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**PHYSICS – Std. XI & XII Preamble
**

According to NCF 2005, the curriculum of the subject Physics is upgraded for higher secondary stage. This curriculum is comparable to the international standards which are useful for the students in Maharashtra State for different types of competitive examinations conducted in India. All the units of the subject from NCERT curriculum are divided into two years conveniently in Maharashtra State. Continuity in the curriculum is maintained in Std. XI & XII, which is not in NCERT curriculum. All the students appear for the competitive examinations only after +2 stages throughout India. This syllabus has been designed in accordance with the guidelines shown in the final version of common core syllabii of COBSE, Delhi. Accordingly few additional sub units have been added. Objectives – 1. Emphasis on basic conceptual understanding of the content. 2. Emphasis on use of SI units, symbols, nomenclature of physical quantities and formulations as per international standards. 3. Providing logical sequencing of units of the subject matter and proper placement of concepts with their linkage for better learning. 4. Reducing the curriculum load by eliminating overlapping of concepts/content within the discipline and other disciplines. 5. Promotion of process-skills, problem-solving abilities and applications of Physics concepts. 6. Strengthen the concepts developed at the secondary stage to provide firm foundation for further learning in the subject. 7. Expose the learners to different processes used in Physics-related industrial and technological applications. 8. Develop process-skills and experimental, observational, manipulative, decision making and investigatory skills in the learners. 9. Promote problem solving abilities and creative thinking in learners. 10. Develop conceptual competence in the learners and make them realize and appreciate the interface of Physics with other disciplines.

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PHYSICS

(Upgraded Syllabus)

Std. XI

1. Measurements Introduction, Need for measurement, Units for measurement, System of Units, S.I. Units, Fundamental and derived units, Dimensional analysis, Order of magnitude and significant figures, Accuracy and errors in measurement.

2. Scalars and Vectors Addition and subtraction of vectors, Product of vectors.

3. Projectile motion Uniformly accelerated motion along straight line, Non uniform motion, Position time graph and velocity-time graph, Equation of a projectile path, Time of flight, Horizontal range, Maximum height of a projectile, Relative velocity.

4. Force Types of forces, General idea of gravitation, electromagnetic and nuclear forces, Law of conservation of momentum, Work done by a variable force. Work-energy theorem, Elastic and inelastic collisions in one and two dimensions, Inertial and non-intertial frames, Moment of force, Couple and properties of couple, Centre of mass, Centre of gravity, Conditions of equilibrium of a rigid body.

5. Friction in solids and liquids Origin and nature of frictional forces, Laws of static friction, Laws of kinetic friction, Pressure due to fluid column, Pascal‟s Law and its applications, Effect of gravity on fluid pressure, Viscosity, Streamline flow, Turbulent flow, Viscous force, Newton‟s formula, Stokes‟ law, Equation for terminal velocity, Raynold‟s number, Bernoulli‟s principle and its applications.

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6. Sound Waves Waves and oscillations, Progressive waves, Characteristics of transverse waves, Characteristics of longitudinal waves, Sound as longitudinal wave motion, Relation between v, f and, ƛ Newton‟s formula for velocity of sound, Laplace‟s correction.

7. Thermal properties of matter Temperature and heat, Measurement of temperature, Ideal-gas equation and absolute temperature, Thermal expansion, Specific heat capacity, Calorimetry, Change of state, Latent heat, Heat transfer.

8. Refraction of Light Refraction of monochromatic light, Snell‟s law, Total internal reflection, Critical angle, Optical fibre, Dispersion of light, Prism formula, Angular dispersion and dispersive power, Rainbow, Scattering of light, Blue colour of sky, Colour of sun at sunrise and sunset. Elementary idea of Raman effect.

9. Ray optics Reflection of light by spherical mirrors, Refraction at single curved surface, Lens maker‟s equation, Combination of thin lenses in contact, Concept of conjugate focii, Correction of eye defects, Magnifying power of simple microscope, Magnifying power of compound microscope, Magnifying power of telescope, Reflecting telescope - schematic diagram with explanation.

10. Electrostatics Frictional electricity, Charges and their conservation, Coulomb‟s law and dielectric constant, Forces between multiple electric charges, Superposition principle of forces, Continuous distribution of charges, Concept of charge density, Electric field intensity, Potential energy, Electric potential due to point charge, Relation between electric field intensity and potential, Potential difference, Volt and electron volt, Electric dipole and dipole moment, Electric lines of force. Equipotential surfaces, P.E. of single charge and system of charges.

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11. Current electricity Ohm‟s law, Resistance, Specific resistance, Temperature dependence of resistance, Colour code of carbon resistor, Series and parallel combination of resistors, E.M.F. and internal resistance of cell, Work done by electric current, Power in electric circuit, Cells in series and in parallel, Elementary idea of secondary cells.

12. Magnetic effect of electric current Oersted’s experiment, Biot Savart‟s law, Right hand rule, Magnetic induction at the centre of circular coil carrying current, Magnetic induction at a point along the axis of a coil carrying current, Fleming‟s left hand rule, Force between two infinitely long current carrying parallel conductors, Definition of Ampere, Force acting on a conductor carrying current in magnetic field, Torque on a current loop in magnetic field.

13. Magnetism Origin of magnetism due to moving charges, Equivalence between magnetic dipole and circular coil carrying current, Definition of magnetic dipole moment and its unit, Torque acting on a magnet in uniform magnetic induction, Bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, Magnetic field lines, Magnetic induction due to bar magnet at a point along the axis and at a point along equator, Earth‟s magnetic field and magnetic elements, Electromagnets and factors affecting their strength.

14. Electromagnetic waves Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics, Transverse nature of electromagnetic waves, Electromagnetic spectrum, Space communication, Propagation of electromagnetic waves in atmosphere.

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**Physics List of Practicals Std. XI
**

1. Use of Vernier Callipers. 2. Use of Screw gauge. 3. To determine radius of curvature of a given spherical surface by a spherometer. 4. To find the weight of a given body using parallelogram law of vectors. 5. To study the relationship between force of limiting friction and normal reaction and to find co-efficient of friction between a block and a horizontal surface. 6. To determine resistance per cm of a given wire by plotting a graph of potential difference versus current. 7. To find the value of „v‟ for different values of „u‟ in case of a „concave mirror and to find the focal length. 8. To find the focal length of a convex lens by plotting graphs between „u‟ and „v‟or between „1/u‟ and „1/v‟. 9. To find the focal length of a convex mirror, using a convex lens. 10. To find the focal length of a concave lens, using a convex lens. 11. To determine angle of minimum deviation for a given prism by plotting a graph between angle of incidence and angle of deviation. 12. To determine refractive index of a glass using a travelling microscope. 13. To find refractive index of a liquid by using (i) concave mirror, (ii) convex lens and plane mirror. 14. To determine specific heat capacity of a given (i) liquid (ii) solid, by method of mixtures.

**Physics List of Activities Std. XI
**

1. To make a paper scale of given least count, e.g. 0.2 cm, 0.5 cm. 2. To determine mass of a given body using a meter scale by principle of moments. 3. To plot a graph for a given set of data, with proper choice of scales and error bars.

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9. To study the nature and size of image formed by (i) convex lens (ii) concave mirror. To note the change in level of liquid in a container on heating and interpret the observations. on a screen by using a candle and a screen (for different distances of the candle from the lens/mirror). To measure the force of limiting friction for rolling of a roller on a horizontal plane. 5. To study the variation in range of a jet of water with angle of projection. 8. To observe refraction and lateral deviation of a beam of light incident obliquely on a glass slab. 10. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 115 . voltage (AC/DC). To obtain a lens combination with the specified focal length by using two lenses from the given set of lenses. 7.4. 6. To measure resistance. current (AC) and check continuity of a given circuit using multimeter.

lattitude. Poisson’s ratio. XII 1. Differential equation of linear S. Simple pendulum. Surface energy. Angular momentum and its conservation. Statement of Kepler‟s laws of motion.E.H. and P. 6. Variation of „g‟ due to altitude. K. S. Banking of roads.E. Effect of impurity and temperature on surface tension. Principle of parallel and perpendicular axes. Torque. Definition of stress and strain. Vertical circular motion due to earth‟s gravitation.H. Rolling motion. Hooke‟s law.M. depth and motion.M.. Equation for velocity and energy at different positions of vertical circular motion. 4. Uniform circular motion. Centripetal and centrifugal forces. Applications of elastic behaviour of materials. Communication satellite and its uses. Gravitation Newton‟s law of gravitation. 2.M. 3. K. 7. Binding energy and escape velocity of a satellite. Deformation. Relation between linear velocity and angular velocity.H.H. 5.M. Radius of gyration..I.I.H. Phase of S. M.H. Determination of „Y‟. Projection of U. Circular motion Angular displacement.C.. Physical significance of M.E. Elasticity General explanation of elastic property.. Capillarity and capillary action.I. Weightlessness condition in orbit. Surface tension Surface tension on the basis of molecular theory.PHYSICS (Upgraded syllabus) Std. of rotating body.. Wave motion 116 . Radial acceleration. Angle of contact. Projection of satellite. Behaviour of metal wire under increasing load. Damped S. Kinematical equations for circular motion in analogy with linear motion. Periodic time. Angular velocity and angular acceleration. of some regular shaped bodies about specific axes.M. Plasticity. Elastic energy.‟s having same period and along same line. in S. on any diameter.M. Elastic constants and their relation. Oscillations Explanation of periodic motion. Surface tension.M. Composition of two S. Rotational motion Definition of M.

Mean free path. Energy density of a medium. 8. Brewster‟s law. Resonance. Study of vibrations of air columns. Plane polarised light. Wave front and wave normal. Assumptions of kinetic theory. Interference and diffraction Interference of light. Kinetic theory of gases and Radiation Concept of an ideal gas. Refraction at plane surface. Polaroids. Reflection at plane surface. Qualitative idea of black body radiation. Analytical treatment of interference bands. Maxwell distribution. Superposition of waves. Reflection of transverse and longitudinal waves. Heat engines and refrigerators. Effect of dielectric on capacity.Wein’s displacement law. Difference between interference and diffraction. 11. Stefan’s law. Stationary waves Study of vibrations in a finite medium. Condensers in series and parallel. Derivation for pressure of a gas. Construction of plane and spherical wave front. Young‟s experiment. 10. Green house effect. Measurement of wavelength by biprism experiment. Doppler effect in light. Energy of charged condenser. 2nd law of thermodynamics. van-de-Graaff generator. Concept of condenser. Free and Forced vibrations. Thermodynamics.Thermal equilibrium and definition of temperature.Simple harmonic progressive waves. Doppler effect in sound. Change of phase. Resolving power of a microscope and telescope. Electrostatics Gauss‟ theorem proof and applications. Derivation of Boyle‟s law. Diffraction due to single slit. Huygens‟ Principle. Conditions for producing steady interference pattern. Capacity of parallel plate condenser. Polarisation. Dielectrics and electric polarisation. 13. 1st law of thermodynamics. Rayleigh‟s criterion. 9. Law of equipartition of energy and application to Specific heat capacities of gases. Formation of beats. Wave theory of light Wave theory of light. Degrees of freedom. Formation of stationary waves on string. Mechanical force on unit area of a charged conductor. 12. Current electricity 117 .

Coil rotating in uniform magnetic induction. Wattless current. Radioactivity. Ferromagnetism on the basis of domain theory. de Broglie hypothesis. Moving coil galvanometer. Magnetic effects of electric current Ampere‟s law and its applications. Magnetism Circular current loop as a magnetic dipole. Transformer. Magnetisation and magnetic intensity. Wavelength of an electron. Rectifiers. Meter bridge. B. Rutherford‟s model of atom. proof of. Particle nature of light. Curie temperature. Composition and size of nucleus.c circuit with resistance. Zener diode as a voltage regulator. Resonant circuit. Self induction and mutual induction. P-N junction diode. Bohr‟s model. Cyclotron. Reactance and impedance.E. I-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias. Davisson and Germer experiment. 14. e = . 18 Atoms. AC generator. Hertz and Lenard‟s observations. mass defect. Magnetic dipole moment of revolving electron. Intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors. Decay law. Alternating currents. Sensitivity of moving coil galvanometer. 16 Electromagnetic inductions Laws of electromagnetic induction. Paramagnetism. Einstein‟s equation. Continuous and characteristics X-rays. P-type and N-type semiconductor. I-V characteristics of LED. Ammeter. 19 Semiconductors Energy bands in solids. Wheatstone‟s bridge. 15. Voltmeter. Need for displacement current. inductance and capacitance. 17 Electrons and photons Photoelectric effect.dØ dt Eddy currents. mass-energy relation. per nucleon and its variation with mass number. Diamagnetism. LC oscillations (qualitative treatment only) Power in a. Hydrogen spectrum. Transistor 118 .Kirchhoff‟s law. Solar cell. Molecules and Nuclei Alpha particle scattering experiment. Nuclear fission and fusion. Matter waves – wave nature of particles. Potentiometer. Photodiode.

Transistor as a switch.NOR) 20 Communication systems Elements of communication system. Need for modulation. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 119 . bandwidth of transmission medium. Production and detection of an amplitude modulated wave.action and its characteristics.NAND. Oscillators and Logic gates (OR. Transistor as an amplifier (CE mode). space communication.NOT.AND. Propagation of electromagnetic waves in atmosphere. bandwidth of signals.

7. 8. 9. To draw the I-V characteristic curves of a p-n junction diode in forward bias and reverse bias. 6. 12. To find the force constant and effective mass of helical spring by plotting T 2--m graph using method of oscillations. To determine resistance of galvanometer using metre bridge. 10. To determine the surface tension of water by capillary rise method. 2. 120 . 14. To compare the emf of two given cells using potentiometer. To study the relation between frequency and length of a given wire under constant tension using sonometer. 11. 15. To determine Young‟s modulus of elasticity of the material of a given wire.Physics List of Practicals Std. To find resistance of given wire using metre bridge and hence determine the specific resistance of its material. To study the relationship between the temperature of a hot body and time by plotting a cooling curve. XII 1. 13. To determine the internal resistance of given cell using potentiometer. To draw the characteristic curve of a zener diode and to determine its reverse break down voltage. 3. To study the relation between the length of a given wire and tension for constant frequency using sonometer. To find the speed of sound in air at room temperature using a resonance tube. To verify the laws of combination (series/parallel) of resistances using a metre bridge. 4. 5. To study the characteristics of a common-emitter npn or pnp transistor and to find out the values of current and voltage gains.

and 1C. 5. 3. To observe polarization of light using two polaroids. To identify a diode. To measure the resistance and impedance of an inductor with or without iron core. transistor or IC) is in working order. 2. ammeter and voltmeter. 9.Physics List of Activities Std. three (on/off) switches. 121 . 4. (iii) see the unidirectional flow of current in case of a diode and an LED (iv) check whether a given electronic component (e. To study the effect of detergent on surface tension by observing capillary rise. To study the variation in potential drop with length of a wire for a steady current. a fuse and a power source. To study effect of intensity of light (by varying distance of the source) on an L. 10. To draw the diagram of a given open circuit comprising at least a battery. Mark the components that are not connected in proper order and correct the circuit and also the circuit diagram. XII 1. a resistor and a capacitor from mixed collection of such items. To assemble a household circuit comprising three bulbs.D. 8. 1 l. To study dissipation of energy of a simple pendulum by plotting a graph between square of amplitude and time. To study the effect of load on depression of a suitably clamped meter scale loaded (i) at its end (ii) in the middle. 12.g. Use of multimeter to (i) identify base of transistor (ii) distinguish between npn and pnp type transistors. 7. a transistor. an LED. resistor/ rheostat.R. diode. 6. key. To study the factors affecting the rate of loss of heat of a liquid.

There is a need to provide the sufficient conceptual background of chemistry which will help the students to appear for different common entrance test at state level and national level. The syllabus contains areas like physical. 3) To expose the students to various emerging new areas of chemistry and apprise them with their relevance in their future studies and their applications in various spheres of chemical sciences and technology. etc. analytical and polymer chemistry. industrial. 5) To develop problem solving skills in students. 6) To expose the students to different processes used in industries and their technological applications. organic. technology) at tertiary level. after the +2 stage. Geology. 7) To apprise students with interface of chemistry with other disciplines of science such as Physics. OBJECTIVES The broad objectives of teaching Chemistry at Senior Secondary Stage are to help the learners : 1) To promote understanding of basic facts and concepts in chemistry while retaining the excitement of Chemistry. Engineering. engineering. Biology. fundamental concepts.CHEMISTRY (Upgraded syllabus) Std. symbols and formulations. etc. nutrition. the new and updated curriculum is introduced at +2 stages. The syllabus is comparable to the international level. New nomenclature. The revised syllabus has taken care of new formulations and nomenclature of elements. technology. This new syllabus will make them competent to meet the challenges of academic and professional courses like medicine. XI & XII Preamble RATIONALE According to NCF 2005. compounds and IUPAC units of physical quantities. 122 . industries and agriculture. weather. engineering. 4) To equip students to face various changes related to health. 2) To make students capable of studying chemistry in academic and professional courses (such as medicine. modern techniques are given importance. inorganic. environment. population.

concept of orbitals. Heisenberg‟s uncertainty principle. liquefaction of gases. dual nature of matter and light. proton and neutron. type of bonding. Unit 4 : Periodic Table Significance of classification. laws of chemical combination. Ideal behaviour. percentage composition. p and d orbitals. Kinetic energy and molecular speeds (elementary idea) Liquid State – Vapour pressure. Ideal gas equation.Enthalpy: Explanation and definition of term. Historical approach to particulate nature of matter. Role of gas laws in elucidating the concept of the molecule. Charles law. empirical and molecular formula. chemical reactions.CHEMISTRY Std. atoms and molecules. Boyle‟s law. valence. electronegativity. viscosity and surface tension (qualitative idea only. Bohr‟s model and its limitations. rules for filling electrons in orbitals – Aufbau principle. electronic configuration of atoms. ionic radii. Pauli‟s exclusion principle and Hund‟s rule. stoichiometry and calculations based on stoichimetry. empirical derivation of gas equation. modern periodic law and present form of periodic table. stability of half filled and completely filled orbitals. 123 . Inert gas radii nomenclature of elements with atomic number greater than 100. shapes of s. Unit 3 : Structure of Atom Discovery of electron. Gay Lussac‟s law. quantum numbers. atomic number. Rutherford‟s model and its limitations. isotopes and isobars. Atomic and molecular masses mole concept and molar mass : Avogadro‟s law and Avogadro number. brief history of the development of periodic table. de Broglie‟s relationship. XI (Theory) Unit 1: Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry General Introduction: Importance and scope of chemistry. concept of shells and subshells. Unit 2 : States of Matter : Gases and Liquids Three states of matter. electron gain enthalpy. Intermolecular interactions. Dalton‟s atomic theory : concept of elements. no mathematical derivations). Critical temperature. Deviation from ideal behaviour. Ionization enthalpy. periodic trends in properties of elements atomic radii.

colloidal state : distinction between true solutions. Unit 7 : Surface Chemistry Adsorption – physisorption and chemisorption. Balancing redox reactions. coagulation. Lyophilic. Unit 6: Chemical Equilibrium Equilibrium in physical and chemical processes. electrophoresis. strong and weak electrolytes. activity and selectivity: enzyme catalysis. ionic bond. Lyophobic. Uses of hydrogen peroxide 124 . dynamic nature of equilibrium. concept of hybridization involving s. catalysis : homogenous and heterogeneous.preparation. factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids. acid strength. Born Haber cycle : covalent bond parameters. heavy water. properties and structure. emulsion – types of emulsions. VSEPR theory. Unit 9 : Hydrogen Position of hydrogen in periodic table. isotopes. Elementary idea of nanomaterials. covalent and interstitial. Ionic equilibrium: Ionization of acids and bases. physical and chemical properties of water. factors affecting equilibrium. degree of ionization. hydrides-ionic. colloids and suspensions. properties and uses of hydrogen. ionization of polybasic acids. law of mass action. Hydrolysis of salts (elementary idea). resonance. Unit 8 : Nature of Chemical Bond Valence electrons. redox reactions. solubility product common ion effect (with illustrative examples. Brownian movement. preparation. Hydrogen peroxide. hydrogen as a fuel. Lewis structure.Unit 5: Redox Reactions Concept of oxidation and reduction. hydrogen bond. in terms of loss and gain of electrons and change in oxidation number. Buffer solutions. molecular orbital theory of homonuclear diatomic molecules (qualitative idea only). valence bond theory. properties of colloids. polar character of covalent bond. occurrence. geometry of covalent molecules. multimolecular and macromolecular colloids. Tyndall effect. concept of pH.) Handerson equation. equilibrium constant. p and d orbitals and shapes of some simple molecules. Le Chatelier‟s principle. oxidation number. covalent character of ionic bond.

Variation of properties. free radicals. Aluminium. Preparation and properties of some important compounds: Sodium carbonate. physical and chemical properties. anomalous properties of first element of the group. allotropic forms. boric acids. trends in the variation of properties (such as ionization enthalpy. uses. trends in chemical reactivity. boron hydrides. 125 . resonance and hyper conjugation. reactions with acids and alkalies. Classification and IUPAC nomenclature of organic compounds. silicones.Unit 10: s-Block Elements (Alkali and Alkaline earth metals) Group 1 and Group 2 elements: General introduction. inductive effect. types of organic reactions. Melting point and boiling point. Electronic displacements in a covalent bond. uses of some important Compounds. electromeric effect. biological importance of sodium and potassium. occurrence. trends in chemical reactivity. oxidation states. trends in chemical reactivity with oxygen. silicates and zeolites and structure of silicates Unit 12: Basic Principles and Techniques in Organic Chemistry General introduction.carbocations. atomic and ionic radii). Calcium oxide and calcium carbonate (CaO) (CaCO3) and industrial uses of lime and limestone. oxides. occurrence. Boron-physical and chemical properties. electronic configuration. carbanions. diagonal relationship. occurrence. electronic configuration. anomalous properties of the first element of each group. oxidation states. anomalous behavior of first element. electronic configuration. biological importance of Magnesium and Calcium. Important compounds of silicon and their uses: silicon tetrachloride. sodium hydroxide and sodium hydrogen carbonate. Unit 11 : p-Block Elements Group Introduction to p-Block Elements Group 13 elements : General introduction. Group 14 elements: General introduction. methods of qualitative and quantitative analysis. water. uses. some important compounds: borax. electrophiles and nucleophiles. hydrogen and halogens. Carbon – catenation. variation of properties.Homolytic and heterolytic fission of a covalent bond.

chemical properties. addition of hydrogen. acid rain. Carcinogenicity and toxicity. UNIT-17: Environmental chemistry Environmental pollution. structure of double bond (ethane). mechanism of electrophilic addition. 126 . effects of depletion of ozone layer. hydrogen halides. chemical reactions: acidic character of alkynes. mechanism of electrophilic substitution. green chemistry as an alternative tool for reducing pollution.Unit 13 : Alkanes Classification of hydrocarbons – Nomenclature. addition reaction of – hydrogen. Methods of preparation. water. physical properties. halogen. benzene. Unit 15: Alkynes Nomenclature. Chemical reactions. physical properties. ozone and its reactions. Pollution due to industrial wastes. IUPAC nomenclature. oxidation. Unit 14 : Alkenes Nomenclature. Unit 16 : Aromatic compounds Introduction. geometrical isomerism. chemical reactions in atmosphere. physical properties. smog. halogens. green house effect and global warming. hydrogen halides (Markovnikoff‟s addition and peroxide effect) ozonolysis. combustion and pyrolysis. major atmospheric pollutants.air. strategy for control of environmental pollution. water. Friedel Craft‟ alkylation and acylation. halogenation. methods of preparation. – nitration. structure of triple bond (ethylene). conformations (ethane only). isomerism. water and soil pollution. resonance aromaticity. chemical reactions including free radical mechanism of halogenation. sulphonaiton.

Determination of boiling point of an organic compound. naphthalene. benzoic acid. β-naphthol. E. Cutting glass tube and glass rod 2. (b) Study the shift in equilibrium between [Co(H2O)6]2+ and chloride ions by changing the concentration of either of the ions. Chemical equilibrium Any one of the following experiments: (a) Study the shift in equilibrium between ferric ions and thiocyanate ions by changing the concentration of either ion. D. ferric hydroxide. Experiments related to pH change (a) Any one of the following experiments: Determination of pH of some solutions obtained from fruit juices. Alum.Chemistry Practical Syllabus Std-XI A.) 2. xylene (o. water) 3. Operating pinch cork B.m. Surface Chemistry (a) Preparation of one lyophilic and one lyophobic sol: Lyophilic sol-starch and gum. Drawing out a glass jet 4. copper sulphate. bases and salts using pH paper or universal indicator. arseneous sulphide. Oxalic acid. (p-toludine. Study the pH change in the titration of a strong base using universal indicator. Characterization and purification of chemical substances 1. methyl acetate. Bending glass tube 3. C. Comparing the pH solutions of strong and weak acid of same concentration. Basic Laboratory Techniques 1. (b) Study of the role of emulsifying agents in stabilizing the emulsion of oil. Study of burner 5. varied concentrations of acids. (acetone.p). 127 . benzoic acid. Lyophobic sol–aluminium hydroxide. resorcinol. acetic acid. Crystallization of impure sample of anyone of the following compounds. Determination of melting point of an organic compound.

Fe3+. Quantitative estimation Using a chemical balance. Ca2+. chlorine bromine and iodine in an organic compound. Preparation of standard solution of sodium carbonate. Determination of strength of a given solution of sodium hydroxide by titrating it against standard solution of oxalic acid. Sr2+. F. Preparation of standard solution of oxalic acid. Detection of nitrogen. G. I-.(b) Study of pH change by common ion effect in case of weak acids and bases. Qualitative analysis Determination of one cation and one anion in a given salt: Cations – Pb2+. Determination of strength of a given solution of hydrochloric acid by titrating It against standard sodium carbonate solution. Ni2+ . Co2+. Br-. Al3+. NH4+ Anions – CO32SO32SO42NO2NO3Cl-. Cu2+. Ba2+. Zn2+. 128 . Mg2+. PO43C2O42CH3COO(Note: Insoluble salts excluded) H. Mn2+. sulphur.

A few suggested Projects 1 Checking the bacterial contamination in drinking water by testing sulphide ion.PROJECT Scientific investigations involving laboratory testing and collecting information from other sources. 6 Determination of the rate of evaporation of different liquids. 2 Study of the methods of purification of water. 3 Testing the hardness. fluoride. 5 Study of the acidity of different samples of the tea leaves. Note: Any other investigatory project can be chosen with the approval of the teacher. chloride etc. 7 Study of the effect of acids and bases on the tensile strength of fibers. 129 . 4 Investigation of the foaming capacity of different washing soaps and the effect of addition of sodium carbonate on them. depending upon the regional variation in drinking water and the study of causes of presence of these ions above permissible limit (if any). 8 Analysis of fruit and vegetable juices for their acidity. presence of iron.

conductance in electrolytic solutions. Unit 3 : Chemical Thermodynamics and energetic Concepts of system. temperature. Band theory of metals. combustion. number of atoms per unit cell in a cubic unit cell. abnormal molecular mass. factors affecting rate of reaction. variations of conductivity with concentration. order and molecularity of a reaction. fuel cells. corrosion. EMF of a cell. Second and third law of thermodynamics Unit 4: Electrochemistry Redox reactions. solid solutions. Kohlrausch‟s Law.Raoult’s law elevation of boiling point. types of systems. ionization. Relation between Gibb’s energy change and emf of a cell. surroundings. Hess‟ law of constant heat summation. conductors and semiconductors and insulators and n and p type semiconductors. sublimation. extensive and intensive properties. calculation of density of unit cell. Unit 5: Chemical Kinetics Rate of reaction (average and instantaneous). colligative properties –relative lowering of vapor pressure. energy. free energy change for spontaneous and non spontaneous processes.Van’t Hoff factor and calculations involving it. electrical and magnetic properties. concentration. voids. solubility of gases in liquids. atomization. concept of 130 . depression of freezing point. and equilibrium constant. standard electrode potential. integrated rate equations and half life (only for zero and first order reactions). heat. specific and molar conductivity. state functions. ionic. Phase transition. osmotic pressure. packing in solids. covalent and metallic solids. rate law and specific rate constant. Nernst equation and its application to chemical cells. determination of molecular masses using colligative properties. Work. lead accumulator. electrolysis and laws of electrolysis (elementary idea). and solution and dilution Introduction of entropy as a state function. amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea). expression of concentration of solids in liquids.CHEMISTRY Std. formation. Unit 2 : Solutions and colligative properties Types of solutions. enthalpy of bond dissociation. molecular. catalyst. dry cell –electrolytic and Galvanic cells. point defects. XII (Theory) Unit 1: Solid State Classification of solids based on different forces. First law of thermodynamics – internal energy and enthalpy.unit cell in two dimensional and three dimensional lattices.

zinc and iron Unit 7: p-Block Elements Group 15 elements: General introduction. properties and uses. Sulphur – allotropic forms. Group 18 elements: General introduction. trends in physical and chemical properties. preparation. interhalogen compounds. Unit 6 : General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements Principles and methods of extraction – concentration. compounds of nitrogen. oxides of nitrogen (structure only). oxoacids of sulphur (structures only). no mathematical treatment). Ozone. electronic configuration. preparation and properties of phosphine. trends in physical and chemical properties. occurrence and principle of extraction of aluminium. trends in physical and chemical properties. compounds of sulphur. Phoshorous-allotropic forms. properties and uses of chlorine and hydrochloric acid. Occurrence. compounds of phosphorous. Arrhenius equation. oxidation states. compounds of halogens. industrial process of manufacture. simple oxides.PCl5) and oxoacids (elementary idea only). properties and uses. halides (PCl3. 131 . Group 16 elements: General introduction. copper. preparation. properties and uses. oxoacids of halogens (structure only). sulphurc acid. trends in physical and chemical properties. dioxygen. occurrence. electronic configuration.Activation energy. occurrence. uses. electronic configuration. oxidation. oxidation states.collision theory (elementary idea. properties and uses of sulphur dioxide. preparation and properties of ammonia and nitric acid. reduction electrolytic method and refining. Classification of oxides. oxidation states. electronic configuration. Group 17 elements: General introduction. occurrence. preparation. nitrogen – preparation.

Phenols and Ethers Alcohols: Nomenclature. Comparison with lanthanoids. uses of methanol and ethanol. Unit 10 : Halogen derivatives of alkanes (and arenes) Haloalkanes : Nomenclature. ionic radii.Unit 8 : d and f Block Elements d-Block Elements General introduction. Unit 11 : Alcohols. interstitial compounds. colour. mechanism of substitution reactions. general trends in properties of the first row transition metals – metallic character. isomerism. VBT. substitution reactions (directive influence of halogen for monosubstituted compounds only) stability of carbocations. extraction of metals and biological systems). 132 . identification of primary. secondary and tertiary alcohols. colour. magnetic properties. ionization enthalpy. Werner’s theory. uses. freons. Uses and environmental effects of – dichloromethane. physical and chemical properties. DDT. alloy formation preparation and properties of K2Cr2O7 and KMnO4.Stability of carbocations. bonding. thrichloromethane. catalytic property. R-S and d-l configurations. physical and chemical properties. Phenols: Nomenclature. Unit 9: Coordination Compounds Coordination compounds – Introduction. mechanism of dehydration. methods of preparation. nature of C-X bond. tetrachloromethane. uses of phenols. acidic nature of phenol.CFT. physical and chemical properties. Actinoids – Electronic configuration. occurrence and characteristics of transition metals. chemical reactivity and lanthanoid contraction and its consequences.R-S and d-l configuration Haloarenes : Nature of C-X bond. oxidation states. physical and chemical properties (of primary alcohols only). oxidation states. f-Block ElementsLanthanoids – Electronic configuration. oxidation states. Ethers : Nomenclature. magnetic properties and shapes. electrophillic substitution reactions. iodoform. IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds. (Structural and stereo) importance of coordination compounds (in qualitative analysis. ligands. coordination number. electronic configuration. methods of preparation. methods of preparation.

maltose). acidic nature. Some important polymers. their classification and functions. identification of primary.Unit 12 : Aldehydes. uses. Unit 13: Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen Nitro compounds-General methods of preparation and chemical reactions Amines : Nomenclature. glycogen). and rubber. physical and chemical properties. proteins. methods of preparation. oligosaccharides (sucrose. Vitamins: Classification and functions. secondary. methods of preparation. polypeptides.natural and synthetic. polyesters. reactivity of alpha hydrogen in aldehydes. secondary and tertiary amines. natural and synthetic like polythene. importance. Proteins: Elementary idea of -amino acids. copolymerization. mechanism of nucleophilic addition. tertiary structure and quaternary structures (qualitative idea only). methods of polymerization (addition and condensation). enzymes. 133 . nature of carbonyl group. Physical and chemical properties. bakelite. Cyanides and Isocyanides: Will be mentioned at relevant places in context. Diazonium salts: Preparation. chemical reactions and importance in synthetic organic chemistry. methods of preparation. Ketones and Carboxylic Acids Aldehydes and Ketones : Nomenclature. Nucleic Acids: DNA and RNA Unit 15: Polymers Classification . monosaccahrides d-l configuration (glucose and fructose). structure. linkage. structure of amines-primary. Lipids and Hormones (elementary idea) excluding structure. uses. uses. Unit 14: Biomolecules Carbohydrates: Classification (aldoses and ketoses). lactose. cellulose. classification. denaturation of proteins.Biodegradable and non biodegradable polymers. nylon. peptide. Carboxylic Acids: Nomenclature. polysaccharides (starch. physical and chemical properties.

KIO3 and sodium sulphite (Na2SO3) using starch solution as indicator (clock reaction). Chemicals in food: Preservatives. antihistamines (elementary idea of antioxidants) 2. XII A. (ii) Reaction between potassium iodate. iii] Determination of enthalpy change during interaction (hydrogen bond formation) between acetone and chloroform.Unit 16: Chemistry in Everyday life : 1. Electrochemistry Variation of cell potential in Zn|Zn2+||Cu2+|Cu with change in concentration of electrolytes (CuSO4 or ZnSO4) at room temperature (demonstration). (b) Study of reaction rate of any one of the following: (i) Reaction of iodide ion with hydrogen peroxide at room temperature using different concentration of iodide ions. antibiotics. Chemicals in medicines: analgesics. 3. artificial sweetening agents. tranquilizers. 134 . Thermochemistry Any one of the following experiments: i] Enthalpy of dissolution of copper sulphate or potassium nitrate. Chemistry Practical Syllabus Std. Chemical Kinetics (Any one of the following) : (a) Effect of concentration and temperature on the rate of reaction between sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid. Cleansing agents: Soaps and detergents. antimicrobials. (c) Acid hydrolysis of ethyl acetate. antiseptics. C. cleansing action. disinfectants. antacids. B. antifertility drugs. ii] Enthalpy of neutralization of strong acid (HCI) and strong base (NaOH). iv] Heat of displacement of Cu from CuSO4 by Zn.

J. Determinaiton of concentration/molarity of KMnO4 solution by titrating it against a standard solution of: (i) Oxalic acid (ii) Ferrous ammonium sulphate (Students will be required to prepare standard solutions by weighing themselves). (ii) Separation of constituents present in an inorganic mixture containing two cations only (constituents having large difference in Rf values to be provided). Cations – Pb2+. Co2+. phenolic. Sr2+. Zn2+. Cu2+. Mg2+. H. Fe3+. aldehydic. Characteristic tests of arbohydrates.Napthol aniline dye. Qualitative analysis 1) Determination of two cations from a given mixture of salts. NH4+. fats and proteins in pure samples and their detection in given food stuffs. Chromatography (demonstration) (i) Separation of pigments from extracts of leaves and flowers by paper chromatography and determination of Rf values. I. carboxylic and amino (primary) groups. Tests for the functional groups present in organic compounds Unsaturation. (ii) Preparation of potassium ferric oxalate. Mn2+. Ca2+. As3+. Preparation of Organic Compounds (i) p-Nitrocetanilide (ii) Aniline yellow or 2. ketonic. (iii) Iodoform (iv) Phthalic or succinic anhydride. alcoholic. Al3+. Ni2+. Ba2+. 135 . 2) Determination of two anions from a given mixture of salts. E. F. Preparation of Inorganic Compounds (i) Preparation of double salt of ferrous ammonium sulphate or potash alum. (v) Di-benzal acetone G.D.

time etc). chilli powder and pepper. No2NO3-. 2 Study of quantity of casein present in different samples of milk. concentration. 6 Comparative study of the rate of fermentation of following materials: wheat flour. sugar. carrot juice. PO43C2O42CH3COO(Note : Insoluble salts excluded. can be chosen with the approval of the teacher.Anions – CO32-. SO42-. A few suggested Projects: 1 Study of presence of oxalate ions in guava fruit at different stages of ripening. butter. 5 Study of digestion of starch by salivary amylase and. etc. Ajwain (carum). Note : Any investigatory project. gram flour. potato juice. 7 Extraction of essential oils present in Saunf (aniseed). effect of pH and temperature on it. effect of temperature. SO32-.) PROJECT Scientific investigations involving laboratory testing and collecting information From other sources. etc. Br-. Illaichi (cardamom). 3 Preparation of soybean milk and its comparison with the natural milk with respect to curd formation. 136 . Cl-. I-. 8 Study of common food adulterants in fat. 4 Study of the effect of potassium bisulphate as food preservative under various conditions (temperature. turmeric powder.

communities. Guide students to perform easy experiments for better understanding of biological principles and to develop experimental skills required in practical work. Recently. Help students to understand the functioning of organisms. ecosystems and environment constitute unique set of natural resources of great importance. Assist to understand the underlying principles of biological sciences and thereby develop scientific attitude towards biological phenomena. Accordingly some additional topics from state Board syllabus have been deleted whereas the lacking topics have been added. the science of biology has undergone a paradigm shift that has transformed it from a collection of loosely related facts into a modern applied science. Create awareness about the contribution of biology to human welfare. The present syllabus reinforces the concepts introduced in lower classes. 137 . Make students aware of issues of global importance. XI & XII Preamble Higher secondary is the most crucial stage of education because at this juncture specialized disciplines of science are introduced. This syllabus is designed to prepare students for various examinations conducted at state and national level. Knowledge of biology helps us to understand a common thread which holds all these components together. Living organisms exhibit extremely complex functional system. Hence it has been prepared in accordance with the guidelines shown in the final version of common core syllabi of COBSE. Organisms. The entire unit “Ecology and Environment” has now been added under Botany and Zoology sections. Delhi. Organisms seldom occur as isolated individuals. Objectives: The prescribed syllabus is expected to: Promote the inherent skill of observation. Understanding of biology will help in the sustainable development of the environment and will also ensure the existence of earth with all its amazing diversity.BIOLOGY. They are organized into populations and biological communities.Std.

Lichens .Biochemistry of cell: 1. significance and examples. Meiosis 138 . Chapter 2 . Botanical gardens and herbaria . Diversity in living organisms-Brief idea. Mitosis 3. importance and list of gardens and herbaria in India. types with examples. Enzyme action and factors affecting enzyme activity in brief. 2.Definition. Unit 2 Structure and function of cell Chapter 3 .Botany . Systematic and binomial system of nomenclature . 2. Three domains of life. Enzymes . characters. Viruses and viroids . Concept of species. Classification of living organisms (five Kingdom classification) – Major groups and principles of classification for each Kingdom with examples.Definitions. Taxonomic hierarchy with examples. Three to five salient features and two examples of each category.Std. Basic chemical constituents of living bodies.meaning of the terms taxonomy. characters. 2.Kingdom Plantae 1.Meaning. 4. Economic importance and list of viral diseases. Structure and function of carbohydrates. Bryophyta.Algae. classification and nomenclature. Cell cycle 2. general properties. 3. systematics. Chapter 4 Cell Division 1. proteins. Salient features of major plant groups . – XI: Biology (Upgraded syllabus) Section I .Diversity in organisms 1. Gymnosperms and Angiosperms (Dicotyledons and Monocotyledons). Pteridophyta. lipids and nucleic acids in brief. Types. Unit 1 Diversity in Living World: Chapter 1. 3. Binomial nomenclature explanation. 5. Need of classification. examples and importance.Meaning.

Role of water and minerals . ethylene and abscissic acid (role in brief) Photoperiodism.Morphology of Plants 1. stem. Phases of growth. Mineral toxicity.Unit 3 Structural organization in plants: Chapter 5 . inflorescence.Absorption of water and minerals. de.Roots. 2. nutrients and gases.Apoplast and Symplast Pathways. Role of K+ ions 3.. Elementary idea of Hydroponics. Plant tissues. cytokinines. Differentiation. Germination .differentiation. redifferentiation Sequence of developmental process in a plant cell Growth regulators . flower. mechanism of opening and closing of stomata. Conditions of growth.Plant Growth and Development: Seed dormancy. 139 .Plant Water Relation and Mineral Nutrition 1. Guttation Ascent of sap. root pressure concept and cohesion . Unit 4 Plant Physiology: Chapter 6 . Movement of water. biological nitrogen fixation) Chapter 7 .macronutrients and micronutrients and their role. Mineral deficiency symptoms. leaf. Nitrogen Metabolism (nitrogen cycle. fruit and seed. Definition and characteristics of growth. anatomy and functions of different parts . food. Active and passive absorption in brief. epigeal and viviparous. Translocation of sugars through phloem brief account. Transpiration – structure of stomata.auxins. Photomorphogenesis including brief account of Phytochromes (Elementary idea) Vernalization. gibberellins.tension theory.Hypogeal. Morphology. (To be dealt along with the relevant practicals of the practical syllabus) 2.

Echinodermata and Unit 2 Structure and function of cell: Chapter 9 .(Areolar.structure and examples. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell . Cephalochordata. Mitochondria.brief account 2.XI Section II – Zoology Unit 1 Diversity in Living World: Chapter 8 . 5. Aves and Mammalia.Study of Animal Tissues 1. columnar. Classification of following phyla with three to five salient features and two examples of each category: Porifera. Plant cell and animal cell. Osteichthyes. Lysosomes.General idea with list. Cyclostomata.compound epithelium (stratified and transitional). Golgi complex. Microbodies.(fluid mosaic model). Platyhelminthes. Ribosome and Centrioles (ultrstructure and functions). Coelenterata.Kingdom Animalia: 1. Amphibia. 2. Ligaments. Unit 3 Structural organisation in Animals: Chapter 10. Cell wall and cell membrane . 3. . Tendons. . Zoological parks and Museums . Mollusca. b) Connective tissue . Annelida. Arthropoda. nucleolus and nucleoplasm. 6. Vacuoles. Salient features of major phyla under kingdom Animalia. Nemathelminthes. Adipose. cilia and flagella.Nucleus.types: a) Epithelial tissues .Organization of Cell: 1.simple epithelium (squamous. glandular). Animal tissues . Reptilia. Endoplasmic reticulum. Nuclear organization . Hemichordata. Cell theory . Ciliated. cuboidal. Classification of phylum chordata upto class level with three to five salient features and two examples of each category: Urochordata. Chondrichthyes. Cartilage and Bone).Std. 140 . Cell organelles: Plastids. cytoskeleton. 4.

striated and cardiac). vomiting and diarrhoea Chapter 13.c) Muscular tissue . Peristalsis. Regulation of Respiration. Chapter 14.Asthma. 141 . respiration and common respiratory disorders: Respiratory organs in animals (Recall only) i) Respiratory system in brief ii) Breathing.Study of Animal Type: 1. Jaundice. Regulation iii) Exchange of gases. circulatory. Respiratory volumes iv) Respiratory disorders. indigestion. d) Nervous tissue (Neurons.(Smooth.Human Nutrition: 1. and diarthroses. respiratory.Human Respiration: 1Breathing. constipation.synarthroses.Human skeleton and Locomotion: Brief account of human skeleton: A] Axial Skeleton B] Appendicular Skeleton (Details to be dealt with the relevant practical) Types of joints . Morphology. amphiarthroses. anatomy and functions of digestive. absorption and nutritional disorders: ii) Digestive system in brief iv) Physiology of digestion. nervous. Chapter 11. gastrointestinal hormones. assimilation and egestion vi) Nutritional and digestive disorders – PEM. Digestion. and reproductive systems of cockroach (Brief account only) Unit 4 Human Physiology: Chapter 12. glial cells and types of neurons).inspiration and expiration. Calorific value of proteins. carbohydrates and fats v) Absorption. transport of CO2 and O2 and tissue respiration. Emphysema and occupational lung diseases.

simple and compound) and floral characters.ball and socket. 8) To study the digestion of starch by salivary amylase under different conditions of temperature and pH.Types of diarthroses . XI Biology Practicals Syllabus (A) List of experiments: 1. pivot. Preparation of T. 3 Study and describe three locally available flowering plants from the families-Solanaceae. Osteoporosis. muscular dystrophy tetany and gout. starch. stem (herbaceous and woody). S. of dicot (sunflower) and monocot roots and stem to study different plant tissues. condyloid. Muscular Mechanism of muscle movement: Contractile proteins and Muscle contraction Skeletal and muscular disorders – Myasthenia gravis. 7. 2. Fabaceae and Liliaceae with respect to types of root-(tap and adventitious). leaf (arrangement. Std. Study of plasmolysis in epidermal peels. To test the presence of sugar. Types of Movement. hinge. Study of parts of compound microscope. arthritis.Ciliary. 142 . shape. 4. 5 Study of osmosis by Potato osmometer 6. proteins and fats from suitable plant and animal materials. venation. saddle and gliding joints. Flagellar. Study of structure and distribution of stomata in upper and lower surface of leaf.

Oscillatoria. Hydra. phyllode). Observation and comments on experimental set up on: a) Phototropism b) Suction due to transpiration. Cycas. 7 Study and identification of different types of inflorescence. through temporary or permanent slides.palisade cells. Study of specimens and identification with reasons: Bacteria. Study of different modifications of root (fusiform root. Shark. xylem. epiphytic root and pneumatophores). cartilaginous and fibrous joint with one suitable example). Riccia. Study of different modification of leaf (leaflet and stipular tendril). 11. squamous epithelium. Nephrolepis. mammalian blood smear. Usnea. 6. 4. runner. Study of specimens and their identification with reasons – Sycon. yeast. collenchyma. Balanoglossus. sclerenchyma. phloem. 9. Rohu. Earthworm. and tendril). hand bones and foot bones) and different types of joints (synovial. Study of different modifications of stem (stem tuber. Ascaris. Lizard. Pigeon and Rat. Funaria. leaf Spines. parenchyma. Prawn. muscle fibres. Liverfluke. Snail. 2. sunflower and maize. Agaricus. Star-fish. Comparative study of rates of transpiration in upper and lower surface of leaf. Amoeba. c) Apical bud removal 10. Study of imbibition of seeds/raisins. Frog. Silkworm Honey bee . 8 Study of tissues and diversity in shapes and sizes of plant and animal cells. 5. guard cells. Leech. Rhizopus.(B) Study/ Observation of the following (Spotting): 1. Spirogyra. 143 . parasitic root. 3. Study of human skeleton (except skull.

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Std. co-dominance. multiple alleles and Inheritance of blood groups). . expression and regulation: Modern concept of gene in brief-cistron. Deviations from Mendelian ratio (gene interaction. Study of mitosis in onion roots tips and animal cells (grasshopper) from permanent slides. 144 . Protein Synthesis. DNA Packaging.XII Biology (Upgraded syllabus) Section I – BOTANY Unit 1: Genetics and Evolution Chapter 1 . muton and recon. 13. Producing Restriction Fragments. Chapter 2 . semi conservative replication of eukaryotic DNA. Translation-Genetic Code.Gene: its nature.incomplete dominance.Biotechnology: Process and Application Genetic engineering (Recombinant DNA technology): Transposons.Genetic Basis of Inheritance: Mendelian inheritance. Transcription. Application of Biotechnology in Agriculture – BT crops Biosafety Issues (Biopiracy and patents) Unit 3: Biology and Human Welfare Chapter 4 . cockroach and frog through models.Enhancement in Food Production: Plant Breeding Tissue Culture: Concept of Cellular Totipotency. Preparing and cloning a DNA Library. Plasmids. DNA as genetic material. structure of DNA as given by Watson and Cricks model.12 Study of external morphology of earthworm. Gene Expression and Gene Regulation (The Lac operon as a typical model of gene regulation). Pleiotropy. central dogma. Unit 2: Biotechnology and its application Chapter 3 . RNA: General structure types and functions. Elementary idea of polygenic inheritance. Bacteriophages. Gene Amplification (PCR).

Respiration: ATP as currency of Energy Mechanism of Aerobic (Glycolysis. Unit 5: Reproduction in Organisms Chapter 8 .Microbes in Human Welfare: Microbes in Household food processing Microbes in Industrial Production. Unit 4: Plant Physiology Chapter 6 . Microbes in Biogas (energy) Production. Callus Culture. micropropagation 145 . Microbes as Biocontrol Agents. Biofortification Chapter 5 . Significance of Respiration. uniparental modes-vegetative propagation. TCA Cycle and Electron Transport System) and Anaerobic Respiration. Light-Dependent Reactions (Cyclic and non-cyclic photophosphorylation) Light-Independent Reactions (C3 and C4 Pathways) Chemiosmotic hypothesis. Law of limiting factors. Single Cell Protein. Fermentation Exchange of gases Amphibolic pathway.Reproduction in Plants: Modes of Reproduction (Asexual and Sexual). Respiratory quotient of Nutrients. Suspension Culture. Chapter 7 . Asexual reproduction. Microbes as Biofertilizers.Photosynthesis: Autotrophic nutrition Site of Photosynthesis Photosynthetic Pigments and their role.Requirements of Tissue Culture (in brief). Photorespiration. Microbes in Sewage Treatment. Factors affecting Photosynthesis.

Evolution: Darwin‟s contribution.Origin and the Evolution of Life: Origin of Life: Early Earth. energy flow. Post-fertilization changes (development of endosperm and embryo. development of seed and formation of fruit) Special modes-apomixis. polyembryony. Origin and Evolution of Human being. parthenocarpy. case studies (any two).XII Biology Section II . pyramids of number. Std. Significance of seed and fruit formation. Structure of anatropous ovule. Unit 6: Ecology and Environment: Chapter 9: Organisms and Environment -I Habitat and Niche Ecosystems: Patterns. Development of female Gametophyte. assembly of organic compounds. Chromosomes. Gene flow and genetic drift. Biological Evidences. solid waste management. Ecological succession.Hardy-Weinberg principle. biomass. Adaptive radiation. Environmental issues: agrochemicals and their effects. ozone depletion. Chapter 11 . Double Fertilization: Process and Significance. Mechanism of evolution. pollination. Modern Synthetic Theory of evolution. pollen-pistil interaction.Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance: The Chromosomal Theory. oxygen release. 146 . deforestation. Ecological services-carbon fixation. energy.ZOOLOGY Unit 1: Genetics and Evolution Chapter 10 . components. Outbreeding devices. Green house effect and global warming. Pollination: Types and Agencies.Sexual Reproduction: structure of flower Development of male gametophyte. nutrient cycling (carbon and phosphorous). . Spontaneous. productivity and decomposition.

Poultry. Unit 2: Biotechnology and its application Chapter 12. Antigen-Antibody Complex. honey bee. Gene Therapy. Vaccines. Pneumonia. birds. Malaria.Human Health and Diseases: Concepts of Immunology: Immunity Types. Common cold and ring worm). Ascariasis. Adolescence.Linkage and Crossing Over. Sericulture Lac culture 147 .Genetic Engineering and Genomics: DNA Finger Printing. Sex Determination in Human being. Dairy. Fisheries. Typhoid. Sex-linked Inheritance (Haemophilia and colour blindness). Bee-Keeping. Chromosomal disorders in human: Down’s syndrome. Transgenic animals. Chapter 14. Animal Breeding. Turner’s syndrome and Klinfelter’s syndrome. Filariasis.Mendelian disorders in humansThalassemia. drug and alcohol abuse. Genomics and Human Genome Project. Biotechnological Applications in Health: Human insulin and vaccine production. Structure of Antibody. Cancer and AIDS.Animal Husbandry: Management of Farms and Farm Animals. Unit 3: Biology and Human Welfare Chapter 13. Antigens on blood cells. Pathogens and Parasites (Amoebiasis.

Uraemia. uricotelism. Sensory receptors (eye and ear).Circulation: Blood composition and coagulation. Pulmonary and Systemic Circulation. Kidney failure. Dialysis. Acromegaly. Transmission of nerve impulse. Reflex action. Disorders. role of other organs in excretion. exopthalmic goiter.Unit 4: Human Physiology Chapter 15. Transplantation. Heart beat and Pulse. Kidney stone (renal calculi). Excretory System Composition and formation of urine.Control and Co-ordination: Nervous System: Structure and functions of brain and Spinal cord. Regulation of kidney function: renin-angiotensin. Blood groups Structure and pumping action of Heart. Chapter 16. Role of Kidney in Osmoregulation. Sensory perception. coronary artery disease. Lymphatic System (Brief idea): Composition of lymph and its functions. Cardiac output. Hormonal imbalance and diseases: Common disorders (Dwarfism. ureotelism.Excretion and osmoregulation: Modes of excretion-Ammonotelism. Blood related disorders: Hypertension. nephritis. angina pectoris. Regulation of cardiac activity. Hormones and their functions. Diabetes mellitus. atrial natriuretic factor. ECG. cretinism. Blood Vessels. and heart failure. goiter. brief idea about PNS and ANS. Addison’s disease) 148 . Chapter 17. general idea of other sense organs Endocrine System: Endocrine glands. ADH and Diabetes inspidus. Rhythmicity of Heart beat. Mechanism of hormone action Hormones as messengers and regulators.

Unit 5: Reproduction in Organisms Chapter 18. water pollution and its control and radioactive waste management. fertilization. (Case studies any two) ---------------------------------------------------------------- 149 . predation. Histology of testis and ovary.extinction. importance.concept. Reproductive health-birth control. Reproductive cycle. national parks and sanctuaries. Pregnancy. Biodiversity and its conservation. Threats to and need for biodiversity conservation . ZIFT. Unit 6: Ecology and Environment Chapter 19-Organisms and Environment-II Population and ecological adaptations: population interactions-mutualism. GIFT (elementary idea for general awareness). Amniocentesis.Human Reproduction: Reproductive system in male and female. Contraception and sexually transmitted diseases. loss.Biodiversity.IVF. parasitism. placenta. age distribution. competition. Hotspots. birth rate and death rate. parturition and lactation (Elementary idea). population attributes. endangered organisms.growth. Environmental issues: air pollution and its control. Infertility and assisted reproductive technologies. Production of gametes. biosphere reserves.MTP. patterns. implantation.red data book . Embryo development up to three germinal layers.

6 Study plants found in xerophytic and aquatic conditions with respect to their morphological adaptations.. 11To test the presence of albumin and bile salts in urine. Separation of plant pigments by paper chromatography 7 To study the rate of respiration in flower buds/leaf tissue and germinating seeds. pH and water holding capacity of soil. Study the presence of suspended particulate matter in air at the two widely different Sites. tagging and bagging 5 Study meiosis in onion bud cell or grass hopper testis through permanent slide.(Two plants each) 150 . 4.Emasculation. Correlate with the kinds of plants found in them. 4 Exercise on controlled pollination . 2. 8. 5. Collect and study soil from at least two different sites and study them for texture. Collect water from two different water bodies around you and study them for pH. 10. XII (Upgraded) Biology Practicals Syllabus Experiments: 1. Study pollen germination on a slide. Dissect anther and ovary to show number of chambers. 3 To Study Mendelian inheritance using seeds of different colour/size of any plant. clarity and presence of any living organisms. 3.Std. 6. moisture content. Study/observation of the following (Spotting): 1 Study of flowers adapted to pollination by different agencies (wind. insect) 2 Study of pollen germination on stigma through a permanent slide. To test the presence of urea and sugar in urine. Dissect the given flower and display different whorls. Prepare a temporary mount of onion root tip to study mitosis. 9. Study of plant population density and frequency by quadrate method.

11 Study of animals found in xeric (desert) and aquatic conditions with respect to their morphological adaptations. Comment on symptoms of diseases that they cause. T. (Two animals each) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 151 . colour blindness. Entamoeba .S.7 Study and identify stages of gamete development. widow‟s peak.S.S. of blastula through permanent slide. ovary through permanent slides (from any mammal). 9 To study prepared pedigree charts of genetic traits such as rolling of tongue.Ascaris and ring worm through permanent slides or specimens. of testis and T. Blood groups. Study of V. 8. 10 To identify common disease causing organisms like Plasmodium.

4) To develop interest in Mathematics by participating in various related competitions and selflearning. principles. Objectives: To enable the students 1)To acquire knowledge and critical understanding. The proposed syllabus has been designed in accordance with National Curriculum Framework 2005 and as per guidelines given in Focus Group on Teaching of Mathematics 2005 which is to meet the emerging needs of all categories of students. Physical and Biological Sciences. symbols and mastering the underlying processes and skills. XI & XII Introduction: Mathematics is the language of all sciences and is perhaps the only subject which merits this distinction. major thrust is also on application of various concepts. by more than one method. analyze and articulate logically. 3) To develop positive attitude to think. 2) To apply the knowledge and skills in Mathematics and related problems from other subjects. terms. Higher Secondary is a launching stage from where students would go to either for academic education in Mathematics or professional courses like Engineering and Computer Technology. particularly by way of motivation and visualization of basic concepts. 6) To develop an interest in students to study Mathematics as a discipline. 5) To acquaint students with different aspects of Mathematics used in real life. 7) To develop awareness of the need for national integration. This will help them in developing Mathematical tools to be used in the professional education. elimination of sex biases and observance of small family norm. it is utmost important to make the study of Mathematics more meaningful by acquainting the student with many branches of mathematics. Mathematics is the backbone of all sciences and it is an inseparable part of human life. 152 . Hence to fulfill the needs of students. removal of social barriers. Motivating topics from real life situations and other subject areas. protection of an environment.Upgraded Syllabus MATHEMATICS AND STATISTICS (For Arts and Science) Std.

Theorem: Radian is a constant angle. Sexagesimal system. intercepts of a line. 9) To develop interest in the subject by participating in related competitions. Inclination of a line. trigonometric functions of negative angles. Formulae for conversion of sum or difference into products. Locus : Introduction. periodicity of functions. equation of lines. 3. signs of trigonometric functions in different quadrants. 900. θ is in radians) (without proof). simultaneously. always represents. points of locus. Reduction of general equation of a line into normal form. angles in quadrant & quadrantal angles. slope of a line. relation between degree measure and radian measure. Trigonometric functions of compound angles : Introduction. angles in standard position. 1800. parallel to coordinate axes. Length of an arc of a circle (s = r. 3600). θ is in radians (without proof). 4. θ. fundamental identities. trigonometric functions of multiple angles (upto double and triple angles only). Trigonometric functions with the help of standard unit circle. Measurement of Angles : Need & concept. trigonometricfunctions of sum and difference. 300. 6. where A. Definition and equation of locus. straight angle. 153 . Area of the sector of a circle A = ½ r2. zero angle. trigonometric functions of half angles.straight line.8) To develop reverence and respect towards great mathematicians for their contribution to the field of Mathematics. 600. 450. 2. revision of different forms of equations of a line. provided A and B are not both zero. θ. B and C are constants (without proof). Revision of directed angle (+ve and –ve angles). 2700. Straight Line : Revision. trigonometric functions of angles of a triangle. circular system. 5. trigonometric functions of particular angles (00. slope point form. double intercept form other forms of equations of a line. general form. graphs of trigonometric functions.PART – I 1. coterminal angles. Factorization Formulae: Introduction. XI . Theorem 2 : Every straight line has an equation of the form Ax +By + C = 0. slope intercept form. domain and range of trigonometric functions. y = a cos bx. Trigonometric functions: Need & concept. formulae for conversion of product into sum or difference. parametric form. shift of the origin. two point form. normal form. MATHEMATICS AND STATISTICS (ARTS AND SCIENCE) STD. Theorem : A general linear equation Ax + By+ C =0. Graph of Y = a sin bx.

column matrix. 11. types of matrices – zero matrix. angle between lines. focus-directrix property of parabola. diagonal matrix. coplanar vectors. ellipse. diameter form. minors & co-factors. magnitude of a vector. workdone by force. identity matrix. multiplication of a matrix by a scalar. applications of determinants condition of consistency. notations. simple properties. solutions of system of linear in equations in one variable. singular & non-singular matrices. perpendicular lines. types of vectors. parametric equations. resolved part of a force. Circle and Conics : Revision. standard equation. general equation. concepts. Cramer‟s rule for system of equations in three variables. 8. determinant of a square matrix. properties of addition of vectors. symmetric & skew symmetric matrices. triangular matrices. Conics Napees – Intersection of Napees of a cone and Plane. hyperbola. standard equation (different forms of parabola). parabola. coinitial vector. operations on matrices – equality. zero vector. like and unlike vector. hyperbola. parallelogram law. expansion. position vector of a point in space. ellipse. area of a triangle. properties. Transposition. unit vectors along axes. distance between two parallel lines. scalar product. properties of matrix multiplication. 7. multiplication of matrices – definition. equation of a straight line perpendicular to a given line. Application of conic section. standard equation. simple application. solutions of system of linear inequations in two variables. identical lines. collinear vectors. Linear in equations in two variable – solution of linear inequation in one variable & graphical solution. 154 . co-ordinates of a point in space. distance of a point from a line. definition. free and localized vectors. parallel lines. three dimensional co-ordinate geometry. introduction. subtraction. Determinants : Revision. standard equation. triangle law. 9. row matrix. condition for concurrency of three lines. moment of a force. determinant of order three–definition. square matrix. equal vector. distance between two points in a space. coordinate axes & coordinate planes in space. (AB) BA. definition. properties of transpose of a matrix (A ) A. parametric equations. unit vector. properties. equation of family of lines through the intersection of two lines. Replacement of a set or domain of a set. transpose of a matrix. (KA) KA . equation of a straight line parallel to a given line. negative of a vector. Matrices : Introduction. Vectors : Definition. parameter equations of standard equation. vector product. product of vectors. addition. centre-radius form. scalar multiple of a vector.intersection of two lines. family of lines. order. 10. Linear Inequations : Linear in equations in one variable – solution of linear inequation in one variable & graphical solution. solution of linear in equations in two variable & graphical solution. properties of determinants. scalar matrix. polygon law. equations of bisectors of angle between two lines.

types of functions. Demoivre‟s formula – (without proof). power set. equality of ordered pairs. equivalent sets. constant function. one-one function. cube roots of unity. definition of relation. into function. rational function. domain. Cartesian product of two sets. Logarithms : Introduction. intersection. change of base. subset and their properties. types of relations. Relations and Functions : Set – Revision. Argand Diagram – representation of a complex number as a pt. in plane.PART – II 1. definition. polynomial function. inverse function. modulus. Relations – ordered pairs. codomain and range of a relation. 4) Existence of additive identity. real valued function of the real variable. product quotient of functions. finite & infinite sets. of elements in the Cartesian product of two finite sets. cube roots of unity – solution of quadratic equations in the complex number system. even & odd functions. properties of complex numbers – properties of addition of complex numbers. subset. laws of logarithms. Properties of product of complex numbers –Existance of multiplicative identity – Existence of multiplicative inverse properties of conjugate & modulus of complex numbers. imaginary parts. difference. multiplication. pictorial representation of a function. functions with their graphs. equal functions. universal set.2) Commulative Law. logarithmic function. geometrical meaning of modulus and argument. identity function. square root of a complex number. functions – function as a special kind of relation. disjoint sets. No. onto function. powers and square root of a complex number – higher powers of i. 3. 1) Closure Property. subtraction. pictorial diagrams. union. need for complex numbers. domain and range of these functions. fundamental theorem of algebra. characteristics & mantissa – method of finding characteristics. improper. composite function. 2. complement of a set. codomain and range of a function. argument). Complex Numbers : Introduction. one-one. exponential function. division. 155 . empty set. scalar multiplication. sum. polar representation of complex numbers. Venn diagrams. modulus function. domain. proper. many-one. 3) Associative law. complex conjugates. method of finding mantissa. algebra of complex numbers – equality. difference of two sets. Cartesian product of the reals with itself. equal sets. Sets. binary equivalence relation. signum & greatest integer.5) Existence of additive inverse. binary operations. method of finding antilogarithm. properties. addition. definitions –(real parts.

combined variance and standard deviation.. harmonic mean. Probability: Revision. properties of A. Means – arithmetic mean. general term. Sequences & Series : Revision sequence. derivatives from first principle of trigonometric functions. general term. 7. algebra of integrals – integrals of some standard functions. 6..P. relations between permutations and combinations. combinations – definition. geometrical significance of derivative. binomial theorem – binomial theorem for positive integers. Mathematical Induction and Binomial Theorem : Principle of mathematical induction. geometric means. co-efficient of variation. H. quartile & quartile deviation (for grouped and ungrouped data). simple applications.. Integration: Definition (of integration) as antiderivative. properties of binomial co-efficient with simple application. relation between A.M. product and quotient. simple applications. exponential functions. meaning of x a. 10. circular permutations. geometrical interpretation of indefinite integrals. simple applications.P. particular cases of binomial theorem. odds in favour and against. 11. standard deviation. algebra of limits – standard limits. Sum of first n terms of A. rules of integration. n terms from the end of G. independent events.. permutations. multiplication theorem. factorial notation.P. derivative at a point. sum of cube of first n odd natural nos. fundamental principle of counting. sum of cube of first n natural. P. rules of differentiation – derivative of sum. Differentiation : Definition of a derivative. properties. Limits : Introduction of concept.M.P.P.M. exponential & logarithmic series. effect of change of origin and scale on variance and standard deviation. comparison of two frequency distributions with same mean. Conditional probability – definition. containing finitely many terms & sum to infinite terms properties of G. physical significance (velocity as a rate of change of displacement). Baye‟s theorem. simple problems. mutually exclusive and exhaustive events.P. addition theorem – for any two events A and B. types of events – events and algebra of events.4. when all r objects are not distinct. binomial theorem for any index (without proof). H. mean deviation about median (for grouped & ungrouped data). mean deviation about mean. A. special series. Permutations & combinations : Introduction. sum of the first „n‟ terms.. Arithmetic-Geometric sequence. limits at infinity – concepts. 8. Statistics : Measures of dispersion – range. 9. as a special type of A. variance. difference. Result on compatible events. 5. simple applications. G. mutually exlusive events. particular term. fundamental theorem on limits. axiomatic definition of probability. the limit of a function. when all r objects are distinct.. 156 . geometric progression – introduction. logarithmic functions. with proof. algebraic functions.

20. Problems on locus. Algebra of matrices. 10. Family of lines. 5. 15. Tracing of graphs of functions. Differentiation. cube root of unity. Binomial theorem. 8. Limits.List of Practicals: XI 1. Examples on special series. Linear inequation. Mathematical induction. 12. Probability. 14. Applications of vectors (Dot and cross product). 3. 17. Applications of Conics II. Integration. Power and square root of a complex number. 4. 7. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 157 . Applications of Conics I. 6. 19. 11. Numerical problems using laws of logarithms. Applications of determinants. Measures of dispersion. Permutations and combinations. 16. 18. 2. 9. 13.

theorem-the joint equation of a pair of lines passing through origin and its converse. application-introduction to switching circuits (simple examples). cos cos . involution law. a cos b sin c solution of a triangle-polar coordinates. solution of Trigonometric equations. associative law. point of intersection of two lines. inversion method. demorgan‟s laws. acute angle between the lines (without proof). logical connective-conjunction. Hero‟s formula. sin sin . biconditional. inverse trigonometric functionsdefinitions. inverse. projection rule. Mathematical Logic : Statements . condition for parallel lines. 158 . condition of parallel and perpendicular lines. negation. logical equivalence. truth tables of compound statements. converse. elementary row transformation. 3. principle values. application-solution of system of linear equations by – reduction method. complement law. graphs of inverse trigonometric function. duality. area of a triangle. there exists. Pair of straight lines : Pair of lines passing through origin-conbined equation. 4. adjoint method. pair of lines not passing through origin-conbined equation of any two lines. cosine rule. properties of inverse functions. examples related to real life and mathematics. application. tan2 tan2 . contrapositive. identity law. logical equivalence. negation of compound statement. condition that the equation ax2+2hxy+by2+2gx+2fy+c=0 should represent a pair of lines (without proof). commutative law. contradiction. quantifier and quantified statements. elementary column transformation. algebra of statements-idempotent law. implication/ conditional. sin2 sin2 .Introduction. contingency. distributive law. compound statement. statement patterns and logical equivalence-tautology. tan tan . angle between the lines represented by ax2+2hxy+by2=0. range. sentences and statement. inverse by elementary transformation. homogenous equation. Napier Analogues. tan . open sentences and truth sets. cos 0. truth value of statement. sin 0. domain. Matrices : Elementary transformation of a matrix-revision of cofactor and minor. difference between converse. sine rule. contrapositive. condition for perpendicular lines. contradiction. XII PART – I 1. inverse of a matrix-existance and uniqueness of inverse of a matrix.MATHEMATICS AND STATISTICS STD. disjunction. 2. Trigonometric functions : Trigonometric equations-general solution of trigonometric equation of the type. cos2 cos2 .

direction ratios. ellipse. properties of tangents and normals to conics (without proof). hyperbola. angle subtended on a semicircle is right angle. normal to a circle-equation of normal at a point. director circle. Collinearty and coplanerity of vectors-linear combination of vectors. 6. equation of plane passing through three non-collinear points. non-negativity restrictions. condition of perpendicular lines. properties. condition for the coplanerity of two lines. centroid formula. 9. feasible and infeasible 159 . optimization. 11. direction cosines. Linear programming problems: Introduction of L.2) general circle. condition of tangency for parabola. equation of line passing through two given points. 10. diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each other and converse. distance of a point from a plane (vector approach). Conics : Tangents and normals-equations of tangent and normal at a point for parabola. tangents from a point outside conics. angle between line and plane. hyperbola. 8. distance between two skew lines. Three dimensional geometry : Direction cosines and direction ratios-direction angles. distance between two parallel lines (vector approach). dist. ellipse. scaler triple product-definition. tangents in terms of slope for parabola. Circle : Tangent of a circle-equation of a tangent at a point to 1) standard circle. midpoint formula. Line : Equation of line passing through given point and parallel to given vector. ellipse. equation of plane passing through the intersection of two given planes. length of tangent segments. 7. of a point from a line. section formula-section formula for internal and external division. geometrical interpretation of scalar triple product. application of vectors to geometry-medians of a triangle are concurrent. altitudes of a triangle are concurrent. locus of points from which two tangents are mutually perpendicular. conditions of coplanerity ofthree vectors. condition of collinearity of two vectors. definition of constraints. hyperbola. angle between two planes. equation of plane passing through the given point and parallel to two given vectors. angle between two lines.P. Plane : Equation of plane in normal form.5.P. objective function. formula. angle bisectors of triangle are concurrent. Vectors : Revision. constraint equations. median of trapezium is parallel to the parallel sides and its length is half the sum of parallel sides. equation of plane passing through the given point and perpendicular to given vector. tangents to a circle from a point outside the circle. relation between direction ratio and direction cosines. condition of tangency only for line y mx c to the circle x2 y2 a2 .

Derivative of composite functionchain rule. feasible solutions. trigonometric. rational. b) quotient of functions. 160 . maxima and minima in a closed interval. definition of a continuity of a function at a point. fundamental theorem of integral calculus (without proof). first derivative test. derivative as rate measure-introduction.P. Application of derivative : Geometrical application-tangent and normal at a point. every differentiable function is continuous but converse is not true. discontinuity of a function. integration by partial fraction-factors involving repeated and non-repeated linear factors. right hand limit. evaluation of definite integral 1) by substitution. integrals of the type. continuity in interval-definition. optimum feasible solution. 2) integration by parts. exponential and logarithmic function. Integration : Indefinite integrals-methods of integration. Mathematical formulation-mathematical formulation of L. exponential and logarithmic function-derivative of functions which are expressed in one of the following form a) product of functions. 4. second derivative test. increasing and decreasing function. XII . continuity of some standard functionspolynomial. Derivative of implicit function definition and examples. substitution method. graphical solutions for problem in two variables. c) higher order derivative-second order derivative d) f (x) g x 3. Maxima and minima-introduction of extreme and extreme values. and Mean value theorem and their geometrical interpretation (without proof).region. 2.P. approximation (without proof). problems. Continuity : Continuity of a function at a point-left hand limit. non-repeated quadratic factors.PART – II 1. different types of L. STD. algebra of continuous functions. properties of definite integrals properties of definite integrals. definite integral-definite integral as a limit of sum. integration by parts-integration by parts.P.P. types of discontinuity. derivative of parametric function – definition of parametric function . relationship between continuity and differentiability-left hand derivative and right hand derivative (need and concept).revision of derivative. Rolls theorem. integrals of type (reduction formulae are not expected). derivative of inverse function derivative of inverse trigonometric function. Differentiation : Revision.

5.m. covariance for bivariate frequency distribution. mean. probability mass function (p. mean. 2. bacterial colony growth. 161 . Solutions of a triangle. conditions for Binomial distribution. variance and standard deviation.d.f. order. variance and standard deviation of a discrete random variable. general solution. volume of solid of revolution-volume of solid obtained by revolving the area under the curve about the axis (simple problems). area bounded by two curves. Karl Pearson‟s co-efficient of correlation.m. Statistics: Bivariate frequency distribution . expected value. solution of first order and first degree differential equation-variable separable method. Normal distribution .f. standard normal variable. applications-population growth. Inverse of a matrix by adjoint method and hence solution of system of linear equations. particular solution of differential equation. Applications of definite integral: Area under the curve . simple problems (without proof). discrete and continuous random variable. Inverse of a matrix by elementary transformation and hence solution of system of linear equation. variance and standard deviation. 9. Newton‟s laws of cooling. Applications of logic. 4.area bounded by curve and axis (simple problems).). Differential equation : Definition-differential equation.f.). Probability distribution : Probability distribution of a random variable-definition of a random variable. 6. probability distribution of a discrete random variable. calculation of probabilities (without proof). probability density function (p. 3. radioactive decay. scatter diagram. degree. covariance of or ungrouped data. tabulation of bivariate data.bivariate data. distribution function of a continuous random variable. 7.f.). 8.d. formation of differential equation-formation of differential equation by elimmating arbitary constants (at most two constants). binomial distribution (p. Bernoulli trials and Binomial distribution : Definition of Bernoulli trial. cumulative probability distribution of a discrete random variable.p. Linear differential equation. homogenous differential equation (equation reducible to homogenous form are not expected). surface area. List of Practicals : XII 1.

plane.volume. 11. 8. Applications of definite integrals . Binomial distribution. 6. Applications of scalar triple product of vectors. 7. Applications of definite integrals .Maxima and minima 14. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 162 . Applications of derivatives (Geometric applications). 20. Expected value. Formations and solutions of LPP. Applications of derivatives . 15. Applications of derivatives – Rate. 19. 16. measure.D of random variable.5.Limit of sum.Area. Bivariate frequency distribution. variance and S. Tracing of tangents and normals for ellipse and hyperbola. 13. 18. 9. Three dimensional geometry . 12.line. 17. Tracing of tangents and normals for circles and parabola. 10. Applications of differential equations. Applications of definite integrals . Three dimensional geometry .

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