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PHYSICS – Std. XI & XII Preamble
According to NCF 2005, the curriculum of the subject Physics is upgraded for higher secondary stage. This curriculum is comparable to the international standards which are useful for the students in Maharashtra State for different types of competitive examinations conducted in India. All the units of the subject from NCERT curriculum are divided into two years conveniently in Maharashtra State. Continuity in the curriculum is maintained in Std. XI & XII, which is not in NCERT curriculum. All the students appear for the competitive examinations only after +2 stages throughout India. This syllabus has been designed in accordance with the guidelines shown in the final version of common core syllabii of COBSE, Delhi. Accordingly few additional sub units have been added. Objectives – 1. Emphasis on basic conceptual understanding of the content. 2. Emphasis on use of SI units, symbols, nomenclature of physical quantities and formulations as per international standards. 3. Providing logical sequencing of units of the subject matter and proper placement of concepts with their linkage for better learning. 4. Reducing the curriculum load by eliminating overlapping of concepts/content within the discipline and other disciplines. 5. Promotion of process-skills, problem-solving abilities and applications of Physics concepts. 6. Strengthen the concepts developed at the secondary stage to provide firm foundation for further learning in the subject. 7. Expose the learners to different processes used in Physics-related industrial and technological applications. 8. Develop process-skills and experimental, observational, manipulative, decision making and investigatory skills in the learners. 9. Promote problem solving abilities and creative thinking in learners. 10. Develop conceptual competence in the learners and make them realize and appreciate the interface of Physics with other disciplines.
1. Measurements Introduction, Need for measurement, Units for measurement, System of Units, S.I. Units, Fundamental and derived units, Dimensional analysis, Order of magnitude and significant figures, Accuracy and errors in measurement.
2. Scalars and Vectors Addition and subtraction of vectors, Product of vectors.
3. Projectile motion Uniformly accelerated motion along straight line, Non uniform motion, Position time graph and velocity-time graph, Equation of a projectile path, Time of flight, Horizontal range, Maximum height of a projectile, Relative velocity.
4. Force Types of forces, General idea of gravitation, electromagnetic and nuclear forces, Law of conservation of momentum, Work done by a variable force. Work-energy theorem, Elastic and inelastic collisions in one and two dimensions, Inertial and non-intertial frames, Moment of force, Couple and properties of couple, Centre of mass, Centre of gravity, Conditions of equilibrium of a rigid body.
5. Friction in solids and liquids Origin and nature of frictional forces, Laws of static friction, Laws of kinetic friction, Pressure due to fluid column, Pascal‟s Law and its applications, Effect of gravity on fluid pressure, Viscosity, Streamline flow, Turbulent flow, Viscous force, Newton‟s formula, Stokes‟ law, Equation for terminal velocity, Raynold‟s number, Bernoulli‟s principle and its applications.
6. Sound Waves Waves and oscillations, Progressive waves, Characteristics of transverse waves, Characteristics of longitudinal waves, Sound as longitudinal wave motion, Relation between v, f and, ƛ Newton‟s formula for velocity of sound, Laplace‟s correction.
7. Thermal properties of matter Temperature and heat, Measurement of temperature, Ideal-gas equation and absolute temperature, Thermal expansion, Specific heat capacity, Calorimetry, Change of state, Latent heat, Heat transfer.
8. Refraction of Light Refraction of monochromatic light, Snell‟s law, Total internal reflection, Critical angle, Optical fibre, Dispersion of light, Prism formula, Angular dispersion and dispersive power, Rainbow, Scattering of light, Blue colour of sky, Colour of sun at sunrise and sunset. Elementary idea of Raman effect.
9. Ray optics Reflection of light by spherical mirrors, Refraction at single curved surface, Lens maker‟s equation, Combination of thin lenses in contact, Concept of conjugate focii, Correction of eye defects, Magnifying power of simple microscope, Magnifying power of compound microscope, Magnifying power of telescope, Reflecting telescope - schematic diagram with explanation.
10. Electrostatics Frictional electricity, Charges and their conservation, Coulomb‟s law and dielectric constant, Forces between multiple electric charges, Superposition principle of forces, Continuous distribution of charges, Concept of charge density, Electric field intensity, Potential energy, Electric potential due to point charge, Relation between electric field intensity and potential, Potential difference, Volt and electron volt, Electric dipole and dipole moment, Electric lines of force. Equipotential surfaces, P.E. of single charge and system of charges.
11. Current electricity Ohm‟s law, Resistance, Specific resistance, Temperature dependence of resistance, Colour code of carbon resistor, Series and parallel combination of resistors, E.M.F. and internal resistance of cell, Work done by electric current, Power in electric circuit, Cells in series and in parallel, Elementary idea of secondary cells.
12. Magnetic effect of electric current Oersted’s experiment, Biot Savart‟s law, Right hand rule, Magnetic induction at the centre of circular coil carrying current, Magnetic induction at a point along the axis of a coil carrying current, Fleming‟s left hand rule, Force between two infinitely long current carrying parallel conductors, Definition of Ampere, Force acting on a conductor carrying current in magnetic field, Torque on a current loop in magnetic field.
13. Magnetism Origin of magnetism due to moving charges, Equivalence between magnetic dipole and circular coil carrying current, Definition of magnetic dipole moment and its unit, Torque acting on a magnet in uniform magnetic induction, Bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, Magnetic field lines, Magnetic induction due to bar magnet at a point along the axis and at a point along equator, Earth‟s magnetic field and magnetic elements, Electromagnets and factors affecting their strength.
14. Electromagnetic waves Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics, Transverse nature of electromagnetic waves, Electromagnetic spectrum, Space communication, Propagation of electromagnetic waves in atmosphere.
Physics List of Practicals Std. XI
1. Use of Vernier Callipers. 2. Use of Screw gauge. 3. To determine radius of curvature of a given spherical surface by a spherometer. 4. To find the weight of a given body using parallelogram law of vectors. 5. To study the relationship between force of limiting friction and normal reaction and to find co-efficient of friction between a block and a horizontal surface. 6. To determine resistance per cm of a given wire by plotting a graph of potential difference versus current. 7. To find the value of „v‟ for different values of „u‟ in case of a „concave mirror and to find the focal length. 8. To find the focal length of a convex lens by plotting graphs between „u‟ and „v‟or between „1/u‟ and „1/v‟. 9. To find the focal length of a convex mirror, using a convex lens. 10. To find the focal length of a concave lens, using a convex lens. 11. To determine angle of minimum deviation for a given prism by plotting a graph between angle of incidence and angle of deviation. 12. To determine refractive index of a glass using a travelling microscope. 13. To find refractive index of a liquid by using (i) concave mirror, (ii) convex lens and plane mirror. 14. To determine specific heat capacity of a given (i) liquid (ii) solid, by method of mixtures.
Physics List of Activities Std. XI
1. To make a paper scale of given least count, e.g. 0.2 cm, 0.5 cm. 2. To determine mass of a given body using a meter scale by principle of moments. 3. To plot a graph for a given set of data, with proper choice of scales and error bars.
To observe refraction and lateral deviation of a beam of light incident obliquely on a glass slab. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 115 . To obtain a lens combination with the specified focal length by using two lenses from the given set of lenses. on a screen by using a candle and a screen (for different distances of the candle from the lens/mirror). To study the variation in range of a jet of water with angle of projection. To measure the force of limiting friction for rolling of a roller on a horizontal plane. 10. 6. To note the change in level of liquid in a container on heating and interpret the observations. 8. current (AC) and check continuity of a given circuit using multimeter. To measure resistance.4. 9. To study the nature and size of image formed by (i) convex lens (ii) concave mirror. 7. voltage (AC/DC). 5.
Determination of „Y‟. XII 1.M. Surface tension. 7. Elastic constants and their relation.PHYSICS (Upgraded syllabus) Std.H.H. 2. Poisson’s ratio.H.. lattitude. Gravitation Newton‟s law of gravitation. of some regular shaped bodies about specific axes. Phase of S. Variation of „g‟ due to altitude. Statement of Kepler‟s laws of motion.M. Rolling motion. Surface energy. K. 3. Weightlessness condition in orbit. Elastic energy. Elasticity General explanation of elastic property.M. Kinematical equations for circular motion in analogy with linear motion. 5. Oscillations Explanation of periodic motion.. Angular velocity and angular acceleration. Principle of parallel and perpendicular axes. in S.M. Circular motion Angular displacement..E. Communication satellite and its uses. K. M. of rotating body.. and P. Projection of satellite..H. S. Rotational motion Definition of M. Projection of U. Centripetal and centrifugal forces. Torque. Damped S.C. Equation for velocity and energy at different positions of vertical circular motion. Radial acceleration.I.E. Definition of stress and strain. depth and motion. Composition of two S. Binding energy and escape velocity of a satellite. Surface tension Surface tension on the basis of molecular theory.M. Angular momentum and its conservation. on any diameter. Physical significance of M. Angle of contact. 6.M.H. Radius of gyration. Banking of roads.I.I.H. Behaviour of metal wire under increasing load. Vertical circular motion due to earth‟s gravitation. 4. Plasticity. Applications of elastic behaviour of materials.M. Uniform circular motion.‟s having same period and along same line. Simple pendulum. Relation between linear velocity and angular velocity. Hooke‟s law. Effect of impurity and temperature on surface tension. Wave motion 116 . Differential equation of linear S. Deformation. Capillarity and capillary action. Periodic time.E.
Study of vibrations of air columns. Measurement of wavelength by biprism experiment. Wave theory of light Wave theory of light. Construction of plane and spherical wave front. Formation of beats. van-de-Graaff generator. Polarisation. Dielectrics and electric polarisation. Derivation of Boyle‟s law. Conditions for producing steady interference pattern. Capacity of parallel plate condenser. Electrostatics Gauss‟ theorem proof and applications. Refraction at plane surface. Energy of charged condenser. Reflection of transverse and longitudinal waves. Free and Forced vibrations. Difference between interference and diffraction. Brewster‟s law. Stefan’s law. Assumptions of kinetic theory. Degrees of freedom. Superposition of waves. Analytical treatment of interference bands. Change of phase. Formation of stationary waves on string. Rayleigh‟s criterion. Young‟s experiment.Thermal equilibrium and definition of temperature. Resonance. Derivation for pressure of a gas. Qualitative idea of black body radiation. Thermodynamics. Mean free path. 10. 9. Heat engines and refrigerators. 11. Polaroids. 2nd law of thermodynamics. Diffraction due to single slit. Doppler effect in sound. 1st law of thermodynamics. Maxwell distribution. Energy density of a medium. Wave front and wave normal. Huygens‟ Principle. Stationary waves Study of vibrations in a finite medium. Resolving power of a microscope and telescope. Plane polarised light. Concept of condenser. 13. Reflection at plane surface. 12. Interference and diffraction Interference of light. Law of equipartition of energy and application to Specific heat capacities of gases.Simple harmonic progressive waves.Wein’s displacement law. Mechanical force on unit area of a charged conductor. Condensers in series and parallel. Kinetic theory of gases and Radiation Concept of an ideal gas. 8. Effect of dielectric on capacity. Current electricity 117 . Green house effect. Doppler effect in light.
Matter waves – wave nature of particles. Continuous and characteristics X-rays.Kirchhoff‟s law. 15. Hertz and Lenard‟s observations. Alternating currents. Zener diode as a voltage regulator. Meter bridge. Intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors. Magnetic effects of electric current Ampere‟s law and its applications. Hydrogen spectrum. Curie temperature.dØ dt Eddy currents. Rutherford‟s model of atom. Ammeter. Molecules and Nuclei Alpha particle scattering experiment. Coil rotating in uniform magnetic induction. P-N junction diode. Wattless current. Ferromagnetism on the basis of domain theory.c circuit with resistance. Rectifiers. Nuclear fission and fusion. Radioactivity. 19 Semiconductors Energy bands in solids. Photodiode. de Broglie hypothesis. 17 Electrons and photons Photoelectric effect. 18 Atoms. proof of. Reactance and impedance. Diamagnetism. Magnetic dipole moment of revolving electron. Resonant circuit. e = . Paramagnetism. 16 Electromagnetic inductions Laws of electromagnetic induction. P-type and N-type semiconductor. LC oscillations (qualitative treatment only) Power in a.E. Bohr‟s model. Davisson and Germer experiment. Sensitivity of moving coil galvanometer. Solar cell. mass-energy relation. Potentiometer. Particle nature of light. Composition and size of nucleus. Magnetisation and magnetic intensity. Need for displacement current. inductance and capacitance. Decay law. B. I-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias. I-V characteristics of LED. 14. AC generator. Einstein‟s equation. Wavelength of an electron. mass defect. Magnetism Circular current loop as a magnetic dipole. per nucleon and its variation with mass number. Moving coil galvanometer. Transistor 118 . Voltmeter. Self induction and mutual induction. Cyclotron. Transformer. Wheatstone‟s bridge.
NOR) 20 Communication systems Elements of communication system. bandwidth of transmission medium. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 119 . Transistor as an amplifier (CE mode).Transistor as a switch. Production and detection of an amplitude modulated wave. Need for modulation. Propagation of electromagnetic waves in atmosphere. Oscillators and Logic gates (OR.AND.NOT.action and its characteristics.NAND. space communication. bandwidth of signals.
To find resistance of given wire using metre bridge and hence determine the specific resistance of its material. 12. 11. 10. 3. To determine the internal resistance of given cell using potentiometer. 7. To study the relation between frequency and length of a given wire under constant tension using sonometer. To determine resistance of galvanometer using metre bridge. 5. 8. 9. 14. To draw the characteristic curve of a zener diode and to determine its reverse break down voltage. XII 1. To determine Young‟s modulus of elasticity of the material of a given wire. To verify the laws of combination (series/parallel) of resistances using a metre bridge.Physics List of Practicals Std. 120 . 13. To find the speed of sound in air at room temperature using a resonance tube. To draw the I-V characteristic curves of a p-n junction diode in forward bias and reverse bias. To determine the surface tension of water by capillary rise method. 4. To study the relation between the length of a given wire and tension for constant frequency using sonometer. To study the relationship between the temperature of a hot body and time by plotting a cooling curve. To find the force constant and effective mass of helical spring by plotting T 2--m graph using method of oscillations. 6. To study the characteristics of a common-emitter npn or pnp transistor and to find out the values of current and voltage gains. To compare the emf of two given cells using potentiometer. 2. 15.
6. To draw the diagram of a given open circuit comprising at least a battery. Use of multimeter to (i) identify base of transistor (ii) distinguish between npn and pnp type transistors. 3. 10. diode. 7. To study dissipation of energy of a simple pendulum by plotting a graph between square of amplitude and time. key. resistor/ rheostat. 4. To study the effect of load on depression of a suitably clamped meter scale loaded (i) at its end (ii) in the middle.D. 1 l. a fuse and a power source. To study the factors affecting the rate of loss of heat of a liquid. a resistor and a capacitor from mixed collection of such items. ammeter and voltmeter. To study the effect of detergent on surface tension by observing capillary rise. 8. three (on/off) switches. and 1C. To observe polarization of light using two polaroids. a transistor.R. an LED.g. 9. 121 . To study the variation in potential drop with length of a wire for a steady current. 2. 5. To assemble a household circuit comprising three bulbs. Mark the components that are not connected in proper order and correct the circuit and also the circuit diagram. To measure the resistance and impedance of an inductor with or without iron core.Physics List of Activities Std. To identify a diode. XII 1. To study effect of intensity of light (by varying distance of the source) on an L. 12. transistor or IC) is in working order. (iii) see the unidirectional flow of current in case of a diode and an LED (iv) check whether a given electronic component (e.
compounds and IUPAC units of physical quantities. modern techniques are given importance. etc. weather. This new syllabus will make them competent to meet the challenges of academic and professional courses like medicine.CHEMISTRY (Upgraded syllabus) Std. the new and updated curriculum is introduced at +2 stages. 6) To expose the students to different processes used in industries and their technological applications. after the +2 stage. symbols and formulations. Biology. 4) To equip students to face various changes related to health. 122 . environment. The syllabus contains areas like physical. technology) at tertiary level. Geology. analytical and polymer chemistry. technology. New nomenclature. 3) To expose the students to various emerging new areas of chemistry and apprise them with their relevance in their future studies and their applications in various spheres of chemical sciences and technology. fundamental concepts. engineering. The syllabus is comparable to the international level. The revised syllabus has taken care of new formulations and nomenclature of elements. industries and agriculture. industrial. population. inorganic. engineering. 2) To make students capable of studying chemistry in academic and professional courses (such as medicine. etc. Engineering. XI & XII Preamble RATIONALE According to NCF 2005. There is a need to provide the sufficient conceptual background of chemistry which will help the students to appear for different common entrance test at state level and national level. organic. OBJECTIVES The broad objectives of teaching Chemistry at Senior Secondary Stage are to help the learners : 1) To promote understanding of basic facts and concepts in chemistry while retaining the excitement of Chemistry. nutrition. 7) To apprise students with interface of chemistry with other disciplines of science such as Physics. 5) To develop problem solving skills in students.
Inert gas radii nomenclature of elements with atomic number greater than 100.CHEMISTRY Std. Charles law. brief history of the development of periodic table. p and d orbitals. Gay Lussac‟s law. isotopes and isobars. chemical reactions. modern periodic law and present form of periodic table. proton and neutron. liquefaction of gases. Bohr‟s model and its limitations. quantum numbers. Role of gas laws in elucidating the concept of the molecule. concept of orbitals. stoichiometry and calculations based on stoichimetry. Kinetic energy and molecular speeds (elementary idea) Liquid State – Vapour pressure. 123 . Unit 4 : Periodic Table Significance of classification. Boyle‟s law. viscosity and surface tension (qualitative idea only. Deviation from ideal behaviour. empirical and molecular formula. XI (Theory) Unit 1: Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry General Introduction: Importance and scope of chemistry. atoms and molecules. electron gain enthalpy. no mathematical derivations). rules for filling electrons in orbitals – Aufbau principle. periodic trends in properties of elements atomic radii. Heisenberg‟s uncertainty principle. atomic number. type of bonding. Historical approach to particulate nature of matter. valence. Ionization enthalpy. de Broglie‟s relationship. Critical temperature. electronic configuration of atoms. Pauli‟s exclusion principle and Hund‟s rule. dual nature of matter and light. Dalton‟s atomic theory : concept of elements. Atomic and molecular masses mole concept and molar mass : Avogadro‟s law and Avogadro number. empirical derivation of gas equation. Unit 3 : Structure of Atom Discovery of electron. percentage composition. ionic radii. laws of chemical combination. Ideal behaviour. electronegativity. Ideal gas equation. stability of half filled and completely filled orbitals. shapes of s.Enthalpy: Explanation and definition of term. Intermolecular interactions. Rutherford‟s model and its limitations. concept of shells and subshells. Unit 2 : States of Matter : Gases and Liquids Three states of matter.
preparation. coagulation. Born Haber cycle : covalent bond parameters. activity and selectivity: enzyme catalysis. ionic bond. catalysis : homogenous and heterogeneous. heavy water. Ionic equilibrium: Ionization of acids and bases. physical and chemical properties of water. Hydrogen peroxide. concept of hybridization involving s. p and d orbitals and shapes of some simple molecules. hydrogen bond. Balancing redox reactions. electrophoresis. Unit 7 : Surface Chemistry Adsorption – physisorption and chemisorption. Buffer solutions. factors affecting equilibrium. occurrence. emulsion – types of emulsions. Lyophilic. properties and structure. Uses of hydrogen peroxide 124 . VSEPR theory. Le Chatelier‟s principle.) Handerson equation. colloids and suspensions. strong and weak electrolytes. Unit 9 : Hydrogen Position of hydrogen in periodic table. colloidal state : distinction between true solutions. covalent character of ionic bond. Hydrolysis of salts (elementary idea). multimolecular and macromolecular colloids. degree of ionization. Tyndall effect. equilibrium constant.Unit 5: Redox Reactions Concept of oxidation and reduction. factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids. acid strength. Elementary idea of nanomaterials. hydrogen as a fuel. law of mass action. covalent and interstitial. redox reactions. ionization of polybasic acids. in terms of loss and gain of electrons and change in oxidation number. concept of pH. isotopes. resonance. molecular orbital theory of homonuclear diatomic molecules (qualitative idea only). Brownian movement. Lyophobic. properties of colloids. polar character of covalent bond. properties and uses of hydrogen. Unit 6: Chemical Equilibrium Equilibrium in physical and chemical processes. geometry of covalent molecules. solubility product common ion effect (with illustrative examples. oxidation number. Lewis structure. hydrides-ionic. dynamic nature of equilibrium.preparation. valence bond theory. Unit 8 : Nature of Chemical Bond Valence electrons.
variation of properties. biological importance of sodium and potassium. occurrence. Variation of properties. resonance and hyper conjugation. trends in chemical reactivity. boron hydrides. electrophiles and nucleophiles. oxides.carbocations. reactions with acids and alkalies. electronic configuration. oxidation states. free radicals. occurrence. uses. types of organic reactions. 125 . silicates and zeolites and structure of silicates Unit 12: Basic Principles and Techniques in Organic Chemistry General introduction. Preparation and properties of some important compounds: Sodium carbonate. Carbon – catenation. Classification and IUPAC nomenclature of organic compounds. trends in the variation of properties (such as ionization enthalpy. boric acids. anomalous properties of the first element of each group. silicones. sodium hydroxide and sodium hydrogen carbonate. Unit 11 : p-Block Elements Group Introduction to p-Block Elements Group 13 elements : General introduction. Aluminium. allotropic forms. electromeric effect. oxidation states. electronic configuration. inductive effect. trends in chemical reactivity. carbanions. trends in chemical reactivity with oxygen. uses. anomalous properties of first element of the group. some important compounds: borax.Unit 10: s-Block Elements (Alkali and Alkaline earth metals) Group 1 and Group 2 elements: General introduction. uses of some important Compounds. Boron-physical and chemical properties. atomic and ionic radii). biological importance of Magnesium and Calcium. electronic configuration. anomalous behavior of first element. physical and chemical properties. hydrogen and halogens. water. diagonal relationship. Important compounds of silicon and their uses: silicon tetrachloride. Electronic displacements in a covalent bond.Homolytic and heterolytic fission of a covalent bond. occurrence. Melting point and boiling point. methods of qualitative and quantitative analysis. Group 14 elements: General introduction. Calcium oxide and calcium carbonate (CaO) (CaCO3) and industrial uses of lime and limestone.
geometrical isomerism. addition of hydrogen. structure of double bond (ethane). – nitration. water. chemical reactions including free radical mechanism of halogenation. combustion and pyrolysis. Chemical reactions. physical properties. halogen. Unit 14 : Alkenes Nomenclature. addition reaction of – hydrogen. mechanism of electrophilic addition. chemical properties. methods of preparation. Unit 15: Alkynes Nomenclature. IUPAC nomenclature. oxidation. conformations (ethane only). resonance aromaticity. green house effect and global warming. water and soil pollution. isomerism. halogenation. Unit 16 : Aromatic compounds Introduction. hydrogen halides.air. structure of triple bond (ethylene). Carcinogenicity and toxicity. physical properties. major atmospheric pollutants. sulphonaiton. 126 . physical properties. chemical reactions: acidic character of alkynes. hydrogen halides (Markovnikoff‟s addition and peroxide effect) ozonolysis. mechanism of electrophilic substitution. ozone and its reactions. smog. UNIT-17: Environmental chemistry Environmental pollution. green chemistry as an alternative tool for reducing pollution. Methods of preparation. strategy for control of environmental pollution. water. acid rain. Friedel Craft‟ alkylation and acylation.Unit 13 : Alkanes Classification of hydrocarbons – Nomenclature. halogens. Pollution due to industrial wastes. chemical reactions in atmosphere. effects of depletion of ozone layer. benzene.
C. Comparing the pH solutions of strong and weak acid of same concentration. 127 .Chemistry Practical Syllabus Std-XI A. resorcinol. Chemical equilibrium Any one of the following experiments: (a) Study the shift in equilibrium between ferric ions and thiocyanate ions by changing the concentration of either ion. Determination of boiling point of an organic compound. ferric hydroxide. Cutting glass tube and glass rod 2. Crystallization of impure sample of anyone of the following compounds. copper sulphate. Bending glass tube 3. Oxalic acid. β-naphthol. varied concentrations of acids. (b) Study the shift in equilibrium between [Co(H2O)6]2+ and chloride ions by changing the concentration of either of the ions.m. Operating pinch cork B. Alum. Determination of melting point of an organic compound. benzoic acid.) 2. xylene (o. Experiments related to pH change (a) Any one of the following experiments: Determination of pH of some solutions obtained from fruit juices. Basic Laboratory Techniques 1. Surface Chemistry (a) Preparation of one lyophilic and one lyophobic sol: Lyophilic sol-starch and gum. Drawing out a glass jet 4. (p-toludine. Study the pH change in the titration of a strong base using universal indicator. Lyophobic sol–aluminium hydroxide. Study of burner 5. E. benzoic acid. naphthalene. water) 3.p). bases and salts using pH paper or universal indicator. (acetone. (b) Study of the role of emulsifying agents in stabilizing the emulsion of oil. Characterization and purification of chemical substances 1. D. methyl acetate. acetic acid. arseneous sulphide.
I-. chlorine bromine and iodine in an organic compound. Ca2+. Zn2+. PO43C2O42CH3COO(Note: Insoluble salts excluded) H. Determination of strength of a given solution of sodium hydroxide by titrating it against standard solution of oxalic acid. Cu2+. F. 128 . Ba2+. Ni2+ . Al3+. Preparation of standard solution of oxalic acid. Sr2+. Fe3+. sulphur. Mn2+. NH4+ Anions – CO32SO32SO42NO2NO3Cl-.(b) Study of pH change by common ion effect in case of weak acids and bases. Preparation of standard solution of sodium carbonate. Detection of nitrogen. Mg2+. G. Quantitative estimation Using a chemical balance. Qualitative analysis Determination of one cation and one anion in a given salt: Cations – Pb2+. Br-. Determination of strength of a given solution of hydrochloric acid by titrating It against standard sodium carbonate solution. Co2+.
fluoride. A few suggested Projects 1 Checking the bacterial contamination in drinking water by testing sulphide ion. 2 Study of the methods of purification of water. 129 . 6 Determination of the rate of evaporation of different liquids. Note: Any other investigatory project can be chosen with the approval of the teacher. 4 Investigation of the foaming capacity of different washing soaps and the effect of addition of sodium carbonate on them. 7 Study of the effect of acids and bases on the tensile strength of fibers.PROJECT Scientific investigations involving laboratory testing and collecting information from other sources. 5 Study of the acidity of different samples of the tea leaves. 8 Analysis of fruit and vegetable juices for their acidity. depending upon the regional variation in drinking water and the study of causes of presence of these ions above permissible limit (if any). 3 Testing the hardness. presence of iron. chloride etc.
unit cell in two dimensional and three dimensional lattices. Phase transition. depression of freezing point. EMF of a cell. Kohlrausch‟s Law. and solution and dilution Introduction of entropy as a state function. catalyst. Work. Unit 3 : Chemical Thermodynamics and energetic Concepts of system. voids. abnormal molecular mass. Second and third law of thermodynamics Unit 4: Electrochemistry Redox reactions. covalent and metallic solids. heat. specific and molar conductivity. rate law and specific rate constant. osmotic pressure. enthalpy of bond dissociation. First law of thermodynamics – internal energy and enthalpy. standard electrode potential. dry cell –electrolytic and Galvanic cells. factors affecting rate of reaction. state functions.Van’t Hoff factor and calculations involving it. Nernst equation and its application to chemical cells. order and molecularity of a reaction. calculation of density of unit cell. extensive and intensive properties. colligative properties –relative lowering of vapor pressure. and equilibrium constant. point defects. packing in solids. formation. corrosion. energy. concept of 130 . lead accumulator. combustion. ionic. molecular. determination of molecular masses using colligative properties. Hess‟ law of constant heat summation. fuel cells. surroundings. number of atoms per unit cell in a cubic unit cell. amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea).Raoult’s law elevation of boiling point. XII (Theory) Unit 1: Solid State Classification of solids based on different forces. integrated rate equations and half life (only for zero and first order reactions). sublimation. temperature. Relation between Gibb’s energy change and emf of a cell. concentration.CHEMISTRY Std. conductance in electrolytic solutions. types of systems. expression of concentration of solids in liquids. variations of conductivity with concentration. ionization. electrolysis and laws of electrolysis (elementary idea). Unit 2 : Solutions and colligative properties Types of solutions. conductors and semiconductors and insulators and n and p type semiconductors. Unit 5: Chemical Kinetics Rate of reaction (average and instantaneous). Band theory of metals. electrical and magnetic properties. solid solutions. solubility of gases in liquids. free energy change for spontaneous and non spontaneous processes. atomization.
compounds of nitrogen. reduction electrolytic method and refining. occurrence. Occurrence. trends in physical and chemical properties. Phoshorous-allotropic forms. dioxygen. 131 . oxidation. preparation and properties of ammonia and nitric acid. Ozone. simple oxides. uses. oxides of nitrogen (structure only).collision theory (elementary idea. industrial process of manufacture. compounds of sulphur. oxidation states. halides (PCl3. compounds of phosphorous. compounds of halogens. electronic configuration. copper. sulphurc acid. properties and uses. properties and uses. Group 16 elements: General introduction. Group 18 elements: General introduction. occurrence. electronic configuration. preparation. Group 17 elements: General introduction. trends in physical and chemical properties. properties and uses. oxoacids of halogens (structure only). trends in physical and chemical properties. properties and uses of chlorine and hydrochloric acid. oxidation states. occurrence. oxidation states. preparation. preparation and properties of phosphine. electronic configuration. nitrogen – preparation. electronic configuration. Classification of oxides. trends in physical and chemical properties.Activation energy. properties and uses of sulphur dioxide. oxoacids of sulphur (structures only). Unit 6 : General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements Principles and methods of extraction – concentration. preparation. Sulphur – allotropic forms. Arrhenius equation. occurrence and principle of extraction of aluminium. zinc and iron Unit 7: p-Block Elements Group 15 elements: General introduction. no mathematical treatment). interhalogen compounds.PCl5) and oxoacids (elementary idea only).
physical and chemical properties. Unit 9: Coordination Compounds Coordination compounds – Introduction. oxidation states. isomerism.CFT. occurrence and characteristics of transition metals. electronic configuration. bonding. uses. methods of preparation. VBT.Stability of carbocations. uses of methanol and ethanol. Uses and environmental effects of – dichloromethane. oxidation states. coordination number. Unit 10 : Halogen derivatives of alkanes (and arenes) Haloalkanes : Nomenclature. Werner’s theory. thrichloromethane. chemical reactivity and lanthanoid contraction and its consequences. oxidation states. general trends in properties of the first row transition metals – metallic character. acidic nature of phenol. ionization enthalpy. interstitial compounds. colour. IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds. uses of phenols. extraction of metals and biological systems). electrophillic substitution reactions. Actinoids – Electronic configuration. Ethers : Nomenclature. nature of C-X bond. f-Block ElementsLanthanoids – Electronic configuration. (Structural and stereo) importance of coordination compounds (in qualitative analysis. Unit 11 : Alcohols. physical and chemical properties. colour. freons. physical and chemical properties. mechanism of substitution reactions. methods of preparation. magnetic properties and shapes. physical and chemical properties (of primary alcohols only). DDT. identification of primary. ligands. alloy formation preparation and properties of K2Cr2O7 and KMnO4.R-S and d-l configuration Haloarenes : Nature of C-X bond. catalytic property. tetrachloromethane. Phenols: Nomenclature. Comparison with lanthanoids. Phenols and Ethers Alcohols: Nomenclature. 132 . substitution reactions (directive influence of halogen for monosubstituted compounds only) stability of carbocations. secondary and tertiary alcohols. ionic radii. methods of preparation. mechanism of dehydration. R-S and d-l configurations. iodoform.Unit 8 : d and f Block Elements d-Block Elements General introduction. magnetic properties.
Carboxylic Acids: Nomenclature. mechanism of nucleophilic addition. uses.natural and synthetic. Unit 14: Biomolecules Carbohydrates: Classification (aldoses and ketoses). structure.Biodegradable and non biodegradable polymers. peptide. tertiary structure and quaternary structures (qualitative idea only). Physical and chemical properties. uses. methods of polymerization (addition and condensation). copolymerization. denaturation of proteins. physical and chemical properties. nylon. lactose. uses. acidic nature. chemical reactions and importance in synthetic organic chemistry.Unit 12 : Aldehydes. monosaccahrides d-l configuration (glucose and fructose). their classification and functions. identification of primary. cellulose. Some important polymers. Nucleic Acids: DNA and RNA Unit 15: Polymers Classification . polyesters. physical and chemical properties. polypeptides. natural and synthetic like polythene. polysaccharides (starch. Ketones and Carboxylic Acids Aldehydes and Ketones : Nomenclature. maltose). oligosaccharides (sucrose. Unit 13: Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen Nitro compounds-General methods of preparation and chemical reactions Amines : Nomenclature. Vitamins: Classification and functions. structure of amines-primary. and rubber. classification. Diazonium salts: Preparation. linkage. glycogen). proteins. methods of preparation. Proteins: Elementary idea of -amino acids. methods of preparation. nature of carbonyl group. importance. secondary and tertiary amines. secondary. Lipids and Hormones (elementary idea) excluding structure. reactivity of alpha hydrogen in aldehydes. enzymes. Cyanides and Isocyanides: Will be mentioned at relevant places in context. methods of preparation. bakelite. 133 .
KIO3 and sodium sulphite (Na2SO3) using starch solution as indicator (clock reaction). cleansing action. Chemical Kinetics (Any one of the following) : (a) Effect of concentration and temperature on the rate of reaction between sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid. iii] Determination of enthalpy change during interaction (hydrogen bond formation) between acetone and chloroform. Electrochemistry Variation of cell potential in Zn|Zn2+||Cu2+|Cu with change in concentration of electrolytes (CuSO4 or ZnSO4) at room temperature (demonstration). iv] Heat of displacement of Cu from CuSO4 by Zn. XII A. Chemicals in medicines: analgesics. Chemicals in food: Preservatives. antifertility drugs. artificial sweetening agents. Thermochemistry Any one of the following experiments: i] Enthalpy of dissolution of copper sulphate or potassium nitrate. ii] Enthalpy of neutralization of strong acid (HCI) and strong base (NaOH). antiseptics. antibiotics. Chemistry Practical Syllabus Std. C. (ii) Reaction between potassium iodate. antihistamines (elementary idea of antioxidants) 2. antacids. (c) Acid hydrolysis of ethyl acetate. B. antimicrobials. 3. Cleansing agents: Soaps and detergents. disinfectants. tranquilizers.Unit 16: Chemistry in Everyday life : 1. (b) Study of reaction rate of any one of the following: (i) Reaction of iodide ion with hydrogen peroxide at room temperature using different concentration of iodide ions. 134 .
2) Determination of two anions from a given mixture of salts. Co2+. fats and proteins in pure samples and their detection in given food stuffs. aldehydic. Mn2+. As3+. Mg2+.D. H. Preparation of Inorganic Compounds (i) Preparation of double salt of ferrous ammonium sulphate or potash alum. Ca2+. J. Cu2+. (iii) Iodoform (iv) Phthalic or succinic anhydride. Preparation of Organic Compounds (i) p-Nitrocetanilide (ii) Aniline yellow or 2. 135 . I. Ba2+. Zn2+. E. Tests for the functional groups present in organic compounds Unsaturation. (ii) Separation of constituents present in an inorganic mixture containing two cations only (constituents having large difference in Rf values to be provided). (ii) Preparation of potassium ferric oxalate. Cations – Pb2+. Chromatography (demonstration) (i) Separation of pigments from extracts of leaves and flowers by paper chromatography and determination of Rf values. NH4+. Determinaiton of concentration/molarity of KMnO4 solution by titrating it against a standard solution of: (i) Oxalic acid (ii) Ferrous ammonium sulphate (Students will be required to prepare standard solutions by weighing themselves). Characteristic tests of arbohydrates.Napthol aniline dye. Qualitative analysis 1) Determination of two cations from a given mixture of salts. Ni2+. alcoholic. carboxylic and amino (primary) groups. Sr2+. ketonic. Fe3+. Al3+. phenolic. (v) Di-benzal acetone G. F.
Cl-. turmeric powder. 8 Study of common food adulterants in fat. etc. potato juice. effect of temperature. 3 Preparation of soybean milk and its comparison with the natural milk with respect to curd formation. sugar. I-. 4 Study of the effect of potassium bisulphate as food preservative under various conditions (temperature. PO43C2O42CH3COO(Note : Insoluble salts excluded. SO42-. effect of pH and temperature on it.) PROJECT Scientific investigations involving laboratory testing and collecting information From other sources. 136 . carrot juice. etc. 2 Study of quantity of casein present in different samples of milk. No2NO3-. gram flour. SO32-.Anions – CO32-. 5 Study of digestion of starch by salivary amylase and. Note : Any investigatory project. concentration. can be chosen with the approval of the teacher. Br-. Illaichi (cardamom). Ajwain (carum). A few suggested Projects: 1 Study of presence of oxalate ions in guava fruit at different stages of ripening. 7 Extraction of essential oils present in Saunf (aniseed). 6 Comparative study of the rate of fermentation of following materials: wheat flour. time etc). chilli powder and pepper. butter.
Accordingly some additional topics from state Board syllabus have been deleted whereas the lacking topics have been added. XI & XII Preamble Higher secondary is the most crucial stage of education because at this juncture specialized disciplines of science are introduced. Organisms seldom occur as isolated individuals. The present syllabus reinforces the concepts introduced in lower classes. Understanding of biology will help in the sustainable development of the environment and will also ensure the existence of earth with all its amazing diversity. Knowledge of biology helps us to understand a common thread which holds all these components together. Guide students to perform easy experiments for better understanding of biological principles and to develop experimental skills required in practical work. Delhi. the science of biology has undergone a paradigm shift that has transformed it from a collection of loosely related facts into a modern applied science. They are organized into populations and biological communities. Hence it has been prepared in accordance with the guidelines shown in the final version of common core syllabi of COBSE. Assist to understand the underlying principles of biological sciences and thereby develop scientific attitude towards biological phenomena. communities. Organisms. Recently. The entire unit “Ecology and Environment” has now been added under Botany and Zoology sections. Living organisms exhibit extremely complex functional system. Make students aware of issues of global importance.BIOLOGY. Objectives: The prescribed syllabus is expected to: Promote the inherent skill of observation. Help students to understand the functioning of organisms.Std. ecosystems and environment constitute unique set of natural resources of great importance. 137 . This syllabus is designed to prepare students for various examinations conducted at state and national level. Create awareness about the contribution of biology to human welfare.
Classification of living organisms (five Kingdom classification) – Major groups and principles of classification for each Kingdom with examples. Three domains of life. Binomial nomenclature explanation. 2. Cell cycle 2. 4. Enzyme action and factors affecting enzyme activity in brief. 3. lipids and nucleic acids in brief. 3. importance and list of gardens and herbaria in India. Meiosis 138 . systematics.Meaning.Definition. Concept of species. Three to five salient features and two examples of each category. 2. Viruses and viroids . general properties. Systematic and binomial system of nomenclature . Diversity in living organisms-Brief idea. Unit 1 Diversity in Living World: Chapter 1. Types.Kingdom Plantae 1. Mitosis 3.Meaning. Pteridophyta. Chapter 4 Cell Division 1. classification and nomenclature.Botany .Diversity in organisms 1.Algae. Gymnosperms and Angiosperms (Dicotyledons and Monocotyledons). Structure and function of carbohydrates. Taxonomic hierarchy with examples. Economic importance and list of viral diseases. 2. Unit 2 Structure and function of cell Chapter 3 . proteins. Salient features of major plant groups . Need of classification. Basic chemical constituents of living bodies. characters. 5. characters. Lichens . significance and examples. types with examples.Definitions.Std.meaning of the terms taxonomy.Biochemistry of cell: 1. Enzymes . Bryophyta. examples and importance. Botanical gardens and herbaria . Chapter 2 . – XI: Biology (Upgraded syllabus) Section I .
auxins. de. (To be dealt along with the relevant practicals of the practical syllabus) 2. Elementary idea of Hydroponics.macronutrients and micronutrients and their role. food. Unit 4 Plant Physiology: Chapter 6 . 2. Conditions of growth. Mineral deficiency symptoms. ethylene and abscissic acid (role in brief) Photoperiodism. Movement of water.Morphology of Plants 1. Mineral toxicity.. nutrients and gases. stem. biological nitrogen fixation) Chapter 7 . inflorescence. Nitrogen Metabolism (nitrogen cycle.Apoplast and Symplast Pathways. Differentiation. Active and passive absorption in brief. mechanism of opening and closing of stomata.Roots.differentiation. Morphology. Guttation Ascent of sap.Absorption of water and minerals. redifferentiation Sequence of developmental process in a plant cell Growth regulators . cytokinines. Phases of growth. flower. root pressure concept and cohesion .tension theory. Translocation of sugars through phloem brief account. Definition and characteristics of growth. Plant tissues.Unit 3 Structural organization in plants: Chapter 5 . leaf.Hypogeal. fruit and seed. Photomorphogenesis including brief account of Phytochromes (Elementary idea) Vernalization. gibberellins. Role of K+ ions 3. Transpiration – structure of stomata.Plant Water Relation and Mineral Nutrition 1. anatomy and functions of different parts . Role of water and minerals .Plant Growth and Development: Seed dormancy. epigeal and viviparous. 139 . Germination .
(fluid mosaic model).(Areolar. Reptilia. Cephalochordata. Amphibia. Platyhelminthes. Cartilage and Bone).structure and examples. Tendons. Lysosomes. cuboidal. b) Connective tissue .simple epithelium (squamous. Mollusca. Nuclear organization . cytoskeleton. Cell wall and cell membrane . cilia and flagella. Osteichthyes. Golgi complex.XI Section II – Zoology Unit 1 Diversity in Living World: Chapter 8 .compound epithelium (stratified and transitional). Classification of phylum chordata upto class level with three to five salient features and two examples of each category: Urochordata.Kingdom Animalia: 1.Std. Chondrichthyes. Microbodies.brief account 2. Ligaments.General idea with list. Vacuoles. glandular). Aves and Mammalia. Echinodermata and Unit 2 Structure and function of cell: Chapter 9 . Plant cell and animal cell. 4. Ciliated.Organization of Cell: 1. columnar. . Mitochondria. 2. Classification of following phyla with three to five salient features and two examples of each category: Porifera.Study of Animal Tissues 1. Cyclostomata. Cell theory . Ribosome and Centrioles (ultrstructure and functions). Adipose. Endoplasmic reticulum. 140 . Annelida. Unit 3 Structural organisation in Animals: Chapter 10. Coelenterata. Hemichordata. Salient features of major phyla under kingdom Animalia. Zoological parks and Museums . Animal tissues . Nemathelminthes. Cell organelles: Plastids. nucleolus and nucleoplasm. 6. 5. 3. . Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell .types: a) Epithelial tissues . Arthropoda.Nucleus.
d) Nervous tissue (Neurons. Morphology.c) Muscular tissue . striated and cardiac). Emphysema and occupational lung diseases. constipation. Respiratory volumes iv) Respiratory disorders.inspiration and expiration. Digestion. Peristalsis.(Smooth.Human Respiration: 1Breathing. absorption and nutritional disorders: ii) Digestive system in brief iv) Physiology of digestion. Chapter 11.Asthma. vomiting and diarrhoea Chapter 13.Human skeleton and Locomotion: Brief account of human skeleton: A] Axial Skeleton B] Appendicular Skeleton (Details to be dealt with the relevant practical) Types of joints . respiration and common respiratory disorders: Respiratory organs in animals (Recall only) i) Respiratory system in brief ii) Breathing. and reproductive systems of cockroach (Brief account only) Unit 4 Human Physiology: Chapter 12. indigestion.Study of Animal Type: 1. gastrointestinal hormones. respiratory. Regulation iii) Exchange of gases. nervous. circulatory. amphiarthroses. transport of CO2 and O2 and tissue respiration. assimilation and egestion vi) Nutritional and digestive disorders – PEM. and diarthroses. Jaundice.synarthroses. Calorific value of proteins. glial cells and types of neurons). 141 . Chapter 14.Human Nutrition: 1. anatomy and functions of digestive. carbohydrates and fats v) Absorption. Regulation of Respiration.
ball and socket. Types of Movement. 2. pivot. proteins and fats from suitable plant and animal materials. Study of parts of compound microscope. Fabaceae and Liliaceae with respect to types of root-(tap and adventitious). saddle and gliding joints. To test the presence of sugar. venation. Flagellar. Preparation of T. shape. condyloid. Study of plasmolysis in epidermal peels. 5 Study of osmosis by Potato osmometer 6. hinge. leaf (arrangement. XI Biology Practicals Syllabus (A) List of experiments: 1. 142 . of dicot (sunflower) and monocot roots and stem to study different plant tissues. 7. 4. Osteoporosis. simple and compound) and floral characters. S. Muscular Mechanism of muscle movement: Contractile proteins and Muscle contraction Skeletal and muscular disorders – Myasthenia gravis. 3 Study and describe three locally available flowering plants from the families-Solanaceae. starch.Types of diarthroses . arthritis. Study of structure and distribution of stomata in upper and lower surface of leaf. 8) To study the digestion of starch by salivary amylase under different conditions of temperature and pH.Ciliary. Std. stem (herbaceous and woody). muscular dystrophy tetany and gout.
Observation and comments on experimental set up on: a) Phototropism b) Suction due to transpiration. hand bones and foot bones) and different types of joints (synovial. Frog. guard cells. 5. 2.palisade cells. Prawn. Silkworm Honey bee . Rohu. Star-fish. Balanoglossus. through temporary or permanent slides. 9. Earthworm. Liverfluke. leaf Spines. parenchyma. Riccia. Usnea. yeast. Spirogyra. Study of specimens and identification with reasons: Bacteria. Study of imbibition of seeds/raisins. Study of different modification of leaf (leaflet and stipular tendril). 143 . Study of different modifications of stem (stem tuber. Snail. phloem. Nephrolepis. Hydra. Leech. Ascaris. Oscillatoria. 4. c) Apical bud removal 10. phyllode). sunflower and maize. 8 Study of tissues and diversity in shapes and sizes of plant and animal cells. and tendril). squamous epithelium. collenchyma. Shark. Study of specimens and their identification with reasons – Sycon. cartilaginous and fibrous joint with one suitable example). Amoeba. sclerenchyma. mammalian blood smear. 7 Study and identification of different types of inflorescence. Study of human skeleton (except skull. Pigeon and Rat. Funaria. Cycas. 6. Agaricus. xylem. muscle fibres. Study of different modifications of root (fusiform root. runner. epiphytic root and pneumatophores). 3. parasitic root. Rhizopus. Lizard. 11. Comparative study of rates of transpiration in upper and lower surface of leaf.(B) Study/ Observation of the following (Spotting): 1.
Unit 2: Biotechnology and its application Chapter 3 . 144 . Pleiotropy.Enhancement in Food Production: Plant Breeding Tissue Culture: Concept of Cellular Totipotency. Elementary idea of polygenic inheritance. Translation-Genetic Code. Application of Biotechnology in Agriculture – BT crops Biosafety Issues (Biopiracy and patents) Unit 3: Biology and Human Welfare Chapter 4 . Protein Synthesis. cockroach and frog through models.incomplete dominance. 13. expression and regulation: Modern concept of gene in brief-cistron.12 Study of external morphology of earthworm. Bacteriophages. Study of mitosis in onion roots tips and animal cells (grasshopper) from permanent slides. Plasmids.Biotechnology: Process and Application Genetic engineering (Recombinant DNA technology): Transposons. Preparing and cloning a DNA Library. co-dominance. muton and recon. semi conservative replication of eukaryotic DNA. Gene Amplification (PCR). . Deviations from Mendelian ratio (gene interaction. multiple alleles and Inheritance of blood groups).Genetic Basis of Inheritance: Mendelian inheritance. central dogma. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Std. structure of DNA as given by Watson and Cricks model.Gene: its nature. Gene Expression and Gene Regulation (The Lac operon as a typical model of gene regulation). Chapter 2 .XII Biology (Upgraded syllabus) Section I – BOTANY Unit 1: Genetics and Evolution Chapter 1 . RNA: General structure types and functions. Transcription. DNA as genetic material. Producing Restriction Fragments. DNA Packaging.
Respiration: ATP as currency of Energy Mechanism of Aerobic (Glycolysis. Callus Culture. Biofortification Chapter 5 . micropropagation 145 . Fermentation Exchange of gases Amphibolic pathway. uniparental modes-vegetative propagation. Light-Dependent Reactions (Cyclic and non-cyclic photophosphorylation) Light-Independent Reactions (C3 and C4 Pathways) Chemiosmotic hypothesis. Unit 5: Reproduction in Organisms Chapter 8 . Significance of Respiration. Microbes as Biocontrol Agents. Microbes as Biofertilizers. Suspension Culture. Photorespiration.Microbes in Human Welfare: Microbes in Household food processing Microbes in Industrial Production. Chapter 7 .Requirements of Tissue Culture (in brief). TCA Cycle and Electron Transport System) and Anaerobic Respiration. Unit 4: Plant Physiology Chapter 6 . Microbes in Sewage Treatment.Reproduction in Plants: Modes of Reproduction (Asexual and Sexual). Asexual reproduction. Single Cell Protein. Law of limiting factors. Factors affecting Photosynthesis.Photosynthesis: Autotrophic nutrition Site of Photosynthesis Photosynthetic Pigments and their role. Respiratory quotient of Nutrients. Microbes in Biogas (energy) Production.
polyembryony. Post-fertilization changes (development of endosperm and embryo. Pollination: Types and Agencies.XII Biology Section II . solid waste management. oxygen release. Ecological succession. Modern Synthetic Theory of evolution. Origin and Evolution of Human being.Sexual Reproduction: structure of flower Development of male gametophyte. Green house effect and global warming. case studies (any two). Evolution: Darwin‟s contribution. Biological Evidences. assembly of organic compounds. energy flow.Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance: The Chromosomal Theory. Chromosomes. Environmental issues: agrochemicals and their effects. biomass. development of seed and formation of fruit) Special modes-apomixis. parthenocarpy. 146 . Outbreeding devices.Hardy-Weinberg principle. Gene flow and genetic drift. Spontaneous. Unit 6: Ecology and Environment: Chapter 9: Organisms and Environment -I Habitat and Niche Ecosystems: Patterns. pyramids of number. deforestation. ozone depletion. Ecological services-carbon fixation.Origin and the Evolution of Life: Origin of Life: Early Earth. Significance of seed and fruit formation. Development of female Gametophyte. Adaptive radiation. nutrient cycling (carbon and phosphorous). Structure of anatropous ovule. Chapter 11 . Double Fertilization: Process and Significance. components. energy. Std.ZOOLOGY Unit 1: Genetics and Evolution Chapter 10 . productivity and decomposition. . Mechanism of evolution. pollen-pistil interaction. pollination.
Vaccines. Common cold and ring worm). Filariasis. Pathogens and Parasites (Amoebiasis. Antigen-Antibody Complex. Antigens on blood cells. Genomics and Human Genome Project. Unit 3: Biology and Human Welfare Chapter 13. Adolescence. Chromosomal disorders in human: Down’s syndrome.Human Health and Diseases: Concepts of Immunology: Immunity Types. Turner’s syndrome and Klinfelter’s syndrome. Cancer and AIDS.Animal Husbandry: Management of Farms and Farm Animals. Animal Breeding. Dairy. Ascariasis. Sex Determination in Human being. Fisheries.Genetic Engineering and Genomics: DNA Finger Printing. Gene Therapy. Sex-linked Inheritance (Haemophilia and colour blindness). Structure of Antibody. drug and alcohol abuse. Bee-Keeping. Biotechnological Applications in Health: Human insulin and vaccine production. Chapter 14. Poultry. Sericulture Lac culture 147 . birds.Linkage and Crossing Over. Unit 2: Biotechnology and its application Chapter 12.Mendelian disorders in humansThalassemia. Pneumonia. honey bee. Malaria. Transgenic animals. Typhoid.
Blood related disorders: Hypertension.Excretion and osmoregulation: Modes of excretion-Ammonotelism. goiter. Chapter 17.Circulation: Blood composition and coagulation. Cardiac output. Transplantation. and heart failure. Sensory perception. Regulation of kidney function: renin-angiotensin. ADH and Diabetes inspidus. ureotelism. Chapter 16.Control and Co-ordination: Nervous System: Structure and functions of brain and Spinal cord. Excretory System Composition and formation of urine. Disorders. exopthalmic goiter. Blood Vessels. Rhythmicity of Heart beat. ECG. Heart beat and Pulse. Hormonal imbalance and diseases: Common disorders (Dwarfism. Regulation of cardiac activity. Role of Kidney in Osmoregulation. coronary artery disease. Sensory receptors (eye and ear). Mechanism of hormone action Hormones as messengers and regulators. cretinism. role of other organs in excretion. Dialysis.Unit 4: Human Physiology Chapter 15. Addison’s disease) 148 . Uraemia. Blood groups Structure and pumping action of Heart. Hormones and their functions. atrial natriuretic factor. Pulmonary and Systemic Circulation. general idea of other sense organs Endocrine System: Endocrine glands. Reflex action. uricotelism. Acromegaly. Lymphatic System (Brief idea): Composition of lymph and its functions. Kidney failure. angina pectoris. Kidney stone (renal calculi). brief idea about PNS and ANS. Transmission of nerve impulse. nephritis. Diabetes mellitus.
Unit 6: Ecology and Environment Chapter 19-Organisms and Environment-II Population and ecological adaptations: population interactions-mutualism. Amniocentesis. Pregnancy. Hotspots. importance. Embryo development up to three germinal layers. (Case studies any two) ---------------------------------------------------------------- 149 .concept. Threats to and need for biodiversity conservation .Unit 5: Reproduction in Organisms Chapter 18. ZIFT. competition. implantation. GIFT (elementary idea for general awareness).IVF.extinction. predation. Environmental issues: air pollution and its control. fertilization. population attributes. national parks and sanctuaries. parasitism.MTP. Production of gametes. endangered organisms. Reproductive cycle. biosphere reserves. Contraception and sexually transmitted diseases. Infertility and assisted reproductive technologies. loss. Biodiversity and its conservation. birth rate and death rate.growth. placenta. age distribution. Reproductive health-birth control.Biodiversity. Histology of testis and ovary.red data book .Human Reproduction: Reproductive system in male and female. parturition and lactation (Elementary idea). water pollution and its control and radioactive waste management. patterns.
moisture content. 4. clarity and presence of any living organisms.Std.Emasculation. 9. Correlate with the kinds of plants found in them. Collect water from two different water bodies around you and study them for pH. 2. Prepare a temporary mount of onion root tip to study mitosis. Dissect the given flower and display different whorls. Separation of plant pigments by paper chromatography 7 To study the rate of respiration in flower buds/leaf tissue and germinating seeds. pH and water holding capacity of soil. Study of plant population density and frequency by quadrate method. 10. 3 To Study Mendelian inheritance using seeds of different colour/size of any plant. 6 Study plants found in xerophytic and aquatic conditions with respect to their morphological adaptations..(Two plants each) 150 . insect) 2 Study of pollen germination on stigma through a permanent slide. XII (Upgraded) Biology Practicals Syllabus Experiments: 1. tagging and bagging 5 Study meiosis in onion bud cell or grass hopper testis through permanent slide. 6. 5. Study the presence of suspended particulate matter in air at the two widely different Sites. To test the presence of urea and sugar in urine. Study/observation of the following (Spotting): 1 Study of flowers adapted to pollination by different agencies (wind. Study pollen germination on a slide. Dissect anther and ovary to show number of chambers. 8. Collect and study soil from at least two different sites and study them for texture. 4 Exercise on controlled pollination . 3. 11To test the presence of albumin and bile salts in urine.
ovary through permanent slides (from any mammal). 8. of blastula through permanent slide. 11 Study of animals found in xeric (desert) and aquatic conditions with respect to their morphological adaptations. T. Entamoeba . Study of V. colour blindness. widow‟s peak.Ascaris and ring worm through permanent slides or specimens.7 Study and identify stages of gamete development.S.S. of testis and T. 9 To study prepared pedigree charts of genetic traits such as rolling of tongue. Comment on symptoms of diseases that they cause.S. 10 To identify common disease causing organisms like Plasmodium. Blood groups. (Two animals each) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 151 .
This will help them in developing Mathematical tools to be used in the professional education. Higher Secondary is a launching stage from where students would go to either for academic education in Mathematics or professional courses like Engineering and Computer Technology. removal of social barriers. protection of an environment. XI & XII Introduction: Mathematics is the language of all sciences and is perhaps the only subject which merits this distinction. 7) To develop awareness of the need for national integration. 152 . Physical and Biological Sciences. by more than one method. 3) To develop positive attitude to think. 4) To develop interest in Mathematics by participating in various related competitions and selflearning. it is utmost important to make the study of Mathematics more meaningful by acquainting the student with many branches of mathematics. 5) To acquaint students with different aspects of Mathematics used in real life. terms. Mathematics is the backbone of all sciences and it is an inseparable part of human life. The proposed syllabus has been designed in accordance with National Curriculum Framework 2005 and as per guidelines given in Focus Group on Teaching of Mathematics 2005 which is to meet the emerging needs of all categories of students.Upgraded Syllabus MATHEMATICS AND STATISTICS (For Arts and Science) Std. Hence to fulfill the needs of students. Objectives: To enable the students 1)To acquire knowledge and critical understanding. major thrust is also on application of various concepts. 2) To apply the knowledge and skills in Mathematics and related problems from other subjects. principles. particularly by way of motivation and visualization of basic concepts. analyze and articulate logically. elimination of sex biases and observance of small family norm. 6) To develop an interest in students to study Mathematics as a discipline. symbols and mastering the underlying processes and skills. Motivating topics from real life situations and other subject areas.
Theorem 2 : Every straight line has an equation of the form Ax +By + C = 0. 450. 153 . slope of a line. Inclination of a line. shift of the origin. points of locus.8) To develop reverence and respect towards great mathematicians for their contribution to the field of Mathematics. Reduction of general equation of a line into normal form. Factorization Formulae: Introduction. 4. Trigonometric functions of compound angles : Introduction. slope point form. Trigonometric functions: Need & concept. revision of different forms of equations of a line. angles in standard position. XI . equation of lines. Formulae for conversion of sum or difference into products. intercepts of a line. normal form. trigonometric functions of particular angles (00. θ. circular system. trigonometric functions of multiple angles (upto double and triple angles only). 2700. straight angle. trigonometric functions of half angles. periodicity of functions. y = a cos bx. formulae for conversion of product into sum or difference. provided A and B are not both zero. 3600). where A. θ. zero angle. trigonometric functions of angles of a triangle.PART – I 1. 900. simultaneously. parametric form. two point form. Area of the sector of a circle A = ½ r2. coterminal angles. Trigonometric functions with the help of standard unit circle. Straight Line : Revision. 6. 3. always represents. Sexagesimal system. 600. MATHEMATICS AND STATISTICS (ARTS AND SCIENCE) STD. Measurement of Angles : Need & concept. Length of an arc of a circle (s = r. 1800. graphs of trigonometric functions. 2. Locus : Introduction. trigonometric functions of negative angles. double intercept form other forms of equations of a line. fundamental identities. signs of trigonometric functions in different quadrants. general form. Definition and equation of locus. B and C are constants (without proof). Revision of directed angle (+ve and –ve angles). θ is in radians (without proof).straight line. angles in quadrant & quadrantal angles. Graph of Y = a sin bx. 5. parallel to coordinate axes. domain and range of trigonometric functions. θ is in radians) (without proof). trigonometricfunctions of sum and difference. 9) To develop interest in the subject by participating in related competitions. slope intercept form. Theorem : A general linear equation Ax + By+ C =0. 300. Theorem: Radian is a constant angle. relation between degree measure and radian measure.
Cramer‟s rule for system of equations in three variables. Matrices : Introduction. negative of a vector. zero vector. moment of a force. standard equation. angle between lines. (AB) BA. standard equation. Transposition. three dimensional co-ordinate geometry. subtraction. identical lines. co-ordinates of a point in space. introduction. like and unlike vector. identity matrix. properties. 8. parabola. scalar matrix. distance of a point from a line. applications of determinants condition of consistency. types of vectors. simple properties. hyperbola. addition.intersection of two lines. definition. parallelogram law. order. 10. focus-directrix property of parabola. standard equation. magnitude of a vector. triangle law. Linear Inequations : Linear in equations in one variable – solution of linear inequation in one variable & graphical solution. expansion. minors & co-factors. column matrix. determinant of order three–definition. Determinants : Revision. standard equation (different forms of parabola). notations. equal vector. 154 . scalar product. ellipse. Linear in equations in two variable – solution of linear inequation in one variable & graphical solution. (KA) KA . solutions of system of linear in equations in one variable. Vectors : Definition. properties of transpose of a matrix (A ) A. symmetric & skew symmetric matrices. condition for concurrency of three lines. properties of matrix multiplication. square matrix. solutions of system of linear inequations in two variables. vector product. parallel lines. properties of determinants. unit vectors along axes. equation of a straight line perpendicular to a given line. Replacement of a set or domain of a set. simple application. scalar multiple of a vector. multiplication of matrices – definition. parametric equations. properties. distance between two points in a space. coordinate axes & coordinate planes in space. hyperbola. 11. singular & non-singular matrices. product of vectors. perpendicular lines. free and localized vectors. workdone by force. Application of conic section. determinant of a square matrix. distance between two parallel lines. family of lines. 9. area of a triangle. ellipse. diagonal matrix. polygon law. triangular matrices. coinitial vector. centre-radius form. row matrix. solution of linear in equations in two variable & graphical solution. unit vector. parametric equations. operations on matrices – equality. diameter form. properties of addition of vectors. multiplication of a matrix by a scalar. transpose of a matrix. Circle and Conics : Revision. coplanar vectors. equations of bisectors of angle between two lines. position vector of a point in space. parameter equations of standard equation. equation of a straight line parallel to a given line. definition. Conics Napees – Intersection of Napees of a cone and Plane. equation of family of lines through the intersection of two lines. collinear vectors. resolved part of a force. 7. types of matrices – zero matrix. concepts. general equation.
cube roots of unity – solution of quadratic equations in the complex number system. complex conjugates. complement of a set.PART – II 1. functions with their graphs. Sets. Argand Diagram – representation of a complex number as a pt. of elements in the Cartesian product of two finite sets. union. improper. rational function. Logarithms : Introduction. definitions –(real parts. functions – function as a special kind of relation. properties. geometrical meaning of modulus and argument. 3) Associative law. cube roots of unity. difference of two sets. subset. equal sets. proper. equivalent sets. multiplication.2) Commulative Law. onto function. addition. binary equivalence relation. types of relations. Relations – ordered pairs. 4) Existence of additive identity. domain. need for complex numbers. universal set. in plane. 1) Closure Property. 2. types of functions. polar representation of complex numbers. domain. Venn diagrams. argument). 155 . imaginary parts.5) Existence of additive inverse. logarithmic function. empty set. signum & greatest integer. into function. pictorial diagrams. change of base. inverse function. even & odd functions. subtraction. definition of relation. equality of ordered pairs. laws of logarithms. characteristics & mantissa – method of finding characteristics. definition. square root of a complex number. binary operations. method of finding antilogarithm. scalar multiplication. polynomial function. constant function. division. difference. Cartesian product of two sets. pictorial representation of a function. identity function. Properties of product of complex numbers –Existance of multiplicative identity – Existence of multiplicative inverse properties of conjugate & modulus of complex numbers. Complex Numbers : Introduction. product quotient of functions. No. real valued function of the real variable. 3. intersection. codomain and range of a function. Cartesian product of the reals with itself. properties of complex numbers – properties of addition of complex numbers. one-one. modulus. equal functions. exponential function. algebra of complex numbers – equality. one-one function. disjoint sets. composite function. Relations and Functions : Set – Revision. codomain and range of a relation. fundamental theorem of algebra. Demoivre‟s formula – (without proof). sum. method of finding mantissa. domain and range of these functions. finite & infinite sets. powers and square root of a complex number – higher powers of i. modulus function. many-one. power set. subset and their properties.
M. Integration: Definition (of integration) as antiderivative. variance. binomial theorem – binomial theorem for positive integers. Probability: Revision. product and quotient. axiomatic definition of probability. fundamental theorem on limits. Arithmetic-Geometric sequence.. algebra of limits – standard limits. with proof. mutually exclusive and exhaustive events. exponential & logarithmic series. 5. properties of binomial co-efficient with simple application. H. Sequences & Series : Revision sequence. 7... Result on compatible events. geometrical interpretation of indefinite integrals. physical significance (velocity as a rate of change of displacement). sum of cube of first n natural..P. 10. properties of A. logarithmic functions. general term. Limits : Introduction of concept. Sum of first n terms of A. 9. limits at infinity – concepts.P. simple applications. combined variance and standard deviation. relation between A.P. 6. binomial theorem for any index (without proof). mean deviation about median (for grouped & ungrouped data).P. effect of change of origin and scale on variance and standard deviation. Differentiation : Definition of a derivative. when all r objects are distinct. difference. quartile & quartile deviation (for grouped and ungrouped data). rules of differentiation – derivative of sum. fundamental principle of counting. independent events. simple applications. algebraic functions. as a special type of A. harmonic mean. odds in favour and against. multiplication theorem. comparison of two frequency distributions with same mean. simple applications.4. Means – arithmetic mean. containing finitely many terms & sum to infinite terms properties of G.. special series. standard deviation. G.M. particular term. combinations – definition. mean deviation about mean. derivative at a point. exponential functions. simple applications. geometric progression – introduction. the limit of a function. general term. 156 . algebra of integrals – integrals of some standard functions. H. geometrical significance of derivative. co-efficient of variation. when all r objects are not distinct. addition theorem – for any two events A and B. n terms from the end of G. P. Conditional probability – definition. meaning of x a. Mathematical Induction and Binomial Theorem : Principle of mathematical induction. Statistics : Measures of dispersion – range. 11.P. types of events – events and algebra of events. sum of cube of first n odd natural nos.M. relations between permutations and combinations. rules of integration. Permutations & combinations : Introduction. derivatives from first principle of trigonometric functions. 8. mutually exlusive events. factorial notation.. Baye‟s theorem. A. geometric means. simple problems. sum of the first „n‟ terms. properties. circular permutations. particular cases of binomial theorem.P. permutations.
Problems on locus. 14. 10. Limits. Applications of Conics I. Family of lines. 16. Applications of Conics II.List of Practicals: XI 1. Power and square root of a complex number. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 157 . 2. Measures of dispersion. 7. 3. 17. 5. 15. Linear inequation. 13. 6. Permutations and combinations. Differentiation. 11. Binomial theorem. Mathematical induction. Applications of vectors (Dot and cross product). Numerical problems using laws of logarithms. Examples on special series. 4. Algebra of matrices. Applications of determinants. 12. cube root of unity. 8. 18. Tracing of graphs of functions. Probability. 19. 20. 9. Integration.
projection rule. inverse. condition that the equation ax2+2hxy+by2+2gx+2fy+c=0 should represent a pair of lines (without proof). quantifier and quantified statements. negation of compound statement. distributive law. there exists. Pair of straight lines : Pair of lines passing through origin-conbined equation. logical connective-conjunction. sentences and statement. inverse by elementary transformation. domain. sine rule. acute angle between the lines (without proof). theorem-the joint equation of a pair of lines passing through origin and its converse. application. principle values. contrapositive. properties of inverse functions. contradiction. a cos b sin c solution of a triangle-polar coordinates. compound statement. complement law. negation. XII PART – I 1. condition for parallel lines. application-introduction to switching circuits (simple examples). demorgan‟s laws. cos 0. contingency. tan . involution law. commutative law. open sentences and truth sets. tan2 tan2 . contrapositive. condition for perpendicular lines. 4. difference between converse. elementary row transformation. sin2 sin2 . cos cos . angle between the lines represented by ax2+2hxy+by2=0. Napier Analogues. inversion method. cos2 cos2 .MATHEMATICS AND STATISTICS STD. tan tan . application-solution of system of linear equations by – reduction method.Introduction. converse. logical equivalence. statement patterns and logical equivalence-tautology. identity law. Matrices : Elementary transformation of a matrix-revision of cofactor and minor. biconditional. graphs of inverse trigonometric function. elementary column transformation. associative law. disjunction. Mathematical Logic : Statements . 158 . solution of Trigonometric equations. range. pair of lines not passing through origin-conbined equation of any two lines. examples related to real life and mathematics. implication/ conditional. algebra of statements-idempotent law. inverse trigonometric functionsdefinitions. Hero‟s formula. condition of parallel and perpendicular lines. logical equivalence. adjoint method. 2. truth tables of compound statements. sin sin . Trigonometric functions : Trigonometric equations-general solution of trigonometric equation of the type. 3. area of a triangle. point of intersection of two lines. truth value of statement. cosine rule. homogenous equation. contradiction. inverse of a matrix-existance and uniqueness of inverse of a matrix. duality. sin 0.
7. locus of points from which two tangents are mutually perpendicular. scaler triple product-definition. angle bisectors of triangle are concurrent. diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each other and converse. 9.2) general circle. Conics : Tangents and normals-equations of tangent and normal at a point for parabola. ellipse. normal to a circle-equation of normal at a point. median of trapezium is parallel to the parallel sides and its length is half the sum of parallel sides. equation of plane passing through the given point and parallel to two given vectors. equation of plane passing through three non-collinear points. equation of plane passing through the given point and perpendicular to given vector. tangents from a point outside conics. hyperbola. equation of line passing through two given points. ellipse. relation between direction ratio and direction cosines. distance of a point from a plane (vector approach). constraint equations. 11. definition of constraints. angle between two lines.P. tangents in terms of slope for parabola. direction ratios. length of tangent segments. direction cosines. condition for the coplanerity of two lines. non-negativity restrictions. tangents to a circle from a point outside the circle. dist. 8. distance between two parallel lines (vector approach). Linear programming problems: Introduction of L. Plane : Equation of plane in normal form. Line : Equation of line passing through given point and parallel to given vector. angle subtended on a semicircle is right angle. distance between two skew lines. equation of plane passing through the intersection of two given planes. Three dimensional geometry : Direction cosines and direction ratios-direction angles. section formula-section formula for internal and external division. 10.P. optimization. angle between two planes. 6.5. angle between line and plane. of a point from a line. objective function. Circle : Tangent of a circle-equation of a tangent at a point to 1) standard circle. hyperbola. conditions of coplanerity ofthree vectors. properties of tangents and normals to conics (without proof). application of vectors to geometry-medians of a triangle are concurrent. hyperbola. centroid formula. ellipse. Collinearty and coplanerity of vectors-linear combination of vectors. formula. geometrical interpretation of scalar triple product. condition of tangency only for line y mx c to the circle x2 y2 a2 . feasible and infeasible 159 . midpoint formula. condition of tangency for parabola. Vectors : Revision. condition of collinearity of two vectors. condition of perpendicular lines. altitudes of a triangle are concurrent. director circle. properties.
Continuity : Continuity of a function at a point-left hand limit. integrals of the type. definite integral-definite integral as a limit of sum. derivative of inverse function derivative of inverse trigonometric function. different types of L. non-repeated quadratic factors. integrals of type (reduction formulae are not expected). integration by partial fraction-factors involving repeated and non-repeated linear factors. 2) integration by parts. 2. Rolls theorem. Mathematical formulation-mathematical formulation of L. first derivative test. fundamental theorem of integral calculus (without proof).PART – II 1. Differentiation : Revision. Application of derivative : Geometrical application-tangent and normal at a point. increasing and decreasing function. discontinuity of a function. algebra of continuous functions. relationship between continuity and differentiability-left hand derivative and right hand derivative (need and concept).region.P.revision of derivative. optimum feasible solution. rational. Derivative of implicit function definition and examples. derivative of parametric function – definition of parametric function . STD. properties of definite integrals properties of definite integrals. second derivative test. evaluation of definite integral 1) by substitution. Maxima and minima-introduction of extreme and extreme values. exponential and logarithmic function-derivative of functions which are expressed in one of the following form a) product of functions. c) higher order derivative-second order derivative d) f (x) g x 3. types of discontinuity. right hand limit. integration by parts-integration by parts. 160 .P. problems. Integration : Indefinite integrals-methods of integration. feasible solutions. maxima and minima in a closed interval. definition of a continuity of a function at a point. continuity of some standard functionspolynomial. and Mean value theorem and their geometrical interpretation (without proof). every differentiable function is continuous but converse is not true. exponential and logarithmic function. derivative as rate measure-introduction. b) quotient of functions. 4. Derivative of composite functionchain rule. trigonometric. continuity in interval-definition. substitution method. XII . graphical solutions for problem in two variables.P. approximation (without proof).P.
f.).).p. 2. 9.f. 7. Differential equation : Definition-differential equation. Applications of definite integral: Area under the curve . covariance for bivariate frequency distribution. Inverse of a matrix by adjoint method and hence solution of system of linear equations.). homogenous differential equation (equation reducible to homogenous form are not expected). 161 . 4. mean.area bounded by curve and axis (simple problems). Probability distribution : Probability distribution of a random variable-definition of a random variable. Inverse of a matrix by elementary transformation and hence solution of system of linear equation. order. 3. Normal distribution . calculation of probabilities (without proof). variance and standard deviation of a discrete random variable. conditions for Binomial distribution. Solutions of a triangle. standard normal variable. surface area. Linear differential equation. formation of differential equation-formation of differential equation by elimmating arbitary constants (at most two constants).d. radioactive decay. variance and standard deviation. solution of first order and first degree differential equation-variable separable method. cumulative probability distribution of a discrete random variable. particular solution of differential equation. probability distribution of a discrete random variable. mean. tabulation of bivariate data. bacterial colony growth.d. discrete and continuous random variable. Newton‟s laws of cooling. Statistics: Bivariate frequency distribution . List of Practicals : XII 1. expected value. volume of solid of revolution-volume of solid obtained by revolving the area under the curve about the axis (simple problems).m. probability mass function (p. probability density function (p.f.m. scatter diagram. Bernoulli trials and Binomial distribution : Definition of Bernoulli trial.5. distribution function of a continuous random variable. general solution.f. variance and standard deviation. Applications of logic. binomial distribution (p. degree. 8.bivariate data. simple problems (without proof). applications-population growth. area bounded by two curves. 6. Karl Pearson‟s co-efficient of correlation. covariance of or ungrouped data.
6. Applications of differential equations. measure. Applications of derivatives – Rate.D of random variable. 19. Applications of derivatives . Three dimensional geometry . 13. Applications of definite integrals . 11. 15. 8. 17.5. Applications of definite integrals . Applications of derivatives (Geometric applications). 7.line.Limit of sum. 12. Applications of scalar triple product of vectors. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 162 . 18. Formations and solutions of LPP. Tracing of tangents and normals for circles and parabola.volume. 10. Binomial distribution. Applications of definite integrals . Tracing of tangents and normals for ellipse and hyperbola.Area. 20. 16. Bivariate frequency distribution. variance and S. Three dimensional geometry . 9.plane. Expected value.Maxima and minima 14.
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