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PHYSICS – Std. XI & XII Preamble
According to NCF 2005, the curriculum of the subject Physics is upgraded for higher secondary stage. This curriculum is comparable to the international standards which are useful for the students in Maharashtra State for different types of competitive examinations conducted in India. All the units of the subject from NCERT curriculum are divided into two years conveniently in Maharashtra State. Continuity in the curriculum is maintained in Std. XI & XII, which is not in NCERT curriculum. All the students appear for the competitive examinations only after +2 stages throughout India. This syllabus has been designed in accordance with the guidelines shown in the final version of common core syllabii of COBSE, Delhi. Accordingly few additional sub units have been added. Objectives – 1. Emphasis on basic conceptual understanding of the content. 2. Emphasis on use of SI units, symbols, nomenclature of physical quantities and formulations as per international standards. 3. Providing logical sequencing of units of the subject matter and proper placement of concepts with their linkage for better learning. 4. Reducing the curriculum load by eliminating overlapping of concepts/content within the discipline and other disciplines. 5. Promotion of process-skills, problem-solving abilities and applications of Physics concepts. 6. Strengthen the concepts developed at the secondary stage to provide firm foundation for further learning in the subject. 7. Expose the learners to different processes used in Physics-related industrial and technological applications. 8. Develop process-skills and experimental, observational, manipulative, decision making and investigatory skills in the learners. 9. Promote problem solving abilities and creative thinking in learners. 10. Develop conceptual competence in the learners and make them realize and appreciate the interface of Physics with other disciplines.
1. Measurements Introduction, Need for measurement, Units for measurement, System of Units, S.I. Units, Fundamental and derived units, Dimensional analysis, Order of magnitude and significant figures, Accuracy and errors in measurement.
2. Scalars and Vectors Addition and subtraction of vectors, Product of vectors.
3. Projectile motion Uniformly accelerated motion along straight line, Non uniform motion, Position time graph and velocity-time graph, Equation of a projectile path, Time of flight, Horizontal range, Maximum height of a projectile, Relative velocity.
4. Force Types of forces, General idea of gravitation, electromagnetic and nuclear forces, Law of conservation of momentum, Work done by a variable force. Work-energy theorem, Elastic and inelastic collisions in one and two dimensions, Inertial and non-intertial frames, Moment of force, Couple and properties of couple, Centre of mass, Centre of gravity, Conditions of equilibrium of a rigid body.
5. Friction in solids and liquids Origin and nature of frictional forces, Laws of static friction, Laws of kinetic friction, Pressure due to fluid column, Pascal‟s Law and its applications, Effect of gravity on fluid pressure, Viscosity, Streamline flow, Turbulent flow, Viscous force, Newton‟s formula, Stokes‟ law, Equation for terminal velocity, Raynold‟s number, Bernoulli‟s principle and its applications.
6. Sound Waves Waves and oscillations, Progressive waves, Characteristics of transverse waves, Characteristics of longitudinal waves, Sound as longitudinal wave motion, Relation between v, f and, ƛ Newton‟s formula for velocity of sound, Laplace‟s correction.
7. Thermal properties of matter Temperature and heat, Measurement of temperature, Ideal-gas equation and absolute temperature, Thermal expansion, Specific heat capacity, Calorimetry, Change of state, Latent heat, Heat transfer.
8. Refraction of Light Refraction of monochromatic light, Snell‟s law, Total internal reflection, Critical angle, Optical fibre, Dispersion of light, Prism formula, Angular dispersion and dispersive power, Rainbow, Scattering of light, Blue colour of sky, Colour of sun at sunrise and sunset. Elementary idea of Raman effect.
9. Ray optics Reflection of light by spherical mirrors, Refraction at single curved surface, Lens maker‟s equation, Combination of thin lenses in contact, Concept of conjugate focii, Correction of eye defects, Magnifying power of simple microscope, Magnifying power of compound microscope, Magnifying power of telescope, Reflecting telescope - schematic diagram with explanation.
10. Electrostatics Frictional electricity, Charges and their conservation, Coulomb‟s law and dielectric constant, Forces between multiple electric charges, Superposition principle of forces, Continuous distribution of charges, Concept of charge density, Electric field intensity, Potential energy, Electric potential due to point charge, Relation between electric field intensity and potential, Potential difference, Volt and electron volt, Electric dipole and dipole moment, Electric lines of force. Equipotential surfaces, P.E. of single charge and system of charges.
11. Current electricity Ohm‟s law, Resistance, Specific resistance, Temperature dependence of resistance, Colour code of carbon resistor, Series and parallel combination of resistors, E.M.F. and internal resistance of cell, Work done by electric current, Power in electric circuit, Cells in series and in parallel, Elementary idea of secondary cells.
12. Magnetic effect of electric current Oersted’s experiment, Biot Savart‟s law, Right hand rule, Magnetic induction at the centre of circular coil carrying current, Magnetic induction at a point along the axis of a coil carrying current, Fleming‟s left hand rule, Force between two infinitely long current carrying parallel conductors, Definition of Ampere, Force acting on a conductor carrying current in magnetic field, Torque on a current loop in magnetic field.
13. Magnetism Origin of magnetism due to moving charges, Equivalence between magnetic dipole and circular coil carrying current, Definition of magnetic dipole moment and its unit, Torque acting on a magnet in uniform magnetic induction, Bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, Magnetic field lines, Magnetic induction due to bar magnet at a point along the axis and at a point along equator, Earth‟s magnetic field and magnetic elements, Electromagnets and factors affecting their strength.
14. Electromagnetic waves Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics, Transverse nature of electromagnetic waves, Electromagnetic spectrum, Space communication, Propagation of electromagnetic waves in atmosphere.
Physics List of Practicals Std. XI
1. Use of Vernier Callipers. 2. Use of Screw gauge. 3. To determine radius of curvature of a given spherical surface by a spherometer. 4. To find the weight of a given body using parallelogram law of vectors. 5. To study the relationship between force of limiting friction and normal reaction and to find co-efficient of friction between a block and a horizontal surface. 6. To determine resistance per cm of a given wire by plotting a graph of potential difference versus current. 7. To find the value of „v‟ for different values of „u‟ in case of a „concave mirror and to find the focal length. 8. To find the focal length of a convex lens by plotting graphs between „u‟ and „v‟or between „1/u‟ and „1/v‟. 9. To find the focal length of a convex mirror, using a convex lens. 10. To find the focal length of a concave lens, using a convex lens. 11. To determine angle of minimum deviation for a given prism by plotting a graph between angle of incidence and angle of deviation. 12. To determine refractive index of a glass using a travelling microscope. 13. To find refractive index of a liquid by using (i) concave mirror, (ii) convex lens and plane mirror. 14. To determine specific heat capacity of a given (i) liquid (ii) solid, by method of mixtures.
Physics List of Activities Std. XI
1. To make a paper scale of given least count, e.g. 0.2 cm, 0.5 cm. 2. To determine mass of a given body using a meter scale by principle of moments. 3. To plot a graph for a given set of data, with proper choice of scales and error bars.
on a screen by using a candle and a screen (for different distances of the candle from the lens/mirror). 8. 10. To measure the force of limiting friction for rolling of a roller on a horizontal plane. current (AC) and check continuity of a given circuit using multimeter. 5. To measure resistance. To study the nature and size of image formed by (i) convex lens (ii) concave mirror. 7. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 115 . To note the change in level of liquid in a container on heating and interpret the observations. 9. 6. To observe refraction and lateral deviation of a beam of light incident obliquely on a glass slab.4. voltage (AC/DC). To obtain a lens combination with the specified focal length by using two lenses from the given set of lenses. To study the variation in range of a jet of water with angle of projection.
Differential equation of linear S. Angular momentum and its conservation. Elasticity General explanation of elastic property. Rolling motion. Effect of impurity and temperature on surface tension. Projection of U. Principle of parallel and perpendicular axes. Radial acceleration. Vertical circular motion due to earth‟s gravitation.M.E. Wave motion 116 .M.M. Circular motion Angular displacement. Surface tension Surface tension on the basis of molecular theory. and P. Applications of elastic behaviour of materials.. Weightlessness condition in orbit.H. Torque. M. Centripetal and centrifugal forces.H.M. 7.E. Oscillations Explanation of periodic motion. Periodic time.M.. Hooke‟s law. Capillarity and capillary action.. Surface energy.I.H. Poisson’s ratio.I. Determination of „Y‟.H.PHYSICS (Upgraded syllabus) Std.C. Rotational motion Definition of M. K. Surface tension. Statement of Kepler‟s laws of motion. Phase of S.H. Composition of two S. Definition of stress and strain. in S. 5. Physical significance of M. XII 1. 4. Elastic constants and their relation. Angular velocity and angular acceleration. Behaviour of metal wire under increasing load.. Simple pendulum.H.I. Equation for velocity and energy at different positions of vertical circular motion. Uniform circular motion. Relation between linear velocity and angular velocity. Angle of contact.E. Plasticity.‟s having same period and along same line. Banking of roads.. Damped S. of some regular shaped bodies about specific axes. on any diameter.M.M. 6. Projection of satellite. depth and motion. K. 3. Gravitation Newton‟s law of gravitation. Deformation. Radius of gyration. S. Variation of „g‟ due to altitude. lattitude. Kinematical equations for circular motion in analogy with linear motion. Binding energy and escape velocity of a satellite. of rotating body. 2. Elastic energy. Communication satellite and its uses.
Measurement of wavelength by biprism experiment. Electrostatics Gauss‟ theorem proof and applications. Condensers in series and parallel. Construction of plane and spherical wave front. Resonance. Stationary waves Study of vibrations in a finite medium. Energy density of a medium. Formation of stationary waves on string. Change of phase. 10. Derivation for pressure of a gas. 11. Conditions for producing steady interference pattern. Formation of beats. Stefan’s law. 1st law of thermodynamics. Diffraction due to single slit. Derivation of Boyle‟s law. Young‟s experiment. Green house effect. Polarisation. Capacity of parallel plate condenser. Wave theory of light Wave theory of light. Concept of condenser. Refraction at plane surface. 12. Law of equipartition of energy and application to Specific heat capacities of gases. Heat engines and refrigerators. Thermodynamics. Study of vibrations of air columns. van-de-Graaff generator. Resolving power of a microscope and telescope. Rayleigh‟s criterion. Polaroids. 13. Mechanical force on unit area of a charged conductor. Brewster‟s law. Assumptions of kinetic theory. Huygens‟ Principle.Simple harmonic progressive waves. Free and Forced vibrations. Current electricity 117 . 8. Degrees of freedom. 2nd law of thermodynamics. Difference between interference and diffraction. Superposition of waves. Maxwell distribution. Wave front and wave normal.Wein’s displacement law. Plane polarised light. Kinetic theory of gases and Radiation Concept of an ideal gas. Interference and diffraction Interference of light. Doppler effect in sound. Doppler effect in light. Effect of dielectric on capacity. 9. Analytical treatment of interference bands. Reflection of transverse and longitudinal waves.Thermal equilibrium and definition of temperature. Reflection at plane surface. Mean free path. Energy of charged condenser. Dielectrics and electric polarisation. Qualitative idea of black body radiation.
Moving coil galvanometer. Solar cell. Transformer. mass-energy relation. Hertz and Lenard‟s observations. Self induction and mutual induction. 18 Atoms.Kirchhoff‟s law. Cyclotron. Meter bridge. Diamagnetism. Continuous and characteristics X-rays. Composition and size of nucleus. Wattless current. Magnetisation and magnetic intensity. Zener diode as a voltage regulator. e = .dØ dt Eddy currents. I-V characteristics of LED. per nucleon and its variation with mass number. P-N junction diode. Transistor 118 . 15. Ferromagnetism on the basis of domain theory. AC generator. Magnetic effects of electric current Ampere‟s law and its applications. Reactance and impedance. Magnetism Circular current loop as a magnetic dipole. 14. Alternating currents. Hydrogen spectrum. Rectifiers. mass defect. de Broglie hypothesis. Need for displacement current. Curie temperature. Molecules and Nuclei Alpha particle scattering experiment. Sensitivity of moving coil galvanometer. 17 Electrons and photons Photoelectric effect. Particle nature of light. I-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias.c circuit with resistance. Einstein‟s equation. 19 Semiconductors Energy bands in solids. inductance and capacitance. Decay law. Coil rotating in uniform magnetic induction. Rutherford‟s model of atom. Ammeter. Wheatstone‟s bridge. Magnetic dipole moment of revolving electron. Potentiometer. Bohr‟s model. Resonant circuit. P-type and N-type semiconductor. Wavelength of an electron. Intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors. Matter waves – wave nature of particles. proof of. Photodiode. B.E. 16 Electromagnetic inductions Laws of electromagnetic induction. Davisson and Germer experiment. Nuclear fission and fusion. Radioactivity. LC oscillations (qualitative treatment only) Power in a. Voltmeter. Paramagnetism.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 119 . Propagation of electromagnetic waves in atmosphere. space communication.NOT.AND.Transistor as a switch. bandwidth of transmission medium.NOR) 20 Communication systems Elements of communication system. Need for modulation. bandwidth of signals.action and its characteristics. Oscillators and Logic gates (OR. Transistor as an amplifier (CE mode).NAND. Production and detection of an amplitude modulated wave.
8. 12. To determine Young‟s modulus of elasticity of the material of a given wire. To draw the characteristic curve of a zener diode and to determine its reverse break down voltage. 2. 3. 9. XII 1. To find the force constant and effective mass of helical spring by plotting T 2--m graph using method of oscillations. 7. To determine the internal resistance of given cell using potentiometer. To find resistance of given wire using metre bridge and hence determine the specific resistance of its material. To study the relation between the length of a given wire and tension for constant frequency using sonometer. To find the speed of sound in air at room temperature using a resonance tube. To determine the surface tension of water by capillary rise method. To study the relation between frequency and length of a given wire under constant tension using sonometer. 15. 10. 13. To draw the I-V characteristic curves of a p-n junction diode in forward bias and reverse bias.Physics List of Practicals Std. 14. To verify the laws of combination (series/parallel) of resistances using a metre bridge. To compare the emf of two given cells using potentiometer. 4. 5. 11. 120 . To study the relationship between the temperature of a hot body and time by plotting a cooling curve. To determine resistance of galvanometer using metre bridge. 6. To study the characteristics of a common-emitter npn or pnp transistor and to find out the values of current and voltage gains.
To study the effect of detergent on surface tension by observing capillary rise. an LED. 121 . To assemble a household circuit comprising three bulbs. 7. three (on/off) switches. 8. 6. 12. 5. resistor/ rheostat. To study dissipation of energy of a simple pendulum by plotting a graph between square of amplitude and time. To study effect of intensity of light (by varying distance of the source) on an L.D. To measure the resistance and impedance of an inductor with or without iron core. Use of multimeter to (i) identify base of transistor (ii) distinguish between npn and pnp type transistors. key. a transistor. 4. transistor or IC) is in working order. diode. To study the variation in potential drop with length of a wire for a steady current. 9. 1 l. and 1C.g. 2. (iii) see the unidirectional flow of current in case of a diode and an LED (iv) check whether a given electronic component (e. a resistor and a capacitor from mixed collection of such items. To observe polarization of light using two polaroids. To identify a diode. To study the factors affecting the rate of loss of heat of a liquid. XII 1. a fuse and a power source. ammeter and voltmeter. To study the effect of load on depression of a suitably clamped meter scale loaded (i) at its end (ii) in the middle. 10.R. 3. Mark the components that are not connected in proper order and correct the circuit and also the circuit diagram.Physics List of Activities Std. To draw the diagram of a given open circuit comprising at least a battery.
inorganic.CHEMISTRY (Upgraded syllabus) Std. There is a need to provide the sufficient conceptual background of chemistry which will help the students to appear for different common entrance test at state level and national level. the new and updated curriculum is introduced at +2 stages. organic. 2) To make students capable of studying chemistry in academic and professional courses (such as medicine. Geology. population. etc. environment. The revised syllabus has taken care of new formulations and nomenclature of elements. fundamental concepts. after the +2 stage. 4) To equip students to face various changes related to health. This new syllabus will make them competent to meet the challenges of academic and professional courses like medicine. New nomenclature. analytical and polymer chemistry. industries and agriculture. compounds and IUPAC units of physical quantities. The syllabus is comparable to the international level. engineering. The syllabus contains areas like physical. 3) To expose the students to various emerging new areas of chemistry and apprise them with their relevance in their future studies and their applications in various spheres of chemical sciences and technology. engineering. Engineering. XI & XII Preamble RATIONALE According to NCF 2005. nutrition. technology. etc. weather. modern techniques are given importance. technology) at tertiary level. 6) To expose the students to different processes used in industries and their technological applications. OBJECTIVES The broad objectives of teaching Chemistry at Senior Secondary Stage are to help the learners : 1) To promote understanding of basic facts and concepts in chemistry while retaining the excitement of Chemistry. 7) To apprise students with interface of chemistry with other disciplines of science such as Physics. 122 . 5) To develop problem solving skills in students. industrial. symbols and formulations. Biology.
concept of shells and subshells. laws of chemical combination. percentage composition. Role of gas laws in elucidating the concept of the molecule. electron gain enthalpy. Ionization enthalpy. Ideal gas equation. p and d orbitals. Unit 4 : Periodic Table Significance of classification. de Broglie‟s relationship. concept of orbitals. quantum numbers. Pauli‟s exclusion principle and Hund‟s rule. Boyle‟s law. viscosity and surface tension (qualitative idea only. chemical reactions. atoms and molecules. valence. empirical and molecular formula. Charles law. Heisenberg‟s uncertainty principle. Deviation from ideal behaviour. XI (Theory) Unit 1: Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry General Introduction: Importance and scope of chemistry. Gay Lussac‟s law. Critical temperature. liquefaction of gases. Dalton‟s atomic theory : concept of elements. periodic trends in properties of elements atomic radii. Unit 3 : Structure of Atom Discovery of electron. atomic number. Historical approach to particulate nature of matter. ionic radii. electronic configuration of atoms. electronegativity. isotopes and isobars. no mathematical derivations).CHEMISTRY Std. Kinetic energy and molecular speeds (elementary idea) Liquid State – Vapour pressure. type of bonding. 123 . rules for filling electrons in orbitals – Aufbau principle. stoichiometry and calculations based on stoichimetry. Atomic and molecular masses mole concept and molar mass : Avogadro‟s law and Avogadro number. dual nature of matter and light. proton and neutron. modern periodic law and present form of periodic table.Enthalpy: Explanation and definition of term. empirical derivation of gas equation. Intermolecular interactions. Unit 2 : States of Matter : Gases and Liquids Three states of matter. Rutherford‟s model and its limitations. stability of half filled and completely filled orbitals. brief history of the development of periodic table. shapes of s. Inert gas radii nomenclature of elements with atomic number greater than 100. Ideal behaviour. Bohr‟s model and its limitations.
electrophoresis. properties of colloids. concept of pH. concept of hybridization involving s. Unit 8 : Nature of Chemical Bond Valence electrons. strong and weak electrolytes. hydrogen bond. oxidation number. Unit 7 : Surface Chemistry Adsorption – physisorption and chemisorption. p and d orbitals and shapes of some simple molecules. isotopes.) Handerson equation. Born Haber cycle : covalent bond parameters. law of mass action. Balancing redox reactions. Buffer solutions. covalent character of ionic bond. Hydrolysis of salts (elementary idea). activity and selectivity: enzyme catalysis. Tyndall effect. emulsion – types of emulsions. Lyophilic.Unit 5: Redox Reactions Concept of oxidation and reduction. ionic bond. degree of ionization. solubility product common ion effect (with illustrative examples. Unit 6: Chemical Equilibrium Equilibrium in physical and chemical processes. resonance. catalysis : homogenous and heterogeneous. multimolecular and macromolecular colloids. Hydrogen peroxide. ionization of polybasic acids. valence bond theory. preparation. VSEPR theory. factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids. Lyophobic.preparation. hydrides-ionic. properties and uses of hydrogen. dynamic nature of equilibrium. colloidal state : distinction between true solutions. heavy water. Brownian movement. equilibrium constant. geometry of covalent molecules. polar character of covalent bond. factors affecting equilibrium. coagulation. hydrogen as a fuel. molecular orbital theory of homonuclear diatomic molecules (qualitative idea only). acid strength. Elementary idea of nanomaterials. covalent and interstitial. Ionic equilibrium: Ionization of acids and bases. Uses of hydrogen peroxide 124 . redox reactions. in terms of loss and gain of electrons and change in oxidation number. physical and chemical properties of water. colloids and suspensions. Lewis structure. Le Chatelier‟s principle. Unit 9 : Hydrogen Position of hydrogen in periodic table. occurrence. properties and structure.
electronic configuration. trends in the variation of properties (such as ionization enthalpy. Preparation and properties of some important compounds: Sodium carbonate. water. Classification and IUPAC nomenclature of organic compounds. inductive effect. anomalous properties of first element of the group.Unit 10: s-Block Elements (Alkali and Alkaline earth metals) Group 1 and Group 2 elements: General introduction. Important compounds of silicon and their uses: silicon tetrachloride. allotropic forms. free radicals. Aluminium. boron hydrides. Electronic displacements in a covalent bond. Melting point and boiling point. anomalous properties of the first element of each group. 125 . physical and chemical properties. oxides. trends in chemical reactivity. Calcium oxide and calcium carbonate (CaO) (CaCO3) and industrial uses of lime and limestone. Variation of properties. types of organic reactions.Homolytic and heterolytic fission of a covalent bond. biological importance of sodium and potassium. trends in chemical reactivity. boric acids. electromeric effect. uses. sodium hydroxide and sodium hydrogen carbonate. atomic and ionic radii). biological importance of Magnesium and Calcium.carbocations. reactions with acids and alkalies. Unit 11 : p-Block Elements Group Introduction to p-Block Elements Group 13 elements : General introduction. uses of some important Compounds. oxidation states. oxidation states. anomalous behavior of first element. electronic configuration. trends in chemical reactivity with oxygen. diagonal relationship. some important compounds: borax. Carbon – catenation. electrophiles and nucleophiles. silicones. silicates and zeolites and structure of silicates Unit 12: Basic Principles and Techniques in Organic Chemistry General introduction. occurrence. Group 14 elements: General introduction. variation of properties. resonance and hyper conjugation. carbanions. hydrogen and halogens. electronic configuration. occurrence. uses. occurrence. Boron-physical and chemical properties. methods of qualitative and quantitative analysis.
benzene. smog. oxidation. structure of triple bond (ethylene). water. addition reaction of – hydrogen. Chemical reactions. water and soil pollution. hydrogen halides (Markovnikoff‟s addition and peroxide effect) ozonolysis. UNIT-17: Environmental chemistry Environmental pollution. chemical properties. addition of hydrogen. halogens. ozone and its reactions. halogen. structure of double bond (ethane). strategy for control of environmental pollution. resonance aromaticity. Pollution due to industrial wastes. combustion and pyrolysis. Methods of preparation. Carcinogenicity and toxicity. hydrogen halides. sulphonaiton. isomerism. conformations (ethane only). chemical reactions including free radical mechanism of halogenation.air. Unit 15: Alkynes Nomenclature. major atmospheric pollutants. Unit 14 : Alkenes Nomenclature. Friedel Craft‟ alkylation and acylation. green chemistry as an alternative tool for reducing pollution. green house effect and global warming. effects of depletion of ozone layer. geometrical isomerism. chemical reactions in atmosphere. mechanism of electrophilic addition. physical properties. physical properties. IUPAC nomenclature. chemical reactions: acidic character of alkynes. physical properties. 126 . mechanism of electrophilic substitution. halogenation. acid rain. water. Unit 16 : Aromatic compounds Introduction.Unit 13 : Alkanes Classification of hydrocarbons – Nomenclature. methods of preparation. – nitration.
p). Study the pH change in the titration of a strong base using universal indicator. (b) Study the shift in equilibrium between [Co(H2O)6]2+ and chloride ions by changing the concentration of either of the ions. Determination of boiling point of an organic compound. Comparing the pH solutions of strong and weak acid of same concentration. Drawing out a glass jet 4. xylene (o. copper sulphate. water) 3. (p-toludine. benzoic acid.Chemistry Practical Syllabus Std-XI A. Basic Laboratory Techniques 1. Bending glass tube 3. Cutting glass tube and glass rod 2. Lyophobic sol–aluminium hydroxide. (b) Study of the role of emulsifying agents in stabilizing the emulsion of oil.m. D. Characterization and purification of chemical substances 1. ferric hydroxide. Operating pinch cork B. β-naphthol. resorcinol. acetic acid. Determination of melting point of an organic compound. (acetone. varied concentrations of acids. benzoic acid. Chemical equilibrium Any one of the following experiments: (a) Study the shift in equilibrium between ferric ions and thiocyanate ions by changing the concentration of either ion. Surface Chemistry (a) Preparation of one lyophilic and one lyophobic sol: Lyophilic sol-starch and gum. Crystallization of impure sample of anyone of the following compounds. Study of burner 5. C. Experiments related to pH change (a) Any one of the following experiments: Determination of pH of some solutions obtained from fruit juices. methyl acetate. Oxalic acid. arseneous sulphide. 127 .) 2. E. bases and salts using pH paper or universal indicator. Alum. naphthalene.
Sr2+. Br-. Preparation of standard solution of oxalic acid. I-. Ca2+. chlorine bromine and iodine in an organic compound. Fe3+. Qualitative analysis Determination of one cation and one anion in a given salt: Cations – Pb2+. Co2+. sulphur. Determination of strength of a given solution of sodium hydroxide by titrating it against standard solution of oxalic acid. Mn2+. Ni2+ . F.(b) Study of pH change by common ion effect in case of weak acids and bases. Zn2+. Mg2+. Quantitative estimation Using a chemical balance. 128 . Cu2+. Detection of nitrogen. Determination of strength of a given solution of hydrochloric acid by titrating It against standard sodium carbonate solution. G. Ba2+. Preparation of standard solution of sodium carbonate. PO43C2O42CH3COO(Note: Insoluble salts excluded) H. Al3+. NH4+ Anions – CO32SO32SO42NO2NO3Cl-.
depending upon the regional variation in drinking water and the study of causes of presence of these ions above permissible limit (if any). A few suggested Projects 1 Checking the bacterial contamination in drinking water by testing sulphide ion. chloride etc. 4 Investigation of the foaming capacity of different washing soaps and the effect of addition of sodium carbonate on them. presence of iron. 6 Determination of the rate of evaporation of different liquids. 8 Analysis of fruit and vegetable juices for their acidity. fluoride. 3 Testing the hardness. 7 Study of the effect of acids and bases on the tensile strength of fibers. 129 . 2 Study of the methods of purification of water. 5 Study of the acidity of different samples of the tea leaves. Note: Any other investigatory project can be chosen with the approval of the teacher.PROJECT Scientific investigations involving laboratory testing and collecting information from other sources.
Band theory of metals. voids. Unit 5: Chemical Kinetics Rate of reaction (average and instantaneous).unit cell in two dimensional and three dimensional lattices. standard electrode potential. solubility of gases in liquids. dry cell –electrolytic and Galvanic cells. covalent and metallic solids. point defects. free energy change for spontaneous and non spontaneous processes. conductance in electrolytic solutions. and solution and dilution Introduction of entropy as a state function. order and molecularity of a reaction. Nernst equation and its application to chemical cells. combustion. formation. temperature. heat. fuel cells. First law of thermodynamics – internal energy and enthalpy. variations of conductivity with concentration. rate law and specific rate constant. concept of 130 . concentration. molecular. EMF of a cell. energy.Raoult’s law elevation of boiling point.CHEMISTRY Std. Phase transition. osmotic pressure. determination of molecular masses using colligative properties. Unit 3 : Chemical Thermodynamics and energetic Concepts of system. amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea). Relation between Gibb’s energy change and emf of a cell.Van’t Hoff factor and calculations involving it. sublimation. XII (Theory) Unit 1: Solid State Classification of solids based on different forces. colligative properties –relative lowering of vapor pressure. types of systems. electrolysis and laws of electrolysis (elementary idea). atomization. state functions. packing in solids. and equilibrium constant. depression of freezing point. catalyst. calculation of density of unit cell. extensive and intensive properties. electrical and magnetic properties. expression of concentration of solids in liquids. integrated rate equations and half life (only for zero and first order reactions). abnormal molecular mass. Hess‟ law of constant heat summation. number of atoms per unit cell in a cubic unit cell. ionic. solid solutions. specific and molar conductivity. Work. Unit 2 : Solutions and colligative properties Types of solutions. lead accumulator. surroundings. enthalpy of bond dissociation. Second and third law of thermodynamics Unit 4: Electrochemistry Redox reactions. factors affecting rate of reaction. Kohlrausch‟s Law. corrosion. conductors and semiconductors and insulators and n and p type semiconductors. ionization.
Group 18 elements: General introduction. properties and uses. preparation. trends in physical and chemical properties. oxidation. interhalogen compounds. properties and uses of chlorine and hydrochloric acid. oxides of nitrogen (structure only). compounds of sulphur. preparation. preparation and properties of ammonia and nitric acid. dioxygen. electronic configuration. copper. Unit 6 : General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements Principles and methods of extraction – concentration. simple oxides. Group 17 elements: General introduction. compounds of nitrogen. halides (PCl3. electronic configuration. occurrence. occurrence and principle of extraction of aluminium. preparation. trends in physical and chemical properties. Ozone. Arrhenius equation. Sulphur – allotropic forms. compounds of halogens. oxidation states. occurrence. properties and uses of sulphur dioxide.Activation energy. industrial process of manufacture. oxidation states. compounds of phosphorous. sulphurc acid. Phoshorous-allotropic forms. oxoacids of sulphur (structures only). nitrogen – preparation. 131 . preparation and properties of phosphine.collision theory (elementary idea. zinc and iron Unit 7: p-Block Elements Group 15 elements: General introduction. oxidation states. electronic configuration. electronic configuration.PCl5) and oxoacids (elementary idea only). properties and uses. occurrence. trends in physical and chemical properties. uses. Group 16 elements: General introduction. reduction electrolytic method and refining. Occurrence. no mathematical treatment). trends in physical and chemical properties. Classification of oxides. oxoacids of halogens (structure only). properties and uses.
uses. coordination number. magnetic properties. ionic radii. catalytic property. physical and chemical properties. Werner’s theory. chemical reactivity and lanthanoid contraction and its consequences. ionization enthalpy. uses of methanol and ethanol. Unit 9: Coordination Compounds Coordination compounds – Introduction. electronic configuration. substitution reactions (directive influence of halogen for monosubstituted compounds only) stability of carbocations. IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds. DDT. oxidation states. oxidation states. f-Block ElementsLanthanoids – Electronic configuration. 132 . (Structural and stereo) importance of coordination compounds (in qualitative analysis. freons. VBT. physical and chemical properties. physical and chemical properties (of primary alcohols only). Comparison with lanthanoids. secondary and tertiary alcohols.R-S and d-l configuration Haloarenes : Nature of C-X bond. R-S and d-l configurations. acidic nature of phenol. magnetic properties and shapes.Stability of carbocations.Unit 8 : d and f Block Elements d-Block Elements General introduction. Ethers : Nomenclature. Unit 10 : Halogen derivatives of alkanes (and arenes) Haloalkanes : Nomenclature.CFT. extraction of metals and biological systems). methods of preparation. methods of preparation. alloy formation preparation and properties of K2Cr2O7 and KMnO4. bonding. mechanism of substitution reactions. oxidation states. Actinoids – Electronic configuration. Phenols and Ethers Alcohols: Nomenclature. Uses and environmental effects of – dichloromethane. ligands. thrichloromethane. nature of C-X bond. electrophillic substitution reactions. Phenols: Nomenclature. physical and chemical properties. Unit 11 : Alcohols. mechanism of dehydration. methods of preparation. colour. colour. general trends in properties of the first row transition metals – metallic character. identification of primary. interstitial compounds. uses of phenols. occurrence and characteristics of transition metals. isomerism. tetrachloromethane. iodoform.
reactivity of alpha hydrogen in aldehydes. 133 . Physical and chemical properties. Lipids and Hormones (elementary idea) excluding structure. polyesters. uses. structure. structure of amines-primary.Unit 12 : Aldehydes. uses. nylon. physical and chemical properties. and rubber.Biodegradable and non biodegradable polymers. Unit 13: Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen Nitro compounds-General methods of preparation and chemical reactions Amines : Nomenclature. methods of polymerization (addition and condensation). Some important polymers. Unit 14: Biomolecules Carbohydrates: Classification (aldoses and ketoses). proteins. Cyanides and Isocyanides: Will be mentioned at relevant places in context. physical and chemical properties. importance. peptide. linkage. Diazonium salts: Preparation. Carboxylic Acids: Nomenclature. chemical reactions and importance in synthetic organic chemistry. classification. their classification and functions. Proteins: Elementary idea of -amino acids. nature of carbonyl group. polypeptides. Vitamins: Classification and functions.natural and synthetic. oligosaccharides (sucrose. methods of preparation. secondary. tertiary structure and quaternary structures (qualitative idea only). Ketones and Carboxylic Acids Aldehydes and Ketones : Nomenclature. mechanism of nucleophilic addition. monosaccahrides d-l configuration (glucose and fructose). Nucleic Acids: DNA and RNA Unit 15: Polymers Classification . maltose). natural and synthetic like polythene. bakelite. cellulose. copolymerization. identification of primary. glycogen). methods of preparation. denaturation of proteins. secondary and tertiary amines. enzymes. polysaccharides (starch. methods of preparation. uses. acidic nature. lactose.
ii] Enthalpy of neutralization of strong acid (HCI) and strong base (NaOH). Chemicals in medicines: analgesics. 3. (c) Acid hydrolysis of ethyl acetate. KIO3 and sodium sulphite (Na2SO3) using starch solution as indicator (clock reaction). 134 . Electrochemistry Variation of cell potential in Zn|Zn2+||Cu2+|Cu with change in concentration of electrolytes (CuSO4 or ZnSO4) at room temperature (demonstration). antiseptics. cleansing action. iii] Determination of enthalpy change during interaction (hydrogen bond formation) between acetone and chloroform. (ii) Reaction between potassium iodate. antacids. antifertility drugs. antibiotics. antihistamines (elementary idea of antioxidants) 2. (b) Study of reaction rate of any one of the following: (i) Reaction of iodide ion with hydrogen peroxide at room temperature using different concentration of iodide ions. antimicrobials. Chemistry Practical Syllabus Std. Chemical Kinetics (Any one of the following) : (a) Effect of concentration and temperature on the rate of reaction between sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid. B. Cleansing agents: Soaps and detergents. tranquilizers. disinfectants. XII A. Chemicals in food: Preservatives. artificial sweetening agents. iv] Heat of displacement of Cu from CuSO4 by Zn. C.Unit 16: Chemistry in Everyday life : 1. Thermochemistry Any one of the following experiments: i] Enthalpy of dissolution of copper sulphate or potassium nitrate.
Cu2+.D. Al3+. Ni2+. Chromatography (demonstration) (i) Separation of pigments from extracts of leaves and flowers by paper chromatography and determination of Rf values. I. NH4+. 2) Determination of two anions from a given mixture of salts. (ii) Preparation of potassium ferric oxalate. J. Sr2+. (iii) Iodoform (iv) Phthalic or succinic anhydride. F. Characteristic tests of arbohydrates. carboxylic and amino (primary) groups. fats and proteins in pure samples and their detection in given food stuffs. Ca2+. alcoholic. Preparation of Inorganic Compounds (i) Preparation of double salt of ferrous ammonium sulphate or potash alum. (v) Di-benzal acetone G. 135 . phenolic.Napthol aniline dye. Fe3+. ketonic. Ba2+. Tests for the functional groups present in organic compounds Unsaturation. Mn2+. (ii) Separation of constituents present in an inorganic mixture containing two cations only (constituents having large difference in Rf values to be provided). aldehydic. Preparation of Organic Compounds (i) p-Nitrocetanilide (ii) Aniline yellow or 2. Qualitative analysis 1) Determination of two cations from a given mixture of salts. Co2+. E. Cations – Pb2+. H. Determinaiton of concentration/molarity of KMnO4 solution by titrating it against a standard solution of: (i) Oxalic acid (ii) Ferrous ammonium sulphate (Students will be required to prepare standard solutions by weighing themselves). Mg2+. Zn2+. As3+.
2 Study of quantity of casein present in different samples of milk. 6 Comparative study of the rate of fermentation of following materials: wheat flour. effect of temperature. 8 Study of common food adulterants in fat. can be chosen with the approval of the teacher. SO42-. chilli powder and pepper. etc. gram flour. Illaichi (cardamom). PO43C2O42CH3COO(Note : Insoluble salts excluded. butter. I-. 7 Extraction of essential oils present in Saunf (aniseed). Ajwain (carum). carrot juice. time etc). Cl-. SO32-. potato juice. effect of pH and temperature on it. sugar. Br-. A few suggested Projects: 1 Study of presence of oxalate ions in guava fruit at different stages of ripening. No2NO3-. Note : Any investigatory project. 4 Study of the effect of potassium bisulphate as food preservative under various conditions (temperature. concentration. etc. 136 . 3 Preparation of soybean milk and its comparison with the natural milk with respect to curd formation. 5 Study of digestion of starch by salivary amylase and. turmeric powder.Anions – CO32-.) PROJECT Scientific investigations involving laboratory testing and collecting information From other sources.
Hence it has been prepared in accordance with the guidelines shown in the final version of common core syllabi of COBSE. The entire unit “Ecology and Environment” has now been added under Botany and Zoology sections. the science of biology has undergone a paradigm shift that has transformed it from a collection of loosely related facts into a modern applied science. Create awareness about the contribution of biology to human welfare. XI & XII Preamble Higher secondary is the most crucial stage of education because at this juncture specialized disciplines of science are introduced. Knowledge of biology helps us to understand a common thread which holds all these components together. communities. Recently.Std. Living organisms exhibit extremely complex functional system. 137 . Delhi. Organisms seldom occur as isolated individuals. Objectives: The prescribed syllabus is expected to: Promote the inherent skill of observation. Assist to understand the underlying principles of biological sciences and thereby develop scientific attitude towards biological phenomena. This syllabus is designed to prepare students for various examinations conducted at state and national level. The present syllabus reinforces the concepts introduced in lower classes. Make students aware of issues of global importance.BIOLOGY. Accordingly some additional topics from state Board syllabus have been deleted whereas the lacking topics have been added. ecosystems and environment constitute unique set of natural resources of great importance. Guide students to perform easy experiments for better understanding of biological principles and to develop experimental skills required in practical work. Organisms. Understanding of biology will help in the sustainable development of the environment and will also ensure the existence of earth with all its amazing diversity. They are organized into populations and biological communities. Help students to understand the functioning of organisms.
Pteridophyta. Structure and function of carbohydrates. 5. types with examples. Gymnosperms and Angiosperms (Dicotyledons and Monocotyledons). Meiosis 138 . 3.Meaning. general properties. Botanical gardens and herbaria . proteins. Cell cycle 2.Meaning. 2. Three domains of life. 3.Kingdom Plantae 1. Chapter 2 . Unit 2 Structure and function of cell Chapter 3 . importance and list of gardens and herbaria in India. Unit 1 Diversity in Living World: Chapter 1. Enzyme action and factors affecting enzyme activity in brief. Salient features of major plant groups . Need of classification. Economic importance and list of viral diseases. examples and importance. Enzymes . Concept of species. Lichens . Diversity in living organisms-Brief idea. Bryophyta.meaning of the terms taxonomy. Classification of living organisms (five Kingdom classification) – Major groups and principles of classification for each Kingdom with examples. Systematic and binomial system of nomenclature . Types. significance and examples.Biochemistry of cell: 1. 2. characters. lipids and nucleic acids in brief.Diversity in organisms 1. Mitosis 3. systematics.Std.Botany .Definitions. Three to five salient features and two examples of each category.Algae. Viruses and viroids . classification and nomenclature. Binomial nomenclature explanation. Chapter 4 Cell Division 1. – XI: Biology (Upgraded syllabus) Section I . characters. Taxonomic hierarchy with examples. 2. 4.Definition. Basic chemical constituents of living bodies.
gibberellins.. Role of water and minerals . Plant tissues. Transpiration – structure of stomata.Hypogeal. de.Absorption of water and minerals. Movement of water. (To be dealt along with the relevant practicals of the practical syllabus) 2. fruit and seed. Nitrogen Metabolism (nitrogen cycle. Translocation of sugars through phloem brief account.auxins. food. mechanism of opening and closing of stomata. nutrients and gases. Active and passive absorption in brief. 2. Germination . Mineral toxicity.Plant Growth and Development: Seed dormancy. Differentiation. epigeal and viviparous.tension theory. Definition and characteristics of growth.Roots. leaf. Guttation Ascent of sap. Conditions of growth. Phases of growth.macronutrients and micronutrients and their role.Morphology of Plants 1. Role of K+ ions 3. Mineral deficiency symptoms.differentiation. cytokinines. stem.Unit 3 Structural organization in plants: Chapter 5 . ethylene and abscissic acid (role in brief) Photoperiodism. root pressure concept and cohesion . Unit 4 Plant Physiology: Chapter 6 . redifferentiation Sequence of developmental process in a plant cell Growth regulators . inflorescence. Photomorphogenesis including brief account of Phytochromes (Elementary idea) Vernalization. 139 . Morphology. biological nitrogen fixation) Chapter 7 . anatomy and functions of different parts .Apoplast and Symplast Pathways. Elementary idea of Hydroponics. flower.Plant Water Relation and Mineral Nutrition 1.
Coelenterata. Mitochondria. 3. Osteichthyes. Microbodies.Nucleus. Salient features of major phyla under kingdom Animalia. Annelida. Cartilage and Bone). Golgi complex. Unit 3 Structural organisation in Animals: Chapter 10.brief account 2. Animal tissues . cuboidal. Cephalochordata. .Study of Animal Tissues 1. 2.(fluid mosaic model).Organization of Cell: 1. Echinodermata and Unit 2 Structure and function of cell: Chapter 9 . cytoskeleton. Zoological parks and Museums . 4. Lysosomes.simple epithelium (squamous. Ligaments. Hemichordata. . Mollusca.Std. Arthropoda. Aves and Mammalia. Platyhelminthes.compound epithelium (stratified and transitional). Ciliated.Kingdom Animalia: 1. Adipose. glandular). Cell theory . nucleolus and nucleoplasm. Amphibia. 6. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell . Cell wall and cell membrane . Chondrichthyes. Classification of following phyla with three to five salient features and two examples of each category: Porifera.structure and examples. 140 .XI Section II – Zoology Unit 1 Diversity in Living World: Chapter 8 . Reptilia. columnar. Tendons. b) Connective tissue . Cell organelles: Plastids. Ribosome and Centrioles (ultrstructure and functions).(Areolar. Vacuoles. Classification of phylum chordata upto class level with three to five salient features and two examples of each category: Urochordata. 5. Cyclostomata. Plant cell and animal cell.types: a) Epithelial tissues . cilia and flagella. Endoplasmic reticulum.General idea with list. Nemathelminthes. Nuclear organization .
Human skeleton and Locomotion: Brief account of human skeleton: A] Axial Skeleton B] Appendicular Skeleton (Details to be dealt with the relevant practical) Types of joints . respiration and common respiratory disorders: Respiratory organs in animals (Recall only) i) Respiratory system in brief ii) Breathing. respiratory.(Smooth.c) Muscular tissue . d) Nervous tissue (Neurons.Asthma. Calorific value of proteins. carbohydrates and fats v) Absorption. striated and cardiac). assimilation and egestion vi) Nutritional and digestive disorders – PEM. Regulation of Respiration. circulatory. nervous. Peristalsis. Chapter 14.synarthroses.Human Respiration: 1Breathing. and reproductive systems of cockroach (Brief account only) Unit 4 Human Physiology: Chapter 12. amphiarthroses. constipation.inspiration and expiration. Regulation iii) Exchange of gases. absorption and nutritional disorders: ii) Digestive system in brief iv) Physiology of digestion. Morphology. anatomy and functions of digestive. indigestion.Human Nutrition: 1.Study of Animal Type: 1. Digestion. Emphysema and occupational lung diseases. transport of CO2 and O2 and tissue respiration. Jaundice. Chapter 11. 141 . gastrointestinal hormones. glial cells and types of neurons). Respiratory volumes iv) Respiratory disorders. and diarthroses. vomiting and diarrhoea Chapter 13.
Study of plasmolysis in epidermal peels. Preparation of T. leaf (arrangement.Types of diarthroses . 2. Flagellar. 5 Study of osmosis by Potato osmometer 6. Study of structure and distribution of stomata in upper and lower surface of leaf. shape. Muscular Mechanism of muscle movement: Contractile proteins and Muscle contraction Skeletal and muscular disorders – Myasthenia gravis. 7. Types of Movement. of dicot (sunflower) and monocot roots and stem to study different plant tissues.ball and socket. Osteoporosis. condyloid. simple and compound) and floral characters. XI Biology Practicals Syllabus (A) List of experiments: 1. 8) To study the digestion of starch by salivary amylase under different conditions of temperature and pH. muscular dystrophy tetany and gout. Std. To test the presence of sugar. S. 142 . starch.Ciliary. Study of parts of compound microscope. hinge. stem (herbaceous and woody). pivot. venation. saddle and gliding joints. Fabaceae and Liliaceae with respect to types of root-(tap and adventitious). arthritis. proteins and fats from suitable plant and animal materials. 4. 3 Study and describe three locally available flowering plants from the families-Solanaceae.
squamous epithelium. collenchyma. 5. Cycas. c) Apical bud removal 10. Nephrolepis. Study of specimens and identification with reasons: Bacteria. Pigeon and Rat. Frog. Study of different modification of leaf (leaflet and stipular tendril). Study of human skeleton (except skull. hand bones and foot bones) and different types of joints (synovial. parenchyma. xylem. Prawn. Study of specimens and their identification with reasons – Sycon. sclerenchyma. Riccia. parasitic root. sunflower and maize. Study of imbibition of seeds/raisins. Oscillatoria. Agaricus. Silkworm Honey bee . phloem. leaf Spines. Study of different modifications of root (fusiform root. epiphytic root and pneumatophores). 2. Shark. 143 . Amoeba. Balanoglossus. mammalian blood smear. Rhizopus. through temporary or permanent slides. Hydra. Spirogyra. Earthworm. Ascaris. phyllode). Observation and comments on experimental set up on: a) Phototropism b) Suction due to transpiration. Rohu. Liverfluke. Star-fish. 8 Study of tissues and diversity in shapes and sizes of plant and animal cells.(B) Study/ Observation of the following (Spotting): 1. 7 Study and identification of different types of inflorescence. and tendril). guard cells. Leech.palisade cells. Study of different modifications of stem (stem tuber. 9. Funaria. 11. 6. Comparative study of rates of transpiration in upper and lower surface of leaf. 4. cartilaginous and fibrous joint with one suitable example). Usnea. muscle fibres. Lizard. runner. 3. yeast. Snail.
. DNA as genetic material. Application of Biotechnology in Agriculture – BT crops Biosafety Issues (Biopiracy and patents) Unit 3: Biology and Human Welfare Chapter 4 . Chapter 2 . RNA: General structure types and functions.Enhancement in Food Production: Plant Breeding Tissue Culture: Concept of Cellular Totipotency. multiple alleles and Inheritance of blood groups). semi conservative replication of eukaryotic DNA. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Std. Preparing and cloning a DNA Library. 144 . Translation-Genetic Code.incomplete dominance. structure of DNA as given by Watson and Cricks model. Elementary idea of polygenic inheritance. Pleiotropy. Transcription. Unit 2: Biotechnology and its application Chapter 3 .XII Biology (Upgraded syllabus) Section I – BOTANY Unit 1: Genetics and Evolution Chapter 1 .Gene: its nature. Gene Amplification (PCR). Producing Restriction Fragments. Gene Expression and Gene Regulation (The Lac operon as a typical model of gene regulation). Deviations from Mendelian ratio (gene interaction. cockroach and frog through models. muton and recon. expression and regulation: Modern concept of gene in brief-cistron.12 Study of external morphology of earthworm. 13. DNA Packaging. co-dominance. Plasmids. Protein Synthesis.Biotechnology: Process and Application Genetic engineering (Recombinant DNA technology): Transposons. central dogma. Bacteriophages. Study of mitosis in onion roots tips and animal cells (grasshopper) from permanent slides.Genetic Basis of Inheritance: Mendelian inheritance.
Respiratory quotient of Nutrients. Fermentation Exchange of gases Amphibolic pathway.Microbes in Human Welfare: Microbes in Household food processing Microbes in Industrial Production. Chapter 7 .Photosynthesis: Autotrophic nutrition Site of Photosynthesis Photosynthetic Pigments and their role. Microbes as Biofertilizers. Microbes in Sewage Treatment. micropropagation 145 . Microbes as Biocontrol Agents.Reproduction in Plants: Modes of Reproduction (Asexual and Sexual). Factors affecting Photosynthesis. Biofortification Chapter 5 . Callus Culture. Suspension Culture. TCA Cycle and Electron Transport System) and Anaerobic Respiration. Microbes in Biogas (energy) Production. Significance of Respiration. Law of limiting factors. Asexual reproduction. Single Cell Protein.Respiration: ATP as currency of Energy Mechanism of Aerobic (Glycolysis. uniparental modes-vegetative propagation. Unit 5: Reproduction in Organisms Chapter 8 .Requirements of Tissue Culture (in brief). Light-Dependent Reactions (Cyclic and non-cyclic photophosphorylation) Light-Independent Reactions (C3 and C4 Pathways) Chemiosmotic hypothesis. Photorespiration. Unit 4: Plant Physiology Chapter 6 .
Environmental issues: agrochemicals and their effects. energy flow. pollen-pistil interaction. oxygen release.Hardy-Weinberg principle. pyramids of number. Development of female Gametophyte. Std. Evolution: Darwin‟s contribution. development of seed and formation of fruit) Special modes-apomixis. components. 146 . deforestation. Chromosomes. . Double Fertilization: Process and Significance. Adaptive radiation. energy.Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance: The Chromosomal Theory. Ecological succession. pollination. Gene flow and genetic drift. ozone depletion. Ecological services-carbon fixation. Outbreeding devices. Pollination: Types and Agencies. polyembryony.Sexual Reproduction: structure of flower Development of male gametophyte. Biological Evidences. productivity and decomposition. parthenocarpy. Spontaneous. Modern Synthetic Theory of evolution. Chapter 11 .ZOOLOGY Unit 1: Genetics and Evolution Chapter 10 . solid waste management. Structure of anatropous ovule.XII Biology Section II . Unit 6: Ecology and Environment: Chapter 9: Organisms and Environment -I Habitat and Niche Ecosystems: Patterns. case studies (any two). Origin and Evolution of Human being. assembly of organic compounds. Post-fertilization changes (development of endosperm and embryo. biomass. nutrient cycling (carbon and phosphorous). Mechanism of evolution. Significance of seed and fruit formation.Origin and the Evolution of Life: Origin of Life: Early Earth. Green house effect and global warming.
birds. Chapter 14. Pneumonia. Unit 3: Biology and Human Welfare Chapter 13. Antigens on blood cells. Genomics and Human Genome Project.Mendelian disorders in humansThalassemia. Dairy. Chromosomal disorders in human: Down’s syndrome. Sex Determination in Human being. Animal Breeding. Vaccines. Structure of Antibody. Malaria. Fisheries. Sericulture Lac culture 147 . Transgenic animals. Common cold and ring worm). Turner’s syndrome and Klinfelter’s syndrome. Biotechnological Applications in Health: Human insulin and vaccine production.Animal Husbandry: Management of Farms and Farm Animals. Unit 2: Biotechnology and its application Chapter 12. Gene Therapy. drug and alcohol abuse. Pathogens and Parasites (Amoebiasis. Bee-Keeping. Sex-linked Inheritance (Haemophilia and colour blindness). Antigen-Antibody Complex.Human Health and Diseases: Concepts of Immunology: Immunity Types. Typhoid.Genetic Engineering and Genomics: DNA Finger Printing. Ascariasis. Filariasis. Poultry. Adolescence. Cancer and AIDS. honey bee.Linkage and Crossing Over.
Blood groups Structure and pumping action of Heart. Role of Kidney in Osmoregulation. Transplantation. ECG. Rhythmicity of Heart beat. atrial natriuretic factor. Transmission of nerve impulse. Chapter 16. goiter. role of other organs in excretion.Excretion and osmoregulation: Modes of excretion-Ammonotelism. Pulmonary and Systemic Circulation. Reflex action. Heart beat and Pulse. Lymphatic System (Brief idea): Composition of lymph and its functions. Sensory receptors (eye and ear). ureotelism. Kidney failure.Circulation: Blood composition and coagulation. Hormonal imbalance and diseases: Common disorders (Dwarfism. Diabetes mellitus. Mechanism of hormone action Hormones as messengers and regulators. Kidney stone (renal calculi). uricotelism. Disorders. Chapter 17. nephritis. Blood related disorders: Hypertension. Blood Vessels.Control and Co-ordination: Nervous System: Structure and functions of brain and Spinal cord. Acromegaly. Uraemia. brief idea about PNS and ANS. Cardiac output.Unit 4: Human Physiology Chapter 15. Regulation of cardiac activity. Dialysis. general idea of other sense organs Endocrine System: Endocrine glands. Regulation of kidney function: renin-angiotensin. Sensory perception. Excretory System Composition and formation of urine. angina pectoris. Hormones and their functions. Addison’s disease) 148 . and heart failure. cretinism. exopthalmic goiter. coronary artery disease. ADH and Diabetes inspidus.
Unit 6: Ecology and Environment Chapter 19-Organisms and Environment-II Population and ecological adaptations: population interactions-mutualism. national parks and sanctuaries. Reproductive health-birth control. Infertility and assisted reproductive technologies. Contraception and sexually transmitted diseases. birth rate and death rate. age distribution. patterns. placenta.growth. Embryo development up to three germinal layers. parturition and lactation (Elementary idea). loss. predation.IVF. competition. Environmental issues: air pollution and its control. ZIFT. endangered organisms. biosphere reserves. parasitism. importance.extinction. Reproductive cycle.MTP. Histology of testis and ovary.Unit 5: Reproduction in Organisms Chapter 18. fertilization.Biodiversity. GIFT (elementary idea for general awareness).red data book . Amniocentesis. (Case studies any two) ---------------------------------------------------------------- 149 .concept. Pregnancy. Production of gametes. Threats to and need for biodiversity conservation . population attributes.Human Reproduction: Reproductive system in male and female. Hotspots. Biodiversity and its conservation. implantation. water pollution and its control and radioactive waste management.
3 To Study Mendelian inheritance using seeds of different colour/size of any plant. Separation of plant pigments by paper chromatography 7 To study the rate of respiration in flower buds/leaf tissue and germinating seeds.Std. 8. 11To test the presence of albumin and bile salts in urine. Study/observation of the following (Spotting): 1 Study of flowers adapted to pollination by different agencies (wind. moisture content. Collect water from two different water bodies around you and study them for pH.Emasculation. 6. 5.(Two plants each) 150 .. Prepare a temporary mount of onion root tip to study mitosis. 2. tagging and bagging 5 Study meiosis in onion bud cell or grass hopper testis through permanent slide. pH and water holding capacity of soil. Correlate with the kinds of plants found in them. Collect and study soil from at least two different sites and study them for texture. 4. 10. 6 Study plants found in xerophytic and aquatic conditions with respect to their morphological adaptations. Dissect the given flower and display different whorls. 9. insect) 2 Study of pollen germination on stigma through a permanent slide. 4 Exercise on controlled pollination . To test the presence of urea and sugar in urine. XII (Upgraded) Biology Practicals Syllabus Experiments: 1. Study pollen germination on a slide. Study of plant population density and frequency by quadrate method. Study the presence of suspended particulate matter in air at the two widely different Sites. clarity and presence of any living organisms. 3. Dissect anther and ovary to show number of chambers.
(Two animals each) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 151 . Blood groups.7 Study and identify stages of gamete development. T. Comment on symptoms of diseases that they cause. ovary through permanent slides (from any mammal). Entamoeba . 10 To identify common disease causing organisms like Plasmodium.S.S. widow‟s peak. 8. of blastula through permanent slide. of testis and T. 9 To study prepared pedigree charts of genetic traits such as rolling of tongue.Ascaris and ring worm through permanent slides or specimens. 11 Study of animals found in xeric (desert) and aquatic conditions with respect to their morphological adaptations.S. Study of V. colour blindness.
5) To acquaint students with different aspects of Mathematics used in real life. it is utmost important to make the study of Mathematics more meaningful by acquainting the student with many branches of mathematics. 7) To develop awareness of the need for national integration. 6) To develop an interest in students to study Mathematics as a discipline. Mathematics is the backbone of all sciences and it is an inseparable part of human life. 4) To develop interest in Mathematics by participating in various related competitions and selflearning. This will help them in developing Mathematical tools to be used in the professional education. 2) To apply the knowledge and skills in Mathematics and related problems from other subjects. Higher Secondary is a launching stage from where students would go to either for academic education in Mathematics or professional courses like Engineering and Computer Technology. removal of social barriers. XI & XII Introduction: Mathematics is the language of all sciences and is perhaps the only subject which merits this distinction. principles. symbols and mastering the underlying processes and skills. elimination of sex biases and observance of small family norm. Objectives: To enable the students 1)To acquire knowledge and critical understanding. major thrust is also on application of various concepts. terms. by more than one method. Motivating topics from real life situations and other subject areas. The proposed syllabus has been designed in accordance with National Curriculum Framework 2005 and as per guidelines given in Focus Group on Teaching of Mathematics 2005 which is to meet the emerging needs of all categories of students.Upgraded Syllabus MATHEMATICS AND STATISTICS (For Arts and Science) Std. Hence to fulfill the needs of students. 152 . Physical and Biological Sciences. particularly by way of motivation and visualization of basic concepts. 3) To develop positive attitude to think. analyze and articulate logically. protection of an environment.
Factorization Formulae: Introduction. revision of different forms of equations of a line. angles in standard position. Inclination of a line. 1800. 9) To develop interest in the subject by participating in related competitions. graphs of trigonometric functions. 5. Reduction of general equation of a line into normal form. θ. provided A and B are not both zero. Area of the sector of a circle A = ½ r2. 4. Definition and equation of locus. fundamental identities. Length of an arc of a circle (s = r. straight angle.PART – I 1. trigonometric functions of angles of a triangle. Measurement of Angles : Need & concept. parallel to coordinate axes. 6. Theorem : A general linear equation Ax + By+ C =0. intercepts of a line. Graph of Y = a sin bx.8) To develop reverence and respect towards great mathematicians for their contribution to the field of Mathematics. Trigonometric functions of compound angles : Introduction. zero angle. Theorem: Radian is a constant angle. slope of a line. B and C are constants (without proof). Formulae for conversion of sum or difference into products. shift of the origin. θ is in radians (without proof). equation of lines. trigonometric functions of particular angles (00. signs of trigonometric functions in different quadrants. XI . periodicity of functions. slope intercept form. where A. Theorem 2 : Every straight line has an equation of the form Ax +By + C = 0. 450. trigonometric functions of multiple angles (upto double and triple angles only). trigonometric functions of negative angles. Sexagesimal system. normal form. Straight Line : Revision. general form. slope point form. 3. Revision of directed angle (+ve and –ve angles). points of locus. 600. circular system. 153 . MATHEMATICS AND STATISTICS (ARTS AND SCIENCE) STD. 900. Trigonometric functions with the help of standard unit circle. θ is in radians) (without proof). 3600). 2700. formulae for conversion of product into sum or difference. Trigonometric functions: Need & concept. double intercept form other forms of equations of a line. y = a cos bx. relation between degree measure and radian measure. θ. coterminal angles. domain and range of trigonometric functions.straight line. simultaneously. 300. 2. trigonometricfunctions of sum and difference. Locus : Introduction. angles in quadrant & quadrantal angles. two point form. parametric form. trigonometric functions of half angles. always represents.
zero vector. area of a triangle. parameter equations of standard equation. properties. moment of a force. Replacement of a set or domain of a set. workdone by force. equations of bisectors of angle between two lines. symmetric & skew symmetric matrices. equal vector. 154 . equation of family of lines through the intersection of two lines. 10. equation of a straight line perpendicular to a given line. singular & non-singular matrices. square matrix. order. standard equation. 7. row matrix. collinear vectors. properties of determinants. identity matrix. introduction. multiplication of matrices – definition. transpose of a matrix. unit vector. multiplication of a matrix by a scalar. minors & co-factors. coinitial vector. diameter form. subtraction. properties of matrix multiplication. Conics Napees – Intersection of Napees of a cone and Plane. ellipse. scalar multiple of a vector. centre-radius form. scalar matrix. operations on matrices – equality. determinant of a square matrix. applications of determinants condition of consistency. properties of addition of vectors. Vectors : Definition. condition for concurrency of three lines. like and unlike vector. parametric equations. polygon law. notations. Linear Inequations : Linear in equations in one variable – solution of linear inequation in one variable & graphical solution. solutions of system of linear in equations in one variable. Transposition. parallel lines. Linear in equations in two variable – solution of linear inequation in one variable & graphical solution. solutions of system of linear inequations in two variables. product of vectors. hyperbola. properties. parabola. triangle law. Matrices : Introduction. coplanar vectors.intersection of two lines. ellipse. hyperbola. magnitude of a vector. distance between two parallel lines. resolved part of a force. column matrix. 8. determinant of order three–definition. angle between lines. scalar product. family of lines. co-ordinates of a point in space. simple properties. negative of a vector. (KA) KA . focus-directrix property of parabola. unit vectors along axes. properties of transpose of a matrix (A ) A. Circle and Conics : Revision. general equation. addition. Application of conic section. standard equation. 9. distance between two points in a space. standard equation. standard equation (different forms of parabola). types of matrices – zero matrix. perpendicular lines. identical lines. simple application. solution of linear in equations in two variable & graphical solution. diagonal matrix. coordinate axes & coordinate planes in space. three dimensional co-ordinate geometry. 11. Cramer‟s rule for system of equations in three variables. distance of a point from a line. (AB) BA. parallelogram law. concepts. parametric equations. vector product. Determinants : Revision. definition. equation of a straight line parallel to a given line. triangular matrices. free and localized vectors. position vector of a point in space. expansion. definition. types of vectors.
5) Existence of additive inverse. square root of a complex number. definitions –(real parts. Complex Numbers : Introduction. Relations and Functions : Set – Revision. subset. difference of two sets. sum.PART – II 1. Cartesian product of the reals with itself. many-one. need for complex numbers. finite & infinite sets. equal sets. Properties of product of complex numbers –Existance of multiplicative identity – Existence of multiplicative inverse properties of conjugate & modulus of complex numbers. signum & greatest integer. 1) Closure Property. division. improper. even & odd functions. disjoint sets. Relations – ordered pairs. method of finding antilogarithm. domain. Logarithms : Introduction. constant function. geometrical meaning of modulus and argument. equality of ordered pairs. composite function. 2. exponential function. of elements in the Cartesian product of two finite sets. argument). equivalent sets. change of base. types of functions. modulus. Sets. powers and square root of a complex number – higher powers of i. real valued function of the real variable. characteristics & mantissa – method of finding characteristics. Argand Diagram – representation of a complex number as a pt. 3) Associative law. binary operations. complex conjugates. Cartesian product of two sets. universal set. cube roots of unity – solution of quadratic equations in the complex number system. power set. one-one function.2) Commulative Law. properties. complement of a set. functions with their graphs. codomain and range of a function. union. polynomial function. polar representation of complex numbers. scalar multiplication. codomain and range of a relation. difference. Demoivre‟s formula – (without proof). one-one. definition. properties of complex numbers – properties of addition of complex numbers. cube roots of unity. pictorial diagrams. laws of logarithms. identity function. intersection. empty set. rational function. binary equivalence relation. modulus function. No. fundamental theorem of algebra. onto function. addition. 3. pictorial representation of a function. domain and range of these functions. inverse function. method of finding mantissa. equal functions. types of relations. product quotient of functions. in plane. functions – function as a special kind of relation. 155 . proper. imaginary parts. 4) Existence of additive identity. definition of relation. domain. subtraction. subset and their properties. logarithmic function. multiplication. into function. Venn diagrams. algebra of complex numbers – equality.
11.P. Conditional probability – definition. effect of change of origin and scale on variance and standard deviation.P. mean deviation about median (for grouped & ungrouped data). 8. 10. factorial notation. 156 . the limit of a function. difference. permutations. algebra of integrals – integrals of some standard functions. 6. harmonic mean. sum of cube of first n natural. containing finitely many terms & sum to infinite terms properties of G.. meaning of x a. simple applications.. properties of A. simple applications.. properties. odds in favour and against. Sum of first n terms of A.M. special series.. binomial theorem – binomial theorem for positive integers.M. derivative at a point. 5. geometrical significance of derivative. relation between A. A.P. Probability: Revision. binomial theorem for any index (without proof). rules of integration. fundamental principle of counting. combined variance and standard deviation. Sequences & Series : Revision sequence. combinations – definition. Baye‟s theorem. types of events – events and algebra of events. limits at infinity – concepts. 7.P. independent events. standard deviation. 9. multiplication theorem. fundamental theorem on limits. relations between permutations and combinations. product and quotient. simple applications. P. Mathematical Induction and Binomial Theorem : Principle of mathematical induction. variance. mean deviation about mean. Result on compatible events.. co-efficient of variation. circular permutations. exponential & logarithmic series. Statistics : Measures of dispersion – range. geometrical interpretation of indefinite integrals. Integration: Definition (of integration) as antiderivative. H. properties of binomial co-efficient with simple application. algebraic functions.P.. particular cases of binomial theorem. general term. geometric progression – introduction. quartile & quartile deviation (for grouped and ungrouped data). algebra of limits – standard limits. mutually exclusive and exhaustive events. particular term. physical significance (velocity as a rate of change of displacement). comparison of two frequency distributions with same mean. logarithmic functions. sum of the first „n‟ terms. general term. Arithmetic-Geometric sequence.M. Differentiation : Definition of a derivative. addition theorem – for any two events A and B. simple problems. mutually exlusive events. G. sum of cube of first n odd natural nos. simple applications. Limits : Introduction of concept. H. derivatives from first principle of trigonometric functions.4. n terms from the end of G. geometric means. Permutations & combinations : Introduction. when all r objects are distinct.P. when all r objects are not distinct. rules of differentiation – derivative of sum. axiomatic definition of probability. Means – arithmetic mean. with proof. as a special type of A. exponential functions.
cube root of unity. 2. Algebra of matrices. 5. 13. Measures of dispersion.List of Practicals: XI 1. Mathematical induction. 11. 8. 17. Applications of determinants. 4. Limits. 12. Probability. 9. 10. Applications of Conics II. 7. 3. 14. Numerical problems using laws of logarithms. 16. 20. Power and square root of a complex number. Family of lines. Differentiation. Linear inequation. Applications of Conics I. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 157 . Problems on locus. 6. Tracing of graphs of functions. 18. Examples on special series. Integration. Permutations and combinations. Binomial theorem. 19. 15. Applications of vectors (Dot and cross product).
2. tan tan . sin2 sin2 . statement patterns and logical equivalence-tautology. contingency. a cos b sin c solution of a triangle-polar coordinates. identity law. open sentences and truth sets. inverse of a matrix-existance and uniqueness of inverse of a matrix. theorem-the joint equation of a pair of lines passing through origin and its converse. Napier Analogues. cos 0. elementary column transformation. inversion method. algebra of statements-idempotent law. contradiction. contrapositive. pair of lines not passing through origin-conbined equation of any two lines. properties of inverse functions. sine rule. disjunction. acute angle between the lines (without proof). elementary row transformation. tan2 tan2 . Hero‟s formula. application-introduction to switching circuits (simple examples). complement law. condition that the equation ax2+2hxy+by2+2gx+2fy+c=0 should represent a pair of lines (without proof). point of intersection of two lines. condition for parallel lines. inverse trigonometric functionsdefinitions. contradiction. negation. compound statement. 4. homogenous equation. logical connective-conjunction. graphs of inverse trigonometric function. inverse. cos cos . Mathematical Logic : Statements .MATHEMATICS AND STATISTICS STD. involution law. application-solution of system of linear equations by – reduction method. associative law. commutative law. area of a triangle. angle between the lines represented by ax2+2hxy+by2=0. sin 0.Introduction. contrapositive. negation of compound statement. difference between converse. converse. demorgan‟s laws. cos2 cos2 . logical equivalence. there exists. quantifier and quantified statements. Matrices : Elementary transformation of a matrix-revision of cofactor and minor. distributive law. solution of Trigonometric equations. principle values. biconditional. 158 . 3. tan . XII PART – I 1. application. projection rule. range. truth tables of compound statements. sin sin . logical equivalence. truth value of statement. duality. domain. cosine rule. inverse by elementary transformation. sentences and statement. implication/ conditional. condition of parallel and perpendicular lines. adjoint method. Pair of straight lines : Pair of lines passing through origin-conbined equation. Trigonometric functions : Trigonometric equations-general solution of trigonometric equation of the type. condition for perpendicular lines. examples related to real life and mathematics.
condition for the coplanerity of two lines. equation of plane passing through the intersection of two given planes. properties of tangents and normals to conics (without proof).P. relation between direction ratio and direction cosines. properties. condition of perpendicular lines. tangents in terms of slope for parabola. Three dimensional geometry : Direction cosines and direction ratios-direction angles. 8. angle bisectors of triangle are concurrent.5. of a point from a line. 9. diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each other and converse. angle between two lines. constraint equations. locus of points from which two tangents are mutually perpendicular. angle between two planes. feasible and infeasible 159 . non-negativity restrictions. direction cosines. tangents to a circle from a point outside the circle. section formula-section formula for internal and external division. conditions of coplanerity ofthree vectors. Conics : Tangents and normals-equations of tangent and normal at a point for parabola. distance between two parallel lines (vector approach). ellipse. geometrical interpretation of scalar triple product. tangents from a point outside conics. 6. Circle : Tangent of a circle-equation of a tangent at a point to 1) standard circle. objective function. Line : Equation of line passing through given point and parallel to given vector. Vectors : Revision. condition of tangency only for line y mx c to the circle x2 y2 a2 . dist. scaler triple product-definition. formula. equation of plane passing through three non-collinear points. application of vectors to geometry-medians of a triangle are concurrent. equation of plane passing through the given point and perpendicular to given vector. hyperbola. 7. condition of collinearity of two vectors. Collinearty and coplanerity of vectors-linear combination of vectors.2) general circle. centroid formula. 11. distance between two skew lines. median of trapezium is parallel to the parallel sides and its length is half the sum of parallel sides. hyperbola. direction ratios. hyperbola. midpoint formula. optimization. distance of a point from a plane (vector approach). director circle. Plane : Equation of plane in normal form. normal to a circle-equation of normal at a point. 10. Linear programming problems: Introduction of L. length of tangent segments. altitudes of a triangle are concurrent. angle between line and plane. ellipse. condition of tangency for parabola. definition of constraints.P. ellipse. angle subtended on a semicircle is right angle. equation of line passing through two given points. equation of plane passing through the given point and parallel to two given vectors.
relationship between continuity and differentiability-left hand derivative and right hand derivative (need and concept). maxima and minima in a closed interval. derivative of inverse function derivative of inverse trigonometric function. Application of derivative : Geometrical application-tangent and normal at a point.P.PART – II 1. integration by parts-integration by parts. different types of L. graphical solutions for problem in two variables. Differentiation : Revision. feasible solutions.P. 2) integration by parts. discontinuity of a function. problems. integrals of the type. first derivative test. trigonometric. XII . evaluation of definite integral 1) by substitution. optimum feasible solution. exponential and logarithmic function-derivative of functions which are expressed in one of the following form a) product of functions. types of discontinuity. Maxima and minima-introduction of extreme and extreme values.P. algebra of continuous functions. exponential and logarithmic function. Continuity : Continuity of a function at a point-left hand limit.P. 4. non-repeated quadratic factors. and Mean value theorem and their geometrical interpretation (without proof). substitution method. derivative as rate measure-introduction. right hand limit. Derivative of composite functionchain rule. STD. continuity of some standard functionspolynomial.revision of derivative. Integration : Indefinite integrals-methods of integration. 2. c) higher order derivative-second order derivative d) f (x) g x 3. derivative of parametric function – definition of parametric function . integration by partial fraction-factors involving repeated and non-repeated linear factors. every differentiable function is continuous but converse is not true. properties of definite integrals properties of definite integrals. fundamental theorem of integral calculus (without proof).region. increasing and decreasing function. Derivative of implicit function definition and examples. 160 . rational. approximation (without proof). definite integral-definite integral as a limit of sum. definition of a continuity of a function at a point. second derivative test. integrals of type (reduction formulae are not expected). Mathematical formulation-mathematical formulation of L. continuity in interval-definition. b) quotient of functions. Rolls theorem.
scatter diagram. solution of first order and first degree differential equation-variable separable method. List of Practicals : XII 1. covariance of or ungrouped data. mean. Solutions of a triangle. Normal distribution . order. formation of differential equation-formation of differential equation by elimmating arbitary constants (at most two constants). 9. Inverse of a matrix by elementary transformation and hence solution of system of linear equation.d. mean. Linear differential equation.f. variance and standard deviation of a discrete random variable. 4. Bernoulli trials and Binomial distribution : Definition of Bernoulli trial. variance and standard deviation.m. binomial distribution (p. volume of solid of revolution-volume of solid obtained by revolving the area under the curve about the axis (simple problems).f. expected value. Karl Pearson‟s co-efficient of correlation. applications-population growth. Probability distribution : Probability distribution of a random variable-definition of a random variable. calculation of probabilities (without proof).bivariate data. standard normal variable. 3. discrete and continuous random variable. probability distribution of a discrete random variable. probability mass function (p. Applications of logic.d.). cumulative probability distribution of a discrete random variable. general solution. probability density function (p. distribution function of a continuous random variable. conditions for Binomial distribution.5. 7. 6.area bounded by curve and axis (simple problems).m. homogenous differential equation (equation reducible to homogenous form are not expected). surface area. area bounded by two curves. Differential equation : Definition-differential equation.f. Newton‟s laws of cooling. radioactive decay. tabulation of bivariate data. 161 .). Statistics: Bivariate frequency distribution . 2. covariance for bivariate frequency distribution. 8. particular solution of differential equation. bacterial colony growth. Inverse of a matrix by adjoint method and hence solution of system of linear equations. simple problems (without proof).f.p. Applications of definite integral: Area under the curve .). degree. variance and standard deviation.
Tracing of tangents and normals for ellipse and hyperbola. 20.Limit of sum.5.Area. measure. 12. 16. Applications of derivatives – Rate. Expected value.D of random variable. Applications of differential equations. Formations and solutions of LPP. 13.plane. Three dimensional geometry . 11. 19. 8. Applications of definite integrals . 10. 15. Applications of derivatives (Geometric applications). 7. Applications of definite integrals . Three dimensional geometry . 6. 9. 18. Tracing of tangents and normals for circles and parabola. Bivariate frequency distribution.line. Applications of derivatives . ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 162 . Binomial distribution.Maxima and minima 14.volume. variance and S. 17. Applications of scalar triple product of vectors. Applications of definite integrals .