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**PHYSICS – Std. XI & XII Preamble
**

According to NCF 2005, the curriculum of the subject Physics is upgraded for higher secondary stage. This curriculum is comparable to the international standards which are useful for the students in Maharashtra State for different types of competitive examinations conducted in India. All the units of the subject from NCERT curriculum are divided into two years conveniently in Maharashtra State. Continuity in the curriculum is maintained in Std. XI & XII, which is not in NCERT curriculum. All the students appear for the competitive examinations only after +2 stages throughout India. This syllabus has been designed in accordance with the guidelines shown in the final version of common core syllabii of COBSE, Delhi. Accordingly few additional sub units have been added. Objectives – 1. Emphasis on basic conceptual understanding of the content. 2. Emphasis on use of SI units, symbols, nomenclature of physical quantities and formulations as per international standards. 3. Providing logical sequencing of units of the subject matter and proper placement of concepts with their linkage for better learning. 4. Reducing the curriculum load by eliminating overlapping of concepts/content within the discipline and other disciplines. 5. Promotion of process-skills, problem-solving abilities and applications of Physics concepts. 6. Strengthen the concepts developed at the secondary stage to provide firm foundation for further learning in the subject. 7. Expose the learners to different processes used in Physics-related industrial and technological applications. 8. Develop process-skills and experimental, observational, manipulative, decision making and investigatory skills in the learners. 9. Promote problem solving abilities and creative thinking in learners. 10. Develop conceptual competence in the learners and make them realize and appreciate the interface of Physics with other disciplines.

110

PHYSICS

(Upgraded Syllabus)

Std. XI

1. Measurements Introduction, Need for measurement, Units for measurement, System of Units, S.I. Units, Fundamental and derived units, Dimensional analysis, Order of magnitude and significant figures, Accuracy and errors in measurement.

2. Scalars and Vectors Addition and subtraction of vectors, Product of vectors.

3. Projectile motion Uniformly accelerated motion along straight line, Non uniform motion, Position time graph and velocity-time graph, Equation of a projectile path, Time of flight, Horizontal range, Maximum height of a projectile, Relative velocity.

4. Force Types of forces, General idea of gravitation, electromagnetic and nuclear forces, Law of conservation of momentum, Work done by a variable force. Work-energy theorem, Elastic and inelastic collisions in one and two dimensions, Inertial and non-intertial frames, Moment of force, Couple and properties of couple, Centre of mass, Centre of gravity, Conditions of equilibrium of a rigid body.

5. Friction in solids and liquids Origin and nature of frictional forces, Laws of static friction, Laws of kinetic friction, Pressure due to fluid column, Pascal‟s Law and its applications, Effect of gravity on fluid pressure, Viscosity, Streamline flow, Turbulent flow, Viscous force, Newton‟s formula, Stokes‟ law, Equation for terminal velocity, Raynold‟s number, Bernoulli‟s principle and its applications.

111

6. Sound Waves Waves and oscillations, Progressive waves, Characteristics of transverse waves, Characteristics of longitudinal waves, Sound as longitudinal wave motion, Relation between v, f and, ƛ Newton‟s formula for velocity of sound, Laplace‟s correction.

7. Thermal properties of matter Temperature and heat, Measurement of temperature, Ideal-gas equation and absolute temperature, Thermal expansion, Specific heat capacity, Calorimetry, Change of state, Latent heat, Heat transfer.

8. Refraction of Light Refraction of monochromatic light, Snell‟s law, Total internal reflection, Critical angle, Optical fibre, Dispersion of light, Prism formula, Angular dispersion and dispersive power, Rainbow, Scattering of light, Blue colour of sky, Colour of sun at sunrise and sunset. Elementary idea of Raman effect.

9. Ray optics Reflection of light by spherical mirrors, Refraction at single curved surface, Lens maker‟s equation, Combination of thin lenses in contact, Concept of conjugate focii, Correction of eye defects, Magnifying power of simple microscope, Magnifying power of compound microscope, Magnifying power of telescope, Reflecting telescope - schematic diagram with explanation.

10. Electrostatics Frictional electricity, Charges and their conservation, Coulomb‟s law and dielectric constant, Forces between multiple electric charges, Superposition principle of forces, Continuous distribution of charges, Concept of charge density, Electric field intensity, Potential energy, Electric potential due to point charge, Relation between electric field intensity and potential, Potential difference, Volt and electron volt, Electric dipole and dipole moment, Electric lines of force. Equipotential surfaces, P.E. of single charge and system of charges.

112

11. Current electricity Ohm‟s law, Resistance, Specific resistance, Temperature dependence of resistance, Colour code of carbon resistor, Series and parallel combination of resistors, E.M.F. and internal resistance of cell, Work done by electric current, Power in electric circuit, Cells in series and in parallel, Elementary idea of secondary cells.

12. Magnetic effect of electric current Oersted’s experiment, Biot Savart‟s law, Right hand rule, Magnetic induction at the centre of circular coil carrying current, Magnetic induction at a point along the axis of a coil carrying current, Fleming‟s left hand rule, Force between two infinitely long current carrying parallel conductors, Definition of Ampere, Force acting on a conductor carrying current in magnetic field, Torque on a current loop in magnetic field.

13. Magnetism Origin of magnetism due to moving charges, Equivalence between magnetic dipole and circular coil carrying current, Definition of magnetic dipole moment and its unit, Torque acting on a magnet in uniform magnetic induction, Bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, Magnetic field lines, Magnetic induction due to bar magnet at a point along the axis and at a point along equator, Earth‟s magnetic field and magnetic elements, Electromagnets and factors affecting their strength.

14. Electromagnetic waves Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics, Transverse nature of electromagnetic waves, Electromagnetic spectrum, Space communication, Propagation of electromagnetic waves in atmosphere.

113

**Physics List of Practicals Std. XI
**

1. Use of Vernier Callipers. 2. Use of Screw gauge. 3. To determine radius of curvature of a given spherical surface by a spherometer. 4. To find the weight of a given body using parallelogram law of vectors. 5. To study the relationship between force of limiting friction and normal reaction and to find co-efficient of friction between a block and a horizontal surface. 6. To determine resistance per cm of a given wire by plotting a graph of potential difference versus current. 7. To find the value of „v‟ for different values of „u‟ in case of a „concave mirror and to find the focal length. 8. To find the focal length of a convex lens by plotting graphs between „u‟ and „v‟or between „1/u‟ and „1/v‟. 9. To find the focal length of a convex mirror, using a convex lens. 10. To find the focal length of a concave lens, using a convex lens. 11. To determine angle of minimum deviation for a given prism by plotting a graph between angle of incidence and angle of deviation. 12. To determine refractive index of a glass using a travelling microscope. 13. To find refractive index of a liquid by using (i) concave mirror, (ii) convex lens and plane mirror. 14. To determine specific heat capacity of a given (i) liquid (ii) solid, by method of mixtures.

**Physics List of Activities Std. XI
**

1. To make a paper scale of given least count, e.g. 0.2 cm, 0.5 cm. 2. To determine mass of a given body using a meter scale by principle of moments. 3. To plot a graph for a given set of data, with proper choice of scales and error bars.

114

current (AC) and check continuity of a given circuit using multimeter. 5. To note the change in level of liquid in a container on heating and interpret the observations. 6. To observe refraction and lateral deviation of a beam of light incident obliquely on a glass slab. voltage (AC/DC). 8. on a screen by using a candle and a screen (for different distances of the candle from the lens/mirror). To obtain a lens combination with the specified focal length by using two lenses from the given set of lenses. 10. To study the nature and size of image formed by (i) convex lens (ii) concave mirror. To study the variation in range of a jet of water with angle of projection.4. To measure resistance. 7. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 115 . To measure the force of limiting friction for rolling of a roller on a horizontal plane. 9.

Elastic energy. Surface tension Surface tension on the basis of molecular theory. Relation between linear velocity and angular velocity.M. Surface energy. Applications of elastic behaviour of materials. Banking of roads. Uniform circular motion.. Kinematical equations for circular motion in analogy with linear motion. Projection of satellite.I. and P. Angular velocity and angular acceleration.PHYSICS (Upgraded syllabus) Std.. depth and motion. Variation of „g‟ due to altitude. Plasticity. Angle of contact. Rolling motion. of rotating body. Surface tension. Oscillations Explanation of periodic motion. Elasticity General explanation of elastic property. Rotational motion Definition of M.M.M. Poisson’s ratio. Effect of impurity and temperature on surface tension. Determination of „Y‟. K. Equation for velocity and energy at different positions of vertical circular motion. S. Capillarity and capillary action. Phase of S.I. Circular motion Angular displacement. 4. Angular momentum and its conservation. Wave motion 116 . Radial acceleration. 5. in S.M. Composition of two S.M. Definition of stress and strain. Gravitation Newton‟s law of gravitation.H.H. 7. M. Periodic time. on any diameter..‟s having same period and along same line. 3. Weightlessness condition in orbit. 6. Projection of U. Principle of parallel and perpendicular axes.E.H.H.I.M. lattitude.. Deformation. Differential equation of linear S.H. of some regular shaped bodies about specific axes.E.H. Damped S.C. Physical significance of M. Elastic constants and their relation. XII 1. Binding energy and escape velocity of a satellite. Statement of Kepler‟s laws of motion. Simple pendulum. Communication satellite and its uses. Torque. K.E. Centripetal and centrifugal forces. Behaviour of metal wire under increasing load. Hooke‟s law. Radius of gyration. 2. Vertical circular motion due to earth‟s gravitation.M..

Concept of condenser. Energy density of a medium. Condensers in series and parallel. Capacity of parallel plate condenser. Derivation of Boyle‟s law. Brewster‟s law. Maxwell distribution.Simple harmonic progressive waves. Resonance. Diffraction due to single slit. Electrostatics Gauss‟ theorem proof and applications. Assumptions of kinetic theory. Wave front and wave normal. Stationary waves Study of vibrations in a finite medium. 8. Superposition of waves. Young‟s experiment. Reflection at plane surface. Huygens‟ Principle. Plane polarised light. Formation of stationary waves on string. Resolving power of a microscope and telescope. Heat engines and refrigerators. Dielectrics and electric polarisation. Effect of dielectric on capacity. Refraction at plane surface. Stefan’s law. 1st law of thermodynamics. 2nd law of thermodynamics. Reflection of transverse and longitudinal waves. Interference and diffraction Interference of light. 9. Conditions for producing steady interference pattern.Thermal equilibrium and definition of temperature. Polaroids. Free and Forced vibrations. Doppler effect in sound. Study of vibrations of air columns. Wave theory of light Wave theory of light. Current electricity 117 . Analytical treatment of interference bands. 10. Doppler effect in light. Thermodynamics. 13. Qualitative idea of black body radiation. Energy of charged condenser. Mechanical force on unit area of a charged conductor.Wein’s displacement law. Measurement of wavelength by biprism experiment. Derivation for pressure of a gas. Degrees of freedom. Law of equipartition of energy and application to Specific heat capacities of gases. Kinetic theory of gases and Radiation Concept of an ideal gas. 11. Green house effect. Formation of beats. Mean free path. Construction of plane and spherical wave front. Change of phase. Rayleigh‟s criterion. 12. van-de-Graaff generator. Difference between interference and diffraction. Polarisation.

proof of. Solar cell. Hydrogen spectrum. mass defect. Paramagnetism. mass-energy relation. Wheatstone‟s bridge. P-N junction diode. 16 Electromagnetic inductions Laws of electromagnetic induction. Self induction and mutual induction. Ferromagnetism on the basis of domain theory. Continuous and characteristics X-rays. Matter waves – wave nature of particles. Bohr‟s model. per nucleon and its variation with mass number. 19 Semiconductors Energy bands in solids. 18 Atoms. 14. Cyclotron. 17 Electrons and photons Photoelectric effect. Zener diode as a voltage regulator. Molecules and Nuclei Alpha particle scattering experiment.Kirchhoff‟s law. Coil rotating in uniform magnetic induction. I-V characteristics of LED. Transformer.dØ dt Eddy currents. Radioactivity. I-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias. Need for displacement current. Einstein‟s equation. Decay law. Magnetic effects of electric current Ampere‟s law and its applications. Magnetism Circular current loop as a magnetic dipole. Hertz and Lenard‟s observations. Potentiometer. Wattless current. Wavelength of an electron. P-type and N-type semiconductor. AC generator. Meter bridge. Alternating currents.c circuit with resistance. Davisson and Germer experiment. Composition and size of nucleus. Rutherford‟s model of atom. Sensitivity of moving coil galvanometer. B. Reactance and impedance. Resonant circuit.E. Nuclear fission and fusion. 15. inductance and capacitance. Transistor 118 . Magnetic dipole moment of revolving electron. Intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors. Rectifiers. Curie temperature. Diamagnetism. Magnetisation and magnetic intensity. Particle nature of light. LC oscillations (qualitative treatment only) Power in a. Voltmeter. Photodiode. Ammeter. de Broglie hypothesis. Moving coil galvanometer. e = .

NOT. Oscillators and Logic gates (OR.action and its characteristics.NOR) 20 Communication systems Elements of communication system. Propagation of electromagnetic waves in atmosphere.AND. bandwidth of signals. space communication. Production and detection of an amplitude modulated wave.Transistor as a switch.NAND. bandwidth of transmission medium. Need for modulation. Transistor as an amplifier (CE mode). ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 119 .

3. To find the speed of sound in air at room temperature using a resonance tube. 120 . To study the relation between frequency and length of a given wire under constant tension using sonometer. To find resistance of given wire using metre bridge and hence determine the specific resistance of its material. To find the force constant and effective mass of helical spring by plotting T 2--m graph using method of oscillations. 5. 14. XII 1. To study the relationship between the temperature of a hot body and time by plotting a cooling curve. 10. To study the relation between the length of a given wire and tension for constant frequency using sonometer. 12. To determine the internal resistance of given cell using potentiometer. To draw the characteristic curve of a zener diode and to determine its reverse break down voltage. 4. To compare the emf of two given cells using potentiometer. 8. To determine resistance of galvanometer using metre bridge. 2. To draw the I-V characteristic curves of a p-n junction diode in forward bias and reverse bias. To verify the laws of combination (series/parallel) of resistances using a metre bridge. To study the characteristics of a common-emitter npn or pnp transistor and to find out the values of current and voltage gains.Physics List of Practicals Std. To determine the surface tension of water by capillary rise method. 13. 11. 7. 15. 6. To determine Young‟s modulus of elasticity of the material of a given wire. 9.

121 . a transistor.D. 10. 4. To study dissipation of energy of a simple pendulum by plotting a graph between square of amplitude and time. To study effect of intensity of light (by varying distance of the source) on an L. To measure the resistance and impedance of an inductor with or without iron core.g. Mark the components that are not connected in proper order and correct the circuit and also the circuit diagram. To assemble a household circuit comprising three bulbs. three (on/off) switches. resistor/ rheostat. To study the factors affecting the rate of loss of heat of a liquid. To study the variation in potential drop with length of a wire for a steady current. 9.Physics List of Activities Std. To study the effect of load on depression of a suitably clamped meter scale loaded (i) at its end (ii) in the middle. 5. (iii) see the unidirectional flow of current in case of a diode and an LED (iv) check whether a given electronic component (e. To study the effect of detergent on surface tension by observing capillary rise. and 1C. 8. 3. 12. To draw the diagram of a given open circuit comprising at least a battery. 1 l. Use of multimeter to (i) identify base of transistor (ii) distinguish between npn and pnp type transistors. 6. 2. ammeter and voltmeter. a resistor and a capacitor from mixed collection of such items. diode. To identify a diode.R. a fuse and a power source. 7. key. XII 1. an LED. transistor or IC) is in working order. To observe polarization of light using two polaroids.

5) To develop problem solving skills in students. technology) at tertiary level. New nomenclature. etc. 7) To apprise students with interface of chemistry with other disciplines of science such as Physics. 6) To expose the students to different processes used in industries and their technological applications. after the +2 stage. fundamental concepts. This new syllabus will make them competent to meet the challenges of academic and professional courses like medicine. 4) To equip students to face various changes related to health. industries and agriculture. engineering.CHEMISTRY (Upgraded syllabus) Std. Biology. the new and updated curriculum is introduced at +2 stages. The revised syllabus has taken care of new formulations and nomenclature of elements. analytical and polymer chemistry. The syllabus is comparable to the international level. XI & XII Preamble RATIONALE According to NCF 2005. nutrition. engineering. compounds and IUPAC units of physical quantities. OBJECTIVES The broad objectives of teaching Chemistry at Senior Secondary Stage are to help the learners : 1) To promote understanding of basic facts and concepts in chemistry while retaining the excitement of Chemistry. weather. Geology. The syllabus contains areas like physical. population. etc. organic. Engineering. inorganic. industrial. 122 . 2) To make students capable of studying chemistry in academic and professional courses (such as medicine. modern techniques are given importance. symbols and formulations. environment. There is a need to provide the sufficient conceptual background of chemistry which will help the students to appear for different common entrance test at state level and national level. 3) To expose the students to various emerging new areas of chemistry and apprise them with their relevance in their future studies and their applications in various spheres of chemical sciences and technology. technology.

Charles law. brief history of the development of periodic table. rules for filling electrons in orbitals – Aufbau principle. de Broglie‟s relationship. modern periodic law and present form of periodic table. viscosity and surface tension (qualitative idea only. 123 . Deviation from ideal behaviour. Kinetic energy and molecular speeds (elementary idea) Liquid State – Vapour pressure. empirical and molecular formula. atomic number. concept of orbitals. stoichiometry and calculations based on stoichimetry. concept of shells and subshells. Ionization enthalpy. Dalton‟s atomic theory : concept of elements. Rutherford‟s model and its limitations. Bohr‟s model and its limitations. electron gain enthalpy. periodic trends in properties of elements atomic radii. Heisenberg‟s uncertainty principle. laws of chemical combination.Enthalpy: Explanation and definition of term. Intermolecular interactions.CHEMISTRY Std. Pauli‟s exclusion principle and Hund‟s rule. Gay Lussac‟s law. stability of half filled and completely filled orbitals. ionic radii. electronegativity. Inert gas radii nomenclature of elements with atomic number greater than 100. percentage composition. shapes of s. chemical reactions. type of bonding. dual nature of matter and light. electronic configuration of atoms. Boyle‟s law. isotopes and isobars. Historical approach to particulate nature of matter. atoms and molecules. Critical temperature. Atomic and molecular masses mole concept and molar mass : Avogadro‟s law and Avogadro number. Unit 4 : Periodic Table Significance of classification. Unit 3 : Structure of Atom Discovery of electron. proton and neutron. Unit 2 : States of Matter : Gases and Liquids Three states of matter. quantum numbers. p and d orbitals. no mathematical derivations). Ideal behaviour. Role of gas laws in elucidating the concept of the molecule. Ideal gas equation. empirical derivation of gas equation. XI (Theory) Unit 1: Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry General Introduction: Importance and scope of chemistry. liquefaction of gases. valence.

multimolecular and macromolecular colloids. covalent and interstitial. Uses of hydrogen peroxide 124 . Unit 6: Chemical Equilibrium Equilibrium in physical and chemical processes. molecular orbital theory of homonuclear diatomic molecules (qualitative idea only). degree of ionization. Buffer solutions. catalysis : homogenous and heterogeneous. Lyophobic. activity and selectivity: enzyme catalysis. electrophoresis. properties and uses of hydrogen. emulsion – types of emulsions.Unit 5: Redox Reactions Concept of oxidation and reduction. law of mass action. Balancing redox reactions. physical and chemical properties of water. strong and weak electrolytes. factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids.) Handerson equation. equilibrium constant. factors affecting equilibrium. Hydrolysis of salts (elementary idea). Tyndall effect. ionic bond. redox reactions. Unit 7 : Surface Chemistry Adsorption – physisorption and chemisorption. in terms of loss and gain of electrons and change in oxidation number. resonance. polar character of covalent bond. concept of pH. valence bond theory. properties and structure. coagulation. Ionic equilibrium: Ionization of acids and bases. Lyophilic. preparation. Brownian movement. acid strength. Unit 8 : Nature of Chemical Bond Valence electrons. Born Haber cycle : covalent bond parameters. geometry of covalent molecules. heavy water. solubility product common ion effect (with illustrative examples. concept of hybridization involving s. Elementary idea of nanomaterials. occurrence. dynamic nature of equilibrium. oxidation number. Hydrogen peroxide. Lewis structure. isotopes. Le Chatelier‟s principle. ionization of polybasic acids. VSEPR theory. colloidal state : distinction between true solutions. hydrides-ionic. hydrogen as a fuel. hydrogen bond. colloids and suspensions. p and d orbitals and shapes of some simple molecules.preparation. properties of colloids. Unit 9 : Hydrogen Position of hydrogen in periodic table. covalent character of ionic bond.

hydrogen and halogens. methods of qualitative and quantitative analysis. Calcium oxide and calcium carbonate (CaO) (CaCO3) and industrial uses of lime and limestone. silicates and zeolites and structure of silicates Unit 12: Basic Principles and Techniques in Organic Chemistry General introduction. boric acids. inductive effect. occurrence. physical and chemical properties. uses. allotropic forms. Boron-physical and chemical properties. diagonal relationship. electrophiles and nucleophiles. electromeric effect. atomic and ionic radii). anomalous behavior of first element. Electronic displacements in a covalent bond. variation of properties. anomalous properties of the first element of each group. oxidation states. boron hydrides. Variation of properties. occurrence. resonance and hyper conjugation. silicones. uses of some important Compounds. Aluminium.Unit 10: s-Block Elements (Alkali and Alkaline earth metals) Group 1 and Group 2 elements: General introduction. sodium hydroxide and sodium hydrogen carbonate. Preparation and properties of some important compounds: Sodium carbonate. trends in the variation of properties (such as ionization enthalpy. oxides. trends in chemical reactivity. electronic configuration. water. types of organic reactions. biological importance of Magnesium and Calcium. Classification and IUPAC nomenclature of organic compounds. Group 14 elements: General introduction. Unit 11 : p-Block Elements Group Introduction to p-Block Elements Group 13 elements : General introduction. carbanions. oxidation states. Important compounds of silicon and their uses: silicon tetrachloride. reactions with acids and alkalies. anomalous properties of first element of the group. trends in chemical reactivity. free radicals.Homolytic and heterolytic fission of a covalent bond. trends in chemical reactivity with oxygen. biological importance of sodium and potassium. some important compounds: borax. uses.carbocations. occurrence. electronic configuration. Carbon – catenation. electronic configuration. 125 . Melting point and boiling point.

UNIT-17: Environmental chemistry Environmental pollution. acid rain. major atmospheric pollutants. Methods of preparation. methods of preparation. Chemical reactions. physical properties. green house effect and global warming. addition of hydrogen. chemical reactions: acidic character of alkynes. strategy for control of environmental pollution. green chemistry as an alternative tool for reducing pollution. Friedel Craft‟ alkylation and acylation. benzene. resonance aromaticity. Unit 14 : Alkenes Nomenclature. geometrical isomerism. chemical properties. sulphonaiton.air. chemical reactions in atmosphere. oxidation. hydrogen halides. hydrogen halides (Markovnikoff‟s addition and peroxide effect) ozonolysis. physical properties. water. conformations (ethane only). smog. halogenation. halogen. addition reaction of – hydrogen.Unit 13 : Alkanes Classification of hydrocarbons – Nomenclature. 126 . physical properties. mechanism of electrophilic addition. Pollution due to industrial wastes. halogens. water and soil pollution. IUPAC nomenclature. structure of triple bond (ethylene). chemical reactions including free radical mechanism of halogenation. Unit 15: Alkynes Nomenclature. combustion and pyrolysis. water. isomerism. ozone and its reactions. effects of depletion of ozone layer. Unit 16 : Aromatic compounds Introduction. – nitration. Carcinogenicity and toxicity. structure of double bond (ethane). mechanism of electrophilic substitution.

(p-toludine. β-naphthol. Study of burner 5. Basic Laboratory Techniques 1. Lyophobic sol–aluminium hydroxide. Study the pH change in the titration of a strong base using universal indicator. xylene (o.) 2. Comparing the pH solutions of strong and weak acid of same concentration. (b) Study of the role of emulsifying agents in stabilizing the emulsion of oil. acetic acid. Surface Chemistry (a) Preparation of one lyophilic and one lyophobic sol: Lyophilic sol-starch and gum. Cutting glass tube and glass rod 2. bases and salts using pH paper or universal indicator. 127 . D. Bending glass tube 3. varied concentrations of acids. Alum. Operating pinch cork B. methyl acetate. resorcinol. naphthalene.m. Crystallization of impure sample of anyone of the following compounds. Determination of boiling point of an organic compound. (acetone. (b) Study the shift in equilibrium between [Co(H2O)6]2+ and chloride ions by changing the concentration of either of the ions. benzoic acid. Characterization and purification of chemical substances 1. ferric hydroxide. Drawing out a glass jet 4. arseneous sulphide.Chemistry Practical Syllabus Std-XI A. Determination of melting point of an organic compound. Chemical equilibrium Any one of the following experiments: (a) Study the shift in equilibrium between ferric ions and thiocyanate ions by changing the concentration of either ion. copper sulphate. E. water) 3. benzoic acid.p). C. Oxalic acid. Experiments related to pH change (a) Any one of the following experiments: Determination of pH of some solutions obtained from fruit juices.

Preparation of standard solution of oxalic acid. Br-. Mn2+. sulphur. Ca2+. Determination of strength of a given solution of hydrochloric acid by titrating It against standard sodium carbonate solution. Co2+.(b) Study of pH change by common ion effect in case of weak acids and bases. Preparation of standard solution of sodium carbonate. chlorine bromine and iodine in an organic compound. I-. Sr2+. Fe3+. Mg2+. Ni2+ . Al3+. F. Qualitative analysis Determination of one cation and one anion in a given salt: Cations – Pb2+. Detection of nitrogen. Quantitative estimation Using a chemical balance. Determination of strength of a given solution of sodium hydroxide by titrating it against standard solution of oxalic acid. 128 . Zn2+. Cu2+. NH4+ Anions – CO32SO32SO42NO2NO3Cl-. Ba2+. G. PO43C2O42CH3COO(Note: Insoluble salts excluded) H.

A few suggested Projects 1 Checking the bacterial contamination in drinking water by testing sulphide ion. 8 Analysis of fruit and vegetable juices for their acidity. chloride etc. 2 Study of the methods of purification of water. 4 Investigation of the foaming capacity of different washing soaps and the effect of addition of sodium carbonate on them. presence of iron. Note: Any other investigatory project can be chosen with the approval of the teacher. 6 Determination of the rate of evaporation of different liquids. depending upon the regional variation in drinking water and the study of causes of presence of these ions above permissible limit (if any). 5 Study of the acidity of different samples of the tea leaves.PROJECT Scientific investigations involving laboratory testing and collecting information from other sources. 7 Study of the effect of acids and bases on the tensile strength of fibers. 3 Testing the hardness. 129 . fluoride.

state functions. fuel cells. number of atoms per unit cell in a cubic unit cell. specific and molar conductivity. dry cell –electrolytic and Galvanic cells. colligative properties –relative lowering of vapor pressure. voids. EMF of a cell. electrolysis and laws of electrolysis (elementary idea). enthalpy of bond dissociation. determination of molecular masses using colligative properties. Unit 2 : Solutions and colligative properties Types of solutions. calculation of density of unit cell. Nernst equation and its application to chemical cells. combustion. temperature. and equilibrium constant. point defects. variations of conductivity with concentration. extensive and intensive properties. surroundings. abnormal molecular mass. and solution and dilution Introduction of entropy as a state function. Unit 5: Chemical Kinetics Rate of reaction (average and instantaneous). XII (Theory) Unit 1: Solid State Classification of solids based on different forces. Hess‟ law of constant heat summation. solubility of gases in liquids. lead accumulator. rate law and specific rate constant. order and molecularity of a reaction. Band theory of metals.unit cell in two dimensional and three dimensional lattices. energy. conductance in electrolytic solutions. free energy change for spontaneous and non spontaneous processes. Work. Relation between Gibb’s energy change and emf of a cell. covalent and metallic solids. Phase transition.Van’t Hoff factor and calculations involving it. factors affecting rate of reaction. integrated rate equations and half life (only for zero and first order reactions). concept of 130 . ionization. expression of concentration of solids in liquids. amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea). ionic. Kohlrausch‟s Law. standard electrode potential. types of systems. formation. osmotic pressure. catalyst. conductors and semiconductors and insulators and n and p type semiconductors. Second and third law of thermodynamics Unit 4: Electrochemistry Redox reactions. electrical and magnetic properties. sublimation. atomization. concentration.CHEMISTRY Std. molecular. packing in solids. First law of thermodynamics – internal energy and enthalpy. Unit 3 : Chemical Thermodynamics and energetic Concepts of system. heat. depression of freezing point. corrosion.Raoult’s law elevation of boiling point. solid solutions.

preparation. electronic configuration. properties and uses of sulphur dioxide. simple oxides. electronic configuration. trends in physical and chemical properties.PCl5) and oxoacids (elementary idea only). reduction electrolytic method and refining.collision theory (elementary idea. Occurrence. Ozone. properties and uses of chlorine and hydrochloric acid. occurrence. preparation and properties of phosphine. Arrhenius equation. Classification of oxides. trends in physical and chemical properties. occurrence. oxoacids of sulphur (structures only). compounds of phosphorous. nitrogen – preparation. 131 . zinc and iron Unit 7: p-Block Elements Group 15 elements: General introduction. compounds of halogens. oxoacids of halogens (structure only). Unit 6 : General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements Principles and methods of extraction – concentration. compounds of sulphur. oxidation states. preparation and properties of ammonia and nitric acid. properties and uses. electronic configuration. Sulphur – allotropic forms. oxides of nitrogen (structure only). preparation. properties and uses. electronic configuration.Activation energy. Group 16 elements: General introduction. occurrence and principle of extraction of aluminium. properties and uses. dioxygen. preparation. compounds of nitrogen. occurrence. sulphurc acid. industrial process of manufacture. trends in physical and chemical properties. halides (PCl3. oxidation states. interhalogen compounds. trends in physical and chemical properties. uses. copper. Group 17 elements: General introduction. oxidation states. Phoshorous-allotropic forms. oxidation. Group 18 elements: General introduction. no mathematical treatment).

physical and chemical properties. colour. VBT. (Structural and stereo) importance of coordination compounds (in qualitative analysis. uses of methanol and ethanol. ligands. R-S and d-l configurations. thrichloromethane. magnetic properties. Phenols and Ethers Alcohols: Nomenclature.R-S and d-l configuration Haloarenes : Nature of C-X bond. isomerism. mechanism of dehydration. methods of preparation. Werner’s theory. physical and chemical properties. f-Block ElementsLanthanoids – Electronic configuration. Actinoids – Electronic configuration.Stability of carbocations. colour. IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds. uses. secondary and tertiary alcohols. interstitial compounds. Phenols: Nomenclature. substitution reactions (directive influence of halogen for monosubstituted compounds only) stability of carbocations. Unit 9: Coordination Compounds Coordination compounds – Introduction. uses of phenols. oxidation states. mechanism of substitution reactions. coordination number. occurrence and characteristics of transition metals. chemical reactivity and lanthanoid contraction and its consequences. Uses and environmental effects of – dichloromethane. DDT. catalytic property. physical and chemical properties (of primary alcohols only). methods of preparation.CFT. freons. ionization enthalpy. Unit 10 : Halogen derivatives of alkanes (and arenes) Haloalkanes : Nomenclature. nature of C-X bond. general trends in properties of the first row transition metals – metallic character. oxidation states. Unit 11 : Alcohols. physical and chemical properties. alloy formation preparation and properties of K2Cr2O7 and KMnO4. acidic nature of phenol. identification of primary. tetrachloromethane. Ethers : Nomenclature. oxidation states. iodoform. 132 . extraction of metals and biological systems). Comparison with lanthanoids. electrophillic substitution reactions.Unit 8 : d and f Block Elements d-Block Elements General introduction. electronic configuration. ionic radii. magnetic properties and shapes. bonding. methods of preparation.

Proteins: Elementary idea of -amino acids. polypeptides. natural and synthetic like polythene. nylon. Diazonium salts: Preparation. Cyanides and Isocyanides: Will be mentioned at relevant places in context. physical and chemical properties. Vitamins: Classification and functions.natural and synthetic. tertiary structure and quaternary structures (qualitative idea only). monosaccahrides d-l configuration (glucose and fructose). reactivity of alpha hydrogen in aldehydes. polyesters. and rubber. glycogen). uses. methods of preparation. enzymes. copolymerization. methods of polymerization (addition and condensation). Physical and chemical properties. Nucleic Acids: DNA and RNA Unit 15: Polymers Classification . Carboxylic Acids: Nomenclature. uses. structure of amines-primary. importance. Some important polymers. proteins. chemical reactions and importance in synthetic organic chemistry. 133 . Unit 13: Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen Nitro compounds-General methods of preparation and chemical reactions Amines : Nomenclature. methods of preparation. identification of primary. secondary.Biodegradable and non biodegradable polymers. classification. lactose. physical and chemical properties. nature of carbonyl group. bakelite. uses. methods of preparation. structure. peptide. Lipids and Hormones (elementary idea) excluding structure. Ketones and Carboxylic Acids Aldehydes and Ketones : Nomenclature. polysaccharides (starch. maltose). their classification and functions. oligosaccharides (sucrose. linkage. secondary and tertiary amines. Unit 14: Biomolecules Carbohydrates: Classification (aldoses and ketoses). denaturation of proteins. mechanism of nucleophilic addition.Unit 12 : Aldehydes. cellulose. acidic nature.

artificial sweetening agents. antimicrobials. B. antifertility drugs. 3. KIO3 and sodium sulphite (Na2SO3) using starch solution as indicator (clock reaction). (ii) Reaction between potassium iodate. antibiotics. iii] Determination of enthalpy change during interaction (hydrogen bond formation) between acetone and chloroform. cleansing action. (c) Acid hydrolysis of ethyl acetate. disinfectants. antihistamines (elementary idea of antioxidants) 2. C. iv] Heat of displacement of Cu from CuSO4 by Zn. Chemicals in medicines: analgesics. Cleansing agents: Soaps and detergents. antiseptics.Unit 16: Chemistry in Everyday life : 1. antacids. (b) Study of reaction rate of any one of the following: (i) Reaction of iodide ion with hydrogen peroxide at room temperature using different concentration of iodide ions. 134 . Electrochemistry Variation of cell potential in Zn|Zn2+||Cu2+|Cu with change in concentration of electrolytes (CuSO4 or ZnSO4) at room temperature (demonstration). Chemicals in food: Preservatives. Chemical Kinetics (Any one of the following) : (a) Effect of concentration and temperature on the rate of reaction between sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid. Chemistry Practical Syllabus Std. Thermochemistry Any one of the following experiments: i] Enthalpy of dissolution of copper sulphate or potassium nitrate. XII A. tranquilizers. ii] Enthalpy of neutralization of strong acid (HCI) and strong base (NaOH).

Fe3+. E. H. Co2+. Sr2+. Ba2+. Tests for the functional groups present in organic compounds Unsaturation. I. 135 . Preparation of Inorganic Compounds (i) Preparation of double salt of ferrous ammonium sulphate or potash alum. Characteristic tests of arbohydrates. Determinaiton of concentration/molarity of KMnO4 solution by titrating it against a standard solution of: (i) Oxalic acid (ii) Ferrous ammonium sulphate (Students will be required to prepare standard solutions by weighing themselves). fats and proteins in pure samples and their detection in given food stuffs.Napthol aniline dye. Cations – Pb2+. (ii) Preparation of potassium ferric oxalate. alcoholic. 2) Determination of two anions from a given mixture of salts. carboxylic and amino (primary) groups. Chromatography (demonstration) (i) Separation of pigments from extracts of leaves and flowers by paper chromatography and determination of Rf values. Zn2+. (v) Di-benzal acetone G. Al3+. Mn2+. aldehydic. Cu2+. (ii) Separation of constituents present in an inorganic mixture containing two cations only (constituents having large difference in Rf values to be provided). Mg2+. phenolic. Qualitative analysis 1) Determination of two cations from a given mixture of salts. F. Ni2+. Preparation of Organic Compounds (i) p-Nitrocetanilide (ii) Aniline yellow or 2. NH4+. ketonic. Ca2+. (iii) Iodoform (iv) Phthalic or succinic anhydride. J. As3+.D.

SO42-. 2 Study of quantity of casein present in different samples of milk. 3 Preparation of soybean milk and its comparison with the natural milk with respect to curd formation. effect of pH and temperature on it. can be chosen with the approval of the teacher. 136 . Br-. 8 Study of common food adulterants in fat. SO32-. potato juice. 7 Extraction of essential oils present in Saunf (aniseed). gram flour. 4 Study of the effect of potassium bisulphate as food preservative under various conditions (temperature. Ajwain (carum). chilli powder and pepper. time etc). sugar. A few suggested Projects: 1 Study of presence of oxalate ions in guava fruit at different stages of ripening. etc.Anions – CO32-. turmeric powder. Illaichi (cardamom). carrot juice. Cl-.) PROJECT Scientific investigations involving laboratory testing and collecting information From other sources. I-. 6 Comparative study of the rate of fermentation of following materials: wheat flour. concentration. etc. No2NO3-. PO43C2O42CH3COO(Note : Insoluble salts excluded. Note : Any investigatory project. 5 Study of digestion of starch by salivary amylase and. effect of temperature. butter.

Assist to understand the underlying principles of biological sciences and thereby develop scientific attitude towards biological phenomena. Guide students to perform easy experiments for better understanding of biological principles and to develop experimental skills required in practical work. Understanding of biology will help in the sustainable development of the environment and will also ensure the existence of earth with all its amazing diversity. Living organisms exhibit extremely complex functional system. Make students aware of issues of global importance.BIOLOGY. Hence it has been prepared in accordance with the guidelines shown in the final version of common core syllabi of COBSE. 137 . Accordingly some additional topics from state Board syllabus have been deleted whereas the lacking topics have been added. the science of biology has undergone a paradigm shift that has transformed it from a collection of loosely related facts into a modern applied science. Delhi. Recently. Organisms seldom occur as isolated individuals. Create awareness about the contribution of biology to human welfare. The entire unit “Ecology and Environment” has now been added under Botany and Zoology sections. The present syllabus reinforces the concepts introduced in lower classes. Organisms. communities. This syllabus is designed to prepare students for various examinations conducted at state and national level. Objectives: The prescribed syllabus is expected to: Promote the inherent skill of observation. Knowledge of biology helps us to understand a common thread which holds all these components together. ecosystems and environment constitute unique set of natural resources of great importance.Std. They are organized into populations and biological communities. XI & XII Preamble Higher secondary is the most crucial stage of education because at this juncture specialized disciplines of science are introduced. Help students to understand the functioning of organisms.

– XI: Biology (Upgraded syllabus) Section I . Types. 2. Three domains of life. Taxonomic hierarchy with examples. Classification of living organisms (five Kingdom classification) – Major groups and principles of classification for each Kingdom with examples.Kingdom Plantae 1. Basic chemical constituents of living bodies. characters. Systematic and binomial system of nomenclature . Botanical gardens and herbaria . 3. Structure and function of carbohydrates. systematics. examples and importance. Concept of species.Std. 2.Botany .Diversity in organisms 1.Algae. general properties. Need of classification.Meaning. Diversity in living organisms-Brief idea. Enzyme action and factors affecting enzyme activity in brief. 4. Salient features of major plant groups . Three to five salient features and two examples of each category. Binomial nomenclature explanation. 2. 5. classification and nomenclature. importance and list of gardens and herbaria in India. Bryophyta. Meiosis 138 . 3. Viruses and viroids . Mitosis 3.Definitions. types with examples.meaning of the terms taxonomy. Economic importance and list of viral diseases. Pteridophyta. Cell cycle 2. Enzymes . lipids and nucleic acids in brief.Biochemistry of cell: 1. Unit 2 Structure and function of cell Chapter 3 . Lichens .Definition. Unit 1 Diversity in Living World: Chapter 1. Gymnosperms and Angiosperms (Dicotyledons and Monocotyledons). Chapter 2 . significance and examples.Meaning. characters. proteins. Chapter 4 Cell Division 1.

Elementary idea of Hydroponics. epigeal and viviparous. mechanism of opening and closing of stomata. ethylene and abscissic acid (role in brief) Photoperiodism. flower. Phases of growth. Nitrogen Metabolism (nitrogen cycle. Active and passive absorption in brief.Plant Water Relation and Mineral Nutrition 1. leaf.Roots.Unit 3 Structural organization in plants: Chapter 5 . cytokinines. biological nitrogen fixation) Chapter 7 . fruit and seed. Germination . Guttation Ascent of sap.Apoplast and Symplast Pathways. gibberellins.differentiation.Absorption of water and minerals. Role of K+ ions 3. Photomorphogenesis including brief account of Phytochromes (Elementary idea) Vernalization.Morphology of Plants 1. Conditions of growth. redifferentiation Sequence of developmental process in a plant cell Growth regulators . 2. Mineral toxicity. inflorescence. Transpiration – structure of stomata. Translocation of sugars through phloem brief account..Hypogeal.Plant Growth and Development: Seed dormancy. Definition and characteristics of growth. Role of water and minerals . Unit 4 Plant Physiology: Chapter 6 . anatomy and functions of different parts . Morphology.tension theory.macronutrients and micronutrients and their role. Plant tissues. stem. Differentiation. de. Mineral deficiency symptoms. food. (To be dealt along with the relevant practicals of the practical syllabus) 2. root pressure concept and cohesion . 139 . nutrients and gases.auxins. Movement of water.

Echinodermata and Unit 2 Structure and function of cell: Chapter 9 . Reptilia. cuboidal. Cell wall and cell membrane . Cell organelles: Plastids.compound epithelium (stratified and transitional). Ribosome and Centrioles (ultrstructure and functions). Mollusca. Adipose. Aves and Mammalia. glandular).Study of Animal Tissues 1.(Areolar. 6. . Mitochondria. Nuclear organization . 4.types: a) Epithelial tissues . cytoskeleton. Cartilage and Bone). Zoological parks and Museums . Coelenterata. Arthropoda. Golgi complex. Microbodies. 5.brief account 2. Unit 3 Structural organisation in Animals: Chapter 10. Cyclostomata.structure and examples.Kingdom Animalia: 1. Endoplasmic reticulum. Vacuoles. Ciliated.Organization of Cell: 1. b) Connective tissue . Chondrichthyes.XI Section II – Zoology Unit 1 Diversity in Living World: Chapter 8 . cilia and flagella. Osteichthyes. Annelida. Hemichordata.simple epithelium (squamous. Cephalochordata. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell . columnar. Ligaments. Nemathelminthes.Std. Platyhelminthes. 140 . Plant cell and animal cell. Classification of phylum chordata upto class level with three to five salient features and two examples of each category: Urochordata. Lysosomes. . Tendons. Animal tissues . Cell theory . Amphibia. 3. nucleolus and nucleoplasm.General idea with list. Salient features of major phyla under kingdom Animalia. Classification of following phyla with three to five salient features and two examples of each category: Porifera.(fluid mosaic model). 2.Nucleus.

transport of CO2 and O2 and tissue respiration.c) Muscular tissue .(Smooth. absorption and nutritional disorders: ii) Digestive system in brief iv) Physiology of digestion. circulatory.inspiration and expiration. vomiting and diarrhoea Chapter 13. indigestion. Chapter 11. nervous. Chapter 14. d) Nervous tissue (Neurons.Human skeleton and Locomotion: Brief account of human skeleton: A] Axial Skeleton B] Appendicular Skeleton (Details to be dealt with the relevant practical) Types of joints . anatomy and functions of digestive. and reproductive systems of cockroach (Brief account only) Unit 4 Human Physiology: Chapter 12. Jaundice. amphiarthroses. Emphysema and occupational lung diseases. constipation. glial cells and types of neurons). 141 . gastrointestinal hormones. Regulation of Respiration. Calorific value of proteins.Study of Animal Type: 1.Human Respiration: 1Breathing. assimilation and egestion vi) Nutritional and digestive disorders – PEM.Human Nutrition: 1.Asthma. respiration and common respiratory disorders: Respiratory organs in animals (Recall only) i) Respiratory system in brief ii) Breathing. Digestion. Regulation iii) Exchange of gases. respiratory. Morphology.synarthroses. striated and cardiac). carbohydrates and fats v) Absorption. Peristalsis. and diarthroses. Respiratory volumes iv) Respiratory disorders.

Study of structure and distribution of stomata in upper and lower surface of leaf. Study of parts of compound microscope. Types of Movement. muscular dystrophy tetany and gout.Types of diarthroses . 3 Study and describe three locally available flowering plants from the families-Solanaceae. To test the presence of sugar. XI Biology Practicals Syllabus (A) List of experiments: 1. Preparation of T.ball and socket. leaf (arrangement. stem (herbaceous and woody). Fabaceae and Liliaceae with respect to types of root-(tap and adventitious). 2. venation. proteins and fats from suitable plant and animal materials. Muscular Mechanism of muscle movement: Contractile proteins and Muscle contraction Skeletal and muscular disorders – Myasthenia gravis. Flagellar. 7. 8) To study the digestion of starch by salivary amylase under different conditions of temperature and pH. 142 . Study of plasmolysis in epidermal peels. arthritis. 4. pivot. hinge. simple and compound) and floral characters. starch. saddle and gliding joints. shape. condyloid. 5 Study of osmosis by Potato osmometer 6. of dicot (sunflower) and monocot roots and stem to study different plant tissues. S. Osteoporosis.Ciliary. Std.

mammalian blood smear. Balanoglossus. 11. leaf Spines. and tendril). sclerenchyma. Rohu. Star-fish. Earthworm. 2. Leech. 3. Frog. Oscillatoria. c) Apical bud removal 10. Study of different modifications of root (fusiform root. 143 . Study of imbibition of seeds/raisins. 5. Silkworm Honey bee . Agaricus.palisade cells. Observation and comments on experimental set up on: a) Phototropism b) Suction due to transpiration. Prawn. Pigeon and Rat. Amoeba. Lizard. collenchyma. phloem. 8 Study of tissues and diversity in shapes and sizes of plant and animal cells. sunflower and maize. parenchyma. Study of specimens and identification with reasons: Bacteria. 9. phyllode). Spirogyra. Rhizopus. Riccia. Usnea. Cycas. Ascaris. Funaria. Study of specimens and their identification with reasons – Sycon. Comparative study of rates of transpiration in upper and lower surface of leaf. 4. muscle fibres. squamous epithelium. Hydra. 6. cartilaginous and fibrous joint with one suitable example). runner. Snail. hand bones and foot bones) and different types of joints (synovial. Liverfluke. epiphytic root and pneumatophores). yeast. Study of different modification of leaf (leaflet and stipular tendril). guard cells. Study of human skeleton (except skull. 7 Study and identification of different types of inflorescence. through temporary or permanent slides. Shark.(B) Study/ Observation of the following (Spotting): 1. parasitic root. xylem. Nephrolepis. Study of different modifications of stem (stem tuber.

semi conservative replication of eukaryotic DNA. Application of Biotechnology in Agriculture – BT crops Biosafety Issues (Biopiracy and patents) Unit 3: Biology and Human Welfare Chapter 4 .Genetic Basis of Inheritance: Mendelian inheritance. expression and regulation: Modern concept of gene in brief-cistron. 144 . ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Std. Elementary idea of polygenic inheritance. multiple alleles and Inheritance of blood groups). Transcription.incomplete dominance.Enhancement in Food Production: Plant Breeding Tissue Culture: Concept of Cellular Totipotency. Protein Synthesis.Gene: its nature. Chapter 2 . structure of DNA as given by Watson and Cricks model. Plasmids. Bacteriophages. Producing Restriction Fragments. Gene Expression and Gene Regulation (The Lac operon as a typical model of gene regulation). Study of mitosis in onion roots tips and animal cells (grasshopper) from permanent slides. Gene Amplification (PCR).XII Biology (Upgraded syllabus) Section I – BOTANY Unit 1: Genetics and Evolution Chapter 1 .12 Study of external morphology of earthworm. central dogma. cockroach and frog through models. Preparing and cloning a DNA Library. co-dominance. Pleiotropy. Unit 2: Biotechnology and its application Chapter 3 . 13. DNA as genetic material.Biotechnology: Process and Application Genetic engineering (Recombinant DNA technology): Transposons. Translation-Genetic Code. muton and recon. RNA: General structure types and functions. DNA Packaging. . Deviations from Mendelian ratio (gene interaction.

Unit 5: Reproduction in Organisms Chapter 8 . Light-Dependent Reactions (Cyclic and non-cyclic photophosphorylation) Light-Independent Reactions (C3 and C4 Pathways) Chemiosmotic hypothesis. Microbes as Biofertilizers. Callus Culture.Microbes in Human Welfare: Microbes in Household food processing Microbes in Industrial Production. Significance of Respiration. Asexual reproduction. Unit 4: Plant Physiology Chapter 6 . Chapter 7 . TCA Cycle and Electron Transport System) and Anaerobic Respiration. Factors affecting Photosynthesis.Requirements of Tissue Culture (in brief). Suspension Culture. uniparental modes-vegetative propagation.Photosynthesis: Autotrophic nutrition Site of Photosynthesis Photosynthetic Pigments and their role. Single Cell Protein. Fermentation Exchange of gases Amphibolic pathway. Microbes in Sewage Treatment.Reproduction in Plants: Modes of Reproduction (Asexual and Sexual). Biofortification Chapter 5 . Law of limiting factors. Microbes as Biocontrol Agents. Photorespiration.Respiration: ATP as currency of Energy Mechanism of Aerobic (Glycolysis. Microbes in Biogas (energy) Production. Respiratory quotient of Nutrients. micropropagation 145 .

development of seed and formation of fruit) Special modes-apomixis. Significance of seed and fruit formation. oxygen release. Green house effect and global warming. parthenocarpy. Environmental issues: agrochemicals and their effects. Unit 6: Ecology and Environment: Chapter 9: Organisms and Environment -I Habitat and Niche Ecosystems: Patterns. pollen-pistil interaction. Origin and Evolution of Human being. Development of female Gametophyte. Adaptive radiation. Biological Evidences.Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance: The Chromosomal Theory. nutrient cycling (carbon and phosphorous). Evolution: Darwin‟s contribution. energy flow. Mechanism of evolution. Structure of anatropous ovule. .ZOOLOGY Unit 1: Genetics and Evolution Chapter 10 .Origin and the Evolution of Life: Origin of Life: Early Earth. solid waste management. assembly of organic compounds. Pollination: Types and Agencies. Chromosomes. Double Fertilization: Process and Significance. Outbreeding devices. productivity and decomposition.Hardy-Weinberg principle. Ecological services-carbon fixation. Std.XII Biology Section II . polyembryony. components. Spontaneous. case studies (any two). Ecological succession. Modern Synthetic Theory of evolution. ozone depletion.Sexual Reproduction: structure of flower Development of male gametophyte. 146 . biomass. Chapter 11 . Gene flow and genetic drift. pyramids of number. energy. pollination. deforestation. Post-fertilization changes (development of endosperm and embryo.

drug and alcohol abuse.Linkage and Crossing Over. Common cold and ring worm). Typhoid. Dairy.Mendelian disorders in humansThalassemia. Antigen-Antibody Complex. Gene Therapy. Adolescence. Sex-linked Inheritance (Haemophilia and colour blindness). birds. Biotechnological Applications in Health: Human insulin and vaccine production. Filariasis. Chapter 14.Genetic Engineering and Genomics: DNA Finger Printing. Turner’s syndrome and Klinfelter’s syndrome. Animal Breeding.Animal Husbandry: Management of Farms and Farm Animals. Unit 2: Biotechnology and its application Chapter 12. Pathogens and Parasites (Amoebiasis. Vaccines. Pneumonia. Cancer and AIDS. Genomics and Human Genome Project. Transgenic animals. Poultry.Human Health and Diseases: Concepts of Immunology: Immunity Types. honey bee. Antigens on blood cells. Sericulture Lac culture 147 . Fisheries. Unit 3: Biology and Human Welfare Chapter 13. Chromosomal disorders in human: Down’s syndrome. Ascariasis. Bee-Keeping. Malaria. Sex Determination in Human being. Structure of Antibody.

Regulation of cardiac activity. Reflex action. Blood related disorders: Hypertension. Chapter 16. general idea of other sense organs Endocrine System: Endocrine glands. angina pectoris.Unit 4: Human Physiology Chapter 15. role of other organs in excretion. Lymphatic System (Brief idea): Composition of lymph and its functions. brief idea about PNS and ANS. Cardiac output.Circulation: Blood composition and coagulation. Excretory System Composition and formation of urine. exopthalmic goiter. and heart failure. Sensory receptors (eye and ear). ECG. Addison’s disease) 148 . Rhythmicity of Heart beat. Kidney stone (renal calculi). Disorders. ADH and Diabetes inspidus.Excretion and osmoregulation: Modes of excretion-Ammonotelism. Hormones and their functions. ureotelism. coronary artery disease. atrial natriuretic factor. Uraemia. Regulation of kidney function: renin-angiotensin. Chapter 17. Blood Vessels.Control and Co-ordination: Nervous System: Structure and functions of brain and Spinal cord. Pulmonary and Systemic Circulation. uricotelism. Hormonal imbalance and diseases: Common disorders (Dwarfism. Acromegaly. Transmission of nerve impulse. Dialysis. Diabetes mellitus. Blood groups Structure and pumping action of Heart. Transplantation. Kidney failure. cretinism. Sensory perception. Role of Kidney in Osmoregulation. Heart beat and Pulse. Mechanism of hormone action Hormones as messengers and regulators. goiter. nephritis.

GIFT (elementary idea for general awareness). Production of gametes. parturition and lactation (Elementary idea). Biodiversity and its conservation. Contraception and sexually transmitted diseases. ZIFT.concept. population attributes.MTP. Threats to and need for biodiversity conservation . Reproductive cycle. Histology of testis and ovary.extinction. age distribution. fertilization. parasitism.red data book .growth.Human Reproduction: Reproductive system in male and female. implantation.Unit 5: Reproduction in Organisms Chapter 18. Unit 6: Ecology and Environment Chapter 19-Organisms and Environment-II Population and ecological adaptations: population interactions-mutualism. water pollution and its control and radioactive waste management. Reproductive health-birth control. (Case studies any two) ---------------------------------------------------------------- 149 . endangered organisms.IVF. Infertility and assisted reproductive technologies. competition. placenta.Biodiversity. Amniocentesis. national parks and sanctuaries. birth rate and death rate. patterns. Pregnancy. Hotspots. Embryo development up to three germinal layers. predation. loss. Environmental issues: air pollution and its control. biosphere reserves. importance.

Study of plant population density and frequency by quadrate method. moisture content. XII (Upgraded) Biology Practicals Syllabus Experiments: 1. 10. 6 Study plants found in xerophytic and aquatic conditions with respect to their morphological adaptations. 4 Exercise on controlled pollination . Study/observation of the following (Spotting): 1 Study of flowers adapted to pollination by different agencies (wind. 5. 11To test the presence of albumin and bile salts in urine. 3. tagging and bagging 5 Study meiosis in onion bud cell or grass hopper testis through permanent slide. 8. 4.Emasculation. To test the presence of urea and sugar in urine. insect) 2 Study of pollen germination on stigma through a permanent slide. clarity and presence of any living organisms. Correlate with the kinds of plants found in them.(Two plants each) 150 .Std. Separation of plant pigments by paper chromatography 7 To study the rate of respiration in flower buds/leaf tissue and germinating seeds. Collect water from two different water bodies around you and study them for pH. 9. Dissect anther and ovary to show number of chambers. Study pollen germination on a slide. Dissect the given flower and display different whorls. Study the presence of suspended particulate matter in air at the two widely different Sites.. 3 To Study Mendelian inheritance using seeds of different colour/size of any plant. 2. Collect and study soil from at least two different sites and study them for texture. 6. Prepare a temporary mount of onion root tip to study mitosis. pH and water holding capacity of soil.

9 To study prepared pedigree charts of genetic traits such as rolling of tongue. widow‟s peak.S. Study of V. 11 Study of animals found in xeric (desert) and aquatic conditions with respect to their morphological adaptations. of testis and T. T. Comment on symptoms of diseases that they cause. 10 To identify common disease causing organisms like Plasmodium.Ascaris and ring worm through permanent slides or specimens. ovary through permanent slides (from any mammal).S. Blood groups.7 Study and identify stages of gamete development. of blastula through permanent slide. 8. colour blindness. Entamoeba . (Two animals each) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 151 .S.

XI & XII Introduction: Mathematics is the language of all sciences and is perhaps the only subject which merits this distinction. particularly by way of motivation and visualization of basic concepts. it is utmost important to make the study of Mathematics more meaningful by acquainting the student with many branches of mathematics. Hence to fulfill the needs of students. removal of social barriers.Upgraded Syllabus MATHEMATICS AND STATISTICS (For Arts and Science) Std. 4) To develop interest in Mathematics by participating in various related competitions and selflearning. Objectives: To enable the students 1)To acquire knowledge and critical understanding. 152 . The proposed syllabus has been designed in accordance with National Curriculum Framework 2005 and as per guidelines given in Focus Group on Teaching of Mathematics 2005 which is to meet the emerging needs of all categories of students. by more than one method. 7) To develop awareness of the need for national integration. 6) To develop an interest in students to study Mathematics as a discipline. protection of an environment. 2) To apply the knowledge and skills in Mathematics and related problems from other subjects. principles. symbols and mastering the underlying processes and skills. 3) To develop positive attitude to think. major thrust is also on application of various concepts. 5) To acquaint students with different aspects of Mathematics used in real life. Motivating topics from real life situations and other subject areas. This will help them in developing Mathematical tools to be used in the professional education. Physical and Biological Sciences. Higher Secondary is a launching stage from where students would go to either for academic education in Mathematics or professional courses like Engineering and Computer Technology. elimination of sex biases and observance of small family norm. terms. analyze and articulate logically. Mathematics is the backbone of all sciences and it is an inseparable part of human life.

Trigonometric functions: Need & concept. general form. Definition and equation of locus. two point form. Graph of Y = a sin bx. B and C are constants (without proof). always represents. angles in quadrant & quadrantal angles. Reduction of general equation of a line into normal form. zero angle. θ is in radians) (without proof).straight line. Sexagesimal system. 6. Locus : Introduction. provided A and B are not both zero. 5. θ. formulae for conversion of product into sum or difference. simultaneously. Straight Line : Revision. trigonometric functions of particular angles (00. θ. 3600). Inclination of a line.PART – I 1. 9) To develop interest in the subject by participating in related competitions. Theorem: Radian is a constant angle. normal form. parametric form. Trigonometric functions with the help of standard unit circle. relation between degree measure and radian measure. revision of different forms of equations of a line. Formulae for conversion of sum or difference into products. slope point form. trigonometric functions of half angles. graphs of trigonometric functions. slope intercept form. 2700. points of locus. domain and range of trigonometric functions. 153 . slope of a line. straight angle. Length of an arc of a circle (s = r. trigonometric functions of negative angles. Revision of directed angle (+ve and –ve angles). XI . 450. Measurement of Angles : Need & concept. trigonometric functions of angles of a triangle. 900. trigonometric functions of multiple angles (upto double and triple angles only). fundamental identities. Trigonometric functions of compound angles : Introduction. 2. shift of the origin. where A. intercepts of a line. periodicity of functions. angles in standard position. 1800. 300.8) To develop reverence and respect towards great mathematicians for their contribution to the field of Mathematics. signs of trigonometric functions in different quadrants. 3. circular system. equation of lines. coterminal angles. θ is in radians (without proof). Theorem : A general linear equation Ax + By+ C =0. 600. MATHEMATICS AND STATISTICS (ARTS AND SCIENCE) STD. y = a cos bx. trigonometricfunctions of sum and difference. parallel to coordinate axes. Area of the sector of a circle A = ½ r2. double intercept form other forms of equations of a line. Factorization Formulae: Introduction. Theorem 2 : Every straight line has an equation of the form Ax +By + C = 0. 4.

subtraction. 9. equations of bisectors of angle between two lines. Matrices : Introduction. multiplication of matrices – definition. minors & co-factors. ellipse. triangle law. centre-radius form. properties of transpose of a matrix (A ) A. Replacement of a set or domain of a set. polygon law. (KA) KA . determinant of order three–definition. focus-directrix property of parabola. solutions of system of linear in equations in one variable. determinant of a square matrix. parabola. types of matrices – zero matrix. Circle and Conics : Revision. triangular matrices. transpose of a matrix. introduction. definition. distance between two parallel lines. collinear vectors. column matrix. ellipse. negative of a vector. multiplication of a matrix by a scalar. properties. parameter equations of standard equation. coordinate axes & coordinate planes in space. 154 . family of lines. concepts. parametric equations. co-ordinates of a point in space. hyperbola. like and unlike vector. perpendicular lines. Vectors : Definition. hyperbola. equation of a straight line perpendicular to a given line. diagonal matrix. 10. Linear Inequations : Linear in equations in one variable – solution of linear inequation in one variable & graphical solution. standard equation. unit vectors along axes. standard equation. parametric equations. 11. applications of determinants condition of consistency. properties. Linear in equations in two variable – solution of linear inequation in one variable & graphical solution. standard equation (different forms of parabola). equal vector. product of vectors. standard equation. properties of matrix multiplication. square matrix. 7. addition. equation of a straight line parallel to a given line. Transposition. 8. row matrix. properties of addition of vectors. expansion. magnitude of a vector. properties of determinants. scalar matrix. definition. area of a triangle. free and localized vectors. three dimensional co-ordinate geometry. (AB) BA. coplanar vectors. solution of linear in equations in two variable & graphical solution. distance of a point from a line. Cramer‟s rule for system of equations in three variables. coinitial vector. general equation. notations. scalar product. identity matrix. symmetric & skew symmetric matrices. parallel lines. types of vectors. order. vector product. Determinants : Revision. diameter form. Application of conic section.intersection of two lines. simple properties. resolved part of a force. condition for concurrency of three lines. parallelogram law. unit vector. workdone by force. identical lines. moment of a force. simple application. solutions of system of linear inequations in two variables. singular & non-singular matrices. equation of family of lines through the intersection of two lines. scalar multiple of a vector. distance between two points in a space. zero vector. Conics Napees – Intersection of Napees of a cone and Plane. position vector of a point in space. operations on matrices – equality. angle between lines.

method of finding mantissa. Demoivre‟s formula – (without proof). domain. intersection.2) Commulative Law. complex conjugates. inverse function. finite & infinite sets. domain. Relations – ordered pairs. fundamental theorem of algebra. identity function. properties. many-one. multiplication. Cartesian product of the reals with itself. need for complex numbers.5) Existence of additive inverse. equality of ordered pairs. scalar multiplication. universal set. complement of a set. power set. disjoint sets. geometrical meaning of modulus and argument. difference of two sets. binary equivalence relation. powers and square root of a complex number – higher powers of i. real valued function of the real variable. equivalent sets. union. one-one. Complex Numbers : Introduction. Sets. subset and their properties. exponential function. domain and range of these functions. cube roots of unity. logarithmic function. addition. functions with their graphs. codomain and range of a relation. signum & greatest integer. proper. 3) Associative law. equal sets. algebra of complex numbers – equality. modulus function. Properties of product of complex numbers –Existance of multiplicative identity – Existence of multiplicative inverse properties of conjugate & modulus of complex numbers. Logarithms : Introduction. onto function. Cartesian product of two sets. definition of relation. square root of a complex number. improper. codomain and range of a function. change of base. even & odd functions. 2. in plane. method of finding antilogarithm. characteristics & mantissa – method of finding characteristics. rational function. Argand Diagram – representation of a complex number as a pt. constant function. polar representation of complex numbers. properties of complex numbers – properties of addition of complex numbers. laws of logarithms. difference. 3. product quotient of functions. pictorial diagrams. equal functions. polynomial function. Relations and Functions : Set – Revision. 1) Closure Property. of elements in the Cartesian product of two finite sets. cube roots of unity – solution of quadratic equations in the complex number system. definition. 155 . functions – function as a special kind of relation. argument). sum. division. 4) Existence of additive identity. subtraction. binary operations. subset.PART – II 1. into function. pictorial representation of a function. Venn diagrams. definitions –(real parts. No. empty set. composite function. types of functions. types of relations. modulus. imaginary parts. one-one function.

limits at infinity – concepts. types of events – events and algebra of events. circular permutations. harmonic mean.P. mean deviation about mean. combinations – definition. algebra of integrals – integrals of some standard functions. sum of cube of first n natural. addition theorem – for any two events A and B. the limit of a function. 5. mutually exlusive events. A. rules of differentiation – derivative of sum.M. combined variance and standard deviation. 6. particular term. 156 . 10.. with proof.P. multiplication theorem. geometric progression – introduction. Conditional probability – definition. fundamental principle of counting. properties of binomial co-efficient with simple application. as a special type of A. exponential functions. particular cases of binomial theorem.. fundamental theorem on limits. P. sum of the first „n‟ terms. geometrical interpretation of indefinite integrals. 11.. Sum of first n terms of A. binomial theorem – binomial theorem for positive integers. logarithmic functions. relations between permutations and combinations. relation between A. comparison of two frequency distributions with same mean. meaning of x a.4. simple applications. Limits : Introduction of concept. Baye‟s theorem. Integration: Definition (of integration) as antiderivative.M. n terms from the end of G. axiomatic definition of probability. Arithmetic-Geometric sequence. algebra of limits – standard limits. Mathematical Induction and Binomial Theorem : Principle of mathematical induction. physical significance (velocity as a rate of change of displacement). properties of A. factorial notation.. binomial theorem for any index (without proof). effect of change of origin and scale on variance and standard deviation. standard deviation. derivative at a point. mean deviation about median (for grouped & ungrouped data). geometric means. geometrical significance of derivative. 8. Permutations & combinations : Introduction. G. difference. rules of integration.P. derivatives from first principle of trigonometric functions.P. exponential & logarithmic series. simple applications... co-efficient of variation. Probability: Revision. product and quotient. Statistics : Measures of dispersion – range. Result on compatible events. simple problems.M. H. containing finitely many terms & sum to infinite terms properties of G. properties. H. Differentiation : Definition of a derivative. algebraic functions. general term. quartile & quartile deviation (for grouped and ungrouped data). general term. 7. mutually exclusive and exhaustive events. Sequences & Series : Revision sequence. independent events. when all r objects are distinct.P. simple applications. permutations. when all r objects are not distinct. special series. odds in favour and against. variance. 9. simple applications. Means – arithmetic mean. sum of cube of first n odd natural nos.P.

12. 10. 15. 16. Numerical problems using laws of logarithms. 18. Binomial theorem. 17. 5. Tracing of graphs of functions. Probability. 3. Linear inequation. Applications of determinants. 8. Algebra of matrices. 9. 4. Measures of dispersion.List of Practicals: XI 1. 13. Mathematical induction. 20. Applications of Conics I. 7. Integration. Differentiation. Applications of Conics II. 6. cube root of unity. Power and square root of a complex number. Examples on special series. 11. Family of lines. 19. Limits. Applications of vectors (Dot and cross product). --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 157 . Problems on locus. 2. 14. Permutations and combinations.

truth value of statement. 2. algebra of statements-idempotent law. contrapositive. demorgan‟s laws. condition for parallel lines. elementary column transformation. graphs of inverse trigonometric function. inverse of a matrix-existance and uniqueness of inverse of a matrix. contradiction. elementary row transformation. homogenous equation. converse. Pair of straight lines : Pair of lines passing through origin-conbined equation. range. tan2 tan2 . 158 . contingency. inversion method. cosine rule. involution law. sine rule. commutative law. negation. sin sin . open sentences and truth sets. cos cos . complement law. inverse trigonometric functionsdefinitions. adjoint method. condition of parallel and perpendicular lines.Introduction. XII PART – I 1. theorem-the joint equation of a pair of lines passing through origin and its converse. point of intersection of two lines. cos 0. Napier Analogues. duality. principle values. sin 0. negation of compound statement. quantifier and quantified statements. sentences and statement. compound statement. examples related to real life and mathematics. contradiction. difference between converse. cos2 cos2 . Hero‟s formula. acute angle between the lines (without proof). inverse. solution of Trigonometric equations. tan tan . logical connective-conjunction. disjunction. area of a triangle. condition that the equation ax2+2hxy+by2+2gx+2fy+c=0 should represent a pair of lines (without proof). Mathematical Logic : Statements . distributive law. identity law. Matrices : Elementary transformation of a matrix-revision of cofactor and minor. logical equivalence. projection rule. inverse by elementary transformation. a cos b sin c solution of a triangle-polar coordinates. 4. properties of inverse functions. statement patterns and logical equivalence-tautology. associative law. condition for perpendicular lines. biconditional. tan . application. implication/ conditional. there exists. truth tables of compound statements. Trigonometric functions : Trigonometric equations-general solution of trigonometric equation of the type. sin2 sin2 . application-solution of system of linear equations by – reduction method. contrapositive. angle between the lines represented by ax2+2hxy+by2=0. logical equivalence. pair of lines not passing through origin-conbined equation of any two lines. domain. application-introduction to switching circuits (simple examples).MATHEMATICS AND STATISTICS STD. 3.

Plane : Equation of plane in normal form. relation between direction ratio and direction cosines. Linear programming problems: Introduction of L. ellipse. Conics : Tangents and normals-equations of tangent and normal at a point for parabola. hyperbola. distance of a point from a plane (vector approach). condition of perpendicular lines. centroid formula. equation of line passing through two given points. objective function. director circle. definition of constraints. angle between line and plane. feasible and infeasible 159 .2) general circle. distance between two parallel lines (vector approach). ellipse. equation of plane passing through the intersection of two given planes. length of tangent segments. Collinearty and coplanerity of vectors-linear combination of vectors. condition for the coplanerity of two lines. angle bisectors of triangle are concurrent. 7. condition of tangency only for line y mx c to the circle x2 y2 a2 . direction cosines. ellipse. constraint equations. equation of plane passing through the given point and parallel to two given vectors. angle between two lines. diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each other and converse. of a point from a line.P. hyperbola. condition of tangency for parabola. properties. hyperbola. normal to a circle-equation of normal at a point. Line : Equation of line passing through given point and parallel to given vector. scaler triple product-definition. tangents from a point outside conics. equation of plane passing through three non-collinear points. Vectors : Revision. 6. midpoint formula. angle subtended on a semicircle is right angle. tangents to a circle from a point outside the circle. angle between two planes. tangents in terms of slope for parabola. formula. 8. Three dimensional geometry : Direction cosines and direction ratios-direction angles. equation of plane passing through the given point and perpendicular to given vector. altitudes of a triangle are concurrent. properties of tangents and normals to conics (without proof). geometrical interpretation of scalar triple product. distance between two skew lines. median of trapezium is parallel to the parallel sides and its length is half the sum of parallel sides. optimization. conditions of coplanerity ofthree vectors.P. non-negativity restrictions. 11. 9.5. direction ratios. condition of collinearity of two vectors. 10. dist. Circle : Tangent of a circle-equation of a tangent at a point to 1) standard circle. locus of points from which two tangents are mutually perpendicular. section formula-section formula for internal and external division. application of vectors to geometry-medians of a triangle are concurrent.

derivative of parametric function – definition of parametric function .PART – II 1. Integration : Indefinite integrals-methods of integration. evaluation of definite integral 1) by substitution. integration by partial fraction-factors involving repeated and non-repeated linear factors. integrals of the type. trigonometric. right hand limit. substitution method. discontinuity of a function. algebra of continuous functions. integrals of type (reduction formulae are not expected). integration by parts-integration by parts. continuity of some standard functionspolynomial. properties of definite integrals properties of definite integrals. 2. relationship between continuity and differentiability-left hand derivative and right hand derivative (need and concept). increasing and decreasing function.region. STD. exponential and logarithmic function. graphical solutions for problem in two variables. optimum feasible solution. 4. continuity in interval-definition. definite integral-definite integral as a limit of sum.P. first derivative test. exponential and logarithmic function-derivative of functions which are expressed in one of the following form a) product of functions. b) quotient of functions. every differentiable function is continuous but converse is not true. Maxima and minima-introduction of extreme and extreme values.P. Continuity : Continuity of a function at a point-left hand limit. 160 . different types of L. c) higher order derivative-second order derivative d) f (x) g x 3. and Mean value theorem and their geometrical interpretation (without proof). derivative as rate measure-introduction. rational.P. Mathematical formulation-mathematical formulation of L. fundamental theorem of integral calculus (without proof). non-repeated quadratic factors. definition of a continuity of a function at a point. maxima and minima in a closed interval. Derivative of implicit function definition and examples. feasible solutions.P. approximation (without proof). second derivative test. Application of derivative : Geometrical application-tangent and normal at a point. Rolls theorem. Derivative of composite functionchain rule.revision of derivative. types of discontinuity. 2) integration by parts. problems. XII . derivative of inverse function derivative of inverse trigonometric function. Differentiation : Revision.

7. distribution function of a continuous random variable. discrete and continuous random variable.f. Bernoulli trials and Binomial distribution : Definition of Bernoulli trial.d. Applications of definite integral: Area under the curve . variance and standard deviation. 161 .bivariate data. 8.). calculation of probabilities (without proof). Inverse of a matrix by elementary transformation and hence solution of system of linear equation.d. area bounded by two curves.). variance and standard deviation. Karl Pearson‟s co-efficient of correlation. bacterial colony growth. 4. scatter diagram. Solutions of a triangle. probability mass function (p. 2. expected value.).p.f. mean. 3. mean. solution of first order and first degree differential equation-variable separable method. 9.f. covariance of or ungrouped data. variance and standard deviation of a discrete random variable. formation of differential equation-formation of differential equation by elimmating arbitary constants (at most two constants). simple problems (without proof). Inverse of a matrix by adjoint method and hence solution of system of linear equations.5. order. Linear differential equation. radioactive decay.m. homogenous differential equation (equation reducible to homogenous form are not expected). particular solution of differential equation. applications-population growth. volume of solid of revolution-volume of solid obtained by revolving the area under the curve about the axis (simple problems). degree. surface area.area bounded by curve and axis (simple problems). Normal distribution . Newton‟s laws of cooling.m. probability density function (p. Differential equation : Definition-differential equation. general solution. Applications of logic. 6. List of Practicals : XII 1. tabulation of bivariate data. probability distribution of a discrete random variable.f. Probability distribution : Probability distribution of a random variable-definition of a random variable. covariance for bivariate frequency distribution. Statistics: Bivariate frequency distribution . standard normal variable. binomial distribution (p. cumulative probability distribution of a discrete random variable. conditions for Binomial distribution.

6. 12. Applications of definite integrals . Tracing of tangents and normals for ellipse and hyperbola. 13. Applications of derivatives – Rate. Applications of derivatives (Geometric applications). Applications of definite integrals . Applications of differential equations. Applications of scalar triple product of vectors.line.5. Expected value.volume. 19. Bivariate frequency distribution. variance and S. Formations and solutions of LPP. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 162 . 16. 8. measure. Tracing of tangents and normals for circles and parabola. 17.Limit of sum.D of random variable.Maxima and minima 14. 11. 18. 15. Binomial distribution.Area. Applications of definite integrals . 9. 7.plane. Three dimensional geometry . Three dimensional geometry . Applications of derivatives . 20. 10.

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