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Explain the need for kinematic analysis of mechanism. 2. Define the basic components that comprise a mechanism. 3. Draw the kinematic diagram from a view of a complex mechanism. 4. Compute the number of degrees of freedom of a mechanism. 5. Identify a four bar mechanism and classify it according to its possible motion. 6. Identify a slider crank mechanism. Mechanism and machines Introduction The subject theory of machine deals with the study of motion and forces in machinery devices that provide a wide variety of functions. The subject matter treated inhere includes synthesis and analysis of machinery. The study of a mechanism involves its analysis as well as synthesis Analysis is the study of motions and forces concerning different parts of an existing mechanism, where as synthesis involves the design of its different parts In a reciprocating engine, the displacement of the piston depends up on the length of the connecting rod and the crank. It is independent of the bearing strength of the parts or whether they are able to withstand the forces or not. Thus, for the study of motion, it is immaterial if a machine part is made of mild steel, cast iron or wood. It is not necessary to know the actual shape and area of cross section of the part. The study of mechanisms, therefore, can be divided in to the following disciplines. Kinematics It deals with the relative motions of different parts of a mechanism without taking in to consideration forces producing the motions. It also deals with the way things move. Formally defined, it is the study of the geometry of motion. Kinematic analysis involves Determination of position
in some more than two. rotation. as an automobile or a jackhammer. or an inclined plane. speed. • In the first place. of an applied force. Another major task in designing machinery is determining the effect of the forces acting in the machine Terminologies (basic definition) Mechanism: . that performs or assists in the performance of a human task: The machine is down. velocity and acceleration. A mechanism transmits and modifies a motion. The forces can be either static or dynamic. 2. A device consisting of fixed and moving parts that modifies mechanical energy and transmits it in a more useful form. 1.- Determination of displacement. a pulley. If a number of bodies are assembled in such a way that the motion of one causes constrained and predictable motion to the others. also transmits and modifies the available mechanical energy in to some kind of desired work.is the mechanical portion of a machine that has the function of transferring motion and from a power source to an output. then. A simple device. The mare bar which we call a lever does not in itself constitute a machine either simple or otherwise. or both. A system or device for doing work. Machines: . it is known as a mechanism. 3. In each of what are often called the ‘simple machine’ for example the lever. A system or device. Apart from imparting definite motions to the parts. such as a lever. that alters the magnitude or direction. a simple machine. Dynamics It involves the calculations of forces impressed up on different parts of a mechanism. together with its power source and auxiliary equipment. wheel and axle etc… there are at least two bodies. by means of which the natural energies at our disposal may be transformed in to any special from of works.a single body cannot constitute a machine. a. b.are devices used to alter transmit and direct forces to accomplish a specific objective. such as a computer. • A machine is a mechanism or combination of mechanisms which. A machine may also be defined to be a combination of resistant bodies whose relative motions are completely constrained. a machine is a combination of bodies. . n.
b. mechanical. shape. adj. shaped.a mechanism its motion is limited to two dimensional spaces. 8.tr. Of. or felt to resemble a machine: machine repairs. Planar mechanism: . and the motion of the body is said to be ‘co-plane’ ‘coplanar’ or we may call it simply ‘plane’. A device used to produce a stage effect. a. A person who acts in a rigid. -chin·ing. Plane motion when a body moves so that any one selection parallel to the first moves also in its own plane. An organized group of people whose members are or appear to be under the control of one or more leaders: a political machine. Mechanism terminology Linkage: . They are considered rigid body (bodies) and are connected with other links to transmit motion and forces. To cut.intr. 7. A literary device used to produce an effect. or finish by machine. To be cut. An intricate natural system or organism. 5. or unconscious manner. . especially the introduction of a supernatural being to resolve a plot. v. or finished by machine: This metal machines easily.4. machine politics.is a mechanism where all parts are connected together to form a closed chain Links: . especially a mechanical means of lowering an actor onto the stage.. v. An answering machine: Leave a message on my machine if I'm not home. such as the human body. 6.are individual parts of a mechanism. relating to. -chines. v. Link also defined as resistant body or a group of resistant bodies with rigid connections preventing their relative movements. -chined.
containing three joints. that is pivoted near its center. Rigid and resistant bodies A body is said to be rigid if under the action of forces.is a complex link.is a rigid body that contains only two joins. which connect it to other links. Complex link: . Frame: . The two primary joint also called full joint. Cam and gear connections are higher order joint. ternary.is a simple link that is able to complete a full rotation about a fixed center.is a simple link that oscillates through an angle. are the revolute and sliding joint • • The revolute also called a pin or a hinge joint. The sliding joint is also called a piston or a prism joint. . quaternary etc.permits for both rotation and sliding between the two links that it connects [Also called half joint]. Joint: .is a movable connection between links and allows relative motion between the links. A rocker arm: . velocity.it serves as the frame of reference for the motion of all other parts. and accelerations of that point are determined. depending up on their ends on which revolute or turning pairs can be placed Simple link: .is a point on a link where the motion is special interest.A link is also known as kinematic link or element Link can be classified in to binary. but under certain loading conditions acts as rigid bodies for the limited purpose. it does not suffer any distortion or the distance between any two points it remain constant Resistant bodies are those which are some semi rigid bodies which are normally flexible. A bell crank: . Higher order joint: .a rigid body that contains more than two joints. Rocker: . Crank: . the displacement. but is bent in the center. Once kinematic analysis is performed. reversing its direction at certain intervals. The frame is typically a part that exhibits no motion.is similar to a rocker arm. A point of interest: .
cylinder(hydraulic and pneumatic) Solenoid. ball and roller bearing II. Higher pair:.g. Common actuator includes • • • Motor(electric and hydraulic) Engine. b. Unclosed pair When two links of a pair are in contact either due to force of gravity or some spring action. Nature of contact Nature of mechanical constraint Nature of relative motion Kinematic pair according to nature of contact a. Kinematic pairs according to nature of mechanical constraint a. wheel rolling on a surface.g. nut turning on a screw b.a pair of links having surface or area contact between the members. Kinematic pair Kinematic pair or simply a pair is a joint of two links having relative motion between them Types of kinematic pairs Kinematic pairs can be classified according to • • • i. The contact surfaces of the two links are similar. iii.when a pair has a point or a line contact between the links.Actuator: . E. Closed pair When the elements of a pair are held together mechanically all the lower pairs and some of the higher pairs are closed pairs. they constitute an unclosed pairs. The contact surfaces of the two links are dissimilar E.is the component that drives the mechanism. Lower pair: . Kinematic pairs according to nature of relative motion .
a. they constitute a turning or revolving pair c. the ball and socket joint Pin joint Sliding joint . ball bearing d. e. it is a spherical pair. they form a sliding pair b. Sliding pair If two links have a sliding motion relative to each other.g. they form a rolling pair.g. Spherical pair When one link in the form of a sphere turns inside a fixed link. they form a screw joint. E. E. Screw pair(helical pair) If two mating links have a turning as well as sliding motion between them. Rolling pair When the links of a pair having a rolling motion relative to each other. Turning pair When one link has a turning or revolving motion relative to the other.
Kinematic diagram should be drawn to scale proportional to the actual mechanism. the choice of a frame link is often not important. .Complex link Simple link Simple link with two points of interest and their schematic representation Kinematic diagram: . Kinematic inversion: utilizing alternate link to serve as the fixed link is termed as kinematic inversion The relative motion of the links doesn’t change with the selection of a frame.it shows the schematic diagram of a mechanism.
The degree of freedom: . An unconstrained rigid body moving in space can describe the following independent motion 1. Translational motion along any other mutually perpendicular axes x. Kinematic chain It is an assembly of links in which the relative motions of the links is possible and the motion of each relative to the other is definite. By direct contact between two members. A redundant chain doesn’t allow any motion of a link relative to the other Linkage.Inversion also defined as. It can also be defined as the number of actuators needed to operate the mechanism. Rotational motion about three axes . y. Transmission of motion Motion is transmitted from one member to another in three ways: a. Mobility The number of degrees of freedom of a mechanism is also called the mobility An important property in mechanism analysis is the number of degree of freedom of the mechanism. z 2. if in a mechanism the link which was fixed is allowed to move and another link becomes fixed. The inversion of a mechanism does not change the motion of its links relative to each other. but does change their absolute motion. the mechanism is said to be inverted. In transmission of motion one element of the mechanism must be a driver and another element must be a driven element or a follower. Through an intermediate link or a connecting rod. mechanism and structure A linkage is obtained if one of the links of a kinematic chain is fixed to the ground. c. By flexible connector such as belt or chain. b. The number of possible kinematic inversions is equal to the number of links in a mechanism.is the number independent inputs required to precisely position all links of the mechanism with respect to the ground.
one link is fixed.Thus a rigid body possesses six degree of freedom.5*n-2 If n and P1 are whole number. Degree of freedom of a pair is defined as the number of independent relative motions. a constrained motion of other is obtained 1=3(n-1)-2P1 P1=1. Therefore Number of movable links=n-1 Number of degree of freedom of (n-1) movable links=6(n-1) Each pair having one degree of freedom imposes 5 restraints on the mechanism reducing its degree of freedom by 5P1 Each pair having two degree of freedom imposes 4 restraints on the mechanism reducing its degree of freedom by 4P2 Similarly other pairs having 3. Thus F=6(n-1)-5P1-4 P2-3 P3-2P4-1P5 For planar mechanism the degree of freedom F=3(n-1)-2P1-P2 This is known as Grubler equation Most of the linkages are expected to have one degree of freedom so that one input to any of the links. both translational and rotational. the relation can be satisfied only if n is even For turning pair the following relations are valid . a pair can have Degree of freedom=6-number of restraint Degree of freedom of a mechanism in space can be determined as follow n= number of links in a mechanism F= degree of freedom P1= number of pairs having one degree of freedom P2= number of pairs having two degree of freedom In a mechanism. and 5 degrees of freedom reduce the degree of freedom of the mechanism. 4.
. it will require 8 links to have one degree of freedom.F=n-(2L+1) P1=n+ (L-1) Where L. its degree of freedom will be 2 and number of joints 14 If a linkage has 3 loops. and connected by four pin joint. there are 4 loops and 11 links. one being designated as frame. if a linkage. 9 links to have 2 degree of freedom Grubler’s equation Degree of freedom for planar mechanism joined with common joints can be calculated through Grubler’s equation F=degree of freedom=3(n-1)-2*Jp-2Jh Where n=total number of links in the mechanism Jp= total number of primary joints (pins or sliding joints) Jh= total number of higher joints (cam or gear joint) The four bar linkage • • Four bar linkage is the simplest and most common linkage It is a combination of four links.number of loops in a linkage L 1 2 3 4 5 F n-3 n-5 n-7 n-9 n-11 P1 n n+1 n+2 n+3 n+4 For example.
it is constrained or fully operated with one driver The pivoted link that is connected to the driver or power source called the input link. The other pivoted link that is attached to the frame is designated the output link or follower. The coupler or connecting arm “couple” the motion of the input link to the output link.The mobility of a four bar mechanism consists of n=4. Grashof’s criterion The following nomenclature is used to describe the length of the four links S=length of the shortest link L=length of the longest link P=length of one of the intermediate link q=length of the other intermediate link Grashof’s theorem states that a four bar mechanism has at least one revolving link if . Jp=4 Jh=0 F=1 F=3(4-1)-2*4 Because the four bar mechanism has one degree of freedom.
3. it has the link opposite the shortest link of the four bar mechanism configured as frame. the three non-fixed links merely rock if Four bar mechanism fall in to one of the five categories listed as follow case 1 2 3 4 5 criteri on s+l<p +q s+l<p +q s+l<p +q s+l=p +q s+l<p +q shortest link frame slide coupler any any category double crank crank rocker double rocker change point triple rocker 1. Double rocker The double rocker or rocker-rocker. Double crank or crank-crank It has the shortest link of the four bar mechanism configured as the fixed link or the frame. the output link is called the rocker. If double crank mechanism is also called a drag link mechanism 2. the other pivoted link will also rotate continuously. If one of the pivoted links is rotated continuously. In this configuration neither link connected to the frame will be able to complete a full revolution. the coupler is able to complete a full revolution. If this shortest link is continuously rotated the output link will oscillate between limits. 4. Thus.Conversely. Change point mechanism . Thus the shortest link is called the crank. both input and out put links are constrained to oscillate between limits and called rocker. Crank rocker It has the shortest link of the four bar mechanism configured adjacent to the frame. However.
All three moving links rock Deltoid linkage In a deltoid linkage the equal links are adjacent to each other. is connected by three pin joints and one sliding joints.The change point mechanism can be positioned such that all the links become collinear. The motion may remain in a parallelogram arrangement. 5. The frame and the coupler are the same length. the nption becomes indeterminate. a double crank mechanism is obtained in which one revolution of the longer link causes two revolution of the other shorter link. with one being designated as the frame. none of its links are able to complete a full revolution. the change point is called a singularity configuration. however. or butterfly. . The most familiar type of change point mechanism is a parallelogram linkage. This mechanism. and the two pivoting links are the same length. When any of the shorter link is fixed. for this reason. Slider crank mechanism Another mechanism that is commonly encountered is a slider crank. In that collinear configuration. arrangement. This mechanism also consists of a combination of four links. Triple rocker In a triple rocker linkage. Or cross in to anti parallelogram.
Jp= (3pins+1sliding) Jh=0 F=3(4-1)2*4 F=1 Because the slider crank mechanism has one degree of freedom. The link that translates is called the slider. The coupler or connecting rod “couples” the motion of the crank to the slider. Simple machines help us accomplish a task faster or more conveniently i. Machine transform energy Some machines transfer energy from one place to another Multiply force Multiply speed Change direction of force Type of simple machine • • • lever Wedge Inclines plane . This link is not always capable of completing a full revolution. ii. v. it is constrained or fully operated with one driver In general. the pivoted link connected to the frame is called the crank. iii. Simple machine A simple machine is a device that enables us to do work more easily.The mobility of a slider crank mechanism is represented by the following relation n=4. iv.
For linkage with one degree of freedom. application of grubler’s equation yields F=3(n-1)-2P1-P2 . Efficiency Efficiency=[used work output/useful work input]*100% If VR=MA then the ideal machine Equivalent mechanism This can be done according to some set rules so that the new mechanisms also have the same degree of freedom and are kinematically similar When D lies at infinity so link C moves perpendicular to link4. the spring has to be replaced by the binary link Cam pairs In place of turning pair A cam pair has two degree of freedom. Mechanical advantage MA=Load/Effort ii. Velocity ratio VR=velocity of the effort/velocity of the load VR=distance of effort/distance of the load iii. Spring in place of turning pairs To find the degree of freedom of such a mechanism.• • • Pulley Wheel and axle Screw Laws of lever FE+LE=FL+LL Theory of simple machine i.
Slider crank mechanism When one of the pairs of a four bar chain is replaced by a sliding pair. Different mechanisms obtained by fixing different links of a kinematic chain are known as its INVERSION First inversion This inversion is obtained when link 1 is fixed and link 2 and 4 are made the crank and slider respectively Application:. reciprocating compressor Second inversion Fixing of link 2 of a slider crank chain results in the second inversion Application: . It is also possible to replace two sliding pairs of a four bar chain to get a double slider crank chain In a slider may be passing through the fixed pivoted O or may be displaced. The distance e between the fixed pivot O and the straight line path of the slider is called the off-set and the chain so formed an off-set slider crank chain. the number of links and turning pairs should be as ………………………. it becomes a single slider crank chain or simply a slider crank chain.1=3n-3-2P1-1 P1=3n-5/2 This shows that to have one cam pair in a mechanism with one degree of freedom.reciprocating engine.whit worth quick return mechanism. rotary engine Third inversion .
If links BC and DC becomes coincident. crank and slotted lever mechanism Fourth inversion If link 4 of the slider crank mechanism is fixed.oscillating cylinder. the fourth inversion is obtained Application: . the transmission angle is zero and the mechanism would lock or jam From cosine law we have . third inversion is obtained Application:.hand pump Four bar linkage Transmission angle The angle µ between the output link and the coupler is known as transmission angle If link AB id the input link the force applied to the output link DC is transmitted through the coupler is when µ is 900.By fixing link three the slider crank mechanism.
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