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**PHYSICS – Std. XI & XII Preamble
**

According to NCF 2005, the curriculum of the subject Physics is upgraded for higher secondary stage. This curriculum is comparable to the international standards which are useful for the students in Maharashtra State for different types of competitive examinations conducted in India. All the units of the subject from NCERT curriculum are divided into two years conveniently in Maharashtra State. Continuity in the curriculum is maintained in Std. XI & XII, which is not in NCERT curriculum. All the students appear for the competitive examinations only after +2 stages throughout India. This syllabus has been designed in accordance with the guidelines shown in the final version of common core syllabii of COBSE, Delhi. Accordingly few additional sub units have been added. Objectives – 1. Emphasis on basic conceptual understanding of the content. 2. Emphasis on use of SI units, symbols, nomenclature of physical quantities and formulations as per international standards. 3. Providing logical sequencing of units of the subject matter and proper placement of concepts with their linkage for better learning. 4. Reducing the curriculum load by eliminating overlapping of concepts/content within the discipline and other disciplines. 5. Promotion of process-skills, problem-solving abilities and applications of Physics concepts. 6. Strengthen the concepts developed at the secondary stage to provide firm foundation for further learning in the subject. 7. Expose the learners to different processes used in Physics-related industrial and technological applications. 8. Develop process-skills and experimental, observational, manipulative, decision making and investigatory skills in the learners. 9. Promote problem solving abilities and creative thinking in learners. 10. Develop conceptual competence in the learners and make them realize and appreciate the interface of Physics with other disciplines.

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PHYSICS

(Upgraded Syllabus)

Std. XI

1. Measurements Introduction, Need for measurement, Units for measurement, System of Units, S.I. Units, Fundamental and derived units, Dimensional analysis, Order of magnitude and significant figures, Accuracy and errors in measurement.

2. Scalars and Vectors Addition and subtraction of vectors, Product of vectors.

3. Projectile motion Uniformly accelerated motion along straight line, Non uniform motion, Position time graph and velocity-time graph, Equation of a projectile path, Time of flight, Horizontal range, Maximum height of a projectile, Relative velocity.

4. Force Types of forces, General idea of gravitation, electromagnetic and nuclear forces, Law of conservation of momentum, Work done by a variable force. Work-energy theorem, Elastic and inelastic collisions in one and two dimensions, Inertial and non-intertial frames, Moment of force, Couple and properties of couple, Centre of mass, Centre of gravity, Conditions of equilibrium of a rigid body.

5. Friction in solids and liquids Origin and nature of frictional forces, Laws of static friction, Laws of kinetic friction, Pressure due to fluid column, Pascal‟s Law and its applications, Effect of gravity on fluid pressure, Viscosity, Streamline flow, Turbulent flow, Viscous force, Newton‟s formula, Stokes‟ law, Equation for terminal velocity, Raynold‟s number, Bernoulli‟s principle and its applications.

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6. Sound Waves Waves and oscillations, Progressive waves, Characteristics of transverse waves, Characteristics of longitudinal waves, Sound as longitudinal wave motion, Relation between v, f and, ƛ Newton‟s formula for velocity of sound, Laplace‟s correction.

7. Thermal properties of matter Temperature and heat, Measurement of temperature, Ideal-gas equation and absolute temperature, Thermal expansion, Specific heat capacity, Calorimetry, Change of state, Latent heat, Heat transfer.

8. Refraction of Light Refraction of monochromatic light, Snell‟s law, Total internal reflection, Critical angle, Optical fibre, Dispersion of light, Prism formula, Angular dispersion and dispersive power, Rainbow, Scattering of light, Blue colour of sky, Colour of sun at sunrise and sunset. Elementary idea of Raman effect.

9. Ray optics Reflection of light by spherical mirrors, Refraction at single curved surface, Lens maker‟s equation, Combination of thin lenses in contact, Concept of conjugate focii, Correction of eye defects, Magnifying power of simple microscope, Magnifying power of compound microscope, Magnifying power of telescope, Reflecting telescope - schematic diagram with explanation.

10. Electrostatics Frictional electricity, Charges and their conservation, Coulomb‟s law and dielectric constant, Forces between multiple electric charges, Superposition principle of forces, Continuous distribution of charges, Concept of charge density, Electric field intensity, Potential energy, Electric potential due to point charge, Relation between electric field intensity and potential, Potential difference, Volt and electron volt, Electric dipole and dipole moment, Electric lines of force. Equipotential surfaces, P.E. of single charge and system of charges.

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11. Current electricity Ohm‟s law, Resistance, Specific resistance, Temperature dependence of resistance, Colour code of carbon resistor, Series and parallel combination of resistors, E.M.F. and internal resistance of cell, Work done by electric current, Power in electric circuit, Cells in series and in parallel, Elementary idea of secondary cells.

12. Magnetic effect of electric current Oersted’s experiment, Biot Savart‟s law, Right hand rule, Magnetic induction at the centre of circular coil carrying current, Magnetic induction at a point along the axis of a coil carrying current, Fleming‟s left hand rule, Force between two infinitely long current carrying parallel conductors, Definition of Ampere, Force acting on a conductor carrying current in magnetic field, Torque on a current loop in magnetic field.

13. Magnetism Origin of magnetism due to moving charges, Equivalence between magnetic dipole and circular coil carrying current, Definition of magnetic dipole moment and its unit, Torque acting on a magnet in uniform magnetic induction, Bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, Magnetic field lines, Magnetic induction due to bar magnet at a point along the axis and at a point along equator, Earth‟s magnetic field and magnetic elements, Electromagnets and factors affecting their strength.

14. Electromagnetic waves Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics, Transverse nature of electromagnetic waves, Electromagnetic spectrum, Space communication, Propagation of electromagnetic waves in atmosphere.

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**Physics List of Practicals Std. XI
**

1. Use of Vernier Callipers. 2. Use of Screw gauge. 3. To determine radius of curvature of a given spherical surface by a spherometer. 4. To find the weight of a given body using parallelogram law of vectors. 5. To study the relationship between force of limiting friction and normal reaction and to find co-efficient of friction between a block and a horizontal surface. 6. To determine resistance per cm of a given wire by plotting a graph of potential difference versus current. 7. To find the value of „v‟ for different values of „u‟ in case of a „concave mirror and to find the focal length. 8. To find the focal length of a convex lens by plotting graphs between „u‟ and „v‟or between „1/u‟ and „1/v‟. 9. To find the focal length of a convex mirror, using a convex lens. 10. To find the focal length of a concave lens, using a convex lens. 11. To determine angle of minimum deviation for a given prism by plotting a graph between angle of incidence and angle of deviation. 12. To determine refractive index of a glass using a travelling microscope. 13. To find refractive index of a liquid by using (i) concave mirror, (ii) convex lens and plane mirror. 14. To determine specific heat capacity of a given (i) liquid (ii) solid, by method of mixtures.

**Physics List of Activities Std. XI
**

1. To make a paper scale of given least count, e.g. 0.2 cm, 0.5 cm. 2. To determine mass of a given body using a meter scale by principle of moments. 3. To plot a graph for a given set of data, with proper choice of scales and error bars.

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To measure resistance. To study the variation in range of a jet of water with angle of projection. 9. 7. To measure the force of limiting friction for rolling of a roller on a horizontal plane. current (AC) and check continuity of a given circuit using multimeter. 6. 10. on a screen by using a candle and a screen (for different distances of the candle from the lens/mirror). 8. To obtain a lens combination with the specified focal length by using two lenses from the given set of lenses. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 115 . 5. To note the change in level of liquid in a container on heating and interpret the observations. voltage (AC/DC). To observe refraction and lateral deviation of a beam of light incident obliquely on a glass slab. To study the nature and size of image formed by (i) convex lens (ii) concave mirror.4.

M. 2. Projection of U. Elasticity General explanation of elastic property. Periodic time. Communication satellite and its uses. Rolling motion. Surface tension. Surface tension Surface tension on the basis of molecular theory.M.M.I. Composition of two S.PHYSICS (Upgraded syllabus) Std.I. Uniform circular motion.I. Equation for velocity and energy at different positions of vertical circular motion. Deformation. Poisson’s ratio. Elastic constants and their relation. M. Radius of gyration.C. Differential equation of linear S..E. Oscillations Explanation of periodic motion. Projection of satellite.H. 3.. Statement of Kepler‟s laws of motion. Gravitation Newton‟s law of gravitation. Angle of contact. depth and motion. Variation of „g‟ due to altitude. K. Vertical circular motion due to earth‟s gravitation. Hooke‟s law. Angular velocity and angular acceleration. S. Weightlessness condition in orbit. Plasticity. 5. Determination of „Y‟. Surface energy. 6. 7. Effect of impurity and temperature on surface tension. Behaviour of metal wire under increasing load. Kinematical equations for circular motion in analogy with linear motion. Definition of stress and strain.E. of some regular shaped bodies about specific axes.M. Binding energy and escape velocity of a satellite. XII 1. Elastic energy. Circular motion Angular displacement. Angular momentum and its conservation.H. Rotational motion Definition of M.H. Simple pendulum. 4.‟s having same period and along same line. Physical significance of M.M. lattitude. K.H. Torque. on any diameter. Phase of S. Capillarity and capillary action.E.. of rotating body.H. Wave motion 116 . in S. Banking of roads. Principle of parallel and perpendicular axes.. Applications of elastic behaviour of materials.H. Relation between linear velocity and angular velocity. Damped S. Radial acceleration.M. Centripetal and centrifugal forces.M.. and P.

Wein’s displacement law. Diffraction due to single slit. Capacity of parallel plate condenser. 2nd law of thermodynamics. Doppler effect in light. Difference between interference and diffraction. Resolving power of a microscope and telescope. Stationary waves Study of vibrations in a finite medium. Dielectrics and electric polarisation. Refraction at plane surface. 10. Electrostatics Gauss‟ theorem proof and applications. 13. Effect of dielectric on capacity. 1st law of thermodynamics. Assumptions of kinetic theory. Rayleigh‟s criterion. Green house effect. Energy density of a medium. Mechanical force on unit area of a charged conductor. Doppler effect in sound. Reflection at plane surface. Conditions for producing steady interference pattern. Energy of charged condenser. Brewster‟s law. Construction of plane and spherical wave front. Current electricity 117 . 11. Polarisation. Formation of beats. Qualitative idea of black body radiation. Plane polarised light. Study of vibrations of air columns. Thermodynamics. Formation of stationary waves on string. 9. Maxwell distribution. Huygens‟ Principle. Derivation of Boyle‟s law. Polaroids. Change of phase. Young‟s experiment. Kinetic theory of gases and Radiation Concept of an ideal gas. Mean free path. van-de-Graaff generator. Heat engines and refrigerators. Wave theory of light Wave theory of light. Analytical treatment of interference bands. Degrees of freedom. 8. Derivation for pressure of a gas. Condensers in series and parallel. Interference and diffraction Interference of light. Free and Forced vibrations. Concept of condenser. 12. Superposition of waves. Stefan’s law.Simple harmonic progressive waves. Resonance. Law of equipartition of energy and application to Specific heat capacities of gases.Thermal equilibrium and definition of temperature. Measurement of wavelength by biprism experiment. Wave front and wave normal. Reflection of transverse and longitudinal waves.

Nuclear fission and fusion.c circuit with resistance. Reactance and impedance. Coil rotating in uniform magnetic induction. Matter waves – wave nature of particles. Self induction and mutual induction. Continuous and characteristics X-rays.E. Ammeter. Wattless current. 19 Semiconductors Energy bands in solids. Cyclotron. per nucleon and its variation with mass number. Einstein‟s equation.dØ dt Eddy currents. 14. 16 Electromagnetic inductions Laws of electromagnetic induction. Need for displacement current. de Broglie hypothesis. 15. LC oscillations (qualitative treatment only) Power in a. Radioactivity. proof of. Wavelength of an electron. Hertz and Lenard‟s observations. Paramagnetism. mass defect. 18 Atoms. Magnetisation and magnetic intensity. Moving coil galvanometer. Magnetic dipole moment of revolving electron. Alternating currents. Curie temperature. Davisson and Germer experiment. Intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors. Sensitivity of moving coil galvanometer. Transformer. Molecules and Nuclei Alpha particle scattering experiment. Particle nature of light. Decay law. Voltmeter. Rutherford‟s model of atom. Ferromagnetism on the basis of domain theory. Hydrogen spectrum. Wheatstone‟s bridge. P-type and N-type semiconductor. Magnetic effects of electric current Ampere‟s law and its applications. Zener diode as a voltage regulator. inductance and capacitance. I-V characteristics of LED. Photodiode. Potentiometer. Composition and size of nucleus. AC generator. Resonant circuit. Transistor 118 . Solar cell. Magnetism Circular current loop as a magnetic dipole. B. e = . mass-energy relation. Meter bridge. Diamagnetism.Kirchhoff‟s law. Bohr‟s model. Rectifiers. P-N junction diode. 17 Electrons and photons Photoelectric effect. I-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias.

NOR) 20 Communication systems Elements of communication system.Transistor as a switch. bandwidth of signals.NAND.NOT. Need for modulation. bandwidth of transmission medium. Transistor as an amplifier (CE mode). Oscillators and Logic gates (OR. Production and detection of an amplitude modulated wave.AND. Propagation of electromagnetic waves in atmosphere.action and its characteristics. space communication. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 119 .

To study the relation between frequency and length of a given wire under constant tension using sonometer. 6. To find the force constant and effective mass of helical spring by plotting T 2--m graph using method of oscillations. 12. To find resistance of given wire using metre bridge and hence determine the specific resistance of its material. To verify the laws of combination (series/parallel) of resistances using a metre bridge. 13. To determine the surface tension of water by capillary rise method. 5. 8. 10. 9. To study the relation between the length of a given wire and tension for constant frequency using sonometer.Physics List of Practicals Std. 14. To determine resistance of galvanometer using metre bridge. 2. To study the relationship between the temperature of a hot body and time by plotting a cooling curve. 11. To study the characteristics of a common-emitter npn or pnp transistor and to find out the values of current and voltage gains. 3. To find the speed of sound in air at room temperature using a resonance tube. To compare the emf of two given cells using potentiometer. To draw the I-V characteristic curves of a p-n junction diode in forward bias and reverse bias. To determine the internal resistance of given cell using potentiometer. 7. XII 1. 15. 4. To determine Young‟s modulus of elasticity of the material of a given wire. 120 . To draw the characteristic curve of a zener diode and to determine its reverse break down voltage.

To observe polarization of light using two polaroids. ammeter and voltmeter.Physics List of Activities Std. To identify a diode. key. To study dissipation of energy of a simple pendulum by plotting a graph between square of amplitude and time. (iii) see the unidirectional flow of current in case of a diode and an LED (iv) check whether a given electronic component (e. To study the effect of load on depression of a suitably clamped meter scale loaded (i) at its end (ii) in the middle. a transistor. three (on/off) switches. a fuse and a power source.g. XII 1. 10. To study the variation in potential drop with length of a wire for a steady current. To study the effect of detergent on surface tension by observing capillary rise. To study the factors affecting the rate of loss of heat of a liquid. To measure the resistance and impedance of an inductor with or without iron core. To study effect of intensity of light (by varying distance of the source) on an L. 2. 12. To draw the diagram of a given open circuit comprising at least a battery.D. 121 . an LED. diode. 8.R. 6. To assemble a household circuit comprising three bulbs. Use of multimeter to (i) identify base of transistor (ii) distinguish between npn and pnp type transistors. 1 l. resistor/ rheostat. 4. 9. transistor or IC) is in working order. 5. and 1C. 3. Mark the components that are not connected in proper order and correct the circuit and also the circuit diagram. a resistor and a capacitor from mixed collection of such items. 7.

fundamental concepts. 5) To develop problem solving skills in students. Geology. engineering. New nomenclature. engineering. industrial. The syllabus is comparable to the international level. 122 . technology. 2) To make students capable of studying chemistry in academic and professional courses (such as medicine. compounds and IUPAC units of physical quantities. This new syllabus will make them competent to meet the challenges of academic and professional courses like medicine.CHEMISTRY (Upgraded syllabus) Std. nutrition. Engineering. after the +2 stage. population. inorganic. modern techniques are given importance. 3) To expose the students to various emerging new areas of chemistry and apprise them with their relevance in their future studies and their applications in various spheres of chemical sciences and technology. 6) To expose the students to different processes used in industries and their technological applications. etc. technology) at tertiary level. organic. analytical and polymer chemistry. 4) To equip students to face various changes related to health. XI & XII Preamble RATIONALE According to NCF 2005. There is a need to provide the sufficient conceptual background of chemistry which will help the students to appear for different common entrance test at state level and national level. The revised syllabus has taken care of new formulations and nomenclature of elements. etc. industries and agriculture. OBJECTIVES The broad objectives of teaching Chemistry at Senior Secondary Stage are to help the learners : 1) To promote understanding of basic facts and concepts in chemistry while retaining the excitement of Chemistry. environment. 7) To apprise students with interface of chemistry with other disciplines of science such as Physics. weather. symbols and formulations. The syllabus contains areas like physical. the new and updated curriculum is introduced at +2 stages. Biology.

proton and neutron. atomic number.Enthalpy: Explanation and definition of term. 123 . p and d orbitals. rules for filling electrons in orbitals – Aufbau principle. Unit 2 : States of Matter : Gases and Liquids Three states of matter. Inert gas radii nomenclature of elements with atomic number greater than 100. concept of orbitals. no mathematical derivations). viscosity and surface tension (qualitative idea only. Unit 4 : Periodic Table Significance of classification. Critical temperature. Gay Lussac‟s law. Kinetic energy and molecular speeds (elementary idea) Liquid State – Vapour pressure. atoms and molecules. Boyle‟s law. de Broglie‟s relationship. laws of chemical combination. stability of half filled and completely filled orbitals. empirical derivation of gas equation. ionic radii. periodic trends in properties of elements atomic radii. liquefaction of gases. Heisenberg‟s uncertainty principle. Ideal gas equation. concept of shells and subshells. stoichiometry and calculations based on stoichimetry. Bohr‟s model and its limitations. brief history of the development of periodic table. chemical reactions. Intermolecular interactions. percentage composition. Rutherford‟s model and its limitations. Atomic and molecular masses mole concept and molar mass : Avogadro‟s law and Avogadro number. dual nature of matter and light. isotopes and isobars. Deviation from ideal behaviour. electronegativity. shapes of s. Charles law. Historical approach to particulate nature of matter. Dalton‟s atomic theory : concept of elements. type of bonding. electronic configuration of atoms. empirical and molecular formula. Ideal behaviour. Ionization enthalpy.CHEMISTRY Std. valence. XI (Theory) Unit 1: Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry General Introduction: Importance and scope of chemistry. Pauli‟s exclusion principle and Hund‟s rule. Unit 3 : Structure of Atom Discovery of electron. quantum numbers. Role of gas laws in elucidating the concept of the molecule. electron gain enthalpy. modern periodic law and present form of periodic table.

Le Chatelier‟s principle. Brownian movement. isotopes. Lyophilic. valence bond theory. covalent and interstitial. hydrogen bond. electrophoresis. physical and chemical properties of water. covalent character of ionic bond. ionization of polybasic acids. molecular orbital theory of homonuclear diatomic molecules (qualitative idea only). degree of ionization. preparation. dynamic nature of equilibrium. ionic bond. heavy water. activity and selectivity: enzyme catalysis. properties and uses of hydrogen. solubility product common ion effect (with illustrative examples.Unit 5: Redox Reactions Concept of oxidation and reduction. Ionic equilibrium: Ionization of acids and bases. Unit 6: Chemical Equilibrium Equilibrium in physical and chemical processes. law of mass action. Tyndall effect. Buffer solutions. Elementary idea of nanomaterials. in terms of loss and gain of electrons and change in oxidation number. properties of colloids. Unit 9 : Hydrogen Position of hydrogen in periodic table. factors affecting equilibrium. catalysis : homogenous and heterogeneous. resonance. hydrides-ionic. equilibrium constant. Hydrolysis of salts (elementary idea). polar character of covalent bond. occurrence. factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids.preparation. Balancing redox reactions. hydrogen as a fuel. concept of pH. concept of hybridization involving s. Lewis structure. acid strength. coagulation.) Handerson equation. VSEPR theory. Hydrogen peroxide. multimolecular and macromolecular colloids. colloidal state : distinction between true solutions. geometry of covalent molecules. colloids and suspensions. Unit 7 : Surface Chemistry Adsorption – physisorption and chemisorption. Unit 8 : Nature of Chemical Bond Valence electrons. Uses of hydrogen peroxide 124 . properties and structure. oxidation number. p and d orbitals and shapes of some simple molecules. Born Haber cycle : covalent bond parameters. Lyophobic. strong and weak electrolytes. emulsion – types of emulsions. redox reactions.

biological importance of Magnesium and Calcium. carbanions. physical and chemical properties. biological importance of sodium and potassium. Boron-physical and chemical properties. boric acids. Unit 11 : p-Block Elements Group Introduction to p-Block Elements Group 13 elements : General introduction. Calcium oxide and calcium carbonate (CaO) (CaCO3) and industrial uses of lime and limestone.Unit 10: s-Block Elements (Alkali and Alkaline earth metals) Group 1 and Group 2 elements: General introduction. atomic and ionic radii). occurrence. silicates and zeolites and structure of silicates Unit 12: Basic Principles and Techniques in Organic Chemistry General introduction. methods of qualitative and quantitative analysis. free radicals. water. electronic configuration. Variation of properties. silicones.carbocations. Electronic displacements in a covalent bond. Aluminium. electromeric effect. trends in chemical reactivity. some important compounds: borax. boron hydrides. uses of some important Compounds. Carbon – catenation. hydrogen and halogens. Important compounds of silicon and their uses: silicon tetrachloride. trends in chemical reactivity with oxygen. uses. 125 . anomalous behavior of first element. diagonal relationship. oxidation states. uses. variation of properties. trends in the variation of properties (such as ionization enthalpy. occurrence. occurrence. Classification and IUPAC nomenclature of organic compounds. oxides. Group 14 elements: General introduction. electronic configuration. electronic configuration. types of organic reactions. reactions with acids and alkalies.Homolytic and heterolytic fission of a covalent bond. trends in chemical reactivity. Preparation and properties of some important compounds: Sodium carbonate. electrophiles and nucleophiles. inductive effect. allotropic forms. anomalous properties of the first element of each group. sodium hydroxide and sodium hydrogen carbonate. anomalous properties of first element of the group. oxidation states. Melting point and boiling point. resonance and hyper conjugation.

IUPAC nomenclature. water and soil pollution. methods of preparation. 126 . geometrical isomerism. oxidation. chemical properties. strategy for control of environmental pollution. physical properties. addition of hydrogen.Unit 13 : Alkanes Classification of hydrocarbons – Nomenclature. structure of triple bond (ethylene). physical properties. conformations (ethane only). smog.air. water. Methods of preparation. halogenation. chemical reactions in atmosphere. benzene. physical properties. UNIT-17: Environmental chemistry Environmental pollution. mechanism of electrophilic substitution. effects of depletion of ozone layer. water. hydrogen halides (Markovnikoff‟s addition and peroxide effect) ozonolysis. addition reaction of – hydrogen. major atmospheric pollutants. Carcinogenicity and toxicity. mechanism of electrophilic addition. Pollution due to industrial wastes. green chemistry as an alternative tool for reducing pollution. Unit 14 : Alkenes Nomenclature. Unit 15: Alkynes Nomenclature. halogens. resonance aromaticity. Friedel Craft‟ alkylation and acylation. structure of double bond (ethane). chemical reactions: acidic character of alkynes. Unit 16 : Aromatic compounds Introduction. hydrogen halides. Chemical reactions. ozone and its reactions. – nitration. acid rain. chemical reactions including free radical mechanism of halogenation. sulphonaiton. isomerism. halogen. combustion and pyrolysis. green house effect and global warming.

Study of burner 5. Cutting glass tube and glass rod 2. D.p). methyl acetate. acetic acid. C. Determination of melting point of an organic compound. Crystallization of impure sample of anyone of the following compounds. arseneous sulphide. Lyophobic sol–aluminium hydroxide. xylene (o.Chemistry Practical Syllabus Std-XI A. Drawing out a glass jet 4. (p-toludine. copper sulphate. (acetone. Experiments related to pH change (a) Any one of the following experiments: Determination of pH of some solutions obtained from fruit juices. Bending glass tube 3. benzoic acid. β-naphthol. (b) Study of the role of emulsifying agents in stabilizing the emulsion of oil. Comparing the pH solutions of strong and weak acid of same concentration. 127 . Determination of boiling point of an organic compound. bases and salts using pH paper or universal indicator. Chemical equilibrium Any one of the following experiments: (a) Study the shift in equilibrium between ferric ions and thiocyanate ions by changing the concentration of either ion. water) 3. varied concentrations of acids. Alum. naphthalene. Characterization and purification of chemical substances 1.m. (b) Study the shift in equilibrium between [Co(H2O)6]2+ and chloride ions by changing the concentration of either of the ions. resorcinol. ferric hydroxide. Oxalic acid. benzoic acid. Study the pH change in the titration of a strong base using universal indicator. Basic Laboratory Techniques 1. Operating pinch cork B. E. Surface Chemistry (a) Preparation of one lyophilic and one lyophobic sol: Lyophilic sol-starch and gum.) 2.

G. Zn2+. Co2+. Cu2+. Ba2+. Quantitative estimation Using a chemical balance. Ni2+ . Determination of strength of a given solution of sodium hydroxide by titrating it against standard solution of oxalic acid. Qualitative analysis Determination of one cation and one anion in a given salt: Cations – Pb2+. Preparation of standard solution of oxalic acid.(b) Study of pH change by common ion effect in case of weak acids and bases. I-. chlorine bromine and iodine in an organic compound. Sr2+. Br-. Fe3+. Mg2+. Mn2+. Preparation of standard solution of sodium carbonate. Determination of strength of a given solution of hydrochloric acid by titrating It against standard sodium carbonate solution. Detection of nitrogen. Al3+. PO43C2O42CH3COO(Note: Insoluble salts excluded) H. 128 . NH4+ Anions – CO32SO32SO42NO2NO3Cl-. Ca2+. F. sulphur.

3 Testing the hardness. fluoride. 7 Study of the effect of acids and bases on the tensile strength of fibers. 5 Study of the acidity of different samples of the tea leaves. depending upon the regional variation in drinking water and the study of causes of presence of these ions above permissible limit (if any). Note: Any other investigatory project can be chosen with the approval of the teacher. 2 Study of the methods of purification of water. chloride etc. 8 Analysis of fruit and vegetable juices for their acidity.PROJECT Scientific investigations involving laboratory testing and collecting information from other sources. presence of iron. 129 . 6 Determination of the rate of evaporation of different liquids. 4 Investigation of the foaming capacity of different washing soaps and the effect of addition of sodium carbonate on them. A few suggested Projects 1 Checking the bacterial contamination in drinking water by testing sulphide ion.

depression of freezing point. concentration. packing in solids. atomization. number of atoms per unit cell in a cubic unit cell. surroundings. electrolysis and laws of electrolysis (elementary idea). conductors and semiconductors and insulators and n and p type semiconductors. heat. ionization. EMF of a cell. calculation of density of unit cell. variations of conductivity with concentration. integrated rate equations and half life (only for zero and first order reactions). determination of molecular masses using colligative properties. corrosion. solubility of gases in liquids.unit cell in two dimensional and three dimensional lattices. formation. covalent and metallic solids. Work.Raoult’s law elevation of boiling point. point defects. catalyst. Relation between Gibb’s energy change and emf of a cell. order and molecularity of a reaction. free energy change for spontaneous and non spontaneous processes. voids. Band theory of metals. conductance in electrolytic solutions. Kohlrausch‟s Law. fuel cells. XII (Theory) Unit 1: Solid State Classification of solids based on different forces. expression of concentration of solids in liquids. colligative properties –relative lowering of vapor pressure. Nernst equation and its application to chemical cells. factors affecting rate of reaction. extensive and intensive properties. specific and molar conductivity. First law of thermodynamics – internal energy and enthalpy. dry cell –electrolytic and Galvanic cells. osmotic pressure. abnormal molecular mass. Second and third law of thermodynamics Unit 4: Electrochemistry Redox reactions. ionic. Unit 3 : Chemical Thermodynamics and energetic Concepts of system. state functions. and equilibrium constant.Van’t Hoff factor and calculations involving it. molecular. and solution and dilution Introduction of entropy as a state function. concept of 130 . solid solutions. temperature. enthalpy of bond dissociation. rate law and specific rate constant. Unit 5: Chemical Kinetics Rate of reaction (average and instantaneous). types of systems. amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea). Hess‟ law of constant heat summation. Phase transition. lead accumulator. standard electrode potential. Unit 2 : Solutions and colligative properties Types of solutions. electrical and magnetic properties. sublimation. energy. combustion.CHEMISTRY Std.

Unit 6 : General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements Principles and methods of extraction – concentration. simple oxides. preparation. electronic configuration. oxidation states. oxides of nitrogen (structure only). zinc and iron Unit 7: p-Block Elements Group 15 elements: General introduction. reduction electrolytic method and refining.Activation energy. compounds of phosphorous. properties and uses. trends in physical and chemical properties. oxidation. electronic configuration. oxoacids of sulphur (structures only). 131 . industrial process of manufacture. Group 17 elements: General introduction. preparation. Group 18 elements: General introduction. preparation and properties of ammonia and nitric acid. occurrence. trends in physical and chemical properties. Arrhenius equation. Classification of oxides. nitrogen – preparation. Ozone. properties and uses. halides (PCl3. preparation. Phoshorous-allotropic forms. uses. dioxygen. compounds of nitrogen. oxidation states. sulphurc acid. electronic configuration. Occurrence. compounds of halogens. trends in physical and chemical properties. Group 16 elements: General introduction. no mathematical treatment). properties and uses of sulphur dioxide. compounds of sulphur. properties and uses of chlorine and hydrochloric acid. trends in physical and chemical properties. occurrence. preparation and properties of phosphine. oxidation states.PCl5) and oxoacids (elementary idea only). electronic configuration. occurrence and principle of extraction of aluminium. copper.collision theory (elementary idea. Sulphur – allotropic forms. properties and uses. oxoacids of halogens (structure only). interhalogen compounds. occurrence.

electronic configuration. nature of C-X bond.Stability of carbocations. methods of preparation. Phenols: Nomenclature. bonding. uses of phenols. freons. physical and chemical properties. oxidation states.Unit 8 : d and f Block Elements d-Block Elements General introduction. acidic nature of phenol. substitution reactions (directive influence of halogen for monosubstituted compounds only) stability of carbocations. Phenols and Ethers Alcohols: Nomenclature.R-S and d-l configuration Haloarenes : Nature of C-X bond. (Structural and stereo) importance of coordination compounds (in qualitative analysis. Ethers : Nomenclature. physical and chemical properties. isomerism. methods of preparation. colour. ionic radii. mechanism of substitution reactions. tetrachloromethane. electrophillic substitution reactions. ionization enthalpy. extraction of metals and biological systems). Comparison with lanthanoids. VBT. methods of preparation. Uses and environmental effects of – dichloromethane. IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds. f-Block ElementsLanthanoids – Electronic configuration. physical and chemical properties (of primary alcohols only).CFT. Werner’s theory. uses. identification of primary. magnetic properties. ligands. oxidation states. Actinoids – Electronic configuration. uses of methanol and ethanol. secondary and tertiary alcohols. DDT. alloy formation preparation and properties of K2Cr2O7 and KMnO4. iodoform. colour. catalytic property. coordination number. Unit 11 : Alcohols. oxidation states. Unit 9: Coordination Compounds Coordination compounds – Introduction. 132 . chemical reactivity and lanthanoid contraction and its consequences. mechanism of dehydration. magnetic properties and shapes. Unit 10 : Halogen derivatives of alkanes (and arenes) Haloalkanes : Nomenclature. interstitial compounds. occurrence and characteristics of transition metals. general trends in properties of the first row transition metals – metallic character. R-S and d-l configurations. physical and chemical properties. thrichloromethane.

Proteins: Elementary idea of -amino acids. polysaccharides (starch. classification. Diazonium salts: Preparation. Vitamins: Classification and functions. uses. Nucleic Acids: DNA and RNA Unit 15: Polymers Classification . chemical reactions and importance in synthetic organic chemistry. uses. cellulose. reactivity of alpha hydrogen in aldehydes. structure of amines-primary. acidic nature. importance. Cyanides and Isocyanides: Will be mentioned at relevant places in context. polypeptides. oligosaccharides (sucrose. and rubber. their classification and functions. Unit 13: Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen Nitro compounds-General methods of preparation and chemical reactions Amines : Nomenclature. Some important polymers. denaturation of proteins. linkage.Unit 12 : Aldehydes. bakelite. uses. nature of carbonyl group. copolymerization. maltose). tertiary structure and quaternary structures (qualitative idea only). lactose. Lipids and Hormones (elementary idea) excluding structure. Carboxylic Acids: Nomenclature. methods of polymerization (addition and condensation). enzymes. nylon. Unit 14: Biomolecules Carbohydrates: Classification (aldoses and ketoses). identification of primary. proteins. methods of preparation. mechanism of nucleophilic addition. glycogen). methods of preparation. physical and chemical properties.natural and synthetic. methods of preparation. Physical and chemical properties. secondary. polyesters. structure. peptide. natural and synthetic like polythene. physical and chemical properties. Ketones and Carboxylic Acids Aldehydes and Ketones : Nomenclature. 133 .Biodegradable and non biodegradable polymers. monosaccahrides d-l configuration (glucose and fructose). secondary and tertiary amines.

ii] Enthalpy of neutralization of strong acid (HCI) and strong base (NaOH). Chemical Kinetics (Any one of the following) : (a) Effect of concentration and temperature on the rate of reaction between sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid. (c) Acid hydrolysis of ethyl acetate. (b) Study of reaction rate of any one of the following: (i) Reaction of iodide ion with hydrogen peroxide at room temperature using different concentration of iodide ions. Cleansing agents: Soaps and detergents. antihistamines (elementary idea of antioxidants) 2. iii] Determination of enthalpy change during interaction (hydrogen bond formation) between acetone and chloroform. iv] Heat of displacement of Cu from CuSO4 by Zn. antifertility drugs. artificial sweetening agents. XII A. Chemicals in medicines: analgesics. antacids. Chemicals in food: Preservatives. Electrochemistry Variation of cell potential in Zn|Zn2+||Cu2+|Cu with change in concentration of electrolytes (CuSO4 or ZnSO4) at room temperature (demonstration). cleansing action. Thermochemistry Any one of the following experiments: i] Enthalpy of dissolution of copper sulphate or potassium nitrate. disinfectants. C. (ii) Reaction between potassium iodate. antiseptics. Chemistry Practical Syllabus Std. 3. 134 . antimicrobials. antibiotics. tranquilizers.Unit 16: Chemistry in Everyday life : 1. B. KIO3 and sodium sulphite (Na2SO3) using starch solution as indicator (clock reaction).

Characteristic tests of arbohydrates. J. 2) Determination of two anions from a given mixture of salts. Cations – Pb2+. As3+. Zn2+. H. (v) Di-benzal acetone G. alcoholic. aldehydic. Fe3+. NH4+. phenolic. Determinaiton of concentration/molarity of KMnO4 solution by titrating it against a standard solution of: (i) Oxalic acid (ii) Ferrous ammonium sulphate (Students will be required to prepare standard solutions by weighing themselves). Co2+. Preparation of Organic Compounds (i) p-Nitrocetanilide (ii) Aniline yellow or 2. Preparation of Inorganic Compounds (i) Preparation of double salt of ferrous ammonium sulphate or potash alum. (ii) Separation of constituents present in an inorganic mixture containing two cations only (constituents having large difference in Rf values to be provided). Chromatography (demonstration) (i) Separation of pigments from extracts of leaves and flowers by paper chromatography and determination of Rf values. Cu2+. Mg2+. Mn2+.Napthol aniline dye. (iii) Iodoform (iv) Phthalic or succinic anhydride. Ba2+. F. 135 . Ni2+. fats and proteins in pure samples and their detection in given food stuffs. carboxylic and amino (primary) groups. E. Sr2+. ketonic. Qualitative analysis 1) Determination of two cations from a given mixture of salts. Tests for the functional groups present in organic compounds Unsaturation. (ii) Preparation of potassium ferric oxalate.D. I. Ca2+. Al3+.

sugar. PO43C2O42CH3COO(Note : Insoluble salts excluded. 7 Extraction of essential oils present in Saunf (aniseed). turmeric powder. effect of pH and temperature on it. potato juice. effect of temperature. etc.Anions – CO32-. SO42-. Illaichi (cardamom). can be chosen with the approval of the teacher. Br-. etc. gram flour. SO32-. A few suggested Projects: 1 Study of presence of oxalate ions in guava fruit at different stages of ripening. 6 Comparative study of the rate of fermentation of following materials: wheat flour. 8 Study of common food adulterants in fat. No2NO3-. 4 Study of the effect of potassium bisulphate as food preservative under various conditions (temperature. 3 Preparation of soybean milk and its comparison with the natural milk with respect to curd formation. 136 . Note : Any investigatory project. Ajwain (carum). carrot juice. I-. 2 Study of quantity of casein present in different samples of milk. concentration. butter. 5 Study of digestion of starch by salivary amylase and.) PROJECT Scientific investigations involving laboratory testing and collecting information From other sources. chilli powder and pepper. time etc). Cl-.

the science of biology has undergone a paradigm shift that has transformed it from a collection of loosely related facts into a modern applied science.BIOLOGY. Help students to understand the functioning of organisms. Organisms. Make students aware of issues of global importance. Understanding of biology will help in the sustainable development of the environment and will also ensure the existence of earth with all its amazing diversity. Organisms seldom occur as isolated individuals. Assist to understand the underlying principles of biological sciences and thereby develop scientific attitude towards biological phenomena. Objectives: The prescribed syllabus is expected to: Promote the inherent skill of observation. XI & XII Preamble Higher secondary is the most crucial stage of education because at this juncture specialized disciplines of science are introduced. Delhi. Guide students to perform easy experiments for better understanding of biological principles and to develop experimental skills required in practical work. The entire unit “Ecology and Environment” has now been added under Botany and Zoology sections. ecosystems and environment constitute unique set of natural resources of great importance. Recently. The present syllabus reinforces the concepts introduced in lower classes. Accordingly some additional topics from state Board syllabus have been deleted whereas the lacking topics have been added. Living organisms exhibit extremely complex functional system. Create awareness about the contribution of biology to human welfare. This syllabus is designed to prepare students for various examinations conducted at state and national level. Hence it has been prepared in accordance with the guidelines shown in the final version of common core syllabi of COBSE. Knowledge of biology helps us to understand a common thread which holds all these components together. communities.Std. 137 . They are organized into populations and biological communities.

– XI: Biology (Upgraded syllabus) Section I .Definition.Definitions. Classification of living organisms (five Kingdom classification) – Major groups and principles of classification for each Kingdom with examples. 2. Unit 1 Diversity in Living World: Chapter 1. proteins. examples and importance. types with examples. significance and examples. Taxonomic hierarchy with examples. Unit 2 Structure and function of cell Chapter 3 .Diversity in organisms 1. Mitosis 3. classification and nomenclature. Chapter 4 Cell Division 1. Three domains of life. Salient features of major plant groups . Gymnosperms and Angiosperms (Dicotyledons and Monocotyledons). Botanical gardens and herbaria . Chapter 2 . characters. lipids and nucleic acids in brief. general properties. Cell cycle 2. 3. Systematic and binomial system of nomenclature .Kingdom Plantae 1. Lichens . Types. 3.meaning of the terms taxonomy. 2.Botany . Viruses and viroids . characters.Std. Concept of species. Diversity in living organisms-Brief idea. Enzymes . Structure and function of carbohydrates. Need of classification.Meaning. Pteridophyta. Economic importance and list of viral diseases.Biochemistry of cell: 1. 4. systematics. Basic chemical constituents of living bodies.Meaning. importance and list of gardens and herbaria in India.Algae. 5. Meiosis 138 . Enzyme action and factors affecting enzyme activity in brief. Three to five salient features and two examples of each category. 2. Binomial nomenclature explanation. Bryophyta.

Apoplast and Symplast Pathways. Movement of water. fruit and seed.Absorption of water and minerals.Hypogeal. 2.. anatomy and functions of different parts .auxins. Transpiration – structure of stomata. food.Plant Water Relation and Mineral Nutrition 1. nutrients and gases. (To be dealt along with the relevant practicals of the practical syllabus) 2. Guttation Ascent of sap. Morphology. stem. gibberellins. Nitrogen Metabolism (nitrogen cycle.Plant Growth and Development: Seed dormancy. de. Conditions of growth.macronutrients and micronutrients and their role. ethylene and abscissic acid (role in brief) Photoperiodism. leaf. mechanism of opening and closing of stomata. flower. Role of K+ ions 3.Morphology of Plants 1. Elementary idea of Hydroponics. Differentiation. biological nitrogen fixation) Chapter 7 . redifferentiation Sequence of developmental process in a plant cell Growth regulators . Role of water and minerals .differentiation. Photomorphogenesis including brief account of Phytochromes (Elementary idea) Vernalization. epigeal and viviparous. Definition and characteristics of growth. Translocation of sugars through phloem brief account. Active and passive absorption in brief. cytokinines.tension theory.Unit 3 Structural organization in plants: Chapter 5 . inflorescence. root pressure concept and cohesion . Phases of growth. Unit 4 Plant Physiology: Chapter 6 . Germination . Mineral deficiency symptoms. 139 . Plant tissues.Roots. Mineral toxicity.

5. 2. Cell theory . Classification of following phyla with three to five salient features and two examples of each category: Porifera.Organization of Cell: 1. Mitochondria. Coelenterata. Cephalochordata. Classification of phylum chordata upto class level with three to five salient features and two examples of each category: Urochordata. Hemichordata. . Amphibia.(fluid mosaic model). Endoplasmic reticulum. Zoological parks and Museums . Vacuoles.structure and examples. columnar.Kingdom Animalia: 1. Plant cell and animal cell. Chondrichthyes. Lysosomes. Golgi complex. Cell organelles: Plastids. 3. glandular). Annelida. Ciliated. Osteichthyes.compound epithelium (stratified and transitional). Animal tissues . Echinodermata and Unit 2 Structure and function of cell: Chapter 9 . Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell . cuboidal. Cell wall and cell membrane .General idea with list. . Aves and Mammalia.types: a) Epithelial tissues . Tendons. Unit 3 Structural organisation in Animals: Chapter 10. Reptilia.simple epithelium (squamous. cytoskeleton.Nucleus.Study of Animal Tissues 1. Platyhelminthes. 140 .(Areolar. 6. Nemathelminthes. Cartilage and Bone).XI Section II – Zoology Unit 1 Diversity in Living World: Chapter 8 . 4.brief account 2. Nuclear organization . Salient features of major phyla under kingdom Animalia. nucleolus and nucleoplasm. Arthropoda. Mollusca. cilia and flagella.Std. Ribosome and Centrioles (ultrstructure and functions). Cyclostomata. Adipose. Microbodies. Ligaments. b) Connective tissue .

respiratory.synarthroses. Chapter 14.Human Nutrition: 1. and reproductive systems of cockroach (Brief account only) Unit 4 Human Physiology: Chapter 12. Calorific value of proteins.Asthma.Human Respiration: 1Breathing. transport of CO2 and O2 and tissue respiration. Regulation of Respiration. Emphysema and occupational lung diseases. amphiarthroses. glial cells and types of neurons). indigestion. respiration and common respiratory disorders: Respiratory organs in animals (Recall only) i) Respiratory system in brief ii) Breathing. 141 . vomiting and diarrhoea Chapter 13. Jaundice.inspiration and expiration. Respiratory volumes iv) Respiratory disorders. constipation. Chapter 11. Peristalsis. assimilation and egestion vi) Nutritional and digestive disorders – PEM. anatomy and functions of digestive. Digestion. nervous. Regulation iii) Exchange of gases. circulatory. d) Nervous tissue (Neurons. and diarthroses.Study of Animal Type: 1.c) Muscular tissue . striated and cardiac). absorption and nutritional disorders: ii) Digestive system in brief iv) Physiology of digestion. Morphology. gastrointestinal hormones.Human skeleton and Locomotion: Brief account of human skeleton: A] Axial Skeleton B] Appendicular Skeleton (Details to be dealt with the relevant practical) Types of joints . carbohydrates and fats v) Absorption.(Smooth.

Study of structure and distribution of stomata in upper and lower surface of leaf. Fabaceae and Liliaceae with respect to types of root-(tap and adventitious). shape. stem (herbaceous and woody). XI Biology Practicals Syllabus (A) List of experiments: 1. 142 . To test the presence of sugar. leaf (arrangement. simple and compound) and floral characters. Std.Ciliary. 4. arthritis. Osteoporosis. 8) To study the digestion of starch by salivary amylase under different conditions of temperature and pH.ball and socket. hinge. Preparation of T. Study of plasmolysis in epidermal peels. 5 Study of osmosis by Potato osmometer 6. 7. muscular dystrophy tetany and gout. 2. saddle and gliding joints. S. venation. 3 Study and describe three locally available flowering plants from the families-Solanaceae. Types of Movement. starch.Types of diarthroses . condyloid. Muscular Mechanism of muscle movement: Contractile proteins and Muscle contraction Skeletal and muscular disorders – Myasthenia gravis. of dicot (sunflower) and monocot roots and stem to study different plant tissues. pivot. Study of parts of compound microscope. Flagellar. proteins and fats from suitable plant and animal materials.

Observation and comments on experimental set up on: a) Phototropism b) Suction due to transpiration. Leech. Cycas. Study of different modifications of root (fusiform root. through temporary or permanent slides. Shark. 7 Study and identification of different types of inflorescence. 9. Study of different modifications of stem (stem tuber. epiphytic root and pneumatophores). Ascaris. c) Apical bud removal 10. Hydra. yeast. leaf Spines. Amoeba. Oscillatoria. and tendril). Agaricus. Liverfluke. Rhizopus. parenchyma. phloem. guard cells. Study of specimens and identification with reasons: Bacteria. 3. Silkworm Honey bee . Prawn. runner. Nephrolepis. Earthworm. Study of imbibition of seeds/raisins. 4. Riccia. collenchyma. Frog. 8 Study of tissues and diversity in shapes and sizes of plant and animal cells. Usnea. 11. 6. Study of specimens and their identification with reasons – Sycon. Funaria. cartilaginous and fibrous joint with one suitable example). xylem. Pigeon and Rat.(B) Study/ Observation of the following (Spotting): 1. Lizard. sunflower and maize. Balanoglossus. squamous epithelium. 2. 5. Star-fish. phyllode). hand bones and foot bones) and different types of joints (synovial. sclerenchyma. Study of different modification of leaf (leaflet and stipular tendril). parasitic root. Spirogyra. muscle fibres. Rohu. Snail.palisade cells. Study of human skeleton (except skull. mammalian blood smear. 143 . Comparative study of rates of transpiration in upper and lower surface of leaf.

Chapter 2 . Bacteriophages. central dogma. Unit 2: Biotechnology and its application Chapter 3 . co-dominance. Application of Biotechnology in Agriculture – BT crops Biosafety Issues (Biopiracy and patents) Unit 3: Biology and Human Welfare Chapter 4 . expression and regulation: Modern concept of gene in brief-cistron.XII Biology (Upgraded syllabus) Section I – BOTANY Unit 1: Genetics and Evolution Chapter 1 .Genetic Basis of Inheritance: Mendelian inheritance. Gene Amplification (PCR). Protein Synthesis. RNA: General structure types and functions. 13. Elementary idea of polygenic inheritance. Producing Restriction Fragments. Pleiotropy.Enhancement in Food Production: Plant Breeding Tissue Culture: Concept of Cellular Totipotency.12 Study of external morphology of earthworm. Transcription. 144 . Deviations from Mendelian ratio (gene interaction. DNA as genetic material. Study of mitosis in onion roots tips and animal cells (grasshopper) from permanent slides.Biotechnology: Process and Application Genetic engineering (Recombinant DNA technology): Transposons. Preparing and cloning a DNA Library. Translation-Genetic Code. . Plasmids. Gene Expression and Gene Regulation (The Lac operon as a typical model of gene regulation). structure of DNA as given by Watson and Cricks model. DNA Packaging. multiple alleles and Inheritance of blood groups). semi conservative replication of eukaryotic DNA. cockroach and frog through models.Gene: its nature. muton and recon.incomplete dominance. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Std.

Unit 4: Plant Physiology Chapter 6 . Light-Dependent Reactions (Cyclic and non-cyclic photophosphorylation) Light-Independent Reactions (C3 and C4 Pathways) Chemiosmotic hypothesis.Photosynthesis: Autotrophic nutrition Site of Photosynthesis Photosynthetic Pigments and their role. Factors affecting Photosynthesis. Asexual reproduction. Microbes as Biofertilizers. Unit 5: Reproduction in Organisms Chapter 8 . micropropagation 145 . Microbes as Biocontrol Agents. Significance of Respiration. Microbes in Sewage Treatment.Microbes in Human Welfare: Microbes in Household food processing Microbes in Industrial Production. Photorespiration. Fermentation Exchange of gases Amphibolic pathway. Respiratory quotient of Nutrients. Microbes in Biogas (energy) Production.Reproduction in Plants: Modes of Reproduction (Asexual and Sexual). Callus Culture. Biofortification Chapter 5 . uniparental modes-vegetative propagation. TCA Cycle and Electron Transport System) and Anaerobic Respiration. Suspension Culture. Chapter 7 .Requirements of Tissue Culture (in brief).Respiration: ATP as currency of Energy Mechanism of Aerobic (Glycolysis. Law of limiting factors. Single Cell Protein.

Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance: The Chromosomal Theory. 146 . pyramids of number. Ecological succession. parthenocarpy. assembly of organic compounds.Sexual Reproduction: structure of flower Development of male gametophyte. Chapter 11 . development of seed and formation of fruit) Special modes-apomixis. pollen-pistil interaction. Gene flow and genetic drift.ZOOLOGY Unit 1: Genetics and Evolution Chapter 10 . . Unit 6: Ecology and Environment: Chapter 9: Organisms and Environment -I Habitat and Niche Ecosystems: Patterns. components. case studies (any two). Spontaneous. Adaptive radiation. Significance of seed and fruit formation. Ecological services-carbon fixation. ozone depletion. pollination. nutrient cycling (carbon and phosphorous).Origin and the Evolution of Life: Origin of Life: Early Earth. biomass. oxygen release. Origin and Evolution of Human being. Std. Chromosomes. Modern Synthetic Theory of evolution. Biological Evidences. Structure of anatropous ovule.XII Biology Section II . Green house effect and global warming. Evolution: Darwin‟s contribution. energy flow.Hardy-Weinberg principle. Outbreeding devices. Pollination: Types and Agencies. Development of female Gametophyte. deforestation. productivity and decomposition. polyembryony. solid waste management. Environmental issues: agrochemicals and their effects. Post-fertilization changes (development of endosperm and embryo. Double Fertilization: Process and Significance. energy. Mechanism of evolution.

Pneumonia.Genetic Engineering and Genomics: DNA Finger Printing.Mendelian disorders in humansThalassemia. birds. Chapter 14. Pathogens and Parasites (Amoebiasis. Dairy.Human Health and Diseases: Concepts of Immunology: Immunity Types. Poultry. Antigens on blood cells. Malaria. Vaccines. Unit 3: Biology and Human Welfare Chapter 13. Turner’s syndrome and Klinfelter’s syndrome. Fisheries. Animal Breeding. Typhoid. Sericulture Lac culture 147 . Bee-Keeping. Gene Therapy. Genomics and Human Genome Project. Ascariasis. Common cold and ring worm). Transgenic animals. Biotechnological Applications in Health: Human insulin and vaccine production. Filariasis. Antigen-Antibody Complex. honey bee.Animal Husbandry: Management of Farms and Farm Animals. drug and alcohol abuse.Linkage and Crossing Over. Structure of Antibody. Sex-linked Inheritance (Haemophilia and colour blindness). Adolescence. Unit 2: Biotechnology and its application Chapter 12. Cancer and AIDS. Sex Determination in Human being. Chromosomal disorders in human: Down’s syndrome.

and heart failure. Sensory receptors (eye and ear).Excretion and osmoregulation: Modes of excretion-Ammonotelism. angina pectoris. atrial natriuretic factor. role of other organs in excretion. ADH and Diabetes inspidus. Diabetes mellitus. Regulation of cardiac activity. Blood groups Structure and pumping action of Heart. Hormonal imbalance and diseases: Common disorders (Dwarfism. general idea of other sense organs Endocrine System: Endocrine glands. uricotelism. cretinism. Regulation of kidney function: renin-angiotensin. Transmission of nerve impulse. Mechanism of hormone action Hormones as messengers and regulators. Cardiac output. Addison’s disease) 148 . ECG. Reflex action. Kidney failure. Heart beat and Pulse. Sensory perception. coronary artery disease. Excretory System Composition and formation of urine. Hormones and their functions. Chapter 17. Lymphatic System (Brief idea): Composition of lymph and its functions. Acromegaly. Chapter 16. Role of Kidney in Osmoregulation. Blood Vessels. Pulmonary and Systemic Circulation.Circulation: Blood composition and coagulation. Transplantation. nephritis.Unit 4: Human Physiology Chapter 15. Disorders. Kidney stone (renal calculi). ureotelism. brief idea about PNS and ANS. Blood related disorders: Hypertension. goiter.Control and Co-ordination: Nervous System: Structure and functions of brain and Spinal cord. Dialysis. Uraemia. Rhythmicity of Heart beat. exopthalmic goiter.

Histology of testis and ovary. Reproductive cycle. Environmental issues: air pollution and its control. age distribution. placenta. Contraception and sexually transmitted diseases.MTP. parturition and lactation (Elementary idea). Amniocentesis. endangered organisms. ZIFT. (Case studies any two) ---------------------------------------------------------------- 149 .extinction.growth.Biodiversity. Reproductive health-birth control.red data book . parasitism. Biodiversity and its conservation. patterns. birth rate and death rate.IVF. implantation.concept. loss. fertilization. population attributes. GIFT (elementary idea for general awareness). national parks and sanctuaries. water pollution and its control and radioactive waste management. Pregnancy. Embryo development up to three germinal layers. competition.Unit 5: Reproduction in Organisms Chapter 18.Human Reproduction: Reproductive system in male and female. Hotspots. Unit 6: Ecology and Environment Chapter 19-Organisms and Environment-II Population and ecological adaptations: population interactions-mutualism. importance. Threats to and need for biodiversity conservation . biosphere reserves. Production of gametes. Infertility and assisted reproductive technologies. predation.

Correlate with the kinds of plants found in them.(Two plants each) 150 . Separation of plant pigments by paper chromatography 7 To study the rate of respiration in flower buds/leaf tissue and germinating seeds. 3. Collect and study soil from at least two different sites and study them for texture. 4. Collect water from two different water bodies around you and study them for pH. Study/observation of the following (Spotting): 1 Study of flowers adapted to pollination by different agencies (wind. XII (Upgraded) Biology Practicals Syllabus Experiments: 1. clarity and presence of any living organisms. 11To test the presence of albumin and bile salts in urine. Prepare a temporary mount of onion root tip to study mitosis. Study the presence of suspended particulate matter in air at the two widely different Sites. pH and water holding capacity of soil. 8. 5. moisture content. 6. 6 Study plants found in xerophytic and aquatic conditions with respect to their morphological adaptations. 3 To Study Mendelian inheritance using seeds of different colour/size of any plant. 9. Dissect anther and ovary to show number of chambers. tagging and bagging 5 Study meiosis in onion bud cell or grass hopper testis through permanent slide. insect) 2 Study of pollen germination on stigma through a permanent slide. Dissect the given flower and display different whorls. 2. Study of plant population density and frequency by quadrate method. To test the presence of urea and sugar in urine.Emasculation.. 10.Std. 4 Exercise on controlled pollination . Study pollen germination on a slide.

7 Study and identify stages of gamete development. Blood groups. 9 To study prepared pedigree charts of genetic traits such as rolling of tongue.S. ovary through permanent slides (from any mammal).S. T. of blastula through permanent slide. of testis and T. Comment on symptoms of diseases that they cause. 8. Entamoeba . Study of V.Ascaris and ring worm through permanent slides or specimens. widow‟s peak. 10 To identify common disease causing organisms like Plasmodium. colour blindness. (Two animals each) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 151 .S. 11 Study of animals found in xeric (desert) and aquatic conditions with respect to their morphological adaptations.

Mathematics is the backbone of all sciences and it is an inseparable part of human life. it is utmost important to make the study of Mathematics more meaningful by acquainting the student with many branches of mathematics. 4) To develop interest in Mathematics by participating in various related competitions and selflearning. particularly by way of motivation and visualization of basic concepts. 3) To develop positive attitude to think. Objectives: To enable the students 1)To acquire knowledge and critical understanding. Motivating topics from real life situations and other subject areas. 5) To acquaint students with different aspects of Mathematics used in real life. symbols and mastering the underlying processes and skills. 6) To develop an interest in students to study Mathematics as a discipline. terms. Hence to fulfill the needs of students. protection of an environment. analyze and articulate logically. elimination of sex biases and observance of small family norm.Upgraded Syllabus MATHEMATICS AND STATISTICS (For Arts and Science) Std. principles. by more than one method. major thrust is also on application of various concepts. 152 . 7) To develop awareness of the need for national integration. Higher Secondary is a launching stage from where students would go to either for academic education in Mathematics or professional courses like Engineering and Computer Technology. 2) To apply the knowledge and skills in Mathematics and related problems from other subjects. This will help them in developing Mathematical tools to be used in the professional education. removal of social barriers. XI & XII Introduction: Mathematics is the language of all sciences and is perhaps the only subject which merits this distinction. Physical and Biological Sciences. The proposed syllabus has been designed in accordance with National Curriculum Framework 2005 and as per guidelines given in Focus Group on Teaching of Mathematics 2005 which is to meet the emerging needs of all categories of students.

Graph of Y = a sin bx. zero angle. Trigonometric functions: Need & concept. θ. points of locus. straight angle. θ.8) To develop reverence and respect towards great mathematicians for their contribution to the field of Mathematics. θ is in radians) (without proof). 300. slope intercept form. Factorization Formulae: Introduction. normal form. θ is in radians (without proof). Formulae for conversion of sum or difference into products. Measurement of Angles : Need & concept. Definition and equation of locus. 2. Trigonometric functions with the help of standard unit circle. MATHEMATICS AND STATISTICS (ARTS AND SCIENCE) STD. Revision of directed angle (+ve and –ve angles). always represents. provided A and B are not both zero. 9) To develop interest in the subject by participating in related competitions. 900.PART – I 1. double intercept form other forms of equations of a line. equation of lines. 600. 5. relation between degree measure and radian measure. revision of different forms of equations of a line. 3. 153 . XI . fundamental identities.straight line. 2700. circular system. Straight Line : Revision. y = a cos bx. B and C are constants (without proof). general form. graphs of trigonometric functions. where A. 450. trigonometricfunctions of sum and difference. trigonometric functions of multiple angles (upto double and triple angles only). trigonometric functions of half angles. Sexagesimal system. signs of trigonometric functions in different quadrants. trigonometric functions of angles of a triangle. Area of the sector of a circle A = ½ r2. slope point form. 6. Length of an arc of a circle (s = r. Theorem : A general linear equation Ax + By+ C =0. Locus : Introduction. Theorem 2 : Every straight line has an equation of the form Ax +By + C = 0. slope of a line. parallel to coordinate axes. 4. Trigonometric functions of compound angles : Introduction. domain and range of trigonometric functions. angles in quadrant & quadrantal angles. trigonometric functions of particular angles (00. formulae for conversion of product into sum or difference. Inclination of a line. 3600). intercepts of a line. two point form. shift of the origin. angles in standard position. parametric form. Reduction of general equation of a line into normal form. 1800. Theorem: Radian is a constant angle. periodicity of functions. coterminal angles. trigonometric functions of negative angles. simultaneously.

distance between two parallel lines. expansion. standard equation. standard equation. resolved part of a force. solutions of system of linear in equations in one variable. minors & co-factors. equation of family of lines through the intersection of two lines. 10. parameter equations of standard equation. determinant of order three–definition. Replacement of a set or domain of a set. perpendicular lines. square matrix. ellipse. condition for concurrency of three lines. (KA) KA . properties of matrix multiplication. symmetric & skew symmetric matrices. 11. scalar multiple of a vector. Matrices : Introduction. properties of transpose of a matrix (A ) A. polygon law. vector product. 154 . Application of conic section. standard equation. coinitial vector. definition. negative of a vector. distance between two points in a space. family of lines. multiplication of a matrix by a scalar. collinear vectors. scalar matrix. equation of a straight line parallel to a given line. order. notations. angle between lines. concepts. coplanar vectors. Determinants : Revision.intersection of two lines. area of a triangle. equation of a straight line perpendicular to a given line. row matrix. three dimensional co-ordinate geometry. (AB) BA. Transposition. multiplication of matrices – definition. scalar product. Conics Napees – Intersection of Napees of a cone and Plane. centre-radius form. parallelogram law. equal vector. free and localized vectors. properties of addition of vectors. triangular matrices. Cramer‟s rule for system of equations in three variables. solution of linear in equations in two variable & graphical solution. general equation. like and unlike vector. diameter form. introduction. hyperbola. simple properties. parallel lines. hyperbola. triangle law. definition. solutions of system of linear inequations in two variables. standard equation (different forms of parabola). transpose of a matrix. 9. moment of a force. workdone by force. simple application. applications of determinants condition of consistency. 7. Circle and Conics : Revision. zero vector. subtraction. column matrix. position vector of a point in space. parabola. properties. 8. operations on matrices – equality. properties of determinants. identical lines. distance of a point from a line. parametric equations. unit vector. Vectors : Definition. unit vectors along axes. types of matrices – zero matrix. addition. co-ordinates of a point in space. Linear Inequations : Linear in equations in one variable – solution of linear inequation in one variable & graphical solution. properties. ellipse. magnitude of a vector. coordinate axes & coordinate planes in space. singular & non-singular matrices. diagonal matrix. product of vectors. Linear in equations in two variable – solution of linear inequation in one variable & graphical solution. determinant of a square matrix. parametric equations. identity matrix. types of vectors. equations of bisectors of angle between two lines. focus-directrix property of parabola.

modulus. properties of complex numbers – properties of addition of complex numbers. subset and their properties. signum & greatest integer. even & odd functions. square root of a complex number. constant function. difference of two sets. one-one. subtraction. characteristics & mantissa – method of finding characteristics. cube roots of unity. addition. 4) Existence of additive identity. 1) Closure Property. finite & infinite sets. product quotient of functions. Relations and Functions : Set – Revision. composite function. change of base. Relations – ordered pairs. complement of a set. Argand Diagram – representation of a complex number as a pt. scalar multiplication. fundamental theorem of algebra. intersection. need for complex numbers. equal functions. argument). types of functions. binary operations. into function. sum. Venn diagrams. subset. definition. inverse function. functions – function as a special kind of relation. complex conjugates. real valued function of the real variable. algebra of complex numbers – equality. domain. disjoint sets. Logarithms : Introduction. cube roots of unity – solution of quadratic equations in the complex number system. equivalent sets. domain and range of these functions. rational function. 2. equality of ordered pairs. proper. functions with their graphs. union. method of finding mantissa. definition of relation. modulus function. codomain and range of a function. onto function. powers and square root of a complex number – higher powers of i.5) Existence of additive inverse. empty set. 3) Associative law. division. many-one. Properties of product of complex numbers –Existance of multiplicative identity – Existence of multiplicative inverse properties of conjugate & modulus of complex numbers. No. binary equivalence relation.2) Commulative Law. 155 . polynomial function. Complex Numbers : Introduction. multiplication. logarithmic function. laws of logarithms. equal sets. identity function. domain. of elements in the Cartesian product of two finite sets. polar representation of complex numbers. properties. power set. improper.PART – II 1. exponential function. 3. method of finding antilogarithm. Cartesian product of the reals with itself. geometrical meaning of modulus and argument. one-one function. universal set. definitions –(real parts. Cartesian product of two sets. Sets. imaginary parts. in plane. Demoivre‟s formula – (without proof). pictorial representation of a function. codomain and range of a relation. types of relations. difference. pictorial diagrams.

P. Sum of first n terms of A. rules of integration. G.M. H. properties of A. harmonic mean. Integration: Definition (of integration) as antiderivative. odds in favour and against. simple applications.P. geometric means. Limits : Introduction of concept. product and quotient. Permutations & combinations : Introduction. circular permutations. geometrical interpretation of indefinite integrals. general term.. simple applications. 10. multiplication theorem. quartile & quartile deviation (for grouped and ungrouped data). when all r objects are not distinct. 156 . meaning of x a. when all r objects are distinct. difference. relation between A. variance. sum of cube of first n odd natural nos. algebraic functions. mean deviation about median (for grouped & ungrouped data). as a special type of A. 9. addition theorem – for any two events A and B. derivatives from first principle of trigonometric functions. simple applications. Conditional probability – definition. exponential functions. 5. 11. standard deviation. comparison of two frequency distributions with same mean. properties of binomial co-efficient with simple application. Differentiation : Definition of a derivative.P. Sequences & Series : Revision sequence.P. effect of change of origin and scale on variance and standard deviation. sum of the first „n‟ terms. Arithmetic-Geometric sequence. simple problems. particular cases of binomial theorem. containing finitely many terms & sum to infinite terms properties of G. special series. mean deviation about mean. fundamental theorem on limits. A. algebra of limits – standard limits. with proof.4. combinations – definition.. derivative at a point. permutations. co-efficient of variation. types of events – events and algebra of events. Statistics : Measures of dispersion – range. Mathematical Induction and Binomial Theorem : Principle of mathematical induction. Baye‟s theorem. rules of differentiation – derivative of sum. sum of cube of first n natural. factorial notation. Probability: Revision. mutually exclusive and exhaustive events..M. relations between permutations and combinations..P. geometric progression – introduction. algebra of integrals – integrals of some standard functions.. fundamental principle of counting. H. exponential & logarithmic series.M. Result on compatible events. physical significance (velocity as a rate of change of displacement). properties. 7.P. Means – arithmetic mean. combined variance and standard deviation. 8.. binomial theorem for any index (without proof). logarithmic functions. independent events. mutually exlusive events. 6.P. n terms from the end of G. axiomatic definition of probability. limits at infinity – concepts. simple applications. particular term. binomial theorem – binomial theorem for positive integers. geometrical significance of derivative. the limit of a function. general term.

Mathematical induction. 3. 7. 2. 18. Integration. Applications of Conics II. 12. 17. 19. 6. 4. Power and square root of a complex number. 16. 5. 13. Examples on special series. Applications of vectors (Dot and cross product). Permutations and combinations. Limits. Linear inequation. Tracing of graphs of functions. Applications of determinants. 15. 9. Family of lines. cube root of unity. Probability. 10. 11. 20. Problems on locus. Measures of dispersion.List of Practicals: XI 1. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 157 . Algebra of matrices. Applications of Conics I. 8. Binomial theorem. Numerical problems using laws of logarithms. Differentiation. 14.

disjunction. inverse by elementary transformation. open sentences and truth sets. properties of inverse functions. application. cos2 cos2 . tan2 tan2 . duality. projection rule. sine rule. contingency. Trigonometric functions : Trigonometric equations-general solution of trigonometric equation of the type. Pair of straight lines : Pair of lines passing through origin-conbined equation. inverse trigonometric functionsdefinitions. angle between the lines represented by ax2+2hxy+by2=0. Mathematical Logic : Statements . associative law. sin 0. there exists. contradiction. contrapositive. algebra of statements-idempotent law. inverse. condition of parallel and perpendicular lines. range. truth value of statement. negation of compound statement. quantifier and quantified statements. 158 . 4. application-solution of system of linear equations by – reduction method. logical equivalence. truth tables of compound statements. graphs of inverse trigonometric function. contrapositive. sentences and statement. distributive law. elementary column transformation. solution of Trigonometric equations. Napier Analogues. homogenous equation. 3. tan . contradiction. point of intersection of two lines. Hero‟s formula. statement patterns and logical equivalence-tautology. acute angle between the lines (without proof). compound statement. XII PART – I 1.Introduction. tan tan . identity law. biconditional. area of a triangle. commutative law. logical connective-conjunction. theorem-the joint equation of a pair of lines passing through origin and its converse. converse. cosine rule. Matrices : Elementary transformation of a matrix-revision of cofactor and minor. demorgan‟s laws. complement law. difference between converse. examples related to real life and mathematics. domain. cos 0. elementary row transformation. application-introduction to switching circuits (simple examples). condition for perpendicular lines. a cos b sin c solution of a triangle-polar coordinates. 2.MATHEMATICS AND STATISTICS STD. sin2 sin2 . logical equivalence. inversion method. condition for parallel lines. sin sin . pair of lines not passing through origin-conbined equation of any two lines. negation. implication/ conditional. involution law. adjoint method. condition that the equation ax2+2hxy+by2+2gx+2fy+c=0 should represent a pair of lines (without proof). inverse of a matrix-existance and uniqueness of inverse of a matrix. cos cos . principle values.

Line : Equation of line passing through given point and parallel to given vector. angle between two lines. centroid formula. angle bisectors of triangle are concurrent. constraint equations. ellipse. altitudes of a triangle are concurrent. angle between line and plane. hyperbola. 8. objective function. conditions of coplanerity ofthree vectors. 10. Linear programming problems: Introduction of L. tangents from a point outside conics. Conics : Tangents and normals-equations of tangent and normal at a point for parabola. distance between two parallel lines (vector approach). section formula-section formula for internal and external division. distance of a point from a plane (vector approach). length of tangent segments. properties. direction ratios. ellipse. locus of points from which two tangents are mutually perpendicular. hyperbola. Three dimensional geometry : Direction cosines and direction ratios-direction angles. dist. equation of plane passing through three non-collinear points.2) general circle. Plane : Equation of plane in normal form. feasible and infeasible 159 .P. ellipse. 7. condition of perpendicular lines. condition of collinearity of two vectors. Collinearty and coplanerity of vectors-linear combination of vectors. equation of plane passing through the given point and perpendicular to given vector. geometrical interpretation of scalar triple product. director circle. angle between two planes. tangents in terms of slope for parabola. optimization. relation between direction ratio and direction cosines. properties of tangents and normals to conics (without proof). diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each other and converse. midpoint formula. equation of plane passing through the given point and parallel to two given vectors. formula. distance between two skew lines. application of vectors to geometry-medians of a triangle are concurrent.5. condition for the coplanerity of two lines. non-negativity restrictions. equation of line passing through two given points. definition of constraints. of a point from a line. scaler triple product-definition. condition of tangency for parabola. 6. Circle : Tangent of a circle-equation of a tangent at a point to 1) standard circle. condition of tangency only for line y mx c to the circle x2 y2 a2 . Vectors : Revision. angle subtended on a semicircle is right angle. direction cosines. 9. median of trapezium is parallel to the parallel sides and its length is half the sum of parallel sides.P. hyperbola. equation of plane passing through the intersection of two given planes. tangents to a circle from a point outside the circle. 11. normal to a circle-equation of normal at a point.

rational. b) quotient of functions.P. exponential and logarithmic function.P. integrals of type (reduction formulae are not expected). optimum feasible solution. non-repeated quadratic factors. different types of L. integration by parts-integration by parts. Continuity : Continuity of a function at a point-left hand limit.revision of derivative. derivative of parametric function – definition of parametric function . Mathematical formulation-mathematical formulation of L. c) higher order derivative-second order derivative d) f (x) g x 3. continuity in interval-definition. Maxima and minima-introduction of extreme and extreme values. 2) integration by parts. Derivative of composite functionchain rule. continuity of some standard functionspolynomial. trigonometric. definite integral-definite integral as a limit of sum. discontinuity of a function. Application of derivative : Geometrical application-tangent and normal at a point. increasing and decreasing function. relationship between continuity and differentiability-left hand derivative and right hand derivative (need and concept). Differentiation : Revision. derivative as rate measure-introduction. properties of definite integrals properties of definite integrals. first derivative test. feasible solutions. algebra of continuous functions. types of discontinuity. graphical solutions for problem in two variables. and Mean value theorem and their geometrical interpretation (without proof). integration by partial fraction-factors involving repeated and non-repeated linear factors. STD. 4.region. right hand limit. Integration : Indefinite integrals-methods of integration.P. integrals of the type. exponential and logarithmic function-derivative of functions which are expressed in one of the following form a) product of functions. every differentiable function is continuous but converse is not true. substitution method. 2. Derivative of implicit function definition and examples. XII . derivative of inverse function derivative of inverse trigonometric function. evaluation of definite integral 1) by substitution. fundamental theorem of integral calculus (without proof). approximation (without proof). second derivative test. Rolls theorem.P. maxima and minima in a closed interval. problems.PART – II 1. definition of a continuity of a function at a point. 160 .

2. 4. cumulative probability distribution of a discrete random variable. discrete and continuous random variable. variance and standard deviation. area bounded by two curves.bivariate data. 161 . probability distribution of a discrete random variable.p. standard normal variable. distribution function of a continuous random variable. degree. List of Practicals : XII 1. surface area. order. Applications of definite integral: Area under the curve . calculation of probabilities (without proof).f.).m. expected value.5.d. Bernoulli trials and Binomial distribution : Definition of Bernoulli trial. tabulation of bivariate data. 8. Inverse of a matrix by adjoint method and hence solution of system of linear equations. Newton‟s laws of cooling. volume of solid of revolution-volume of solid obtained by revolving the area under the curve about the axis (simple problems).f. mean. covariance of or ungrouped data.f. 9. bacterial colony growth. variance and standard deviation of a discrete random variable. Inverse of a matrix by elementary transformation and hence solution of system of linear equation.m.). Karl Pearson‟s co-efficient of correlation. binomial distribution (p. scatter diagram. Linear differential equation. Applications of logic. radioactive decay. Normal distribution . probability mass function (p. simple problems (without proof). mean. 6. homogenous differential equation (equation reducible to homogenous form are not expected). formation of differential equation-formation of differential equation by elimmating arbitary constants (at most two constants). probability density function (p. conditions for Binomial distribution. 3. 7. covariance for bivariate frequency distribution. applications-population growth. particular solution of differential equation.). variance and standard deviation.d.area bounded by curve and axis (simple problems). solution of first order and first degree differential equation-variable separable method. Solutions of a triangle.f. Probability distribution : Probability distribution of a random variable-definition of a random variable. Statistics: Bivariate frequency distribution . Differential equation : Definition-differential equation. general solution.

variance and S. Expected value. 6. Applications of definite integrals .volume.plane. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 162 . 20. 7. 18. Three dimensional geometry . Tracing of tangents and normals for circles and parabola. Applications of definite integrals . Applications of definite integrals . Applications of derivatives .Limit of sum. 8. Applications of derivatives (Geometric applications). measure.D of random variable. Applications of derivatives – Rate. 16.5.Area. Applications of scalar triple product of vectors. 15. Bivariate frequency distribution. 11. Tracing of tangents and normals for ellipse and hyperbola. 10. Formations and solutions of LPP.Maxima and minima 14. 13. Applications of differential equations. Three dimensional geometry . 17.line. 9. Binomial distribution. 12. 19.

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