Upgraded Syllabus

PHYSICS – Std. XI & XII Preamble
According to NCF 2005, the curriculum of the subject Physics is upgraded for higher secondary stage. This curriculum is comparable to the international standards which are useful for the students in Maharashtra State for different types of competitive examinations conducted in India. All the units of the subject from NCERT curriculum are divided into two years conveniently in Maharashtra State. Continuity in the curriculum is maintained in Std. XI & XII, which is not in NCERT curriculum. All the students appear for the competitive examinations only after +2 stages throughout India. This syllabus has been designed in accordance with the guidelines shown in the final version of common core syllabii of COBSE, Delhi. Accordingly few additional sub units have been added. Objectives – 1. Emphasis on basic conceptual understanding of the content. 2. Emphasis on use of SI units, symbols, nomenclature of physical quantities and formulations as per international standards. 3. Providing logical sequencing of units of the subject matter and proper placement of concepts with their linkage for better learning. 4. Reducing the curriculum load by eliminating overlapping of concepts/content within the discipline and other disciplines. 5. Promotion of process-skills, problem-solving abilities and applications of Physics concepts. 6. Strengthen the concepts developed at the secondary stage to provide firm foundation for further learning in the subject. 7. Expose the learners to different processes used in Physics-related industrial and technological applications. 8. Develop process-skills and experimental, observational, manipulative, decision making and investigatory skills in the learners. 9. Promote problem solving abilities and creative thinking in learners. 10. Develop conceptual competence in the learners and make them realize and appreciate the interface of Physics with other disciplines.



(Upgraded Syllabus)
Std. XI
1. Measurements Introduction, Need for measurement, Units for measurement, System of Units, S.I. Units, Fundamental and derived units, Dimensional analysis, Order of magnitude and significant figures, Accuracy and errors in measurement.

2. Scalars and Vectors Addition and subtraction of vectors, Product of vectors.

3. Projectile motion Uniformly accelerated motion along straight line, Non uniform motion, Position time graph and velocity-time graph, Equation of a projectile path, Time of flight, Horizontal range, Maximum height of a projectile, Relative velocity.

4. Force Types of forces, General idea of gravitation, electromagnetic and nuclear forces, Law of conservation of momentum, Work done by a variable force. Work-energy theorem, Elastic and inelastic collisions in one and two dimensions, Inertial and non-intertial frames, Moment of force, Couple and properties of couple, Centre of mass, Centre of gravity, Conditions of equilibrium of a rigid body.

5. Friction in solids and liquids Origin and nature of frictional forces, Laws of static friction, Laws of kinetic friction, Pressure due to fluid column, Pascal‟s Law and its applications, Effect of gravity on fluid pressure, Viscosity, Streamline flow, Turbulent flow, Viscous force, Newton‟s formula, Stokes‟ law, Equation for terminal velocity, Raynold‟s number, Bernoulli‟s principle and its applications.


6. Sound Waves Waves and oscillations, Progressive waves, Characteristics of transverse waves, Characteristics of longitudinal waves, Sound as longitudinal wave motion, Relation between v, f and, ƛ Newton‟s formula for velocity of sound, Laplace‟s correction.

7. Thermal properties of matter Temperature and heat, Measurement of temperature, Ideal-gas equation and absolute temperature, Thermal expansion, Specific heat capacity, Calorimetry, Change of state, Latent heat, Heat transfer.

8. Refraction of Light Refraction of monochromatic light, Snell‟s law, Total internal reflection, Critical angle, Optical fibre, Dispersion of light, Prism formula, Angular dispersion and dispersive power, Rainbow, Scattering of light, Blue colour of sky, Colour of sun at sunrise and sunset. Elementary idea of Raman effect.

9. Ray optics Reflection of light by spherical mirrors, Refraction at single curved surface, Lens maker‟s equation, Combination of thin lenses in contact, Concept of conjugate focii, Correction of eye defects, Magnifying power of simple microscope, Magnifying power of compound microscope, Magnifying power of telescope, Reflecting telescope - schematic diagram with explanation.

10. Electrostatics Frictional electricity, Charges and their conservation, Coulomb‟s law and dielectric constant, Forces between multiple electric charges, Superposition principle of forces, Continuous distribution of charges, Concept of charge density, Electric field intensity, Potential energy, Electric potential due to point charge, Relation between electric field intensity and potential, Potential difference, Volt and electron volt, Electric dipole and dipole moment, Electric lines of force. Equipotential surfaces, P.E. of single charge and system of charges.


11. Current electricity Ohm‟s law, Resistance, Specific resistance, Temperature dependence of resistance, Colour code of carbon resistor, Series and parallel combination of resistors, E.M.F. and internal resistance of cell, Work done by electric current, Power in electric circuit, Cells in series and in parallel, Elementary idea of secondary cells.

12. Magnetic effect of electric current Oersted’s experiment, Biot Savart‟s law, Right hand rule, Magnetic induction at the centre of circular coil carrying current, Magnetic induction at a point along the axis of a coil carrying current, Fleming‟s left hand rule, Force between two infinitely long current carrying parallel conductors, Definition of Ampere, Force acting on a conductor carrying current in magnetic field, Torque on a current loop in magnetic field.

13. Magnetism Origin of magnetism due to moving charges, Equivalence between magnetic dipole and circular coil carrying current, Definition of magnetic dipole moment and its unit, Torque acting on a magnet in uniform magnetic induction, Bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, Magnetic field lines, Magnetic induction due to bar magnet at a point along the axis and at a point along equator, Earth‟s magnetic field and magnetic elements, Electromagnets and factors affecting their strength.

14. Electromagnetic waves Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics, Transverse nature of electromagnetic waves, Electromagnetic spectrum, Space communication, Propagation of electromagnetic waves in atmosphere.


Physics List of Practicals Std. XI
1. Use of Vernier Callipers. 2. Use of Screw gauge. 3. To determine radius of curvature of a given spherical surface by a spherometer. 4. To find the weight of a given body using parallelogram law of vectors. 5. To study the relationship between force of limiting friction and normal reaction and to find co-efficient of friction between a block and a horizontal surface. 6. To determine resistance per cm of a given wire by plotting a graph of potential difference versus current. 7. To find the value of „v‟ for different values of „u‟ in case of a „concave mirror and to find the focal length. 8. To find the focal length of a convex lens by plotting graphs between „u‟ and „v‟or between „1/u‟ and „1/v‟. 9. To find the focal length of a convex mirror, using a convex lens. 10. To find the focal length of a concave lens, using a convex lens. 11. To determine angle of minimum deviation for a given prism by plotting a graph between angle of incidence and angle of deviation. 12. To determine refractive index of a glass using a travelling microscope. 13. To find refractive index of a liquid by using (i) concave mirror, (ii) convex lens and plane mirror. 14. To determine specific heat capacity of a given (i) liquid (ii) solid, by method of mixtures.

Physics List of Activities Std. XI
1. To make a paper scale of given least count, e.g. 0.2 cm, 0.5 cm. 2. To determine mass of a given body using a meter scale by principle of moments. 3. To plot a graph for a given set of data, with proper choice of scales and error bars.


on a screen by using a candle and a screen (for different distances of the candle from the lens/mirror). 8. current (AC) and check continuity of a given circuit using multimeter. 9. To note the change in level of liquid in a container on heating and interpret the observations. 7. 6. 5. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 115 . To study the variation in range of a jet of water with angle of projection. To obtain a lens combination with the specified focal length by using two lenses from the given set of lenses. To measure the force of limiting friction for rolling of a roller on a horizontal plane. To study the nature and size of image formed by (i) convex lens (ii) concave mirror.4. To measure resistance. 10. voltage (AC/DC). To observe refraction and lateral deviation of a beam of light incident obliquely on a glass slab.

K. Vertical circular motion due to earth‟s gravitation. and P. Angular momentum and its conservation. Circular motion Angular displacement. Rolling motion. Phase of S. Deformation..M.M. Communication satellite and its uses. Angle of contact. Elasticity General explanation of elastic property. Binding energy and escape velocity of a satellite. Surface tension Surface tension on the basis of molecular theory. Surface tension. 6. lattitude.H. Determination of „Y‟. Surface energy. Variation of „g‟ due to altitude. Differential equation of linear S. S. Simple pendulum.PHYSICS (Upgraded syllabus) Std. Applications of elastic behaviour of materials. on any diameter.I.M.E. of some regular shaped bodies about specific axes. Projection of U.H. Angular velocity and angular acceleration. Uniform circular motion.M. Relation between linear velocity and angular velocity.H.C. of rotating body. Radius of gyration. Capillarity and capillary action. Projection of satellite.. Principle of parallel and perpendicular axes. K. Gravitation Newton‟s law of gravitation. Equation for velocity and energy at different positions of vertical circular motion. Composition of two S..M. Wave motion 116 . Damped S. 4. 7.. in S. Behaviour of metal wire under increasing load.E. Statement of Kepler‟s laws of motion.‟s having same period and along same line. M. 3.H. Kinematical equations for circular motion in analogy with linear motion. Elastic constants and their relation. 5. XII 1.I. Definition of stress and strain. Centripetal and centrifugal forces.M. Banking of roads.H. Weightlessness condition in orbit. Elastic energy. 2.E.. Oscillations Explanation of periodic motion.M.I. Plasticity. Hooke‟s law. Rotational motion Definition of M. depth and motion. Periodic time. Effect of impurity and temperature on surface tension.H. Physical significance of M. Radial acceleration. Poisson’s ratio. Torque.

Thermal equilibrium and definition of temperature. Energy density of a medium. 8. Condensers in series and parallel. Doppler effect in light. Capacity of parallel plate condenser. Difference between interference and diffraction. Young‟s experiment. 9. 10. Assumptions of kinetic theory. Wave front and wave normal. Kinetic theory of gases and Radiation Concept of an ideal gas. Degrees of freedom. 1st law of thermodynamics. Polarisation. Huygens‟ Principle. Reflection at plane surface. Effect of dielectric on capacity. Energy of charged condenser. Measurement of wavelength by biprism experiment. van-de-Graaff generator. Concept of condenser. Study of vibrations of air columns. 13. Derivation for pressure of a gas. Reflection of transverse and longitudinal waves. Conditions for producing steady interference pattern. Free and Forced vibrations. Law of equipartition of energy and application to Specific heat capacities of gases. Polaroids. Formation of beats.Wein’s displacement law. Rayleigh‟s criterion. Superposition of waves. Mean free path. Heat engines and refrigerators. Wave theory of light Wave theory of light.Simple harmonic progressive waves. Current electricity 117 . Qualitative idea of black body radiation. Doppler effect in sound. Electrostatics Gauss‟ theorem proof and applications. Stefan’s law. Brewster‟s law. Green house effect. Interference and diffraction Interference of light. Thermodynamics. Formation of stationary waves on string. Plane polarised light. Refraction at plane surface. Resonance. 12. Analytical treatment of interference bands. 2nd law of thermodynamics. Dielectrics and electric polarisation. Derivation of Boyle‟s law. Maxwell distribution. Construction of plane and spherical wave front. Diffraction due to single slit. Resolving power of a microscope and telescope. Stationary waves Study of vibrations in a finite medium. Mechanical force on unit area of a charged conductor. Change of phase. 11.

Nuclear fission and fusion. Magnetisation and magnetic intensity. Hertz and Lenard‟s observations. 15. Radioactivity. Sensitivity of moving coil galvanometer. 18 Atoms. B. Rectifiers. Wavelength of an electron. Ferromagnetism on the basis of domain theory. Transformer. Self induction and mutual induction.E. AC generator. e = . Wattless current. Diamagnetism. Cyclotron. Voltmeter. 16 Electromagnetic inductions Laws of electromagnetic induction. Meter bridge. Decay law. I-V characteristics of LED. Rutherford‟s model of atom. Resonant circuit. Davisson and Germer experiment. Moving coil galvanometer. Wheatstone‟s bridge. Particle nature of light. Reactance and impedance. Need for displacement current. Potentiometer. mass-energy relation. I-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias. Continuous and characteristics X-rays. 19 Semiconductors Energy bands in solids. LC oscillations (qualitative treatment only) Power in a. 14. Transistor 118 . Composition and size of nucleus. Photodiode. Bohr‟s model. Zener diode as a voltage regulator.Kirchhoff‟s law.c circuit with resistance. Magnetic dipole moment of revolving electron. Magnetic effects of electric current Ampere‟s law and its applications. Ammeter. Paramagnetism. Hydrogen spectrum. Magnetism Circular current loop as a magnetic dipole. inductance and capacitance.dØ dt Eddy currents. P-type and N-type semiconductor. per nucleon and its variation with mass number. Matter waves – wave nature of particles. de Broglie hypothesis. P-N junction diode. Alternating currents. Solar cell. Einstein‟s equation. proof of. Curie temperature. Coil rotating in uniform magnetic induction. Molecules and Nuclei Alpha particle scattering experiment. Intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors. mass defect. 17 Electrons and photons Photoelectric effect.

Need for modulation.action and its characteristics. Propagation of electromagnetic waves in atmosphere. space communication. Transistor as an amplifier (CE mode).AND.Transistor as a switch. bandwidth of signals. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 119 . bandwidth of transmission medium. Production and detection of an amplitude modulated wave.NOT.NOR) 20 Communication systems Elements of communication system. Oscillators and Logic gates (OR.NAND.

To find the force constant and effective mass of helical spring by plotting T 2--m graph using method of oscillations. 6. 2. To study the relation between frequency and length of a given wire under constant tension using sonometer. To find the speed of sound in air at room temperature using a resonance tube. To draw the I-V characteristic curves of a p-n junction diode in forward bias and reverse bias. To draw the characteristic curve of a zener diode and to determine its reverse break down voltage. To study the relationship between the temperature of a hot body and time by plotting a cooling curve. 7. To study the characteristics of a common-emitter npn or pnp transistor and to find out the values of current and voltage gains. 10. To study the relation between the length of a given wire and tension for constant frequency using sonometer. XII 1. 9. 15. 14. To determine the internal resistance of given cell using potentiometer. 12. To determine the surface tension of water by capillary rise method. 11. 4. To determine resistance of galvanometer using metre bridge. To compare the emf of two given cells using potentiometer. To find resistance of given wire using metre bridge and hence determine the specific resistance of its material. 13. 8. 5. To verify the laws of combination (series/parallel) of resistances using a metre bridge. 120 .Physics List of Practicals Std. To determine Young‟s modulus of elasticity of the material of a given wire. 3.

an LED. 2. and 1C. key. To measure the resistance and impedance of an inductor with or without iron core. a fuse and a power source. 6. To study the effect of detergent on surface tension by observing capillary rise. diode. To study effect of intensity of light (by varying distance of the source) on an L. transistor or IC) is in working order. 1 l.g. To study the factors affecting the rate of loss of heat of a liquid. a resistor and a capacitor from mixed collection of such items. To observe polarization of light using two polaroids. 8. Use of multimeter to (i) identify base of transistor (ii) distinguish between npn and pnp type transistors. 10. 3. resistor/ rheostat. three (on/off) switches. a transistor. 121 . 5.Physics List of Activities Std. XII 1. 4. To draw the diagram of a given open circuit comprising at least a battery. To identify a diode. To assemble a household circuit comprising three bulbs.D.R. To study the variation in potential drop with length of a wire for a steady current. Mark the components that are not connected in proper order and correct the circuit and also the circuit diagram. 9. ammeter and voltmeter. To study the effect of load on depression of a suitably clamped meter scale loaded (i) at its end (ii) in the middle. 12. To study dissipation of energy of a simple pendulum by plotting a graph between square of amplitude and time. 7. (iii) see the unidirectional flow of current in case of a diode and an LED (iv) check whether a given electronic component (e.

5) To develop problem solving skills in students. the new and updated curriculum is introduced at +2 stages. 122 . population. analytical and polymer chemistry. There is a need to provide the sufficient conceptual background of chemistry which will help the students to appear for different common entrance test at state level and national level. 3) To expose the students to various emerging new areas of chemistry and apprise them with their relevance in their future studies and their applications in various spheres of chemical sciences and technology. weather. 7) To apprise students with interface of chemistry with other disciplines of science such as Physics. OBJECTIVES The broad objectives of teaching Chemistry at Senior Secondary Stage are to help the learners : 1) To promote understanding of basic facts and concepts in chemistry while retaining the excitement of Chemistry. engineering. Engineering. New nomenclature. organic. The revised syllabus has taken care of new formulations and nomenclature of elements. inorganic. technology. technology) at tertiary level. Geology. fundamental concepts. after the +2 stage. compounds and IUPAC units of physical quantities. symbols and formulations. etc. Biology. etc. environment. 2) To make students capable of studying chemistry in academic and professional courses (such as medicine. modern techniques are given importance.CHEMISTRY (Upgraded syllabus) Std. The syllabus contains areas like physical. XI & XII Preamble RATIONALE According to NCF 2005. engineering. The syllabus is comparable to the international level. industrial. 6) To expose the students to different processes used in industries and their technological applications. 4) To equip students to face various changes related to health. nutrition. This new syllabus will make them competent to meet the challenges of academic and professional courses like medicine. industries and agriculture.

electronic configuration of atoms. proton and neutron. empirical derivation of gas equation. valence. chemical reactions. Gay Lussac‟s law. 123 . de Broglie‟s relationship.Enthalpy: Explanation and definition of term. isotopes and isobars. Deviation from ideal behaviour. modern periodic law and present form of periodic table. Atomic and molecular masses mole concept and molar mass : Avogadro‟s law and Avogadro number. rules for filling electrons in orbitals – Aufbau principle. Unit 4 : Periodic Table Significance of classification. Charles law. atomic number. Heisenberg‟s uncertainty principle. electron gain enthalpy. no mathematical derivations). Intermolecular interactions. Pauli‟s exclusion principle and Hund‟s rule. Role of gas laws in elucidating the concept of the molecule. Unit 3 : Structure of Atom Discovery of electron. Boyle‟s law.CHEMISTRY Std. quantum numbers. Dalton‟s atomic theory : concept of elements. electronegativity. dual nature of matter and light. viscosity and surface tension (qualitative idea only. type of bonding. concept of orbitals. liquefaction of gases. atoms and molecules. Inert gas radii nomenclature of elements with atomic number greater than 100. periodic trends in properties of elements atomic radii. percentage composition. Rutherford‟s model and its limitations. empirical and molecular formula. stoichiometry and calculations based on stoichimetry. XI (Theory) Unit 1: Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry General Introduction: Importance and scope of chemistry. laws of chemical combination. Historical approach to particulate nature of matter. ionic radii. Kinetic energy and molecular speeds (elementary idea) Liquid State – Vapour pressure. shapes of s. Ideal behaviour. p and d orbitals. stability of half filled and completely filled orbitals. Ionization enthalpy. Critical temperature. Unit 2 : States of Matter : Gases and Liquids Three states of matter. Ideal gas equation. concept of shells and subshells. brief history of the development of periodic table. Bohr‟s model and its limitations.

strong and weak electrolytes. Ionic equilibrium: Ionization of acids and bases. occurrence. VSEPR theory. Unit 8 : Nature of Chemical Bond Valence electrons. physical and chemical properties of water. Lyophobic. heavy water. properties and uses of hydrogen. redox reactions. factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids. acid strength. concept of hybridization involving s. Unit 6: Chemical Equilibrium Equilibrium in physical and chemical processes. polar character of covalent bond. multimolecular and macromolecular colloids. properties and structure. ionic bond. Balancing redox reactions. Brownian movement. coagulation. isotopes. resonance. Uses of hydrogen peroxide 124 . colloidal state : distinction between true solutions. Lyophilic. properties of colloids. equilibrium constant. dynamic nature of equilibrium. hydrogen as a fuel. in terms of loss and gain of electrons and change in oxidation number. law of mass action. Lewis structure. concept of pH. Elementary idea of nanomaterials. ionization of polybasic acids. molecular orbital theory of homonuclear diatomic molecules (qualitative idea only). covalent character of ionic bond. electrophoresis. valence bond theory. factors affecting equilibrium. Buffer solutions. activity and selectivity: enzyme catalysis. covalent and interstitial. emulsion – types of emulsions. degree of ionization. solubility product common ion effect (with illustrative examples. oxidation number. hydrides-ionic. Hydrogen peroxide. Tyndall effect. Unit 7 : Surface Chemistry Adsorption – physisorption and chemisorption. preparation. Unit 9 : Hydrogen Position of hydrogen in periodic table. geometry of covalent molecules.) Handerson equation. Born Haber cycle : covalent bond parameters. Le Chatelier‟s principle. catalysis : homogenous and heterogeneous.preparation. Hydrolysis of salts (elementary idea). hydrogen bond. colloids and suspensions. p and d orbitals and shapes of some simple molecules.Unit 5: Redox Reactions Concept of oxidation and reduction.

electronic configuration. types of organic reactions. biological importance of sodium and potassium. oxidation states. carbanions.Unit 10: s-Block Elements (Alkali and Alkaline earth metals) Group 1 and Group 2 elements: General introduction. variation of properties. occurrence. electronic configuration. uses of some important Compounds. Variation of properties. diagonal relationship. occurrence. allotropic forms. methods of qualitative and quantitative analysis. electrophiles and nucleophiles. Calcium oxide and calcium carbonate (CaO) (CaCO3) and industrial uses of lime and limestone. Electronic displacements in a covalent bond. Unit 11 : p-Block Elements Group Introduction to p-Block Elements Group 13 elements : General introduction. boron hydrides. Aluminium. trends in the variation of properties (such as ionization enthalpy. electronic configuration. anomalous properties of first element of the group. inductive effect. uses. anomalous behavior of first element. sodium hydroxide and sodium hydrogen carbonate. 125 . trends in chemical reactivity with oxygen. anomalous properties of the first element of each group. hydrogen and halogens. trends in chemical reactivity. water. Boron-physical and chemical properties. free radicals. Melting point and boiling point.carbocations. trends in chemical reactivity. electromeric effect. atomic and ionic radii). physical and chemical properties. silicones. Preparation and properties of some important compounds: Sodium carbonate. reactions with acids and alkalies. occurrence. Classification and IUPAC nomenclature of organic compounds. some important compounds: borax.Homolytic and heterolytic fission of a covalent bond. Carbon – catenation. oxidation states. uses. oxides. Group 14 elements: General introduction. silicates and zeolites and structure of silicates Unit 12: Basic Principles and Techniques in Organic Chemistry General introduction. boric acids. Important compounds of silicon and their uses: silicon tetrachloride. biological importance of Magnesium and Calcium. resonance and hyper conjugation.

chemical properties. Unit 14 : Alkenes Nomenclature.Unit 13 : Alkanes Classification of hydrocarbons – Nomenclature. addition of hydrogen. Pollution due to industrial wastes. hydrogen halides (Markovnikoff‟s addition and peroxide effect) ozonolysis. halogen. ozone and its reactions. – nitration. water. isomerism. hydrogen halides. IUPAC nomenclature. halogens. effects of depletion of ozone layer. sulphonaiton. combustion and pyrolysis. oxidation. mechanism of electrophilic substitution. chemical reactions including free radical mechanism of halogenation. halogenation. physical properties. Unit 15: Alkynes Nomenclature. acid rain. chemical reactions: acidic character of alkynes. Unit 16 : Aromatic compounds Introduction. conformations (ethane only). resonance aromaticity. addition reaction of – hydrogen.air. green house effect and global warming. water and soil pollution. Methods of preparation. Chemical reactions. Friedel Craft‟ alkylation and acylation. benzene. methods of preparation. geometrical isomerism. major atmospheric pollutants. 126 . UNIT-17: Environmental chemistry Environmental pollution. physical properties. chemical reactions in atmosphere. Carcinogenicity and toxicity. structure of triple bond (ethylene). green chemistry as an alternative tool for reducing pollution. smog. mechanism of electrophilic addition. physical properties. structure of double bond (ethane). water. strategy for control of environmental pollution.

Experiments related to pH change (a) Any one of the following experiments: Determination of pH of some solutions obtained from fruit juices. Alum. copper sulphate. D. arseneous sulphide. Determination of boiling point of an organic compound. (b) Study of the role of emulsifying agents in stabilizing the emulsion of oil.) 2. methyl acetate. (acetone. (p-toludine. Determination of melting point of an organic compound.Chemistry Practical Syllabus Std-XI A. bases and salts using pH paper or universal indicator. E. ferric hydroxide. naphthalene. Chemical equilibrium Any one of the following experiments: (a) Study the shift in equilibrium between ferric ions and thiocyanate ions by changing the concentration of either ion. benzoic acid. acetic acid. β-naphthol. Surface Chemistry (a) Preparation of one lyophilic and one lyophobic sol: Lyophilic sol-starch and gum. water) 3. Cutting glass tube and glass rod 2. Crystallization of impure sample of anyone of the following compounds. Comparing the pH solutions of strong and weak acid of same concentration. Study of burner 5. Characterization and purification of chemical substances 1. xylene (o. (b) Study the shift in equilibrium between [Co(H2O)6]2+ and chloride ions by changing the concentration of either of the ions. Bending glass tube 3.p).m. Lyophobic sol–aluminium hydroxide. Oxalic acid. Drawing out a glass jet 4. benzoic acid. Basic Laboratory Techniques 1. C. Operating pinch cork B. resorcinol. varied concentrations of acids. Study the pH change in the titration of a strong base using universal indicator. 127 .

Mg2+. Ba2+. Determination of strength of a given solution of sodium hydroxide by titrating it against standard solution of oxalic acid. Qualitative analysis Determination of one cation and one anion in a given salt: Cations – Pb2+. Al3+. Determination of strength of a given solution of hydrochloric acid by titrating It against standard sodium carbonate solution. sulphur. 128 . Br-. Cu2+. Mn2+. Ni2+ .(b) Study of pH change by common ion effect in case of weak acids and bases. Co2+. I-. NH4+ Anions – CO32SO32SO42NO2NO3Cl-. PO43C2O42CH3COO(Note: Insoluble salts excluded) H. Sr2+. Preparation of standard solution of oxalic acid. Quantitative estimation Using a chemical balance. Ca2+. Fe3+. Detection of nitrogen. chlorine bromine and iodine in an organic compound. Zn2+. G. Preparation of standard solution of sodium carbonate. F.

3 Testing the hardness. A few suggested Projects 1 Checking the bacterial contamination in drinking water by testing sulphide ion. 8 Analysis of fruit and vegetable juices for their acidity. 6 Determination of the rate of evaporation of different liquids. depending upon the regional variation in drinking water and the study of causes of presence of these ions above permissible limit (if any). 129 . presence of iron. 2 Study of the methods of purification of water. fluoride. 5 Study of the acidity of different samples of the tea leaves. Note: Any other investigatory project can be chosen with the approval of the teacher.PROJECT Scientific investigations involving laboratory testing and collecting information from other sources. chloride etc. 7 Study of the effect of acids and bases on the tensile strength of fibers. 4 Investigation of the foaming capacity of different washing soaps and the effect of addition of sodium carbonate on them.

concentration. conductors and semiconductors and insulators and n and p type semiconductors. Band theory of metals. enthalpy of bond dissociation. Phase transition.CHEMISTRY Std. electrical and magnetic properties. dry cell –electrolytic and Galvanic cells. factors affecting rate of reaction. combustion. Kohlrausch‟s Law. and solution and dilution Introduction of entropy as a state function. expression of concentration of solids in liquids. Second and third law of thermodynamics Unit 4: Electrochemistry Redox reactions. Nernst equation and its application to chemical cells. lead accumulator. number of atoms per unit cell in a cubic unit cell. catalyst. state functions. ionic. free energy change for spontaneous and non spontaneous processes. specific and molar conductivity. depression of freezing point. extensive and intensive properties. amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea). calculation of density of unit cell. EMF of a cell. Unit 3 : Chemical Thermodynamics and energetic Concepts of system. covalent and metallic solids. Unit 5: Chemical Kinetics Rate of reaction (average and instantaneous). First law of thermodynamics – internal energy and enthalpy. order and molecularity of a reaction. ionization.unit cell in two dimensional and three dimensional lattices. formation. fuel cells. heat. point defects.Van’t Hoff factor and calculations involving it. electrolysis and laws of electrolysis (elementary idea). colligative properties –relative lowering of vapor pressure. Work. atomization. standard electrode potential. energy. molecular. solid solutions. XII (Theory) Unit 1: Solid State Classification of solids based on different forces. conductance in electrolytic solutions. and equilibrium constant. solubility of gases in liquids. Unit 2 : Solutions and colligative properties Types of solutions. types of systems. Hess‟ law of constant heat summation. temperature. corrosion. osmotic pressure.Raoult’s law elevation of boiling point. integrated rate equations and half life (only for zero and first order reactions). Relation between Gibb’s energy change and emf of a cell. sublimation. rate law and specific rate constant. packing in solids. voids. concept of 130 . abnormal molecular mass. determination of molecular masses using colligative properties. variations of conductivity with concentration. surroundings.

compounds of sulphur. preparation and properties of phosphine.Activation energy. preparation. halides (PCl3. properties and uses of sulphur dioxide. compounds of phosphorous. Occurrence. occurrence. electronic configuration. dioxygen. compounds of nitrogen. Group 16 elements: General introduction. oxidation states. reduction electrolytic method and refining. trends in physical and chemical properties. Group 17 elements: General introduction. oxidation states.PCl5) and oxoacids (elementary idea only). trends in physical and chemical properties. oxidation. compounds of halogens. industrial process of manufacture. 131 . Unit 6 : General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements Principles and methods of extraction – concentration. nitrogen – preparation. Sulphur – allotropic forms. oxides of nitrogen (structure only). zinc and iron Unit 7: p-Block Elements Group 15 elements: General introduction. Group 18 elements: General introduction. Arrhenius equation. electronic configuration. Ozone. copper. electronic configuration. no mathematical treatment). electronic configuration. occurrence. simple oxides. oxoacids of halogens (structure only). preparation. trends in physical and chemical properties. Classification of oxides. oxidation states. uses. oxoacids of sulphur (structures only). preparation. trends in physical and chemical properties.collision theory (elementary idea. occurrence and principle of extraction of aluminium. properties and uses of chlorine and hydrochloric acid. occurrence. interhalogen compounds. Phoshorous-allotropic forms. preparation and properties of ammonia and nitric acid. properties and uses. properties and uses. properties and uses. sulphurc acid.

Actinoids – Electronic configuration. ligands. substitution reactions (directive influence of halogen for monosubstituted compounds only) stability of carbocations. Uses and environmental effects of – dichloromethane. oxidation states. electrophillic substitution reactions. Comparison with lanthanoids. thrichloromethane. tetrachloromethane. (Structural and stereo) importance of coordination compounds (in qualitative analysis. Phenols: Nomenclature. methods of preparation. oxidation states. VBT. ionization enthalpy. extraction of metals and biological systems).Unit 8 : d and f Block Elements d-Block Elements General introduction. general trends in properties of the first row transition metals – metallic character. uses of phenols. magnetic properties and shapes. ionic radii. freons. mechanism of dehydration. physical and chemical properties (of primary alcohols only). Werner’s theory. bonding. IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds. DDT. mechanism of substitution reactions. secondary and tertiary alcohols. uses of methanol and ethanol. methods of preparation. f-Block ElementsLanthanoids – Electronic configuration. R-S and d-l configurations. 132 .CFT. Unit 9: Coordination Compounds Coordination compounds – Introduction. acidic nature of phenol. Phenols and Ethers Alcohols: Nomenclature. occurrence and characteristics of transition metals. uses. interstitial compounds.R-S and d-l configuration Haloarenes : Nature of C-X bond. Unit 10 : Halogen derivatives of alkanes (and arenes) Haloalkanes : Nomenclature. magnetic properties. Unit 11 : Alcohols. iodoform. identification of primary. chemical reactivity and lanthanoid contraction and its consequences. isomerism. physical and chemical properties.Stability of carbocations. electronic configuration. physical and chemical properties. colour. alloy formation preparation and properties of K2Cr2O7 and KMnO4. catalytic property. oxidation states. coordination number. nature of C-X bond. physical and chemical properties. methods of preparation. colour. Ethers : Nomenclature.

natural and synthetic like polythene. Lipids and Hormones (elementary idea) excluding structure. peptide. enzymes.Unit 12 : Aldehydes. physical and chemical properties. Some important polymers. polypeptides. acidic nature.Biodegradable and non biodegradable polymers. methods of preparation. their classification and functions. Diazonium salts: Preparation. lactose.natural and synthetic. mechanism of nucleophilic addition. chemical reactions and importance in synthetic organic chemistry. uses. structure of amines-primary. structure. glycogen). methods of polymerization (addition and condensation). Carboxylic Acids: Nomenclature. nylon. methods of preparation. oligosaccharides (sucrose. denaturation of proteins. importance. Physical and chemical properties. bakelite. linkage. nature of carbonyl group. Ketones and Carboxylic Acids Aldehydes and Ketones : Nomenclature. uses. polysaccharides (starch. copolymerization. Proteins: Elementary idea of -amino acids. polyesters. cellulose. secondary and tertiary amines. uses. Cyanides and Isocyanides: Will be mentioned at relevant places in context. tertiary structure and quaternary structures (qualitative idea only). Unit 14: Biomolecules Carbohydrates: Classification (aldoses and ketoses). proteins. and rubber. Nucleic Acids: DNA and RNA Unit 15: Polymers Classification . Vitamins: Classification and functions. physical and chemical properties. monosaccahrides d-l configuration (glucose and fructose). reactivity of alpha hydrogen in aldehydes. identification of primary. classification. secondary. maltose). methods of preparation. Unit 13: Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen Nitro compounds-General methods of preparation and chemical reactions Amines : Nomenclature. 133 .

Chemicals in food: Preservatives. KIO3 and sodium sulphite (Na2SO3) using starch solution as indicator (clock reaction). antiseptics. tranquilizers. antacids. Thermochemistry Any one of the following experiments: i] Enthalpy of dissolution of copper sulphate or potassium nitrate. antifertility drugs. C. antibiotics. (ii) Reaction between potassium iodate. (b) Study of reaction rate of any one of the following: (i) Reaction of iodide ion with hydrogen peroxide at room temperature using different concentration of iodide ions. antihistamines (elementary idea of antioxidants) 2. ii] Enthalpy of neutralization of strong acid (HCI) and strong base (NaOH). iv] Heat of displacement of Cu from CuSO4 by Zn. Electrochemistry Variation of cell potential in Zn|Zn2+||Cu2+|Cu with change in concentration of electrolytes (CuSO4 or ZnSO4) at room temperature (demonstration). (c) Acid hydrolysis of ethyl acetate. 3. iii] Determination of enthalpy change during interaction (hydrogen bond formation) between acetone and chloroform. antimicrobials. Chemical Kinetics (Any one of the following) : (a) Effect of concentration and temperature on the rate of reaction between sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid. artificial sweetening agents. Cleansing agents: Soaps and detergents. 134 . cleansing action. Chemistry Practical Syllabus Std. B. XII A. Chemicals in medicines: analgesics. disinfectants.Unit 16: Chemistry in Everyday life : 1.

Ca2+. I. phenolic. ketonic. aldehydic. Al3+. Fe3+. Characteristic tests of arbohydrates. Zn2+. H. 2) Determination of two anions from a given mixture of salts. Sr2+. Mg2+. NH4+. 135 . Ba2+. (iii) Iodoform (iv) Phthalic or succinic anhydride. (ii) Separation of constituents present in an inorganic mixture containing two cations only (constituents having large difference in Rf values to be provided). Preparation of Inorganic Compounds (i) Preparation of double salt of ferrous ammonium sulphate or potash alum.D. (ii) Preparation of potassium ferric oxalate. J. Determinaiton of concentration/molarity of KMnO4 solution by titrating it against a standard solution of: (i) Oxalic acid (ii) Ferrous ammonium sulphate (Students will be required to prepare standard solutions by weighing themselves).Napthol aniline dye. Mn2+. carboxylic and amino (primary) groups. Preparation of Organic Compounds (i) p-Nitrocetanilide (ii) Aniline yellow or 2. Ni2+. Co2+. E. F. Cu2+. alcoholic. Chromatography (demonstration) (i) Separation of pigments from extracts of leaves and flowers by paper chromatography and determination of Rf values. As3+. fats and proteins in pure samples and their detection in given food stuffs. Qualitative analysis 1) Determination of two cations from a given mixture of salts. (v) Di-benzal acetone G. Tests for the functional groups present in organic compounds Unsaturation. Cations – Pb2+.

Br-. chilli powder and pepper. 136 . PO43C2O42CH3COO(Note : Insoluble salts excluded. 6 Comparative study of the rate of fermentation of following materials: wheat flour. 7 Extraction of essential oils present in Saunf (aniseed). time etc). can be chosen with the approval of the teacher. 3 Preparation of soybean milk and its comparison with the natural milk with respect to curd formation. Note : Any investigatory project. 5 Study of digestion of starch by salivary amylase and. 4 Study of the effect of potassium bisulphate as food preservative under various conditions (temperature. Ajwain (carum). gram flour. etc. A few suggested Projects: 1 Study of presence of oxalate ions in guava fruit at different stages of ripening. 8 Study of common food adulterants in fat. carrot juice. I-. butter. potato juice. SO42-. concentration. Cl-. etc. effect of temperature. 2 Study of quantity of casein present in different samples of milk. turmeric powder. effect of pH and temperature on it. sugar. Illaichi (cardamom).Anions – CO32-.) PROJECT Scientific investigations involving laboratory testing and collecting information From other sources. SO32-. No2NO3-.

Make students aware of issues of global importance. Assist to understand the underlying principles of biological sciences and thereby develop scientific attitude towards biological phenomena. Hence it has been prepared in accordance with the guidelines shown in the final version of common core syllabi of COBSE. XI & XII Preamble Higher secondary is the most crucial stage of education because at this juncture specialized disciplines of science are introduced. This syllabus is designed to prepare students for various examinations conducted at state and national level. 137 . Accordingly some additional topics from state Board syllabus have been deleted whereas the lacking topics have been added. Guide students to perform easy experiments for better understanding of biological principles and to develop experimental skills required in practical work. Objectives: The prescribed syllabus is expected to: Promote the inherent skill of observation. Organisms seldom occur as isolated individuals. The present syllabus reinforces the concepts introduced in lower classes.BIOLOGY. communities. Delhi. The entire unit “Ecology and Environment” has now been added under Botany and Zoology sections. Recently. Living organisms exhibit extremely complex functional system. the science of biology has undergone a paradigm shift that has transformed it from a collection of loosely related facts into a modern applied science. Organisms. ecosystems and environment constitute unique set of natural resources of great importance. Help students to understand the functioning of organisms. They are organized into populations and biological communities. Create awareness about the contribution of biology to human welfare.Std. Knowledge of biology helps us to understand a common thread which holds all these components together. Understanding of biology will help in the sustainable development of the environment and will also ensure the existence of earth with all its amazing diversity.

Diversity in living organisms-Brief idea. Need of classification. lipids and nucleic acids in brief. examples and importance. Salient features of major plant groups . characters. Lichens . 3. Systematic and binomial system of nomenclature . Viruses and viroids . Binomial nomenclature explanation. Enzyme action and factors affecting enzyme activity in brief. Structure and function of carbohydrates. 3.Algae.Std. Basic chemical constituents of living bodies. – XI: Biology (Upgraded syllabus) Section I . Mitosis 3. Botanical gardens and herbaria . 2.Kingdom Plantae 1. 4.Biochemistry of cell: 1.Diversity in organisms 1. Chapter 4 Cell Division 1.meaning of the terms taxonomy. types with examples.Botany . Concept of species. Three domains of life. proteins. Enzymes . Bryophyta. Pteridophyta. general properties. Taxonomic hierarchy with examples.Meaning. significance and examples.Meaning. systematics. 2. 5. characters. Gymnosperms and Angiosperms (Dicotyledons and Monocotyledons).Definitions. 2. Classification of living organisms (five Kingdom classification) – Major groups and principles of classification for each Kingdom with examples.Definition. importance and list of gardens and herbaria in India. classification and nomenclature. Economic importance and list of viral diseases. Types. Unit 2 Structure and function of cell Chapter 3 . Cell cycle 2. Three to five salient features and two examples of each category. Chapter 2 . Unit 1 Diversity in Living World: Chapter 1. Meiosis 138 .

Morphology of Plants 1.Hypogeal.Absorption of water and minerals. de.macronutrients and micronutrients and their role. 2. Differentiation. 139 . Mineral toxicity. food. mechanism of opening and closing of stomata. Germination . inflorescence. flower. nutrients and gases.Plant Water Relation and Mineral Nutrition 1. Morphology. stem. Definition and characteristics of growth. leaf. Photomorphogenesis including brief account of Phytochromes (Elementary idea) Vernalization. Active and passive absorption in brief. Movement of water.Apoplast and Symplast Pathways. fruit and seed. (To be dealt along with the relevant practicals of the practical syllabus) 2. Role of water and minerals . Conditions of growth. Guttation Ascent of sap. Mineral deficiency symptoms. anatomy and functions of different parts .. Plant tissues.auxins.differentiation. biological nitrogen fixation) Chapter 7 .tension theory.Roots. Role of K+ ions 3. gibberellins.Plant Growth and Development: Seed dormancy. redifferentiation Sequence of developmental process in a plant cell Growth regulators . Phases of growth. Translocation of sugars through phloem brief account. Transpiration – structure of stomata.Unit 3 Structural organization in plants: Chapter 5 . epigeal and viviparous. Unit 4 Plant Physiology: Chapter 6 . root pressure concept and cohesion . ethylene and abscissic acid (role in brief) Photoperiodism. Nitrogen Metabolism (nitrogen cycle. Elementary idea of Hydroponics. cytokinines.

Lysosomes. Nuclear organization . Plant cell and animal cell. Tendons. Echinodermata and Unit 2 Structure and function of cell: Chapter 9 . Unit 3 Structural organisation in Animals: Chapter 10.Nucleus. 5. Cartilage and Bone). Hemichordata. Platyhelminthes.(fluid mosaic model). cytoskeleton.Std. Coelenterata.types: a) Epithelial tissues . b) Connective tissue . Reptilia. 6.Organization of Cell: 1. Cephalochordata. glandular). Adipose. Endoplasmic reticulum. Golgi complex. Arthropoda. Cell organelles: Plastids. Ciliated. Cell theory . Cell wall and cell membrane . 3. Amphibia. 2. . Ribosome and Centrioles (ultrstructure and functions). Salient features of major phyla under kingdom Animalia. Vacuoles. Chondrichthyes.XI Section II – Zoology Unit 1 Diversity in Living World: Chapter 8 . Microbodies.structure and examples. Mitochondria.brief account 2. Annelida.Study of Animal Tissues 1. 140 .Kingdom Animalia: 1. Aves and Mammalia. columnar. Animal tissues . Ligaments.General idea with list. Osteichthyes. nucleolus and nucleoplasm. Classification of following phyla with three to five salient features and two examples of each category: Porifera. 4.compound epithelium (stratified and transitional). Nemathelminthes. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell . Cyclostomata.simple epithelium (squamous. .(Areolar. Classification of phylum chordata upto class level with three to five salient features and two examples of each category: Urochordata. cilia and flagella. Mollusca. cuboidal. Zoological parks and Museums .

Regulation of Respiration. absorption and nutritional disorders: ii) Digestive system in brief iv) Physiology of digestion.synarthroses. Calorific value of proteins. Chapter 14.(Smooth. striated and cardiac). Morphology. Digestion. constipation. Peristalsis. carbohydrates and fats v) Absorption. nervous. gastrointestinal hormones. and diarthroses.inspiration and expiration. Respiratory volumes iv) Respiratory disorders. circulatory. anatomy and functions of digestive. transport of CO2 and O2 and tissue respiration.Study of Animal Type: 1.Human Respiration: 1Breathing. Jaundice. assimilation and egestion vi) Nutritional and digestive disorders – PEM.Human skeleton and Locomotion: Brief account of human skeleton: A] Axial Skeleton B] Appendicular Skeleton (Details to be dealt with the relevant practical) Types of joints . and reproductive systems of cockroach (Brief account only) Unit 4 Human Physiology: Chapter 12.Asthma. respiratory. respiration and common respiratory disorders: Respiratory organs in animals (Recall only) i) Respiratory system in brief ii) Breathing.Human Nutrition: 1. d) Nervous tissue (Neurons. Chapter 11. glial cells and types of neurons).c) Muscular tissue . amphiarthroses. Regulation iii) Exchange of gases. vomiting and diarrhoea Chapter 13. indigestion. 141 . Emphysema and occupational lung diseases.

Study of plasmolysis in epidermal peels. muscular dystrophy tetany and gout. S. To test the presence of sugar. 8) To study the digestion of starch by salivary amylase under different conditions of temperature and pH. 142 . Std. 7. proteins and fats from suitable plant and animal materials. condyloid. stem (herbaceous and woody). shape.Types of diarthroses . Fabaceae and Liliaceae with respect to types of root-(tap and adventitious).Ciliary. XI Biology Practicals Syllabus (A) List of experiments: 1. hinge. pivot. Types of Movement. Muscular Mechanism of muscle movement: Contractile proteins and Muscle contraction Skeletal and muscular disorders – Myasthenia gravis. 3 Study and describe three locally available flowering plants from the families-Solanaceae. venation. arthritis. of dicot (sunflower) and monocot roots and stem to study different plant tissues. 2. simple and compound) and floral characters. Flagellar. 5 Study of osmosis by Potato osmometer 6. 4. Study of parts of compound microscope. Osteoporosis. Study of structure and distribution of stomata in upper and lower surface of leaf.ball and socket. saddle and gliding joints. leaf (arrangement. starch. Preparation of T.

Ascaris. 2. and tendril). Study of specimens and identification with reasons: Bacteria. sclerenchyma. squamous epithelium. Cycas. runner. 11. mammalian blood smear. phloem. Riccia. 6. Amoeba. hand bones and foot bones) and different types of joints (synovial. cartilaginous and fibrous joint with one suitable example). c) Apical bud removal 10. 4. Snail. Earthworm. Oscillatoria. Balanoglossus. leaf Spines. collenchyma. muscle fibres. epiphytic root and pneumatophores). Lizard. Study of different modification of leaf (leaflet and stipular tendril). Frog. Rhizopus. Star-fish. 3. Spirogyra. 9. Leech. Nephrolepis. Rohu. Comparative study of rates of transpiration in upper and lower surface of leaf. Study of imbibition of seeds/raisins. xylem. through temporary or permanent slides. Pigeon and Rat.(B) Study/ Observation of the following (Spotting): 1. Observation and comments on experimental set up on: a) Phototropism b) Suction due to transpiration.palisade cells. parenchyma. Usnea. Agaricus. phyllode). 143 . Study of specimens and their identification with reasons – Sycon. Study of different modifications of root (fusiform root. parasitic root. Hydra. yeast. guard cells. 7 Study and identification of different types of inflorescence. Study of human skeleton (except skull. 5. Liverfluke. Prawn. Study of different modifications of stem (stem tuber. Silkworm Honey bee . Funaria. Shark. 8 Study of tissues and diversity in shapes and sizes of plant and animal cells. sunflower and maize.

Preparing and cloning a DNA Library. Plasmids. Gene Amplification (PCR). Transcription. semi conservative replication of eukaryotic DNA.12 Study of external morphology of earthworm. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Std. expression and regulation: Modern concept of gene in brief-cistron. 13.incomplete dominance. structure of DNA as given by Watson and Cricks model. central dogma. Chapter 2 . Translation-Genetic Code. Study of mitosis in onion roots tips and animal cells (grasshopper) from permanent slides. Producing Restriction Fragments. RNA: General structure types and functions. Deviations from Mendelian ratio (gene interaction.Enhancement in Food Production: Plant Breeding Tissue Culture: Concept of Cellular Totipotency.Genetic Basis of Inheritance: Mendelian inheritance. Protein Synthesis.XII Biology (Upgraded syllabus) Section I – BOTANY Unit 1: Genetics and Evolution Chapter 1 . co-dominance. DNA Packaging. multiple alleles and Inheritance of blood groups). Unit 2: Biotechnology and its application Chapter 3 . Application of Biotechnology in Agriculture – BT crops Biosafety Issues (Biopiracy and patents) Unit 3: Biology and Human Welfare Chapter 4 . . cockroach and frog through models. muton and recon. Pleiotropy.Biotechnology: Process and Application Genetic engineering (Recombinant DNA technology): Transposons. Bacteriophages.Gene: its nature. Gene Expression and Gene Regulation (The Lac operon as a typical model of gene regulation). DNA as genetic material. 144 . Elementary idea of polygenic inheritance.

Requirements of Tissue Culture (in brief). Respiratory quotient of Nutrients.Respiration: ATP as currency of Energy Mechanism of Aerobic (Glycolysis. Microbes in Biogas (energy) Production. Callus Culture. Significance of Respiration. Fermentation Exchange of gases Amphibolic pathway. Asexual reproduction.Reproduction in Plants: Modes of Reproduction (Asexual and Sexual). Suspension Culture. Microbes as Biocontrol Agents. Unit 4: Plant Physiology Chapter 6 . Chapter 7 . Light-Dependent Reactions (Cyclic and non-cyclic photophosphorylation) Light-Independent Reactions (C3 and C4 Pathways) Chemiosmotic hypothesis. Microbes as Biofertilizers. Single Cell Protein. Microbes in Sewage Treatment. Law of limiting factors. micropropagation 145 .Microbes in Human Welfare: Microbes in Household food processing Microbes in Industrial Production.Photosynthesis: Autotrophic nutrition Site of Photosynthesis Photosynthetic Pigments and their role. Biofortification Chapter 5 . TCA Cycle and Electron Transport System) and Anaerobic Respiration. Photorespiration. Factors affecting Photosynthesis. Unit 5: Reproduction in Organisms Chapter 8 . uniparental modes-vegetative propagation.

Outbreeding devices. pyramids of number. Modern Synthetic Theory of evolution. Biological Evidences.Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance: The Chromosomal Theory. Std. pollen-pistil interaction. nutrient cycling (carbon and phosphorous).Origin and the Evolution of Life: Origin of Life: Early Earth. ozone depletion. Green house effect and global warming. Unit 6: Ecology and Environment: Chapter 9: Organisms and Environment -I Habitat and Niche Ecosystems: Patterns. 146 . Development of female Gametophyte. oxygen release.Hardy-Weinberg principle. solid waste management. Ecological succession. Chapter 11 . Spontaneous.Sexual Reproduction: structure of flower Development of male gametophyte. Ecological services-carbon fixation. components. Mechanism of evolution. productivity and decomposition. energy flow. Chromosomes. Gene flow and genetic drift. . Double Fertilization: Process and Significance. polyembryony. case studies (any two). deforestation. Adaptive radiation. pollination. development of seed and formation of fruit) Special modes-apomixis. Pollination: Types and Agencies. assembly of organic compounds. Post-fertilization changes (development of endosperm and embryo. parthenocarpy. Structure of anatropous ovule. Significance of seed and fruit formation.ZOOLOGY Unit 1: Genetics and Evolution Chapter 10 .XII Biology Section II . energy. Environmental issues: agrochemicals and their effects. Evolution: Darwin‟s contribution. Origin and Evolution of Human being. biomass.

Vaccines. Filariasis.Linkage and Crossing Over. drug and alcohol abuse. Sericulture Lac culture 147 .Mendelian disorders in humansThalassemia. Unit 3: Biology and Human Welfare Chapter 13. Biotechnological Applications in Health: Human insulin and vaccine production. Adolescence. Sex-linked Inheritance (Haemophilia and colour blindness). birds. Fisheries. Chromosomal disorders in human: Down’s syndrome. Antigens on blood cells. Turner’s syndrome and Klinfelter’s syndrome. Sex Determination in Human being.Genetic Engineering and Genomics: DNA Finger Printing. Transgenic animals. Poultry. Pneumonia. Animal Breeding. Genomics and Human Genome Project. Unit 2: Biotechnology and its application Chapter 12. Common cold and ring worm).Human Health and Diseases: Concepts of Immunology: Immunity Types. Gene Therapy. Ascariasis. Bee-Keeping. honey bee. Malaria. Pathogens and Parasites (Amoebiasis.Animal Husbandry: Management of Farms and Farm Animals. Antigen-Antibody Complex. Structure of Antibody. Chapter 14. Dairy. Cancer and AIDS. Typhoid.

angina pectoris. Hormones and their functions. Hormonal imbalance and diseases: Common disorders (Dwarfism. Role of Kidney in Osmoregulation. goiter. Acromegaly. Sensory perception. ADH and Diabetes inspidus. coronary artery disease. Blood related disorders: Hypertension. Pulmonary and Systemic Circulation. Kidney stone (renal calculi). exopthalmic goiter. Heart beat and Pulse. uricotelism. Regulation of cardiac activity. Mechanism of hormone action Hormones as messengers and regulators. Reflex action. role of other organs in excretion. and heart failure. Chapter 16. Excretory System Composition and formation of urine. Rhythmicity of Heart beat. Regulation of kidney function: renin-angiotensin. Lymphatic System (Brief idea): Composition of lymph and its functions. ureotelism. Dialysis. Chapter 17. Disorders. Cardiac output. nephritis. Blood groups Structure and pumping action of Heart. Uraemia. Transmission of nerve impulse. Blood Vessels.Unit 4: Human Physiology Chapter 15.Control and Co-ordination: Nervous System: Structure and functions of brain and Spinal cord.Circulation: Blood composition and coagulation. general idea of other sense organs Endocrine System: Endocrine glands. brief idea about PNS and ANS. Diabetes mellitus. atrial natriuretic factor. Transplantation.Excretion and osmoregulation: Modes of excretion-Ammonotelism. Sensory receptors (eye and ear). ECG. cretinism. Addison’s disease) 148 . Kidney failure.

Pregnancy. importance. birth rate and death rate. Hotspots. parasitism. Reproductive health-birth control. Production of gametes.Biodiversity. Environmental issues: air pollution and its control. Biodiversity and its conservation. patterns. national parks and sanctuaries. placenta. Threats to and need for biodiversity conservation . ZIFT. Amniocentesis.Human Reproduction: Reproductive system in male and female. Contraception and sexually transmitted diseases. Reproductive cycle. predation. Embryo development up to three germinal layers. implantation. population attributes. GIFT (elementary idea for general awareness). age distribution. loss.extinction. water pollution and its control and radioactive waste management. Infertility and assisted reproductive technologies. (Case studies any two) ---------------------------------------------------------------- 149 .red data book . parturition and lactation (Elementary idea). Histology of testis and ovary.growth.concept.Unit 5: Reproduction in Organisms Chapter 18. Unit 6: Ecology and Environment Chapter 19-Organisms and Environment-II Population and ecological adaptations: population interactions-mutualism. endangered organisms. fertilization. competition. biosphere reserves.IVF.MTP.

4 Exercise on controlled pollination . 8. 6.Emasculation. 9. Study/observation of the following (Spotting): 1 Study of flowers adapted to pollination by different agencies (wind. 10.(Two plants each) 150 . insect) 2 Study of pollen germination on stigma through a permanent slide. Study pollen germination on a slide.. Study of plant population density and frequency by quadrate method. Dissect the given flower and display different whorls. Collect water from two different water bodies around you and study them for pH. 11To test the presence of albumin and bile salts in urine. tagging and bagging 5 Study meiosis in onion bud cell or grass hopper testis through permanent slide. 6 Study plants found in xerophytic and aquatic conditions with respect to their morphological adaptations. Correlate with the kinds of plants found in them. Prepare a temporary mount of onion root tip to study mitosis. 4. clarity and presence of any living organisms. Dissect anther and ovary to show number of chambers.Std. 2. Separation of plant pigments by paper chromatography 7 To study the rate of respiration in flower buds/leaf tissue and germinating seeds. 3 To Study Mendelian inheritance using seeds of different colour/size of any plant. To test the presence of urea and sugar in urine. 3. 5. moisture content. XII (Upgraded) Biology Practicals Syllabus Experiments: 1. Study the presence of suspended particulate matter in air at the two widely different Sites. pH and water holding capacity of soil. Collect and study soil from at least two different sites and study them for texture.

Study of V. widow‟s peak. colour blindness. T. 11 Study of animals found in xeric (desert) and aquatic conditions with respect to their morphological adaptations. (Two animals each) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 151 . Entamoeba .7 Study and identify stages of gamete development. of blastula through permanent slide. 10 To identify common disease causing organisms like Plasmodium.S.S. ovary through permanent slides (from any mammal). 8. Blood groups. 9 To study prepared pedigree charts of genetic traits such as rolling of tongue. of testis and T. Comment on symptoms of diseases that they cause.S.Ascaris and ring worm through permanent slides or specimens.

The proposed syllabus has been designed in accordance with National Curriculum Framework 2005 and as per guidelines given in Focus Group on Teaching of Mathematics 2005 which is to meet the emerging needs of all categories of students. 7) To develop awareness of the need for national integration. This will help them in developing Mathematical tools to be used in the professional education. analyze and articulate logically. symbols and mastering the underlying processes and skills. 4) To develop interest in Mathematics by participating in various related competitions and selflearning. Higher Secondary is a launching stage from where students would go to either for academic education in Mathematics or professional courses like Engineering and Computer Technology.Upgraded Syllabus MATHEMATICS AND STATISTICS (For Arts and Science) Std. by more than one method. particularly by way of motivation and visualization of basic concepts. Motivating topics from real life situations and other subject areas. removal of social barriers. 3) To develop positive attitude to think. XI & XII Introduction: Mathematics is the language of all sciences and is perhaps the only subject which merits this distinction. protection of an environment. elimination of sex biases and observance of small family norm. 6) To develop an interest in students to study Mathematics as a discipline. 2) To apply the knowledge and skills in Mathematics and related problems from other subjects. 5) To acquaint students with different aspects of Mathematics used in real life. terms. principles. Hence to fulfill the needs of students. Physical and Biological Sciences. 152 . it is utmost important to make the study of Mathematics more meaningful by acquainting the student with many branches of mathematics. Mathematics is the backbone of all sciences and it is an inseparable part of human life. Objectives: To enable the students 1)To acquire knowledge and critical understanding. major thrust is also on application of various concepts.

Inclination of a line. Length of an arc of a circle (s = r. Reduction of general equation of a line into normal form. 3600). trigonometric functions of angles of a triangle. trigonometric functions of negative angles. parallel to coordinate axes. 1800. circular system. formulae for conversion of product into sum or difference. angles in standard position. two point form. θ is in radians (without proof). coterminal angles. fundamental identities. simultaneously. Factorization Formulae: Introduction. 2. Trigonometric functions: Need & concept. XI .straight line. zero angle. θ. general form. y = a cos bx. slope point form. Measurement of Angles : Need & concept. 600. 900. Theorem : A general linear equation Ax + By+ C =0. normal form. Revision of directed angle (+ve and –ve angles). θ is in radians) (without proof). where A. 6. revision of different forms of equations of a line. Definition and equation of locus. angles in quadrant & quadrantal angles.PART – I 1. 2700. slope intercept form. domain and range of trigonometric functions. θ. Area of the sector of a circle A = ½ r2. 3. 450. MATHEMATICS AND STATISTICS (ARTS AND SCIENCE) STD. trigonometric functions of multiple angles (upto double and triple angles only). signs of trigonometric functions in different quadrants. parametric form. always represents. trigonometric functions of particular angles (00. equation of lines. 4. Theorem 2 : Every straight line has an equation of the form Ax +By + C = 0. provided A and B are not both zero. periodicity of functions. Sexagesimal system. graphs of trigonometric functions. 9) To develop interest in the subject by participating in related competitions. 5. slope of a line. Graph of Y = a sin bx. Trigonometric functions of compound angles : Introduction. trigonometricfunctions of sum and difference. Theorem: Radian is a constant angle. Locus : Introduction. trigonometric functions of half angles. double intercept form other forms of equations of a line. Formulae for conversion of sum or difference into products. relation between degree measure and radian measure. points of locus. intercepts of a line. shift of the origin. B and C are constants (without proof). Straight Line : Revision. straight angle. Trigonometric functions with the help of standard unit circle. 153 .8) To develop reverence and respect towards great mathematicians for their contribution to the field of Mathematics. 300.

identical lines. (KA) KA . three dimensional co-ordinate geometry. angle between lines. polygon law. coinitial vector. properties of addition of vectors. Conics Napees – Intersection of Napees of a cone and Plane. Matrices : Introduction. parallelogram law. definition. parametric equations. workdone by force. equation of a straight line perpendicular to a given line. Replacement of a set or domain of a set. distance between two points in a space. scalar product. hyperbola. 9. distance of a point from a line. Linear Inequations : Linear in equations in one variable – solution of linear inequation in one variable & graphical solution. column matrix. applications of determinants condition of consistency. (AB) BA. family of lines. parallel lines. ellipse. hyperbola. square matrix. perpendicular lines. solutions of system of linear in equations in one variable. unit vector. definition. distance between two parallel lines. types of matrices – zero matrix. unit vectors along axes. triangle law. expansion. moment of a force. concepts. area of a triangle. Application of conic section. addition. determinant of order three–definition. parabola. Determinants : Revision. position vector of a point in space. scalar multiple of a vector. symmetric & skew symmetric matrices. Vectors : Definition. like and unlike vector. 7. equations of bisectors of angle between two lines. general equation. Linear in equations in two variable – solution of linear inequation in one variable & graphical solution. simple application. singular & non-singular matrices. collinear vectors. Transposition. order. coplanar vectors. introduction. scalar matrix. magnitude of a vector. properties of matrix multiplication. operations on matrices – equality. equation of a straight line parallel to a given line. properties. 10. properties of transpose of a matrix (A ) A. minors & co-factors. simple properties. solutions of system of linear inequations in two variables. ellipse. parametric equations. subtraction. coordinate axes & coordinate planes in space. row matrix. equation of family of lines through the intersection of two lines. product of vectors. transpose of a matrix. multiplication of a matrix by a scalar. determinant of a square matrix. vector product. co-ordinates of a point in space. Cramer‟s rule for system of equations in three variables. 8. multiplication of matrices – definition. resolved part of a force. diagonal matrix. triangular matrices. standard equation. negative of a vector. centre-radius form. parameter equations of standard equation. solution of linear in equations in two variable & graphical solution. notations. identity matrix.intersection of two lines. properties. 11. 154 . properties of determinants. types of vectors. standard equation. standard equation (different forms of parabola). diameter form. Circle and Conics : Revision. equal vector. focus-directrix property of parabola. condition for concurrency of three lines. standard equation. free and localized vectors. zero vector.

equivalent sets. universal set. imaginary parts. domain. Demoivre‟s formula – (without proof). even & odd functions. union. pictorial diagrams. Complex Numbers : Introduction. identity function. signum & greatest integer. many-one. composite function. onto function. of elements in the Cartesian product of two finite sets. equal sets. domain and range of these functions. scalar multiplication. Argand Diagram – representation of a complex number as a pt. codomain and range of a relation. difference. 1) Closure Property. multiplication. in plane. functions with their graphs. Cartesian product of the reals with itself.PART – II 1. definition of relation. 155 . polynomial function. laws of logarithms. one-one. 3. binary operations. codomain and range of a function. need for complex numbers. method of finding mantissa. proper. pictorial representation of a function. Sets. division. change of base. properties of complex numbers – properties of addition of complex numbers. fundamental theorem of algebra. one-one function. characteristics & mantissa – method of finding characteristics. definition. improper. 4) Existence of additive identity. subset. finite & infinite sets. No. logarithmic function. exponential function. Relations – ordered pairs. modulus. Venn diagrams. properties. 2. cube roots of unity – solution of quadratic equations in the complex number system. types of functions. 3) Associative law. difference of two sets. equal functions.5) Existence of additive inverse. Relations and Functions : Set – Revision. rational function. empty set. powers and square root of a complex number – higher powers of i. addition. intersection. complex conjugates. algebra of complex numbers – equality. sum. real valued function of the real variable. Cartesian product of two sets. domain. square root of a complex number. product quotient of functions. Logarithms : Introduction. binary equivalence relation. complement of a set. geometrical meaning of modulus and argument. types of relations. into function. polar representation of complex numbers. constant function. functions – function as a special kind of relation. definitions –(real parts. subtraction. Properties of product of complex numbers –Existance of multiplicative identity – Existence of multiplicative inverse properties of conjugate & modulus of complex numbers. modulus function.2) Commulative Law. method of finding antilogarithm. disjoint sets. argument). inverse function. power set. subset and their properties. equality of ordered pairs. cube roots of unity.

M. geometrical interpretation of indefinite integrals. Baye‟s theorem. Integration: Definition (of integration) as antiderivative. comparison of two frequency distributions with same mean. co-efficient of variation. rules of differentiation – derivative of sum. 6. types of events – events and algebra of events. physical significance (velocity as a rate of change of displacement). Arithmetic-Geometric sequence. Means – arithmetic mean. 10. axiomatic definition of probability. geometric means. as a special type of A. A. binomial theorem for any index (without proof).P.4. properties. with proof. H. simple problems. addition theorem – for any two events A and B.M. difference. odds in favour and against. P. binomial theorem – binomial theorem for positive integers. 156 .. H.. rules of integration. meaning of x a. properties of binomial co-efficient with simple application.P. sum of cube of first n odd natural nos. algebra of limits – standard limits. simple applications. the limit of a function. exponential & logarithmic series. general term. combined variance and standard deviation. fundamental theorem on limits. algebraic functions..M. Result on compatible events. 9. fundamental principle of counting. properties of A. combinations – definition. geometric progression – introduction. mutually exlusive events. 5. sum of cube of first n natural.P. quartile & quartile deviation (for grouped and ungrouped data). Differentiation : Definition of a derivative. Sequences & Series : Revision sequence. logarithmic functions. n terms from the end of G. harmonic mean.. circular permutations. factorial notation. Limits : Introduction of concept. product and quotient. multiplication theorem. relations between permutations and combinations. sum of the first „n‟ terms. 8. 7. mean deviation about median (for grouped & ungrouped data). when all r objects are distinct. when all r objects are not distinct. algebra of integrals – integrals of some standard functions. simple applications. independent events. limits at infinity – concepts. particular term. permutations. effect of change of origin and scale on variance and standard deviation.P. containing finitely many terms & sum to infinite terms properties of G. Mathematical Induction and Binomial Theorem : Principle of mathematical induction. standard deviation. Conditional probability – definition. mean deviation about mean. 11.. simple applications. mutually exclusive and exhaustive events. particular cases of binomial theorem. variance. general term. G. relation between A. Permutations & combinations : Introduction. Probability: Revision. Sum of first n terms of A.P. geometrical significance of derivative. exponential functions. simple applications. derivative at a point.P.. special series. derivatives from first principle of trigonometric functions. Statistics : Measures of dispersion – range.

12. Family of lines. 17. 19. 11. Mathematical induction. 15. Applications of vectors (Dot and cross product). Applications of Conics II. 7. Tracing of graphs of functions. Problems on locus. 10. 3. 6. Power and square root of a complex number. 20. Permutations and combinations. Examples on special series. Applications of Conics I. Algebra of matrices. Integration. Measures of dispersion.List of Practicals: XI 1. 8. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 157 . Linear inequation. 4. Applications of determinants. 18. Differentiation. Binomial theorem. cube root of unity. 5. 2. Limits. Numerical problems using laws of logarithms. 16. 9. 13. 14. Probability.

truth value of statement. Hero‟s formula. cosine rule. inverse. Matrices : Elementary transformation of a matrix-revision of cofactor and minor. contrapositive. area of a triangle. inverse by elementary transformation. inverse of a matrix-existance and uniqueness of inverse of a matrix. adjoint method. associative law. contingency. algebra of statements-idempotent law. cos2 cos2 . range. difference between converse. solution of Trigonometric equations. sin sin . Pair of straight lines : Pair of lines passing through origin-conbined equation. logical equivalence. 158 . sin2 sin2 .MATHEMATICS AND STATISTICS STD. contradiction. converse. implication/ conditional. tan tan . negation of compound statement. homogenous equation. application-solution of system of linear equations by – reduction method. a cos b sin c solution of a triangle-polar coordinates. condition for parallel lines. quantifier and quantified statements. principle values. contrapositive. 2. logical connective-conjunction. Napier Analogues. cos cos . truth tables of compound statements. condition for perpendicular lines. compound statement. tan2 tan2 . graphs of inverse trigonometric function. 4. distributive law. there exists. commutative law. acute angle between the lines (without proof). application-introduction to switching circuits (simple examples). Trigonometric functions : Trigonometric equations-general solution of trigonometric equation of the type. identity law. examples related to real life and mathematics. Mathematical Logic : Statements . inversion method. tan . projection rule. sin 0. 3. cos 0.Introduction. biconditional. point of intersection of two lines. duality. application. pair of lines not passing through origin-conbined equation of any two lines. disjunction. sentences and statement. domain. statement patterns and logical equivalence-tautology. elementary row transformation. elementary column transformation. demorgan‟s laws. properties of inverse functions. open sentences and truth sets. contradiction. angle between the lines represented by ax2+2hxy+by2=0. condition of parallel and perpendicular lines. sine rule. complement law. inverse trigonometric functionsdefinitions. condition that the equation ax2+2hxy+by2+2gx+2fy+c=0 should represent a pair of lines (without proof). involution law. theorem-the joint equation of a pair of lines passing through origin and its converse. negation. XII PART – I 1. logical equivalence.

equation of plane passing through the given point and parallel to two given vectors. 6. properties. direction cosines. non-negativity restrictions. 10.P. Conics : Tangents and normals-equations of tangent and normal at a point for parabola. Three dimensional geometry : Direction cosines and direction ratios-direction angles. Line : Equation of line passing through given point and parallel to given vector. equation of plane passing through the given point and perpendicular to given vector. midpoint formula. angle between two lines. condition for the coplanerity of two lines. hyperbola. ellipse. locus of points from which two tangents are mutually perpendicular. constraint equations. equation of line passing through two given points. section formula-section formula for internal and external division. hyperbola. equation of plane passing through the intersection of two given planes. direction ratios. Collinearty and coplanerity of vectors-linear combination of vectors. properties of tangents and normals to conics (without proof). diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each other and converse. ellipse. objective function. angle between line and plane. formula. median of trapezium is parallel to the parallel sides and its length is half the sum of parallel sides. distance of a point from a plane (vector approach).P. of a point from a line. 9. tangents from a point outside conics. optimization. angle subtended on a semicircle is right angle. application of vectors to geometry-medians of a triangle are concurrent. hyperbola. length of tangent segments. definition of constraints. angle between two planes. dist. conditions of coplanerity ofthree vectors. condition of perpendicular lines. 8. relation between direction ratio and direction cosines. centroid formula. normal to a circle-equation of normal at a point. director circle. Plane : Equation of plane in normal form. condition of tangency only for line y mx c to the circle x2 y2 a2 . 11. angle bisectors of triangle are concurrent. Linear programming problems: Introduction of L. equation of plane passing through three non-collinear points. condition of tangency for parabola. distance between two skew lines. distance between two parallel lines (vector approach). Vectors : Revision. 7. feasible and infeasible 159 .5. tangents to a circle from a point outside the circle. altitudes of a triangle are concurrent. ellipse. condition of collinearity of two vectors. scaler triple product-definition.2) general circle. tangents in terms of slope for parabola. Circle : Tangent of a circle-equation of a tangent at a point to 1) standard circle. geometrical interpretation of scalar triple product.

continuity of some standard functionspolynomial. non-repeated quadratic factors. Derivative of composite functionchain rule. derivative of parametric function – definition of parametric function . trigonometric. Continuity : Continuity of a function at a point-left hand limit. Derivative of implicit function definition and examples. 2. different types of L.PART – II 1. Maxima and minima-introduction of extreme and extreme values. rational. first derivative test. substitution method. second derivative test. c) higher order derivative-second order derivative d) f (x) g x 3. right hand limit. Mathematical formulation-mathematical formulation of L. definition of a continuity of a function at a point. maxima and minima in a closed interval. integration by partial fraction-factors involving repeated and non-repeated linear factors. exponential and logarithmic function-derivative of functions which are expressed in one of the following form a) product of functions. evaluation of definite integral 1) by substitution. Application of derivative : Geometrical application-tangent and normal at a point. properties of definite integrals properties of definite integrals. types of discontinuity. derivative of inverse function derivative of inverse trigonometric function. derivative as rate measure-introduction. approximation (without proof). b) quotient of functions. problems. continuity in interval-definition. increasing and decreasing function. Rolls theorem. Differentiation : Revision. definite integral-definite integral as a limit of sum. integrals of the type.region. 4. exponential and logarithmic function. 2) integration by parts.revision of derivative. feasible solutions. integration by parts-integration by parts. fundamental theorem of integral calculus (without proof).P. Integration : Indefinite integrals-methods of integration. XII . optimum feasible solution.P.P. discontinuity of a function. STD. relationship between continuity and differentiability-left hand derivative and right hand derivative (need and concept).P. every differentiable function is continuous but converse is not true. integrals of type (reduction formulae are not expected). 160 . and Mean value theorem and their geometrical interpretation (without proof). graphical solutions for problem in two variables. algebra of continuous functions.

probability mass function (p. homogenous differential equation (equation reducible to homogenous form are not expected). applications-population growth. formation of differential equation-formation of differential equation by elimmating arbitary constants (at most two constants). mean.5.f. 2. List of Practicals : XII 1. Newton‟s laws of cooling. scatter diagram. simple problems (without proof). covariance for bivariate frequency distribution. variance and standard deviation. area bounded by two curves. expected value. Karl Pearson‟s co-efficient of correlation. Differential equation : Definition-differential equation. probability density function (p. 3. radioactive decay. order. 9.d. discrete and continuous random variable. Inverse of a matrix by elementary transformation and hence solution of system of linear equation. particular solution of differential equation.area bounded by curve and axis (simple problems). binomial distribution (p. distribution function of a continuous random variable.).m. standard normal variable.f.m. variance and standard deviation. Linear differential equation. Bernoulli trials and Binomial distribution : Definition of Bernoulli trial.bivariate data. variance and standard deviation of a discrete random variable.f. Solutions of a triangle.d. Statistics: Bivariate frequency distribution . 161 .p.). 6.f. cumulative probability distribution of a discrete random variable. Probability distribution : Probability distribution of a random variable-definition of a random variable. mean. calculation of probabilities (without proof). 7.). volume of solid of revolution-volume of solid obtained by revolving the area under the curve about the axis (simple problems). Inverse of a matrix by adjoint method and hence solution of system of linear equations. bacterial colony growth. degree. Normal distribution . probability distribution of a discrete random variable. surface area. 8. general solution. Applications of logic. Applications of definite integral: Area under the curve . tabulation of bivariate data. 4. solution of first order and first degree differential equation-variable separable method. covariance of or ungrouped data. conditions for Binomial distribution.

variance and S. 10. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 162 . Applications of differential equations. Binomial distribution. Expected value. 17. 16. 8.Limit of sum. Applications of definite integrals . Formations and solutions of LPP. Applications of definite integrals . 7. Applications of definite integrals .D of random variable. 12. Bivariate frequency distribution.Area.plane. Tracing of tangents and normals for circles and parabola.5.Maxima and minima 14. 9. Tracing of tangents and normals for ellipse and hyperbola. Applications of scalar triple product of vectors.volume. Applications of derivatives – Rate. Applications of derivatives . 6.line. Three dimensional geometry . 11. Three dimensional geometry . 20. 19. 13. 15. Applications of derivatives (Geometric applications). measure. 18.

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