Upgraded Syllabus

PHYSICS – Std. XI & XII Preamble
According to NCF 2005, the curriculum of the subject Physics is upgraded for higher secondary stage. This curriculum is comparable to the international standards which are useful for the students in Maharashtra State for different types of competitive examinations conducted in India. All the units of the subject from NCERT curriculum are divided into two years conveniently in Maharashtra State. Continuity in the curriculum is maintained in Std. XI & XII, which is not in NCERT curriculum. All the students appear for the competitive examinations only after +2 stages throughout India. This syllabus has been designed in accordance with the guidelines shown in the final version of common core syllabii of COBSE, Delhi. Accordingly few additional sub units have been added. Objectives – 1. Emphasis on basic conceptual understanding of the content. 2. Emphasis on use of SI units, symbols, nomenclature of physical quantities and formulations as per international standards. 3. Providing logical sequencing of units of the subject matter and proper placement of concepts with their linkage for better learning. 4. Reducing the curriculum load by eliminating overlapping of concepts/content within the discipline and other disciplines. 5. Promotion of process-skills, problem-solving abilities and applications of Physics concepts. 6. Strengthen the concepts developed at the secondary stage to provide firm foundation for further learning in the subject. 7. Expose the learners to different processes used in Physics-related industrial and technological applications. 8. Develop process-skills and experimental, observational, manipulative, decision making and investigatory skills in the learners. 9. Promote problem solving abilities and creative thinking in learners. 10. Develop conceptual competence in the learners and make them realize and appreciate the interface of Physics with other disciplines.

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PHYSICS

(Upgraded Syllabus)
Std. XI
1. Measurements Introduction, Need for measurement, Units for measurement, System of Units, S.I. Units, Fundamental and derived units, Dimensional analysis, Order of magnitude and significant figures, Accuracy and errors in measurement.

2. Scalars and Vectors Addition and subtraction of vectors, Product of vectors.

3. Projectile motion Uniformly accelerated motion along straight line, Non uniform motion, Position time graph and velocity-time graph, Equation of a projectile path, Time of flight, Horizontal range, Maximum height of a projectile, Relative velocity.

4. Force Types of forces, General idea of gravitation, electromagnetic and nuclear forces, Law of conservation of momentum, Work done by a variable force. Work-energy theorem, Elastic and inelastic collisions in one and two dimensions, Inertial and non-intertial frames, Moment of force, Couple and properties of couple, Centre of mass, Centre of gravity, Conditions of equilibrium of a rigid body.

5. Friction in solids and liquids Origin and nature of frictional forces, Laws of static friction, Laws of kinetic friction, Pressure due to fluid column, Pascal‟s Law and its applications, Effect of gravity on fluid pressure, Viscosity, Streamline flow, Turbulent flow, Viscous force, Newton‟s formula, Stokes‟ law, Equation for terminal velocity, Raynold‟s number, Bernoulli‟s principle and its applications.

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6. Sound Waves Waves and oscillations, Progressive waves, Characteristics of transverse waves, Characteristics of longitudinal waves, Sound as longitudinal wave motion, Relation between v, f and, ƛ Newton‟s formula for velocity of sound, Laplace‟s correction.

7. Thermal properties of matter Temperature and heat, Measurement of temperature, Ideal-gas equation and absolute temperature, Thermal expansion, Specific heat capacity, Calorimetry, Change of state, Latent heat, Heat transfer.

8. Refraction of Light Refraction of monochromatic light, Snell‟s law, Total internal reflection, Critical angle, Optical fibre, Dispersion of light, Prism formula, Angular dispersion and dispersive power, Rainbow, Scattering of light, Blue colour of sky, Colour of sun at sunrise and sunset. Elementary idea of Raman effect.

9. Ray optics Reflection of light by spherical mirrors, Refraction at single curved surface, Lens maker‟s equation, Combination of thin lenses in contact, Concept of conjugate focii, Correction of eye defects, Magnifying power of simple microscope, Magnifying power of compound microscope, Magnifying power of telescope, Reflecting telescope - schematic diagram with explanation.

10. Electrostatics Frictional electricity, Charges and their conservation, Coulomb‟s law and dielectric constant, Forces between multiple electric charges, Superposition principle of forces, Continuous distribution of charges, Concept of charge density, Electric field intensity, Potential energy, Electric potential due to point charge, Relation between electric field intensity and potential, Potential difference, Volt and electron volt, Electric dipole and dipole moment, Electric lines of force. Equipotential surfaces, P.E. of single charge and system of charges.

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11. Current electricity Ohm‟s law, Resistance, Specific resistance, Temperature dependence of resistance, Colour code of carbon resistor, Series and parallel combination of resistors, E.M.F. and internal resistance of cell, Work done by electric current, Power in electric circuit, Cells in series and in parallel, Elementary idea of secondary cells.

12. Magnetic effect of electric current Oersted’s experiment, Biot Savart‟s law, Right hand rule, Magnetic induction at the centre of circular coil carrying current, Magnetic induction at a point along the axis of a coil carrying current, Fleming‟s left hand rule, Force between two infinitely long current carrying parallel conductors, Definition of Ampere, Force acting on a conductor carrying current in magnetic field, Torque on a current loop in magnetic field.

13. Magnetism Origin of magnetism due to moving charges, Equivalence between magnetic dipole and circular coil carrying current, Definition of magnetic dipole moment and its unit, Torque acting on a magnet in uniform magnetic induction, Bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, Magnetic field lines, Magnetic induction due to bar magnet at a point along the axis and at a point along equator, Earth‟s magnetic field and magnetic elements, Electromagnets and factors affecting their strength.

14. Electromagnetic waves Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics, Transverse nature of electromagnetic waves, Electromagnetic spectrum, Space communication, Propagation of electromagnetic waves in atmosphere.

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Physics List of Practicals Std. XI
1. Use of Vernier Callipers. 2. Use of Screw gauge. 3. To determine radius of curvature of a given spherical surface by a spherometer. 4. To find the weight of a given body using parallelogram law of vectors. 5. To study the relationship between force of limiting friction and normal reaction and to find co-efficient of friction between a block and a horizontal surface. 6. To determine resistance per cm of a given wire by plotting a graph of potential difference versus current. 7. To find the value of „v‟ for different values of „u‟ in case of a „concave mirror and to find the focal length. 8. To find the focal length of a convex lens by plotting graphs between „u‟ and „v‟or between „1/u‟ and „1/v‟. 9. To find the focal length of a convex mirror, using a convex lens. 10. To find the focal length of a concave lens, using a convex lens. 11. To determine angle of minimum deviation for a given prism by plotting a graph between angle of incidence and angle of deviation. 12. To determine refractive index of a glass using a travelling microscope. 13. To find refractive index of a liquid by using (i) concave mirror, (ii) convex lens and plane mirror. 14. To determine specific heat capacity of a given (i) liquid (ii) solid, by method of mixtures.

Physics List of Activities Std. XI
1. To make a paper scale of given least count, e.g. 0.2 cm, 0.5 cm. 2. To determine mass of a given body using a meter scale by principle of moments. 3. To plot a graph for a given set of data, with proper choice of scales and error bars.

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To note the change in level of liquid in a container on heating and interpret the observations. 10. 8.4. 6. To obtain a lens combination with the specified focal length by using two lenses from the given set of lenses. To measure resistance. To measure the force of limiting friction for rolling of a roller on a horizontal plane. on a screen by using a candle and a screen (for different distances of the candle from the lens/mirror). 7. To study the nature and size of image formed by (i) convex lens (ii) concave mirror. 5. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 115 . voltage (AC/DC). To study the variation in range of a jet of water with angle of projection. current (AC) and check continuity of a given circuit using multimeter. To observe refraction and lateral deviation of a beam of light incident obliquely on a glass slab. 9.

Torque. Equation for velocity and energy at different positions of vertical circular motion. XII 1. Uniform circular motion.C.M.H. Radial acceleration. Banking of roads. 6. of rotating body. K. Relation between linear velocity and angular velocity. of some regular shaped bodies about specific axes.H. Binding energy and escape velocity of a satellite.M. M. and P. Poisson’s ratio.H. Variation of „g‟ due to altitude.E. Angular momentum and its conservation. Differential equation of linear S. Surface tension Surface tension on the basis of molecular theory. Projection of U. Gravitation Newton‟s law of gravitation. Simple pendulum. K.E.H. lattitude. Statement of Kepler‟s laws of motion. Surface energy. Centripetal and centrifugal forces.M.M.H. Elastic energy. Damped S. Rolling motion. Capillarity and capillary action.‟s having same period and along same line. Angle of contact. Angular velocity and angular acceleration. 3. Wave motion 116 . Applications of elastic behaviour of materials.. Projection of satellite. Rotational motion Definition of M.PHYSICS (Upgraded syllabus) Std. Communication satellite and its uses.E. Hooke‟s law. Surface tension.. Elasticity General explanation of elastic property. Phase of S. Principle of parallel and perpendicular axes. in S. 7.M..I. 5.H. Weightlessness condition in orbit. Plasticity. depth and motion. Circular motion Angular displacement. Composition of two S. Vertical circular motion due to earth‟s gravitation. 2. on any diameter. Periodic time. Elastic constants and their relation. Definition of stress and strain.. Kinematical equations for circular motion in analogy with linear motion.I. S.. Radius of gyration.M.I. Deformation. Oscillations Explanation of periodic motion. Determination of „Y‟. Physical significance of M. Behaviour of metal wire under increasing load.M. 4. Effect of impurity and temperature on surface tension.

Condensers in series and parallel. Plane polarised light. 2nd law of thermodynamics. Reflection at plane surface. Law of equipartition of energy and application to Specific heat capacities of gases. Young‟s experiment. 12. van-de-Graaff generator. Superposition of waves. Free and Forced vibrations. Energy of charged condenser.Simple harmonic progressive waves. Assumptions of kinetic theory. Doppler effect in sound. 1st law of thermodynamics. Derivation for pressure of a gas. Measurement of wavelength by biprism experiment. Stationary waves Study of vibrations in a finite medium. Diffraction due to single slit. Thermodynamics. Polarisation. Derivation of Boyle‟s law. Formation of stationary waves on string. Kinetic theory of gases and Radiation Concept of an ideal gas. Dielectrics and electric polarisation. Mean free path. Capacity of parallel plate condenser. Degrees of freedom. Rayleigh‟s criterion. Stefan’s law. 8. Refraction at plane surface. Resonance. Analytical treatment of interference bands. Formation of beats. Wave front and wave normal. Wave theory of light Wave theory of light. Green house effect. 13. Maxwell distribution. Brewster‟s law. Interference and diffraction Interference of light. Resolving power of a microscope and telescope. Energy density of a medium. Heat engines and refrigerators. Concept of condenser.Wein’s displacement law. Study of vibrations of air columns. 9. Polaroids. Conditions for producing steady interference pattern. Qualitative idea of black body radiation. Difference between interference and diffraction. Reflection of transverse and longitudinal waves. Doppler effect in light. 11. Mechanical force on unit area of a charged conductor. Effect of dielectric on capacity. Huygens‟ Principle. 10.Thermal equilibrium and definition of temperature. Current electricity 117 . Change of phase. Electrostatics Gauss‟ theorem proof and applications. Construction of plane and spherical wave front.

Photodiode. Magnetism Circular current loop as a magnetic dipole. Alternating currents. Einstein‟s equation. Potentiometer. Hydrogen spectrum. I-V characteristics of LED. Matter waves – wave nature of particles. P-type and N-type semiconductor. Wheatstone‟s bridge. Coil rotating in uniform magnetic induction. per nucleon and its variation with mass number. Magnetic effects of electric current Ampere‟s law and its applications. LC oscillations (qualitative treatment only) Power in a. Paramagnetism. AC generator. Ammeter. Transformer. Meter bridge. Reactance and impedance. Magnetisation and magnetic intensity.Kirchhoff‟s law. de Broglie hypothesis. 14. Rectifiers. 16 Electromagnetic inductions Laws of electromagnetic induction. Wattless current. Continuous and characteristics X-rays. Need for displacement current. Davisson and Germer experiment. Nuclear fission and fusion. Composition and size of nucleus. P-N junction diode. mass defect. proof of. Hertz and Lenard‟s observations. Intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors. Bohr‟s model. Decay law. B. Solar cell. Moving coil galvanometer. Zener diode as a voltage regulator. Self induction and mutual induction. Transistor 118 . Diamagnetism. e = . Cyclotron. Molecules and Nuclei Alpha particle scattering experiment.c circuit with resistance. Magnetic dipole moment of revolving electron. Curie temperature. Resonant circuit. 17 Electrons and photons Photoelectric effect. mass-energy relation. Particle nature of light. Rutherford‟s model of atom. 15.E. I-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias. 18 Atoms.dØ dt Eddy currents. Wavelength of an electron. Sensitivity of moving coil galvanometer. 19 Semiconductors Energy bands in solids. inductance and capacitance. Voltmeter. Radioactivity. Ferromagnetism on the basis of domain theory.

NAND. Transistor as an amplifier (CE mode). ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 119 . bandwidth of transmission medium.NOT. Oscillators and Logic gates (OR.NOR) 20 Communication systems Elements of communication system. Propagation of electromagnetic waves in atmosphere. Production and detection of an amplitude modulated wave. Need for modulation.AND.action and its characteristics. bandwidth of signals. space communication.Transistor as a switch.

To determine the internal resistance of given cell using potentiometer. 7. 2. To determine resistance of galvanometer using metre bridge. To draw the characteristic curve of a zener diode and to determine its reverse break down voltage. 10. To determine Young‟s modulus of elasticity of the material of a given wire. 3. To study the relationship between the temperature of a hot body and time by plotting a cooling curve. 12. To compare the emf of two given cells using potentiometer. To draw the I-V characteristic curves of a p-n junction diode in forward bias and reverse bias. To study the relation between frequency and length of a given wire under constant tension using sonometer. To find the force constant and effective mass of helical spring by plotting T 2--m graph using method of oscillations. 13. 120 . 5. To find the speed of sound in air at room temperature using a resonance tube. To determine the surface tension of water by capillary rise method. To study the relation between the length of a given wire and tension for constant frequency using sonometer. To verify the laws of combination (series/parallel) of resistances using a metre bridge. XII 1.Physics List of Practicals Std. To find resistance of given wire using metre bridge and hence determine the specific resistance of its material. 4. 6. 8. 11. 14. 9. 15. To study the characteristics of a common-emitter npn or pnp transistor and to find out the values of current and voltage gains.

Use of multimeter to (i) identify base of transistor (ii) distinguish between npn and pnp type transistors. resistor/ rheostat. To study the effect of detergent on surface tension by observing capillary rise. To observe polarization of light using two polaroids. To study effect of intensity of light (by varying distance of the source) on an L.R. To study dissipation of energy of a simple pendulum by plotting a graph between square of amplitude and time. a fuse and a power source. and 1C. a transistor. ammeter and voltmeter. To study the effect of load on depression of a suitably clamped meter scale loaded (i) at its end (ii) in the middle. (iii) see the unidirectional flow of current in case of a diode and an LED (iv) check whether a given electronic component (e. To measure the resistance and impedance of an inductor with or without iron core. 2. 121 . three (on/off) switches. Mark the components that are not connected in proper order and correct the circuit and also the circuit diagram. 12. 9. an LED. 1 l. To identify a diode. To draw the diagram of a given open circuit comprising at least a battery. 7. transistor or IC) is in working order. 3. 10. diode. 4.g. 8. key. To study the variation in potential drop with length of a wire for a steady current. 6. To study the factors affecting the rate of loss of heat of a liquid.D. To assemble a household circuit comprising three bulbs. a resistor and a capacitor from mixed collection of such items. 5. XII 1.Physics List of Activities Std.

6) To expose the students to different processes used in industries and their technological applications. 7) To apprise students with interface of chemistry with other disciplines of science such as Physics. population. 5) To develop problem solving skills in students. symbols and formulations. 3) To expose the students to various emerging new areas of chemistry and apprise them with their relevance in their future studies and their applications in various spheres of chemical sciences and technology. the new and updated curriculum is introduced at +2 stages. technology) at tertiary level. compounds and IUPAC units of physical quantities. after the +2 stage. OBJECTIVES The broad objectives of teaching Chemistry at Senior Secondary Stage are to help the learners : 1) To promote understanding of basic facts and concepts in chemistry while retaining the excitement of Chemistry. organic. Biology. fundamental concepts. analytical and polymer chemistry. 4) To equip students to face various changes related to health. weather. The syllabus contains areas like physical. This new syllabus will make them competent to meet the challenges of academic and professional courses like medicine. The syllabus is comparable to the international level. technology. Geology. modern techniques are given importance. engineering.CHEMISTRY (Upgraded syllabus) Std. 2) To make students capable of studying chemistry in academic and professional courses (such as medicine. etc. The revised syllabus has taken care of new formulations and nomenclature of elements. engineering. XI & XII Preamble RATIONALE According to NCF 2005. New nomenclature. nutrition. inorganic. 122 . industrial. etc. environment. Engineering. industries and agriculture. There is a need to provide the sufficient conceptual background of chemistry which will help the students to appear for different common entrance test at state level and national level.

liquefaction of gases.CHEMISTRY Std. atomic number. Pauli‟s exclusion principle and Hund‟s rule. stoichiometry and calculations based on stoichimetry. Historical approach to particulate nature of matter. p and d orbitals. periodic trends in properties of elements atomic radii. Atomic and molecular masses mole concept and molar mass : Avogadro‟s law and Avogadro number. Rutherford‟s model and its limitations. XI (Theory) Unit 1: Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry General Introduction: Importance and scope of chemistry. empirical derivation of gas equation. type of bonding. Role of gas laws in elucidating the concept of the molecule. electronic configuration of atoms. Heisenberg‟s uncertainty principle. percentage composition. Critical temperature. valence. Ideal gas equation. empirical and molecular formula. Gay Lussac‟s law. Unit 4 : Periodic Table Significance of classification. viscosity and surface tension (qualitative idea only. laws of chemical combination. Inert gas radii nomenclature of elements with atomic number greater than 100. Charles law. Ideal behaviour. dual nature of matter and light. chemical reactions. atoms and molecules. Unit 3 : Structure of Atom Discovery of electron. no mathematical derivations). modern periodic law and present form of periodic table. proton and neutron. de Broglie‟s relationship. brief history of the development of periodic table. concept of orbitals. quantum numbers. isotopes and isobars. Kinetic energy and molecular speeds (elementary idea) Liquid State – Vapour pressure. Unit 2 : States of Matter : Gases and Liquids Three states of matter. 123 . ionic radii. Bohr‟s model and its limitations. shapes of s. electronegativity. rules for filling electrons in orbitals – Aufbau principle. Deviation from ideal behaviour. Intermolecular interactions. Ionization enthalpy. electron gain enthalpy. stability of half filled and completely filled orbitals. Boyle‟s law. concept of shells and subshells.Enthalpy: Explanation and definition of term. Dalton‟s atomic theory : concept of elements.

preparation. coagulation. Lyophobic. occurrence.Unit 5: Redox Reactions Concept of oxidation and reduction. Hydrolysis of salts (elementary idea). equilibrium constant. colloids and suspensions. catalysis : homogenous and heterogeneous. emulsion – types of emulsions. Le Chatelier‟s principle. properties and structure. in terms of loss and gain of electrons and change in oxidation number. resonance. concept of pH. law of mass action. preparation. dynamic nature of equilibrium. polar character of covalent bond. Unit 6: Chemical Equilibrium Equilibrium in physical and chemical processes. Tyndall effect. ionic bond. Buffer solutions. redox reactions. solubility product common ion effect (with illustrative examples. factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids. Elementary idea of nanomaterials. oxidation number. geometry of covalent molecules. hydrogen bond. Unit 7 : Surface Chemistry Adsorption – physisorption and chemisorption. Ionic equilibrium: Ionization of acids and bases. p and d orbitals and shapes of some simple molecules. physical and chemical properties of water. Brownian movement. Born Haber cycle : covalent bond parameters. molecular orbital theory of homonuclear diatomic molecules (qualitative idea only). strong and weak electrolytes. colloidal state : distinction between true solutions. Lyophilic.) Handerson equation. heavy water. multimolecular and macromolecular colloids. activity and selectivity: enzyme catalysis. Hydrogen peroxide. covalent and interstitial. VSEPR theory. factors affecting equilibrium. hydrogen as a fuel. Lewis structure. concept of hybridization involving s. Unit 9 : Hydrogen Position of hydrogen in periodic table. valence bond theory. electrophoresis. acid strength. properties of colloids. ionization of polybasic acids. Balancing redox reactions. isotopes. properties and uses of hydrogen. Unit 8 : Nature of Chemical Bond Valence electrons. covalent character of ionic bond. hydrides-ionic. Uses of hydrogen peroxide 124 . degree of ionization.

trends in chemical reactivity. trends in chemical reactivity. electromeric effect. 125 . atomic and ionic radii). reactions with acids and alkalies. electronic configuration. physical and chemical properties. boron hydrides. electronic configuration. trends in chemical reactivity with oxygen. occurrence.carbocations. inductive effect. Variation of properties. occurrence. resonance and hyper conjugation. trends in the variation of properties (such as ionization enthalpy. methods of qualitative and quantitative analysis. Group 14 elements: General introduction. Important compounds of silicon and their uses: silicon tetrachloride. oxides. some important compounds: borax. Carbon – catenation. uses. diagonal relationship.Unit 10: s-Block Elements (Alkali and Alkaline earth metals) Group 1 and Group 2 elements: General introduction. carbanions. anomalous properties of first element of the group. anomalous properties of the first element of each group. Preparation and properties of some important compounds: Sodium carbonate. electrophiles and nucleophiles. silicates and zeolites and structure of silicates Unit 12: Basic Principles and Techniques in Organic Chemistry General introduction. Unit 11 : p-Block Elements Group Introduction to p-Block Elements Group 13 elements : General introduction. free radicals. Classification and IUPAC nomenclature of organic compounds. Electronic displacements in a covalent bond. biological importance of Magnesium and Calcium. Melting point and boiling point. sodium hydroxide and sodium hydrogen carbonate. hydrogen and halogens. variation of properties. boric acids. biological importance of sodium and potassium. allotropic forms. anomalous behavior of first element. water. oxidation states. uses of some important Compounds.Homolytic and heterolytic fission of a covalent bond. types of organic reactions. electronic configuration. Boron-physical and chemical properties. occurrence. silicones. uses. Aluminium. oxidation states. Calcium oxide and calcium carbonate (CaO) (CaCO3) and industrial uses of lime and limestone.

Friedel Craft‟ alkylation and acylation. Unit 16 : Aromatic compounds Introduction. chemical properties. methods of preparation. 126 . chemical reactions: acidic character of alkynes. chemical reactions in atmosphere. physical properties. UNIT-17: Environmental chemistry Environmental pollution. strategy for control of environmental pollution. addition of hydrogen. resonance aromaticity. structure of triple bond (ethylene). halogens. hydrogen halides. structure of double bond (ethane). green chemistry as an alternative tool for reducing pollution. physical properties. geometrical isomerism. Carcinogenicity and toxicity. mechanism of electrophilic addition. conformations (ethane only). hydrogen halides (Markovnikoff‟s addition and peroxide effect) ozonolysis. combustion and pyrolysis. water. effects of depletion of ozone layer. ozone and its reactions. Unit 14 : Alkenes Nomenclature. halogenation. Methods of preparation. addition reaction of – hydrogen. sulphonaiton. smog. IUPAC nomenclature. benzene. oxidation. mechanism of electrophilic substitution. – nitration. halogen. Pollution due to industrial wastes. isomerism. acid rain. Chemical reactions. physical properties. water and soil pollution.air. major atmospheric pollutants. Unit 15: Alkynes Nomenclature. water. chemical reactions including free radical mechanism of halogenation. green house effect and global warming.Unit 13 : Alkanes Classification of hydrocarbons – Nomenclature.

p). C. Drawing out a glass jet 4. Chemical equilibrium Any one of the following experiments: (a) Study the shift in equilibrium between ferric ions and thiocyanate ions by changing the concentration of either ion. arseneous sulphide. naphthalene. Study the pH change in the titration of a strong base using universal indicator.) 2. Determination of melting point of an organic compound. varied concentrations of acids. Surface Chemistry (a) Preparation of one lyophilic and one lyophobic sol: Lyophilic sol-starch and gum. (p-toludine. D. bases and salts using pH paper or universal indicator. copper sulphate. E.Chemistry Practical Syllabus Std-XI A. Determination of boiling point of an organic compound. Basic Laboratory Techniques 1. 127 . Alum. (acetone. methyl acetate. Experiments related to pH change (a) Any one of the following experiments: Determination of pH of some solutions obtained from fruit juices. benzoic acid. β-naphthol. ferric hydroxide. water) 3. Oxalic acid. (b) Study of the role of emulsifying agents in stabilizing the emulsion of oil. Operating pinch cork B. acetic acid.m. resorcinol. (b) Study the shift in equilibrium between [Co(H2O)6]2+ and chloride ions by changing the concentration of either of the ions. benzoic acid. Crystallization of impure sample of anyone of the following compounds. Study of burner 5. Comparing the pH solutions of strong and weak acid of same concentration. Characterization and purification of chemical substances 1. xylene (o. Lyophobic sol–aluminium hydroxide. Cutting glass tube and glass rod 2. Bending glass tube 3.

Detection of nitrogen. NH4+ Anions – CO32SO32SO42NO2NO3Cl-. Determination of strength of a given solution of sodium hydroxide by titrating it against standard solution of oxalic acid. Preparation of standard solution of sodium carbonate. Co2+. Ca2+. F. 128 . Zn2+. G. I-. Fe3+. Br-. Qualitative analysis Determination of one cation and one anion in a given salt: Cations – Pb2+. Quantitative estimation Using a chemical balance. Al3+. chlorine bromine and iodine in an organic compound. Ni2+ . Cu2+. Mn2+. Determination of strength of a given solution of hydrochloric acid by titrating It against standard sodium carbonate solution. sulphur. PO43C2O42CH3COO(Note: Insoluble salts excluded) H. Mg2+. Ba2+. Preparation of standard solution of oxalic acid.(b) Study of pH change by common ion effect in case of weak acids and bases. Sr2+.

depending upon the regional variation in drinking water and the study of causes of presence of these ions above permissible limit (if any). 129 . 8 Analysis of fruit and vegetable juices for their acidity. A few suggested Projects 1 Checking the bacterial contamination in drinking water by testing sulphide ion. 5 Study of the acidity of different samples of the tea leaves. 3 Testing the hardness. 2 Study of the methods of purification of water.PROJECT Scientific investigations involving laboratory testing and collecting information from other sources. fluoride. Note: Any other investigatory project can be chosen with the approval of the teacher. 6 Determination of the rate of evaporation of different liquids. 7 Study of the effect of acids and bases on the tensile strength of fibers. 4 Investigation of the foaming capacity of different washing soaps and the effect of addition of sodium carbonate on them. presence of iron. chloride etc.

specific and molar conductivity. concept of 130 . enthalpy of bond dissociation. Unit 5: Chemical Kinetics Rate of reaction (average and instantaneous). integrated rate equations and half life (only for zero and first order reactions). rate law and specific rate constant. free energy change for spontaneous and non spontaneous processes. osmotic pressure. voids. heat. calculation of density of unit cell. fuel cells. factors affecting rate of reaction. Phase transition.unit cell in two dimensional and three dimensional lattices. combustion. ionic. conductance in electrolytic solutions. surroundings. First law of thermodynamics – internal energy and enthalpy. catalyst. ionization. Relation between Gibb’s energy change and emf of a cell. molecular. types of systems. variations of conductivity with concentration. packing in solids. standard electrode potential. solid solutions.Van’t Hoff factor and calculations involving it. expression of concentration of solids in liquids. amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea). sublimation. Band theory of metals. XII (Theory) Unit 1: Solid State Classification of solids based on different forces. electrical and magnetic properties. Unit 2 : Solutions and colligative properties Types of solutions. Second and third law of thermodynamics Unit 4: Electrochemistry Redox reactions. conductors and semiconductors and insulators and n and p type semiconductors. Kohlrausch‟s Law. dry cell –electrolytic and Galvanic cells. Unit 3 : Chemical Thermodynamics and energetic Concepts of system. formation. concentration. atomization. determination of molecular masses using colligative properties. Nernst equation and its application to chemical cells. abnormal molecular mass. temperature. and solution and dilution Introduction of entropy as a state function. corrosion. EMF of a cell. state functions. Hess‟ law of constant heat summation. depression of freezing point. Work. energy. colligative properties –relative lowering of vapor pressure. solubility of gases in liquids. point defects. number of atoms per unit cell in a cubic unit cell.Raoult’s law elevation of boiling point. and equilibrium constant.CHEMISTRY Std. extensive and intensive properties. covalent and metallic solids. order and molecularity of a reaction. lead accumulator. electrolysis and laws of electrolysis (elementary idea).

trends in physical and chemical properties. dioxygen. Group 16 elements: General introduction. properties and uses. occurrence. trends in physical and chemical properties. sulphurc acid. oxoacids of sulphur (structures only). oxides of nitrogen (structure only). preparation and properties of ammonia and nitric acid. electronic configuration. interhalogen compounds. zinc and iron Unit 7: p-Block Elements Group 15 elements: General introduction. electronic configuration. no mathematical treatment). reduction electrolytic method and refining. compounds of halogens. preparation and properties of phosphine. Classification of oxides. Group 18 elements: General introduction. properties and uses. simple oxides. oxidation. properties and uses. compounds of phosphorous. preparation. preparation. trends in physical and chemical properties. occurrence and principle of extraction of aluminium. preparation. oxoacids of halogens (structure only). 131 . Group 17 elements: General introduction. compounds of sulphur. halides (PCl3. Phoshorous-allotropic forms. oxidation states. properties and uses of chlorine and hydrochloric acid. Sulphur – allotropic forms. oxidation states.PCl5) and oxoacids (elementary idea only). properties and uses of sulphur dioxide. uses. nitrogen – preparation. occurrence. oxidation states. occurrence. Arrhenius equation. Ozone. copper. trends in physical and chemical properties. electronic configuration. Unit 6 : General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements Principles and methods of extraction – concentration. compounds of nitrogen. electronic configuration. industrial process of manufacture. Occurrence.collision theory (elementary idea.Activation energy.

Unit 10 : Halogen derivatives of alkanes (and arenes) Haloalkanes : Nomenclature. 132 . oxidation states.Unit 8 : d and f Block Elements d-Block Elements General introduction. acidic nature of phenol. Werner’s theory. Phenols: Nomenclature. uses of methanol and ethanol. Ethers : Nomenclature. iodoform. chemical reactivity and lanthanoid contraction and its consequences.R-S and d-l configuration Haloarenes : Nature of C-X bond. extraction of metals and biological systems). electrophillic substitution reactions. mechanism of substitution reactions. DDT. freons. physical and chemical properties. physical and chemical properties (of primary alcohols only). colour. nature of C-X bond. Phenols and Ethers Alcohols: Nomenclature. VBT. oxidation states. methods of preparation. general trends in properties of the first row transition metals – metallic character. coordination number. electronic configuration. Uses and environmental effects of – dichloromethane. mechanism of dehydration. ionization enthalpy. thrichloromethane. uses of phenols. Unit 11 : Alcohols. isomerism. magnetic properties. oxidation states.CFT. colour. methods of preparation. Unit 9: Coordination Compounds Coordination compounds – Introduction. magnetic properties and shapes. uses. alloy formation preparation and properties of K2Cr2O7 and KMnO4. tetrachloromethane. identification of primary. substitution reactions (directive influence of halogen for monosubstituted compounds only) stability of carbocations. IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds. Comparison with lanthanoids. (Structural and stereo) importance of coordination compounds (in qualitative analysis. secondary and tertiary alcohols. Actinoids – Electronic configuration. occurrence and characteristics of transition metals. catalytic property. physical and chemical properties. physical and chemical properties. methods of preparation. R-S and d-l configurations. bonding. ionic radii. f-Block ElementsLanthanoids – Electronic configuration. interstitial compounds.Stability of carbocations. ligands.

physical and chemical properties. physical and chemical properties. linkage. uses. Proteins: Elementary idea of -amino acids. polyesters.Unit 12 : Aldehydes. Some important polymers. their classification and functions. lactose. enzymes. mechanism of nucleophilic addition. polypeptides.natural and synthetic. cellulose. tertiary structure and quaternary structures (qualitative idea only). structure. nylon.Biodegradable and non biodegradable polymers. structure of amines-primary. classification. uses. glycogen). Lipids and Hormones (elementary idea) excluding structure. Cyanides and Isocyanides: Will be mentioned at relevant places in context. polysaccharides (starch. peptide. nature of carbonyl group. acidic nature. proteins. natural and synthetic like polythene. secondary and tertiary amines. oligosaccharides (sucrose. bakelite. Unit 14: Biomolecules Carbohydrates: Classification (aldoses and ketoses). 133 . methods of polymerization (addition and condensation). monosaccahrides d-l configuration (glucose and fructose). secondary. Unit 13: Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen Nitro compounds-General methods of preparation and chemical reactions Amines : Nomenclature. Physical and chemical properties. Nucleic Acids: DNA and RNA Unit 15: Polymers Classification . methods of preparation. Carboxylic Acids: Nomenclature. and rubber. identification of primary. copolymerization. denaturation of proteins. Ketones and Carboxylic Acids Aldehydes and Ketones : Nomenclature. reactivity of alpha hydrogen in aldehydes. chemical reactions and importance in synthetic organic chemistry. Vitamins: Classification and functions. importance. methods of preparation. methods of preparation. Diazonium salts: Preparation. uses. maltose).

Chemicals in food: Preservatives. KIO3 and sodium sulphite (Na2SO3) using starch solution as indicator (clock reaction). antifertility drugs. cleansing action. (c) Acid hydrolysis of ethyl acetate. artificial sweetening agents. Thermochemistry Any one of the following experiments: i] Enthalpy of dissolution of copper sulphate or potassium nitrate. 134 . antihistamines (elementary idea of antioxidants) 2. (b) Study of reaction rate of any one of the following: (i) Reaction of iodide ion with hydrogen peroxide at room temperature using different concentration of iodide ions. Chemistry Practical Syllabus Std. antibiotics. antimicrobials. 3. iii] Determination of enthalpy change during interaction (hydrogen bond formation) between acetone and chloroform. Electrochemistry Variation of cell potential in Zn|Zn2+||Cu2+|Cu with change in concentration of electrolytes (CuSO4 or ZnSO4) at room temperature (demonstration). Chemicals in medicines: analgesics. tranquilizers. C.Unit 16: Chemistry in Everyday life : 1. antacids. disinfectants. ii] Enthalpy of neutralization of strong acid (HCI) and strong base (NaOH). Chemical Kinetics (Any one of the following) : (a) Effect of concentration and temperature on the rate of reaction between sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid. iv] Heat of displacement of Cu from CuSO4 by Zn. XII A. Cleansing agents: Soaps and detergents. antiseptics. (ii) Reaction between potassium iodate. B.

Tests for the functional groups present in organic compounds Unsaturation. J. Cations – Pb2+. fats and proteins in pure samples and their detection in given food stuffs. carboxylic and amino (primary) groups. alcoholic. Characteristic tests of arbohydrates. Ba2+.Napthol aniline dye. Cu2+. I. Mg2+. Determinaiton of concentration/molarity of KMnO4 solution by titrating it against a standard solution of: (i) Oxalic acid (ii) Ferrous ammonium sulphate (Students will be required to prepare standard solutions by weighing themselves).D. (iii) Iodoform (iv) Phthalic or succinic anhydride. 135 . (ii) Separation of constituents present in an inorganic mixture containing two cations only (constituents having large difference in Rf values to be provided). Sr2+. 2) Determination of two anions from a given mixture of salts. As3+. NH4+. Zn2+. E. Al3+. Co2+. ketonic. phenolic. Qualitative analysis 1) Determination of two cations from a given mixture of salts. Ni2+. F. Ca2+. Preparation of Organic Compounds (i) p-Nitrocetanilide (ii) Aniline yellow or 2. Chromatography (demonstration) (i) Separation of pigments from extracts of leaves and flowers by paper chromatography and determination of Rf values. Fe3+. (v) Di-benzal acetone G. Mn2+. Preparation of Inorganic Compounds (i) Preparation of double salt of ferrous ammonium sulphate or potash alum. H. aldehydic. (ii) Preparation of potassium ferric oxalate.

No2NO3-. Br-. 5 Study of digestion of starch by salivary amylase and.) PROJECT Scientific investigations involving laboratory testing and collecting information From other sources. time etc). 6 Comparative study of the rate of fermentation of following materials: wheat flour. 136 . sugar. turmeric powder. PO43C2O42CH3COO(Note : Insoluble salts excluded. etc. gram flour. Ajwain (carum). Illaichi (cardamom). A few suggested Projects: 1 Study of presence of oxalate ions in guava fruit at different stages of ripening. chilli powder and pepper. SO32-. potato juice. 8 Study of common food adulterants in fat. effect of temperature. 4 Study of the effect of potassium bisulphate as food preservative under various conditions (temperature. 7 Extraction of essential oils present in Saunf (aniseed).Anions – CO32-. effect of pH and temperature on it. can be chosen with the approval of the teacher. SO42-. 3 Preparation of soybean milk and its comparison with the natural milk with respect to curd formation. concentration. Cl-. Note : Any investigatory project. etc. butter. 2 Study of quantity of casein present in different samples of milk. carrot juice. I-.

Organisms seldom occur as isolated individuals.Std. Guide students to perform easy experiments for better understanding of biological principles and to develop experimental skills required in practical work. Create awareness about the contribution of biology to human welfare. Assist to understand the underlying principles of biological sciences and thereby develop scientific attitude towards biological phenomena. This syllabus is designed to prepare students for various examinations conducted at state and national level. Understanding of biology will help in the sustainable development of the environment and will also ensure the existence of earth with all its amazing diversity. Hence it has been prepared in accordance with the guidelines shown in the final version of common core syllabi of COBSE.BIOLOGY. ecosystems and environment constitute unique set of natural resources of great importance. communities. 137 . Organisms. Delhi. XI & XII Preamble Higher secondary is the most crucial stage of education because at this juncture specialized disciplines of science are introduced. Accordingly some additional topics from state Board syllabus have been deleted whereas the lacking topics have been added. The present syllabus reinforces the concepts introduced in lower classes. the science of biology has undergone a paradigm shift that has transformed it from a collection of loosely related facts into a modern applied science. They are organized into populations and biological communities. Objectives: The prescribed syllabus is expected to: Promote the inherent skill of observation. Knowledge of biology helps us to understand a common thread which holds all these components together. Living organisms exhibit extremely complex functional system. Help students to understand the functioning of organisms. Recently. Make students aware of issues of global importance. The entire unit “Ecology and Environment” has now been added under Botany and Zoology sections.

Lichens . Mitosis 3. importance and list of gardens and herbaria in India. proteins. 3. Binomial nomenclature explanation. Chapter 2 . 2. 2. Classification of living organisms (five Kingdom classification) – Major groups and principles of classification for each Kingdom with examples. Three domains of life. Bryophyta. Economic importance and list of viral diseases. characters. Enzyme action and factors affecting enzyme activity in brief. Unit 2 Structure and function of cell Chapter 3 . Salient features of major plant groups . Cell cycle 2. Need of classification. Botanical gardens and herbaria . examples and importance.Diversity in organisms 1.Meaning. Systematic and binomial system of nomenclature . significance and examples. – XI: Biology (Upgraded syllabus) Section I . Chapter 4 Cell Division 1. Basic chemical constituents of living bodies.Botany .Kingdom Plantae 1. Gymnosperms and Angiosperms (Dicotyledons and Monocotyledons). characters.Meaning.meaning of the terms taxonomy. Unit 1 Diversity in Living World: Chapter 1. general properties. Types.Definitions. Concept of species. Viruses and viroids . lipids and nucleic acids in brief. 3.Algae. Enzymes . Taxonomic hierarchy with examples. Pteridophyta. 2. 4. systematics. 5. classification and nomenclature. Diversity in living organisms-Brief idea.Definition. Structure and function of carbohydrates. Meiosis 138 . types with examples.Biochemistry of cell: 1. Three to five salient features and two examples of each category.Std.

139 . nutrients and gases. Phases of growth. de.tension theory. Mineral deficiency symptoms. mechanism of opening and closing of stomata. Role of water and minerals . Nitrogen Metabolism (nitrogen cycle.Morphology of Plants 1. Role of K+ ions 3.. Active and passive absorption in brief. Germination .differentiation. stem.Plant Growth and Development: Seed dormancy. Differentiation. Elementary idea of Hydroponics.Roots. Morphology. gibberellins. biological nitrogen fixation) Chapter 7 . (To be dealt along with the relevant practicals of the practical syllabus) 2.auxins. Translocation of sugars through phloem brief account. Plant tissues. epigeal and viviparous. Conditions of growth. Guttation Ascent of sap. inflorescence.Apoplast and Symplast Pathways. Movement of water. cytokinines. Definition and characteristics of growth.macronutrients and micronutrients and their role. Transpiration – structure of stomata.Unit 3 Structural organization in plants: Chapter 5 . food. 2. redifferentiation Sequence of developmental process in a plant cell Growth regulators . fruit and seed. ethylene and abscissic acid (role in brief) Photoperiodism. flower. Mineral toxicity.Plant Water Relation and Mineral Nutrition 1. root pressure concept and cohesion .Absorption of water and minerals. anatomy and functions of different parts . leaf. Unit 4 Plant Physiology: Chapter 6 . Photomorphogenesis including brief account of Phytochromes (Elementary idea) Vernalization.Hypogeal.

Organization of Cell: 1. Hemichordata. Tendons. Vacuoles.brief account 2. 6. . 5. Endoplasmic reticulum. 3. Arthropoda. Platyhelminthes.(Areolar.(fluid mosaic model). Cell organelles: Plastids. Classification of phylum chordata upto class level with three to five salient features and two examples of each category: Urochordata.Kingdom Animalia: 1. Lysosomes. nucleolus and nucleoplasm. Ligaments.Study of Animal Tissues 1. cuboidal. Echinodermata and Unit 2 Structure and function of cell: Chapter 9 . glandular). b) Connective tissue . Coelenterata. Nuclear organization .compound epithelium (stratified and transitional). 4. Zoological parks and Museums . Ciliated. 140 .structure and examples. Reptilia. Mollusca. Unit 3 Structural organisation in Animals: Chapter 10. Classification of following phyla with three to five salient features and two examples of each category: Porifera. columnar. Osteichthyes. Ribosome and Centrioles (ultrstructure and functions). Animal tissues .General idea with list. Aves and Mammalia.Std. Golgi complex.simple epithelium (squamous. cytoskeleton. Annelida. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell . Plant cell and animal cell. Adipose. Cell theory . Cephalochordata. Cyclostomata. Cartilage and Bone). Salient features of major phyla under kingdom Animalia. cilia and flagella.types: a) Epithelial tissues . Microbodies. Chondrichthyes. 2. Nemathelminthes. Amphibia.Nucleus. .XI Section II – Zoology Unit 1 Diversity in Living World: Chapter 8 . Mitochondria. Cell wall and cell membrane .

Respiratory volumes iv) Respiratory disorders. respiration and common respiratory disorders: Respiratory organs in animals (Recall only) i) Respiratory system in brief ii) Breathing. vomiting and diarrhoea Chapter 13. circulatory.Human skeleton and Locomotion: Brief account of human skeleton: A] Axial Skeleton B] Appendicular Skeleton (Details to be dealt with the relevant practical) Types of joints . Peristalsis. glial cells and types of neurons).(Smooth. Chapter 11. indigestion. assimilation and egestion vi) Nutritional and digestive disorders – PEM.Human Nutrition: 1. striated and cardiac).Human Respiration: 1Breathing.inspiration and expiration.synarthroses. Calorific value of proteins. Jaundice. Emphysema and occupational lung diseases.Study of Animal Type: 1.Asthma. Morphology. Regulation of Respiration. gastrointestinal hormones.c) Muscular tissue . Chapter 14. absorption and nutritional disorders: ii) Digestive system in brief iv) Physiology of digestion. anatomy and functions of digestive. respiratory. Digestion. constipation. transport of CO2 and O2 and tissue respiration. and diarthroses. 141 . carbohydrates and fats v) Absorption. nervous. amphiarthroses. d) Nervous tissue (Neurons. Regulation iii) Exchange of gases. and reproductive systems of cockroach (Brief account only) Unit 4 Human Physiology: Chapter 12.

7. stem (herbaceous and woody). 142 . hinge. Study of plasmolysis in epidermal peels. XI Biology Practicals Syllabus (A) List of experiments: 1. pivot. To test the presence of sugar. Std. condyloid. S. Study of structure and distribution of stomata in upper and lower surface of leaf. 8) To study the digestion of starch by salivary amylase under different conditions of temperature and pH. 5 Study of osmosis by Potato osmometer 6. proteins and fats from suitable plant and animal materials. 2. Study of parts of compound microscope. of dicot (sunflower) and monocot roots and stem to study different plant tissues. arthritis. shape. Muscular Mechanism of muscle movement: Contractile proteins and Muscle contraction Skeletal and muscular disorders – Myasthenia gravis.Ciliary. venation.ball and socket. saddle and gliding joints.Types of diarthroses . Preparation of T. Flagellar. 4. leaf (arrangement. starch. muscular dystrophy tetany and gout. simple and compound) and floral characters. Osteoporosis. 3 Study and describe three locally available flowering plants from the families-Solanaceae. Types of Movement. Fabaceae and Liliaceae with respect to types of root-(tap and adventitious).

muscle fibres. 3. Funaria. Shark. Liverfluke. Rhizopus. 6. Leech. Study of human skeleton (except skull. c) Apical bud removal 10. Amoeba.palisade cells. Snail. xylem. Spirogyra. Nephrolepis. Star-fish. Lizard. Observation and comments on experimental set up on: a) Phototropism b) Suction due to transpiration. leaf Spines. Agaricus. parasitic root. Pigeon and Rat. 8 Study of tissues and diversity in shapes and sizes of plant and animal cells. Frog. and tendril). Ascaris. Hydra. 9. squamous epithelium. sclerenchyma. parenchyma. runner. Oscillatoria. Silkworm Honey bee . Study of specimens and identification with reasons: Bacteria. epiphytic root and pneumatophores). guard cells. Study of different modifications of stem (stem tuber. Prawn. Usnea. yeast. 11. hand bones and foot bones) and different types of joints (synovial. through temporary or permanent slides. Study of imbibition of seeds/raisins. Comparative study of rates of transpiration in upper and lower surface of leaf.(B) Study/ Observation of the following (Spotting): 1. 7 Study and identification of different types of inflorescence. phyllode). sunflower and maize. Study of specimens and their identification with reasons – Sycon. Study of different modifications of root (fusiform root. 4. Balanoglossus. collenchyma. Riccia. Cycas. Rohu. 143 . mammalian blood smear. Earthworm. phloem. 5. Study of different modification of leaf (leaflet and stipular tendril). cartilaginous and fibrous joint with one suitable example). 2.

Gene: its nature.Biotechnology: Process and Application Genetic engineering (Recombinant DNA technology): Transposons. cockroach and frog through models. structure of DNA as given by Watson and Cricks model. RNA: General structure types and functions.incomplete dominance. Unit 2: Biotechnology and its application Chapter 3 . Gene Amplification (PCR).Genetic Basis of Inheritance: Mendelian inheritance. 144 . co-dominance. Chapter 2 . Protein Synthesis. Gene Expression and Gene Regulation (The Lac operon as a typical model of gene regulation). DNA Packaging. Transcription. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Std. Plasmids. 13. Elementary idea of polygenic inheritance. Bacteriophages. Preparing and cloning a DNA Library. Producing Restriction Fragments. DNA as genetic material. expression and regulation: Modern concept of gene in brief-cistron.XII Biology (Upgraded syllabus) Section I – BOTANY Unit 1: Genetics and Evolution Chapter 1 . central dogma. Pleiotropy. muton and recon.Enhancement in Food Production: Plant Breeding Tissue Culture: Concept of Cellular Totipotency. Application of Biotechnology in Agriculture – BT crops Biosafety Issues (Biopiracy and patents) Unit 3: Biology and Human Welfare Chapter 4 . Translation-Genetic Code. semi conservative replication of eukaryotic DNA. . Deviations from Mendelian ratio (gene interaction. multiple alleles and Inheritance of blood groups).12 Study of external morphology of earthworm. Study of mitosis in onion roots tips and animal cells (grasshopper) from permanent slides.

Reproduction in Plants: Modes of Reproduction (Asexual and Sexual).Microbes in Human Welfare: Microbes in Household food processing Microbes in Industrial Production. Asexual reproduction. Microbes as Biofertilizers. Chapter 7 . Callus Culture. Single Cell Protein. Microbes as Biocontrol Agents. Factors affecting Photosynthesis. Fermentation Exchange of gases Amphibolic pathway. Microbes in Sewage Treatment. uniparental modes-vegetative propagation. Respiratory quotient of Nutrients. TCA Cycle and Electron Transport System) and Anaerobic Respiration. Suspension Culture. Microbes in Biogas (energy) Production. Light-Dependent Reactions (Cyclic and non-cyclic photophosphorylation) Light-Independent Reactions (C3 and C4 Pathways) Chemiosmotic hypothesis. Unit 4: Plant Physiology Chapter 6 .Photosynthesis: Autotrophic nutrition Site of Photosynthesis Photosynthetic Pigments and their role.Respiration: ATP as currency of Energy Mechanism of Aerobic (Glycolysis. Unit 5: Reproduction in Organisms Chapter 8 . Photorespiration.Requirements of Tissue Culture (in brief). Significance of Respiration. Law of limiting factors. Biofortification Chapter 5 . micropropagation 145 .

pyramids of number. Development of female Gametophyte. Spontaneous. Outbreeding devices. components. oxygen release. nutrient cycling (carbon and phosphorous). polyembryony. 146 . pollen-pistil interaction. Significance of seed and fruit formation.XII Biology Section II . Ecological services-carbon fixation.Origin and the Evolution of Life: Origin of Life: Early Earth. Environmental issues: agrochemicals and their effects. Origin and Evolution of Human being. Std.Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance: The Chromosomal Theory. Biological Evidences. Structure of anatropous ovule. energy flow. Chapter 11 . development of seed and formation of fruit) Special modes-apomixis. Green house effect and global warming. parthenocarpy. Adaptive radiation. case studies (any two). Chromosomes. deforestation. Ecological succession. Pollination: Types and Agencies. Post-fertilization changes (development of endosperm and embryo. ozone depletion. pollination. energy. biomass. .Hardy-Weinberg principle. Evolution: Darwin‟s contribution. productivity and decomposition.ZOOLOGY Unit 1: Genetics and Evolution Chapter 10 . assembly of organic compounds. Double Fertilization: Process and Significance.Sexual Reproduction: structure of flower Development of male gametophyte. Modern Synthetic Theory of evolution. solid waste management. Mechanism of evolution. Unit 6: Ecology and Environment: Chapter 9: Organisms and Environment -I Habitat and Niche Ecosystems: Patterns. Gene flow and genetic drift.

Genetic Engineering and Genomics: DNA Finger Printing. Sex-linked Inheritance (Haemophilia and colour blindness). Common cold and ring worm). Sex Determination in Human being.Mendelian disorders in humansThalassemia. Antigens on blood cells. Pathogens and Parasites (Amoebiasis. Unit 3: Biology and Human Welfare Chapter 13. Typhoid. Biotechnological Applications in Health: Human insulin and vaccine production. Antigen-Antibody Complex. Filariasis. honey bee. Vaccines. Genomics and Human Genome Project. Animal Breeding. Turner’s syndrome and Klinfelter’s syndrome. Structure of Antibody. Transgenic animals. Malaria.Human Health and Diseases: Concepts of Immunology: Immunity Types. Cancer and AIDS. Poultry. Sericulture Lac culture 147 . birds. Gene Therapy. Pneumonia. Chromosomal disorders in human: Down’s syndrome. drug and alcohol abuse. Unit 2: Biotechnology and its application Chapter 12.Animal Husbandry: Management of Farms and Farm Animals. Ascariasis. Dairy. Chapter 14. Fisheries. Bee-Keeping. Adolescence.Linkage and Crossing Over.

Excretory System Composition and formation of urine. Regulation of kidney function: renin-angiotensin. Rhythmicity of Heart beat. Regulation of cardiac activity. general idea of other sense organs Endocrine System: Endocrine glands. Blood related disorders: Hypertension. goiter. Pulmonary and Systemic Circulation. nephritis. ADH and Diabetes inspidus. Dialysis. ureotelism. angina pectoris. role of other organs in excretion. Hormones and their functions. Acromegaly. Diabetes mellitus. Hormonal imbalance and diseases: Common disorders (Dwarfism. Blood Vessels. Addison’s disease) 148 . Chapter 17. Transmission of nerve impulse. Transplantation. Sensory perception. Disorders. and heart failure. cretinism. Reflex action. uricotelism. exopthalmic goiter. coronary artery disease. Lymphatic System (Brief idea): Composition of lymph and its functions. Blood groups Structure and pumping action of Heart.Unit 4: Human Physiology Chapter 15.Control and Co-ordination: Nervous System: Structure and functions of brain and Spinal cord. Cardiac output. Chapter 16. Mechanism of hormone action Hormones as messengers and regulators. ECG. Kidney stone (renal calculi). atrial natriuretic factor. Kidney failure. Role of Kidney in Osmoregulation. Sensory receptors (eye and ear).Excretion and osmoregulation: Modes of excretion-Ammonotelism. brief idea about PNS and ANS. Heart beat and Pulse. Uraemia.Circulation: Blood composition and coagulation.

concept. Biodiversity and its conservation. Unit 6: Ecology and Environment Chapter 19-Organisms and Environment-II Population and ecological adaptations: population interactions-mutualism.Biodiversity. endangered organisms. Production of gametes.Human Reproduction: Reproductive system in male and female. age distribution.Unit 5: Reproduction in Organisms Chapter 18. Contraception and sexually transmitted diseases. patterns. Environmental issues: air pollution and its control. parturition and lactation (Elementary idea). Amniocentesis. Histology of testis and ovary. Infertility and assisted reproductive technologies. Pregnancy. birth rate and death rate. parasitism.MTP. competition. (Case studies any two) ---------------------------------------------------------------- 149 . population attributes. biosphere reserves. placenta. predation. loss. water pollution and its control and radioactive waste management.extinction. ZIFT.red data book .growth. GIFT (elementary idea for general awareness). Reproductive cycle. Threats to and need for biodiversity conservation . national parks and sanctuaries. Hotspots. Reproductive health-birth control. Embryo development up to three germinal layers.IVF. importance. fertilization. implantation.

Study of plant population density and frequency by quadrate method. 2.Emasculation. Study pollen germination on a slide. 4 Exercise on controlled pollination . XII (Upgraded) Biology Practicals Syllabus Experiments: 1. Correlate with the kinds of plants found in them. 10. 11To test the presence of albumin and bile salts in urine. clarity and presence of any living organisms. Dissect anther and ovary to show number of chambers. pH and water holding capacity of soil.(Two plants each) 150 . Study the presence of suspended particulate matter in air at the two widely different Sites. 9. 3. moisture content.Std. Prepare a temporary mount of onion root tip to study mitosis. Study/observation of the following (Spotting): 1 Study of flowers adapted to pollination by different agencies (wind. Collect water from two different water bodies around you and study them for pH. tagging and bagging 5 Study meiosis in onion bud cell or grass hopper testis through permanent slide. 5. 8. 4. 6. To test the presence of urea and sugar in urine. Separation of plant pigments by paper chromatography 7 To study the rate of respiration in flower buds/leaf tissue and germinating seeds. 6 Study plants found in xerophytic and aquatic conditions with respect to their morphological adaptations. Dissect the given flower and display different whorls.. insect) 2 Study of pollen germination on stigma through a permanent slide. 3 To Study Mendelian inheritance using seeds of different colour/size of any plant. Collect and study soil from at least two different sites and study them for texture.

of testis and T.S. T. colour blindness. of blastula through permanent slide. Comment on symptoms of diseases that they cause.S. Study of V. widow‟s peak. Entamoeba . 11 Study of animals found in xeric (desert) and aquatic conditions with respect to their morphological adaptations. 8. ovary through permanent slides (from any mammal). (Two animals each) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 151 . 10 To identify common disease causing organisms like Plasmodium. Blood groups.7 Study and identify stages of gamete development.S. 9 To study prepared pedigree charts of genetic traits such as rolling of tongue.Ascaris and ring worm through permanent slides or specimens.

Mathematics is the backbone of all sciences and it is an inseparable part of human life. Objectives: To enable the students 1)To acquire knowledge and critical understanding. removal of social barriers. Hence to fulfill the needs of students. Higher Secondary is a launching stage from where students would go to either for academic education in Mathematics or professional courses like Engineering and Computer Technology.Upgraded Syllabus MATHEMATICS AND STATISTICS (For Arts and Science) Std. terms. symbols and mastering the underlying processes and skills. 4) To develop interest in Mathematics by participating in various related competitions and selflearning. 5) To acquaint students with different aspects of Mathematics used in real life. The proposed syllabus has been designed in accordance with National Curriculum Framework 2005 and as per guidelines given in Focus Group on Teaching of Mathematics 2005 which is to meet the emerging needs of all categories of students. it is utmost important to make the study of Mathematics more meaningful by acquainting the student with many branches of mathematics. 3) To develop positive attitude to think. protection of an environment. Physical and Biological Sciences. 2) To apply the knowledge and skills in Mathematics and related problems from other subjects. major thrust is also on application of various concepts. This will help them in developing Mathematical tools to be used in the professional education. Motivating topics from real life situations and other subject areas. principles. 152 . elimination of sex biases and observance of small family norm. 6) To develop an interest in students to study Mathematics as a discipline. particularly by way of motivation and visualization of basic concepts. 7) To develop awareness of the need for national integration. by more than one method. XI & XII Introduction: Mathematics is the language of all sciences and is perhaps the only subject which merits this distinction. analyze and articulate logically.

Area of the sector of a circle A = ½ r2. 2700. 300. slope intercept form. Sexagesimal system. straight angle. Trigonometric functions with the help of standard unit circle. graphs of trigonometric functions. Inclination of a line. normal form. slope of a line. B and C are constants (without proof). parametric form. Revision of directed angle (+ve and –ve angles). 2. θ. 900. Straight Line : Revision. two point form. 3600). Factorization Formulae: Introduction. Locus : Introduction. Trigonometric functions: Need & concept. circular system. domain and range of trigonometric functions. trigonometricfunctions of sum and difference. equation of lines. θ is in radians) (without proof). coterminal angles. Formulae for conversion of sum or difference into products. θ is in radians (without proof). XI .straight line. y = a cos bx. fundamental identities. trigonometric functions of angles of a triangle. Graph of Y = a sin bx. Theorem: Radian is a constant angle. general form. parallel to coordinate axes. Length of an arc of a circle (s = r. Definition and equation of locus. Measurement of Angles : Need & concept. where A. 4. revision of different forms of equations of a line. zero angle.PART – I 1. slope point form. trigonometric functions of multiple angles (upto double and triple angles only). simultaneously. always represents. Reduction of general equation of a line into normal form. θ. periodicity of functions.8) To develop reverence and respect towards great mathematicians for their contribution to the field of Mathematics. 600. formulae for conversion of product into sum or difference. trigonometric functions of half angles. provided A and B are not both zero. Theorem 2 : Every straight line has an equation of the form Ax +By + C = 0. relation between degree measure and radian measure. double intercept form other forms of equations of a line. 5. 450. points of locus. intercepts of a line. 9) To develop interest in the subject by participating in related competitions. shift of the origin. 1800. trigonometric functions of particular angles (00. 6. trigonometric functions of negative angles. MATHEMATICS AND STATISTICS (ARTS AND SCIENCE) STD. angles in quadrant & quadrantal angles. angles in standard position. Theorem : A general linear equation Ax + By+ C =0. 3. signs of trigonometric functions in different quadrants. 153 . Trigonometric functions of compound angles : Introduction.

154 . minors & co-factors. properties of transpose of a matrix (A ) A. three dimensional co-ordinate geometry. simple properties. square matrix. Transposition. centre-radius form. singular & non-singular matrices.intersection of two lines. standard equation (different forms of parabola). Vectors : Definition. Linear in equations in two variable – solution of linear inequation in one variable & graphical solution. solutions of system of linear inequations in two variables. distance of a point from a line. perpendicular lines. coplanar vectors. column matrix. properties of determinants. equation of a straight line perpendicular to a given line. diameter form. order. operations on matrices – equality. standard equation. equation of a straight line parallel to a given line. properties of addition of vectors. simple application. distance between two parallel lines. ellipse. definition. properties. applications of determinants condition of consistency. transpose of a matrix. solutions of system of linear in equations in one variable. distance between two points in a space. Determinants : Revision. coordinate axes & coordinate planes in space. position vector of a point in space. Application of conic section. focus-directrix property of parabola. parametric equations. (KA) KA . parallelogram law. definition. co-ordinates of a point in space. area of a triangle. parallel lines. zero vector. 10. 11. Linear Inequations : Linear in equations in one variable – solution of linear inequation in one variable & graphical solution. polygon law. magnitude of a vector. Replacement of a set or domain of a set. parabola. condition for concurrency of three lines. Conics Napees – Intersection of Napees of a cone and Plane. scalar product. unit vector. introduction. subtraction. types of matrices – zero matrix. multiplication of matrices – definition. (AB) BA. scalar matrix. like and unlike vector. resolved part of a force. standard equation. Circle and Conics : Revision. addition. row matrix. types of vectors. diagonal matrix. family of lines. parameter equations of standard equation. 9. negative of a vector. general equation. product of vectors. free and localized vectors. solution of linear in equations in two variable & graphical solution. hyperbola. moment of a force. hyperbola. multiplication of a matrix by a scalar. triangle law. standard equation. scalar multiple of a vector. determinant of order three–definition. equations of bisectors of angle between two lines. equal vector. triangular matrices. Cramer‟s rule for system of equations in three variables. determinant of a square matrix. symmetric & skew symmetric matrices. Matrices : Introduction. 8. identity matrix. properties. unit vectors along axes. notations. coinitial vector. collinear vectors. identical lines. angle between lines. parametric equations. workdone by force. concepts. expansion. ellipse. 7. properties of matrix multiplication. vector product. equation of family of lines through the intersection of two lines.

into function. domain. imaginary parts. powers and square root of a complex number – higher powers of i. onto function. one-one function. definition of relation. equal sets. complement of a set. many-one. in plane. geometrical meaning of modulus and argument. modulus. signum & greatest integer. method of finding antilogarithm. 4) Existence of additive identity. properties. improper.5) Existence of additive inverse. multiplication. Cartesian product of two sets. equality of ordered pairs. one-one. characteristics & mantissa – method of finding characteristics. scalar multiplication. disjoint sets. codomain and range of a function. difference of two sets. division. laws of logarithms. Venn diagrams. pictorial diagrams. fundamental theorem of algebra. method of finding mantissa. binary equivalence relation. functions with their graphs. union. subset and their properties. 3. pictorial representation of a function. logarithmic function.PART – II 1. Relations and Functions : Set – Revision. difference. Sets. exponential function. equal functions. algebra of complex numbers – equality. sum. cube roots of unity – solution of quadratic equations in the complex number system. Cartesian product of the reals with itself. need for complex numbers. proper. 1) Closure Property. empty set. subset. definition. No. domain and range of these functions. change of base. polynomial function. addition. binary operations. 3) Associative law. inverse function. types of relations. real valued function of the real variable. composite function. subtraction. codomain and range of a relation. complex conjugates. of elements in the Cartesian product of two finite sets. product quotient of functions. polar representation of complex numbers. 2. Complex Numbers : Introduction. Argand Diagram – representation of a complex number as a pt. constant function. properties of complex numbers – properties of addition of complex numbers.2) Commulative Law. 155 . argument). intersection. finite & infinite sets. Demoivre‟s formula – (without proof). even & odd functions. universal set. domain. types of functions. equivalent sets. functions – function as a special kind of relation. identity function. modulus function. definitions –(real parts. square root of a complex number. Relations – ordered pairs. rational function. power set. Properties of product of complex numbers –Existance of multiplicative identity – Existence of multiplicative inverse properties of conjugate & modulus of complex numbers. cube roots of unity. Logarithms : Introduction.

derivatives from first principle of trigonometric functions. when all r objects are distinct. independent events. with proof. sum of the first „n‟ terms.4. odds in favour and against. relations between permutations and combinations. geometric progression – introduction. addition theorem – for any two events A and B. Differentiation : Definition of a derivative. meaning of x a. physical significance (velocity as a rate of change of displacement). mean deviation about median (for grouped & ungrouped data). geometrical significance of derivative. relation between A. logarithmic functions. containing finitely many terms & sum to infinite terms properties of G. P. Statistics : Measures of dispersion – range. 156 . H. combinations – definition. simple applications. sum of cube of first n natural.. general term. binomial theorem for any index (without proof). A. H. properties of binomial co-efficient with simple application. rules of differentiation – derivative of sum. Mathematical Induction and Binomial Theorem : Principle of mathematical induction. properties.M. 10. axiomatic definition of probability. properties of A. algebra of integrals – integrals of some standard functions. factorial notation. types of events – events and algebra of events. simple applications.. mean deviation about mean.P. geometric means. particular term. Sum of first n terms of A. derivative at a point.M.P. 6. mutually exlusive events.. Baye‟s theorem. limits at infinity – concepts. fundamental theorem on limits. 9. Conditional probability – definition. when all r objects are not distinct. 7. algebra of limits – standard limits. the limit of a function. simple problems. harmonic mean. Integration: Definition (of integration) as antiderivative. algebraic functions. G.. exponential & logarithmic series.P. 11. special series. difference. Arithmetic-Geometric sequence. product and quotient.P. fundamental principle of counting.P. variance. Means – arithmetic mean.P. Permutations & combinations : Introduction. mutually exclusive and exhaustive events. as a special type of A. particular cases of binomial theorem. standard deviation. binomial theorem – binomial theorem for positive integers. exponential functions. comparison of two frequency distributions with same mean. rules of integration. geometrical interpretation of indefinite integrals. simple applications. permutations. sum of cube of first n odd natural nos. combined variance and standard deviation.M. effect of change of origin and scale on variance and standard deviation. circular permutations.. Result on compatible events. general term.. quartile & quartile deviation (for grouped and ungrouped data). Sequences & Series : Revision sequence. multiplication theorem. Probability: Revision. 8. n terms from the end of G. co-efficient of variation. Limits : Introduction of concept. 5. simple applications.

Probability. 11. 19. Integration. 14. Tracing of graphs of functions. 18. Permutations and combinations. 4.List of Practicals: XI 1. Mathematical induction. 6. Problems on locus. Applications of Conics II. 15. Family of lines. 13. 10. 5. Numerical problems using laws of logarithms. Algebra of matrices. 12. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 157 . 2. Linear inequation. 7. Applications of vectors (Dot and cross product). 16. Examples on special series. 8. Limits. Measures of dispersion. Applications of determinants. 3. Power and square root of a complex number. 17. 9. cube root of unity. Binomial theorem. 20. Applications of Conics I. Differentiation.

adjoint method. algebra of statements-idempotent law. demorgan‟s laws. graphs of inverse trigonometric function. 2. condition for parallel lines. disjunction. identity law. converse. tan . logical connective-conjunction. sentences and statement. contingency. range. logical equivalence. inversion method. homogenous equation. difference between converse. open sentences and truth sets.Introduction. biconditional. domain. acute angle between the lines (without proof). contradiction. inverse of a matrix-existance and uniqueness of inverse of a matrix. negation. inverse by elementary transformation. application-solution of system of linear equations by – reduction method. distributive law.MATHEMATICS AND STATISTICS STD. cos cos . contrapositive. Napier Analogues. 3. Matrices : Elementary transformation of a matrix-revision of cofactor and minor. 4. logical equivalence. contradiction. Mathematical Logic : Statements . solution of Trigonometric equations. duality. application-introduction to switching circuits (simple examples). inverse trigonometric functionsdefinitions. sin2 sin2 . examples related to real life and mathematics. complement law. principle values. statement patterns and logical equivalence-tautology. area of a triangle. tan2 tan2 . quantifier and quantified statements. point of intersection of two lines. cosine rule. commutative law. elementary row transformation. inverse. sine rule. Trigonometric functions : Trigonometric equations-general solution of trigonometric equation of the type. 158 . condition that the equation ax2+2hxy+by2+2gx+2fy+c=0 should represent a pair of lines (without proof). Pair of straight lines : Pair of lines passing through origin-conbined equation. projection rule. truth value of statement. a cos b sin c solution of a triangle-polar coordinates. elementary column transformation. condition for perpendicular lines. cos2 cos2 . theorem-the joint equation of a pair of lines passing through origin and its converse. tan tan . pair of lines not passing through origin-conbined equation of any two lines. XII PART – I 1. angle between the lines represented by ax2+2hxy+by2=0. condition of parallel and perpendicular lines. there exists. cos 0. implication/ conditional. associative law. properties of inverse functions. truth tables of compound statements. compound statement. negation of compound statement. sin 0. sin sin . application. involution law. contrapositive. Hero‟s formula.

tangents from a point outside conics. equation of plane passing through the intersection of two given planes. Vectors : Revision. 6. section formula-section formula for internal and external division. properties. direction cosines. Line : Equation of line passing through given point and parallel to given vector. geometrical interpretation of scalar triple product. feasible and infeasible 159 . distance between two parallel lines (vector approach).P. hyperbola. equation of plane passing through the given point and perpendicular to given vector. hyperbola. condition of collinearity of two vectors. Collinearty and coplanerity of vectors-linear combination of vectors. 9. Three dimensional geometry : Direction cosines and direction ratios-direction angles. objective function.2) general circle. centroid formula. altitudes of a triangle are concurrent. 8. condition of tangency only for line y mx c to the circle x2 y2 a2 . locus of points from which two tangents are mutually perpendicular. of a point from a line. relation between direction ratio and direction cosines. Circle : Tangent of a circle-equation of a tangent at a point to 1) standard circle. ellipse. condition for the coplanerity of two lines. equation of line passing through two given points. condition of tangency for parabola. ellipse. length of tangent segments. median of trapezium is parallel to the parallel sides and its length is half the sum of parallel sides. Plane : Equation of plane in normal form. tangents to a circle from a point outside the circle. angle subtended on a semicircle is right angle. dist. definition of constraints. equation of plane passing through the given point and parallel to two given vectors. condition of perpendicular lines. conditions of coplanerity ofthree vectors. angle bisectors of triangle are concurrent. direction ratios. distance between two skew lines.5. equation of plane passing through three non-collinear points. hyperbola. angle between two planes. optimization. angle between two lines. distance of a point from a plane (vector approach). application of vectors to geometry-medians of a triangle are concurrent.P. angle between line and plane. director circle. formula. normal to a circle-equation of normal at a point. diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each other and converse. tangents in terms of slope for parabola. non-negativity restrictions. 7. ellipse. 11. 10. properties of tangents and normals to conics (without proof). midpoint formula. Conics : Tangents and normals-equations of tangent and normal at a point for parabola. constraint equations. scaler triple product-definition. Linear programming problems: Introduction of L.

region. STD. relationship between continuity and differentiability-left hand derivative and right hand derivative (need and concept). continuity in interval-definition. different types of L. integrals of type (reduction formulae are not expected). non-repeated quadratic factors.revision of derivative. optimum feasible solution.P. 2) integration by parts. derivative of inverse function derivative of inverse trigonometric function. trigonometric. exponential and logarithmic function. c) higher order derivative-second order derivative d) f (x) g x 3. definition of a continuity of a function at a point. Integration : Indefinite integrals-methods of integration. derivative of parametric function – definition of parametric function . substitution method. derivative as rate measure-introduction. definite integral-definite integral as a limit of sum.PART – II 1. Derivative of composite functionchain rule. evaluation of definite integral 1) by substitution. Differentiation : Revision. Continuity : Continuity of a function at a point-left hand limit. algebra of continuous functions. feasible solutions. types of discontinuity. integration by parts-integration by parts. Mathematical formulation-mathematical formulation of L. properties of definite integrals properties of definite integrals. problems. XII .P. every differentiable function is continuous but converse is not true. approximation (without proof). Maxima and minima-introduction of extreme and extreme values. right hand limit. fundamental theorem of integral calculus (without proof).P.P. 160 . discontinuity of a function. Rolls theorem. exponential and logarithmic function-derivative of functions which are expressed in one of the following form a) product of functions. Derivative of implicit function definition and examples. second derivative test. Application of derivative : Geometrical application-tangent and normal at a point. 2. b) quotient of functions. graphical solutions for problem in two variables. and Mean value theorem and their geometrical interpretation (without proof). increasing and decreasing function. rational. first derivative test. integration by partial fraction-factors involving repeated and non-repeated linear factors. 4. continuity of some standard functionspolynomial. integrals of the type. maxima and minima in a closed interval.

area bounded by two curves. covariance for bivariate frequency distribution.d. surface area. distribution function of a continuous random variable. degree. calculation of probabilities (without proof). expected value. simple problems (without proof).f. Bernoulli trials and Binomial distribution : Definition of Bernoulli trial. Karl Pearson‟s co-efficient of correlation. probability density function (p. 161 .bivariate data. Inverse of a matrix by adjoint method and hence solution of system of linear equations. variance and standard deviation of a discrete random variable.5. 9. Inverse of a matrix by elementary transformation and hence solution of system of linear equation. Solutions of a triangle. 4.m. Probability distribution : Probability distribution of a random variable-definition of a random variable. 8. Statistics: Bivariate frequency distribution . variance and standard deviation. Linear differential equation. binomial distribution (p.m. formation of differential equation-formation of differential equation by elimmating arbitary constants (at most two constants). probability mass function (p. order.). volume of solid of revolution-volume of solid obtained by revolving the area under the curve about the axis (simple problems). discrete and continuous random variable. applications-population growth. List of Practicals : XII 1. radioactive decay. general solution. homogenous differential equation (equation reducible to homogenous form are not expected).f. mean. cumulative probability distribution of a discrete random variable. 3. standard normal variable. variance and standard deviation. Applications of logic. Newton‟s laws of cooling.d.). solution of first order and first degree differential equation-variable separable method.area bounded by curve and axis (simple problems).p. covariance of or ungrouped data.). tabulation of bivariate data. mean.f. probability distribution of a discrete random variable.f. 7. Normal distribution . 6. Differential equation : Definition-differential equation. bacterial colony growth. 2. particular solution of differential equation. conditions for Binomial distribution. Applications of definite integral: Area under the curve . scatter diagram.

Applications of definite integrals . 20. 18. Formations and solutions of LPP. 11.line. Applications of scalar triple product of vectors. 7. Applications of derivatives .Limit of sum. Applications of definite integrals . Applications of derivatives – Rate. Three dimensional geometry . 17. Binomial distribution.plane. 12.D of random variable. measure. 19. 13.5.volume. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 162 . Tracing of tangents and normals for ellipse and hyperbola. Expected value. Bivariate frequency distribution. 8. 9.Area. 6. Applications of derivatives (Geometric applications). 10. Applications of definite integrals . Three dimensional geometry . 16. variance and S.Maxima and minima 14. 15. Tracing of tangents and normals for circles and parabola. Applications of differential equations.

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