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May | June - International Aquafeed - full edition

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I N C O R P O R AT I N G f i s h far m ing t e c h no l og y

They are what they eat
Enhancing the nutritional value of live feeds with microalgae

Controlling mycotoxins with binders Niacin
– one of the key B vitamins for sustaining healthy fish growth and production

Ultraviolet water disinfection for fish farms and hatcheries

Vo l u m e 1 6 I s s u e 3 2 0 1 3 -

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CONTENTS
Aqua News
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An international magazine for the aquaculture feed industry - INCORPORATING fish farming technology

Volume 16 / Issue 3 / May-June 2013 / © Copyright Perendale Publishers Ltd 2013 / All rights reserved

Pangasius problems in the Philippines Norway research council invests NOK 21 million into research on cod larvae BioMar invests in new feed trial unit in Chile 5 Regular sea lice reports continue data sharing by farmers 7 Ocean acidification as a hearing aid for fish? 8 Standards settings organisations agree to work together 9 Funding for sustainable aquaculture in New Zealand 10 Heat and parasites devastating fish farms throughout Myanmar 11 Nutreco buys out Egyptian tilapia feed producer

Features
12 They are what they eat - Enhancing the nutritional value of live feeds with microalgae 16 Controlling mycotoxins with binders 20 Niacin: one of the key B vitamins for sustaining healthy fish growth and production 24 Ultraviolet water disinfection for fish farms and hatcheries 28 Natural sources of cholesterol, phospholipids and proteins 34 Pelleting and extrusion in aquafeed technology 38 An effective source of dietary methionine for the turbot Psetta maxima

Regular items
THE AQUACULTURISTS PHOTOSHOOT EXPERT TOPIC - SHRIMP INDUSTRY EVENTS Aquaculture Europe AquaNor 60 CLASSIFIED ADVERTS 62 THE AQUAFEED INTERVIEW 64 INDUSTRY FACES 5 32 42 54

International Aquafeed is published six times a year by Perendale Publishers Ltd of the United Kingdom. All data is published in good faith, based on information received, and while every care is taken to prevent inaccuracies, the publishers accept no liability for any errors or omissions or for the consequences of action taken on the basis of information published. ©Copyright 2013 Perendale Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. Printed by Perendale Publishers Ltd. ISSN: 1464-0058

www.perendale.co.uk

Editor Professor Simon Davies Email: simond@aquafeed.co.uk Associate Editors Alice Neal Email: alicen@perendale.co.uk Professor Krishen Rana Email: krishenr@aquafeed.co.uk Dr Yu Yu Email: yuy@perendale.co.uk Editorial Advisory Panel • Abdel-Fattah M. El-Sayed (Egypt) • Professor António Gouveia (Portugal) • Professor Charles Bai (Korea) • Colin Mair (UK) • Dr Daniel Merrifield (UK) • Dr Dominique Bureau (Canada) • Dr Elizabeth Sweetman (Greece) • Dr Kim Jauncey (UK) • Eric De Muylder (Belgium) • Dr Pedro Encarnação (Singapore) • Dr Mohammad R Hasan (Italy) Circulation & Events Manager Tuti Tan Email: tutit@aquafeed.co.uk Design & Page Layout James Taylor Email: jamest@aquafeed.co.uk International Marketing Team (UK Office) Darren Parris Email: darrenp@aquafeed.co.uk Lee Bastin Email: leeb@aquafeed.co.uk Tom Blacker Email: tomb@aquafeed.co.uk Latin American Office Ivàn Marquetti Email: ivanm@perendale.com Pablo Porcel de Peralta Email: pablop@perendale.co.uk India Office Raj Kapoor Email: rajk@perendale.com China Office Nancy Yung Email: talenta1@netvigator.com More information: International Aquafeed 7 St George's Terrace, St James' Square Cheltenham, GL50 3PT, United Kingdom Tel: +44 1242 267706 Website: www.aquafeed.co.uk

CROESO - Welcome
n this spring issue of International Aquafeed we highlight a growing interest in algae with a focus on its traditional use as a live food in hatchery technology, although much is being undertaken in laboratories throughout the world to develop suitable strains for use in compound feed as either a protein source or as sources of omega 3 fatty acids to boost the nutritional profile of fish and meet their stringent requirements for essential lipids and also to enhance the quality of fish towards harvest. Algae are the subject of much research and I hope to address this at a later date within a special article. Last year I reported on the significance of work on mycotoxins in feeds and ingredients and their effects on production of fish especially under tropical conditions where moisture and heat can accentuate the risks associated with storage and spoilage of feed. We include an appropriate article from Olmix Asia Pacific on their products to combat these problems using natural material additives.
Professor Simon Davies I do not escape making a contribution in this issue with a report on the role of the vitamin Niacin in fish nutrition and a key member of the B-class of water-soluble vitamins essential to all animals. Fish depend greatly on balanced feed additives such as vitamin and mineral premixes and we need to constantly revise our strategy for correct vitamin supplementation in the light of new scientific evidence. Niacin has a specific function in fish and is needed for health as well as production needs.

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My Welsh grandmother Olwen would say that ‘cleanliness is next to godliness’ and the whole question of hygiene in all aspects of fish and crustacean husbandry throughout their complex life stages is of paramount concern and should be mandatory. Halim Mirza of Hanovia systems discusses the application of UV technology and its major advantages in water disinfection management for a variety of aquaculture operations. Although we humans must watch our dietary and blood cholesterol levels, shrimp and prawns get off easy! It’s a vital component of their nutrition and so it’s interesting to read a feature from Sonac regarding this area and the role of their products from their interesting research and development activities to provide effective and natural cholesterol sources in aquafeeds for shrimp production and health. The increasing changes in diet formulations and thresholds concerning limiting amino acids warrants the use of synthetic amino acid fortification of the diet in terms of essential amino acid balance within the protein matrix. Methionine is the most frequent ‘first limiting’ amino acid and we require data for all commercially important species when faced with fishmeal alternatives especially plant based ingredients.The Novus group report on turbot and the effect of methionine supplementation under specific test conditions in China where this fish is among several flounders being reared. If you thought that isotopes meant ‘run for the lead shielding’, fear not! It is now common to use a whole suite of stable non-radioactive isotopes of common elements for research investigations in aquatic animal nutrition and feeding studies. Although very costly, they provide invaluable information on the dynamics of feed intake, body distribution and metabolism of various trace elements or other nutrients based on carbon, phosphorous and nitrogen ratios. We will see some fascinating aspects in the work from Mexico by Julián Gamboa-Delgado PhD, research officer, Programa Maricultura, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Mexico, involving application of isotopic techniques to assess the nutritional performance of macroalgae in feeding regimes for shrimp. Pelleting and extrusion technology continues to advance and we report on new developments on the technical side of feed manufacture from a Chinese perspective. Our regular news and technical reports together with Dominique Bureau’s excellent Aquaculture View column on page 6 of this issue makes for a great start to the spring.

Aqua News

Pangasius problems in the Philippines
s part of an ongoing effort to clean up inland fishery infestations caused by various invasive fish and aquaculture species in the Philippines, the Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (BFAR) has launched scientific studies on the 'exotic' pangasius fish.

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R e s e a r c h o n t h e g r ow t h and breeding tr aits of pangasius in General Santos City aims to determine any possible harm the fish might bring to the countr y's fisher y resources. Pangasius was first introduced in 1978 by pet shop owners and

subsequently by BFAR in 1981 for experimentation. In 2009, the Depar tment of Trade and Industry's piloted the production of pangasius in parts of Mindanao and by 2011 production had reached P202,358 million. Though the market prospects

of pangasius is encouraging, BFAR is not taking any chances with species until it completes the study. The introduction of Golden Kuhol and knifefish, lead to problems for Palay farmers and inland fishermen in the country and researchers are keen to avoid a similar issue with pangasius.

Fish deaths In Nova Scotia
highly contagious and deadly fish disease. However, Robert Taylor, company manager at Snow Island Salmon, attributed the deaths to February's cold weather and stormy conditions. Subsequent testing carried out by Nova Scotia's Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture has confirmed this. Dr Roland Cusack, chief fish veterinarian in Nova Scotia told CBC News, “We look for everything. In this case infectious salmon anemia is the reportable disease we were looking for, we did not find that.” It is believed that cold weather causes cold-water sores in salmon. “The dead fish were found with net mar ks from touching nets in cold water. This bumping removes a protective layer of the skin which, if done repeatedly, causes death,” explained Cusack. The dead fish are being taken to a rendering plant, though the company has not stated how many salmon perished. Taylor added that the fish fatalities would not deter Snow Island from opening two more fish farms in the area.

och Duar t's Snow Island Salmon Inc. attracted attention in Nova Scotia, Canada following the death of a large number of fish at the company's Owl's Head farm. The news generated concern throughout the local community, as it was believed the deaths were a result of infectious salmon anemia (ISA), a

Norway research council invests NOK 21 million into research on cod larvae
ine research institutions and several international research groups are collaborating on the CODE (cod development) knowledge platform, with the objective of learning more about the fundamental biological processes behind the development of robust, high quality fish larvae. The CODE project aims to discover the most significant and equally least significant factors in the development of high quality cod fr y. This knowledge could then be applied to optimise feed and environmental conditions.

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“We know, for example, that lar vae reared on natural zooplankton demonstrate better

Ivar Rønnestad

growth and development and are of higher quality than larvae fed rotifers and Ar temia. We would like to understand why. This is a complex question, where both nutr itional and environmental factor s have an impact on the biology and development of fish lar vae," said Ivar Rønnestad at the University of Bergen, who is coordinating the research collaboration. Bergen also added, "Norway has acquired a high level of exper tise in marine fish larvae over many years. This know-how could quickly disappear during

times of decline. The CODE platform will help to maintain and further develop knowledge that extends far beyond cod farming." The CODE project includes a thorough analysis of environmental effects on cod larvae. It is already well known that temperature has a major impact on the development of the cod larva. The CODE platform has recorded data on growth and development in high and low temperatures as well as on the biological processes that temperature changes could trigger in cod larvae.

May-June 2013 | International AquaFeed | 3

Aqua News

BioMar invests in new feed trial unit in Chile

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Gerard Klein Essink director of Bridge2Food

ioMar has announced the construction of a new research and development facility. The Feed Trial Unit (FTU) will be located together with one of BioMar’s three Chilean factories in Pargua outside Puerto Montt.

New platform drives innovation: proofing the future
Recently Bridge2Food has established a brand new networking platform for food professionals throughout Europe. The main goal of the Food Technology Professionals Platform is to drive innovation by informing, inspiring and developing managerial and interpersonal skills of its members. Initiator Gerard Klein Essink, director of Bridge2Food, explains the reason why of the new initiative. “Innovation has been and will be an impor tant driver for growth, especially open innovation. However, the issue is: how do you facilitate open innovation? Often, food professionals struggle to find the right contacts or tend to lack inspirational input from other professionals who are not necessarily within their direct network.” According to Klein Essink, the Food Technology Professionals Platform aims to fill this ‘gap’. The Platform is an exclusive international network of a maximum of 60 professionals who are working in various parts of the food value chain (food manufacturers, ingredient suppliers, processing equipment manufacturers, research institutes). 


update on current food themes that are having a significant impact on the industr y. Entrepeneurs from consumer products, ingredients and processing technology will share their views on the food themes: future nutrition and health, sustainability and future production technologies. Thought leaders from Eurogenetica, WRAP and Wageningen University will picture future trends and developments.

Hands-on creation
The ‘platformers’ will work in small groups with coaches with a background in financial investment, brand management, ingredients and partnerships on how the entrepreneurs can prepare their business for the future based on perspectives of thought leaders. The great Business Model Generation of Lausanne Professor Ostenwalder will the starting point of the idea generation and business conversion for each future outlook. “These meetings are designed to ‘feed’ the platform-members with valuable insights on consumer and market trends, which in turn offer business opportunities,” says Klein Essink. “Furthermore, members will be able to extend and upgrade their professional network that will help them and their companies to be on top!” Join companies like: FrieslandCampina, Nestle, Barilla, Fazer, Tine, VTT, United Bakeries, Hochland, DSM, Cargill, Dupont, Kerry, TNO and many more. www.bridge2food.com

Sourcing in valuable insights

These professionals will meet twice per year in two-day meetings. During these meetings the ‘platformers’ will get an extensive

The new unit will consist of 148 tanks divided on three different recirculation systems. The FTU will be the largest of its kind in Chile and it will provide a substantial increase in the trial capacity available to BioMar’s Global Research and Development Organisation. "The capability to perform significant amounts of feed trials is becoming increasingly important for feed manufacturers. The days when fish feed consisted of a handful of different ingredients are gone. With the volatile raw material markets and an increasing amount of new raw material, feed suppliers need to be able to integrate new ingredients in to feed recipes quickly and with proper documentation of feed performance, flesh quality and fish health,” said Paddy Campbell, global R&D director, BioMar. The new FTU will enable BioMar to perform simultaneous trials with both fresh and seawater in three separate closed systems with control of environmental factors such as water temperature, oxygen level, salinity and photoperiod. According to Campbell, the facilities will be used primarily for trials with Atlantic salmon, Rainbow trout and Coho salmon. “We can perform tests with first feeding fry to harvest size and the facility will include a small hatchery to secure that

we have a steady supply of disease free eggs.” Some of the primar y focus areas of the FTU will be the fur ther development and refinement of sever al of BioMar’s innovations. These include the YTELSE Performance Concept, which optimises feed without depending on par ticular raw materials, and new types of SMART feed. The FTU will also investigate the link between nutrition and fish health. “With the new unit we gain a greater flexibility. We will have a better possibility to perform precise benchmark trials for different diets and to evaluate their biological and economic performance for our customers,” explained Campbell. The FTU will also be used for the development and testing of new diets for recirculation systems. The recirculation systems require a much more precise formulation of the feed compared to traditional farming systems. The feed used in these systems must give optimal growth and not hinder optimal bio-filter performance. This creates challenges when the recipe composition changes fast, which makes trial capacity and accurate measuring essential. The announcement of the new unit follows the opening of another BioMar FTU in Costa Rica, targeted at feed development for warm water fish species, in particular tilapia and shrimp. With the new facility in Chile, BioMar now operate a total of six trial stations in Europe and Latin America, including both land based and marine facilities and covering all growing conditions from tropical to subarctic.

4 | International AquaFeed | May-June 2013

Aqua News

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TheAquaculturist

A regular look inside the aquaculture industry
ideo may have killed the radio star but it hasn’t harmed the aquaculture industry. In fact, tech-savvy aquaculturists around the world are keen to exploit this technology to share information the industry. There are many fascinating short films online which are a great way of learning about aquaculture. Here are some of our favourites:

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Farming striped bass Advancing Indiana Aquaculture looks at cost effective ways to raise striped bass in cages. The film looks at site selection and equipment. http://bit.ly/16U3rZA Ornamental fish in Kenya Kenyans are used to eating fish, but keeping them as pets is something of a novelty. This trend is changing and there is increasing demand for species such as koi carp and goldfish. http://bit.ly/16U459F Dealing with tsunami debris Debris from the March 2011 tsunami in Japan could reach the United States as early as this winter, according to predictions by NOAA scientists. However, they warn there is still a large amount of uncertainty over exactly what is still floating, where it's located, where it will go, and when it will arrive. Responders now have a challenging, if not impossible situation on their hands: How do you deal with debris that could now impact US shores, but is difficult to find? http://bit.ly/10VojOC Parasites make themselves at home in the mouths of fish The stars of this video are parasitic crustaceans. These cheeky fellows live inside the mouths of fish, eating–and then taking the place of–its host’s tongue. It's pretty disgusting to think about but the pictures are fascinating. http://bit.ly/10NM4rf

Monitoring macroecological disease outbreaks
study into the global pattern of disease outbreaks in aquaculture claims that disease is a threat to developing aquaculture operations. The study, conducted by Tommy Leung, a lecturer in parasitology and evolutionary biology at the University of New England, Australia, concluded that fish and shellfish disease will increasingly present a major problem for aquaculture in tropical countries. Many of these countries rely on fish as a source of dietary protein. The study, published the Journal of Applied Ecology, calls for better disease-response strategies and infrastructure in developing countries.

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The macroecological study of disease outbreak for aquaculture used meta-analysis of global aquaculture sites and found that disease outbreaks are more rapid closer to the equator. Disease outbreaks are also more common in the tropics and as the waters get warmer, the frequency of infectious outbreaks is set to get worse. Other factors including governance efficiency, latitude , taxon, whether or not hosts were native and the type of disease agent were all factored in to the statistical analyses. The study concluded that latitude , taxon and host life stage are the most prevalent factor s in disease outbreak. These findings suggest aquaculture sites in tropical countr ies suffer greater losses and are less equipped to prevent and adapt to disease.

www.theaquaculturists.blogspot.com

May-June 2013 | International AquaFeed | 5

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egular sea lice counts being proactively shared by salmon farmers in British Columbia, Canada will help speak to recommendations made by the Cohen Commission of Inquir y into the Decline of the Fraser River Sockeye. This will be the four th year that the BC Salmon Farmers Association (BCSFA) will update the public about sea lice numbers on farm sites in the area throughout the wild salmon outmigration period. These repor ts will continue through July. Particular attention will be paid to the Okisollo and Hoskyn Channel areas, which were discussed in the Cohen report. “The amount and quality of information that our members produce was identified as helpful and important to the commission. With our on-going goal of transparency, we are eager to continue sharing with the

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Regular sea lice reports continue data sharing by farmers

public,” said Mary Ellen Walling, executive director, BCSFA. Okisollo Channel is located just nor th of Campbell River and is home to five farms: two of Marine Harvest Canada’s, two of Mainstream Canada’s and one operated by Grieg Seafood. Hoskyn Channel, on the east side of Quadra Island has four Marine Harvest Canada sites. All three companies have agreed to an area management plan for the channel. Currently there is only one farm in the area under operation: Cyrus Rocks. A sea lice count was also repor ted for March on Mar ine Har vest Canada’s Okisollo farm site, t h o u g h t h e f a r m i s n ow fallow following a regular har vest. The BCSFA believes these farms are well-managed and highly regulated to ensure that wild stocks migr ating past these sites are protected, no matter how many of the farms are operating. Sea lice number s are monitored regular ly and show levels below the threshold levels for treatment as required by regulation.

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AQUACULTURE

view

Reviews of the literature and nutritional recommendations are provided on a relatively regular basis by different groups of researchers or committee of experts.

Not blindly relying on published estimates

by Dominique P Bureau, member of the IAF Editorial Panel

Nutrient requirement: elusive concept
In a context of significant competition and low profit margins, aquaculture feed manufacturers are required to formulate to increasing lower or narrower nutritional specifications (‘specs’) in order to minimize feed cost. Decreasing specs for certain nutrients (e.g. lysine, methionine, DHA, available phosphorus) can significantly reduce the cost of feeds. However, at the same time, feed manufacturers must be sure that their feeds can sustain high growth, feed efficiency, health, and product quality of the animals at the farm. Consequently, formulating cost-effective aquaculture feeds can be a very delicate balancing act that requires accurate and precise information on the nutritive value of feed ingredients (an issue that has been the focus of some of my past columns) and on the nutrient requirements of animals. Significant efforts have been invested over the past six decades on the definition of the nutrient requirements of numerous fish and crustacean species and the body of knowledge is growing significantly every year.

The relatively new NRC (2011) 'Nutrient' Requirements of Fish and Shrimp and other reference documents are providing feed manufacturers with a reasonably good basis for the formulation of feeds meeting of requirements of many of the commercially important aquaculture species. However, through frequent discussions with different stakeholders of the aquaculture feed industry I have come to realise that these estimates of requirements are too often taken at face value and/or misunderstood. I believe that we should never blindly rely on published estimates of nutrient requirement, even from highly authoritative document. Feed formulators should dig in the primary research literature for the real data and develop their own opinion. Feed manufacturers should also focus a significant part of their R&D efforts toward verifying the adequacy and suitability of their nutritional specifications.

stores, histological changes), performance achieved (growth rate, feed efficiency), and methods of analysis of the results for 'similar' studies. Consequently, very different 'estimates' of requirement can be derived from similar studies. Moreover, the same dataset (e.g. data from one single study) can also be interpreted in very different ways through the use of different mathematical models to analyse data or by simply putting more emphasis on different parameters (body stores vs live weigh gain vs enzyme activity). Defining a nutrient requirement value is not a straightforward thing. It must be recognised that published estimates of nutrient requirement are derived from consensus among 'experts' and are thus very much products of opinion and not some sort of unchallengeable truth. It must also be recognised that requirements are probably moving targets and that pinning down one 'unique' and 'true' value is probably wishful thinking. However, how requirements evolve with changes in the genetic, weight, growth rate or feed conversion achieved, or health status of the animal is something that, in my humble opinion, has not been adequately studied for aquaculture species. I strongly believe that the mode of expression of requirement is an issue that has not received sufficient attention. There are numerous diverging opinions with regards to appropriate modes of expression of essential nutrient requirements. It is especially the case for essential amino acid (EAA) for which very different modes of expression of requirement are used, often interchangeably, in the literature. These different modes of expression are based on different, often diametrically opposed, assumptions. In practice, the use of different modes of expression of EAA requirement can often result in dramatically different nutritional recommendations. Individual EAA levels deemed adequate may be very different depending on the

mode of expression adopted and the composition of the diet formulated. This is a significant issue since feeds for a given species are formulated to widely different protein, lipid, starch, and digestible energy levels. The root cause of these conflicting views is our limited understanding of how endogenous and dietary factors affect EAA utilization and requirements of fish. Finally, requirements are somewhat ideal biological values and it is also important to consider a reasonable safety margin to account for potentially lower digestibility or bioavailability of nutrients in practical ingredients, for losses of nutrients during manufacturing and storage of the feed, and for potential 'changes' in nutrient requirements imposed by various environmental or endogenous factors. What represents a reasonable safety margin is again something up for discussion.

Not enough emphasis on commercially important species

Nutrient requirement not cast in stone

Estimates of requirements are generally derived from studies with young fish fed diets containing purified and chemically defined ingredients that are highly digestible and, generally, represent minimum nutrient concentrations required for maximizing performance of these young animals under laboratory conditions. While this type of approach and definition of 'requirement' may sound relatively simple and straightforward, reality is a lot more complicated. Significant differences may exist in the experimental conditions (diet composition, experimental design, duration of study, fish trains, life stages), measured parameters (live weight gain, protein gain, enzyme activity, body

Aquaculture nutrition is a dynamic field of research. However, the number of fish and crustacean species studied is staggering and this leads to dilution of research efforts. Globally, there is need for significant improvements in the focus of nutritional studies, and the scope and quality of the experimental efforts invested in the definition of essential nutrient requirements of commercially important species. It would be recommendable to increasingly focus the research efforts on the 15 or so fish and crustacean species (e.g., Chinese carps, Indian major carps, Nile tilapia, Pangasid catfish, Atlantic salmon, Pacific white leg shrimp, etc.) that represent the bulk of the global farmed fish and crustacean production. Any feedback? Do you agree or disagree? Any suggestions for future topics? Let me know. dbureau@uoguelph.ca

6 | International AquaFeed | May-June 2013

Aqua News

Ocean acidification as a hearing aid for fish?

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c e a n a c i d i fi c a t i o n , which occurs as CO2 is absorbed by the world's oceans, is known to negatively impact a wide variety of marine animals ranging from massive corals to microscopic plankton. However, there is much less information about how fish may be impacted by acidification, should carbon emissions continue to rise as a result of human activities. In a new study published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, Univer sity of Miami (UM) Rosenstiel School of Marine & Atmospheric Science researcher Sean Bignami, along with National Oceanic and Atmospher ic Administration (NOAA) scientists Ian Enochs, Derek Manzello, and UM Professors Su Sponaugle and Rober t Cowen, report stunning new insight into the potential effects of acidification on the sensory function of lar val cobia ( Rachycentron canandum). Bignami and the team utilized 3D X-rays (micro-CT scans) similar to what a patient might receive at a hospital to determine that fish raised in low-pH seawater, simulating future conditions, have larger and more dense otoliths (ear stones) than those from higher-pH seawater. Otoliths are distinct calcium carbonate structures within the inner ear of fishes that are used for hearing and balance. The

changes resulted in up to a 58 percent increase in otolith mass, and when tested in a mathematical model of otolith function, showed a potential increase in hearing sensitivity and up to a 50 percent increase in hearing range. "Increased hearing sensitivity could improve a fish's ability to use sound for navigation, predator avoidance, and communication. However, it could also increase their sensitivity to common background noises, which may disrupt the detection of more useful auditor y information," said Bignami, who recently completed his PhD in Marine Biology and Fisheries at UM. The study, a collaboration between UM and NOAA's Ocean Acidification Program at the Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laborator y in Miami, is the first to use micro-CT technology to examine otoliths while still inside the heads of the larval fish. "This effect of ocean acidification represents a significant change to a key sensory system in fish. Although the ultimate ecological consequences still need to be determined, there is the potential for serious impact on impor tant processes such as larval fish recruitment and fisheries replenishment in this species and perhaps other critical fisheries," Bignami added.

AQUACULTURE UPDATES
The Penang Aquaculture Breeders Association (Penkua), in cooperation with the Fisheries Department, will set up a RM100 million aquaculture industry zone in Penaga, Malaysia. The project will involve merging 19 local aquaculture companies which will become the main investor in the 200-hectare zone.

A draft of the Best Aquaculture Practices (BAP) standards for mussel farms is now available for public comment. The deadline to submit comments is June 8, 2013. The BAP mussel farm standards address social and environmental responsibility, food safety, animal welfare and traceability. They encompass various mussel species and all production systems for mussels.

Bornstein Seafoods, USA has donated $100,000 to Bellingham Technical College’s Fisheries and Aquaculture Sciences building campaign. In light of this contribution, the hatchery part of the building will be named The Bornstein Hatchery. Cooke Aquaculture is planning to spend $20 million on a 54 percent share in Chilean salmon farm, Invermar. The acquisition is not Cooke's first purchase in Chile; the company has owned Chile’s Salmones Cupquelan since 2009 and has farms in a fjord in Chile’s neighbouring 11th Region.

The Centre for Environment, Aquaculture and Fisheries Science (Cefas), UK could be leaving its Suffolk home, with a relocation of up to 400 jobs. Cefas has been at its Lowestoft site since 1955 but premises are costly to maintain and the building will soon be unfit for purpose. Although the plans are in the early stages, there are four options: remain at current facilities with possible improvements, move to another site in Lowestoft, move to Norwich, and moving operations to another part of the country by merging with other science bodies.

May-June 2013 | International AquaFeed | 7

Aqua News

Standards settings organisations agree to work together
The Global Aquaculture Alliance (GAA), Aquaculture Stewardship Council (ASC) and GLOBALG.A.P
tandards-setting organisations, the Global Aquaculture Alliance (GAA), Aquaculture Stewardship Council (ASC) and GLOBALG.A.P signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) on April 22, 2013, to work collaboratively to increase efficiency and reduce duplication in the auditing process. GAA, ASC and GLOBALG.A.P. agreed to explore ways to reduce duplication of effort for farms, processing plants, hatcheries and feed mills that under take cer tification by more than one of the three organisations’ cer tification programmes. All three cer tification programmes share common elements that address the key environmental and social impacts of aquaculture, yet currently audits for each set of standards is conducted separately. The three organisations recognise that by working together they can more effectively promote environmentally and socially responsible seafood farming and processing. The goal of the MoU is to make certification more accessible and create greater value to a greater number of farmers and processors. “This MoU has taken time and discussion to materialise. That’s because the parties involved recognise the importance and significance of this step in the evo-

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lution of seafood standards and aquaculture development,” said Melanie Siggs, who convened the first standard holders’ meeting while working for SeaWeb in 2010. “I’m thrilled to see this step forward that will support all stakeholders from producers to buyers.” Despite this cooperation, the MoU emphasises that the individual certification programmes will continue to operate separately. The three organisations are keen to stress integrity and transparency of the programmes will not be compromised by any cooperative action. To achieve the goals of the MoU, GAA, ASC and GLOBALG.A.P. will meet regularly and explore

ways to streamline the auditing process. In addition to reducing duplication of effort in the auditing process, the three organisations will seek to develop common requirements related to feed; to explore common approaches to the management of cer tificate information potentially through shared IT platforms; to develop common approaches to auditor training; to develop shared approaches to chain-of-custody certification; and to encourage accurate and objective messaging regarding the claims made for certified aquaculture products. Commenting on the news, Jim Cannon, chief executive, Sustainable Fisheries Par tnership (SFP), said, "SFP

we l c o m e s t h i s i m p o r t a n t announcement and looks forward to suppor ting this initiative in any way we can. We particularly hope to make contributions in the areas of feed, on-farm benchmarking and convergent IT solutions." “The New England Aquarium, which helps seafood buying companies navigate the cer tification landscape, suppor ts the spirit and intent of this MoU,” said Heather Tausig, associate vice president of conservation, New England Aquarium, USA. “By facilitating greater transparency, alignment, efficiency and collective action among multiple standards, this collaboration helps bolster the credibility and integrity of cer tification as an impor tant tool for sustainability.”

NUMBER CRUNCHING
148 million tonnes - amount of fish produced by fisheries and aquaculture in 2010 US$217.5 billion value of fish produced by fisheries and aquaculture in 2010

9.1 million tonnes - consumption of fish in Africa

85.4 million tonnes - consumption of fish in Asia

7 % - Chinese share of
world fish production in 1961

60 million tonnes world aquaculture production in 2010

35 % - Chinese share of
world fish production in 2010

US$119 billion - value of
world aquaculture production in 2010

31.9 kg - per capita fish
consumption in China in 2009

126 million tonnes -
amount of fish available for human consumption in 2009

15.4 kg -per capita fish
consumption in the rest of world in 2009

16.6 % - of animal protein

AQUACULTURE UPDATES
Delaware is one step closer to joining its fellow east coast states in commercial aquaculture production. Legislation could be passed this spring allowing state’s Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control to develop aquaculture regulations. Aquaculturists would then have the opportunity to lease land in the Inland Bays area.

8 | International AquaFeed | May-June 2013

Source: The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2012 by FAO

WorldFish Center has collated its publications (December 2012 to March 2013) and published them online in one volume . Highlights include: Livelihood strategies of tiger shrimp post lar vae collectors in backkhali river estuary, cox’s bazar of Bangladesh; Cage-pond integration of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) and Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) with carps; and Aquaculture and resilience: Women in aquaculture in Nepal.

The aquaculture facilities at Texas A&M has reached the big 4-0. The centre, based near College Station, is celebrating its 40th birthday with a recently completed pond complex renovation. The facilities are dedicated to research and teaching sound practices in warmwater aquaculture.

intake in humans came from fish in 2009

6.5 % - of all protein
consumed came from fish in 2009

Aqua News

Developing sustainable aquaculture in Malawi
major project to develop small-scale commercial aquaculture in Malawi has received £337,000 from the Scottish government. Aquaculture Enterprise Malawi (AEM) is one of 15 projects announced by the first minister Alex Salmond to receive support from the Scottish Government’s International Development Fund through the Malawi 2013 funding round. The three-year project brings together the Scotland Malawi Business Group with researchers from the University of Stirling’s Institute of Aquaculture and the Microloan Foundation. Together, they will work with private sector par tner s and existing fish farmers to develop the technical aspects of fish production, market chain communication and networking, focusing on fish farmers located in close proximity to Blantyre, Malawi’s business capital. George Finlayson of the Scotland Malawi Business Group, a former British High Commissioner to

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Malawi, said, “This funding has the potential to make a significant contribution to improving nutrition and food security in and around major urban areas of Malawi. “The demand for fish in both rural and urban areas is booming, but largely unmet. We look forward to bringing a business, microfinance and mar kets-based approach to producing more fish, whilst also developing the communication and networking skills of key entrepreneurial fish farmers.” AEM aims to create and foster a suppor tive business environment through which a network of smaller scale fish farmers can operate as commercial standalone businesses, increasing the supply of farmed fish to markets and other outlets in and around urban areas in Malawi. This project builds on the

Ishamel Amadu harvesting fish in Chingale, Malawi from August 2012.

highly successful Sustainable Aquaculture Research Networks in Sub Saharan Africa (SARNISSA) project, initiated by Stirling’s Institute of Aquaculture. It established an online network of more than 2,300 people involved in African aquaculture, from fish farmers, commercial suppliers and researchers to policy makers. William Leschen, a researcher at the Institute of Aquaculture, said,

“This is an exciting opportunity to bringing a more joined-up commercial, business and markets chain approach for small-scale entrepreneurial fish farmers in Malawi. “The Institute of Aquaculture is looking forward to playing its part in this project, offering our expertise and knowledge in aquaculture, which is now the fastest growing food production sector globally.”

Dutch cooperative fishing agency gains Friend of the Sea status
he Cooperative Fisher y Organization, the Netherlands, has successfully undergone Friend of the Sea audit for sole, turbot, dab, cod and brill fished in the ICES Areas IV b and c and in the Dutch coastal waters. Its products can now carry the international sustainability seal of approval which means the fish are from not over exploited nor

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IUCN Redlisted stocks and with selective methods which do not impact the seabed. The Producers Organizations, who are members of the CFO, operate in accordance with the Dutch national and EU requirements and with the code of Conduct for responsible Fisheries. The fishery uses only gillnets

and trammel nets with no impact on the seabed. It operates most of the times 10 miles from the coastal line, respectful of the spawning and nurser y ground. All discards and by-catches are reported and negligible. Databases are regularly inspected by the authorities. Official data records all fishing vessels movements and

operations. Authorization must be requested before the vessels leave to the fishing area and when they get back to the harbor to unload the catch. “Friend of the sea cer tification represents an important added value for our products," said Jaap Hennekeij, chairman, Cooperative Fisher y Organization “and we are proud to have obtained this important acknowledgment”.

Funding for sustainable aquaculture in New Zealand
ive projects focusing on aquaculture will benefit from the latest round of Sustainable Farming Fund grants, Nathan Guy, minister for primary industries, New Zealand, has announced. “New Zealand seafood is a premium product and it’s great to see groups looking to improve their production and value by developing aquaculture,” said Guy.

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The projects with funding are: • Koura Aquaculture, by WaiKoura South: $119,420 • Farming Premium Salmon, by the Salmon Improvement Group: $600,000 • Management of the GLM9 Greenlipped Mussel Spat Resource, by GML9 Advisory Group: $20,000 • Tu n a ( S h o r t f i n - e e l )

Aquaculture, by Te Ohu Tiaki o Rangitane Te Ika a Mauri Trust (MIO): $600,000 • Aquaculture custom bacterial vaccines, by Aquaculture New Zealand: $115,686. “Addressing information gaps is a focus for four of these projects. They will investigate how to reduce skeletal deformities in farmed salmon, develop bestpractice guides for raising freshwater crayfish and manage the

wild greenlipped mussel spat resource. “Importantly, the eel project will focus on learning more about young glass short-fin eels so we can raise them successfully and sustainably. “The other will focus on developing New Zealand’s capability, in this case to manufacture vaccines for Chinook salmon.” The projects will commence July 1, 2013 and run for one to three years.

May-June 2013 | International AquaFeed | 9

Photo courtesy of the WorldFish Center©

Aqua News

EU Commissioner launches online market intelligence tool for aquaculture
uropean Commissioner for Maritime Affairs and Fisheries, Maria Damanaki, officially launched the new European Market Observatory for Fisher y and Aquaculture Products (EUMOFA) at the European Seafood Exposition. The Observatory is an EU-wide interactive web-tool offering upto-date data on volume, value and price of fisheries and aquaculture products throughout the supply chain, from when they land to port to when they are displayed on supermarket shelves. “If you want to know market trends and market drivers for wild or farmed seafood products, the Market Observatory is the tool for you," said Commissioner Damanaki. "What counts today is value, not volume, of production. With this modern tool we empower economic actor s through accurate, real-time market information”.

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T h e Obser vator y is updated daily with production information from the local to the EU-wide level and includes data on impor ts, expor ts and consumption trends. It regroups in one single place information that was previously spread over several sources, formats and languages. It is multilingual, user friendly and free to use. For example, with three clicks you can get the cod prices in early April over 14 market places in seven European countries. Just as easily, you can research the wholesale prices for trout in late March in France, Italy and Spain or the retail prices in four chosen countries. The main EU tropical shrimp suppliers of the last five years are four clicks away. So are the main EU exporters to Spain for small pelagic species by volume and by price. If you need to know what we catch, farm, import or eat in a specific area, you can easily get all

those c o r e figures by a simple search. You can then save the parameters of any search to obtain customized and updated results weekly, monthly or whenever you come back to the website. The Obser vator y has been developed by the European Commission to facilitate structural planning and decision making for economic operators, NGOs and policy makers. Each user can obtain customized results according to their specific interests or preferences. It is expected to suppor t market transparency and stability and let producers identify new market oppor tunities and

optimise value of production. This should in turn help moving away from production strategies based solely on volume and thus contribute to social, economic and environmental sustainability. EUMOFA is run and managed by the European Commission. The majority of the information is provided by public authorities in Member States and European institutions.

Heat and parasites devastating fish farms throughout Myanmar
ue to Februar y's high temperatures, a number of fish farms throughout the Myanmar region have seen an influx in the number of fish deaths due to hot weather and freshwater parasites. Typically, far mer s do not harvest their fish until monsoon

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season, which occurs from June until October. The unseasonable heat however, has meant many are har vesting their fish now in fear that they will die from the heat or the parasites. The most common parasite affecting fish farms is dactylogyrus, a flatworm which inhabits fish gills. As the parasite is temperature dependent, the warmer water increases the parasite’s life cycle from a few days to five or six months. Anti-

parasitic medicine can be bought from China or Thailand at a cost of around K250,000 (about US$290). “Fish farmers who did not use medicine for par asites faced higher losses. I used the medicine after suffering about K300,000 (about US$350) in losses when my fish died,” U Soe Tint, one of Yangon region’s Twantay township fish farmers, told The Myanmar Times. U Aye Kyaw, who also has a fish farm in Twantay township, stated that his

sturgeon usually take three years to farm but have died within the year. “It has been ver y hot these days, so parasites can keep growing. In the last 10 years, far m fish have not died to this extent. This trend star ted about three year s ago and has continually gotten worse. This is not a disease: The fish are dying of climate change,” said Dr Myint Swe, a member of the Myanmar Fish Farmer Association.

AQUACULTURE UPDATES
Aker BioMarine and BioMar have extended their par tnership on deliveries and purchases of the QRILL™ feed ingredient. The fiveyear deal is an extension of the original two-year collaboration agreement.

AgriMarine has announced it has agreed a $5 million loan deal with Dundee Agricultural Corporation. The money will be used for the purchase and deployment of further AgriMarine System™ tanks. Proceeds of the loan will also be used for supporting engineering work, filing of patents related to AgriMarine’s IP, working capital and general and administrative expenses.

The Nova Scotia government in Canada is reviewing its aquaculture rules and regulations with a budget of $300,000. During the review, applications for new marine-based aquaculture will be put on hold. However, this decision is largely symbolic as there is currently only one application is in the system. It is hoped that new rules will come into effect in 2014.

Community-based milkfish farming in Tonga, Samoa is to get a boost from FAO funding via the Technical Cooperation Programme. The US $231,000 project aims to develop commercially viable and environmentfriendly milkfish farming systems in Nomuka Island and Tonga’tapu. The project will be executed by the Fisheries Department, Ministry of Agriculture & Food, Forests and Fisheries in Tonga in cooperation with FAO.

10 | International AquaFeed | May-June 2013

Aqua News

Nutreco buys out Egyptian tilapia feed producer

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utreco has signed an agreement to acquire the remaining 67 percent share held by its two partners in its Egyptian participation Hendrix Misr. Nutreco entered the Egyptian market in 2001 by acquiring 33 percent of Hendrix Misr which has developed successfully since then. According to Nutreco, full ownership of Hendrix Misr offers the company a good base to expand its activities in this attractive growth market. Egypt is the world's second largest tilapia producer after China. The Egyptian mar ket fo r e x t r u d e d fi s h fe e d i s expected to achieve doubledigit growth for the foreseeable future. Hendr ix Misr is Egypt's market leader in extruded fish feed (mainly tilapia) which is sold under the trade name Skretting, and a leading producer of poultr y feed concentrates. Nutreco intends to expand the current fish feed capacity of 25,000 tonnes to 75,000 tonnes by 2015. Viggo Halseth, chief operating officer - aquaculture, Nutreco said, "This acquisition fits in very well with Nutreco's strategy 'Ambition 2016 - driving sustainable growth', which aims to expand in growth geographies as well as in fish feed for nonsalmonid species. By moving to full ownership, we are able to accelerate the next phase of our growth ambition in this attractive market." The 'Ambition 2016 - driving sustainable growth' plan will be realised by focusing on a higher added value portfolio of nutritional solutions such as premixes, feed specialties and fish feed, and by expanding into the growth geographies of Latin America, Russia, Asia and Africa, which will see the largest increases in both production and consumption of animal protein food products.

Giving hope and empowering through aquaculture
Roy Palmer, director AwF

his is the first of what will be a regular column that will bring you news and information about Aquaculture without Frontiers (AwF) and the issues that surround our organisation. AwF is an organisation of global volunteer aquaculture professionals who network; who are passionate about aquaculture and its ability to engage, train and feed the disadvantaged; and who create initiatives, projects and programmes. AwF was the brainchild of Michael New OBE, CBiol, FSB, BSc, ARCS, FIFST; past presi d e n t Wo r l d A q u a c u l t u r e Society (WAS) and European Aquaculture Society (EAS). Michael is still alive and well and is much revered person globally but he is trying to take a backseat and allow others to drive AwF. Following a career spent in researching, travelling and being a par t of developing the aquaculture industry as we know it today Michael’s and AwF’s roots lay strongly within the WAS family. The concept for AwF was formulated by Michael on the back of a presentation and paper delivered at World Aquaculture 2003 in Salvador, Brazil. At that meeting Michael said, “The NGOs that are involved in aquaculture development for the poor are sometimes religious, sometimes lay; sometimes branches of international organisations, often national or local. However, it is clear that they need help to utilize the potential of aquaculture efficiently and, as individuals, I feel that we should be ready to assist. However, the aquaculture sector does not have any NGO that appeals directly

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to the public (our consumers), nor do we raise any funds for aquaculture development from the public. We may sometimes wonder where are our ‘Friends of Aquaculture’, our ‘BluePeace’, our ‘World Aquaculture Fund’, our ‘Aquaculture Defense Fund’. I think it is most unlikely that we could persuade the public to support a lobbying organisation for aquaculture, especially as we have suffered so much criticism (fair and unfair). A movement would be perceived simply as a defensive negative reaction to criticism. However, I believe that there is a niche for an aquaculture NGO”. From that point Michael registered AwF (UK) in the UK and AwF in the USA and launched the organisation at the WAS conference in Hawaii in 2004. The plan was outlined and he set about the process of actioning what he truly believed. Along the journey he has been assisted by friends, colleagues, family, volunteers and a range of donors who have supported the cause and seen their generosity turn into projects which have empowered and given hope to the poor in many countries. The trustees of AwF (UK) decided to close the charity in the United Kingdom in order to consolidate all the activities of the not-for-profit organisation within the international AwF. All the remaining funds of AwF (UK) were transferred to AwF in June 2012. Michael New remains the Founder and Patron of AwF, which is managed by a six member international executive board of directors, which includes two joint executive directors, Dave Conley (Canada) and me (Australia).

AwF Vision Statement is:
• To become a catalyst for change as a means of improving the nutrition and health of people, to foster social and economic development, and to support sustainable aquaculture development • To ensure direct action to make a difference in the lives of disadvantaged people through aquaculture • To collaborate with likeminded organisations to maximise opportunities • To provide a platform for aquaculture professionals to come together and provide service to the poor The projects over the years have been many and varied and they continue, however, with the above changes the organisation is looking to concentrate more on establishing Aquaculture Learning Centres (ALCs) which are seen as the way forward. This was discussed in some detail at the recent meetings in Nashville, USA alongside the WAS Conference there. We will communicate more on this idea in the next column. At Nashville, AwF ran an interesting session which covered topics from the new business model, the work being done in Haiti and Africa and discussion about assisting the poor. There was a maximum capacity in the room and the stars were the people who are volunteering their time and effort in assisting our cause. We look forward to continuing this conversation with you and for your support in the areas with which we work. In the mean have a look at our website www.aquaculturewithoutfrontiers.org and see how you might help us in our quest.

More information about AwF can be found at: www.aquaculturewithoutfrontiers.org
May-June 2013 | International AquaFeed | 11

FEATURE

They are what they eat

Enhancing the nutritional value of live feeds with microalgae
by Eric C Henry PhD, research scientist, Reed Mariculture Inc., USA

“Today the most costly and perhaps least understood live food are the unicellular algae” - Dhert & Sorgeloos 1995
ive feeds are often essential for larval fish. Live feeds are proven to be essential first-feed for many larval fish, essentially all those that hatch from small eggs with limited yolk reserves and often immature feeding and digestive functions. Live feeds provide larval fish with essential nutrients that are naturally ‘microencapsulated’ in bite-sized packages. They include a high proportion of easilyassimilated free amino acids and free fatty acids, as well as digestive enzymes and beneficial bacterial microfloras in the gut contents of the prey. The swimming activity of live prey also stimulates feeding responses in larval fish, a vital concern because small larvae with very limited metabolic reserves can quickly starve if they do not promptly begin feeding actively. The natural live foods of such larvae are of course microplankton, both zooplankton and (although often not appreciated) phytoplankton. Natural zooplankton assemblages are often highly diverse and may include protozoa, rotifers, arroworms, microcrustaceans such as copepods, and eggs and larvae of nearly every group of marine animals including sponges, coelenterates, polychaetes, various crusta-

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ceans, molluscs, echinoderms, and even fish. This diverse array of prey organisms supplies multiple sources of essential nutrients. But it can be very difficult to obtain sufficient natural plankton to supply the needs of a hatchery, and natural plankton can introduce predators, parasites and pathogens. Hatchery-cultured live feeds are therefore the only practical and safe feed for many larval fish.

Use of live feeds in aquaculture
By far the most commonly-used live feeds in hatcheries are rotifers (Brachionus spp.) and brine shrimp (Artemia) (Conceição et al. 2010), with some use of copepods such as species of Acartia, Calanus, Tisbe, and Parvocalanus . Although copepods generally provide better nutritional value, their culture presents so many difficulties that they are not commonly used in hatcheries (Drillet et al. 2006, 2011). Rotifers can readily be mass-cultured at high densities and can double their numbers in a day. Rotifers are smaller than newly-hatched Artemia, which can be too large for some larvae. Artemia are most convenient because their resting eggs (cysts) can be purchased and hatched when needed, but newly-hatched Artemia nauplii do not begin to feed until after the first molt, so their nutritional value depends entirely on the nutritional environment of the previous wild generation that produced the eggs. One study found that the content of the important omega-3 Poly-Unsaturated Fatty Acid (PUFA) EPA in Artemia cysts from the same source can
12 | International AquaFeed | May-June 2013

vary as much as 44-fold (Dhert & Sorgeloos 1995). Such variations mean that the nutritional content of newly hatched Artemia may be largely unknown, and only after the first molt can their nutritional value be improved by feeding. It is important to understand that neither Brachionus rotifers nor Artemia are truly marine organisms. Rather they are found in ‘saline’ habitats, which are mostly inland environments with often extreme seasonal variations in temperature, salinity, and even availability of water. Adaptation to such extreme conditions has endowed these species with characteristics that are very useful in aquaculture, such as tolerance of a wide range of culture conditions, rapid asexual reproduction by parthenogenesis (Brachionus), and formation of resistant resting cysts (Brachionus and Artemia). They are also relatively omnivorous and do not have stringent nutritional requirements, and so can be fed on low-cost feeds such as yeast, starch, rice bran, and dried Spirulina (cyanobacteria). It may be no surprise that feeding larvae only one or two species of hatchery-produced live feeds might not provide adequate nutrition. But the underlying cause of such nutritional inadequacy is often the low quality of the low-cost food sources used to produce the live feeds. It is therefore necessary to choose carefully the food sources used for hatchery-produced live feeds if they are to provide adequate nutritional support for larval fish.

FEATURE

Rotifer Brachionus plicatilis

Algae concentrate (Reed Mariculture Tetraselmis 3600)

Limitations of formulated feeds for live feed production
Formulated feeds offer low cost and convenience, but they have fundamental shortcomings. Zooplankton, including rotifers and Artemia, can feed only on micro particles of appropriate size (from bacteria to 10 µm for

Brachionus [Baer et al. 2008, Vadstein et al. 1993], and from bacteria to 28 μm, with the optimum about 8-16 μm for Artemia [Makridis and Vadstein 1999, Fernández 2001]). It is difficult to produce dry feeds that provide uniform particle sizes, and even when uniform dry particles can be produced they can be

subject to clumping when dispersed into water for feeding. But probably the most critical shortcoming of dry feeds is rapid leaching of water-soluble nutrients; the smaller the particle, the faster nutrients are leached out. Not only are leached nutrients unavailable to the live feeds, they can cause fouling of the water.

May-June 2013 | International AquaFeed | 13

FEATURE Chaetoceros , and Skeletonema (diatoms); and Rhodomonas (Cryptophyceae). Although the PUFA content of many strains has by now been welldocumented, sterol profiles have been more challenging to characterise because there is far more strainto-strain variation, even among strains supposedly of the same species, as revealed in a recent investigation of over 100 diatom strains (Rampen et al. 2010). Protein content is less variable, with a study of 40 strains of microalgae in seven algal classes finding consistently high contents of essential amino acids (Brown et al. 1997). Vitamin contents of microalgae also appear to be consistently high (Brown Nauplius stage of copepod & Miller 1992, Brown Parvocalanus crassirostris et al. 1999, De RoeckHoltzhauer et al. 1991). Although various nutritional components tious contents. They naturally contain a wide spectrum of nutritional components, such as have been well-documented in many strains, essential amino acids, PUFAs, sterols, vitamins, it remains difficult to assemble complete and phytopigments. Different species provide nutritional profiles of many strains so that the a wide range of cell sizes and nutritional optimal combination of strains can be selected factors, as well as components that enhance for a particular application. It is unfortunate digestion and immune functions (Guedes that so many studies of the nutritional per& Malcata 2012). Some strains have been formance of microalgae have tested single found to have antibacterial effects (Austin & strains as the only feed, when it should be Day 1990, Kokou et al. 2012, Regunathan & obvious that no single strain is likely to provide an optimal nutritional profile comparable to Wesley 2004). that provided by a natural phytoplankton assemblage. Selecting the right microalgae In practice, microalgae have repeatedly Although hundreds of microalgae strains have been tested as feeds for aquaculture, been shown to dramatically improve the PUFA fewer than 20 are in widespread use (Guedes content of rotifers and Artemia (Chakraborty & Malcata 2012). Because these strains et al. 2007, Ferreira et al. 2008, Kjell et al. vary so greatly in their nutritional profiles, 1993, Lie et al. 1997, Øie et al. 1994, Reitan et careful consideration is necessary in order al. 1997), which frequently results in improved to select the most nutritionally appropri- larval performance. But it is important to ate strains. Such algae as Spirulina, Chlorella, recognise that the high nutritional quality of Haematococcus, and Dunaliella are easily mass- enriched live feeds can be maintained after produced because they can be cultivated delivery to the larval tank only by application in open ponds at low cost, but they all lack of ‘greenwater’ techniques. Unless microalgae the omega-3 PUFAs EPA and DHA that are are added to the larval tank water, the live essential for production of live feeds that feed organisms quickly begin to starve, and provide adequate nutrition to marine fish. can metabolize a significant fraction of their High-PUFA algae in wide use include strains biomass before they are eaten by the larvae. of Nannochloropsis (Eustigmatophyceae), The algal cells themselves can also function favoured for rotifer production and green- as live feeds, since they have been shown to water; Tetraselmis (Prasinophyceae); Isochrysis be eaten and digested by larvae (Reitan et al. and Pavlova (Prymnesiophyceae); Thalassiosira, 1997, Van Der Meeren et al. 2007), and may
14 | International AquaFeed | May-June 2013

Lipid emulsions of high-PUFA oils may be used to improve the fatty acid profile of live feeds. Although their contents are not subject to leaching, lipid droplets are prone to stick to surfaces, including the walls of the culture tank and the live feed organisms themselves. Lipid enrichment protocols therefore often must include a rinsing step to clean the rotifers or Artemia of adhering lipid droplets, which would otherwise foul the larval tank. Short-term feeding of oil emulsions results in lipid-enriched rotifers with high EPA and DHA levels, but, they are prone to rapid loss of their gut contents and acquire an extreme lipid:protein ratio (Dhert et al. 2001). Moreover, it has been shown that when the rotifers are collected on screens, as they are for rinsing, this mechanical stress can cause ejection of the nutritious gut contents that were ingested during enrichment feeding (Romero-Romero & Yúfera 2012), defeating the purpose of the enrichment.

Advantages of microalgae
Microalgae are the base of the plankton food web, and their great biochemical diversity is the source of the high nutritional value of natural zooplankton. As the natural food of zooplankton, microalgae offer a number of advantages over formulated feeds. They are natural ‘microencapsulation’ particles bounded by a cell membrane that retains the nutri-

FEATURE

also stimulate digestive enzyme production (Cahu et al. 1998).

Microalgae concentrates
The best solution to these problems can be the use of commercially-available refrigerated or frozen algae concentrates or ‘pastes’ (Guedes & Malcata 2012, Shields & Lupatsch 2012). These products, which are actually viscous liquids, have proven to be effective feeds for rotifers, Artemia , shellfish and other filter-feeders, as well as for greenwater applications. In products formulated to provide a long shelf-life, the concentrated microalgae are suspended in buffer media that preserve cellular integrity and nutritional value, although the cells are non-viable. When concentrates with well-defined biomass densities are employed, the algae can be accurately dosed into live feed cultures with a metering pump, and non-viability confers the advantage that the products pose no risk of introducing exotic algal strains. The best refrigerated products typically have a shelf-life of 3-6 months, and frozen products several years. This means that a reliable supply of algae can be kept on hand, available for use in any season or if an unexpected need arises. Algae costs become predictable, and often prove to be less than on-site production when total production costs and inefficiencies are accounted for.

Production of microalgae
Despite the many advantages of microalgae, their wider use is hampered by difficulties in culturing, storage, and high costs. Microalgae culture can consume a significant fraction of the resources of a hatchery, and requires special equipment, skilled labour, and a large allocation of space that is unproductive during the seasons when live feeds are not needed. Low-cost open-pond culture methods carry high risks of contamination and culture failure due to the impossiblity of tightly controlling culture conditions, and the most highly prized high-PUFA strains such as Isochrysis and Pavlova require indoor culture. It is very difficult to synchronize microalgal production with live feed requirements to prevent feed shortages or wasteful overproduction, and it is difficult to accurately dose algae cultures directly into live feed cultures. If the algae are harvested and concentrated, the tightly-packed cells can deteriorate rapidly in refrigerated storage. Some microalgae have been freeze- or spray-dried, but dried cells are subject to protein denaturation, and when they are rehydrated the leaching of watersoluble substances can rapidly deplete their nutritional value, as with other dry feeds.

Although costs of liquid algae concentrates are higher than for dried algae or formulated feeds, they offer all the nutritional advantages of live cultures. The nutritional quality of live feeds can be no better than the food sources used to produce them. Success of early larvae is so critical to the success of a hatchery that even a relatively small improvement in survival or growth rate can yield great benefits.

Outlook
Live feeds remain indispensable for larviculture of many fish. Although microalgae are among the costliest food sources used to produce live feeds, their many advantages justify the cost for hatcheries producing high-value fish. Research continues to better characterise the nutritional properties of various algae strains and to optimise algae production technologies. We can anticipate that introduction of novel algae strains and nutritionally-optimised combinations of strains, along with improved feeding protocols, will ensure that microalgae remain the food of choice for production of the highest-quality live feeds.

References
www.aquafeed.co.uk/referencesIAF1303

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May-June 2013 | International AquaFeed | 15

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FEATURE

Controlling mycotoxins with binders
by Adrien Louyer, aquaculture supervisor, Olmix Asia Pacific, Marie Gallissot, technical supervisor, Olmix SA, Dr Nguyen Van Nguyen, director of The Research Center for Fish Nutrition and Fishery Postharvest Technology - RIA2.

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eed ingredients and feed prices are increasing; it is becoming harder to maintain the nutritional balance of the feed without increasing too much the feed price. Now, the use of ingredients from less stringent quality is likely to increase. Though plant materials are usually more reasonable in price than animal products, they can present problems through the presence of naturally occurring contaminants. Indeed, contamination of feed commodities by microorganisms and mycotoxins is the first negative factor impacting animal feed quality. Numerous researches have studied the decrease of performances with contaminated feeds.

making it difficult to diagnose mycotoxicosis. Even if extensive studies are done in this field, many mycotoxins effects remain unknown.

Prevention
Because of their effect on the immune system and fish performances, the presence of toxins impairs the farm economic perform-

ances. Strategies of prevention and control exist. In order to avoid deleterious effects of mycotoxins on fish, the best is to avoid contamination of the plants with moulds through adapted cultural practices. During harvest and storage, mycotoxins production must be prevented by reducing mould stress condi-

Table 1: Formulated diets with different MT.X+ doses (values are expressed as a % on an as fed basis) Feed Ingredients D0 (0% MT.X+) D0.05 (0.05% MT.X+) 17.00 28.00 18.75 35.00 0.25 0.30 0.50 0.10 0.05 0.050 100.00 89.22 10.78 28.55 5.48 5.86 8.84 40.34 3.63 D0.15 (0.15% MT.X+) 17.00 28.00 18.75 35.00 0.15 0.30 0.50 0.10 0.05 0.15 100.00 89.22 10.78 28.55 5.48 5.86 8.84 40.34 3.63

Fish meal 65% Soybean meal Cassava meal Rice bran DCP Premix- M-V Fish oil Lysine (Lys) Methionine (Met) MT.X+ Total Proximate composition (% as fed basis) Dry matter Moisture Crude protein Crude fat Crude fibre Crude ash Nitrogen free extract Gross energy (kcal.g-1)

17.00 28.00 18.75 35.00 0.3 0.30 0.50 0.10 0.05 0.00 100.00 89.22 10.78 28.55 5.48 5.86 8.84 40.34 3.63

Lipopolysaccharides (LPS), also known as endotoxins, are present in the cell membrane of gram negative bacteria. They are a structural component of the cell wall and are continuously released in the environment at cell death and during cell growth or division. Therefore, endotoxins are omnipresent in feed, water and fish gut which has shown to be an important bacterial reservoir. Endotoxins act as neurotoxic compounds and have immunosuppressive effect on fish. Mycotoxins are a diverse group of potential toxic metabolites produced by a variety of fungal species that often contaminate feedstuffs and consequently fish diets. Mycotoxins can vary in shape and size. They are heat stable and resist to extrusion process. For the ones that have been identified, it is known that a few parts per billion (ppb) already impact animal growth performances. Mycotoxins effects are specie dependent; cross contamination of different mycotoxins increases the damage caused (synergy) and results in uncharacteristic symptoms, thus

Fishmeal 65 percent (Vietnam, Kien Giang); Soybean meal 47 percent (India); Fish Oil (Chile fish oil), cassava meal (Vietnam, Tay Ninh), Rice bran (Vietnam, Tien Giang), Lysine and Methionine (Japan)
16 | International AquaFeed | May-June 2013

FEATURE
Table 2: Contamination level of the feed for the most common mycotoxins MYCOTOXIN T-2 Toxin Deoxynivalenol (DON) Zearalenone Fumonisins (B1+B2) Aflatoxins Ochratoxin α LEVEL < 0.01ppm <0.01 ppm <0.01 ppm 0.025 ppm (B1:0.015+ B2:0.010) <0.004 ppm (AFB1:<0.001) <0.001 ppm

tions such as quick temperature or humidity change. Unfortunately, even with the best management procedure, it is extremely difficult to totally avoid mycotoxin contamination. Additionally, it is very hard to manage endotoxin ingestion by the fish. Endotoxins found in the fish intestine are brought by contaminated food and water or can be liberated from intestinal gram-negative bacteria. One of the best solutions to control these toxins is to use a wide spectrum binder in the feed. Olmix, a French company, has developed a patented hybrid material called Amadeite® (Figure 1): a clay which interlayer space has been extended by the insertion of algae polysaccharides (ulvans). The adsorption of toxins in this material is a complex mechanism involving the surface area of montmorillonite, the polyanionic structure of ulvans and the scaffold structure formed in the interlayer space. Based on this unique ingredient, a wide spectrum toxin binder, MT.X+ was created.

Experimental study in the Mekong Delta
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of MT.X+ on growth performances and feed utilization for tra catfish juveniles.

Material and Methods
Location and set up The experiment was done in a commercial farm in the Mekong Delta during two months. 1,080 healthy catfish fingerlings (initial weight around 30 g) obtained from a local supplier were used for the test. They were raised in floating cages (hapas), of 2x2x2 metres, in which pangasius were randomly allocated (120 fish per hapas). The cages were in the same pond to avoid water difference. Daily water exchange was done with a tidal system. Fish were acclimated for a week before the beginning of the trial. Experimental design Three iso-nitrogenous and iso-energetic diets were formulated (Table 1). Control diet, Experimental diet 1 and Experimental diet 2 respectively contained 0, 0.05 and 0.15% of MT.X+. The diets were produced by RIA2 feedmill, using extrusion process with pellet size of 5 ± 1 mm. The diets were randomly allocated to cages. Three replicates

per diet were done. Fish were fed ad libitum twice a day and excess feed was removed from the cages 20 minutes after feeding. To check the mycotoxin contamination of the feed used, mycotoxin analysis has been done by HPLC MS/ MS method in an independent laboratory, LDA 22, in France. Water quality was watched by recording daily dissolved oxygen (DO), temperature (T°C), pH, nitrites (NO2) and ammonia (NH3). DO, NO2 and NH3 were analysed by commercial aquaria test kit. Proximate composition of the diets was analysed according to the AOAC procedures. The parameters used to evaluate growth performance and feed utilization were expressed as Daily Weight Gain (DWG), Feed Conversion Rate (FCR) and Survival Rate (SUR). Data from each treatment were subjected to one-way ANOVA (differences were considered significant at p < 0.05) and to a Duncan multiple range of tests by using R software.
May-June 2013 | International AquaFeed | 17

FEATURE
Table 3: Average water quality parameters during the time of the experiment Parameters Level Maximum limit [10] 7-9 28-300 C ≤ 0,3 0.01 -1 ≥ 2,0

pH ToC NH3 (mg/l) NO2 (mg/l) DO (mg/l)

6± 1 28 ± 1 2 ±0 0-2 ±1 4-6 ±1

Results
Mycotoxin analysis Among the 44 different mycotoxins that were tested, levels of the most common mycotoxins are displayed in Table 2. The contamination level was very low for this sample. Water quality analysis Water quality parameters are displayed in Table 3. During all the time of the experiment ammonia (NH3) was higher than the Vietnamese accepted limit (2 mg/l instead of <0.3 mg/l). NO2 was higher than the Vietnamese limit during the last month of the experiment (2 mg/l instead of <1 mg/L). Moreover, it was observed that the fish density outside the hapas was very high. The water was probably heavily loaded with pathogens.

Figure 1: The interlayer space of Montmorillonite is multiplied by 10 thanks to the intercalation of green algae polysaccharides, the ulvans. The interlayer space is enlarged from 0,3-0,4 nm to 3-4 nm allowing to capture 2 nm molecules such as Trichothecenes or fumonisins

+18% in final weight). The supplementation with 0.05% of MT.X+ did not impact the performances in comparison of control group. Several factors can explain the obtained results: Mycotoxin contamination was very low in this experiment. We cannot exclude the possibility that the real contamination was higher than measured, due to uncertainty linked with the analysis (sampling method, unknown toxins). However, as we observe

susceptibility”, Infection and Immunity journal, 57(4): 1054-1058. Nayak S. K., et al 2008; “Effect of endotoxin on the immunity of Indian major carp, Labeorohita’, Fish and Shellfish Immunology, 24(4): 394-399. NRC (National Research Council) (2011), Nutrient requirements of fish and shrimp, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., pp.233-247. Rodriguez M. A., et al 2012: “Mycotoxin Detoxification: Science vs Marketing, All About Feed, Mycotoxin special p 24-26. Tapia-Salazar, M. et al. 2010. Mycotoxins in aquaculture: Occurrence in feeds components and impact on animal performance. En: Cruz-Suarez, L.E., RicqueMarie, D.,Tapia-Salazar, M., Nieto-López, M.G.,VillarrealCavazos, D. A., Gamboa-Delgado, J. (Eds), Avances en Nutrición Acuícola X - Memorias del Décimo Simposio Internacional de Nutrición Acuícola, 8-10 de Noviembre, San Nicolás de los Garza, N. L., México. ISBN 978-607-433-546-0.Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Monterrey, México, pp. 514-546. Spring et al 2005. Mycotoxin a rising threat to aquaculture, Nutritional Biotechnology in the Feed and Food Industries p 323-331 Havenaar R et al, 2006:” Efficacy of sequestrant/ chelatorAmadeite, in the binding of mycotoxins during transit through a dynamic gastrointestinal model (TIM) simulating the GI conditions of pigs; The world mycotoxin forum- The fourth conference, November 6-8 2006, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA. AOAC (1992) :AOAC Official Method 992.15Crude Protein in Meat and Meat Products Including Pet Foods Combustion Method First Action 1992 http:// www.aoac.org/omarev1/992_15.pdf http://thuvienphapluat.vn/archive/Thong-tu/Thongtu-45-2010-TT-BNNPTNT-dieu-kien-co-so-vungnuoi-ca-tra-tham-canh-vb109053t23.aspx

Table 4: Zootechnical performances of pangasius (Pangasius hypophthalmus) fed with diets containing different levels of MT.X+ D0 Survival rate (%) Final body weight (g/fish) Daily weight gain (g/day) Feed intake (g/fish) FCR 88.7 a ± 7.6 70.05a ± 7.6 0.64b ± 0.15 101a ± 9.8 2.57 ab ± 0.38 D0.05 88.8a ± 4.5 70.86ab ± 4.5 0.66ab ± 0.05 106a ± 3 2.62a ± 0.27 D0.15 88.3a ± 5.4 82.66b ± 5.4 0.85a ± 0.08 106a ± 8.1 2.01b ± 0.04

Figures are presented as mean ± SD, values in the same row with different superscript letters are significantly different (p< 0.05)

Zootechnicalperformances Growth performances, feed efficiency and survival rate are presented in Table 4. After 60 days of feeding period, no significant difference was observed on survival rate (± 88%) and feed intake (± 104 g/fish). However, the final body weight was significantly different between fish fed 0.15% MT.X+ and fish fed control diet (82.66 and 70.05 g/fish, respectively). As a consequence, FCR was significantly lower for fish fed D0.15 compared to fish fed D0.05 or D0 (2.01, 2.62 and 2.57, respectively).

Discussion
Fish fed either control diet, MT.X+ 0.05% or MT.X+ 0.15% had similar survival rate and feed intake. However, Feed Conversion Ratio, Daily Weight Gain and Final Weight were significantly different among diets. Fish fed MT.X+ 0.15% had significantly better performances than fish fed control diet (-0.5 point in FCR,

a dose-dependent effect of MT.X+ in this experiment, this possibility is likely dismissed. On the other hand, water quality and pond management showed to be poor. In a context of excess ammonia and nitrite concentrations, frequent and important water exchange and probable high pathogen load, fish undergo stress and immunosuppression. MT.X+, by binding endotoxins and supporting the immune system helps fish to cope with these stressors. Better protected, fish fed MT.X+ better valorize the feed and show improved growth performances. MT.X+: improve protection, improve performances.

References
Halver, J. E. and Hardy, R.W. (2002), Fish Nutrition, Elsevier Science, pp.601-618. Roeder D.J., 1989: “Endotoxic-lipopolysaccharidespecific binding proteins on lymphoid cells of various animal species: association with endotoxin
18 | International AquaFeed | May-June 2013

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FEATURE

Niacin: one of the key B vitamins for sustaining healthy fish growth and production
by Simon J Davies and Mark Rawling, Aquaculture Nutrition & Health Group, Plymouth University, United Kingdom

fish nutrition. In mammals, there is a recognised and documented conversion pathway from tryptophan to niacin, thus allowing tryptophan, and proteins rich in tryptophan, to be an important reservoir for niacin biosynthesis. Although the essential amino acid tryptophan is a precursor of niacin, this endogenous synthesis, comprising 13 steps in a metabolic sequence is not deemed efficient. Studies in man have shown that approximately 60 mg of tryptophan are required to produce 1 mg of niacin and this ratio varies considerWith such an ‘ideal’ diet, vitamins could ably within different vertebrate groups. easily be assayed by using this vitamin test Fish, however, may even lack this converdiet, consisting of ‘vitamin free’ carbohydrate sion capacity or have very a poor efficacy for and protein sources i.e. casein, purified gelatin, this metabolic pathway. By supplementing potato starch, hydrogenated cotton seed oil, both a niacin deficient and niacin complete alpha-cellulose flour, minerals, cod liver oil, diet with varying amounts of tryptophan, it combined with crystalline vitamins. Each vitawas previously determined that tryptophan min could then be systematically assessed by levels have no effect on niacin accumulation. selective exclusion from this advanced basal Serrano and Nagayama (1991) found that the diet formulation. The water soluble vitamins 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid (3-HAA) to picolinic such as the B-complex and especially vitamin acid carbolase (PC) activity ratio in rainbow C (ascorbate) were all found to be essential trout suggested an ineffective conversion from in fish as in other terrestrial animals of comtryptophan to niacin. This finding will help mercial importance and indeed having the Metabolic considerations same basic functions as in humans. Exogenous proteins within the diet supply explain higher niacin requirements for some The role of niacin (vitamin B3) is no the metabolic pool with essential and non- fish, as others do carry the capacity in some less important within aquatic species; as fish essential amino acids. Among these is tryp- degree but this cannot be an insurance against farming became more prevalent, the health tophan which has considerable importance in providing a separate dietary supply. Niacin and niacinamide status of stocks fluctuare required by ated due to the wide Figure 1: Niacin in its two biologically active forms as presented to fish for assimilation all living cells spectrum of feed forand their chemimulations at that time. cal structure A number of negais depicted in tive symptoms were Figure 1. attributed to niacin They are deficiency and steps essential comwere taken to protect ponents of two against them based on coenzymes, early evidence. niacinamide In the 1940s and Nicotinic Acid Nicotinamide adenine dinucle1950s fish were found
20 | International AquaFeed | May-June 2013

n 1951 Dr John E Halver of the School of Fisheries Science, University of Washington, USA presented the ‘model semi-purified fish diet’ to the aquatic nutrition research community. This innovation allowed for the proliferation of deficiency studies with mainly salmonid fish such as rainbow trout and Pacific salmon to evaluate the significance of vitamins in complete diets for cultured fish.

I

to have a loss of appetite and poor food conversion (food intake to body weight ratio) that progressed into a darker skin colour, anorexia, posterior gut lesions, oedema of the stomach and intestine, erratic motion and at-rest muscle spasms. In the late 1950s and 1960s, a predilection to sunburn in fish was discovered and, in carp, subcutaneous haemorrhages developed under chronic and acute niacin deficiency. In the 1970s, eels were found to develop skin lesions and display erratic swimming, while lesions, deformed jaws, and anaemia were discovered in catfish, Ictalarus punctatus. The period from 1980 to date encompassed a series of investigations that augments earlier knowledge, but there have been relatively few studies in the early 21st century except for the work of Shaik Mohammed et al. (2001) where pathological effects of niacin deficiency similar to this described above were reported from studies with Indian catfish (Heteropneustes fossilis).

FEATURE feed conversion ratios must be optimised in order for production costs to be minimised. Greater efficiency present throughout culturing conditions will lead to shorter growing time and a greater demand for micronutrients such as vitamins. Surplus nutrients, such as vitamins supplied above levels useful to the species, can be removed from the diet if exact requirements are met. In the past, many vitamins have been included in excess of recommended levels to be Figure 2: Niacin requirements for selected aquatic certain that the requirements animal species (from compiled literature sources) were fully complied (NRC 2011). However, studies have otide (NAD), and niacinamide adenine dinu- reported excess niacin can inhibit growth cleotide phosphate (NADP) that are involved (Poston & Lorenzo, 1973; Poston & Combs, in numerous enzymatic pathways especially 1980); conversely, sub-optimal absorption of those involving energy mediation and protein nutrients can be avoided if requirements are synthesis and degradation. More than 40 correctly defined and adequately presented biochemical reactions have been identified in feed. For maximal efficiency of production, as being dependent on these coenzymes as target provisions of all essential nutrients, as co-factors. Their major function is the removal specified through research, must be provided of hydrogen from specific substrates and the through additional mineral and vitamin suptransfer of hydrogen to another coenzyme. plementation. If levels are unknown, further Reactions in which NAD and NADP are research is needed to clarify the degree of involved include the metabolism of carbohy- vitamin fortification necessary to maintain drates, lipids and proteins at the cross roads health and production for all phases of rearing of metabolism and vital for energy production and conditions. In relation to the other water-soluble from these nutrients and protein turnover. With respect to genomic stability, the vitamins, niacin requirements in fish procure need for niacin seems most imminent when a ranking amongst the highest needs, with the organism is under genotoxic or oxida- the exception of choline (NRC, 2011). While tive stress, with particular reference to UV many other vitamins are synthesised from exposure of the animal (Hageman & Stierum, precursor compounds obtained through feed 2001). A deficiency of niacin will result in an ingredients, in aquatic animals, niacin is usually increase or disrepair of DNA nicks within obtained solely through niacin presented in chromosomes, and consequent increase in the diet. chromosomal breakage, and a heightened sensitivity to mutagens (Fenech, 2002). In Niacin requirements general, fish with niacin deficiencies displayed Caution must be expressed due to the an increased risk of sunburn when under even variety of methodological approaches used natural UV radiation. in ascertaining vitamin requirement levels. In In the expanding aquaculture industry, many cases, age and genetic strain of the species varies together with the pre-nutritional history of the aquatic animal under investigation. In particular, the nature of the carbohydrate component employed in experimental diets is not fully reported in the scientific literature. For example, it is well known that the carbohydrate level and complexity may influence the requirement of niacin in terms of processing of dietary energy (Shiau & Suen, 1992). This may be evident when raw materials are subjected to extrusion processing in which carbohydrates such as starch in cereals may undergo gelatinisation yielding dextrin and thereby increasing the digestible energy value of the carbohydrate fraction. It was found that for hybrid tilapia that the niacin requirements for fish fed glucose or dextrin as the carbohydrate energy source was 26 and 125 mg/Kg diet respectively. Previous formulations of fish diets often failed to address the true bioavailability of micronutrients present in fish feed ingredients pursuant to a limited common database describing this knowledge. The general niacin requirements for different species are shown in Figure 2 and these vary considerably depending on many factors. Dietary requirements have been reported to range from just 1-5 mg per kg of feed for rainbow trout to 150-200 mg for pacific salmon and 14 mg per kg for channel catfish. Clearly much will depend on the carnivorous, omnivorous or herbivorous nature of the fish species in question and rearing conditions. Investigations on Gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) by Morris and Davies (1995) and by Morris et al. (1995), where the qualitative and quantitative requirements for this important marine fish were first established using semi-purified diet ingredients similar to the Halver concept. The minimum nicotinic acid requirement for sea bream was determined to be 52 mg/ Kg to achieve optimum growth performance and 25 mg/kg for normal haematological balance and liver to body weight ratio. In 1997, Shiau reported parallelism between the niacin requirement of warm water fish and a varying source of dietary

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FEATURE carbohydrate. In general, certain warm water fish, namely carnivorous species, utilise dietary carbohydrate poorly and it is recognised that carbohydrate obtained from different sources may not be equally available to all fish of the same species. There is merit for consideration of the changes in protein level, quality, and protein to energy ratio for optimum vitamin levels to be recommended. Modern fish diets are much higher in energy, presented as oil for carnivorous fish, whilst carbohydrate in the form of starch is quite acceptable for omnivores such as tilapia and carp. Niacin is given special importance in this area due to its relevancy in the metabolism of protein and the release of energy from these nutrients as stated previously. However implications towards dietary requirement and variability, warrants a need to establish additional scientific information regarding the digestibility of niacin and subsequent availability coefficients within varying diets formulations based on practical ingredients. From the data of Ng et al. (1998), it was suggested that niacin supplementation can be reduced to a more efficient level due to the relatively high amount of biologically available niacin found in typical feed ingredients used in modern fish feed formulations. However, the provisions may not be adequate to meet current safety margins to guarantee production and health criteria for all species. Also, the inability to utilise particular fish feeds due to varying dietary constraints would justify continued supplementation and refinement. In addition, it was found that the bioavailability of niacin increased by some 57 percent when corn meal was extrusion cooked rather than administered in the diet in its native form. This suggests that processing technology is an important area for further investigation for determining the optimum inclusion levels of niacin for a range of aquatic species. fish under various conditions. Extrusion of diets has the tendency to reduce the activity of vitamins especially those within the water soluble class and the processing of raw materials may lead to serious losses. Generally this is in the order of 10-20 percent for most vitamins reported (Tacon, 1985, Gabaudan and Hardy, 2000). Further reductions are caused by storage of pelleted feed and this may result in impairment to fish health and production efficiency over extended time.

Future perspective
Indeed, the movement towards new fish species in aquaculture such as flounders; turbot, sole and halibut as well as sea bass and sea bream in Europe, cobia in the USA and Brazil have generated considerable interest in producing specific diets that can meet their individual requirements for growth, development and health. Much is known about the gross nutritional requirements of these emerging species but little on vitamins, especially niacin. Intensive rearing conditions (i.e. UV light exposure to outdoor pens) and husbandry related factors may adversely affect the physiological status of fish and induce metabolic stress causing tissue damage and impaired performance. The potential of niacin supplementation in reducing such effects could prove a valuable area for future investigation.

Stability and processing losses
Niacin is regarded as a highly stable vitamin in animal nutrition and is usually added to feed as nicotinic acid or nicotinamide within the vitamin premix formulations within a dry mixture with a carrier material along with other vitamins and possibly mineral supplements as well. The advent of high energy and nutrient dense feeds in many countries engaged in intensive fish farming operations has also placed a higher burden on maintaining the health of fish, whilst promoting faster growth rates and efficient feed utilisation. The use of expanded and extruded feeds offer more scope in feeding management but may greatly influence the levels of vitamins available to

22 | International AquaFeed | May-June 2013

FEATURE It is evident that the vitamin requirements of fish are subject to numerous factors. Recent advances in our understanding of aquatic animal biochemistry and physiology together with aquafeed technology increase the advantageous value of a thorough reexamination of the vitamin requirements of fish. This is particularly pertinent for niacin given its role in aquatic animal nutrition. There is a paucity of information in the literature for niacin in fish compared to other vitamins, and this matter needs to be addressed in the light of new candidate species for aquaculture and changing feed formulations where plant by products are increasingly being incorporated.
Water-soluble vitamin requirements of Chinook salmon.” Journal of Nutrition. vol. 62. pp. 225-43. Halver, J.E., (Halver, J.E. and Hardy, R.W. (Editors). Fish Nutrition. 3rd Edition. Oxford: Academic Press, 2002. Morris, P.C. and Davies, S.J. (1995) The requirement of the gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L). for nicotinic acid. Animal Science, 61: 437-443 Morris, P.C. Davies, S.J. and Lowe, D.M. (1995) Qualitative requirements for B vitamin in diets for the gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) Animal Science, 61; 419-426. Ng, W.K, Serrini, G., Zhang, Z and Wilson, R.P. (1997) “Niacin requirement and inability of tryptophan to act as a precursor of NAD+ in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus” Aquaculture. vol. 154. nos. 1-4. pp 273-285. NRC (2011) “Nutrient Requirements of Fish,” NAS/NRC, Academic Press, Washington D.C. Poston, H.A. (1969) “The effect of excess levels of niacin on the lipid metabolism of fingerling brook trout.” In: Fisheries Research Bulletin, Albany, N.Y.: State of New York Conservation Department. no. 32. pp. 9-12. Poston, H.A. and DiLorenzo, R.N. (1973) “Tryptophan conversion to niacin in the brook trout (Salvelinus pontinalis).” Proceedings. Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine. vol. 140. pp. 110-12. Poston, H.A. and Combs, G.F. (1980) “Nutritional implications of tryptophan catabolising enzymes in several species of trout of salmon,” Proceedings. Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine. vol. 163. pp. 452-454. Poston, H.A., and Wolfe, M.J. (1985). “Niacin requirement for optimum growth, feed conversion and protection of rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri from ultraviolet-B irradiation” Journal of Fish Diseases. vol 8. no. 5. pp. 451-460. Serrano, A.E. and Nagayama, F. (1991). “Liver 3-hyroxyanthranilic acid oxygenase activity in rainbow-trout (Oncorhynchus-mykiss).” Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology B-Biochemistry & Molecular Biology. vol. 99. no. 2. pp. 275-280. Shaik Mohammed, and Ibrahim, A. (2001) Quantifying the niacin requirement of the Indian catfish (Heteropneustes fossilis) (Bloch), fingerlings, Aquaculture Research, 32: 157-162. Shiau, S.Y., and Suen, G.S. (1992) “Estimation of the niacin requirements for tilapia fed diets containing glucose or dextrin.” Journal of Nutrition. vol .122. no. 10. pp. 2030-6. Tacon, A.G.J. (1985) Nutritional fish pathology: morphological signs of nutrient deficiency and toxicity in farmed fish.” Aquaculture Development and Coordination Programme. ADCP/REP/85/22.

Selected References
Fenech, M. (2002). “Genomic Stability: a new paradigm for recommended dietary allowances (RDA’s).” Food and Chemical Toxicology. vol. 40. pp 1113-1117. Gaubadan, J and Hardy R. W. (2000). Vitamin sources for fish feeds pp, 961-965 In Encyclopaedia for Aquaculture, R. R. Stickney, Editor, New York, John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Hageman, G.J. and Stierum, R.H. (2001). “Niacin, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 and genomic stability.” Mutation Research. – Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutation. vol 475. nos 1-2. pp 45-56. Halver, J.E. (1957). “Nutrition of salmonid fishes: 3.

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May-June 2013 | International AquaFeed | 23

FEATURE

Ultraviolet water disinfection for fish farms and hatcheries
by Halim Mirza, sales manager, Hanovia, United Kingdom quaculture is a growing and increasingly important industry in many parts of the world, including Scotland, Chile, Norway, Greece and Turkey. It helps to sustain economic growth in rural and coastal communities which are often isolated from the more developed and industrialised areas of these countries. The modern aquaculture industry faces a number of issues:

A
Disease

infection from natural fish populations in the feed water to the farm.

CASE STUDY

Regulation
Fish reared and released back into the wild, as well as those endorsed by the regulatory bodies such as the UK’s Marine Stewardship Council, must be disease-free.

Cultivos Huacamalal Ltda., Chile
Cultivos Huacamalal Ltda. of Chile uses a Hanovia UV disinfection system for its salmon hatchery in Rio Ignao in the south of the country. The UV system is part of a US$1.1 million water recirculation and effluent treatment system provided by Atlantech Chile Ltda. of Puerto Montt, Chile. The UV unit treats well water used for make-up supply in the water recirculation system to control against Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis (IPN) RNA-virus. IPN is found in wild salmon populations on the Pacific coasts of both North and South America and can cause severe mortality (up to 80%) in fish up to two years old. It is a common disease in hatcheries and is also capable of transmitting epizootic conditions back to wild populations. Chile is one of the three major salmon farming countries in the world, along with Norway and Scotland. Cultivos Huacamalal is a new player in the Chilean salmon aquaculture industry. The company was formed by a number of experienced partners in the fish production and shipbuilding industry in Chile and has signed an agreement to supply product to one of the largest salmon exporters in the country.

Water quality
To minimise the chance of infection and disease, the water used in fish farms and hatcheries needs to be of a minimum quality. Ensuring this quality is not easy – chemical treatment is not appropriate as it harms the fish and cannot be released into open waters. To ensure water quality and to break the infection cycle between fish farms and natural fish populations, a disinfection system is needed to treat water entering and circulating within fish farms.

High rates of water extraction and increased reliance on recirculated water can lead to poor water quality, resulting in increased outbreaks of viral, bacterial and parasitic fish diseases which can decimate fish stocks. Due to the intensive nature of fish farming, fish stock is also highly susceptible to

The advantages of UV disinfection
Ultraviolet (UV) is ideally suited for treating incoming and recirculated water in fish farms and hatcheries as it uses no chemicals and does not create by-products which would harm the fish stock, or other aquatic life, on discharge. Unlike
24 | International AquaFeed | May-June 2013

FEATURE

Greig Seafood, Canada other treatment methods, UV also avoids the expense of complex monitoring systems required for adding and removing chemicals before the water reaches the fish. In addition, it does not alter the pH of the water. In fact, UV is now widely regarded to be the most effective and economical disinfection technique for use in fish aquaculture.

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May-June 2013 | International AquaFeed | 25

FEATURE

CASE STUDY

Loch Fyne Oysters Ltd, Scotland
Loch Fyne Oysters Ltd in Scotland is using two Hanovia UV disinfection systems for its oyster farm in Loch Fyne, Cairndow, Scotland. The UV systems, which were installed by Barr and Wray, destroy harmful E.Coli bacteria from its oyster and mussel depuration tanks. Each UV chamber treats up to 150 m3 water per hour. According to a spokesperson from Loch Fyne Oysters, “The Hanovia units were recommended to us by Barr and Wray because of their 99.99% log reduction of E.Coli, their robust, stainless steel construction, their ease of installation and easy maintenance – including easy UV lamp replacement and daily cleaning with a manual wiper – and low running costs. We also find the digital run-time read-out very useful.”

Loch Fyne, Scotland

Some considerations
When installing UV systems, operators need to be aware of which viruses, bacteria or parasites are posing a problem and size the UV systems accordingly. Hanovia usually recommends a UV dose of between 120150mJ/cm2, but the final dose always depends on a number of factors, including whether the water is single-pass or recirculated. Water needs to be treated at all stages in the process, from the egg stage right through to full maturity All effluent water from hatcheries, processing plants and well boats must also be treated so as to protect the environment and stop the possible transmission of disease to wild fish populations

a range of useful functions such as flow rate, UV dose and intensity. The systems are usually capable of logging up to one year’s performance data, which can be downloaded to a PC through an RS232 port. Linked into a central computer, the control panel can also be operated remotely, and allows the system to operate around the clock.

About Hanovia
To date Hanovia has installed over 300 aquaculture systems in 14 countries around the world. Applications include water treatment in hatcheries, fish farms (salmon, sea bream and sea bass) shellfish depuration tanks and fry rearing tanks as well as treating recirculation water in marine parks and aquaria. Based in the UK with offices in Beijing and Shanghai and a worldwide network of distributors, Hanovia is a world leader in UV disinfection technology with over 85 years’ experience in the design, development, manufacture and distribution of UV systems worldwide. The company is a subsidiary of Halma plc.

UV technology
UV technology is surprisingly simple to install and use. A UV disinfection chamber can usually be retrofitted to existing pipework and circulation systems with minimum disruption to the process. All controls are automatic and maintenance of the systems is usually restricted to the replacement of the UV lamp every 12-18 months, depending on use. This is a simple operation that can be carried out by on-site staff. An automatic or manual wiper fitted over the quartz sleeve surrounding the UV lamp prevents the build-up of any deposits, ensuring maximum levels of UV irradiation at all times. A significant feature of modern UV systems is the control mechanism which displays
26 | International AquaFeed | May-June 2013

More Information:
Gunvinder Bhogal, marketing communications manager Tel: +44 1753 515300 Fax: +44 1753 515301 Email: gunvinder.bhogal@hanovia.com sales@hanovia.com Website: www.hanovia.com

UV applications in aquaculture
The applications for UV include treatment of water in hatcheries, shellfish purging tanks and fry rearing tanks. It is also used in fish processing plants and well boats. UV is even used to disinfect recirculation water in marine parks and aquaria.

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FEATURE

Natural sources of cholesterol, phospholipids and proteins
by Geert van der Velden, Carine van Vuure and Anke van Doremalen, Sonac BV, The Netherlands

quaculture is one of the fastest growing industries in food production. However, the future of this growth will depend largely on availability of raw materials and development of new nutrient sources from vegetable or animal origin. One of the essential nutrients for shrimp is cholesterol. Driven by the increasing scarcity of conventional sources of cholesterol, Sonac recently developed Phosterol. This hydrolyzed protein of animal origin is produced in accordance with all relevant EU regulations and is readily available from renewable natural sources. The uniqueness of Phosterol lies in the natural combination of cholesterol and phospholipids. Trials on shrimp have shown a strong synergy between cholesterol and phospholipids, the two main components of Phosterol. Phosterol is a unique protein hydrolysate with high content of cholesterol and phospholipids like phosphatidyl choline, phosphatidyl serine and phosphatidyl inositol. Cholesterol and phospholipids are essential building blocks in cellular membranes and are part of several biological processes. Together with the high amount of fat, Phosterol is a good ingredient in aquafeeds, especially shrimp feeds. Shrimps rely upon a dietary source of cholesterol for optimal molting. The origin of Phosterol is porcine tissue which has been collected in dedicated European slaughterhouses and after enzymatic hydrolysis further processed to a beige brownish and heat stable powder. Gelko Powder is a new hydrolysed animal-based product that contains highly digestible proteins for fish and shrimp. It hosts a combination of important amino acids, making aqua feed attractive and palatable. Naturally present nucleotides,

A

phospholipids and minerals increase its nutritional value.

Table 1: Composition of Phosterol and Gelko Composition Moisture Crude Protein Crude fat Crude ash Cholesterol Total phospholipids Phosphatidyl choline Phosphatidyl inositol DHA Phosterol 4% 48% 34% 9% 10% 24% 7.80% 0.90% 2.30% Gelko 4% 68% 18% 11% 0.10% 9% -

EU Feed law
According to EU Feed law, Phosterol and Gelko are permitted for use for all animal species. No limitations are imposed on production facilities, transport systems or use at farm level. No additional labeling texts are required.

Growth trial with Phosterol and Gelko
Three diets were formulated to contain equal amounts of cholesterol. The reference diet contained crystalline cholesterol. One diet contained 0.9% Phosterol and the third diet contained 2% Gelko, a protein soluble (see Table 2). Feeds were produced with a pellet mill on a 2 mm die, using preconditioning with steam (>90°C) and post-conditioning (>90°C) for 20 minutes.

Table 2: Experimental diets - Diets were formulated to contain 38 % proteins and 8 % lipids. REF Gelko Phosterol

Corn gluten

5 26 2 16.9 25 15 2 2 4 2 0.1

5 24 2 16.9 25 15 2 2 4 2 0.1

5 26 2 16.9 25 14.2 2 2 4 2

Shrimp trial
The trial was performed at the AFTCreveTec research centre. Forty shrimp of 1-1.4 g were put in 12 nets of 150 litres. All nets were placed in a bigger tank, so all nets had the same water quality. Water quality in the big tanks was maintained with bioflocs. Each net was equipped with a feeder. The feed gift was adjusted daily according to an expected growth curve and average weight from initial and last measurement.

Fish meal Squid meal Wheat Wheat flour Soybean meal Soyalecithin Fish oil Wheat Gluten Premix Cholesterol Phosterol Gelko Total

Results
Growth (average weight) We can not observe a statistical difference in growth between the different feeds. Gelko seemed to be doing a little better in the middle of the experiment, but towards the end the Reference diet was the best.
28 | International AquaFeed | May-June 2013

0.9 2 100 100 100

FEATURE
Table 3: Growth of shrimp (g/week) on diets containing Phosterol and Gelko Week 1 2 3 4 5 6 Average

Conclusion
Phosterol is a valuable alternative source of cholesterol and gives similar results in growth and lower FCR than the pure source. It also shows lower mortality. Gelko can replace high quality fish meal with a minimum of 2% with no growth loss, and results in a lower mortality. Due to the composition, Phosterol has many benefits in aquafeeds: • Fat and protein mixture • Rich in cholesterol (10%) • Rich in phospholipids (24%) • Good suspension • Good emulsifier • Attractant and palatant in shrimp diets • Improved growth rates, molting frequency and survival in farmed shrimp • Cholesterol is heat stable (3 hours 133°C) The advantages of Gelko: • Fat and protein mixture • Rich in phospholipids (9%) • Good suspension • Attractant and palatant in shrimp diets • Soluble proteins with extreme high digestibility More Information:
Website: www.sonac.biz

Reference Phosterol Gelko

0.89 0.83 0.82

0.41 0.43 0.52

1.16 1.41 1.55

2.00 1.63 1.75

2.65 2.62 2.22

2.39 2.15 2.44

1.58 1.51 1.55

Overall, the observed growth was good, given the fact that shrimp were relatively small at the start of the experiment. Once they reached 3-4 g, they grow above 2g/week. Table 4: FCR of shrimp on diets containing Phosterol and Gelko Week 1 2 3 4 5 6 Total

REF Phosterol Gelko

0.81 1.09 0.70

2.02 1.81 1.71

1.18 0.69 0.76

1.39 0.87 0.98

0.99 0.86 1.61

1.36 1.41 1.17

1.18 b 0.99 a 1.07 b

The feed with Phosterol showed the best FCR, and was statistically better than the other diets Table 5: Summary of results Initial weight Final weight Growth (g/week) % Growth Mortality FCR

Reference Phosterol Gelko

1.31 1.17 1.26

10.81 a 10.25 a 10.56 a

1.58 1.51 1.55

826 % 872 % 838 %

9.53 % 5.94 % 6.41 %

1.18 b 0.99 a 1.07 b

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May-June 2013 | International AquaFeed | 29

The BioMarine Resources Directory
Listing companies producing products from marine-based materials

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It’s an exciting time to be involved in the bio marine industry. The sector is expanding rapidly with new companies, technologies and initiatives appearing on an almost daily basis. The BioMarine Resources blog shares this enthusiasm for innovation and diversity. We report on latest developments within the industry and registered BioMarine Resources Directory companies. We aim to build a place for this emerging community as well as creating an awareness of ‘blue growth’ to a wider audience.

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PHOTOSHOOT

Marcela Feedmill and Farm

The United States Soybean Export Council (USSEC) is a non-profit organisation that implements the international marketing activities of the U.S. soybean industry. In 2002, USSEC initiated the ‘Soy in Aquaculture' project to bring research and knowledge on sustainable, feed-based aquaculture developed in China over the past twenty years, to other regions. Starting in Southeast Asia, the project works directly with feed millers, farmers and other aquaculture stakeholders.

The Soy in Aquaculture Project works with aquaculture feedmills, fish and shrimp producers, government agencies and industry associations to promote sustainable, feedbased aquaculture in the Southeast Asian region. The program also seeks to highlight the benefits of the use of U.S. soy products in particular, focusing on the reliability, consistency and technical support that only U.S. soy products offer. In the Philippines, USSEC has been working with Marcela Farms Inc. to develop a low cost soy optimised diet for tiger shrimp (P.monodon) and white shrimp (L.vannamei). Marcela is one of the biggest integrated aquaculture companies in the Philippines, operating their own hatchery, feedmill, grow-out operations (shrimp and fish), processing plant and marketing (wholesale and retail).

32 | International AquaFeed | May-June 2013

In 2009, USSEC formulated a low cost soy optimised diet for tiger shrimp and recommended the use of other ingredients to reduce the usage of imported fishmeal. Using USSEC formulations, fishmeal usage was reduced by 10 percent to 30 percent and U.S. soybean meal inclusion was increased from 16 percent to 200 percent compared to their own diets. In 2010, Marcela conducted their own comparative study of the USSEC formulated diets with their own formulations. Results showed no significant difference in terms of growth rate, FCR and survival rates for the two diets, but the price per kilo of feed to produce a kilo of tiger shrimp was lower by US$0.23 using USSEC formulations, which translates into savings of US$163,000 annually for the company. Marcela has adopted some of the USSEC soy optimised targets in their own formulations and continues to produce high quality feeds for shrimp culture.

In 2011, Marcela Farms expanded their operation by acquiring additional culture areas and venturing into white shrimp culture. In 2012, USSEC conducted a white shrimp comparative diet study to show the effectiveness of U.S. soy products as an alternative source of protein and replacement to fishmeal. Results showed that using a diet with more U.S. soybean meal produced a kilo of shrimp US$0.62 cheaper compared to their own commercial diet, an annual saving of US$435,400.

May-June 2013 | International AquaFeed | 33

All images courtesy of Marcela Farms, Inc.© Page layout by Marnie Snell, Perendale Publishers Limited

FEATURE

Pelleting and extrusion in aquafeed technology
by Doris Du, sales representative, Allance Machinery, China

quaculture is a developing activity around the world. As the industry grows, so does the aquafeed market. Aquafeeds are comprised of a number of ingredients that are mixed in various proportions to complement one another to form a nutritionally complete compound diet. According to the physical characteristics, they can be divided into powder, particle, pelleted and extrusion aquafeed. They can also be divided into sinking, slow sinking and floating aquafeed according to their buoyancy. On the basis of aquafeed energy, they can be divided into low energy, medium energy and high-energy aquafeeds.

A

Grinding It is a particle size reduction process for raw Common basic raw materials to the Aquafeed processing technology manufacture of most aquafeeds are similar to The manufacture of aquafeeds is more materials by hammer mills. Grinding is benefithose employed in the manufacture of other complex than common feed manufacture. cial for the mixing operation and can improve the nutritional utilization types of animal of raw materials. For feeds. However, it Table 1: Classification of aquafeeds based upon the energy levels and processing technology aquafeed processing, an should be noted Low energy Medium energy High energy ultra fine feed hammer that aquafeeds mill is necessary. should avoid the use of high levels Protein (%) 30-40 43-52 40-48 Mixing of plant or vegThe ground materials etable fibres and Fat (%) 6-13 12-25 22-35 must be mixed with carbohydrates Processing machine aquafeed pellet mill extruder/aquafeed pellet mill extruder the proportioned raw which are poorly Target species salmon, trout seabass, turbot carp, tilapia materials to obtain a digested and
34 | International AquaFeed | May-June 2013

Raw materials for aquafeed production

transformed by fish. Raw materials for aquafeeds include cereals (maize, wheat, barley, rice, oat etc.), cereal by-products (wheat flour, corn bran, wheat bran etc.), meat meal, fishmeal, shrimp meal, squid meal, blood meal, poultry by-product meal, (full fat) soybean meal, other vegetable protein meals, fats and oils, vitamin and mineral premix, salt, stabilizers and binders etc. The major components of aquafeeds are protein (plant protein, animal protein and single cell protein), starch (sinking aquafeed consists more than 10% and floating aquafeed consists more than 20%), crude fat, raw fibre, crude ash and micronutrients. Starch has great gelatinization under high temperature and high humidity conditions. It can improve the stability of aquafeeds and extrusion density of extruded aquafeeds.

Hardness, size, buoyancy, durability and water stability must all be taken into account. Aquafeed processing technology is not unique. It relies on the development made in conventional animal feed processing technology, but with some specific applications. The main processing technology for aquafeeds is pelleting (mainly produce sinking aquafeeds) and extrusion (can produce sinking or floating extruded aquafeeds). Aquafeed pelleting technology is stricter than common animal pelleted feed. Typically, sinking aquafeeds are mostly made with feed pellet mills. Pelleting is still the predominate method for sinking feed production. The aquafeed pelleting processes is described below:

FEATURE
Table 2: Starch contents of common energy feed raw materials Raw material Starch content (dry matter) 70-75% 75-80% 5-8% 65.5-82% 21.5% Raw material Starch content (dry matter) 71.6% 81% 60% 45% 0.5%

Whole maize Flour Wheat bran Winter wheat Wheat middling

Sorghum Whole rice Whole barley Whole oat Soybean meal (44%)

homogeneous mixture. During the mixing process, feed ribbon blender or double paddle feed mixer is the most commonly used equipment. Pelleting Pelleting can be defined as the agglomeration of small particles into a larger solid with a given shape and texture, by means of a mechanical process in combination with moisture, heat and pressure. The main factors which affect pelleting are ingredients characteristics, moisturizing or steaming before pelleting, die thickness and binders etc. The ring die aquatic feed pellet mill is the professional pelleting machine for aquafeed processing. Cooling The temperature of the aquafeed pellets squeezed out the pellet mill is high. They

should be cooled before other operations. A counterflow pellet cooler is a high-efficiency cooling machine. Coating Coating can improve upgrade the aquafeed quality. The physical property of the feed is improved. The fat sprayed on the aquafeed pellets has certain permeability; it can permeate into the pellets in subsequent crafts and transport process. That can reduce the scatter of feed particles and dust. The fat spraying machine is also known as feed pellet coating machine. Crumbling It is a necessary process in aquafeed pellet processing as some fish need smaller pellets. The roll type crumbler can break the aquafeed pellets into smaller particles.

Screening In order to improve aquafeed quality, fines from cooled aquafeed pellets should be removed and the pellet size should be uniform. Rotary feed pellet grading sieve is just the machine.

Aquafeed extrusion technology
A significant application of the extrusion process is in the production of aquafeeds. Extrusion has won some popularity and is widely accepted. Compared to the pelleting method, extrusion can be defined as a technological process, namely, forcing feed raw material in one or more of the following process conditions (such as mixing, heating, cutting etc.) flow through the die, make material forming or eruption gasification. Extrusion allows buoyancy control to make floating, sinking or slow sinking feed by changing the

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May-June 2013 | International AquaFeed | 35

FEATURE

soy flour for both the food and feed industries. Preconditioning is a very important part of the wet extrusion process for steam or water injection into either the conditioner and/or Dry or wet extrusion Different shapes and sizes of aquatic the extruder barrel. The most important aspect of the preconfeed can be produced using extrusion technology. Extrusion with steam precon- ditioning system is the potential for additional ditioning is known as wet extrusion and mixing and the retention time, which is necesextrusion without steam preconditioning sary for chemical or physical reactions to take is called dry extrusion. Dry extruders place. The Allance aquafeed extruder for were used in processing low moisture, example, can produce dry and wet aquafeeds. highly expanded starch products and in Dry feed pellets are stable for relatively long processing whole soybeans to full-fat periods, for convenient storage and distribution. The wet type processing needs a boiler to make Table 3: Extruded aquafeeds versus pelleted aquafeeds steam to the conditioner and Extruded feed Pelleted feed ripen the raw material in advance. extrusion condition including temperature, pressure, die aperture diameter and shear rate etc.
Bonding degree Floating and sinking Stability in water Fines in aquafeeds Nutriment digestibility Funding Processing cost Equipment wear strong beneficial better fewer higher bigger higher slower strong just sinking good few lower smaller lower quicker

screw extruders directly has many advantages, such as low ingredient cost, less fine generated, good water stability and pleasant appearance. Twin-screw extruders were first used in the 1950s for manufacturing thermoplastics. They were developed on the basis of singlescrew extrusion machine, with a double screw installed side by side in the barrel. A fully meshed co-rotating (both screws turn same direction) extruder greatly improved material conveying, pumping and mixing characteristics. Compared to a single-screw extruder, a TSE has a much wider operating range in terms of use of moisture, internal fat, mechanical energy input and product size. The domestic high quality twin-screw extruder has reached an advanced level in technical performance and manufacturing level with high property price ratio and is the best choice of the aquatic feed processing industry. The main advantages of twin extruder described as follows: • Twin-screw process mandatory delivery and self-cleaning feature, making the material stay in the barrel for a short time and uniformity • As two screws knead and rub each other, extruder enables material mixed and ripened more fully in lower energy consumption. The whole ripening degree can reach more than 95 percent, water stability last for 24 hours • The biggest characteristics is that it can mix all kinds of raw materials regardless of its formation. This will also enable fish farmers use a wider range of ingredients

Conclusion
The production of aquafeed is the fastest growing sector in the global feed industry. Although a large amount of aquatic feed is still produced by conventional pelleting technology, extrusion is being utilized to a larger extent because it has several advantages over pelleting. So, pelleting or extrusion? It’s according to various factors that discussed above. More Information:
Website: www.pellet-machine.net

Twin-screw extrusion is ideal for aquafeed
According to the operation methods, extrusion equipment generally falls into two categories: single-screw extruders and twin-screw extruders. Producing small pellet aquafeed by single-

36 | International AquaFeed | May-June 2013

Die and roll re-working machines

O&J HØJTRYK A/S endeavours to be a powerful, vigorous and energetic company. With our customers needs and the immediate environment as our point of departure, we want to be a trendsetter in our core area of business - Mechanical Engineering - Re-working of Dies and Rollers for the manufacture of Feedstuffs and Biopellets, as well as the sale and delivery of wearing parts in connection with Roller Re-working - as well as to remain open to new initiatives and business opportunities. O&J HØJTRYK A/S has drawn up a strategy plan setting out guidelines for how we as an organisation must conduct and develop ourselves in order to make our mark, not just in the present, but also in the future. O&J HØJTRYK A/S must achieve success by adapting to the conditions of the market more quickly and efficiently than our competitors. As a service organisation we must, in relation to our customers, attach great importance to our own vitality and efficiency by constantly living up to the ever-growing demands made on the services we provide.

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Phone: +45 75 14 22 55 Fax: +45 82 28 91 41 mail: info@oj-hojtryk.dk O&J Højtryk A/S Ørnevej 1, DK-6705 Esbjerg Ø CVR.: 73 66 86 11

FEATURE

An effective source of dietary methionine for the turbot Psetta maxima
by Rui Ma1, Huapeng Hou1, Wenbing Zhang1, Anant Bharadwaj2, Craig Browdy2 and Kangsen Mai1 he turbot Psetta maxima is an important cultured flatfish species in Europe and now increasingly in China. Dietary formulations for this species typically have been dependent on high levels of fishmeal inclusion. Increasing costs and the decreasing availability of fishmeal have necessitated lowering fishmeal levels and increasing plant proteins in feed formulations. In such diets methionine can become one of the first limiting amino acids and supplementation is frequently necessary to balance diets and achieve optimum performance. The hydroxy analog of methionine, 2-hydroxy4-methylthio butanoic acid (HMTBa) is a safe and effective source of methionine that has been used to supplement methionine deficient diets for livestock and aquaculture species. HMTBa is structurally different from L-methionine in that it has a hydroxyl group instead of an amino group at the α-carbon position, potentially reducing feed nitrogen inputs into grow out systems. It is passively absorbed and is converted to L-methionine by D-hydroxy acid dehydrogenase and L-hydroxy acid oxidase enzymes which have been confirmed in tissues of shrimp and fish. A two-part study was carried out at the Ocean University of China, China to evaluate 1. The response of turbot fed diets supplemented with either HMTBa (2-hydroxy4-methylthio-butanoic acid) or L-methionine, and 2. The dynamics of absorption of HMTBa and L-methionine.

T

Materials and methods
A 75-day growth trial was carried out to evaluate the effects of HMTBa and L-methionine as dietary methionine sources

on the growth of juvenile turbot (initial weight 5.6 g. N=5 tanks per treatment). Five levels (0.3, 0.6, 0.9, 1.2 and 1.5% dry matter) of HMTBa (added as Mera™Met – 84 percent HMTBa; Novus International Inc., USA) and L-methionine were added evaluate the absorption of HMTBa and respectively to a practical basal diet, that was L-methionine from diets containing these limiting in methionine (0.59% methionine; methionine sources. The basal diet used in 0.42% cystine; 1.01% total sulfur amino acids). the second trial was generally similar to that This basal diet served as the control diet used in the growth trial (0.75% methionine and contained 48 percent crude protein and and 0.45% cystine; total sulfur amino acid concentration of 1.20%). The basal diet was approximately 12.5% crude lipid. A crystalline L-amino acid premix, which was devoid of sulfur amino acids was added to the basal diet to approximate the whole body composition of the turbot. Different levels of either HMTBa or L-methionine were added to the basal diet at the expense of glutamic acid to give total methionine concentrations ranging from 0.59 - 2.09 and total sulfur amino acid concentrations ranging from 1.01 to 2.51%. A second Figure 1: Weight gain and specific growth rate in juvenile study was turbot fed either HMTBa or L-methionine conducted to
38 | International AquaFeed | May-June 2013

FEATURE

ADDITIVES FOR AQUACULTURE SOLUTIONS

NUTRACEUTICALS AND PHYTOBIOTICS FOR AQUACULTURE Growth promoters Anti-parasites Attractants Hepatoprotectors
Figure 2a: Serum free-methionine concentrations in postfed turbot fed the control, L-methionine and HMTBa diets Figure 2b: Serum HMTBa concentrations in fish fed diets containing HMTBa

Antioxidants Detoxifiers Chelated minerals

supplemented with either 0.75% HMTBa or L-methionine. In this trial larger fish (65 g; 45 fish/tank; N=3) were used to facilitate blood sampling at the end of the trial. The basal control diet and the two experimental diets were fed to the turbot for a period of 14 days twice daily to apparent satiation. Fish were fasted 12 h prior to final feeding. Following feeding, fish were sampled at 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 h respectively and their blood collected. Blood was centrifuged and serum collected and stored prior to analysis. Serum was analyzed using HPLC for HMTBa and free methionine.

Results
There were no significant differences in survival between treatments. Fish fed the

basal diet (red bar) showed significantly lower weight gain than all the other treatments (Figure 1). Weight gain in fish fed both methionine sources increased in a quadratic fashion with increasing dietary concentration. In fish fed HMTBa (blue bars) maximum response was observed at 0.9% supplementation and was significantly

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May-June 2013 | International AquaFeed | 39

FEATURE

data suggest that HMTBa is absorbed into circulation in fish shortly after feeding and also show that the maximum serum concentrations of HMTBa in HMTBa-fed fish are similar to serum free-methionine concentrations in L-methionine fed fish.

Conclusions
The results of these trials confirm that HMTBa is a safe and available source of methionine in practical diets for the turbot Psetta maxima. The HMTBa was absorbed efficiently into circulation at rates that are similar or better than L-methionine. Dynamics confirmed direct absorption demonstrated in previous livestock studies. Mera™Met can provide a cost effective methionine source in reduced fishmeal formulations with 100 percent bioavailability. HMTBa has been shown in previous studies to improve feed attractability, providing an effective alternative for optimizing performance and allowing for higher cost efficiencies through the replacement of fishmeal by plant meals in aquatic feeds.

higher than the response seen in fish supplemented 0.9% L-methionine. Generally, at doses ranging from 0.6 to 1.5%, fish fed HMTBa showed equal or higher weight gain compared to fish fed L-methionine (green bars). Similar responses were observed for other performance parameters such as final weight, specific growth rate, feed efficiency, protein efficiency ratio and protein retention. Results from the analysis of serum show that the maximum serum concentration of free-methionine (435.13µmol/L) in L-methionine-fed fish was observed at 9 h

after feeding (Figure 2a) whereas the maximum serum HMTBa level (426.17µmol/L) in HMTBa-fed fish occurred 6 h after feeding (Figure 2b). Appreciable quantities of HMTBa were observed in the serum of HMTBa-fed fish shortly after feeding as expected based on passive diffusion of HMTBa across the gut wall in fish. Two free methionine peaks were measured in the serum of HMTBa-fed fish at 3-4 h and 12 h post-feeding. This suggests contributions from either HMTBa metabolism to L-methionine, tissue protein turnover or digestion of intact dietary proteins. These
40 | International AquaFeed | May-June 2013

More Information:
1The Key Laboratory of Mariculture, Ocean

University of China, China Email: wzhang@ouc.edu.cn
2Novus International Inc., USA

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SHRIMP
Welcome to Expert Topic. Each issue will take an in-depth look at a particular species and how its feed is managed.
42 | International AquaFeed | May-June 2013

EXPERT TOPIC

EXPERT T●PIC

1 6 3 2 4
1

5

Shrimp
Farmed shrimp was a $US10.6 billion industry in 2005 (WWF). The species is one of the fastest growing in aquaculture with an approximate rate of 10 percent annually. The production of whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei, formerly Penaeus vannamei) in particular, generated the highest value of major cultured species at $US11.3 billion. L. vannamei was first cultivated in Florida in 1973 from larvae spawned and shipped from a wild-caught mated female from Panama. In 1976, due to good pond results and adequate nutrition, the culture of L. vannamei began in South and Central America. By the early 1980s, through intensive breeding and rearing techniques, L. vannamei was being developed in the USA (including Hawaii), and much of Central and South America (FAO). L. vannamei is popular because of its high yield and short grow out period. The yield per hectare is up to three times that of the giant tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon). The grow out period is also shorter for L. vannamei, 60-90 days, compared to 90-120 days for P. monodon. Overall, it costs about half as much to produce a kilo of L. vannamei as it does to produce a kilo of P. monodon.

China
production) in 2003 and hit 700,000 tonnes in 2004 (Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific). More
information:

Although, L. vannamei was introduced into Asia in 1978-9, it was not until 1996 that the species was cultivated on a commercial scale. First in Mainland China and Taiwan and subsequently to the Philippines, Indonesia, Vietnam, Thailand, Malaysia and India. The largest seafood producer and exporter in the world, China also boasts a large L. vannamei production industry, with Mainland China producing more than 270,000 metric tonnes in 2002. Production reached an estimated 300,000 metric tonnes (71% of the country’s total shrimp

www.enaca.org

by Marnie Snell

May-June 2013 | International AquaFeed | 43

EXPERT T●PIC

2

India

3

Ecuador

In the 1990s, Indian shrimp aquaculture experienced rapid growth. Production increased from 30,000 tonnes in 1990 to 102,000 tonnes in 1999 (FAO). This expansion brought economic success for the country. By the start of the 21st century, the shrimp aquaculture sector accounted 1.6 percent of Indian export earnings and employed an estimated 200,000 people. Yet the development of shrimp aquaculture has become more controversial. The introduction of L. vannamei in 2009 has led to widespread illegal farming and posed the threat of disease. However, there are organisations dedicated to tackling the problem. One example is the Coastal Aquaculture Authority (CAA) which aims to shut down unregistered shrimp hatcheries and farms. The scale of the issue is rather large as out of 14,549 CAA registered farms, just 246 have permission to cultivate whiteleg shrimp. More
information:

The 1970s set a president for the development of Ecuador’s shrimp farming industry. L. vannamei, captured from the beach surf was transferred into 20-hectare ponds that Ecuadorian producers built on mud flats. During the mid-1970s, animal feed and pet food company, Ralston Purina began conducting pond trials in Ecuador to demonstrate the benefits of feeding. As land and labour were cheap, disease was rare and wild seed was in abundance, the shrimp farming business was profitable and by 1977, approximately 3,000 hectares of extensive shrimp farms had been developed in Ecuador. As a result, shrimp feed mills were developed during the 1980s, marking the transition of Ecuadorian farms from extensive to semi-intensive production. More
information:

2
T

www.fao.org/docrep/x8080e/x8080e08.htm www.thehindu.com/news/cities/Vijayawada/article2878953.ece

www.shrimpnews.com/FreeReportsFolder/ HistoryFolder/HistoryWorldShrimpFarming/ ChamberlainsHistoryOfShrimpFarming.html

4

Brazil
5

India’s indigenous shrimp
h e R a j i v G a n d h i C e n t r e fo r Aquaculture (RGCA) in Tamil Nadu, India has produced a specific pathogen free variety of shrimp. The new variety is set to help commercial shrimp farmers and boost India’s seafood exports. The selectively bred mother shrimps are capable of producing quality seeds that harness higher growth and survival rates. Until now, Indian shrimp hatcheries imported such brood stock from the USA, Thailand and Singapore, resulting in high shipping costs and big transit losses. The average cost of brood stock was estimated at Rs5,000. It is estimated that 80 percent of India’s shrimp farmers are small scale - the quality of seeds largely affects their crop success. Due to the high costs, some hatcheries have been sourcing brood stock from shrimp ponds, which ultimately results in the production of poor quality seeds and subsequent crop loss to farmers.

Although shrimp farming was already operational during the 1980s, it was the introduction of L. vannamei in 1992 that allowed for a swift expansion in Brazil’s shrimp farming industry. Shrimp culture is now one of the most organised sectors within Brazilian aquaculture. In 2003, the total production of L. vannamei reached 90,190 tonnes produced from 14,824 ha of shrimp ponds. In some states, productivity reached 8,700 kg/ha/year with the best yields obtained in the northeast region. With exports reaching 60,000 tonnes in 2003, representing 60.5% of the total Brazilian fishery export and generating US $230 million for the Brazilian economy, shrimp culture is now one of the most important economic activities in the Northeast region. Most of the shrimp farms are small scale (75 %), followed by medium (9.6%) and large scale (5.52%). The average yield increased from 1 015 kg/ha/year in 1997 to 6,084 kg/ ha/year in 2003, compared to an international average of 958 kg/ha/year (FAO). More
information:

Thailand

Shrimp farming has been practised in Thailand for more than 30 years, with its development expanding rapidly during the mid-1980s. This expansion was supported by advances in shrimp feed and the successful production of larvae in 1986. The most popular shrimp cultivated in the country is the giant tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon) which accounts for 98 percent of shrimp production and around 40 percent of total brackish water aquaculture production (FAO). L. vannamei was first introduced to Thailand in the late 1990s as an alternative to the native P. monodon. The production of L. vannamei in Thailand rapidly increased from 10,000 metric tons in 2002 (Briggs et al. 2004) to approximately 300,000 metric tons in 2004, which comprised 80 percent of total marine shrimp production. More
information:

www.fao.org/fishery/countrysector/naso_brazil/en
44 | International AquaFeed | May-June 2013

www.fao.org/fishery/countrysector/naso_thailand/en

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6
Cause of EMS detected
he pathogen which causes early mortality syndrome (EMS) has been identified by researchers at the University of Arizona, USA. A research team led by Donald Lighter found that EMS, or more technically known as acute hepatopancreatic necrosis syndrome (AHPNS), is caused by a bacterial agent, which is transmitted orally, colonizes the shrimp gastrointestinal tract and produces a toxin that causes tis-

T

sue destruction and dysfunction of the shrimp digestive organ known as the hepatopancreas. The disease was first recorded in China in 2009 and has since spread to Vietnam (2011), Thailand (2012) and Malaysia (2012). EMS kills shrimp between 10-40 days after the post-larval stage with mortalities of up to 70 percent. Shrimp that survive suffer from stunted growth and tale twice as long to achieve significant grow out. The economic impact of EMS is perhaps yet to be fully felt. However, the disease is one of the most significant reasons in the fall in Thai shrimp production. In 2010, the country produced 600,000 toms of shrimp but by 2012, this figure has fallen to 500,000 tons, a drop of around 18 percent. Lightner’s team identified the EMS pathogen as a unique strain

of a relatively common bacterium, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, that is infected by a virus known as a phage, which causes it to release a potent toxin. A similar phenomenon occurs in the human disease cholera, where a phage makes the Vibrio cholerae bacterium capable of producing a toxin that causes cholera’s lifethreatening diarrhea. EMS however, is not a danger to people. Research continues on the development of diagnostic tests for rapid detection of the EMS pathogen that will enable improved management of hatcheries and ponds, and help lead to a long-term solution for the disease. It will also enable a better evaluation of risks associated with importation of frozen shrimp or other products from countries affected by EMS. Some countries have implemented policies that restrict the importation of frozen shrimp

or other products from EMSaffected countries. Lightner said frozen shrimp likely pose a low risk for contamination of wild shrimp or the environment because EMS-infected shrimp are typically very small and do not enter international commerce. Also, his repeated attempts to transmit the disease using frozen tissue were unsuccessful. In an effort to learn from past epidemics and improve future policy, the World Bank and the Responsible Aquaculture Foundation, a charitable education and training organisation founded by the Global Aquaculture Alliance, initiated a case study on EMS in Vietnam in July 2012. Its purpose was to investigate the introduction, transmission and impacts of EMS, and recommend management measures for the public and private sectors.

46 | International AquaFeed | May-June 2013

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The nutritional performance and digestibility of macroalgaederived meals have been tested in formulated diets for shrimp. One of the aspects requiring further research is represented by the loss of nutritional properties occurring when the macroalgal biomass is dried out as compared when the algal biomass is ingested as live Juvenile Pacific white shrimp feeding on U. clathrata biomass. macroalgal biomass. Long fecal Several nutritional methodstrands are frequently related ologies have been used to evaluto fast gut transit ate the performance of different ingredients used or proposed for aquaculture feeds. The use of stable isotopes years under a patented technology developed as tools to assess nutritional contributions of by Aonori Aquafarms Inc. By applying this specific ingredients to growth is one of many methodology, macroalgae biomass is rapidly emerging nutritional techniques applied in grown in ponds without eliciting detrimental effects to the environment. aquaculture. The chemical composition of macroalgae varies among species and environmental con- Evaluation of macroalgae in ditions; however, most are rich in non-starch shrimp nutrition studies polysaccharides, vitamins, and minerals. In Although it has been observed that use of particular, green macroalgae (Chlorophyceae) macroalgal biomass alone as feed does not often have higher protein content than brown fulfil the nutritional requirements for optimal by Julián Gamboa-Delgado seaweeds. Such nutritional properties, in con- growth in marine shrimp, co-culture of U. PhD, research officer, Programa junction with novel macroalgae production clathrata and Pacific white shrimp L. vannamei Maricultura, Universidad Autónoma methods, have increased the interest in their has been conducted with positive results in de Nuevo León, Mexico use as dietary ingredients for aquaculture terms of lower feed utilization and improveue to their nutritional prop- diets. Additionally, there are studies that have ment of the shrimp nutritional quality, flesh erties, several species of focused on their use as additives to enhance colour and texture. Recent nutritional studies have also shown macroalgae have been used as the immunological status of the farmed animals. dietary supplements for shrimps The green macroalgae Ulva (Enteromorpha) that when dry Ulva clathrata meal is fed and other marine species. Since macroalgae clathrata, also known as aonori in Asian to Pacific white shrimp as an ingredient in represent a natural source of nutrients in countries, has worldwide distribution and due practical diets, it has an apparent digestibility the shrimp’s natural environment, attempts to its nutritional profile, has been evaluated coefficient for dry matter of 83 percent, while have been done to co-culture macroalgae as a dietary supplement for aquatic species. the same value for protein is 90 percent. U. clathrata has been mass-cultured in recent However, the high ash content and the relaand shrimps. tively low protein content of this macroalgae Table 1: Growth, survival rate and estimated consumption of formulated feed and live species prevent its dietary inclusion at high macroalgae biomass (dry weight) by juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei reared on five different levels when attempting to replace other feeding regimes for 28 days (n= 8-20, mean values ±SD) ingredients such as fishmeal.

Application of isotopic techniques to assess the nutritional performance of macroalgae in feeding regimes for shrimp

D

Feeding regime

Survival (%)

Final wet weight (mg)

Weight increase (%)

Consumed formulated feed (g) 0.94 0.81 0.43 0.14 -

Consumed U. clathrata (g) 0.40 0.44 0.65 1.32

100F 75F/25U 50F/50U 25F/75U 100U*

95 ± 13a 93 ± 11a 78 ± 11ab 60 ± 21b 23 ± 4c

995 ± 289a 1067 ± 364a 768 ± 273ab 424 ± 207b 221 ± 49c

429 467 308 125 18

Stable isotopes to assess the nutritional contribution of macroalgae
Over the last few decades, different isotopic methodologies have been adopted from the ecological sciences and have been applied to animal nutrition studies. Most elements in organic matter are present as two or more stable isotopes and heavier isotopes have a tendency to accumulate in animal tissue. For example, animal predators have higher isotopic values than their preys; therefore, a specific isotopic signature is conferred to each

Initial wet weight = 188 ±28 mg Different superscripts indicate significant differences at p<0.05 * Parameters in animals from feeding regime 100U were estimated on experimental day 21
48 | International AquaFeed | May-June 2013

Image courtsey of Alberto Pena©

EXPERT T●PIC trophic level (primary producers, herbivores, carnivores). In the case of plants and macroalgae, their carbon isotope values are strongly influenced by the type of photosynthesis they present. On the other hand, the nitrogen stable isotope values of plants and macroalgae can be easily manipulated by means of specific fertilisers, to eventually conduct nutritional studies. By using such techniques, it can be possible to determine the proportions of available dietary nutrients that have been selected, ingested and incorporated into animal tissue (Figure 1). As the average sample size required for stable isotope analysis (carbon and nitrogen) is only 1 mg of dry tissue or test diet, the technique has been very useful in larval nutrition studies. It has been employed to quantify the proportions of nutrients incorporated from live and formulated feeds in fish and crustacean larvae. Likewise, stable isotope analyses of different plant-derived ingredients (soy protein isolate, corn gluten and pea meal) have been carried out to explore the contribution of the dietary nitrogen supplied by these sources (as compared to fish meal) to shrimp growth. In the context of macroalgae as source of nutrients, isotopic techniques have been applied as nutritional tools to quantify the relative contributions of dietary carbon and nitrogen to the growth of Pacific white shrimp co-fed formulated feed and live macroalgal biomass of U. clathrata.

Experimental design
Taking advantage of the contrasting natural carbon and nitrogen stable isotope values measured in a commercial formulated feed and in live macroalgal biomass of U. clathrata, the study aimed to quantify the relative Figure 1: Carbon and nitrogen flow in shrimps produced contribution of nutriunder semi-intensive farming conditions. Bold arrows ents to the growth of indicate components that can be isotopically analyzed to Pacific white shrimp. determine their origin and fate Animals were allocated to duplicate tanks individually fitted with air lifts and connected Live macroalgae was supplied to shrimp by attaching the algal biomass to plastic to an artificial-seawater recirculation system. Feeding regimes consisted of a positive mesh units from which the algal filaments isotopic control (100% formulated feed, were constantly available and easily nibbled treatment 100F), a negative isotopic control upon by shrimp. Feeding rations and proportions were pro(100% macroalgae, treatment 100U) and three co-feeding regimes in which 75, 50, gressively adjusted in relation to the amount and 25 percent of the daily amount of con- of macroalgal biomass consumed, animal sursumed macroalgal biomass was substituted vival and sampling. Shrimp samples (whole by formulated feed (treatments 75F/25U, bodies and muscle tissue) and diet samples 50F/50U, and 25F/75U, respectively) on a were collected and pre-treated for isotopic analysis. dry weight basis. The digestibility of both feeding sources for L. vannamei has been previously Growth and survival assessed and is similarly high (>80%). There was a high variability in final wet

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May-June 2013 | International AquaFeed | 49

EXPERT T●PIC nitrogen from U. clathrata biomass than from the formulated feed (Table 2). At the end of the experiment, shrimps in treatment 75F/25U incorporated 68 percent of carbon from the formulated feed and 32 percent from the macroalgae. Shrimps under feeding regimes 50F/50U and 25F/75U incorporated significantly higher amounts of dietary carbon from U. clathrata (49 and 80%, respectively) when compared to the expected dietary carbon proportions supplied by these the co-feeding regimes (34 and 70%, respectively). Shrimp grown in co-feeding regime 75F/25U incorporated 27 percent of nitrogen from the formulated feed and the remaining 73 percent from the macroalgal biomass, while animals reared on regimes 25F/75U and 50F/50U incorporated the majority of their dietary nitrogen (98 and 96%, respectively) from the macroalgae. The lower growth attained by these animals indicated that a very high proportion of the isotopic change was due to high nitrogen metabolic turnover and not to tissue accretion. Due to its lower carbon and nitrogen contents, the macroalgal biomass had to be consumed at higher amounts in order to supply the observed elemental contributions to shrimp whole bodies and muscle tissue.

Figure 2: Carbon and nitrogen dual isotope (‰) plot of whole bodies and muscle tissue of white shrimp L. vannamei reared on feeding regimes consisting of different proportions of formulated feed and live U. clathrata biomass. Muscle tissue values for treatment 100U were estimated for day 28 from values in whole bodies. n= 2-4, mean values ±SD

weight of shrimps under the different dietary treatments; however, a clear tendency for higher growth was observed in shrimps reared on regime 75F/25U (1,067 ±364 mg, final mean weight), followed by shrimps fed only on formulated feed (995 ±289 mg). Shrimps from both feeding regimes increased their weight more than 400 percent (Table 1).

Animals fed only on U. clathrata biomass showed very low growth (221 ±49 mg) and only 23 percent of the animals in this treatment survived by day 21. Higher survival rates (93-95%) were observed in shrimps reared on feeding regimes 100F and 75F/25U, while shrimps in dietary treatments 50F/50U and 25F/75U had respective mean survival rates of 78 and 60 percent. The positive effect Table 2: Estimated contribution of dietary nitrogen supplied of supplying both, live feeds from formulated feed and live biomass of Ulva clathrata and and formulated diets has been incorporated in tissue of postlarval Pacific white shrimp L. vannamei as indicated by stable isotope analysis. recurrently observed in previous crustacean studies. Expected* Observed
Feeding regime Whole bodies Muscle tissue

The availability and incorporation of nutrients from formulated and live feeds
The higher than expected contributions of macroalgal carbon and nitrogen to shrimp growth are possibly related to the high digestibility of U. clathrata and its continuous availability for shrimp. Chemical analyses of U. clathrata have shown that it typically contains low to medium protein levels (20 - 30%) and very low lipid levels. The cell wall polysaccharides in macroalgae might represent more than half of dry algal matter, but a tentative role of the latter as energy source is unlikely as specific enzymatic activities for these polysaccharides (ulvanase, fucoidanase) have not been reported for Penaeid shrimps. Despite their lower nutrient concentration, live feed contains higher water content which contributes to higher digestibility. In contrast, formulated feed can contribute nutrients that are scarce or absent in live feed, but the incorporation of such nutrients is limited by low feed digestibility or unsuitable formulation. Previous co-feeding experiments conducted on postlarval shrimp and larval fish have shown that the supplied live feed frequently contributes higher proportions of nutrients to the growth of the consuming animals than those supplied by formulated feeds in co-feeding regimes.

75F/25U Formulated feed Ulva biomass 50F/50U Formulated feed Ulva biomass 25F/75U Formulated feed Ulva biomass 30.1a 69.9 1.0 b 99.0 3.2 b 96.8 66.1a 33.9 2.2 b 97.8 6.9 b 93.1 79.6a** 20.4 15.9 b 84.1 20.5 b 79.5

Dietary contributions from macroalgae and formulated feed
At the end of the experiment, isotopic values of shrimp tissue reared on co-feeding treatments were strongly biased towards the isotopic values of U. clathrata biomass. Figure 2 combines carbon and nitrogen stable isotope values measured in shrimps and provides a graphic indication of the total organic matter contributed by both, the formulated feed and macroalgae. Results from an isotopic mixing model indicated that shrimps in the three co-feeding regimes incorporated significantly higher amounts of dietary carbon and

*Expected proportions are estimated from the actual proportions of formulated feed and macroalgal biomass offered (on a dry weight basis) **Superscripts indicate significant differences between expected and observed dietary contributions

Conclusion
Although the live macroalgae by itself was not nutritionally complete for Pacific white shrimp, it supplied a very significant propor-

50 | International AquaFeed | May-June 2013

EXPERT T●PIC tion of structural carbon and nitrogen when co-fed with formulated feed. However, the high amount of nutrients derived from the live macroalgae biomass in co-feeding regimes supplying more than 50 percent of macroalgae, was not reflected in a fast growth increase. This was possibly due to the restriction of other nutrients in this macroalgae species. Interestingly, shrimp under the co-feeding regime supplying 75 percent of formulated feed and 25 percent of live macroalgae biomass showed higher growth rates than animals reared only on commercial formulated feed, although the difference was not statistically significant. The low levels of energy, amino acids and fatty acids in the macroalgae biomass available to shrimp, were compensated through high ingestion rates, which caused a higher incorporation of nutrients in shrimp tissue. On the other hand, it is very likely that the carbohydrates and lipids supplied by the formulated feed significantly contributed to the energy requirements of shrimp under the three co-feeding regimes. The importance of the natural productivity to shrimp grown in semi-intensively managed ponds has been widely documented. The systematic use of macroalgae in production ponds not only provides a significant nutritional supply to cultured organisms, but also offers substrate for periphyton growth and refuge for moulting shrimps. In addition, it has been demonstrated that Ulva clathrata and other macroalgae species are efficient removers of the main dissolved inorganic nutrients, hence maintaining good water quality levels in aquaculture ponds and effluents. Diverse isotopic techniques can be applied to elucidate the transfer of nutrients at the level of amino acids and fatty acids; therefore, future experimental assays might reveal what specific nutrients are contributed from the macroalgal biomass (or any other component of the natural biota) and from the supplied formulated feeds. The loss of some nutritional properties that occurs in dietary ingredients that undergo drying (or freeze drying) has not been thoroughly explained and future studies applying stable isotopes might shed some light on the differences observed when aquatic animals consume moist or dry dietary components.
natural productivity and formulated feed in semiintensive shrimp farming as indicated by natural stable isotopes. Reviews in Aquaculture In press. Gamboa-Delgado, J., M.G. Rojas-Casas, M.G. Nieto-López, L.E. Cruz-Suárez 2013. Simultaneous estimation of the nutritional contribution of fishmeal, soy protein isolate and corn gluten to the growth of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) using dual stable isotope analysis. Aquaculture 380-383: 33-40. Gamboa-Delgado, J., A. Peña-Rodríguez, L.E. CruzSuárez, D. Ricque D. 2011. Assessment of nutrient allocation and metabolic turnover rate in Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei co-fed live macroalgae Ulva clathrata and inert feed: dual stable isotope analysis. J. Shellfish Res. 30: 1–10. Moll, B. (Sinaloa Seafields International). 2004. Aquatic surface barriers and methods for culturing seaweed. International patent (PCT) no. WO 2004/093525 A2. November 4, 2004. Villarreal-Cavazos D.A. 2011. Determinación de la digestibilidad aparente de aminoácidos de ingredientes utilizados en alimentos comerciales para camarón blanco (Litopenaeus vannamei) en México. PhD Thesis. Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Mexico. http://eprints.uanl.mx/2537

References
Burtin, P. 2003. Nutritional value of seaweeds. Electron. J. Environ. Agric. Food Chem. 2:498–503. Cruz-Suárez, L.E., A. León, A. Peña-Rodríguez, G. Rodríguez-Peña, B. Moll, D. Ricque-Marie. 2010. Shrimp/Ulva co-culture: a sustainable alternative to diminish the need for artificial feed and improve shrimp quality. Aquaculture 301: 64–68. Gamboa-Delgado, J. 2013. Nutritional role of

More Information:
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22nd - 24th May 13
VIV Russia 2013, International Crocus Exhibition Center, Moscow, Russia Contact: Guus van Ham, P.O. Box 8800, 3503 RV Utrecht, The Netherlands Tel: +31 302 952302 Fax: +31 302 952809 Email: viv.russia@vnuexhibitions.com Web: www.viv.net

21st - 25th July 13
7th International Symposium on Sturgeon, Nanaimo, Canada Contact: Mario Stael Email: mario@marevent.com Web: http://iss7.viu.ca

6th - 10th October 13
Tenth International Symposium on Tilapia in Aquaculture (ISTA-10), Crowne Plaza Hotel, Givat Ram, Haaliya St. 1, Jerusalem, Israel Contact: Prof Gideon HULATA, Agricultural Research Organization, The Volcani Center, PO Box 6, Bet Dagan 50250, Israel Tel: +972 37 610692 Fax: +972 37 610799 Email: vlaqua@volcani.agri.gov.il or Email: kevfitz@ag.arizona.edu Web: www.ista10.com

7th - 9th November 13
EXPO PESCA & ACUIPERU, Centro de Exposiciones Jockey, Hipodromo de Monterrico, Lima 33, Peru Contact: Guillermo Thais, Thais Corporation S.A.C., Av. Jatosisa Mz-A, Lt-12, Urb. San Fernando – Pachacamac, Lima 19 - Peru Tel: +511 2 017820 (202) Fax: +511 2 017820 (209) Email: thais@amauta.rcp.net.pe Web: www.thaiscorp.com

9th - 12th August 13
Aquaculture Europe 2013, NTNU – Trondheim, Norway Contact: Conference manager, Slijkensesteenweg 4, 8400 Ostend, Belgium Tel: +32 59 323859 Fax: ae2013@aquaculture.cc Web: www.easonline.org

30th May 13 - 2nd June 13
Aquarama 2013, Hall 401-403, Suntec Singapore, International Convention & Exhibition Centre, 1 Raffles Boulevard, Suntec City, Singapore 039593 Contact: Ms. Jennifer Lee, 3 Pickering Street, #02-48 China Square Central, Singapore 048660 Tel: +65 65 920891 Fax: +65 64 386090 Email: Jennifer.lee@ubm.com Web: http://aquarama.com.sg/

8th - 12th October 13
Latin American & Caribbean Aquaculture 2013, Villavicencio, Colombia Contact: Mario Stael Email: eventosacuicultura2013 @unillanos.edu.co Web: http://www.was.org

9th - 12th February 14
Aquaculture America 2014, Seattle, USA Contact: Mario Stael Email: worldaqua@aol.com Web: www.was.org

9th - 12th September 13
BioMarine Business Convention 2013, World Trade Congress Centre, Halifax, NS, Canada Contact: Sylvie Couture, 1200, Montreal Road, Building M-19, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6, Canada Tel: +1 6139 912060 Fax: +1 6139 937250 Email: biomarine2013@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca Web: www.biomarine.org

7th - 11th June 14
World Aquaculture 2014, Adelaide Convention Centre, SA Australia Contact: Australia - Sarah-Jane Day, International – John Cooksey, Marevent, Begijnengracht 40, Ghent, 9000 Belgium Tel: +32 9 233 49 12 Email: sarah-jane.day @aquaculture.org.au Web: www.aquaculture.org.au

10th - 12th October 13
Shanghai International Fisheries & Seafood EXPO 2013, Shanghai New International Expo Center, Shanghai, China Contact: Shelly Zhou, Suite 1101, 11F, Xiusen Building, No. 129 South Laiting Rd, Songjiang District, Shanghai, 201615, China Tel: +86 13818 503302 Fax: +86 2167 759097 Email: shelly.zhou@gehuaexpo.com Web: www.sifse.com/en

5th - 7th June 13
INDO LIVESTOCK 2013 EXPO & FORUM, Bali Nusa Dua Convention Center, Bali, Indonesia Contact: Didit Siswodwiatmoko / Devi Ardiatne, Jl. Kelapa Sawit XIV Blok M1 No. 10, Kompleks Billy & Moon, Pondok Kelapa Jakarta 13450, Indonesia Tel: +62 218 644756 ext: 118 & 123 Fax: +62 218 650963 Email: info@indolivestock.com Web: www.indolivestock.com

22nd - 27th September 13
20th Annual Practical Short Course on Aquaculture Feed Extrusion, Nutrition and Feed Management, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, USA Contact: Mian N Riaz, Food Protein R&D Center, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, USA Tel: +1 9798 452774 Fax: +1 9798 452744 Email: mnriaz@tamu.edu Web: www.tamu.edu/extrusion

14th - 17th October 14
Aquaculture Europe 2014, San Sebastian, Spain Contact: Mario Stael Email: ae14@aquaculture.cc Web: www.easonline.org

INDUSTRY Events

26th - 30th May 15
World Aquaculture 2015, Jeju Island, Korea Contact: Mario Stael Email: worldaqua@aol.com Web: www.was.org

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Registration open for International Symposia on Sturgeons
egistration for the 7th International Symposium on Sturgeons, July 21- 25, 2013, co-hosted by Vancouver Island University (VIU) and the City of Nanaimo, Canada is now open. The International Symposia on Sturgeons (ISS) are held at four-year inter vals to provide a global platform to assess the progress made in both conservation and aquaculture but also to discuss and develop sciencebased recommendations that ser ve as guiding principles for future research and management measures. ISS7 presents a unique opportunity to discuss issues critical to sturgeons in the 21st centur y. The challenges include both the current dire future of many feral populations and the promise of sturgeon hatcheries to support ecological (conservation/restoration) and economic (food production) benefits to society. During the past decade awareness of the economic and ecological importance of the rapidly dwindling sturgeon populations has grown in most of the range states. As identified by the IUCN-WSCS workshop associated with the 6th International Symposium on Sturgeons (ISS6, October 2009, Wuhan, China), the conservation status of most sturgeon stocks largely deteriorated over the past 15 years with P i e r r e E r we s , e xe c u t i ve chairman, BioMarine, says, “By putting forward the best practices of business in developing the marine bio-resources, we are actively working on concrete solutions to feed, heal and fuel the planet. This sustainable development will pave the way for future generations. We are investing in the building of a new domain which will create thousands of jobs, business opportunities and millions in investment. The bio marine sector accounts for over $176 billion each year! We are looking to harvest this amazing potential in a new sustainable way.” The ocean is our last truly unexplored resource, a resource we cannot afford to waste. Its size, its community, the producers and the expositors that were at the World Aquaculture Society Meeting in Nashville back in February. “The vision of Latin American and Caribbean World Aquaculture Society (LACC-WAS) is to integrate the scientific community with the producers’ groups within the region. This should attract new members to the Chapter and will directly benefit all members of the LACC-WAS, “ said Dr Antonio Garza de Yta, president-elect of the LACC-WAS. “The excellent work that the organising committee of some species now facing extinction. Therefore, the international community and governments in range states are extremely concerned about the future of sturgeon stocks and extensive efforts to improve conservation and rehabilitation measures have been developed in a number of range states. However, there is an urgent need to not only intensify the efforts but also to vigorously enforce the protection plans and measures proposed in a harmonized manner. Conversely, market demand for caviar and meat is growing creating ample opportunities for sturgeon aquaculture. This development inherits both benefits and risks in particular for the design and operation of sturgeon hatcheries. role in the ecosphere and its potential in human sustainable development make it key to our future. The BioMarine platform is a new source of economic development, one where the value chains and the business models are still in development. The world of marine bioresources is a complex mosaic of fastchanging industries spanning a wide variety of markets including: aquaculture, animal feed, human nutrition, cosmetics and nutraceuticals. The biomarine economy encompasses industries specializing in the extraction, development and valorization of marine bioresources and marine bioapplications. An emerging economy, the biomarine industry is a transversal platform that only now is aggregating around its common denominators: biotechUniversidad de Llanos, led by Drs Pablo Emilio Cruz Casallas, Yohana M.Velasco Santamaría and Mauricio Medina Robles ensures that this will be a world class event,” he said. Organisations from Ecuador, Chile, Brazil and Mexico have confirmed participation in the event. Scientists from the United States, Europe, Asia and Australia have expressed their interest in par ticipating; making certain that this would be a regional event with a global perspective. Although there will be a high emphasis on the aquaculture of indigenous species, special attention While aquaculture will necessarily focus on domestication of stocks with selection of specific target traits, culture for release demands strategies to increase genetic variability and avoid domestication effects. Good science is required to strategically increase dual benefits. There is a need to develop standardised guidelines, protocols and manuals that specifically serve both purposes. Concurrently, proper identification of product origin and traceability to the market are essential for effective enforcement to prevent illegal trade. ISS7 is an oppor tunity to address the above concerns and contribute to the science-based management of sturgeons. http://iss7.viu.ca

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Investing in the future of marine bioresources at the BioMarine Business Convention

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he next edition of BioMar ine will take place in Halifax, Canada, September 9-12, 2013, co-organised with the National Research Council of Canada. CEOs and executives of companies investing in marine bio resources from around the world will gather to move forward the business agenda for this new emerging industry. Government representatives and experts will also participate in the discussions.

nology and the oceans. It is a new and innovative means for economic growth and job creation. The 2013 BioMarine Business Convention in Halifax will address marine natural products for health, environment and personal care; algae, aquaculture and aquafeed marine biotechnologies; marine biofouling and biotechnologies; as well as a specific focus on challenges facing the international marine ingredients industry. The agenda includes innovations and developments of bioactive and nutritional ingredients for use in cosmetics, foods, functional foods, food supplements, feed, aquaculture, nutraceuticals, pharmaceuticals, biotechnology and cleantech. www.biomarine.org

Interest growing in Latin American aquaculture day

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he IV Latin American Conference of Indigenous Species, the XIX Aquaculture Day of the University of los Llanos, the Latin American and Caribbean Aquaculture (LACQUA 13) and the VI Aquaculture Forum will take place simultaneously in Villavicencio, Colombia, October 8-11, 2013. The event generated much interest between the scientific

will also be given to species of commercial significance such as tilapia and shrimp, aiming to maximize the participation of local producers. To reach this goal, Acuinor te, an impor tant Aquaculture Association of the region, is directly involved in the event organisation. It is expected that LACQUA 13 will be a huge success that will set open up a new world of aquaculture in the Latin-American and Caribbean region. www.conferenciapecesnativos2013.com

May-June 2013 | International AquaFeed | 55

Making Sense of Science
Knowledge management to support technological development and innovation
EAS Premium Sponsors

www.easonline.org

Trondheim, Norway August 9-12, 2013
Organised by the European Aquaculture Society in cooperation with the Nor Fishing Foundation

just before Aqua Nor 2013

Photo: Alistair Lane (left) meets King Harald V of Norway at the 2009 Aqua Nor event, held just after AE2009 in Trondheim

INDUSTRY Events
"Like all EAS AE events, Aquaculture Europe 2013 is targeted at all, from whatever branch or sector, that are interested in the latest research findings and their application across a broad range of topics, species and activities"

What have been the biggest successes of the event in the past? Trondheim, Norway
August 9-12, 2013 l i s t a i r L a n e , e xe c u tive director, European Aquaculture Society, Belgium talks to International Aquafeed’s Alice Neal about Aquaculture Europe 2013. The early AE events were generally conferences only, sometimes linked to existing trade exhibitions and attracting 3-500 participants. In 2007, the European Aquaculture Society (EAS) board expressed its desire to increase the size and impor tance of the event, by incorporating our own trade show, and various special sessions (such as the Farmer’s Day or Industry Forum), as well as other special workshops. AE is also a platform for project consor tia or association meetings, and this has contributed to the increase in attendance. AE2010 in Porto attracted 1072 participants from 55 countries and AE2011 in Rhodes, 1029 from 52. This is the size of event that we were aiming at and in general, AE events are held in October so that as people plan their events, EAS becomes their annual October event.

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Can you tell us a bit about the history of Aquaculture Europe?
The Aquaculture Europe conferences started in 1981, with a ‘World aquaculture’ event held in Venice. Since then, it has become an annual event to bring people involved in the development of European aquaculture together. Each Aquaculture Europe (AE) event has a theme, and although the parallel sessions are linked to the theme, the idea is to keep it a gener al event, so that all can find their specific area of interest, but at the same time, par ticipate in sessions that are outside their direct activity. In this way, the AE events remain ‘gener al’ aquaculture conferences, and we consider this an advantage for delegates involved in research, production, supply or policy, but also those that are looking at aquaculture ‘for the first time’ and wish to get a helicopter view of the latest knowledge and its applications.

What is new, however, is the theme of AE2013. The theme Making Sense of Science - will focus on knowledge management to suppor t technological development and innovation. Making sense of science implies setting priorities for knowledge generation; using the best people and infrastructure to create the knowledge and using the most suitable communication channels to ensure maximum impact of the results for all the different players in the value chain as well as for the end users. It’s possibly the first time that we have really focused on what we now term ‘knowledge management’, but this said, the dissemination, communication and transfer of knowledge is was EAS is all about, and the theme of this year’s event actually underlines the whole research ‘raison d’être’.

that will be held on the Aqua Nor site at the Trondheim Spektrum. This will take the format of short presentations and panel discussions on several hot topics of interest to the cold water marine sector.

What are the most important issues in aquaculture at the moment?
There are many – as usual! We have issues on the use of nonruminant co-products in aquaculture feeds, better management of the growth cycle of aquaculture species, non-chemical treatment of parasites and a whole host of others. On the political front, we are awaiting the European Commission strategic guidelines for aquaculture that could help Member States to simplify administrative procedures especially for licencing; secure allocation of water and space in coordinated spatial planning and promote business diversification to provide additional sources of income and sustainable growth.

Who is the event aimed at?
Like all EAS AE events, AE2013 is targeted at all, from whatever branch or sector, that are interested in the latest research findings and their application across a broad range of topics, species and activities.

What new for Aquaculture Europe 2013?
Nothing new in the format, in that the events since 1995 have been held in Trondheim, Norway ever y two years and since 2009, every four years, to coincide with the Aqua Nor exhibition, and we have had an excellent relationship with the Nor Fishing Foundation and with the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, where the conference is held.

What can exhibitors expect to see and do?
As AE2013 will be held just prior to Aqua Nor 2013, we will not be organising our own trade event. But all AE2013 delegates have free admission to Aqua Nor and on its opening day (August 13, 2013), we are organising an Industry Forum,

How does Aquaculture Europe reflect these issues?
Aquaculture Europe 2013 is all about communicating knowledge. We have increasing knowledge on any and all of the above issues, but we still need to be better at identifying the users of that knowledge and how our messages should be communicated to them.

May-June 2013 | International AquaFeed | 57

INDUSTRY Events
Plenary speakers at Aquaculture Europe 2013
quaculture Europe 2013 held in Trondheim, Norway, August 9-12, 2013, will address the issue of 'Making sense of science'. We take a look at three key plenary speakers to see what's “Can we achieve Value Creation from Research?” in store for this year's event.
Dr. Reid Hole, Dean of Faculty of Bioscience and Aquaculture, University of Nordland (Norway),
Chairman of AquaTT. reid.hole@uin.no

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University of Life Sciences (UMB) at Aas, Norway.

Key points
The relation between genotype and phenotype can be conceptualized as a genotype-phenotype map (GP map), assigning a phenotype to each possible genotype. The GP map concept applies to any time point in the ontogeny of a living system and it is an abstraction of a relation that is the outcome of very complex dynamics that include environmental effects. An understanding of this dynamics has the potential to become transformative also for the aquaculture sector. However, it demands introduction of methodology and concepts that go far beyond what is contained in current genome- mapping paradigms. The talk will focus on the challenges involved in filling the genotype-pheAquaculture Europe 2013 – Invited Plenary Speakers notype gap with causal content and “What is driving innovation? Theory & Practice” point to possible practical implicaProf. Arild Aspelund tions.
, Professor in International Marketing, IØT NTNU, Norway. Arild.Aspelund@iot.ntnu.no

Getting ready for

Dr Reid Hole

Reid left Nutreco in 2005 to establish his own consulting organisation - RH Consulting. Through his work with RH Consulting, Reid has joined taskforces for large biotech companies as well as overseeing the floatation of companies to the stock market. He has also been involved in the foundation of biotech companies, including GenderGuide AS. Reid has served as a board member for many organisations and companies. He is a current board member of the following: Pharmaq AS; the Bionær programme (the Research Council of Norway); the Norwegian Board of Technology (an advisory body to the Norwegian government); and AquaTT. He has previously served as a board member of e.g. Nofima AS; AKVAFORSK AS; Nutreco subsidiaries; and the Fishery Industries Advisory Board (FAO subsidiary). Though Reid is still involved with RH Consulting, it is through his current academic post as Dean of the Faculty of Bioscience and Aquaculture at the University of Nordland that he continues to promote his long-held interest in innovation and value creation from scientific research.

Key points of his presentation: At a time of significant public research budget constraint and intensive global competition, it is crucial for the EU to safeguard its sources of future growth and jobs. Europe must create an environment conducive to innovation and where there is a measurable return on research investment. Returns can include environmental, economic or societal benefits. Europe is consistently falling short of turning R&D results into commercial opportunities, innovations and jobs. The presentation will include aspects of the following;

'Can we achieve Value Creation from Research?' by Dr Reid Hole, dean of the Faculty of Bioscience and Aquaculture, University of Nordland, Norway, Chairman of AquaTT.

In a career spanning over 35 years, Dr. Reid Hole has considerable aquaculture, industry, research and academic experience. Reid’s early research interests and skill set led to his appointment to manage a task force to establish a permanent animal research centre, including a laboratory, in the north of Norway (Bodø). Following his doctoral research, Reid was approached by Skretting AS and invited to become R&D manager for its agriculture and aquaculture businesses. Reid subsequently became Nutreco’s International Aquaculture R&D manager and established Nutreco ARC AS, an R&D organisation known today as Skretting ARC AS. In 2000, Reid was appointment as Director of Technology and Development at Nutreco. Later, he became Nutreco's Director of Food Safety.

Trondheim, Norway August 13-16, 2013
eddy bears have picnics in the woods; aquaculturists have conferences in Trondheim. The Norwegian city is a little off the beaten track but it has served as the meeting point for the global aquaculture industry for over 30 years. Aqua Nor started as a small sideshow to a conference on smolt production, which was held in Trondheim in 1979. About 20 companies wanted to exhibit their equipment and technology, and the show was a big hit. It was run by the organisers of the fisheries exhibition Nor-Fishing, which held its first show back in 1960. As the exhibition developed rapidly, it was given the name Aqua Nor and made into a more international show. It has been held once ever y two years since, and always in Trondheim. Today Aqua Nor is the largest aquaculture technology exhibition in the world and is conveniently held just after the conference held by the Aquaculture Europe conference. In 2013 Aqua Nor will have about 550 exhibitors from around 30 countries, and the organisers, the Nor-Fishing Foundation, expect some 17,000 – 20,000 visitors from over 60 countries. The large fish feed companies have decided to par ticipate again as exhibitors after being absent from the last two shows. As these compa-

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Key points
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__________________________________________________________________________________

INDUSTRY Events

ng the genotype -phenotype map and its practical

Research Professor at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology m and at the Norwegian University of Life Sciences (UMB) at Aas, Norway. o

At a time of significant public research budget constraint and intensive global competition, it is crucial for the EU to safeguard its sources of future growth and jobs. Europe must create an environment conducive to innovation and where there is a measurable return on research investment. Returns can include environmental, economic or societal benefits. Europe is consistently falling short of turning R&D results into commercial opportunities, innovations and jobs. The presentation will include aspects of the following; • Definition of value creation .... Role of science and research in an applied sector like aquaculture... • Who is responsible for value creation? And how do we incentivise them? • How do we prioritise research agendas and how can the current research funding cycle be improved to drive innovation and ultimately value creation? • Learning from past initiatives

Definition of value creation …. Role of science and research in an applied sector like aquaculture… Who is responsible for value creation? And how do we incentivise them? How do we prioritise research agendas and how can the current research funding cycle be improved to drive innovation and ultimately value creation? Learning from past initiatives (MarineTT and Aquainnova)

Arild Aspelund

'What is driving innovation? Theory & Practice' by Prof Arild Aspelund, Professor in International Marketing, IØT NTNU, Norway.

Arild Aspelund is Professor at the Department for Industrial Economics and Technology Management (IØT) at NTNU. He is currently Vice Program Director of the Norwegian Research School in Innovation (NORSI) and heads a research group in Global Production and Communication under NTNU’s Globalization Programme. He is also coordinator for NTNU's executive education on Strategy and Business Development. His primary academic interests lie in the intersection between innovation, entrepreneurship and international business. His academic contributions seek to address how innovations and entrepreneurial activities make new industries emerge, grow, internationalize and ultimately create international economic growth and prosperity.

Key points of his presentation: Pretty much all models for economic development agree that innovation and entrepreneurship are the drivers for economic growth and prosperity in societies, but what is driving innovation and entrepreneurship? In this presentation Arild Aspelund will address this issue by providing examples from different industries where new innovations and new entry have creates substantial value for the society. We seek to understand where these initiatives come from and what characterizes industries and organizations that consistently are able to deliver high quality innovations.

Key points
Pretty much all models for economic development agree that innovation and entrepreneur ship are the driver s for economic growth and prosperity in societies, but what is driving innovation and entrepreneurship? In this presentation Arild Aspelund will address this issue by providing examples from different industries where new innovations and new entry have creates substantial value for the society. We seek to understand where these initiatives come from and what characterises industries and organisations that consistently are able to deliver high quality innovations.
__________________________________________________________________________________

rector of the Centre for Integrative UMB and Kristine Bonnevie ntre for Ecological and at the University of Oslo. He is now ablished cross-campus me at NTNU, named NTNU nfluence of Life Sciences, and Engineering.

e years worked on a wide range of ding sociobiology, biogerontology, g of brain physiology, the g, linking genetics theory with tablish a real quantitative genetics volution of single-celled eukaryotes, iovascular modelling, the etiology e ultimate reasons for why the k flesh. Omholt played a key role in ell as the funding of the Atlantic ncing Project. He was also involved e Atlantic cod genome.

Prof Stig Omholt

sentation: n genotype and phenotype can be conceptualized as a genotype-phenotype map a phenotype to each possible genotype. The GP map concept applies to any time y of a living system and it is an abstraction of a relation that is the outcome of cs that include environmental effects. An understanding of this dynamics has me transformative also for the aquaculture sector. However, it demands odology and concepts that go far beyond what is contained in current genomeThe talk will focus on the challenges involved in filling the genotype-phenotype ent and point to possible practical implications.

'Understanding the genotypephenotype map and its practical implications' by Prof Stig Omholt, research professor at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) in Trondheim and at the Norwegian

nies play an important role in the development of modern, science based aquaculture, the show organisers are extremely pleased and proud to welcome them back. The event is aimed at pretty much anyone and ever yone involved in aquaculture from researchers, financial organisations and gover nment officials to technicians and equipment suppliers. “One of the most impor tant features of Aqua Nor is that it is a forum where you meet pract i c a l ly e ve r y b o d y i n t h e business. I believe that the meeting place is as important as the actual show,” says Erik Hempel, director of communications, Nor-Fishing Foundation, Norway. With such a wide spectrum of visitors, many technology companies choose to introduce new innovations at Aqua Nor. To encourage this, the organisers, introduced the Innovation Award, which is given to the best new product or process that is introduced in the past year. In addition to getting a heads up on the latest innovations and technology, the exhibition is also has space debate the hottest issues in aquaculture. “I believe that fighting disease is impor tant, as always. In the salmon industry we have problems with sea lice, and there are a number of companies and research institutes who are fighting that. “And then there is the problem of giving the aquaculture industry a good image. Many environmental organisations and special interest or ganisations are fighting against aquaculture, in spite the fact that most exper ts agree that this is the way to

__________________________________________________________________

May-June 2013 | International AquaFeed | 58

INDUSTRY Events INDUSTRY Events
go if the world is going to be able to produce enough food fish for a growing population,” says Hempel. These issues, and others, will be the subject of a series of mini-seminars and discussion groups during the exhibition. For example, there will be a short, mid-day session every day called Speaker’s Corner, where experts, politicians and scientists debate the biggest issues. Trondheim is ready for the aquaculture invasion, are you? More
information:

Website: http://nor-fishing.no

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is a trademark of Novus International, Inc., and is registered in the United States and other countries. TM SOLUTIONS SERVICE SUSTAINABILITY is a trademark of Novus International, Inc. ©2012 Novus International, Inc. All rights reserved. 2978
is a trademark of Novus International, Inc., and is registered in the United States and other countries. TM SOLUTIONS SERVICE SUSTAINABILITY is a trademark of Novus International, Inc. ©2012 Novus International, Inc. All rights reserved. 2978

www.buhlergroup.com
Pro-Bind plus Gelko Hemoglobin Powder MucoPro Kerapro
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PAUL HEDFELD Gmbh tapco inc VAV aandrijvingen bv

Wynveen International b.v. Tel: +31 (0)26 479 06 99 info@wynveen.com

Equipment for sale
A Foeth BV Condex (UK) Ltd

www.wynveen.com
Versatility in feed processing

COLOUR SORTING

HATCHERY PRODUCTS
Reed Mariculture Inc

HATCHERY FEEDS & SUPPLIES
www.satake-group.com
Filter Screen Supply Ltd

The easiest to use, cleanest and most e ective feeds on the market

www.reed-mariculture.com

1-877-732-3276

60 | International AquaFeed | May-June 2013

CLASSIFIED ADVERTS
PELLET BINDERS Services (publications)
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Vacuum
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A&J Mixing Andritz Feed & Biofuel
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AQUACULTURE

NEWS
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The Aquaculturist
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Versatility in feed processing

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Process technologies, plants, and aftermarket service. Global supplies for the aqua feed and petfood mindustry

The Aquaculturists blog is an online offshoot of International Aquafeed magazine. While the bi-monthly magazine covers aquafeed issues in-depth, the Aquaculturists takes a lighter approach. The columnists dig out the best daily aquaculture stories, show and event news and highlights from the print magazine and bring them to you ever day ...

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Innovative and proven yeast products in aquaculture
For more information:

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May-June 2013 | International AquaFeed | 61

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GLOBAL

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The aquafeed interview
P
eter Coutteau was first introduced to aquaculture as an undergraduate at the University of Gent, Belgium in the 1980s. Since his career has spanned both the academic and business sides of the industry working at the Laboratory for Aquaculture & Artemia Reference Center and the INVE group respectively. Following a restructuration of the INVE group in January 2009, all activities of INVE Aquaculture related to feedmill specialties and farm nutrition, including the support team, research activities, test centers and product lines of aquaculture additives, were incorporated into Nutriad, global supplier of specialty additives in aquaculture and agriculture. Coutteau setup Nutriad’s specialised business unit to further develop the feed additive business in aquaculture. Nutriad had been active in aquaculture since the very beginning but lacked a species-specific focus for aqua.

The aquafeed interview
Peter Coutteau, Nutriad’s specialised business unit

Natural ingredients and nature play a big role in your products and the promotion of the company. Why this emphasis?
The use of natural alternatives to antibiotics and synthetic products is a growing trend in the feed industry. Our logo ‘Applying Nature’ can be found in the basics of most of our feed additives. The application of natural compounds derived from a variety of sources including yeasts, botanicals, peptides, and animal by-products is at the top of the agenda of our researchers in the different species. The list of activities we source from natural compounds includes bactericide action, digestive stimulation, immune-stimulation, anti-oxidants, antiparasitics to name a few.

under conditions where cost efficiency is calling for lower cost feeds and higher culture density in the farm. From a business perspective, aquaculture production of many species is still under full organisation and that affects all the stakeholders in the industry. The salmon industry is the most structured aqua industry in terms of legislation, organisation of the processing chain and export activity, transparency, health prevention and genetic programs. We are seeing similar developments in other major producing countries such as the shrimp industry in Thailand and pangasius in Vietnam but there is still a long way to go and a lot of aquaculture volume continues to be produced in less organised business environments.

Why/how are Nutriad additives ‘smart’?
Additives are ‘smart’ when they are based on a solid understanding of market and customer needs. Also, they need to be designed through a creative approach to product development, which is combining fundamental knowledge, lab testing and field verification to reach a solution that is satisfactory in terms of efficacy but at the same time realistic in terms of time required to reach the solution and cost for the end-user. The result is an effective solution for animal nutrition and health challenges faced by our customers.

How is Nutriad responding to these various challenges?
The aquafeed market offers great opportunities for the development of innovative feed additives. There is still an enormous potential to reduce feed cost and improve health prevention through dietary supplements. The significant improvements in production efficiency and cost observed during field-testing of some of our digestibility enhancers and health promoting additives confirm this potential. However, this industry is fragmented over many different species and regions, each with their specific challenges and problems. Therefore, only companies that invest strongly in innovation and specialised customer support can play a significant role in the development of a more sustainable and profitable aquaculture industry.

What are the biggest challenges aquaculture faces?
As Nutriad covers all species, the differences in development stages of the industry become more clear. Aquaculture has grown at a staggering speed the past two decades with several species developing from scratch: salmon, penaeid shrimp, bass, bream, tilapia, pangasius. Aquaculture is a young industry, which in practice means that producers (and their suppliers) in most countries are in the transition between the first and the second generation. The global aquafeed sector is volume wise 25 times smaller than the agri-feed industry and at the same time enormously diverse in terms of species, formulations, culture intensity, climatological and cultural conditions. This results in a geographic fragmentation of the feed business which makes it much more challenging for an additive supplier to develop a global business. By contrast the live stock business is dominated by monogastrics, swine and poultry, with more commonly accepted farming practices around the world. The aqua business is much more dynamic than the agri business, and is facing still major challenges due to its recent and fast development. From a technical point of view, reducing the impact of outbreaks of diseases and parasitic infestations on production efficiency is surely one of the biggest challenges, particularly

Food safety is very important to everyone involved in the industry. How does Nutriad ensure the safest possible products?
Food safety starts from the ingredient selection at the stage of product design. Every ingredient we use is carefully selected for quality and feed chain security. All manufacturing facilities operate to the highest quality standards and systems that are independently audited. We ensure full traceability and product integrity to our customers.

Tell us a bit more about Quorum Sensing Technology.
Nutriad is the first additive company to apply Quorum Sensing technology in practice to reduce pathogenicity of bacterial pathogens in aquaculture and livestock. Recently, Nutriad has launched new products with well-documented activities on the inhibition of quorum sensing of bacterial pathogens which result in significantly improved yields in aqua/agri production.

62 | International AquaFeed | May-June 2013

An extended version of this interview can be found on the Aquaculturists blog.

May-June 2013 | International AquaFeed | 63

INDUSTRY FACES AQUACULTURE
Hearts open but closets closed for month-long fundraiser
taff at the BC Salmon Farmers Association took part in the third annual Five Easy Pieces for Heart and Stroke fundraiser this year. The fundraiser challenged each staff member at the BCSFA to take wear just five pieces of clothing to work for the month of April, with the goal of raising $5,000 for the Heart and Stroke Foundation. “We love helping the Heart and Stroke Foundation – even if we don’t love the idea of wearing the same outfits for a month straight,” said Colleen Dane, communications manager of the BCSFA. “We do it because we know it’s a small inconvenience compared to the challenges faced by those battling heart health challenges.” Staff at the BCSFA have raised about $11,000 over the last two years through this month-long event– and they’re looking forward to growing that total with added fundraisers this year. “Increasing your consumption of salmon reduces the risk of heart disease and stroke significantly – our members are proud that they’re producing such a nutritious food, and we’re happy to help share that message,” said Mary Ellen Walling, executive director of the BCSFA. www.salmonfarmers.org

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New R&D manager for BioMar Continental Europe
ioMar senior researcher Jørgen Holm will become new R&D manager for BioMar Continental Europe. He will take over from Ole Christensen as he takes up his new position as managing director for BioMar Denmark. Holm started with BioMar in 1995 as a product developer following his education at Aarhus University in Denmark and Bergen University and Akvaforsk (now Nofima) in Norway. Holm has a wealth of experience, having worked on raw materials, nutrition and physiology in trout, Atlantic salmon, eel and Mediterranean fish species like bass and bream for almost two decades. Most recently Holm has worked in the development and implementation of the performance concept and specialised feeds for aquaculture in recirculation farming systems and he has been heading BioMar's global nutrition group. With the appointment Holm will also become a member of the management team for BioMar's continental Europe region, which comprises the BioMar factories in Spain, France, Greece, and Denmark. www.biomar.com

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Jørgen Holm

John Rolando named president of Evonik Corporation

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John Rolando

ohn Rolando, who has spent over 25 years at Evonik Corporation in ever-increasing positions of responsibility around the world, has been named president of the company. “We are pleased to have an executive of John’s caliber lead Evonik Corporation into the future,” said Klaus Engel, CEO of Essen, Germany based Evonik Industries. Rolando joined the company in 1987 and has held various marketing and management positions at Evonik Corporation and its predecessors. Prior to assuming his current role, Rolando was vice president of marketing for feed additives in Germany. He previously worked in Evonik’s Aerosil & Silanes Business Unit and also worked on Strategic Projects for the Specialty Polymers Division in North America. Rolando holds a master's in business administration from Iona College of New York, and a bachelor's in interdisciplinary engineering and management from Clarkson University, New York. http://corporate.evonik.com

Commander of the Royal Norwegian Order of Merit for Nutreco’s Wout Dekker
ing Harald of Norway has decorated Nutreco’s Wout Dekker as Commander in the Royal Norwegian Order of Merit for his contribution to Norwegian aquaculture.The award reflects the importance of aquaculture in Norway and Nutreco's contribution to its success. Wout Dekker's commitment to innovation and sustainability was important to the development of the healthy and sustainable Norwegian aquaculture industry of today. The investments made helped aquaculture become Norway's second largest export industry after oil and gas. Knut Nesse, CEO, Nutreco, said, "Substantial investments in R&D and manufacturing facilities for feed were prerequisites for the development of Nutreco's fish feed company Skretting, headquartered in Norway.These investments Wout Decker and belief in the industry secured hundreds of jobs along the coast. Wout Dekker was a key person in this process and he was deeply involved in the strategies and investments that made Norway a leading aquaculture nation." Wout Dekker has 30 years of experience in the aquaculture industry, including 12 years as for the past CEO of Nutreco until August 2012. www.nutreco.com
64 | International AquaFeed | May-June 2013

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by Marnie Snell

Fatten up your bottom line. Bühler high-performance animal and aqua feed production systems are used by leading companies around the world. These producers know they can rely not just on the technology itself, but also on the support that accompanies it. A service combining local presence with global expertise both lowers feed mill operating costs and increases capacity utilization. To find out more, visit www.buhlergroup.com

Bühler AG, Feed & Biomass, CH-9240 Uzwil, Switzerland, T +41 71 955 11 11, F +41 71 955 28 96 fu.buz@buhlergroup.com, www.buhlergroup.com

Innovations for a better world.

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