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# Upgraded Syllabus

**PHYSICS – Std. XI & XII Preamble
**

According to NCF 2005, the curriculum of the subject Physics is upgraded for higher secondary stage. This curriculum is comparable to the international standards which are useful for the students in Maharashtra State for different types of competitive examinations conducted in India. All the units of the subject from NCERT curriculum are divided into two years conveniently in Maharashtra State. Continuity in the curriculum is maintained in Std. XI & XII, which is not in NCERT curriculum. All the students appear for the competitive examinations only after +2 stages throughout India. This syllabus has been designed in accordance with the guidelines shown in the final version of common core syllabii of COBSE, Delhi. Accordingly few additional sub units have been added. Objectives – 1. Emphasis on basic conceptual understanding of the content. 2. Emphasis on use of SI units, symbols, nomenclature of physical quantities and formulations as per international standards. 3. Providing logical sequencing of units of the subject matter and proper placement of concepts with their linkage for better learning. 4. Reducing the curriculum load by eliminating overlapping of concepts/content within the discipline and other disciplines. 5. Promotion of process-skills, problem-solving abilities and applications of Physics concepts. 6. Strengthen the concepts developed at the secondary stage to provide firm foundation for further learning in the subject. 7. Expose the learners to different processes used in Physics-related industrial and technological applications. 8. Develop process-skills and experimental, observational, manipulative, decision making and investigatory skills in the learners. 9. Promote problem solving abilities and creative thinking in learners. 10. Develop conceptual competence in the learners and make them realize and appreciate the interface of Physics with other disciplines.

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PHYSICS

(Upgraded Syllabus)

Std. XI

1. Measurements Introduction, Need for measurement, Units for measurement, System of Units, S.I. Units, Fundamental and derived units, Dimensional analysis, Order of magnitude and significant figures, Accuracy and errors in measurement.

2. Scalars and Vectors Addition and subtraction of vectors, Product of vectors.

3. Projectile motion Uniformly accelerated motion along straight line, Non uniform motion, Position time graph and velocity-time graph, Equation of a projectile path, Time of flight, Horizontal range, Maximum height of a projectile, Relative velocity.

4. Force Types of forces, General idea of gravitation, electromagnetic and nuclear forces, Law of conservation of momentum, Work done by a variable force. Work-energy theorem, Elastic and inelastic collisions in one and two dimensions, Inertial and non-intertial frames, Moment of force, Couple and properties of couple, Centre of mass, Centre of gravity, Conditions of equilibrium of a rigid body.

5. Friction in solids and liquids Origin and nature of frictional forces, Laws of static friction, Laws of kinetic friction, Pressure due to fluid column, Pascal‟s Law and its applications, Effect of gravity on fluid pressure, Viscosity, Streamline flow, Turbulent flow, Viscous force, Newton‟s formula, Stokes‟ law, Equation for terminal velocity, Raynold‟s number, Bernoulli‟s principle and its applications.

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6. Sound Waves Waves and oscillations, Progressive waves, Characteristics of transverse waves, Characteristics of longitudinal waves, Sound as longitudinal wave motion, Relation between v, f and, ƛ Newton‟s formula for velocity of sound, Laplace‟s correction.

7. Thermal properties of matter Temperature and heat, Measurement of temperature, Ideal-gas equation and absolute temperature, Thermal expansion, Specific heat capacity, Calorimetry, Change of state, Latent heat, Heat transfer.

8. Refraction of Light Refraction of monochromatic light, Snell‟s law, Total internal reflection, Critical angle, Optical fibre, Dispersion of light, Prism formula, Angular dispersion and dispersive power, Rainbow, Scattering of light, Blue colour of sky, Colour of sun at sunrise and sunset. Elementary idea of Raman effect.

9. Ray optics Reflection of light by spherical mirrors, Refraction at single curved surface, Lens maker‟s equation, Combination of thin lenses in contact, Concept of conjugate focii, Correction of eye defects, Magnifying power of simple microscope, Magnifying power of compound microscope, Magnifying power of telescope, Reflecting telescope - schematic diagram with explanation.

10. Electrostatics Frictional electricity, Charges and their conservation, Coulomb‟s law and dielectric constant, Forces between multiple electric charges, Superposition principle of forces, Continuous distribution of charges, Concept of charge density, Electric field intensity, Potential energy, Electric potential due to point charge, Relation between electric field intensity and potential, Potential difference, Volt and electron volt, Electric dipole and dipole moment, Electric lines of force. Equipotential surfaces, P.E. of single charge and system of charges.

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11. Current electricity Ohm‟s law, Resistance, Specific resistance, Temperature dependence of resistance, Colour code of carbon resistor, Series and parallel combination of resistors, E.M.F. and internal resistance of cell, Work done by electric current, Power in electric circuit, Cells in series and in parallel, Elementary idea of secondary cells.

12. Magnetic effect of electric current Oersted’s experiment, Biot Savart‟s law, Right hand rule, Magnetic induction at the centre of circular coil carrying current, Magnetic induction at a point along the axis of a coil carrying current, Fleming‟s left hand rule, Force between two infinitely long current carrying parallel conductors, Definition of Ampere, Force acting on a conductor carrying current in magnetic field, Torque on a current loop in magnetic field.

13. Magnetism Origin of magnetism due to moving charges, Equivalence between magnetic dipole and circular coil carrying current, Definition of magnetic dipole moment and its unit, Torque acting on a magnet in uniform magnetic induction, Bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, Magnetic field lines, Magnetic induction due to bar magnet at a point along the axis and at a point along equator, Earth‟s magnetic field and magnetic elements, Electromagnets and factors affecting their strength.

14. Electromagnetic waves Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics, Transverse nature of electromagnetic waves, Electromagnetic spectrum, Space communication, Propagation of electromagnetic waves in atmosphere.

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**Physics List of Practicals Std. XI
**

1. Use of Vernier Callipers. 2. Use of Screw gauge. 3. To determine radius of curvature of a given spherical surface by a spherometer. 4. To find the weight of a given body using parallelogram law of vectors. 5. To study the relationship between force of limiting friction and normal reaction and to find co-efficient of friction between a block and a horizontal surface. 6. To determine resistance per cm of a given wire by plotting a graph of potential difference versus current. 7. To find the value of „v‟ for different values of „u‟ in case of a „concave mirror and to find the focal length. 8. To find the focal length of a convex lens by plotting graphs between „u‟ and „v‟or between „1/u‟ and „1/v‟. 9. To find the focal length of a convex mirror, using a convex lens. 10. To find the focal length of a concave lens, using a convex lens. 11. To determine angle of minimum deviation for a given prism by plotting a graph between angle of incidence and angle of deviation. 12. To determine refractive index of a glass using a travelling microscope. 13. To find refractive index of a liquid by using (i) concave mirror, (ii) convex lens and plane mirror. 14. To determine specific heat capacity of a given (i) liquid (ii) solid, by method of mixtures.

**Physics List of Activities Std. XI
**

1. To make a paper scale of given least count, e.g. 0.2 cm, 0.5 cm. 2. To determine mass of a given body using a meter scale by principle of moments. 3. To plot a graph for a given set of data, with proper choice of scales and error bars.

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6. 5. To measure the force of limiting friction for rolling of a roller on a horizontal plane. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 115 . To measure resistance. To observe refraction and lateral deviation of a beam of light incident obliquely on a glass slab. current (AC) and check continuity of a given circuit using multimeter. on a screen by using a candle and a screen (for different distances of the candle from the lens/mirror). To study the nature and size of image formed by (i) convex lens (ii) concave mirror. To obtain a lens combination with the specified focal length by using two lenses from the given set of lenses. 7.4. 9. To note the change in level of liquid in a container on heating and interpret the observations. voltage (AC/DC). 10. To study the variation in range of a jet of water with angle of projection. 8.

M.M.I. Poisson’s ratio.. Effect of impurity and temperature on surface tension. Differential equation of linear S. and P. Relation between linear velocity and angular velocity. Damped S. Banking of roads. Angular velocity and angular acceleration. 6. K. Torque.E.. 5. Elastic constants and their relation. 4. Angular momentum and its conservation. Behaviour of metal wire under increasing load. Vertical circular motion due to earth‟s gravitation. depth and motion. Elastic energy. of rotating body. in S.. Statement of Kepler‟s laws of motion.M.‟s having same period and along same line. on any diameter. 2. Wave motion 116 . Principle of parallel and perpendicular axes.E..H.H. Kinematical equations for circular motion in analogy with linear motion.H. Circular motion Angular displacement. Elasticity General explanation of elastic property.H. Surface tension Surface tension on the basis of molecular theory. Rolling motion. Composition of two S. Hooke‟s law. Applications of elastic behaviour of materials. 7.. Determination of „Y‟. S.I.I. Oscillations Explanation of periodic motion. K. Simple pendulum. Projection of satellite. Uniform circular motion. Communication satellite and its uses. Deformation. Physical significance of M.C. Equation for velocity and energy at different positions of vertical circular motion. 3.PHYSICS (Upgraded syllabus) Std. Radius of gyration. Binding energy and escape velocity of a satellite. Phase of S. Definition of stress and strain.E. XII 1. Angle of contact. Variation of „g‟ due to altitude. Centripetal and centrifugal forces. Rotational motion Definition of M. Periodic time.M. Radial acceleration. Weightlessness condition in orbit. of some regular shaped bodies about specific axes. Capillarity and capillary action. Surface energy.H.M.M. lattitude. Gravitation Newton‟s law of gravitation. M. Surface tension.M. Projection of U.H. Plasticity.

Mean free path. 8. van-de-Graaff generator. Energy of charged condenser. Energy density of a medium. Difference between interference and diffraction.Wein’s displacement law. Green house effect. 11. Stationary waves Study of vibrations in a finite medium. Polaroids. Wave front and wave normal. Assumptions of kinetic theory. Maxwell distribution. Construction of plane and spherical wave front. Doppler effect in sound. Stefan’s law. Law of equipartition of energy and application to Specific heat capacities of gases. Huygens‟ Principle. Diffraction due to single slit. 13. Current electricity 117 . Polarisation. Measurement of wavelength by biprism experiment. Young‟s experiment. Interference and diffraction Interference of light. Brewster‟s law. Electrostatics Gauss‟ theorem proof and applications. 10. Wave theory of light Wave theory of light. Formation of stationary waves on string. Dielectrics and electric polarisation. Resonance. Conditions for producing steady interference pattern. Derivation of Boyle‟s law. Mechanical force on unit area of a charged conductor. Effect of dielectric on capacity. Capacity of parallel plate condenser. Concept of condenser. Resolving power of a microscope and telescope. Condensers in series and parallel. Doppler effect in light. Analytical treatment of interference bands. Qualitative idea of black body radiation. Free and Forced vibrations. Change of phase. Derivation for pressure of a gas. Plane polarised light. Kinetic theory of gases and Radiation Concept of an ideal gas. 2nd law of thermodynamics. 9.Simple harmonic progressive waves. Degrees of freedom. Superposition of waves. Reflection of transverse and longitudinal waves.Thermal equilibrium and definition of temperature. Refraction at plane surface. Formation of beats. 12. 1st law of thermodynamics. Rayleigh‟s criterion. Heat engines and refrigerators. Reflection at plane surface. Study of vibrations of air columns. Thermodynamics.

Transformer. Matter waves – wave nature of particles. Coil rotating in uniform magnetic induction. Reactance and impedance. Rutherford‟s model of atom. proof of. Particle nature of light. P-type and N-type semiconductor.c circuit with resistance. Decay law. Zener diode as a voltage regulator. Paramagnetism. Magnetism Circular current loop as a magnetic dipole.Kirchhoff‟s law. Sensitivity of moving coil galvanometer. Wavelength of an electron. Davisson and Germer experiment. AC generator. Einstein‟s equation. Molecules and Nuclei Alpha particle scattering experiment. I-V characteristics of LED. e = . 18 Atoms. Intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors. P-N junction diode. Resonant circuit. Cyclotron. 17 Electrons and photons Photoelectric effect. Wheatstone‟s bridge. Continuous and characteristics X-rays. per nucleon and its variation with mass number. Transistor 118 .dØ dt Eddy currents. Magnetisation and magnetic intensity. LC oscillations (qualitative treatment only) Power in a. Voltmeter. Magnetic effects of electric current Ampere‟s law and its applications. Meter bridge. B. 19 Semiconductors Energy bands in solids. mass-energy relation. Self induction and mutual induction. 14. Magnetic dipole moment of revolving electron. Nuclear fission and fusion. Composition and size of nucleus. Ferromagnetism on the basis of domain theory. 15. de Broglie hypothesis. Solar cell. Hertz and Lenard‟s observations. Diamagnetism.E. Photodiode. Curie temperature. Ammeter. 16 Electromagnetic inductions Laws of electromagnetic induction. Wattless current. Moving coil galvanometer. Hydrogen spectrum. Need for displacement current. I-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias. Rectifiers. Bohr‟s model. Radioactivity. mass defect. Alternating currents. Potentiometer. inductance and capacitance.

Oscillators and Logic gates (OR.AND.NOT. Transistor as an amplifier (CE mode).action and its characteristics. bandwidth of signals.NAND. space communication.NOR) 20 Communication systems Elements of communication system. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 119 . Production and detection of an amplitude modulated wave. bandwidth of transmission medium.Transistor as a switch. Propagation of electromagnetic waves in atmosphere. Need for modulation.

3. To determine the internal resistance of given cell using potentiometer. 5. To verify the laws of combination (series/parallel) of resistances using a metre bridge. 11. 10. 8. XII 1. To study the relation between the length of a given wire and tension for constant frequency using sonometer. To draw the I-V characteristic curves of a p-n junction diode in forward bias and reverse bias. To find resistance of given wire using metre bridge and hence determine the specific resistance of its material. To find the speed of sound in air at room temperature using a resonance tube. 4. 15. 6. To determine resistance of galvanometer using metre bridge. To draw the characteristic curve of a zener diode and to determine its reverse break down voltage. 120 . To study the relationship between the temperature of a hot body and time by plotting a cooling curve. To study the relation between frequency and length of a given wire under constant tension using sonometer. 9. To study the characteristics of a common-emitter npn or pnp transistor and to find out the values of current and voltage gains. 13.Physics List of Practicals Std. To compare the emf of two given cells using potentiometer. 14. 12. To find the force constant and effective mass of helical spring by plotting T 2--m graph using method of oscillations. To determine the surface tension of water by capillary rise method. 2. To determine Young‟s modulus of elasticity of the material of a given wire. 7.

Use of multimeter to (i) identify base of transistor (ii) distinguish between npn and pnp type transistors. transistor or IC) is in working order. 8. an LED. 12. a fuse and a power source. To study the effect of load on depression of a suitably clamped meter scale loaded (i) at its end (ii) in the middle.g. To draw the diagram of a given open circuit comprising at least a battery. a resistor and a capacitor from mixed collection of such items. key. 2.Physics List of Activities Std. resistor/ rheostat. three (on/off) switches. To identify a diode. 4. To study effect of intensity of light (by varying distance of the source) on an L. To study the factors affecting the rate of loss of heat of a liquid. 6. a transistor. To observe polarization of light using two polaroids.D. and 1C. (iii) see the unidirectional flow of current in case of a diode and an LED (iv) check whether a given electronic component (e. 3. To assemble a household circuit comprising three bulbs. ammeter and voltmeter. To study the variation in potential drop with length of a wire for a steady current. 9. 121 . To study dissipation of energy of a simple pendulum by plotting a graph between square of amplitude and time. 1 l. 7. diode. XII 1. To measure the resistance and impedance of an inductor with or without iron core.R. Mark the components that are not connected in proper order and correct the circuit and also the circuit diagram. 5. 10. To study the effect of detergent on surface tension by observing capillary rise.

Engineering. symbols and formulations. XI & XII Preamble RATIONALE According to NCF 2005. industrial. 7) To apprise students with interface of chemistry with other disciplines of science such as Physics. technology) at tertiary level. 5) To develop problem solving skills in students. environment. the new and updated curriculum is introduced at +2 stages. There is a need to provide the sufficient conceptual background of chemistry which will help the students to appear for different common entrance test at state level and national level. analytical and polymer chemistry. Geology. fundamental concepts. This new syllabus will make them competent to meet the challenges of academic and professional courses like medicine. etc. 122 . The syllabus contains areas like physical. etc. 4) To equip students to face various changes related to health. inorganic.CHEMISTRY (Upgraded syllabus) Std. industries and agriculture. technology. The revised syllabus has taken care of new formulations and nomenclature of elements. The syllabus is comparable to the international level. population. engineering. 6) To expose the students to different processes used in industries and their technological applications. modern techniques are given importance. 2) To make students capable of studying chemistry in academic and professional courses (such as medicine. engineering. New nomenclature. weather. 3) To expose the students to various emerging new areas of chemistry and apprise them with their relevance in their future studies and their applications in various spheres of chemical sciences and technology. Biology. OBJECTIVES The broad objectives of teaching Chemistry at Senior Secondary Stage are to help the learners : 1) To promote understanding of basic facts and concepts in chemistry while retaining the excitement of Chemistry. organic. after the +2 stage. compounds and IUPAC units of physical quantities. nutrition.

Inert gas radii nomenclature of elements with atomic number greater than 100. Critical temperature. stability of half filled and completely filled orbitals. Intermolecular interactions. XI (Theory) Unit 1: Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry General Introduction: Importance and scope of chemistry. Unit 3 : Structure of Atom Discovery of electron. type of bonding. Gay Lussac‟s law. brief history of the development of periodic table. Unit 2 : States of Matter : Gases and Liquids Three states of matter. electron gain enthalpy. percentage composition. Ideal gas equation. proton and neutron. no mathematical derivations). Atomic and molecular masses mole concept and molar mass : Avogadro‟s law and Avogadro number. de Broglie‟s relationship. Charles law. p and d orbitals. Historical approach to particulate nature of matter. ionic radii. concept of orbitals. atomic number. Dalton‟s atomic theory : concept of elements. Rutherford‟s model and its limitations. quantum numbers. Pauli‟s exclusion principle and Hund‟s rule. Role of gas laws in elucidating the concept of the molecule. valence. electronic configuration of atoms. chemical reactions. shapes of s.CHEMISTRY Std. periodic trends in properties of elements atomic radii. Kinetic energy and molecular speeds (elementary idea) Liquid State – Vapour pressure. atoms and molecules. modern periodic law and present form of periodic table. Ideal behaviour. liquefaction of gases. laws of chemical combination. Ionization enthalpy. Boyle‟s law. concept of shells and subshells. dual nature of matter and light. isotopes and isobars. Unit 4 : Periodic Table Significance of classification. Heisenberg‟s uncertainty principle. electronegativity. empirical derivation of gas equation. rules for filling electrons in orbitals – Aufbau principle. viscosity and surface tension (qualitative idea only. empirical and molecular formula. stoichiometry and calculations based on stoichimetry. 123 . Bohr‟s model and its limitations.Enthalpy: Explanation and definition of term. Deviation from ideal behaviour.

heavy water. valence bond theory. Unit 6: Chemical Equilibrium Equilibrium in physical and chemical processes. law of mass action. properties and uses of hydrogen. concept of hybridization involving s. Hydrolysis of salts (elementary idea). Unit 8 : Nature of Chemical Bond Valence electrons. coagulation. occurrence. properties and structure.) Handerson equation.Unit 5: Redox Reactions Concept of oxidation and reduction. preparation. hydrides-ionic. VSEPR theory. Brownian movement. Le Chatelier‟s principle. multimolecular and macromolecular colloids. hydrogen as a fuel. ionic bond. oxidation number. Ionic equilibrium: Ionization of acids and bases.preparation. resonance. solubility product common ion effect (with illustrative examples. Balancing redox reactions. physical and chemical properties of water. factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids. equilibrium constant. catalysis : homogenous and heterogeneous. Born Haber cycle : covalent bond parameters. strong and weak electrolytes. Lyophilic. ionization of polybasic acids. colloidal state : distinction between true solutions. Unit 7 : Surface Chemistry Adsorption – physisorption and chemisorption. properties of colloids. Lewis structure. covalent and interstitial. electrophoresis. activity and selectivity: enzyme catalysis. Hydrogen peroxide. acid strength. molecular orbital theory of homonuclear diatomic molecules (qualitative idea only). Elementary idea of nanomaterials. polar character of covalent bond. Lyophobic. dynamic nature of equilibrium. degree of ionization. geometry of covalent molecules. redox reactions. Buffer solutions. emulsion – types of emulsions. p and d orbitals and shapes of some simple molecules. isotopes. factors affecting equilibrium. Unit 9 : Hydrogen Position of hydrogen in periodic table. Tyndall effect. colloids and suspensions. concept of pH. covalent character of ionic bond. hydrogen bond. Uses of hydrogen peroxide 124 . in terms of loss and gain of electrons and change in oxidation number.

hydrogen and halogens. Preparation and properties of some important compounds: Sodium carbonate.Unit 10: s-Block Elements (Alkali and Alkaline earth metals) Group 1 and Group 2 elements: General introduction. electronic configuration. methods of qualitative and quantitative analysis. anomalous properties of first element of the group. variation of properties. Important compounds of silicon and their uses: silicon tetrachloride. trends in chemical reactivity. electromeric effect. sodium hydroxide and sodium hydrogen carbonate. electronic configuration. atomic and ionic radii). Aluminium. trends in chemical reactivity. boric acids. uses. oxides. uses of some important Compounds. Unit 11 : p-Block Elements Group Introduction to p-Block Elements Group 13 elements : General introduction. occurrence. biological importance of sodium and potassium. resonance and hyper conjugation. occurrence. physical and chemical properties. silicones. oxidation states. occurrence. diagonal relationship. oxidation states. free radicals. Melting point and boiling point. electrophiles and nucleophiles. allotropic forms. 125 . types of organic reactions. Carbon – catenation. Calcium oxide and calcium carbonate (CaO) (CaCO3) and industrial uses of lime and limestone. Boron-physical and chemical properties. water. Variation of properties. anomalous properties of the first element of each group. trends in the variation of properties (such as ionization enthalpy.Homolytic and heterolytic fission of a covalent bond.carbocations. inductive effect. Classification and IUPAC nomenclature of organic compounds. biological importance of Magnesium and Calcium. Group 14 elements: General introduction. boron hydrides. uses. electronic configuration. Electronic displacements in a covalent bond. trends in chemical reactivity with oxygen. anomalous behavior of first element. reactions with acids and alkalies. carbanions. silicates and zeolites and structure of silicates Unit 12: Basic Principles and Techniques in Organic Chemistry General introduction. some important compounds: borax.

chemical reactions including free radical mechanism of halogenation. Unit 14 : Alkenes Nomenclature. acid rain. isomerism. mechanism of electrophilic substitution. halogenation. oxidation. water. geometrical isomerism. effects of depletion of ozone layer. mechanism of electrophilic addition. methods of preparation. addition reaction of – hydrogen. resonance aromaticity. physical properties. Chemical reactions.air. halogens. chemical reactions: acidic character of alkynes. water. major atmospheric pollutants. structure of double bond (ethane). combustion and pyrolysis. halogen. chemical reactions in atmosphere. Unit 15: Alkynes Nomenclature. Friedel Craft‟ alkylation and acylation. 126 . smog.Unit 13 : Alkanes Classification of hydrocarbons – Nomenclature. green chemistry as an alternative tool for reducing pollution. Pollution due to industrial wastes. Carcinogenicity and toxicity. strategy for control of environmental pollution. benzene. conformations (ethane only). hydrogen halides (Markovnikoff‟s addition and peroxide effect) ozonolysis. – nitration. IUPAC nomenclature. water and soil pollution. UNIT-17: Environmental chemistry Environmental pollution. chemical properties. Methods of preparation. Unit 16 : Aromatic compounds Introduction. ozone and its reactions. sulphonaiton. physical properties. structure of triple bond (ethylene). hydrogen halides. physical properties. addition of hydrogen. green house effect and global warming.

Surface Chemistry (a) Preparation of one lyophilic and one lyophobic sol: Lyophilic sol-starch and gum. Experiments related to pH change (a) Any one of the following experiments: Determination of pH of some solutions obtained from fruit juices. 127 . copper sulphate. Basic Laboratory Techniques 1. xylene (o. arseneous sulphide. (p-toludine. naphthalene. (b) Study the shift in equilibrium between [Co(H2O)6]2+ and chloride ions by changing the concentration of either of the ions. ferric hydroxide. varied concentrations of acids.) 2. (acetone. Determination of melting point of an organic compound. Study of burner 5. methyl acetate. water) 3. benzoic acid. Bending glass tube 3. resorcinol. Oxalic acid. Drawing out a glass jet 4. Comparing the pH solutions of strong and weak acid of same concentration. Chemical equilibrium Any one of the following experiments: (a) Study the shift in equilibrium between ferric ions and thiocyanate ions by changing the concentration of either ion. Cutting glass tube and glass rod 2. β-naphthol. Operating pinch cork B. acetic acid.Chemistry Practical Syllabus Std-XI A. Study the pH change in the titration of a strong base using universal indicator. Lyophobic sol–aluminium hydroxide. (b) Study of the role of emulsifying agents in stabilizing the emulsion of oil. benzoic acid. Alum. C. Crystallization of impure sample of anyone of the following compounds. Determination of boiling point of an organic compound.m.p). D. Characterization and purification of chemical substances 1. bases and salts using pH paper or universal indicator. E.

Determination of strength of a given solution of sodium hydroxide by titrating it against standard solution of oxalic acid. Quantitative estimation Using a chemical balance. Al3+. Mn2+. Sr2+. G. Preparation of standard solution of sodium carbonate. Zn2+. Qualitative analysis Determination of one cation and one anion in a given salt: Cations – Pb2+. sulphur. Fe3+. Mg2+. Co2+. chlorine bromine and iodine in an organic compound. Determination of strength of a given solution of hydrochloric acid by titrating It against standard sodium carbonate solution. Ba2+.(b) Study of pH change by common ion effect in case of weak acids and bases. F. I-. Br-. PO43C2O42CH3COO(Note: Insoluble salts excluded) H. Detection of nitrogen. NH4+ Anions – CO32SO32SO42NO2NO3Cl-. Ni2+ . Preparation of standard solution of oxalic acid. Ca2+. Cu2+. 128 .

4 Investigation of the foaming capacity of different washing soaps and the effect of addition of sodium carbonate on them.PROJECT Scientific investigations involving laboratory testing and collecting information from other sources. 129 . fluoride. depending upon the regional variation in drinking water and the study of causes of presence of these ions above permissible limit (if any). 5 Study of the acidity of different samples of the tea leaves. Note: Any other investigatory project can be chosen with the approval of the teacher. A few suggested Projects 1 Checking the bacterial contamination in drinking water by testing sulphide ion. presence of iron. 8 Analysis of fruit and vegetable juices for their acidity. chloride etc. 2 Study of the methods of purification of water. 7 Study of the effect of acids and bases on the tensile strength of fibers. 3 Testing the hardness. 6 Determination of the rate of evaporation of different liquids.

and equilibrium constant. EMF of a cell. point defects. conductance in electrolytic solutions. Kohlrausch‟s Law. solid solutions. Work. free energy change for spontaneous and non spontaneous processes. Unit 3 : Chemical Thermodynamics and energetic Concepts of system. extensive and intensive properties. expression of concentration of solids in liquids. energy. concentration. Second and third law of thermodynamics Unit 4: Electrochemistry Redox reactions. catalyst. surroundings. standard electrode potential. temperature. combustion.CHEMISTRY Std. order and molecularity of a reaction. factors affecting rate of reaction. electrolysis and laws of electrolysis (elementary idea). Phase transition. osmotic pressure. covalent and metallic solids. number of atoms per unit cell in a cubic unit cell. conductors and semiconductors and insulators and n and p type semiconductors. concept of 130 . variations of conductivity with concentration. formation. types of systems. ionization. enthalpy of bond dissociation. specific and molar conductivity. colligative properties –relative lowering of vapor pressure. lead accumulator. calculation of density of unit cell. abnormal molecular mass. rate law and specific rate constant. and solution and dilution Introduction of entropy as a state function. fuel cells. voids. integrated rate equations and half life (only for zero and first order reactions). dry cell –electrolytic and Galvanic cells. ionic. Unit 5: Chemical Kinetics Rate of reaction (average and instantaneous). electrical and magnetic properties. First law of thermodynamics – internal energy and enthalpy. determination of molecular masses using colligative properties.Van’t Hoff factor and calculations involving it. amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea).Raoult’s law elevation of boiling point. Hess‟ law of constant heat summation. Relation between Gibb’s energy change and emf of a cell. packing in solids. Unit 2 : Solutions and colligative properties Types of solutions. depression of freezing point. state functions. solubility of gases in liquids. sublimation.unit cell in two dimensional and three dimensional lattices. Band theory of metals. molecular. Nernst equation and its application to chemical cells. XII (Theory) Unit 1: Solid State Classification of solids based on different forces. corrosion. heat. atomization.

Phoshorous-allotropic forms. Sulphur – allotropic forms.Activation energy. preparation. electronic configuration. copper. compounds of sulphur. interhalogen compounds. preparation. oxoacids of halogens (structure only). properties and uses of sulphur dioxide. no mathematical treatment). trends in physical and chemical properties. electronic configuration. compounds of phosphorous. dioxygen. oxidation states. nitrogen – preparation. zinc and iron Unit 7: p-Block Elements Group 15 elements: General introduction. trends in physical and chemical properties. Group 18 elements: General introduction. trends in physical and chemical properties. oxidation. uses. oxides of nitrogen (structure only). properties and uses. preparation and properties of phosphine. 131 . properties and uses. Ozone. sulphurc acid. halides (PCl3. compounds of nitrogen. industrial process of manufacture. Occurrence. Group 16 elements: General introduction. oxidation states. Classification of oxides. preparation. Arrhenius equation. oxidation states. occurrence. simple oxides. occurrence and principle of extraction of aluminium. electronic configuration. compounds of halogens. trends in physical and chemical properties. properties and uses of chlorine and hydrochloric acid. Group 17 elements: General introduction. Unit 6 : General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements Principles and methods of extraction – concentration.PCl5) and oxoacids (elementary idea only).collision theory (elementary idea. occurrence. reduction electrolytic method and refining. properties and uses. preparation and properties of ammonia and nitric acid. electronic configuration. oxoacids of sulphur (structures only). occurrence.

(Structural and stereo) importance of coordination compounds (in qualitative analysis. colour. interstitial compounds. general trends in properties of the first row transition metals – metallic character. Phenols: Nomenclature. colour. magnetic properties. uses of methanol and ethanol. uses. f-Block ElementsLanthanoids – Electronic configuration. mechanism of substitution reactions. Phenols and Ethers Alcohols: Nomenclature. tetrachloromethane. electronic configuration. VBT. physical and chemical properties (of primary alcohols only). identification of primary. mechanism of dehydration. iodoform. acidic nature of phenol. isomerism. Comparison with lanthanoids. Uses and environmental effects of – dichloromethane. physical and chemical properties. occurrence and characteristics of transition metals. oxidation states. Unit 10 : Halogen derivatives of alkanes (and arenes) Haloalkanes : Nomenclature. secondary and tertiary alcohols. coordination number. methods of preparation. substitution reactions (directive influence of halogen for monosubstituted compounds only) stability of carbocations. Actinoids – Electronic configuration. R-S and d-l configurations. oxidation states.Unit 8 : d and f Block Elements d-Block Elements General introduction. IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds. methods of preparation. Ethers : Nomenclature. Werner’s theory. Unit 11 : Alcohols. alloy formation preparation and properties of K2Cr2O7 and KMnO4.Stability of carbocations. magnetic properties and shapes. oxidation states. ionic radii. extraction of metals and biological systems).R-S and d-l configuration Haloarenes : Nature of C-X bond. freons. 132 . methods of preparation. catalytic property. nature of C-X bond. ligands. ionization enthalpy. uses of phenols. bonding. DDT. physical and chemical properties. electrophillic substitution reactions. chemical reactivity and lanthanoid contraction and its consequences. thrichloromethane. physical and chemical properties.CFT. Unit 9: Coordination Compounds Coordination compounds – Introduction.

Unit 13: Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen Nitro compounds-General methods of preparation and chemical reactions Amines : Nomenclature. mechanism of nucleophilic addition. Physical and chemical properties. methods of preparation. Ketones and Carboxylic Acids Aldehydes and Ketones : Nomenclature. glycogen). polypeptides. identification of primary. enzymes. structure of amines-primary. secondary and tertiary amines. uses. natural and synthetic like polythene. secondary.Unit 12 : Aldehydes. polysaccharides (starch. Diazonium salts: Preparation. nature of carbonyl group.Biodegradable and non biodegradable polymers. Carboxylic Acids: Nomenclature. monosaccahrides d-l configuration (glucose and fructose). and rubber. uses. polyesters. methods of preparation. chemical reactions and importance in synthetic organic chemistry. methods of preparation. tertiary structure and quaternary structures (qualitative idea only). acidic nature. linkage. Some important polymers. peptide. physical and chemical properties. reactivity of alpha hydrogen in aldehydes. maltose). oligosaccharides (sucrose. structure. methods of polymerization (addition and condensation). physical and chemical properties.natural and synthetic. nylon. importance. Lipids and Hormones (elementary idea) excluding structure. uses. Unit 14: Biomolecules Carbohydrates: Classification (aldoses and ketoses). Nucleic Acids: DNA and RNA Unit 15: Polymers Classification . 133 . denaturation of proteins. their classification and functions. classification. copolymerization. proteins. cellulose. Cyanides and Isocyanides: Will be mentioned at relevant places in context. bakelite. Proteins: Elementary idea of -amino acids. Vitamins: Classification and functions. lactose.

KIO3 and sodium sulphite (Na2SO3) using starch solution as indicator (clock reaction). antifertility drugs. (b) Study of reaction rate of any one of the following: (i) Reaction of iodide ion with hydrogen peroxide at room temperature using different concentration of iodide ions. artificial sweetening agents. Chemicals in medicines: analgesics. (ii) Reaction between potassium iodate. B. iv] Heat of displacement of Cu from CuSO4 by Zn. Chemical Kinetics (Any one of the following) : (a) Effect of concentration and temperature on the rate of reaction between sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid. 3. XII A. C. (c) Acid hydrolysis of ethyl acetate. Thermochemistry Any one of the following experiments: i] Enthalpy of dissolution of copper sulphate or potassium nitrate. antacids.Unit 16: Chemistry in Everyday life : 1. antihistamines (elementary idea of antioxidants) 2. iii] Determination of enthalpy change during interaction (hydrogen bond formation) between acetone and chloroform. Electrochemistry Variation of cell potential in Zn|Zn2+||Cu2+|Cu with change in concentration of electrolytes (CuSO4 or ZnSO4) at room temperature (demonstration). disinfectants. ii] Enthalpy of neutralization of strong acid (HCI) and strong base (NaOH). Chemistry Practical Syllabus Std. antiseptics. 134 . Cleansing agents: Soaps and detergents. antimicrobials. cleansing action. Chemicals in food: Preservatives. tranquilizers. antibiotics.

(ii) Preparation of potassium ferric oxalate. (iii) Iodoform (iv) Phthalic or succinic anhydride. Chromatography (demonstration) (i) Separation of pigments from extracts of leaves and flowers by paper chromatography and determination of Rf values. Al3+. Ba2+.D. Ni2+. carboxylic and amino (primary) groups. Characteristic tests of arbohydrates. fats and proteins in pure samples and their detection in given food stuffs. Cu2+. Tests for the functional groups present in organic compounds Unsaturation. (v) Di-benzal acetone G. Mn2+. As3+. (ii) Separation of constituents present in an inorganic mixture containing two cations only (constituents having large difference in Rf values to be provided). J. Zn2+. H.Napthol aniline dye. Mg2+. Cations – Pb2+. 2) Determination of two anions from a given mixture of salts. I. Qualitative analysis 1) Determination of two cations from a given mixture of salts. Preparation of Inorganic Compounds (i) Preparation of double salt of ferrous ammonium sulphate or potash alum. Fe3+. aldehydic. Preparation of Organic Compounds (i) p-Nitrocetanilide (ii) Aniline yellow or 2. alcoholic. NH4+. Sr2+. Co2+. F. phenolic. Ca2+. E. ketonic. Determinaiton of concentration/molarity of KMnO4 solution by titrating it against a standard solution of: (i) Oxalic acid (ii) Ferrous ammonium sulphate (Students will be required to prepare standard solutions by weighing themselves). 135 .

Illaichi (cardamom). effect of temperature. 3 Preparation of soybean milk and its comparison with the natural milk with respect to curd formation. potato juice. 136 . SO42-. butter. Cl-. 8 Study of common food adulterants in fat. 7 Extraction of essential oils present in Saunf (aniseed). turmeric powder.Anions – CO32-. etc. sugar. 4 Study of the effect of potassium bisulphate as food preservative under various conditions (temperature. 2 Study of quantity of casein present in different samples of milk. can be chosen with the approval of the teacher. chilli powder and pepper. concentration. A few suggested Projects: 1 Study of presence of oxalate ions in guava fruit at different stages of ripening. Br-. I-. 5 Study of digestion of starch by salivary amylase and. effect of pH and temperature on it. time etc). 6 Comparative study of the rate of fermentation of following materials: wheat flour. Ajwain (carum). gram flour. Note : Any investigatory project. carrot juice. etc. PO43C2O42CH3COO(Note : Insoluble salts excluded.) PROJECT Scientific investigations involving laboratory testing and collecting information From other sources. No2NO3-. SO32-.

Objectives: The prescribed syllabus is expected to: Promote the inherent skill of observation. Living organisms exhibit extremely complex functional system. Create awareness about the contribution of biology to human welfare. Organisms.BIOLOGY. XI & XII Preamble Higher secondary is the most crucial stage of education because at this juncture specialized disciplines of science are introduced. This syllabus is designed to prepare students for various examinations conducted at state and national level. Delhi. 137 . The present syllabus reinforces the concepts introduced in lower classes. Organisms seldom occur as isolated individuals. Assist to understand the underlying principles of biological sciences and thereby develop scientific attitude towards biological phenomena. Knowledge of biology helps us to understand a common thread which holds all these components together. communities. Recently. ecosystems and environment constitute unique set of natural resources of great importance. Accordingly some additional topics from state Board syllabus have been deleted whereas the lacking topics have been added. The entire unit “Ecology and Environment” has now been added under Botany and Zoology sections. Make students aware of issues of global importance. Hence it has been prepared in accordance with the guidelines shown in the final version of common core syllabi of COBSE.Std. They are organized into populations and biological communities. the science of biology has undergone a paradigm shift that has transformed it from a collection of loosely related facts into a modern applied science. Help students to understand the functioning of organisms. Guide students to perform easy experiments for better understanding of biological principles and to develop experimental skills required in practical work. Understanding of biology will help in the sustainable development of the environment and will also ensure the existence of earth with all its amazing diversity.

3. types with examples.Biochemistry of cell: 1. 4. 5. Systematic and binomial system of nomenclature . Types. importance and list of gardens and herbaria in India. Viruses and viroids . Chapter 2 .Definitions. Economic importance and list of viral diseases.Diversity in organisms 1. Concept of species. Diversity in living organisms-Brief idea.meaning of the terms taxonomy. Binomial nomenclature explanation. Cell cycle 2.Std.Meaning. Three domains of life. – XI: Biology (Upgraded syllabus) Section I . Unit 2 Structure and function of cell Chapter 3 . 2. Classification of living organisms (five Kingdom classification) – Major groups and principles of classification for each Kingdom with examples. Taxonomic hierarchy with examples.Kingdom Plantae 1. Three to five salient features and two examples of each category. Need of classification. Meiosis 138 . Pteridophyta.Algae.Definition. 3. characters. systematics. proteins. general properties. significance and examples. Unit 1 Diversity in Living World: Chapter 1. Mitosis 3. Lichens . lipids and nucleic acids in brief. Salient features of major plant groups . Enzymes . Botanical gardens and herbaria .Botany . Enzyme action and factors affecting enzyme activity in brief. classification and nomenclature. characters. examples and importance. Gymnosperms and Angiosperms (Dicotyledons and Monocotyledons). 2. Basic chemical constituents of living bodies. Bryophyta. Chapter 4 Cell Division 1. Structure and function of carbohydrates.Meaning. 2.

auxins. Elementary idea of Hydroponics.Unit 3 Structural organization in plants: Chapter 5 .Morphology of Plants 1. Transpiration – structure of stomata. Movement of water.tension theory. de.Roots. Nitrogen Metabolism (nitrogen cycle. gibberellins.Absorption of water and minerals. Plant tissues.Plant Water Relation and Mineral Nutrition 1. Unit 4 Plant Physiology: Chapter 6 .differentiation. Mineral deficiency symptoms. ethylene and abscissic acid (role in brief) Photoperiodism. Phases of growth. stem. Role of K+ ions 3. (To be dealt along with the relevant practicals of the practical syllabus) 2. nutrients and gases. Guttation Ascent of sap.macronutrients and micronutrients and their role. food. Differentiation.. Definition and characteristics of growth. leaf.Apoplast and Symplast Pathways. flower. 2. inflorescence. mechanism of opening and closing of stomata.Hypogeal. epigeal and viviparous. fruit and seed. biological nitrogen fixation) Chapter 7 . Morphology. root pressure concept and cohesion . redifferentiation Sequence of developmental process in a plant cell Growth regulators . Photomorphogenesis including brief account of Phytochromes (Elementary idea) Vernalization. Mineral toxicity. 139 . Role of water and minerals . anatomy and functions of different parts . Conditions of growth. cytokinines.Plant Growth and Development: Seed dormancy. Germination . Translocation of sugars through phloem brief account. Active and passive absorption in brief.

cytoskeleton. Cartilage and Bone). Vacuoles. b) Connective tissue . Ligaments.types: a) Epithelial tissues . Plant cell and animal cell. Tendons. 140 . Hemichordata.Organization of Cell: 1. Zoological parks and Museums . Reptilia. Microbodies.XI Section II – Zoology Unit 1 Diversity in Living World: Chapter 8 . Platyhelminthes. Amphibia. cilia and flagella. 5.General idea with list. . Nemathelminthes. Adipose.Nucleus. Chondrichthyes. 4. Nuclear organization . Cell wall and cell membrane . columnar. Arthropoda. Cell organelles: Plastids. Endoplasmic reticulum. Cephalochordata. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell . 2. cuboidal. Cell theory .compound epithelium (stratified and transitional). 6. Unit 3 Structural organisation in Animals: Chapter 10. 3.structure and examples. Echinodermata and Unit 2 Structure and function of cell: Chapter 9 . Golgi complex.(Areolar. Coelenterata.Kingdom Animalia: 1. . Lysosomes. Osteichthyes. nucleolus and nucleoplasm. glandular). Aves and Mammalia.Study of Animal Tissues 1. Annelida.Std. Mitochondria. Classification of phylum chordata upto class level with three to five salient features and two examples of each category: Urochordata. Animal tissues .(fluid mosaic model). Classification of following phyla with three to five salient features and two examples of each category: Porifera. Ciliated. Salient features of major phyla under kingdom Animalia. Mollusca. Cyclostomata.simple epithelium (squamous. Ribosome and Centrioles (ultrstructure and functions).brief account 2.

d) Nervous tissue (Neurons. respiration and common respiratory disorders: Respiratory organs in animals (Recall only) i) Respiratory system in brief ii) Breathing. gastrointestinal hormones.Human Nutrition: 1. Peristalsis. Calorific value of proteins. Chapter 14. indigestion. Respiratory volumes iv) Respiratory disorders. Digestion. amphiarthroses.c) Muscular tissue . anatomy and functions of digestive. carbohydrates and fats v) Absorption. and diarthroses. circulatory.Human Respiration: 1Breathing.(Smooth. vomiting and diarrhoea Chapter 13. Regulation of Respiration. Regulation iii) Exchange of gases. transport of CO2 and O2 and tissue respiration. constipation. Emphysema and occupational lung diseases. and reproductive systems of cockroach (Brief account only) Unit 4 Human Physiology: Chapter 12. Jaundice. Morphology. nervous.synarthroses. Chapter 11.Asthma.inspiration and expiration. respiratory. 141 .Study of Animal Type: 1. absorption and nutritional disorders: ii) Digestive system in brief iv) Physiology of digestion.Human skeleton and Locomotion: Brief account of human skeleton: A] Axial Skeleton B] Appendicular Skeleton (Details to be dealt with the relevant practical) Types of joints . assimilation and egestion vi) Nutritional and digestive disorders – PEM. striated and cardiac). glial cells and types of neurons).

leaf (arrangement.Types of diarthroses .Ciliary. 5 Study of osmosis by Potato osmometer 6. To test the presence of sugar. Osteoporosis. condyloid. Flagellar. saddle and gliding joints. arthritis. proteins and fats from suitable plant and animal materials. Study of parts of compound microscope. Std. venation. hinge. S. 4. Muscular Mechanism of muscle movement: Contractile proteins and Muscle contraction Skeletal and muscular disorders – Myasthenia gravis. shape. 8) To study the digestion of starch by salivary amylase under different conditions of temperature and pH. of dicot (sunflower) and monocot roots and stem to study different plant tissues. starch. Study of plasmolysis in epidermal peels.ball and socket. muscular dystrophy tetany and gout. 142 . Study of structure and distribution of stomata in upper and lower surface of leaf. Fabaceae and Liliaceae with respect to types of root-(tap and adventitious). 3 Study and describe three locally available flowering plants from the families-Solanaceae. XI Biology Practicals Syllabus (A) List of experiments: 1. pivot. stem (herbaceous and woody). simple and compound) and floral characters. Preparation of T. 2. Types of Movement. 7.

9. Hydra. 6. 7 Study and identification of different types of inflorescence. through temporary or permanent slides. runner. Pigeon and Rat. Star-fish. Rohu. mammalian blood smear. Agaricus. squamous epithelium. Lizard. Riccia. parasitic root. 5. Rhizopus. Study of specimens and identification with reasons: Bacteria. Leech. 4. Silkworm Honey bee . Ascaris. 3. muscle fibres. sclerenchyma. 143 . Study of different modifications of stem (stem tuber. Frog. Study of different modification of leaf (leaflet and stipular tendril). sunflower and maize. Usnea. phyllode). Snail. Study of human skeleton (except skull. collenchyma. epiphytic root and pneumatophores). Nephrolepis. Study of different modifications of root (fusiform root. Study of imbibition of seeds/raisins. Comparative study of rates of transpiration in upper and lower surface of leaf. parenchyma. Shark. 2. yeast. Oscillatoria. Spirogyra. phloem. leaf Spines. Liverfluke. c) Apical bud removal 10. Observation and comments on experimental set up on: a) Phototropism b) Suction due to transpiration. Balanoglossus. Funaria.(B) Study/ Observation of the following (Spotting): 1. Earthworm.palisade cells. cartilaginous and fibrous joint with one suitable example). Cycas. and tendril). 8 Study of tissues and diversity in shapes and sizes of plant and animal cells. Amoeba. guard cells. 11. xylem. Study of specimens and their identification with reasons – Sycon. Prawn. hand bones and foot bones) and different types of joints (synovial.

Plasmids. Preparing and cloning a DNA Library.Genetic Basis of Inheritance: Mendelian inheritance.XII Biology (Upgraded syllabus) Section I – BOTANY Unit 1: Genetics and Evolution Chapter 1 .Biotechnology: Process and Application Genetic engineering (Recombinant DNA technology): Transposons. Transcription. Gene Expression and Gene Regulation (The Lac operon as a typical model of gene regulation).12 Study of external morphology of earthworm. 13.incomplete dominance. cockroach and frog through models. DNA as genetic material. Gene Amplification (PCR). expression and regulation: Modern concept of gene in brief-cistron. Producing Restriction Fragments. . muton and recon. Elementary idea of polygenic inheritance. 144 . DNA Packaging. RNA: General structure types and functions.Enhancement in Food Production: Plant Breeding Tissue Culture: Concept of Cellular Totipotency. Unit 2: Biotechnology and its application Chapter 3 . ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Std. semi conservative replication of eukaryotic DNA. Chapter 2 . Study of mitosis in onion roots tips and animal cells (grasshopper) from permanent slides. co-dominance. multiple alleles and Inheritance of blood groups). Translation-Genetic Code. Pleiotropy. Deviations from Mendelian ratio (gene interaction. Application of Biotechnology in Agriculture – BT crops Biosafety Issues (Biopiracy and patents) Unit 3: Biology and Human Welfare Chapter 4 . central dogma. Protein Synthesis. structure of DNA as given by Watson and Cricks model. Bacteriophages.Gene: its nature.

Chapter 7 . Factors affecting Photosynthesis. Microbes in Biogas (energy) Production. micropropagation 145 . Single Cell Protein. uniparental modes-vegetative propagation. Significance of Respiration.Reproduction in Plants: Modes of Reproduction (Asexual and Sexual).Microbes in Human Welfare: Microbes in Household food processing Microbes in Industrial Production. Unit 5: Reproduction in Organisms Chapter 8 . Fermentation Exchange of gases Amphibolic pathway. Microbes in Sewage Treatment. Law of limiting factors. Respiratory quotient of Nutrients. Callus Culture. Microbes as Biofertilizers. Unit 4: Plant Physiology Chapter 6 .Photosynthesis: Autotrophic nutrition Site of Photosynthesis Photosynthetic Pigments and their role. Microbes as Biocontrol Agents. Suspension Culture. Photorespiration. Light-Dependent Reactions (Cyclic and non-cyclic photophosphorylation) Light-Independent Reactions (C3 and C4 Pathways) Chemiosmotic hypothesis.Requirements of Tissue Culture (in brief). Asexual reproduction. TCA Cycle and Electron Transport System) and Anaerobic Respiration.Respiration: ATP as currency of Energy Mechanism of Aerobic (Glycolysis. Biofortification Chapter 5 .

Pollination: Types and Agencies.XII Biology Section II . Adaptive radiation. Double Fertilization: Process and Significance. Biological Evidences. polyembryony. Evolution: Darwin‟s contribution. Std. 146 .Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance: The Chromosomal Theory. Environmental issues: agrochemicals and their effects. productivity and decomposition. Ecological succession. parthenocarpy.Sexual Reproduction: structure of flower Development of male gametophyte. ozone depletion. Outbreeding devices. components. Post-fertilization changes (development of endosperm and embryo. Spontaneous.Origin and the Evolution of Life: Origin of Life: Early Earth. Mechanism of evolution. Significance of seed and fruit formation. assembly of organic compounds.Hardy-Weinberg principle. pyramids of number.ZOOLOGY Unit 1: Genetics and Evolution Chapter 10 . energy. pollen-pistil interaction. Modern Synthetic Theory of evolution. Chromosomes. nutrient cycling (carbon and phosphorous). Ecological services-carbon fixation. case studies (any two). pollination. Structure of anatropous ovule. Chapter 11 . Green house effect and global warming. deforestation. energy flow. oxygen release. Development of female Gametophyte. Unit 6: Ecology and Environment: Chapter 9: Organisms and Environment -I Habitat and Niche Ecosystems: Patterns. development of seed and formation of fruit) Special modes-apomixis. Origin and Evolution of Human being. . Gene flow and genetic drift. solid waste management. biomass.

Bee-Keeping. Genomics and Human Genome Project. Unit 2: Biotechnology and its application Chapter 12. Pneumonia. Typhoid. Structure of Antibody. Unit 3: Biology and Human Welfare Chapter 13. Fisheries. Chromosomal disorders in human: Down’s syndrome. Antigens on blood cells.Linkage and Crossing Over.Genetic Engineering and Genomics: DNA Finger Printing. Sex Determination in Human being. Poultry. Ascariasis. Cancer and AIDS. Sex-linked Inheritance (Haemophilia and colour blindness). Biotechnological Applications in Health: Human insulin and vaccine production. drug and alcohol abuse. birds. Pathogens and Parasites (Amoebiasis. Malaria. Turner’s syndrome and Klinfelter’s syndrome.Mendelian disorders in humansThalassemia. Common cold and ring worm). Adolescence. Antigen-Antibody Complex. Dairy. Gene Therapy. honey bee. Sericulture Lac culture 147 .Animal Husbandry: Management of Farms and Farm Animals. Transgenic animals. Chapter 14.Human Health and Diseases: Concepts of Immunology: Immunity Types. Filariasis. Animal Breeding. Vaccines.

Disorders. exopthalmic goiter. Reflex action.Unit 4: Human Physiology Chapter 15. Pulmonary and Systemic Circulation. Cardiac output. Mechanism of hormone action Hormones as messengers and regulators.Control and Co-ordination: Nervous System: Structure and functions of brain and Spinal cord. Chapter 16. brief idea about PNS and ANS. and heart failure. Blood groups Structure and pumping action of Heart.Circulation: Blood composition and coagulation. ADH and Diabetes inspidus. Addison’s disease) 148 .Excretion and osmoregulation: Modes of excretion-Ammonotelism. Role of Kidney in Osmoregulation. ureotelism. Acromegaly. ECG. angina pectoris. Rhythmicity of Heart beat. Transplantation. Blood related disorders: Hypertension. Hormones and their functions. role of other organs in excretion. Sensory perception. nephritis. Diabetes mellitus. Regulation of cardiac activity. coronary artery disease. atrial natriuretic factor. Heart beat and Pulse. Blood Vessels. Transmission of nerve impulse. Chapter 17. Kidney stone (renal calculi). Excretory System Composition and formation of urine. Lymphatic System (Brief idea): Composition of lymph and its functions. Uraemia. uricotelism. Dialysis. Sensory receptors (eye and ear). Regulation of kidney function: renin-angiotensin. general idea of other sense organs Endocrine System: Endocrine glands. Kidney failure. goiter. Hormonal imbalance and diseases: Common disorders (Dwarfism. cretinism.

birth rate and death rate.growth. implantation. Hotspots.MTP. Histology of testis and ovary. Biodiversity and its conservation. population attributes. national parks and sanctuaries. Threats to and need for biodiversity conservation .Human Reproduction: Reproductive system in male and female. Pregnancy.concept. patterns.red data book . fertilization. importance. Production of gametes.Biodiversity.IVF. ZIFT. placenta. parasitism. age distribution. (Case studies any two) ---------------------------------------------------------------- 149 .Unit 5: Reproduction in Organisms Chapter 18. biosphere reserves. Reproductive health-birth control. GIFT (elementary idea for general awareness). Unit 6: Ecology and Environment Chapter 19-Organisms and Environment-II Population and ecological adaptations: population interactions-mutualism. water pollution and its control and radioactive waste management. predation. parturition and lactation (Elementary idea). loss. endangered organisms.extinction. competition. Embryo development up to three germinal layers. Reproductive cycle. Amniocentesis. Contraception and sexually transmitted diseases. Environmental issues: air pollution and its control. Infertility and assisted reproductive technologies.

Study pollen germination on a slide. 4 Exercise on controlled pollination . Dissect anther and ovary to show number of chambers. Study/observation of the following (Spotting): 1 Study of flowers adapted to pollination by different agencies (wind. 8. insect) 2 Study of pollen germination on stigma through a permanent slide. Prepare a temporary mount of onion root tip to study mitosis. 11To test the presence of albumin and bile salts in urine. tagging and bagging 5 Study meiosis in onion bud cell or grass hopper testis through permanent slide. 6. Separation of plant pigments by paper chromatography 7 To study the rate of respiration in flower buds/leaf tissue and germinating seeds. Correlate with the kinds of plants found in them. Dissect the given flower and display different whorls. 2. XII (Upgraded) Biology Practicals Syllabus Experiments: 1. Collect and study soil from at least two different sites and study them for texture. Study the presence of suspended particulate matter in air at the two widely different Sites. 5. pH and water holding capacity of soil. clarity and presence of any living organisms. 9.(Two plants each) 150 . 10. To test the presence of urea and sugar in urine. 4. 3 To Study Mendelian inheritance using seeds of different colour/size of any plant.Std.Emasculation.. Study of plant population density and frequency by quadrate method. 6 Study plants found in xerophytic and aquatic conditions with respect to their morphological adaptations. 3. Collect water from two different water bodies around you and study them for pH. moisture content.

of blastula through permanent slide. 9 To study prepared pedigree charts of genetic traits such as rolling of tongue. of testis and T. (Two animals each) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 151 .S. 8. Entamoeba . ovary through permanent slides (from any mammal). widow‟s peak.Ascaris and ring worm through permanent slides or specimens. colour blindness. 11 Study of animals found in xeric (desert) and aquatic conditions with respect to their morphological adaptations. Blood groups.S. Study of V.S. T. 10 To identify common disease causing organisms like Plasmodium.7 Study and identify stages of gamete development. Comment on symptoms of diseases that they cause.

Mathematics is the backbone of all sciences and it is an inseparable part of human life. principles. Hence to fulfill the needs of students. major thrust is also on application of various concepts. 3) To develop positive attitude to think. Higher Secondary is a launching stage from where students would go to either for academic education in Mathematics or professional courses like Engineering and Computer Technology. elimination of sex biases and observance of small family norm. XI & XII Introduction: Mathematics is the language of all sciences and is perhaps the only subject which merits this distinction. Objectives: To enable the students 1)To acquire knowledge and critical understanding. it is utmost important to make the study of Mathematics more meaningful by acquainting the student with many branches of mathematics. 152 . This will help them in developing Mathematical tools to be used in the professional education. symbols and mastering the underlying processes and skills. Motivating topics from real life situations and other subject areas. The proposed syllabus has been designed in accordance with National Curriculum Framework 2005 and as per guidelines given in Focus Group on Teaching of Mathematics 2005 which is to meet the emerging needs of all categories of students. protection of an environment. terms. Physical and Biological Sciences. particularly by way of motivation and visualization of basic concepts. removal of social barriers. 5) To acquaint students with different aspects of Mathematics used in real life.Upgraded Syllabus MATHEMATICS AND STATISTICS (For Arts and Science) Std. 6) To develop an interest in students to study Mathematics as a discipline. 4) To develop interest in Mathematics by participating in various related competitions and selflearning. 2) To apply the knowledge and skills in Mathematics and related problems from other subjects. 7) To develop awareness of the need for national integration. analyze and articulate logically. by more than one method.

general form. Definition and equation of locus. provided A and B are not both zero. trigonometric functions of particular angles (00. coterminal angles. periodicity of functions. y = a cos bx. 2. Straight Line : Revision. 300. trigonometric functions of negative angles. Reduction of general equation of a line into normal form. B and C are constants (without proof). Formulae for conversion of sum or difference into products. angles in standard position. MATHEMATICS AND STATISTICS (ARTS AND SCIENCE) STD. fundamental identities. points of locus. Area of the sector of a circle A = ½ r2. slope point form. Theorem : A general linear equation Ax + By+ C =0. θ is in radians) (without proof). Trigonometric functions: Need & concept. formulae for conversion of product into sum or difference. equation of lines. Theorem: Radian is a constant angle. Measurement of Angles : Need & concept. Trigonometric functions with the help of standard unit circle. Inclination of a line. zero angle. 5. shift of the origin. circular system. 900.PART – I 1. revision of different forms of equations of a line. simultaneously. XI . where A. 9) To develop interest in the subject by participating in related competitions. θ is in radians (without proof). 1800. 600. θ. 450. 2700.8) To develop reverence and respect towards great mathematicians for their contribution to the field of Mathematics. Graph of Y = a sin bx. angles in quadrant & quadrantal angles. parallel to coordinate axes. 4. trigonometric functions of angles of a triangle. Trigonometric functions of compound angles : Introduction. trigonometricfunctions of sum and difference. θ. 153 . 3. signs of trigonometric functions in different quadrants. Theorem 2 : Every straight line has an equation of the form Ax +By + C = 0. Revision of directed angle (+ve and –ve angles). slope of a line. trigonometric functions of half angles. normal form. Length of an arc of a circle (s = r. trigonometric functions of multiple angles (upto double and triple angles only). always represents. intercepts of a line. Factorization Formulae: Introduction. two point form. 6. Sexagesimal system. relation between degree measure and radian measure. slope intercept form. graphs of trigonometric functions.straight line. parametric form. double intercept form other forms of equations of a line. domain and range of trigonometric functions. straight angle. Locus : Introduction. 3600).

Linear in equations in two variable – solution of linear inequation in one variable & graphical solution. properties of matrix multiplication. parallel lines. Application of conic section. concepts.intersection of two lines. family of lines. identical lines. expansion. negative of a vector. types of vectors. 9. workdone by force. general equation. multiplication of matrices – definition. focus-directrix property of parabola. equation of family of lines through the intersection of two lines. types of matrices – zero matrix. Matrices : Introduction. determinant of order three–definition. triangular matrices. (KA) KA . position vector of a point in space. distance between two points in a space. definition. simple application. moment of a force. properties of addition of vectors. Conics Napees – Intersection of Napees of a cone and Plane. properties of determinants. hyperbola. 11. distance of a point from a line. ellipse. parabola. Linear Inequations : Linear in equations in one variable – solution of linear inequation in one variable & graphical solution. magnitude of a vector. standard equation. scalar product. parametric equations. order. 8. determinant of a square matrix. definition. row matrix. triangle law. unit vector. Determinants : Revision. solution of linear in equations in two variable & graphical solution. subtraction. polygon law. Transposition. product of vectors. 10. zero vector. scalar matrix. standard equation. coplanar vectors. Circle and Conics : Revision. multiplication of a matrix by a scalar. parallelogram law. square matrix. equation of a straight line parallel to a given line. condition for concurrency of three lines. diagonal matrix. vector product. Replacement of a set or domain of a set. introduction. solutions of system of linear inequations in two variables. column matrix. Cramer‟s rule for system of equations in three variables. notations. standard equation. properties. area of a triangle. co-ordinates of a point in space. equations of bisectors of angle between two lines. identity matrix. equation of a straight line perpendicular to a given line. Vectors : Definition. 7. distance between two parallel lines. properties. parameter equations of standard equation. simple properties. equal vector. perpendicular lines. like and unlike vector. addition. hyperbola. coinitial vector. ellipse. three dimensional co-ordinate geometry. coordinate axes & coordinate planes in space. symmetric & skew symmetric matrices. free and localized vectors. collinear vectors. operations on matrices – equality. diameter form. (AB) BA. standard equation (different forms of parabola). unit vectors along axes. parametric equations. angle between lines. singular & non-singular matrices. applications of determinants condition of consistency. transpose of a matrix. 154 . properties of transpose of a matrix (A ) A. solutions of system of linear in equations in one variable. resolved part of a force. centre-radius form. minors & co-factors. scalar multiple of a vector.

scalar multiplication. addition. proper. identity function. powers and square root of a complex number – higher powers of i. argument). codomain and range of a function. one-one. even & odd functions. of elements in the Cartesian product of two finite sets. finite & infinite sets. Cartesian product of the reals with itself. Cartesian product of two sets. subtraction. empty set. real valued function of the real variable. types of functions. method of finding mantissa. universal set. polar representation of complex numbers. domain and range of these functions. union. functions with their graphs. modulus. types of relations. improper. algebra of complex numbers – equality. Venn diagrams. subset. square root of a complex number. characteristics & mantissa – method of finding characteristics. difference. codomain and range of a relation. properties. equality of ordered pairs. properties of complex numbers – properties of addition of complex numbers. pictorial representation of a function. need for complex numbers. definitions –(real parts. inverse function. 2. method of finding antilogarithm. into function. complex conjugates. equal functions. laws of logarithms. onto function. sum. division. 4) Existence of additive identity. functions – function as a special kind of relation. constant function. cube roots of unity – solution of quadratic equations in the complex number system.PART – II 1. logarithmic function. equivalent sets. Relations and Functions : Set – Revision. 3) Associative law. imaginary parts. composite function. definition of relation. one-one function. binary operations. in plane. geometrical meaning of modulus and argument. rational function. multiplication. Properties of product of complex numbers –Existance of multiplicative identity – Existence of multiplicative inverse properties of conjugate & modulus of complex numbers. domain. subset and their properties. Sets. modulus function.2) Commulative Law. 3. cube roots of unity. many-one. pictorial diagrams. 155 . binary equivalence relation. signum & greatest integer. fundamental theorem of algebra. Relations – ordered pairs. intersection. disjoint sets. Logarithms : Introduction. exponential function. definition. change of base. complement of a set. Complex Numbers : Introduction. 1) Closure Property. product quotient of functions. polynomial function. Argand Diagram – representation of a complex number as a pt. No. domain. difference of two sets. Demoivre‟s formula – (without proof). equal sets.5) Existence of additive inverse. power set.

exponential functions. mean deviation about median (for grouped & ungrouped data). Probability: Revision. harmonic mean. axiomatic definition of probability. geometrical interpretation of indefinite integrals.M. special series. binomial theorem – binomial theorem for positive integers.M.. P. permutations. sum of cube of first n odd natural nos. n terms from the end of G. derivative at a point. factorial notation. co-efficient of variation. algebra of integrals – integrals of some standard functions. geometric means.M. binomial theorem for any index (without proof). effect of change of origin and scale on variance and standard deviation. relation between A. product and quotient. simple applications. fundamental theorem on limits. particular term. when all r objects are not distinct. 8.. general term.. sum of the first „n‟ terms. meaning of x a. mean deviation about mean. independent events. 7.P. properties of binomial co-efficient with simple application. mutually exclusive and exhaustive events... circular permutations. particular cases of binomial theorem.4. comparison of two frequency distributions with same mean. mutually exlusive events. containing finitely many terms & sum to infinite terms properties of G. 6. geometrical significance of derivative.P. 5. with proof. when all r objects are distinct. rules of integration. algebraic functions. properties of A. standard deviation. relations between permutations and combinations. odds in favour and against.P.P. H. addition theorem – for any two events A and B. limits at infinity – concepts. logarithmic functions. Permutations & combinations : Introduction. the limit of a function. Conditional probability – definition. types of events – events and algebra of events. Baye‟s theorem. combined variance and standard deviation.. simple applications. general term. multiplication theorem. Integration: Definition (of integration) as antiderivative. Limits : Introduction of concept. 10. A. Means – arithmetic mean. Mathematical Induction and Binomial Theorem : Principle of mathematical induction. quartile & quartile deviation (for grouped and ungrouped data). rules of differentiation – derivative of sum. 11. simple problems.P. geometric progression – introduction. Differentiation : Definition of a derivative. G. derivatives from first principle of trigonometric functions. 156 . Sum of first n terms of A. simple applications. Statistics : Measures of dispersion – range. difference. variance. Sequences & Series : Revision sequence. fundamental principle of counting. H. combinations – definition. simple applications. Arithmetic-Geometric sequence. as a special type of A. physical significance (velocity as a rate of change of displacement).P. properties. Result on compatible events. exponential & logarithmic series. sum of cube of first n natural. algebra of limits – standard limits. 9.

Differentiation. Measures of dispersion. 15. 14. 20. 11.List of Practicals: XI 1. 5. Permutations and combinations. Linear inequation. Algebra of matrices. Family of lines. Mathematical induction. 6. Binomial theorem. Numerical problems using laws of logarithms. Examples on special series. Limits. Applications of Conics II. Applications of Conics I. 3. 12. 17. 13. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 157 . Probability. Problems on locus. Applications of vectors (Dot and cross product). 4. 7. 8. cube root of unity. 2. Integration. 16. 9. Applications of determinants. Power and square root of a complex number. 10. 19. Tracing of graphs of functions. 18.

projection rule. elementary row transformation. Trigonometric functions : Trigonometric equations-general solution of trigonometric equation of the type. cos 0. open sentences and truth sets. inverse. tan . condition for perpendicular lines. associative law. graphs of inverse trigonometric function. tan tan . commutative law. duality. sin sin . distributive law. negation of compound statement. algebra of statements-idempotent law. acute angle between the lines (without proof). truth tables of compound statements. implication/ conditional. theorem-the joint equation of a pair of lines passing through origin and its converse. angle between the lines represented by ax2+2hxy+by2=0. logical equivalence. converse. contrapositive. inversion method. condition of parallel and perpendicular lines. application-solution of system of linear equations by – reduction method. inverse of a matrix-existance and uniqueness of inverse of a matrix. properties of inverse functions. difference between converse. biconditional. 3. negation. contrapositive. contingency. application. Hero‟s formula. homogenous equation. sine rule.MATHEMATICS AND STATISTICS STD. point of intersection of two lines. there exists. cosine rule. area of a triangle. statement patterns and logical equivalence-tautology. examples related to real life and mathematics. condition for parallel lines. 158 . quantifier and quantified statements. condition that the equation ax2+2hxy+by2+2gx+2fy+c=0 should represent a pair of lines (without proof). involution law. sin 0. tan2 tan2 .Introduction. range. complement law. a cos b sin c solution of a triangle-polar coordinates. 4. elementary column transformation. inverse by elementary transformation. logical connective-conjunction. cos2 cos2 . contradiction. inverse trigonometric functionsdefinitions. solution of Trigonometric equations. demorgan‟s laws. Matrices : Elementary transformation of a matrix-revision of cofactor and minor. 2. contradiction. identity law. truth value of statement. domain. pair of lines not passing through origin-conbined equation of any two lines. cos cos . logical equivalence. Pair of straight lines : Pair of lines passing through origin-conbined equation. application-introduction to switching circuits (simple examples). sentences and statement. disjunction. principle values. XII PART – I 1. sin2 sin2 . Mathematical Logic : Statements . compound statement. Napier Analogues. adjoint method.

dist. equation of plane passing through the given point and perpendicular to given vector. distance of a point from a plane (vector approach). Plane : Equation of plane in normal form. Line : Equation of line passing through given point and parallel to given vector. formula. definition of constraints. 11. condition of collinearity of two vectors. ellipse. application of vectors to geometry-medians of a triangle are concurrent. distance between two skew lines. constraint equations. Conics : Tangents and normals-equations of tangent and normal at a point for parabola. diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each other and converse. objective function.P. condition of tangency for parabola. 8. properties. relation between direction ratio and direction cosines. direction ratios. angle bisectors of triangle are concurrent. direction cosines. median of trapezium is parallel to the parallel sides and its length is half the sum of parallel sides. altitudes of a triangle are concurrent. angle between two planes. condition of perpendicular lines. ellipse. tangents to a circle from a point outside the circle. angle between two lines. 6. equation of plane passing through the given point and parallel to two given vectors. geometrical interpretation of scalar triple product. distance between two parallel lines (vector approach). feasible and infeasible 159 . length of tangent segments. normal to a circle-equation of normal at a point. Three dimensional geometry : Direction cosines and direction ratios-direction angles. equation of plane passing through three non-collinear points. Linear programming problems: Introduction of L. angle subtended on a semicircle is right angle. ellipse. scaler triple product-definition.P. of a point from a line.2) general circle. Vectors : Revision. condition of tangency only for line y mx c to the circle x2 y2 a2 . director circle. tangents from a point outside conics. angle between line and plane. 7. equation of line passing through two given points. midpoint formula. non-negativity restrictions. centroid formula. tangents in terms of slope for parabola. optimization. section formula-section formula for internal and external division. Collinearty and coplanerity of vectors-linear combination of vectors. equation of plane passing through the intersection of two given planes. hyperbola. properties of tangents and normals to conics (without proof). conditions of coplanerity ofthree vectors. 9. hyperbola. locus of points from which two tangents are mutually perpendicular. 10. hyperbola. condition for the coplanerity of two lines.5. Circle : Tangent of a circle-equation of a tangent at a point to 1) standard circle.

derivative as rate measure-introduction. b) quotient of functions. STD. 4. algebra of continuous functions. relationship between continuity and differentiability-left hand derivative and right hand derivative (need and concept).region. substitution method. 160 .revision of derivative. Application of derivative : Geometrical application-tangent and normal at a point. rational. derivative of parametric function – definition of parametric function . every differentiable function is continuous but converse is not true. right hand limit. continuity in interval-definition. discontinuity of a function. optimum feasible solution. Maxima and minima-introduction of extreme and extreme values. types of discontinuity. Derivative of implicit function definition and examples. Derivative of composite functionchain rule.P. properties of definite integrals properties of definite integrals. maxima and minima in a closed interval. graphical solutions for problem in two variables. integrals of the type. different types of L. integration by partial fraction-factors involving repeated and non-repeated linear factors.PART – II 1. first derivative test. derivative of inverse function derivative of inverse trigonometric function. 2) integration by parts. non-repeated quadratic factors. continuity of some standard functionspolynomial. integration by parts-integration by parts.P. second derivative test. Continuity : Continuity of a function at a point-left hand limit. increasing and decreasing function. Mathematical formulation-mathematical formulation of L. definite integral-definite integral as a limit of sum. 2. exponential and logarithmic function. exponential and logarithmic function-derivative of functions which are expressed in one of the following form a) product of functions. XII . trigonometric. Integration : Indefinite integrals-methods of integration. and Mean value theorem and their geometrical interpretation (without proof).P. problems. Rolls theorem. Differentiation : Revision. feasible solutions. c) higher order derivative-second order derivative d) f (x) g x 3. definition of a continuity of a function at a point. integrals of type (reduction formulae are not expected).P. evaluation of definite integral 1) by substitution. approximation (without proof). fundamental theorem of integral calculus (without proof).

degree. 6. formation of differential equation-formation of differential equation by elimmating arbitary constants (at most two constants). distribution function of a continuous random variable. standard normal variable. order. simple problems (without proof). 161 . conditions for Binomial distribution. binomial distribution (p. discrete and continuous random variable. variance and standard deviation. Normal distribution . surface area. 8.). 7. particular solution of differential equation.5. homogenous differential equation (equation reducible to homogenous form are not expected).f. covariance for bivariate frequency distribution. Newton‟s laws of cooling. Applications of logic.d.area bounded by curve and axis (simple problems). mean.f. bacterial colony growth.).p. Statistics: Bivariate frequency distribution . volume of solid of revolution-volume of solid obtained by revolving the area under the curve about the axis (simple problems). 2.f. applications-population growth.d. List of Practicals : XII 1. solution of first order and first degree differential equation-variable separable method.m. 4. Probability distribution : Probability distribution of a random variable-definition of a random variable. expected value. covariance of or ungrouped data. probability distribution of a discrete random variable. variance and standard deviation. Inverse of a matrix by elementary transformation and hence solution of system of linear equation. general solution. Inverse of a matrix by adjoint method and hence solution of system of linear equations.). Applications of definite integral: Area under the curve .m. Karl Pearson‟s co-efficient of correlation.f. Solutions of a triangle. Bernoulli trials and Binomial distribution : Definition of Bernoulli trial. area bounded by two curves. cumulative probability distribution of a discrete random variable. tabulation of bivariate data.bivariate data. 3. probability density function (p. scatter diagram. calculation of probabilities (without proof). Linear differential equation. probability mass function (p. 9. radioactive decay. Differential equation : Definition-differential equation. mean. variance and standard deviation of a discrete random variable.

16.D of random variable. Applications of derivatives . Tracing of tangents and normals for circles and parabola. Three dimensional geometry .Limit of sum. 15. 8. 18. 9. Applications of scalar triple product of vectors. 20. Applications of definite integrals . 13. Three dimensional geometry .Area. Binomial distribution. Applications of derivatives (Geometric applications). ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 162 .Maxima and minima 14.plane. Applications of definite integrals . Applications of differential equations. measure. 19. Bivariate frequency distribution. 7. Applications of derivatives – Rate. 17. Tracing of tangents and normals for ellipse and hyperbola. variance and S. 12. Formations and solutions of LPP.5.volume. 6. 11. Applications of definite integrals . 10. Expected value.line.