. Tracing of tangents and normals for ellipse and hyperbola. Applications of definite integrals .