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Ancient India

Ancient India

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  • History of India
  • Vedic period
  • Historical Vedic religion
  • Vedic priesthood
  • Vedic mythology
  • Rigvedic deities
  • Indus Valley Civilization
  • List of inventions and discoveries of the Indus Valley Civilization
  • The list of inventions and discoveries of the Indus Valley
  • List of Indus Valley Civilization sites
  • This is a List of Indus Valley Civilization sites
  • Bronze Age
  • Iron Age India
  • Synoptic table of the principal old world prehistoric cultures
  • Vedic science
  • Vedas
  • Indo-Aryan peoples
  • List of Rigvedic tribes
  • Mahajanapada
  • Maurya Empire
  • Mauryan Empire
  • List of Mauryan rulers
  • Nanda Empire
  • Magadha
  • Legendary kings of Magadha
  • Pradyota dynasty
  • Haryanka dynasty
  • Shishunaga dynasty
  • Sunga Empire
  • Shunga Empire
  • Kanva dynasty
  • Gupta Empire
  • Article Sources and Contributors
  • Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors

Ancient India

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History of India Vedic period Historical Vedic religion Vedic priesthood Vedic mythology Rigvedic deities Indus Valley Civilization List of inventions and discoveries of the Indus Valley Civilization List of Indus Valley Civilization sites Bronze Age Iron Age India Synoptic table of the principal old world prehistoric cultures Vedic science Vedas Indo-Aryan peoples List of Rigvedic tribes Mahajanapada Maurya Empire List of Mauryan rulers Nanda Empire Magadha Legendary kings of Magadha Pradyota dynasty Haryanka dynasty Shishunaga dynasty Sunga Empire Kanva dynasty Gupta Empire 1 26 33 39 42 43 46 61 63 66 84 86 88 89 101 107 110 121 141 142 145 156 158 159 162 164 172 173

Article Sources and Contributors Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors 185 189

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Spread of Buddhism. Warren Hastings. Satavahana Empire The Golden Age Discoveries. which spread and flourished in the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent from c. Literature Islam in India Delhi Sultanate. Ramayana. Bengal Renaissance. Mahatma Gandhi Subhas Chandra Bose • • Outline of South Asian history History of Indian subcontinent The history of India begins with evidence of human activity of Homo sapiens as long as 75. Chanakya. Mangal Pandey. Maratha Confederacy Modern India Company Rule Zamindari system. 1857 British Indian Empire Hindu reforms.[1] The Indus Valley Civilization. 3300 to 1300 BCE in present-day . Independence struggle. Mahajanapadas Mauryan Period Economy. Philosophy.000 years ago. or with earlier hominids including Homo erectus from about 500. Aryabhata.000 years ago. Guru Nanak Mughal India Architecture. Society. Mahabharata Medieval India The Classical Age Gurjara-Pratihara Pala Empire Rashtrakuta Empire Art. Music. Vijayanagara Empire.History of India 1 History of India Part of a series on the History of India Chronology of Indian history Ancient India Prehistoric India and Vedic India Religions.

Mughal rulers introduced Central Asian art and architecture to India. is known as the "Golden Age of India".[] Beginning in the mid-18th century and over the next century. Cholas. In addition to the Mughals and various Rajput kingdoms. western. southern India. Mahavira and Gautama Buddha were born in the 6th or 5th century BCE and propagated their śramanic philosophies. Mughal rule came from Central Asia to cover most of the northern parts of the subcontinent. with its huge population generating between one fourth and one third of the world's income up to the 18th century.History of India Pakistan and northwest India. In one of these kingdoms. From this time. Balochis. During this period. during which time India has sometimes been estimated to have had the largest economy of the ancient and medieval world. and remained so for two centuries. Sikhs.500 years.[] setting the stage for several successive invasions from Central Asia between the 10th and 15th centuries CE. flourished contemporaneously in southern.[2] A sophisticated and technologically advanced urban culture developed in the Mature Harappan period. which provided opportunities for the Afghans. 2 . under the Gupta Empire. the Maratha Empire. This is known as the classical period of Indian history. and Pandyas. with various parts ruled by numerous Middle kingdoms for the next 1.[3] This Bronze Age civilization collapsed before the end of the second millennium BCE and was followed by the Iron Age Vedic Civilization. which extended over much of the Indo-Gangetic plain and which witnessed the rise of major polities known as the Mahajanapadas. administration. after which the British provinces of India were directly administered by the British Crown and witnessed a period of both rapid development of infrastructure and economic decline. Kingdoms in southern India had maritime business links with the Roman Empire from around 77 CE. The subcontinent gained independence from the United Kingdom in 1947. large areas of India were annexed by the British East India Company. and religion (Hinduism and Buddhism) spread to much of Asia. It became fragmented. and for several centuries afterwards. Much of northern and central India was united in the 4th century CE. Most of the subcontinent was conquered by the Maurya Empire during the 4th and 3rd centuries BCE. a nationwide struggle for independence was launched by the Indian National Congress and later joined by the Muslim League. culture. Magadha. was the first major civilization in South Asia. Eastern Ganga Empire and the Ahom Kingdom. Dissatisfaction with Company rule led to the Indian Rebellion of 1857. under the rule of the Chalukyas. Pallavas. such as the Vijayanagara Empire. leading to the formation of Muslim empires in the Indian subcontinent such as the Delhi Sultanate and the Mughal Empire. after the British provinces were partitioned into the dominions of India and Pakistan and the princely states all acceded to one of the new states. several independent Hindu states. witnessing a Hindu religious and intellectual resurgence. aspects of Indian civilization. and Marathas to exercise control over large areas in the northwest of the subcontinent until the British East India Company gained ascendancy over South Asia. experienced its own golden age. Muslim rule in the subcontinent began in 8th century CE when the Arab general Muhammad bin Qasim conquered Sindh and Multan in southern Punjab in modern day Pakistan. The Mughal Empire suffered a gradual decline in the early 18th century. eastern and northeastern India respectively. This period. from 2600 to 1900 BCE. During the first half of the 20th century.

[9] However.[4][5] Tools crafted by proto-humans that have been dated back two million years have been discovered in the northwestern part of the subcontinent. The first urban civilization of the region began with the Indus Valley Civilization. India (c.[][8] Traces of a Neolithic Stone age (5000 BC) writings of Edakkal Caves in culture have been alleged to be submerged in the Gulf of Khambat Kerala. Pakistan.[][] The ancient history of the region includes some of South Asia's oldest settlements[] and some of its major civilizations.[6][] The earliest archaeological site in the subcontinent is the palaeolithic hominid site in the Soan River valley. Early Neolithic culture in South Asia is represented by the Bhirrana findings (7500 BCE)in Haryana. in the lower Gangetic valley around 3000 BCE.[] Soanian sites are found in the Sivalik region across what are now India. India.000 years ago.[7] Bhimbetka rock painting.History of India 3 Prehistoric era Stone Age Isolated remains of Homo erectus in Hathnora in the Narmada Valley in central India indicate that India might have been inhabited since at least the Middle Pleistocene era. Pakistan. in India.000 years ago in the Bhimbetka rock shelters in modern Madhya Pradesh. and in later South India. the one dredged piece of wood in question was found in an area of strong ocean currents. spreading southwards and also northwards into Malwa around 1800 BCE. 30.000 years old) The Mesolithic period in the Indian subcontinent was followed by the Neolithic period. somewhere between 500.000 and 200. Madhya Pradesh. The first confirmed semipermanent settlements appeared 9. India. radiocarbon dated to 7500 BCE. when more extensive settlement of the subcontinent occurred after the end of the last Ice Age approximately 12. Neolithic agriculture cultures sprang up in the Indus Valley region around 5000 BCE.000 years ago. India & Mehrgarh findings (7000 BCE onwards) in Balochistan.[] . and Nepal.

and Mohenjo-daro in modern-day Pakistan. bronze. Rupar. and Lothal in modern-day India. roadside drainage system.[12] Inhabitants of the ancient Indus river valley. Punjab and Rajasthan provinces) and Pakistan (Sindh. lead. The civilization is noted for its cities built of brick. The civilization included Valley Civilization urban centers such as Dholavira. and produced copper. along with Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt.History of India 4 Bronze Age The Bronze Age in the Indian subcontinent began around 3300 BCE with the early Indus Valley Civilization. Haryana. The Mature Indus civilization flourished from about 2600 to 1900 BCE. and multistoried houses. The docks of ancient Lothal as they appear today. Early historic period Vedic period . and tin.[11] The civilization is primarily located in modern-day India (Gujarat. and Harappa. and Balochistan provinces). It was centered on the Indus River and its tributaries which extended into the Ghaggar-Hakra River valley. Rakhigarhi.[] and southeastern Afghanistan. Ganeriwala. seal carving). the Harappans. marking the beginning of urban civilization on the "Priest King" of Indus subcontinent. Punjab.[10] Gujarat. Kalibangan. it is one of the world's earliest urban civilizations. developed new techniques in metallurgy and handicraft (carneol products.[6] the Ganges-Yamuna Doab. Historically part of Ancient India.

around 1000 BCE. which were orally composed in Vedic Sanskrit.[] The Vedic Period also established republics such as Vaishali. Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain. The Vedas are some of the oldest extant texts in India[13] and next to some writings in Egypt and Mesopotamia are the oldest in the world.[14] laying the foundations of Hinduism and other cultural aspects of early Indian society. the core themes of the Sanskrit epics Ramayana and Mahabharata are said to have their ultimate origins during this period.[18] Early Vedic society consisted of largely pastoral groups. in part. literally "black metal.[21] The events described in the Ramayana are from a later period of history than the events of the Mahabharata. which existed as early as the 6th century BCE and persisted in some areas until the 4th century CE. Karma etc.[20] The Mahabharata remains. the first Indian text to mention iron.[] The swastika is a major element of Hindu iconography.[17] Many of the concepts of Indian philosophy espoused later like Dharma. as well as with the composition of the Atharvaveda. Aryan society became increasingly agricultural and was socially organized around the four varnas. and the peepul tree and cow were sanctified by the time of the Atharva Veda.[19] After the time of the Rigveda. with late Harappan urbanization having been abandoned.History of India 5 The Vedic period is characterized by Indo-Aryan culture associated with the texts of Vedas." The Painted Grey Ware culture spanned much of northern India from about 1100 to 600 BCE. called mahajanapadas. The later part of this period corresponds with an increasing movement away from the previous tribal system towards the establishment of kingdoms. as śyāma ayas.[15][16] Vedic people believed in the transmigration of the soul. the principal texts of Hinduism. In addition to the Vedas. In terms of culture. the longest single poem in the world. sacred to Hindus. or social classes. .[] Most historians also consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. to the Ochre Coloured Pottery culture in archaeological contexts. trace their root to the Vedas.[22] The early Indo-Aryan presence probably corresponds. today.[] Historians have analysed the Vedas to posit a Vedic culture in the Map of North India in the late Vedic period. The Kuru kingdom[23] corresponds to the Black and Red Ware and Painted Grey Ware cultures and to the beginning of the Iron Age in northwestern India. The Vedic period lasted from about 1500 to 500 BCE. many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic to the Iron Age in this period.

c.[30] However. many mentioned in Vedic.1375-1400.[29] Around the same time. early Buddhist and Jaina literature as far back as 1000 BCE. founder of Buddhism were the most prominent icons of this movement. Some of these kings were hereditary.[26] Gautama Buddha undertaking extreme ascetic practices before his enlightenment on the bank of river Phalgu in Bodh Gaya. These four were Vatsa. proponent of Jainism. Jain orthodoxy believes the teachings of the Tirthankaras predates all known time and scholars believe Parshva.[28] Buddha found a Middle Way that ameliorated the extreme asceticism found in the Sramana religions. Increasing urbanization of India in 7th and 6th centuries BCE led to the rise of new ascetic or shramana movements which challenged the orthodoxy of rituals.History of India 6 Mahajanapadas In the later Vedic Age.[24] The 9th and 8th centuries BCE witnessed the composition of the earliest Upanishads. other states elected their rulers. Detail of a leaf with. accorded status as the 23rd Tirthankara. a number of small kingdoms or city states had covered the subcontinent. Chedi. and the concept of liberation. Assaka. Avanti. Gandhara. and Magadha. By 500 BCE. Vatsa (or Vamsa). Malla. Kosala. the concept of samsara. Matsya (or Machcha). The Mundaka launches the most scathing attack on the ritual by comparing those who value sacrifice with an unsafe boat that is endlessly overtaken by old age and death. Many of the sixteen kingdoms had coalesced to four major ones by 500/400 BCE. while the languages of the general population of northern India are referred to as Prakrits. 563-483). The Birth of Mahavira (the 24th Tirthankara of Jainism). Kuru. The educated speech at that time was Sanskrit. The Vedas are believed to . and Buddha (c. Vajji (or Vriji). Anyone who worships a divinity other than the Self is called a domestic animal of the gods in the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad.[]:183 Upanishads form the theoretical basis of classical Hinduism and are known as Vedanta (conclusion of the Vedas). Many smaller clans mentioned within early literature seem to have been present across the rest of the subcontinent.[27] Mahavira (c. Shramana gave rise to the concept of the cycle of birth and death. from the Kalpa Sutra. sixteen monarchies and "republics" known as the Mahajanapadas—Kasi. Anga. Bihar. was a historical figure. by the time of Gautama Buddha. Magadha. and Kamboja—stretched across the Indo-Gangetic Plain from modern-day Afghanistan to Bengal and Maharastra. Panchala. This period saw the second major rise of urbanism in India after the Indus Valley Civilization. Kosala. 549–477 BCE). Surasena. Avanti.[25] The older Upanishads launched attacks of increasing intensity on the ritual. Mahavira (the 24th Tirthankara in Jainism) propagated a theology that was to later become Jainism.

Nalanda is considered one of the first great universities in recorded history. It was the center of Buddhist learning and research in the world from 450 to 1193 CE. located mainly across the fertile Indo-Gangetic plains.[32] By 520 BCE. however there were a number of smaller kingdoms stretching the length and breadth of Ancient India. the Nanda Empire and Gangaridai Empire in relation to Alexander's Empire and neighbors.[33] During this time India supplied mercenaries to the Persian army then fighting in Greece.History of India 7 have documented a few Tirthankaras and an ascetic order similar to the shramana movement. . during the reign of Darius I of Persia. Gandhara and the trans-India region. Persian and Greek conquests In 530 BCE Cyrus. The area remained under Persian control for two centuries. King of the Persian Achaemenid Empire crossed the Hindu-Kush mountains to seek tribute from the tribes of Kamboja.[32] Asia in 323 BCE. much of the northwestern subcontinent (present-day eastern Afghanistan and Pakistan) came under the rule of the Persian Achaemenid Empire.[31] The Mahajanapadas were the sixteen most powerful kingdoms and republics of the era.

[34] The impact of Persian ideas was felt in many areas of Indian life.[36] Alexander's march east put him in confrontation with the Nanda Empire of Magadha and the Gangaridai Empire of Bengal.[39] During that time. Coenus. and learning about the might of Nanda Empire. The empire was established by Chandragupta Maurya in Magadha what is now Bihar. There he defeated King Porus in the Battle of the Hydaspes (near modern-day Jhelum. became a melting pot of Indian. it reached beyond modern Pakistan. Alexander the Great had conquered Asia Minor and the Achaemenid Empire and had reached the northwest frontiers of the Indian subcontinent. which lasted until the 5th century CE and influenced the artistic development of Mahayana Buddhism. To the west. was convinced that it was better to return. Persian. it stretched to the north to the natural boundaries of the Himalayas and to the east into what is now Assam. but it excluded extensive unexplored tribal and forested regions near Kalinga which were subsequently taken by Ashoka.[42] . Ashoka ruled the Maurya Empire for 37 years from 268 BCE until he died in 232 BCE. The empire was expanded into India's central and southern regions by the emperors Maurya Empire under Ashoka the Great Chandragupta and Bindusara. Alexander.History of India Under Persian rule the famous city of Takshashila became a center where both Vedic and Iranian learning were mingled. including the modern Herat and Kandahar provinces. and Greek cultures and gave rise to a hybrid culture. Ashoka became involved in a war with the state of Kalinga which is located on the western shore of the Bay of Bengal. 8 Maurya Empire The Maurya Empire (322–185 BCE). annexing Balochistan and much of what is now Afghanistan. In addition. Pakistan) and conquered much of the Punjab.[38] At its greatest extent. or present-day eastern Afghanistan and northwest Pakistan. Central Asian.[37] The empire flourished under the reign of Ashoka the Great. Ashoka pursued an active foreign policy aimed at setting up a unified state. ruled by the Mauryan dynasty.[35] By 326 BCE. exhausted and frightened by the prospect of facing larger Indian armies at the Ganges River. Greco-Buddhism. mutinied at the Hyphasis (modern Beas River) and refused to march further East. after the meeting with his officer. The Persian and Greek invasions had important repercussions on Indian civilization. the Maurya Empire needed to have a unified administrative apparatus.[41] This war forced Ashoka to abandon his attempt at a foreign policy which would unify the Maurya Empire. The political systems of the Persians were to influence future forms of governance on the subcontinent.[40] However. However. Persian coinage and rock inscriptions were copied by India. Like every state. His army. Persian ascendency in northern India ended with Alexander the Great's conquest of Persia in 327 BCE. including the administration of the Mauryan dynasty. was a geographically extensive and powerful political and military empire in ancient India. the region of Gandhara.

The Lion Capital of Asoka at Sarnath. the warrior king of Kalinga. This opposition rallied around Sampadi. the sixth ruler of the Satvahana dynasty. The Kharavela Empire. Indeed. foreign affairs. also known as the Andhras. ruled in southern and central India after around 230 BCE.[45] As might be expected. military arts. war. The Kuninda Kingdom was a small Himalayan state that survived from around the 2nd century BCE to the 3rd century CE. Early Middle Kingdoms — The Golden Age Ancient India during the rise of theSunga and Satavahana empires. Burma. Thailand. Gupta Empire The middle period was a time of cultural development. Ashoka put a strain on the economy and the government by his strong support of Buddhism.History of India 9 During the Mauryan Empire slavery developed rapidly and significant amount of written records on slavery are found. and Java. However. Ashokan pillar at Vaishali.[47] Chandragupta's minister Chanakya wrote the Arthashastra.[48] ruled a vast empire and was responsible for the propagation of Jainism in the Indian subcontinent. The Arthashastra and the Edicts of Ashoka are primary written records of the Mauryan times. Cambodia. one of the greatest treatises on economics. The Satavahana dynasty. Bali. politics. The Kushanas migrated from Central Asia into northwestern India in the middle of the 1st . usury was customary with loans made at the recognized interest rate of 15% per annum. Archaeologically. Colonists from Kalinga settled in Sri Lanka.[43] The Mauryan Empire was based on a modern and efficient economy and society. Kharavela. In this regard Ashoka established many Buddhist monuments. as well as the Maldives and Maritime Southeast Asia. Kushan Empire and Western Satraps of Ancient India in the north along with Pandyans and Early Cholas in southern India. the period of Mauryan rule in South Asia falls into the era of Northern Black Polished Ware (NBPW). administration. towards the end of his reign he "bled the state coffers white with his generous gifts to promote the promulation of Buddha's teaching. Ashoka's grandson and heir to the throne. this policy caused considerable opposition within the government.[48] The Kharavelan Jain empire included a maritime empire with trading routes linking it to Sri Lanka. Satakarni. Ashoka's reign propagated Buddhism. defeated the Sunga Empire of north India. Vietnam. Afterwards. Burma.[46] Religious opposition to Ashoka also arose among the orthodox Brahmanists and the adherents of Jainism. now in Odisha. 3rd century BCE. and religion produced in Asia. Borneo. is the national emblem of India.[44] Although there was no banking in the Mauryan society. the sale of merchandise was closely regulated by the government. Sumatra.

Different dynasties such as the Pandyans. subsequently into Sogdiana. the kingdom was ruled by a succession of more than 30 Greek kings. . the Indo-Parthians. extending his rule over various parts of present-day Afghanistan and Pakistan. in the middle Ganges Valley. the Indo-Greek Kingdom. where the mingling of Indian culture and the culture of Iran gave birth to a hybrid culture under the Indo-Sassanids. Kanishka. who were often in conflict with each other. Kujula Kadphises. and Chalukyas. The founder of the Indo-Greek Kashmir. and probably as far as the Bay of Bengal. 10 Northwestern hybrid cultures The northwestern hybrid cultures of the subcontinent included the Indo-Greeks. was founded when the Greco-Bactrian king Demetrius invaded the region in 180 BCE.[49] They played an important role in the establishment of Buddhism in India and its spread to Central Asia and China. and Pandyas in the south. after fighting many local rulers such as the Kushan ruler Kujula Kadphises. their last known great emperor being Vasudeva I (c. at least as far as Saketa and Pataliputra. The Kalabras. their empire in India was disintegrating. By the 3rd century. (whose era is thought to have begun c. The first of these. By the time of his grandson. came to control most of present-day Afghanistan and northern Pakistan. Kadambas. from the middle of the 2nd century BCE to the 1st century BCE. They were the successors of the Indo-Scythians and contemporaries of the Kushans who ruled the northern part of the Indian subcontinent and the Satavahana (Andhra) who ruled in central and southern India. Cheras. who was contemporaneous with the Gupta Empire. Their kingdom lasted Kingdom.History of India century CE and founded an empire that stretched from Tajikistan to the middle Ganges. in the Gandhara region. the Indo-Parthians (also known as the Pahlavas). they had conquered most of northern India. and Gandhara. expanded into the region of present-day Balochistan in Pakistan. Kushan Empire The Kushan Empire expanded out of what is now Afghanistan into the northwest of the subcontinent under the leadership of their first emperor. Cholas. Western Gangas. briefly interrupted the usual domination of the Cholas. about the middle of the 1st century CE. The Indo-Scythians were a branch of the Indo-European Sakas (Scythians) who migrated from southern Siberia. The kingdoms warred with each other and the Deccan states for domination of the south. and the Indo-Sassinids. Yet another kingdom. and finally into India. Several southern kingdoms formed overseas empires that stretched into Southeast Asia. first into Bactria. a Buddhist dynasty. dominated the southern part of the Indian peninsula at different periods of time. Arachosia. Demetrius I "the Invincible" (205–171 BCE). the Indo-Scythians. Pallavas. 190-225 CE). Cheras. Lasting for almost two centuries. The Western Satraps (35-405 CE) were Saka rulers of the western and central part of India. The Sassanid empire of Persia. 127 CE).

[52][53] This period has been called the Golden Age of India[54] and was marked by extensive achievements in science. Aryabhata. sculpture.[59] Science and political administration reached new heights during the Gupta era. logic. and philosophy that crystallized the elements of what is generally known as Hindu culture. technology. during the reign of Augustus and following his conquest of Egypt. Sri Lanka. Historia Naturae 12.[60] They successfully resisted the northwestern kingdoms until the arrival of the Hunas. South India. For what percentage of these imports is intended for sacrifices to the gods or the spirits of the dead?" —Pliny. much of the Deccan and southern India were largely unaffected by these events in the north. 335–376). including the concept of zero.41. by the time of Augustus. harbours. which continued to provide an alternative to Brahmanical orthodoxy. and Chandragupta II (c. up to 120 ships set sail every year from Myos Hormos on the Red Sea to India. Samudragupta (c. The Gupta period marked a watershed of Indian culture: the Guptas performed Vedic sacrifices to legitimize their rule. Varahamihira. So much gold was used for this trade. that Pliny the Elder (NH VI. was invented in India during this period. religion. who established themselves in Afghanistan by the first half of the 5th century.[51] The maritime (but not the overland) trade routes. Gupta rule The Classical Age refers to the period when much of the Indian subcontinent was reunited under the Gupta Empire (c. and Indochina. 319–335). Coin of the Roman emperor Augustus found at the Pudukottai. Strong trade ties also made the region an important cultural center and established it as a base that would influence nearby kingdoms and regions in Burma. literature. with their capital at Bamiyan.[56] The peace and prosperity created under leadership of Guptas enabled the pursuit of scientific and artistic endeavors in India. and trade items are described in detail in the 1st century CE Periplus of the Erythraean Sea. and painting. 320–550 CE).5.[58] The Gupta period Queen Kumaradevi and King Chandragupta I. dialectic. art. Vishnu Sharma.[55] The decimal numeral system. 335–380 CE. but they also patronized Buddhism. and according to Strabo (II. and Vatsyayana who made great advancements in many academic fields. The military exploits of the first three rulers—Chandragupta I (c. mathematics. depicted on produced scholars such as Kalidasa. engineering.84.[62][63] . Maritime Southeast Asia.History of India 11 Roman trade with India Roman trade with India started around 1 CE.[50]). China and the Arabian peninsula take one hundred million sesterces from our empire per annum at a conservative estimate: that is what our luxuries and women cost us. and apparently recycled by the Kushans for their own coinage.[57] The high points of this cultural creativity are magnificent architecture.12. which had been India's biggest trade partner in the West.101) complained about the drain of specie to India: "India. 376–415) —brought much of India under their leadership. The trade started by Eudoxus of Cyzicus in 130 BCE kept increasing. astronomy.[61] However. a coin of their son Samudragupta.

and Manichaeism. considered the epitome of classical development. Bhavya. Buddhism and Jainism. This period produced some of India's finest art.History of India 12 Late Middle Kingdoms — The Late-Classical Age Pala Empire under Dharmapala Pala Empire under Devapala The "Late-Classical Age"[64] in India began after the end of the Gupta Empire[64] and the collapse Harsha Empire in the 7th century CE[64].[67] His dialectical success against the Buddhists is confirmed by Buddhist historian Tathagata. the image or symbol of the Hindu god comes to be housed in a monumental temple and given increasingly elaborate imperial-style puja worship". after the collapse of the Gupta dynasty. Dharmadasa. King Harsha of Kannauj succeeded in reuniting northern India during his reign in the 7th century. Muhammad bin Qasim's invasion of Sindh in 711 CE witnessed further decline of Buddhism. Kumārila Bhaṭṭa formulated his school of Mimamsa philosophy and defended the position on Vedic rituals against Buddhist attacks. 1030 C. Central Asian and North Western Indian Buddhism weakened in the 6th century after the White Hun invasion. and the development of the main spiritual and philosophical systems which continued to be in Hinduism. His kingdom collapsed after his death. Chola Empire under Rajendra Chola c. and ended with the fall of the Vijayanagara Empire in the south in the 13th century.[69] Although Buddhism did not disappear from India for several centuries after the eighth. royal proclivities for the cults of Vishnu and Shiva weakened Buddhism's position within the sociopolitical context and helped make possible its decline.[68] Ronald Inden writes that by 8th century BCE symbols of Hindu gods "replaced the Buddha at Badami Chalukya Empire the imperial centre and pinnacle of the cosmo-political system. due to pressure from Islamic invaders[65] to the north. who followed their own religions such as Tengri. Dignaga and others. The Chach Nama records many instances of conversion of stupas to mosques such as at Nerun[66] In 7th century CE. Scholars note Bhaṭṭa's contribution to the decline of Buddhism. who reports that Kumārila defeated disciples of Buddhapalkita.E.[70] .

as well as the Chera Kingdom in parts of Kerala and Tamil Nadu. With the decline of the Chalukya empire. the Lakshadweep (Laccadive) islands. . The ports of south India were engaged in the Indian Ocean trade. Kakatiyas of Warangal. The Kanauj Triangle was the focal point of empires the Rashtrakutas of Deccan. and Kashmir from the mid-7th century to the early 11th century. with the Roman Empire to the west and Southeast Asia to the east. was known for bloody conflicts against the advancing Islamic sultanates.[74][75] Literature in local vernaculars and spectacular architecture flourished until about the beginning of the 14th century. The Shahi dynasty ruled portions of eastern Afghanistan. northern Pakistan.the Eastern Ganga dynasty of Odisha.History of India 13 From the 7th to the 9th century. By 1343. a series of kingdoms which managed to survive in some form for almost a millennium. Seuna Yadavas of Devagiri. and the Palas of Bengal. the Palas of Bengal. and the clashing of the two systems caused a mingling of the indigenous and foreign cultures that left lasting cultural influences on each other. The Chola Empire at its peak covered much of the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia. the Gurjara Pratiharas of Malwa. Sumatra. occupying coasts from Burma to Vietnam. One Gurjar[71][72] Rajput of the Chauhan clan. The Chalukya dynasty ruled parts of southern and central India from Badami in Karnataka between 550 and 750. and the Gurjara Pratiharas fragmented into various states. the Hoysalas of Halebidu. their feudatories. The Pallavas of Kanchipuram were their contemporaries further to the south. and a southern branch of the Kalachuri. and the Rashtrakutas of the Deccan. last of these dynasties had ceased to exist. The first recorded Rajput kingdoms emerged in Rajasthan in the 6th century. the Pandyan Empire emerged in Tamil Nadu. Prithvi Raj Chauhan. and the Malay Peninsula in Southeast Asia and the Pegu islands. The Hindu Vijayanagar Empire came into conflict with the Islamic Bahmani Sultanate. The Sena dynasty would later assume control of the Pala Empire. and then again from Kalyani between 970 and 1190. and small Rajput dynasties later ruled much of northern India. Rajaraja Chola I conquered all of peninsular south India and parts of Sri Lanka. chiefly involving spices. giving rise to the Vijayanagar empire. Later during the middle period. until Indian independence from the British. three dynasties contested for control of northern India: the Gurjara Pratiharas of Malwa. divided the vast Chalukya empire amongst themselves around the middle of 12th century. when southern expeditions of the sultan of Delhi took their toll on these kingdoms. Rajendra Chola I's navies went even further.[73] the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. These were the first of the Rajput states.

while simultaneously maintaining control over all its subordinates in the south. the Hindu Rajput clans defeated the Arabs at the Battle of Rajasthan. The empire dominated all of Southern India and fought off invasions from the five established Deccan Sultanates. mainly from the Arabian peninsula. much of the territory of the former Vijaynagar Empire were captured by Deccan Sultanates. founded by Turkic rulers. flourished in the south. under foreign rulers were established across the north western subcontinent over a period of a few centuries.[77] In 712. After several wars. Gol Gumbaz at Bijapur. The Vijayanagara Empire rose to prominence by the end of the 13th century as a culmination of attempts by the southern powers to ward off Islamic invasions. the Arab Umayyad Caliphate incorporated parts of what is now Pakistan around 720.[78] Many short-lived Islamic kingdoms (sultanates) Hagia Sophia. This marked the introduction of a third Abrahamic Middle Eastern religion. has the second largest halting their expansion and containing them at Sindh in pre-modern dome in the world after the Byzantine Pakistan. 72 km (45 mi) north of modern Hyderabad in Sindh. Muslim trading communities flourished throughout coastal south India. Arab Muslim general Muhammad bin Qasim conquered most of the Indus region in modern day Pakistan for the Umayyad empire.[79] The empire reached its peak during the rule of Krishnadevaraya when Vijayanagara armies were consistently victorious. As a result. and the remainder was divided into many states ruled by Hindu rulers.[76] a rich region with a flourishing international trade and the only known diamond mines in the world.[81] It lasted until 1646. the Bahmani Sultanate and Deccan sultanates. including Kalinga. incorporating it as the "As-Sindh" province with its capital at Al-Mansurah.History of India 14 The Islamic Sultanates After conquering Persia. following Judaism and Christianity. The Muslim rulers were keen to invade India. though its power declined after a major military defeat in 1565 by the Deccan sultanates. Later.[80] The empire annexed areas formerly under the Sultanates in the northern Deccan and the territories in the eastern Deccan. particularly on the western coast where Muslim traders arrived in small numbers. . often in puritanical form. Pakistan. Additionally.

from Punjab to Bengal and had established a secular Hindu rule in North India from Delhi till 1556. 100. Razia Sultana (1236–1240). destroyed. He ordered the whole city to be sacked except for the sayyids.History of India 15 Delhi Sultanate In the 12th and 13th centuries. Turks and Afghans invaded parts of northern India and established the Delhi Sultanate in the former Rajput holdings. while the Khilji dynasty conquered most of central India but were ultimately unsuccessful in conquering and uniting the subcontinent. approximately equal in extent to the ancient Gupta Empire. a Timurid descendant of Timur and Genghis Khan from Fergana Valley (modern day Uzbekistan).[84] Qutub Minar is the world's tallest brick minaret. and Humayun was forced to retreat to Kabul.[83] The Sultan's army was defeated on 17 December 1398. Akbar's forces defeated and killed Hemu in the Second Battle of Panipat on 6 November 1556. India and Bangladesh. Timur (Tamerlane). Pakistan. literature. music. A Turco-Mongol conqueror in Central Asia. Timur entered Delhi and the city was sacked. After Sher Shah's death. and the other Muslims. The Delhi Sultanate is the only Indo-Islamic empire to enthrone one of the few female rulers in India. swept across the Khyber Pass and established the Mughal Empire.[85] However. It is surmised that the language of Urdu (literally meaning "horde" or "camp" in various Turkic dialects) was born during the Delhi Sultanate period as a result of the intermingling of the local speakers of Sanskritic Prakrits with immigrants speaking Persian. The Mughals suffered sever blow Extent of the Mughal Empire in 1700. attacked the reigning Sultan Nasir-u Din Mehmud of the Tughlaq Dynasty in the north Indian city of Delhi. Early modern period Mughal Empire In 1526. Babur. The Sultanate ushered in a period of Indian cultural renaissance.000 war prisoners were put to death in one day. and Arabic under the Muslim rulers. Turkic. and left in ruins. and clothing. his son Humayun was defeated by the Afghan warrior Sher Shah Suri in the year 1540. after Timur's army had killed and plundered for three days and nights. commenced by Qutb-ud-din Aybak of the Slave dynasty. scholars. religion. The Mughal dynasty ruled most of the Indian subcontinent by 1600. his son Islam Shah Suri and the Hindu king Samrat Hem Chandra Vikramaditya. The resulting "Indo-Muslim" fusion of cultures left lasting syncretic monuments in architecture. covering modern day Afghanistan.[82] The subsequent Slave dynasty of Delhi managed to conquer large areas of northern India. . who had won 22 battles against Afghan rebels and forces of Akbar. it went into a slow decline after 1707.

liberally patronising Hindu culture. He rolled back the jizya tax for non-Muslims. The famous emperor Akbar. most of whom showed religious tolerance. The remnants of the Mughal dynasty were finally defeated during the Indian Rebellion of 1857. allied themselves with local maharajas. Akbar the Great was particularly famed for this. the dominant political forces consisted of the Mughal Empire and its tributaries and. had a policy of integration with Indian culture. The Mughal emperors married local royalty. later on. However. After this victory. This period marked vast social change in the subcontinent as the Hindu majority were ruled over by the Mughal emperors. which is what made them successful where the short-lived Sultanates of Delhi had failed. creating a unique Indo-Saracenic architecture. Nader captured and sacked Delhi. . In 1739. including the Peacock Throne.which fought an increasingly weak Mughal dynasty. The Mughals. defeated the Mughal army at the huge Battle of Karnal. During the decline of the Mughal Empire. It was the erosion of this tradition coupled with increased brutality and centralization that played a large part in the dynasty's downfall after Aurangzeb. imposed relatively non-pluralistic policies on the general population. and as a Taj Mahal. Nader Shah. tried to establish a good relationship with the Hindus.History of India 16 due to invasions from Marathas and Afghans due to which the Mughal dynasty were reduced to puppet rulers by 1757. Akbar declared "Amari" or non-killing of animals in the holy days of Jainism.including the Maratha Empire . while often employing brutal tactics to subjugate their empire. and attempted to fuse their Turko-Persian culture with ancient Indian styles. emperor of Iran. later emperors such as Aurangazeb tried to establish complete Muslim dominance. built by the Mughals result several historical temples were destroyed during this period and taxes imposed on non-Muslims.[86] The Mughals were perhaps the richest single dynasty to have ever existed. carrying away many treasures. also called the 1857 War of Independence. several smaller states rose to fill the power vacuum and themselves were contributing factors to the decline. During the Mughal era. which often inflamed the majority Hindu population. who unlike previous emperors. the rising successor states . who was the grandson of Babar.

[88] By 1760. he added the central Punjab. and the Derajat to his kingdom. the domain of the Marathas stretched across practically the entire subcontinent. The control. This was among the last areas of the subcontinent to be conquered by the British. The empire. Nizam. Gordon explains how the Maratha systematically took control over the Malwa plateau in 1720-1760. In Harmandir Sahib or The Golden Temple is culturally stages. was a political entity that governed the region of modern-day Punjab. They built an efficient system of public administration known for its attention to detail.[90][] At its peak. Sikh Empire (North-west) The Punjabi kingdom. It was forged. He consolidated many parts of northern India into a kingdom. By the 18th century. The last peshwa. Baji Rao II. it had transformed itself into the Maratha Empire under the rule of the Peshwas (prime ministers). However in 1737. the Peshawar Valley. to Sindh in the south. It succeeded in raising revenue in districts that recovered from years of raids. based around the Punjab region. His came in the face of the powerful British East India Company. The first and second Anglo-Sikh war marked the downfall of the Sikh Empire.[89] The defeat of Marathas by British in three Anglo-Maratha Wars brought end to the empire by 1820. and also by the increasing activities of European powers (see colonial era below). up to levels previously enjoyed by the Mughals. He primarily used his highly disciplined Sikh army that he trained and equipped to be the equal of a European force. the Mughal emperor of India. a Maratha aristocrat of the Bhonsle clan who was determined to establish Hindavi Swarajya (self-rule of Hindu people). in the 19th century. Ranjit Singh proved himself to be a master strategist and selected well qualified generals for his army. ruled by members of the Sikh religion. and as a result. existed from 1799 to 1849. Delhi inteslf. ceded Malwa to them. the Marathas defeated a Mughal army Maratha Empire (orange) was the last Hindu empire in their capital.History of India 17 Post-Mughal period Maratha Empire The post-Mughal era was dominated by the rise of the Maratha suzerainty as other small regional states (mostly late Mughal tributary states) emerged. collecting ransom from villages and towns while the declining Mughal Empire retained nominal Political map of Indian subcontinent in 1758.[87] The Maratha kingdom was founded and consolidated by Shivaji. on the foundations of the Khalsa. and Himachal in the east. There is no doubt that the single most important power to emerge in the long twilight of the Mughal dynasty was the Maratha Empire. Kashmir. to Kashmir in the north. was defeated by the British in the Third Anglo-Maratha War. . under the leadership of Maharaja Ranjit Singh (1780–1839) from an array of autonomous Punjabi Misls. They started with annual raids. the provinces of Multan and the most significant place of worship for the Sikhs. Nawab of Bengal and Durrani Empire to further extend their boundaries. The Marathas continued their military campaigns against Mughals. The cornerstone of the Maratha rule in Malwa rested on the 60 or so local tax collectors (kamavisdars) who advanced the Maratha ruler '(Peshwa)' a portion of their district revenues at interest. the empire extended from the Khyber Pass in the west.

Hyderabad was founded by the Qutb Shahi dynasty of Golconda in 1591. .[91] The Portuguese soon set up trading posts in Goa. the Dutch port of Travancore. they eventually lost all their territories in India to the British islanders. Under their rule. the British—who set up a trading post in the west coast port of Surat[92] in 1619—and the French. and the Portuguese colonies of Goa. Daman. Both Mysore and Hyderabad became princely states in British India. Daman and Diu. The Nawabs of Bengal had become the de facto rulers of Bengal following the decline of Mughal Empire. The next to arrive were the Dutch. the modern state of Nepal was formed by Gurkha rulers.History of India Other kingdoms There were several other kingdoms which ruled over parts of India in the later medieval period prior to the British occupation. Following a brief Mughal rule. a Mughal official. with the exception of the French outposts of Pondichéry and Chandernagore. The internal conflicts among Indian kingdoms gave opportunities to the European traders to gradually establish political influence and appropriate lands. Around the 18th century. It was ruled by a hereditary Nizam from 1724 until 1948. most of them were bound to pay regular tribute to the Marathas. Vasco da Gama successfully discovered a new sea route from Europe to India.[89] The rule of Wodeyar dynasty which established the Kingdom of Mysore in southern India in around 1400 CE by was interrupted by Hyder Ali and his son Tipu Sultan in the later half of 18th century. with Mysore receiving some aid or promise of aid from the French. Although these continental European powers controlled various coastal regions of southern and eastern India during the ensuing century. which paved the way for direct Indo-European commerce. seized control of Hyderabad and declared himself Nizam-al-Mulk of Hyderabad in 1724. Asif Jah. Diu and Bombay. but mostly against the British. 18 Colonial era In 1498. However. Mysore fought a series of wars sometimes against the combined forces of the British and Marathas. their rule was interrupted by Marathas who carried six expeditions in Bengal from 1741 to 1748 as a result of which Bengal became a vassal state of Marathas. However.

In this conflict.History of India 19 Company rule in India In 1617 the British East India Company was given permission by Mughal Emperor Jahangir to trade in India. and India became a theatre of action. the company acquired the rights of administration in Bengal from Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II. The British supported the son of the deposed incumbent Nawab. The First Carnatic War extended from 1746 until 1748 and was the result of colonial competition between France and Britain. Following the capture of a few French ships by the British fleet in India. along with wider British successes during the Seven Years War. Meanwhile. In 1751. Nasir Jung. in which the Bengal Army of the East India Company. armed forces under the French East India Company captured the British base of Calcutta in north-eastern India. Their policy was sometimes summed up as Divide and Rule.[97] The East India Company monopolized the trade of Bengal. This was the first real political foothold with territorial implications that the British acquired in India. the conflict in Hyderabad provided Chanda Sahib with an opportunity to take power as the new Nawab of the territory of Arcot. and a grandson. taking advantage of the enmity festering between various princely states and social and religious groups. where it was called the Third Carnatic War. After the Battle of Buxar in 1764. Map of India in 1857 at the end of Company rule. Robert Clive led a British armed force and captured Arcot to reinstate the incumbent Nawab.[96] The British East India Company extended its control over the whole of Bengal. The French supported Muzaffer Jung in this civil war. often with zamindars set in place. Early in this war. In 1756. led by Robert Clive. this marked the beginning of its formal rule.[95] This was combined with British victories over the French at Madras. the de facto ruler of the Bengal province. however. Anwaruddin Muhammad Khan. In 1749. the Second Carnatic War broke out as the result of a war between a son. which included present-day Pakistan and Bangladesh. against Chanda Sahib. Thus as a result of the three Carnatic Wars. two of the countries involved in the War of Austrian Succession. Consequently. This led to the Battle of Plassey on 23 June 1757. the British East India Company gained exclusive control over the entire Carnatic region of India. French troops attacked and captured the British city of Madras located on the east coast of India on 21 September 1746. armed forces under Robert Clive later recaptured Calcutta and then pressed on to capture the French settlement of Chandannagar in 1757.[93] Gradually their increasing influence led the de jure Mughal emperor Farrukh Siyar to grant them dastaks or permits for duty free trade in Bengal in 1717. However. The war was eventually ended by the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle which ended the War of Austrian Succession in 1748. The Second Carnatic War finally came to an end in 1754 with the Treaty of Pondicherry. the British supported Nasir Jung in this conflict. the Seven Years War broke out between the great powers of Europe. By the 1850s. They introduced a land taxation system called the Permanent Settlement which introduced a feudal-like structure in Bengal. defeated the French-supported Nawab's forces. Muzaffer Jung. the East India Company controlled most of the Indian sub-continent. Clive was appointed by the company as its first 'Governor of Bengal' in 1757. reduced French influence in India.[94] The Nawab of Bengal Siraj Ud Daulah. of the deceased Nizam-ul-Mulk of Hyderabad to take over Nizam's thone in Hyderabad. opposed British attempts to use these permits. Wandiwash and Pondichéry that. which within the next century engulfed most of India and extinguished the Moghul rule and dynasty. the French supported Chandra Sahib in his attempt to become the new Nawab of Arcot.[98] . Among the prisoners captured at Madras was Robert Clive himself.

had reached 389 million by 1941. but only 21 had actual state governments." When the Liberal party in Britain came to power in 1906 he was removed.[104] Despite persistent diseases and famines. and by distrust of Hindus. There were officially 565 princely states in 1947. and were poorly equipped. Hyderabad and Kashmir). The British Indian Empire at its greatest extent The Morley-Minto reforms of 1909 provided for Indian membership of (in a map of 1909). spreading plague to all inhabited continents and killing 10 million people in India alone. including the Great Famine of 1876–78 in which 6. Bengal was reunified in 1911. famines in India. the John Company's lands were controlled directly. 20 The rebellion of 1857 and its consequences The Indian rebellion of 1857 was a large-scale rebellion by soldiers employed by the British East India in northern and central India against the Company's rule. and tended to favour Muslims (who were less rebellious) against the Hindus who dominated the rebellion. were some of the worst ever recorded.[100] British Raj Reforms When the Lord Curzon (Viceroy 1899-1905) took control of higher education and then split the large province of Bengal into a largely Hindu western half and "Eastern Bengal and Assam. The British goal was efficient administration but Hindus were outraged at the apparent "divide and rule" strategy. The Imperial Legislative Council was enlarged from 25 to 60 members and separate communal representation for Muslims was established in a dramatic step towards representative and responsible government. the British. had differing goals.[102] Famines During the British Raj. and only three were large (Mysore. and trained. council. They were brutally suppressed and the British government took control of the Company and eliminated many of the grievances that caused it.1 million to 10. and India. led. setting up the All India Muslim League in 1906. the population of the Indian subcontinent. often attributed to failed government policies. and had no outside support or funding.3 million people died[103] and the Indian famine of 1899–1900 in which 1. which consisted of the Princely states ruled by local royal families." a largely Muslim eastern half. especially in the north west.[105] . The princely states under the provincial executive councils as well as the Viceroy's executive British suzerainty are in yellow. It favoured the princely states (that helped suppress the rebellion).[99] In the aftermath.[103] The Third Plague Pandemic started in China in the middle of the 19th century.History of India The Hindu Ahom Kingdom of North-east India first fell to Burmese invasion and then to British after Treaty of Yandabo in 1826. The rebels were disorganized. The new Viceroy Gilbert Minto and the new Secretary of State for India John Morley consulted with Congress leader Gopal Krishna Gokhale. which stood at about 125 million in 1750. all power was transferred from the East India Company to the British Crown. It was internally divided by conflicting loyalties to Islam. They were absorbed into the independent nation in 1947-48. It was not a mass party but was designed to protect the interests of the aristocratic Muslims. The government also was determined to keep full control so that no rebellion of such size would ever happen again.[101] Meanwhile the Muslims for the first time began to organize. which began to administer most of India as a number of provinces. while it had considerable indirect influence over the rest of India.25 to 10 million people died.

Hindus and Muslims in these provinces and spread to several other parts of India. inscrutable.[108] The "Cambridge School. promised that they would leave and participated in the formation of an interim government. with the senior officers all British. although Gandhi called for unity between the two groups in an astonishing display of leadership.[111] downplays ideology. The British built a large British Indian Army. Some others adopted a militant approach that sought to overthrow British rule by armed struggle. with a population of 73 million. and many of the troops from small minority groups such as Gurkhas from Nepal and Sikhs.[112] The Nationalist school has focused on Congress. extremely weakened by the Second World War. The British. Bangladesh. In general. Historiography In recent decades there have been four main schools of historiography regarding India: Cambridge. Sikhs and Muslims moving between the newly created nations of India and Pakistan (which gained independence on 15 and 14 August 1947 respectively). Following the controversial division of pre-partition Punjab and Bengal. revolutionary activities against the British rule took place throughout the Indian sub-continent. More recently. or one person in five.[109] Gordon Johnson.[107] From 1920 leaders such as Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi began highly popular mass movements to campaign against the British Raj using largely peaceful methods. There were 674 of the these states in 1900. Gandhi. Nehru and high level politics.[106] The first step toward Indian self-rule was the appointment of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi and Muhammad councillors to advise the British viceroy.[] In 1971. with a total of 12 million Hindus. appointed in 1909. The once common "Orientalist" approach. These movements succeeded in bringing independence to the new dominions of India and Pakistan in 1947. as defining historical events. leaving some 500. Washbrook. Marxist. with its the image of a sensuous. and David A. has died out in serious scholarship. they were as inclined to mistrust Hindu rule as they were to resist the foreign Raj. Hindu nationalists have created a version of history for the schools to support their demands for "Hindutva" . It highlighted the Mutiny of 1857 as a war of liberation. Nationalist. and the prospect of an exclusively Hindu government made them wary of independence. the princely states were strong supporters of the British regime.[110] Richard Gordon. and subaltern. The councillors' participation was subsequently widened into legislative councils. and wholly spiritual India.000 dead. in 1861.History of India 21 The Indian independence movement The numbers of British in India were small. Independence and partition Along with the desire for independence. the first Indian was Ali Jinnah. Bombay. formerly East Pakistan and East Bengal. yet they were able to rule two-thirds of the subcontinent directly and exercise considerable leverage over the princely states that accounted for the remaining one-third of the area. 1944. rioting broke out between Sikhs. tensions between Hindus and Muslims had also been developing over the years. They were finally closed down in 1947-48.[] Also. this period saw one of the largest mass migrations ever recorded in modern history. after being partitioned into the Union of India and Dominion of Pakistan. Provincial Councils with Indian members were also set up. The civil service was increasingly filled with natives at the lower levels. The Gandhi-led independence movement opposed the British rule using non-violent methods like non-cooperation. and the Raj left them alone. with the British holding the more senior positions. The British Indian territories gained independence in 1947." led by Anil Seal. seceded from Pakistan. civil disobedience and economic resistance. The Muslims had always been a minority within the subcontinent. and Gandhi's 'Quit India' begun in 1942.

The Blackwell Companion to Hinduism. oral history and methods inspired by anthropology. and Administration in Classical India. songs. B. Romila Thapar. The Conception of Punishment in Early Indian Literature. 24.[116] 22 Gallery Chowmahalla Palace in Hyderabad Charminar at Old City in Hyderabad References [1] [2] [3] [6] [7] G. A History of India (Progress Publishers: Moscow. 29-30. Chauhan. Atlantic Publishers and Distributors. Early Sanskritization.[113] The Marxists have focused on studies of economic development. A History of India Part 1. K. 11. An Overview of the Siwalik Acheulian & Reconsidering Its Chronological Relationship with the Soanian – A Theoretical Perspective. P.[114] The "subaltern school. poetry. com/ India-news/ NewDelhi/ Indus-Valley-2-000-years-older-than-thought/ Article1-954601. Vedic Period: A New Interpretation." looking at the peasants using folklore. ISBN 8126902868. [18] *Day. ISBN 0-919812-15-5. The state. Gupta. 1. (http:/ / ejvs. the Law. "The second half of the first millennium BCE was the period that created many of the ideological and institutional elements that characterize later Indian religions. hindustantimes.History of India ("Hinduness") in Indian society. Origins and development of the Kuru State. p. Roshan. [8] http:/ / www. 42-45. assemblage. A History of India: Part 1. Witzel. Patrick. html#distribution). Distribution of Acheulian sites in the Siwalik region (http:/ / www. Bongard-Levin. proverbs. Oldenbourg 1997. 31. A History of India: Part 1 (Progressive Books: Moscow. [19] India: Reemergence of Urbanization (http:/ / www. Romila Thapar. Kölver (ed. Terence P. India. potentially revolutionary forces for its own ends. 273-4. See map on page 263 Parth R. [22] Romila Thapar. It focuses on the colonial era before 1947 and typically emphasizes caste and downplays class. shef. 51. [17] Singhal. A Review. 1979) p. 51–52. Recht. [23] M. Delhi: Archaeol. Surv.). The . to the annoyance of the Marxist school. Ontario: Wilfrid Laurier University Press. aspx [10] Indian Archaeology.4. com/ eb/ article-46838/ India). 32. München : R. riddles." was begun in the 1980s by Ranajit Guha and Gyan Prakash. britannica. P. Staat und Verwaltung im klassischen Indien. p. Gavin. Excavations at Alamgirpur. 27-52 = Electronic Journal of Vedic Studies. C. 150-151. A History of India Part 1. and class conflict in precolonial India and of deindustrialization during the colonial period. [21] Romila Thapar. ac. [13] G. group. Olivelle. p. 1958-1959. The Marxists portrayed Gandhi's movement as a device for the bourgeois elite to harness popular. (1982). 23. landownership. 2003. com) [28] Flood. [14] Romila Thapar. Bongard-Levin. December 1995. The Ancient History of India.[115] It focuses attention away from the elites and politicians to "history from below. pp. Retrieved on 12 May 2007. vol. pp. Malden: Blackwell. 1979) p. pg. uk/ issue7/ chauhan. 1966) p. A History of India (Penguin Books: New York. A History of India. laurasianacademy.

pdf [78] History (http:/ / books. Majumdar. bbc. A History of India. [65] Michaels 2004. "Kumarila Bhatta". p. Buddhists. Sadananda (2000): Śrī Khāravela. 59. 88. p...B. Kingship and Authority in South Asia. Pusalkar.conquest of India (http:/ / www.D. [37] Romila Thapar. Annemarie Schimmel. 55 [70] Holt. See also Early Empire of Central Asia (1939). ISBN 0-19-814264-1. Special edition for Sandpiper Books. p. J. 108. moksa/nirvana . Stephen. [42] G.Tauris : London ISBN 1-86064-148-2 . pp. 58. Dr V. [41] Romila Thapar. Cuttack [49] Sims-Williams and Cribb (1995-1996). A History of India: Volume 1. [66] Schimmel. 1998.. capital of Muslim India (http:/ / www. only a very few ventured to undertake the voyage and to carry on traffic in Indian merchandise. [46] G. co. A History of India: Part 1.History of India renouncer tradition played a central role during this formative period of Indian religious history. These include the two pillars of Indian theologies: samsara . 4 [30] Mary Pat Fisher (1997) In: Living Religions: An Encyclopedia of the World's Faiths I. ISBN 978-90-04-06117-0. Columbia University Press. 91. 198-201. 4. The World of Ancient Times (Charles Scribner's Sons Publishing: New York. p. The Age of Imperial Kanauj."The extreme antiquity of Jainism as a non-vedic. Brahmins. co. Daniel Anderson. Bongard-Levin. p172. a contemporary of the Buddha. Page 114 [31] Mary Pat Fisher (1997) In: Living Religions: An Encyclopedia of the World's Faiths I. [45] G." Page 115 [32] Romila Thapar. 41. "Les Nomades".67. Ronald. indianscience. 2005. html) [83] Timur . and who died approximately 526 BC. p. Bongard-Levin. A History of India. [77] http:/ / www. 67. 641." [29] Laumakis. [38] G.Islam in the Indian Subcontinent. p. uk/ 2/ hi/ south_asia/ 4970452. p. 31. Brill Academic Publishers. [47] G. p.Tauris : London ISBN 1-86064-148-2 . 4 [67] Sheridan. A History of India. iam vel ad inferos pertinet?" Pliny. google. M. p. [69] Inden. 66. An Introduction to Buddhist philosophy. p. p. under the Ptolemies.5. p 339. 357. [68] Arnold.. p. [43] G. "Ritual.) [82] Battuta's Travels: Delhi. Bongard-Levin. [61] Iaroslav Lebedynsky. [39] Romila Thapar. Oxford University Press. and I learned that as many as one hundred and twenty vessels were sailing from Myos Hormos to India. 2008. com/ travel/ clavijo/ timurconquestofindia. [62] Early History of India. pp. [44] Romila Thapar. Sri Digambar Jain Samaj.41. Ian McGready. ca. A History of India: Volume 1. when Gallus was prefect of Egypt. A History of India. A History of India: Volume 1. 1 January 1980. 67. Mahajan. to A.12. [64] Michaels 2004. D.Some of the fundamental values and beliefs that we generally associate with Indian religions in general and Hinduism in particular were in part the creation of the renouncer tradition. A History of India: Volume 1. [75] Search for India's ancient city (http:/ / news. Source (http:/ / penelope. p 650. Religionen . ISBN 0-06-270085-5. html) [51] "minimaque computatione miliens centena milia sestertium annis omnibus India et Seres et paeninsula illa imperio nostro adimunt: tanti nobis deliciae et feminae constant. D. p. Bongard-Levin. Ancient Hindu and Buddhist scriptures refer to Jainism as an existing tradition which began long before Mahavira. BBC News. [35] Carl Roebuck. org/ essays/ 22-%20E--Gems%20& %20Minerals%20F. Historia Naturae 12. A History of India: Volume 1.12.84. 1995. htm) 23 . quota enim portio ex illis ad deos. p. uchicago. A. pp. p. k12. 80.. [34] Romila Thapar. 1966) p. Authority. edu/ Thayer/ E/ Roman/ Texts/ Strabo/ 2E1*. John. [40] G. Bongard-Levin. 175-176. 72. 78.C. quaeso. stm). 1998. indigenous Indian religion is well documented. Bongard. ed. A History of India. whereas formerly. pg." Strabo II. Smith. 2004. [48] Agrawal.Jainism's major teacher is the Mahavira.." In JF Richards. The Spice Trade of The Roman Empire: 29 B. A History of India: Volume 1. Dr A. gardenvisit. C. (1969).the belief that life in this world is one of suffering and subject to repeated deaths and births (rebirth). I accompanied him and ascended the Nile as far as Syene and the frontiers of Ethiopia. 70. W. Dr V. sfusd. Daniel P.. p.. Retrieved on 22 June 2007. Bongard-Levin. And Cycle Time in Hindu Kingship. History and Culture of Indian People. and Belief: Epistemology in South Asian Philosophy of religion. in Great Thinkers of the Eastern World. us/ schwww/ sch618/ Ibn_Battuta/ Battuta's_Trip_Seven. Dr R. 2003. th/ books?id=mHLB4m75pisC& pg=PA198& lpg=PA198& dq=arabs+ defeated+ rajasthan& source=bl& ots=E8_YoKMEB_& sig=KZQqifwSNuU-OOKkWYPl-_8zk4w& hl=en& sa=X& ei=yGobUNilKo7NrQf12ICoCg& redir_esc=y#v=onepage& q=arabs defeated rajasthan& f=false) [80] From the notes of Portuguese traveler Domingo Paes about Krishnadevaraya: A king who was perfect in all things (Hampi. Columbia University Press. p. McGovern. [50] "At any rate. ed. p. p 50. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.the goal of human existence. p.15 [74] Miller. New York: Harper Collins. A Travel Guide 2003. [63] Ancient India. 80. The Buddhist Visnu. ISBN 978-0-231-13281-7. A History of India. Innes. 43.B.

A Brief History of India ISBN 0-89281-923-5 • Guha. ucalgary. 2000. 1904-1906). Axel (2004). "Subaltern studies as postcolonial criticism. Hinduism. Verso. pdf).'" Indica. 54#8 pp 28-30 [114] Amiya Kumar Bagchi. "When the Subaltern Took the Postcolonial Turn. pp 229-244. "Writing Indian History in the Marxist Mode in a Post-Soviet World. V: 9th to 16th Centuries. II: From the opening of the Protestant Revolt to the Present Day.History of India [85] The Islamic World to 1600: Rise of the Great Islamic Empires (The Mughal Empire) (http:/ / www. 17 Issue 2. [115] Gyan Prakash. [105] Reintegrating India with the World Economy (http:/ / www. The Business of Empire: The East India Company and Imperial Britain. (1967) [102] Satya Narayan Mishra. Modern India: The Origins of an Asian Democracy (2nd ed. Religious Cultures in Early Modern India: New Perspectives (2011) [112] Aravind Ganachari. "Maharaja Ranjit Singh and the Principles of War." USI Journal." [90] Gulcharan Singh. They were either masters directly or they took tribute. Jan 1977." Journal of the Pakistan Historical Society. Aug 2004. Dec 1994. World Health Organization. Vol. Jan 1993.. avalanchepress." Modern Asian Studies. Princeton. 1720-1760. Raj: The Making and Unmaking of British India (1997) pp 30-44 [98] H. 890pp. The Illustrated Cultural History of India (Oxford University Press. New Jersey: Princeton University Press Further reading • Bandyopadhyay.qst?a=o&d=59677250) • Daniélou. pp. who. 99#5 pp 1475-1500 [116] John Roosa. 2007) • Brown. L. Jan 2007." Indian Historical Review. ISBN 1-85984-739-0 pg 7 [104] Plague (http:/ / www. Peterson Institute for International Economics. 1. A.. [93] From: James Harvey Robinson. Wolpert. Lawrence. pp 130-147 24 Sources • Michaels. questia. Readings in European History. Judith M. Vol. 1994) online (http://www. 11#1 pp 1-40 [89] The Rediscovery of India: A New Subcontinent (http:/ / books. Bowen. 55 Issue 1/2. ed. co. pp. 26-40. Ramachandra. int/ vaccine_research/ diseases/ zoonotic/ en/ index4. "The Slow Conquest: Administrative Integration of Malwa into the Maratha Empire. Provincial Politics and Indian Nationalism: Bombay and the Indian National Congress 1880-1915 (2005) [111] Rosalind O'Hanlon and David Washbrook. 1756-1833 (2008) [99] Christopher Hibbert. Vol. 32 : pp 383-408 [109] Anil Seal. Sekhar. Raj: The Making and Unmaking of British India (2000) . Vol. 47#1.com/PM. html). India's road to nationhood: a political history of the subcontinent (1981) ch 57 [101] S. petersoninstitute. ed. org/ publications/ chapters_preview/ 98/ 1iie2806. [96] Lawrence James. google. Vol. Gordon. pp 70-93 [113] Latha Menon. pp 184-192 [91] From: Oliver J. eds. pp 71-83 [103] Davis.. in/ books?id=XRpFol4AnO0C& pg=PA133& lpg=PA133& dq=marathas+ they+ were+ either+ masters+ directly+ or+ they+ took+ tribute& source=bl& ots=u8fCv6tT9S& sig=1Cj9lxYXUtzM5CbCztnts-iTyVA& hl=en& sa=X& ei=ms4UUNzSLcLRrQfYo4DICg& ved=0CC8Q6AEwAA#v=onepage& q=marathas they were either masters directly or they took tribute& f=false) Cite: "Swarming up from the Himalayas. 20 Issue 1/2. Alain (2003). 2 Vols. Raj: The Making and Unmaking of British India (2000) pp 322-40 [107] Anil Chandra Banerjee. since 1947 • James. The Emergence of Indian Nationalism: Competition and Collaboration in the Later Nineteenth Century (1971) [110] Gordon Johnson. Morley and India. Mike. The Great Mutiny: India 1857 (1980) [100] Wilhelm von Pochhammer. "Coming to Terms with the Past: India. V. (Boston: Ginn and Co. 1906-1910." American Historical Review.. 1907)." History Today." Journal of the Canadian Historical Association. From Plassey to Partition: A History of Modern India (2010) • Basham. 2006. "Muslim Backwardness and Birth of the Muslim League. "Studies in Indian Historiography: 'The Cambridge School. 333–335. 111 Issue 465. "Writing Post-Orientalist Histories of the Third World: Perspectives from Indian Historiography" Comparative Studies in Society and History (1990).. ed. July 1981. [106] Lawrence James. com/ Soldier_Shah. The Library of Original Sources (Milwaukee: University Research Extension Co. March 2010. A. Late Victorian Holocausts. the Marathas now ruled from the Indus and Himalayas in the north to the south tip of the peninsula. Thatcher. Past and present. A Constitutional History of India 1600-1935 (1978) p 171-3 [108] Gyan Prakesh. India After Gandhi: The History of the World's Largest Democracy (2007). Vol. php) [88] Stewart N. ca/ applied_history/ tutor/ islam/ empires/ mughals/ ) [86] Iran in the Age of the Raj (http:/ / www.

google.c.x/full) • Bose. • Bayly. and Thomas R. Vincent.qst?a=o&d=108019139) • Mcleod. (1983) • Smith.google. (Oxford University Press. Metcalf. online (http://onlinelibrary.com/doi/10.questia. Surjit The A to Z of India (2010). Burton.History of India • Keay.1111/j. John Dowson (1867–77). 1599-1933 excerpt and text search (http://books.qst?a=o&d=5023376478) • Elliot. ISBN 0-8021-3797-0. The Mughal Empire (The New Cambridge History of India) (1996) excerpt and text search (http://www. John F.1970 (2nd ed.google. India: A History (http://books. John. The Cambridge Economic History of India. 2010). Modern India. Humphrey Milford. questia. New York. USA: Grove Press. 1200 . Gauranganath (1921).com/gp/reader/ 0631205462/) • Tapan.com/books?id=3aeQqmcXBhoC). Dr. Dietmar. 1958). The Economy of Modern India. (6th ed. com/books?id=7cZ_oJGWWK0C) (1993) • Sharma. eds. A Concise History of Modern India (2006) excerpt and text search (http://www.com/ books?id=DAwmUphO6eAC) • Mansingh.. R. 192pp • Richards. scholarly survey.com/Mughal-Empire-Cambridge-History-India/dp/0521566037/) • Rothermund. Romila. Early India: From the Origins to AD 1300 (2004) excerpt and text search (http://books.amazon. The History of India] (2002) excerpt and text search (http://books.com/Concise-History-Modern-Cambridge-Histories/dp/0521682258/) • Peers. eds. (4th ed 2004) online (http://www. Barbara D. Has a Surprisingly Weak Tradition of Historiography.com/Economy-Modern-1860-1970-Cambridge-History/dp/ 0521589398/) Wolpert.P." Economic History Review. 1885-1947 (2002) • Singhal.1468-0289. a Land of History. Mihir. Volume 1: c. Garratt.amazon. John (2000). India under Colonial Rule: 1700-1885 (2006). D. qst?a=o&d=5797476) • Stein. Rise and Fulfilment of British Rule in India (1934) 690 pages. a concise historical encyclopedia • Metcalf. 2005) • Sarkar. A History of India. Sumit. Hermann and Dietmar Rothermund.org/stream/ indiaasknowntoan00banerich#page/n3/mode/2up).T. An Economic History of India: From Pre-Colonial Times to 1991 (http://books. c. Habib. 1860-1970 (The New Cambridge History of India) (1996) excerpt and text search (http://www. old-fashioned • Spear. The History of India (1958 and later editions) online edition (http://www.questia. B.com/ PM. 1750 (1984).com/books?id=93fnssiWvjoC) Tomlinson. London. London: Trübner and Co. Henry Miers. com/books?id=-5irrXX0apQC) Thompson.google.com/PM. ." History Today 57#9 (2007) pp 34+. India as known to the ancient world (http://www.archive. A History of the Indian People. "India's Missing Historians: Mihir Bose Discusses the Paradox That India. C. The Muhammadan Period (http://persian. A. Edward.S.org/persian/main?url=pf?file=80201010&ct=0). The Oxford History of India (3rd ed.amazon. Percival. Oxford University Press. A History of India (1998) excerpt and text search (http://www. • Kulke. The History of India. "State and Economy in India over Seven Hundred Years. 38#4 pp 583–596. as told by its own historians. online (http://www. A New History of India. (Nov 1985). R.wiley. Douglas M.packhum.com/PM. 1114pp of scholarly articles Thapar.tb00391. and Irfan Raychaudhuri.1985. The Cambridge Economic History of India: Volume 2. essays by scholars • Dharma Kumar and Meghnad Desai.1751-c. India's Ancient Past.amazon.google. 1999) 25 • • • • Historiography • Bannerjee. Stanley. and G.

the oldest scriptures of Hinduism. Dahae and Dahyu and . Philological and linguistic evidence indicates that the Rigveda. with river names. Despite the difficulties in dating the period.[2] Transmission of texts in the Vedic period was by oral tradition alone. the oldest of the Vedas. After the end of the Vedic period. the golden age of classical Sanskrit literature.org/Regional/Asia/India/Society_and_Culture/History//) at the Open Directory Project Vedic period • • Outline of South Asian history History of Indian subcontinent The Vedic period (or Vedic age) was a period in history during which the Vedas. sometimes referred to as Vedic civilization. hostile.[1] The end of the period is commonly estimated to have occurred about 500 BCE. History See also Rigvedic tribes The Rig Veda contains accounts of conflicts between the Aryas and the Dasas and Dasyus. and 150 BCE has been suggested as a terminus ante quem for all Vedic Sanskrit literature. online edition (http://dsal. the extent of the Swat and Cemetery H cultures are also indicated. scornful or abusive. was probably centred early on in the northern and northwestern parts of the Indian subcontinent. uncouth. Their speech is described as mridhra which could variously mean soft. Other adjectives which describe their physical appearance are subject to many interpretations.[3] and a literary tradition set in only in post-Vedic times. the Vedas can safely be assumed to be several thousands of years old. The Rig Veda describes Dasas and Dasyus as people who do not perform sacrifices (akratu) or obey the commandments of gods (avrata). were composed. The associated culture. the Mahajanapadas period in turn gave way to the Maurya Empire (from ca. many modern scholars connect the Dasas and Dasyus to Iranian tribes Geography of the Rig Vedic culture. The time span of the period is uncertain. 320 BC).History of India 26 Online sources • The Imperial Gazetteer of India (26 vol. highly detailed description of all of India in 1901.edu/reference/gazetteer/) External links • History of India (http://www. However.uchicago. also referred to as the early Vedic period. but has now spread and constitutes the basis of contemporary Indian culture.dmoz. was composed roughly between 1700 and 1100 BCE. 1908–31).

Paktha. their western neighbours. Map of northern India in the later Vedic age. was killed in the battle and the Bharatas and the Purus merged into a new tribe Kuru after the war. the chief of Purus. Many of the old tribes coalesced to form larger political units. However. led by their chief Sudas. the Vedic society transitioned from semi–nomadic life to settled agriculture. yet Sudas emerged victorious in the Battle of Ten Kings. The Narmada River and parts of North Western Deccan formed the southern limits. Turvasha.[14] The most famous of new religious sacrifices that arose in this period was the Ashvamedha (horse sacrifice). Vishanin. This enabled the Vedic Aryans to extend their kingdoms along the Gangetic plains and ushered the later Vedic age.[6] The confederation of tribes tried to inundate the Bharatas by opening the embankments of Ravi.[11][12] With the expansion of settlements the centre of the Vedic civilization shifted east. formed the eastern boundary of the Vedic culture.[10] Yadavas expanded towards the south and settled in Mathura. The Gangetic plains had remained out of bounds to the Vedic tribes because of thick forest cover.[4][5] Internecine military conflicts between the various tribes of Vedic Aryans are also described in the Rig Veda. Druhyu. a small kingdom to the east of Magadha. This sacrifice involved setting a consecrated horse free to roam the kingdoms for a year. against a confederation of ten tribes— Puru. The other tribes dwelt north–west of the Bharatas in the region of Punjab.[15] By the sixth century BCE. Alina. This transition led to increased competition and conflicts over resources such as land and water. Yadu.[18] . after 1000 BCE.[16] The end of Vedic India is marked by linguistic.[17] The invasion of Darius I of the Indus valley in the early 6th century BC marks the beginning of outside influence. The grammar of Pāṇini marks a final apex in the codification of Sutra texts. even over regions separated by large distances became easy. River Indus is shown by its Sanskrit name Sindhu. This sacrifice put considerable pressure on inter–state relations in this era. Siva. continued in the kingdoms of the Indo-Greeks. Most notable of such conflicts was the Battle of Ten Kings which took place on the banks of the river Parushni (modern day Ravi).Vedic period 27 believe that Dasas and Dasyus were early Indo–Aryan immigrants who arrived into the subcontinent before the Vedic Aryans. The battle was fought between the tribe Bharatas. The kingdoms and chiefdoms in which the horse wandered had to pay homage or prepare to battle the king to whom the horse belonged.[8] Purukutsa.[9] Anga (in modern day West Bengal).[7] Division of the waters of Ravi could have been a reason for the war. Thar desert is in orange. The horse was followed by a chosen band of warriors. The location of Vedic shakhas is labelled in green. Bhalanas. lived along the lower regions of Saraswati. cultural and political changes. as Rig Veda took its final form.[7] In the 11th century BCE. while Purus. To the south of their kingdom was Vatsa which was governed from its capital Kausambi. and at the same time the beginning of Classical Sanskrit. Anu.[6] Bharatas lived around the upper regions of the river Saraswati. the use of iron axes and ploughs became widespread and the jungles could be cleared with ease. the political units consolidated into large kingdoms called Mahajanapadas.[13] The newly formed states struggled for supremacy and started displaying imperial ambitions. The process of urbanization had begun in these kingdoms and commerce and travel.

Enslavement (dasa. cattle–rearers.Vedic period 28 Political organization Vedic aryans were organised into tribes rather than kingdoms. The main responsibility of the rajan was to protect the tribe. however.[21] Rajan was seen as the custodian of social order and the protector of rashtra (polity). there is no indication of the use of coins. The chief of a tribe was called a rajan. He was aided by several functionaries.[20] In the later Vedic period. responsible for the governance of the tribe.[23] There are references. axes are mentioned. Hereditary kingship started emerging and competitions like chariot races. and storage of grains in large jars. The two bodies were. Some of these might have needed full–time specialists.[22] Economy Economy in the Rig Vedic period was sustained by a combination of pastoralism and agriculture. While gold is mentioned in some hymns.[25] There are references to boats and oceans. Arthur Llewellyn Basham. different kinds of political systems such as monarchical states (rajya). The voluntary gift offering (bali) became compulsory. Malwa. which previously decided who was worthy of becoming a king. barbers. The distinction between the two bodies is not clear. making mats of grass and reed are mentioned in the hymns of Rig Veda. particularly to kings (bali) and priests (dana). bangles. dasi) in the course of war or as a result of non–payment of debt is mentioned. and barter using cattle as a unit of currency.[24] Economic exchanges were conducted by gift giving. vintners and crafts of chariot–making. making of bows. and game of dice.[22] By the end of the later Vedic age. Some scholars believe that ayas refers to iron and the words dham and karmara refer to iron–welders. priests. War booty was also a major source of wealth. Panis were semitic traders. in part. including the purohita (chaplain). One verse mentions purification of ayas. Rajan had a rudimentary court which was attended by courtiers (sabhasad) and chiefs of septs (gramani). to leveling of field. in others to stingy people who hid their wealth and did not perform Vedic sacrifices. Some scholars suggest that Ceramic goblet from Navdatoli.[7] Professions of 1300 BC.[24] . with increasing power of king. hunters. oligarchical states (gana or sangha). seed processing. dutas (envoys) and spash (spies). Metallurgy is not mentioned in the Rig Veda. Sabha and samiti are still mentioned in later Vedic texts. However. Rituals in this era exalted the status of the king over his people. The book X of the Rig Veda refers to both eastern and western oceans. sewing. weaving. tanning. though. The autonomy of the rajan was restricted by the tribal councils called sabha and samiti. became nominal. Some tribes had no hereditary chiefs and were directly governed by the tribal councils. He was occasionally referred to as samrat (supreme ruler). there was no organised system of taxation. their influence declined. carpentry. the senani (army chief). warriors. and tribal principalities had emerged in India. but the evidence for this is slim. farmers. cattle raids. The rajan could not accede to the throne without their approval. in the Rig Veda.[19] Purohita performed ceremonies and spells for success in war and prosperity in peace. the tribes had consolidated into little kingdoms. slaves worked in households rather than production–related activities. Individual property ownership did not exist and clans as a whole enjoyed rights over lands and herds. whereas. which had a capital and a rudimentary administrative system. theorises that sabha was a meeting of great men in the tribe. cart–making.[25] Panis in some hymns refers to merchants. Rajan's increasing political power enabled him to gain greater control over the productive resources. but the word ayas and instruments made from it such as razors. samiti was a meeting of all free tribesmen. a noted historian and indologist. metal working.

Vedic period The transition of Vedic society from semi–nomadic life to settled agriculture in the later Vedic age lead to an increase in trade and competition for resources.[26] Agriculture dominated the economic activity along the Ganges valley during this period.[27] Agricultural operations grew in complexity and usage of iron implements (krishna–ayas or shyama–ayas, literally black metal or dark metal) increased. Crops of wheat, rice, and barley were cultivated. New crafts and occupations such as carpentry, leather work, tanning, pottery, astrology, jewellery, dying, and vintnery arose.[28] Apart from copper, bronze, and gold, later Vedic texts also mention tin, lead, and silver.[29]


Rig Vedic society was relatively egalitarian in the sense that a distinct hierarchy of socio–economic classes or castes was absent.[30][24] However, political hierarchy was determined by rank, where rajan stood at the top and dasi at the bottom.[24] The words Brahamana and Kshatriya occur in various family books of the Rig Veda, but they are not associated with the term varna. The words Vaishya and Shudra are absent. Verses of the Rig Veda, such as 3.44-45, indicate the absence of strict social hierarchy and the existence of social mobility:[4] O, Indra, fond of soma, would you make me the protector of people, or would you make me a king, would you make me a sage who has drunk soma, would you impart to me endless wealth. The Vedic household was patriarchal and patrilineal. The institution of marriage was important and different types of marriages— monogamy, polygyny and polyandry are mentioned in the Rig Veda. Both women sages and female gods were known to Vedic Aryans. However, hymns attributable to female sages are few and female gods were not as important as male ones. Women could choose their husbands and could remarry if their husbands died or disappeared.[24] While the wife enjoyed a respectable position, she was subordinate to her husband.[23] People consumed milk, milk products, grains, fruits and vegetables. Meat eating is mentioned, however, cows are labelled aghnya (not to be killed). Clothes of cotton, wool and animal skin were worn.[24] Soma and sura were popular drinks in the Rig Vedic society, of which soma was sanctified by religion. Flute (vana), lute (vina), harp, cymbals, and drums were the musical instruments played and a heptatonic scale was used.[23] Dancing, dramas, chariot racing, and gambling were other popular pastimes.[24] The emergence of monarchical states in the later Vedic age, led to a distancing of the rajan from the people and the emergence of a varna hierarchy. The society was divided into four social groups— Brahmanas, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas and Shudras. The later Vedic texts fixed social boundaries, roles, status and ritual purity for each of the groups. The Shatapatha Brahmana associates the Brahmana with purity of parentage, good conduct, glory, teaching or protecting people; Kshatriya with strength, fame, ruling, and warfare; Vaishya with material prosperity and production–related activities such as cattle rearing and agriculture; Shudras with the service of the higher varnas. The effects of Rajasuya sacrifice depended on the varna of the sacrificer. Rajasuya endowed Brahmana with lustre, Kshatriya with valour, Vaishya with procreative power and Shudra with stability. The hierarchy of the top three varnas is ambiguous in the later Vedic texts. Panchavamsha Brahmana and verse of the Shatapatha Brahmana place Kshatriya over Brahmana and Vaishya, whereas, verse places Brahmana and Vaishya over the Kshatriya and Shudra. The Purusha sukta visualized the four varnas as hierarchical, but inter–related parts of an organic whole.[31] Despite the increasing social stratification in the later Vedic times, hymns like Rig Veda IX.112, suggest some amount of social mobility: "I am a reciter of hymns, my father a physician, and my mother grinds (corn) with stones. We desire to obtain wealth in various actions."[32][33] Household became an important unit in the later Vedic age. The variety of households of the Rig Vedic era gave way to an idealized household which was headed by a grihapati. The relations between husband and wife, father and son were hierarchically organised and the women were relegated to subordinate and docile roles. Polygyny was more common than polyandry and texts like Tattiriya Samhita indicate taboos around menstruating women. Various professions women took to are mentioned in the later Vedic texts. Women tended to cattle, milked cows, carded

Vedic period wool; were weavers, dyers, and corn grinders. Women warriors such as Vishphala, who lost a leg in battle, are mentioned. Two female philosophers are mentioned in the Upanishads.[34] Patrick Olivelle, in his translation of the Upanishads, writes that "the fact that these women are introduced without any attempt to justify or to explain how women could be engaged in theological matters suggests the relatively high social and religious position of at least women of some social strata during this period."[35]


Main articles: Historical Vedic religion The Vedic forms of belief are the precursor to modern Hinduism.[36] Texts considered to date to the Vedic period are mainly the four Vedas, but the Brahmanas, Aranyakas and the older Upanishads as well as the oldest Shrautasutras are also considered to be Vedic. The Vedas record the liturgy connected with the rituals and sacrifices performed by the 16 or 17 Shrauta priests and the purohitas. The rishis, the composers of the hymns of the Rigveda, were considered inspired poets and seers (in post-Vedic times understood as "hearers" of an eternally existing Veda, Śrauta means "what is heard").
A steel engraving from the 1850s, which depicts the creative activities of Prajapati, a Vedic deity who presides over procreation and protection of life.

The mode of worship was the performance of sacrifices (Yajna) which included the chanting of Rigvedic verses (see Vedic chant), singing of Samans and 'mumbling' of sacrificial mantras (Yajus). Yajna involved sacrifice and sublimation of the havana sámagri (herbal preparations) in the fire accompanied by the chanting of the Vedic mantras. The sublime meaning of the word yajna is derived from the Sanskrit verb yaj, which has a three-fold meaning of worship of deities (devapujana), unity (saògatikaraña) and charity (dána).[37] An essential element was the sacrificial fire - the divine Agni - into which oblations were poured, as everything offered into the fire was believed to reach God. People prayed for abundance of rain, cattle, sons, long life and gaining 'heaven'. Vedic people believed in the transmigration of the soul and the peepul tree and cow were sanctified by the time of the Atharva Veda.[38] Many of the concepts of Indian philosophy espoused later like Dharma, Karma etc. trace their root to the Vedas.[39] The main deities of the Vedic pantheon were Indra, Agni (the sacrificial fire), and Soma and some deities of social order such as Mitra–Varuna, Aryaman, Bhaga and Amsa, further nature deities such as Surya (the Sun), Vayu (the wind), Prithivi (the earth). Goddesses included Ushas (the dawn), Prithvi and Aditi (the mother of the Aditya gods or sometimes the cow). Rivers, especially Saraswati, were also considered goddesses. Deities were not viewed as all-powerful. The relationship between humans and the deity was one of transaction, with Agni (the sacrificial fire) taking the role of messenger between the two. Strong traces of a common Indo-Iranian religion remain visible, especially in the Soma cult and the fire worship, both of which are preserved in Zoroastrianism. Ethics in the Vedas are based on the concepts of Satya and Rta. Satya is the principle of integration rooted in the Absolute.[40] Whereas, Ṛta is the expression of Satya, which regulates and coordinates the operation of the universe and everything within it.[41] Conformity with Ṛta would enable progress whereas its violation would lead to punishment. Vedic religion evolved into the Hindu paths of Yoga and Vedanta, a religious path considering itself the 'essence' of the Vedas, interpreting the Vedic pantheon as a unitary view of the universe with 'God' (Brahman) seen as immanent and transcendent in the forms of Ishvara and Brahman. These post-Vedic systems of thought, along with later texts like Upanishads, epics (namely Gita of Mahabharat), have been fully preserved and form the basis of modern

Vedic period Hinduism. The ritualistic traditions of Vedic religion are preserved in the conservative Śrauta tradition.


The reconstruction of the history of Vedic India is based on text-internal details. Linguistically, the Vedic texts could be classified in five chronological strata: 1. Rigvedic text: The Rigveda is by far the most archaic of the Vedic texts preserved, and it retains many common Indo-Iranian elements, both in language and in content, that are not present in any other Vedic texts. Its creation must have taken place over several centuries or millennia. 2. Mantra language texts: This period includes both the mantra and prose language of the Atharvaveda (Paippalada and Shaunakiya), the Rigveda Khilani, the Samaveda Samhita (containing some 75 mantras not in the Rigveda), and the mantras An early 19th century manuscript of Rigveda of the Yajurveda. Many of these texts are largely derived from the (padapatha) in Devanagari. The Vedic accent is marked Rigveda, but have undergone certain changes, both by linguistic by underscores and vertical overscores in red. change and by reinterpretation. Conspicuous changes include change of vishva "all" by sarva, and the spread of the kuru- verbal stem (for Rigvedic krno-). This is the time of the early Iron Age in north-western India, corresponding to the Black and Red Ware (BRW) culture, and the kingdom of the Kurus, dating from ca. the 10th century BC. 3. Samhita prose texts: This period marks the beginning of the collection and codification of a Vedic canon. An important linguistic change is the complete loss of the injunctive. The Brahmana part ('commentary' on mantras and ritual) of the Black Yajurveda (MS, KS, TS) belongs to this period. Archaeologically, the Painted Grey Ware (PGW) culture from ca. 900 BC corresponds, and the shift of the political centre from the Kurus to the Pancalas on the Ganges. 4. Brahmana prose texts: The Brahmanas proper of the four Vedas belong to this period, as well as the Aranyakas, the oldest of the Upanishads (BAU, ChU, JUB) and the oldest Shrautasutras (BSS, VadhSS). 5. Sutra language texts: This is the last stratum of Vedic Sanskrit leading up to c. 500 BC, comprising the bulk of the Śrauta and Grhya Sutras, and some Upanishads (e.g. KathU, MaitrU). Videha (N. Bihar) as a third political centre is established.

[1] Oberlies (1998:155) gives an estimate of 1100 BC for the youngest hymns in book 10. Estimates for a terminus post quem of the earliest hymns are more uncertain. Oberlies (p. 158) based on 'cumulative evidence' sets wide range of 1700–1100 [2] Flood 2003, p. 68. [4] Singh 2008, p. 192. [5] Kulke & Rothermund 1998, p. 38. [6] Reddy 2011, p. 103. [7] Basham 2008, p. 32. [8] Kulke & Rothermund 1998, pp. 37–38. [9] Kulke & Rothermund 1998, pp. 39–40. [10] [11] [12] [13] Basham 208, p. 40. Basham 208, p. 41. Majumdar 1998, p. 65. Singh 2008, p. 200.

google. Singh 2008. Atlantic Publishers and Distributors. S. p.google. pp. xxviii–xxix.com/ books?id=V73N8js5ZgAC). Scholarly Publishing Office. P. K. 21 [41] Holdrege (2004:215). 1986. 200–201. Panikkar (2001:350-351) remarks: "Ṛta is the ultimate foundation of everything. [. com/books?id=bSxHgej4tKMC&pg=PA208). Hermann. ISBN 0-919812-15-5." Bibliography • Basham. L. ISBN 978-0-19-283576-5 • Reddy.. University of South Carolina Press. (2008). p. 190. Singh 2008. However. Gupta.google. Ramesh Chandra (1977). P. 42-45. p. Singh 2008. 41. p. pp. Basham 2008. page 65: ". 45. Swami.Vedic period [14] [15] [16] [17] [18] [19] [20] [21] [22] [23] [24] [25] [26] [27] [28] [29] [30] [31] [32] [33] [34] [35] Majumdar 1998. Basham 2008.google. Ontario: Wilfrid Laurier University Press. Malden. The Religion of the Ṛigveda (http://books. 198–199. Olivelle 1998. ISBN 978-1-4443-5968-8 • Griswold. P. Divine Life Society. Oxford University Press. [38] Singhal. The Wonder That Was India: A survey of the history and culture of the Indian sub-continent before the coming of the Muslims (http://books. A History of India (http://books. ISBN 81-85119-18-x. Axiological Approach to the Vedas. p. 204. Fortson 2011. Gavin (2003).. Singh 2008. Majumdar 1977. (2011). 32 [36] Stephanie W. Roshan. p. 204–206. 201–203. Olivelle & 1998 xxvii. K. p. 42. Krishna (2011)." [37] Nigal. 81... Rothermund. Indo-European Language and Culture: An Introduction (http://books. ISBN 8126902868. Indian History (http://books. 66. Northern Book Centre. Olivelle 1998.] It is the expression of the primordial dynamism that is inherent in everything. ISBN 978-0-415-32920-0 • Olivelle.com/ books?id=KpIWhKnYmF0C).google. C. Upanis̥ads (http://books.com/books?id=XNxiN5tzKOgC). 117–120. ISBN 1-4051-3251-5 • Fortson. University of Michigan.com/books?id=f9-2jV7sRuEC). p. Olivelle 1998. Sen 1999. it is "the supreme". 150-151.at least as much as Old Hebrew religion is from medieval and modern Christian religion. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. pp. Benjamin W. 40. Motilal Banarsidass Publ.com/books?id=6OF-PwAACAAJ). [39] *Day. The Ancient History of India. p.com/books?id=X4j7Nf_MU24C& pg=SL1-PA103). p. Routledge. 33–34.google. although this is not to be understood in a static sense. Terence P. editor. Basham 2008. xxxvi. xxvi. 42–43. pp. pp. to call this period Vedic Hinduism is a contradiction in terms since Vedic religion is very different from what we generally call Hindu religion . The Conception of Punishment in Early Indian Literature. The Study of Hinduism. A. p. Vedic religion is treatable as a predecessor of Hinduism. ISBN 978-81-208-0436-4 • Kulke. Jamison and Michael Witzel in Arvind Sharma. Kulke & Rothermund 1998. Tata McGraw-Hill Education.google.. pp. Patrick (1998). Basham 2008.google. Basham 2008. [40] Krishnananda. (1982). MA: Blackwell. John Wiley & Sons. p. Singh 2008. 191. Dietmar (1998). 208. ISBN 978-81-208-0745-7 • Majumdar. p.. Vedic Period: A New Interpretation. The Blackwell Companion to Hinduism (http://books. pp. Ancient India (http://books.. Singh 2008. 54. p. 2003..com/ books?id=Vhkt5K1fw2wC&pg=PA331). Singh 2008. ISBN 978-1-59740-599-7 • Flood.G. Staal 2008. 35. pp. ISBN 978-0-07-132923-1 . A Short History of Religious and Philosophic Thought in India.. Hervey De Witt (1971).

but the Brahmanas. Majumdar and A.google. ISBN 978-81-224-1198-0 • Singh.google.google. A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India: From the Stone Age to the 12th Century (http://books.[3] Its liturgy is reflected in the mantra portion of the four Vedas. New Age International.google. • Lokmanya Bal Gangadhar Tilak "The Arctic Home in the Vedas". C. Aranyakas and some of the older Upanishads (Bṛhadāraṇyaka. D. Bombay : Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan 1951 • R. Vuppala Srinivasa (1981). N. composed in Vedic Sanskrit. however. Map of northern India in the late Vedic period. Veda. Pearson Education India. Messrs Tilak Bros. Thar desert is in orange History Texts dating to the Vedic period. Vedic Brahmanism. The location of Vedic shakhas is labelled in green. Mantras. This mode of worship is largely unchanged today within Hinduism. The Vedic age.org/Movement for the Restoration .. ISBN 978-0-14-309986-4 • Winternitz. Moriz.. Penguin Books India. 1903 External links • Restoration of Vedic Wisdom (http://www. Chāndogya. Ancient Indian History And Civilization (http://books.C. ancient Hinduism or.com/ books?id=Wk4_ICH_g1EC&pg=PA117).com/books?id=JRfuJFRV_O8C&pg=PA102). in a context of Indian antiquity. purānas and tantras (http://books. A history of Indian literature: Introduction. Majumdar et al. simply Brahmanism[2]) is a historical predecessor of modern Hinduism. Patrizia Norelli-Bachelet Historical Vedic religion The religion of the Vedic period (1500 BC to 500 BC[1]) (also known as Vedism. An Advanced History of India. Rituals.com/ books?id=HcE23SjLX8sC). ISBN 978-81-208-0264-3 33 Further reading • R. Jaiminiya Upanishad .quantumyoga. The religious practices centered on a clergy administering rites. MacMillan. epics. Volume I. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. Sarma. Frits (2008).Vedic period • Sen. Pusalker (editors): The History and Culture of the Indian People. S. ISBN 978-81-317-1120-0 • Staal. 1967. (1999).[4] which are compiled in Sanskrit. only a small fraction of conservative Śrautins continue the tradition of oral recitation of hymns learned solely through the oral tradition. Insights (http://books. Discovering the Vedas: Orgins.com/books?id=H3lUIIYxWkEC&pg=PA184).pdf) (pdf). Upinder (2008). are mainly the four Vedic Samhitas.

Purusha Sukta as well as.15. long life and an afterlife in the heavenly world of the ancestors. which are considered extinct in all other parts. which further evolved into Puranic Hinduism. such as Kerala where the Nambudiri Brahmins continue the ancient Śrauta rituals. rather than "authors". rain. who were considered to be seers or "hearers" (Śruti means "what is heard") of the Veda. chanting of hymns and performance of sacrifices. the hymns of the Rigveda and other Vedic hymns were divinely revealed to the rishis. cattle (wealth). while they are attested from early times in the Cemetery H culture. 34 Rituals Specific rituals and sacrifices of the Vedic religion include. In addition the Vedas are said to be "apaurashaya". • The rituals and charms referred to in the Atharvaveda are concerned with medicine and healing practices. Vedic religion gradually metamorphosizing into the various schools of Hinduism. The mode of worship was worship of the elements like fire and rivers. wellbeing and prosperity of the Rashtra the nation or empire[7] • The Purushamedha or symbolic sacrifice of a man. among others:[6] • The Soma rituals. which involves recitations from the Vedas by a purohita (priest). the text clearly indicating that the participant is to be released. a sun charm. imitating that of the cosmic Purusha.[5] However aspects of the historical Vedic religion survived in corners of the Indian subcontinent. However.14)[9][10] A Śrauta yajna being performed.(RV 10. This mode of worship has been preserved even today in Hinduism. The Vedas record the liturgy connected with the rituals and sacrifices performed by the 16 or 17 Śrauta priests and the purohitas. cf. People prayed for abundance of children. the Ashvamedha. • The New and Full Moon as well as the Seasonal (Cāturmāsya) sacrifices • The royal consecration (Rajasuya) sacrifice • The Ashvamedha or A Yajna dedicated to the glory. wealth and general well-being. in its Śrauta form. • The Agnicayana. The "sacrifice" is symbolic. the sophisticated ritual of piling the fire altar. the primacy of Vedic deities has been seconded to the deities of Puranic literature. worship of heroic gods like Indra. utility and consumption of Soma: • The Agnistoma or Soma sacrifice • Fire rituals involving oblations (havir): • The Agnihotra or oblation to Agni. which involved the extraction. The priests performed the solemn rituals for the noblemen (Kshatriyas) and wealthy commoners Vaishyas. According to traditional views. a Sanskrit word meaning "uncreated by man" and which further reveals their eternal non-changing status. for prosperity.Historical Vedic religion Brahmana) are also placed in this period. The Vedic period is held to have ended around 500 BC. there is a late Rigvedic reference invoking forefathers "both cremated (agnidagdhá-) and uncremated (ánagnidagdha-)". .[8] The Hindu rites of cremation are seen since the Rigvedic period.

just as there was no need for an author to compose the Vedas or a god to validate the rituals.[17] It holds the Absolute to be both existence and non-existence[18] and beyond all conception. The Nasadiya sukta is thought to be the earliest account of skepticism in India.[23] While the term ahimsa is not officially mentioned. It espouses Panentheism by presenting nature of reality as both immanent and transcendent.[16] Vedic people believed in the transmigration of the soul and the peepul tree and cow were sanctified by the time of the Atharva Veda. Vamadeva. Mātariśvan". the positive and the negative.[13] Philosophy Vedic philosophy primarily begins with the later part of Rig Veda. which regulates and coordinates the operation of the universe and everything within it. Satya is the principle of integration rooted in the Absolute. Varuna. Rishaba. proclaims the organic inseparability of the constituents of society.164. Ṛta is the expression of Satya. ekaṃ sad viprā bahudhā vadantyaghniṃ yamaṃ mātariśvānamāhuḥ "They call him Indra. the high and the low. existence and non-existence. and Soma. Devas and Asuras.[22] Many of the concepts of Indian philosophy espoused later like Dharma. Yama. one passage in the Rig Veda reads.[16] From this reality the sukta holds that original creative will (identified as Viswakarma.[28] However. Bhaga. the beautiful and the ugly. the deified sacred drink of the Indo-Iranians. by which this vast universe is projected in space and time.[19] Ethics in the Vedas are based on the concepts of Satya and Rta. in the seventh verse. the conceivable and the inconceivable. Arya Samaj holds the view that the Vedic mantras tend to monotheism. Concept of Yajna or sacrifice is also enunciated in the Purusha sukta where reaching Absolute itself is considered a transcendent sacrifice when viewed from the point of view of the individual. which was compiled before 1100 BCE. and he is heavenly nobly-winged Garutmān. Agni. Hiranyagarbha or Prajapati) proceeds."[24] Major Philosophers of this era were Rishis Narayana.) are deities of cosmic and social order.[30] Often quoted isolated pada 1. Aryaman. "Do not harm anything. The Śatarudrīya of Yajurveda shatters the extra-cosmic notion of Absolute (Rudra) and identifies it with both the good and the bad. and Angiras.46 of the Rig Veda states (trans. space and heaven. the power of the mantras is what is seen as the power of gods.[14] Most of philosophy of the Rig Veda is contained in the sections Purusha sukta and Nasadiya Sukta. Kanva. the Vishvadevas.[25] (See also philosophers of Vedic age) Interpretations of Vedic Mantras Mimamsa philosophers argue that there was no need to postulate a maker for the world. Amsa.[26] Mimamsa argues that the gods named in the Vedas have no existence apart from the mantras that speak their names. from the universe and kingdoms down to the individual. Karma etc.[27] Adi Shankara interpreted Vedas as being non-dualistic or monistic.[11] The Vedic pantheon knows two classes. most notably heroic Indra.[12] Also prominent is Varuna (often paired with Mitra) and the group of "All-gods". . Varuṇa.[29] Even the earlier Mandalas of Rig Veda (books 1 and 9) contains hymns which are thought to have a tendency toward monotheism. To what is One. To that regard.[21] Conformity with Ṛta would enable progress whereas its violation would lead to punishment. Agni the sacrificial fire and messenger of the gods. Griffith): Indraṃ mitraṃ varuṇamaghnimāhuratho divyaḥ sa suparṇo gharutmān. The Devas (Mitra. Mitra. trace their root to the Vedas. The Rigveda is a collection of hymns to various deities. sages give many a title they call it Agni. etc.[15] The Purusha Sukta gives a description of the spiritual unity of the cosmos.[20] Whereas. eleven each of earth.Historical Vedic religion 35 Pantheon Though a large number of devatas are named in the Rig Veda only 33 devas are counted. the right and the wrong. the mortal and the immortal.[15] The Purusha Sukta.

he verily knows it. Sanskrit epics[45] .[42] There are also conservative schools which continue portions of the historical Vedic religion largely unchanged until today (see Śrauta.7 further confirms this (trans. 900 BCE). "Yoga asanas were first prescribed by the ancient Vedic texts thousands of years ago and are said to directly enliven the body's inner intelligence. Vedanta considers itself "the purpose or goal [end] of the Vedas. the verses of 10. or perhaps even he does not" 36 Yoga The Vedic Samhitas contain references to ascetics. whether he formed it all or did not. many of which predate Patanjali's Sutras.[38] Yoga is discussed quite frequently in the Upanishads. and ascetic practices known as (tapas) are referenced in the Brāhmaṇas (900 BCE and 500 BCE).Historical Vedic religion Moreover. He who surveys it all from his highest heaven. These were the Āstika and nāstika."[33] Certainly breath control and curbing the mind was practiced since the Vedic times. The verse 10. transformed the Vedic worldview to monistic one. Griffith): iyám vísṛṣṭiḥ yátaḥ ābabhūva / yádi vā dadhé yádi vā ná / yáḥ asya ádhyakṣaḥ paramé vyóman / sáḥ aṅgá veda yádi vā ná véda "He. especially to chanting the sacred hymns[35] While the actual term "yoga" first occurs in the Katha Upanishad[36] and later in the Shvetasvatara Upanishad. Nambudiri).[31] The Rig Veda.[44] • Hinduism is an umbrella term for astika traditions in India (see History of Hinduism).[32] Robert Schneider and Jeremy Fields write.[44] • Puranas. such as jnana yoga and bhakti yoga.[43] During the formative centuries of Vedanta. the earliest Upanishad (c. early commentaries on the Vedas."[41] The philosophy of Vedanta (lit.130.[37] an early reference to meditation is made in Brihadaranyaka Upanishad. traditions that supported it and which opposed the same. emerged.[40] Post-Vedic religions An article related to Hinduism • • Hindu History • • Hinduism portal Hindu Mythology portal Vedic religion was followed by Upanishads which gradually evolved into Vedanta. soles turned upwards" as per his name. which is regarded by some as the primary institution of Hinduism. This led to the development of tantric metaphysics and gave rise to new forms of yoga.129 and 10. “The end of the Vedas").[39] A Rig Vedic cosmogonic myth declares an ascetic with "folded legs. the first origin of this creation. earliest of the Hindu scripture mentions the practice. deal with the one being (Ékam sát).129.[34] It is believed that yoga was fundamental to Vedic ritual.

Gupta. [. 328. org/ india/ s1990a22. p. 42-45. html) by Swami Krishnananda [20] Krishnananda. Pustak Mahal (11 August 2010). but reserves "Vedism" for the earliest stage. google. P. 9. Librairie d'Ameriqe et d'Orient. [16] The Purusha Sukta in Daily Invocations (http:/ / www. 2003. Vijayawada. ISBN 8126902868. Kessinger Publishing (1 June 2004). Retrieved 2007-04-02. Rituals." [5] Krishnananda. P. [10] Sabir. Vedang. it is "the supreme". N.[52][53] • Buddhism. traditionally from the 8th century BCE during Parshva's time. Roshan. [11] Singhal. Vedic Religion. Accessed 15 June 2012 [13] Renou. ISBN 1419125087. ancient. although this is not to be understood in a static sense. 150-151. 37 Vedic Brahmanism of Iron Age India is believed by some to have co-existed. February 1990. Gupta. Brahman. Indian Scriptures. Swami. Atlantic Publishers and Distributors. " Progress of Atheism in India: A Historical Perspective (http:/ / www. Vedic Period: A New Interpretation. p. Vedic religion is treatable as a predecessor of Hinduism. 1-8. vol. K. maintaining much of the original form of the Vedic religion. Ch. editor. Atlantic Publishers and Distributors. There are Jaina references to 22 pre-historic Tirthankaras. However. Publisher: Xlibris (7 October 2010). The Ancient History of India. Neha Publishers and Distributors (10 January 2012). 21 [21] Holdrege (2004:215). [14] Oberlies (1998:155) gives an estimate of 1100 BC for the youngest hymns in book 10. 1987 reprint: Munshiram Manoharlal. reprinted 1985. . K. htm)". and closely interacted with the non-Vedic (nastika) Śramana traditions. P.H. Umesh and Prativa Devi. from Encyclopædia Iranica. (Prof. Griffith.. ISBN 8126902868. Oberlies (p. [7] Ralph Thomas Hotchkin Griffith.. Vedic Period: A New Interpretation. It takes its name both from the predominant position of its priestly class. A Short History of Religious and Philosophic Thought in India. In this view.2. ISBN 0-919812-15-5. [18] Nasadiya Sukta (http:/ / www. Divine Life Society. apamnapat. ISBN 978-81-223-1007-8. the Brahmans. and importance given to. C.. Jainism peaked at the time of Mahavira (traditionally put in the 6th Century BCE). (traditionally put) from c. ISBN 978-93-80318-16-5. declined in India over the 5th to 12th centuries in favor of Puranic Hinduism. com/ articles/ Suktas003. ISBN 1453550119. html) translated by Ralph T. New Delhi. predating the Brahmana period.Historical Vedic religion • • • • • • the classical schools of Hindu philosophy Shaivism Vaishnavism Bhakti Shaktism Śrauta traditions. The Study of Hinduism. [12] "Botany of Haoma" (http:/ / www. Heaven Hell OR??. [8] Bloomfield Maurice. Terence P. P. 158) based on 'cumulative evidence' sets wide range of 1700–1100 [15] Krishnananda. Ontario: Wilfrid Laurier University Press. Estimates for a terminus post quem of the earliest hymns are more uncertain. 500 BC.. org/ invoc/ in_sat. Paris 1947.. The Conception of Punishment in Early Indian Literature.[54] Notes [1] INITIATION OF RELIGIONS IN INDIA (http:/ / www. swami-krishnananda. positiveatheism. 150. (1982). 1. Kalp. A Short History of Religious and Philosophic Thought in India. Swami. and from the increasing speculation about. but movements with mutual influences with Brahmanical traditions. P. p. University of South Carolina Press.[46][47][48][49] These were not direct outgrowths of Vedism. Roshan. Divine Life Society. Louis. Ancient India History. com/ books?id=HAHqvUGHO6cC& printsec=frontcover& source=gbs_navlinks_s#v=onepage& q=& f=false) (1899). the supreme power. Hymns of the Atharva Veda.. Divine Life Society. C. The Ancient History of India. to call this period Vedic Hinduism is a contradiction in terms since Vedic religion is very different from what we generally call Hindu religion – at least as much as Old Hebrew religion is from medieval and modern Christian religion. Swami. 155.. [19] The significance of Satarudriya in Daily Invocations (http:/ / www.[46] Following are the religions that evolved out of the Sramana tradition:[50][51] • Jainism. html) by Swami Krishnananda [17] Patri." [22] Singhal. org/ invoc/ in_pura. Panikkar (2001:350–351) remarks: "Ṛta is the ultimate foundation of everything. Translated with a Popular Commentary (http:/ / books. at least in eastern North India. 42 [6] Prasoon. p. ISBN 2-7200-1035-9. "Vedic Brahmanism" and "Brahmanism". [9] Dudi. org/ articles/ haoma-i). Amar Singh.] It is the expression of the primordial dynamism that is inherent in everything. swami-krishnananda." [3] Stephanie W. L'Inde Classique. The Texts of the White Yajurveda. [23] *Day. 18-19. A Short History of Religious and Philosophic Thought in India. Jamison and Michael Witzel in Arvind Sharma. eu.) Shrikant. com/ article/ 238/ ) [2] The Encyclopædia Britannica of 2005 uses all of "Vedism". ISBN 81-215-0047-8. Atheist Centre 1940–1990 Golden Jubilee. and defines "Brahmanism" as "religion of ancient India that evolved out of Vedism. page 65: ". iranicaonline. Ch.

ISBN 1440094365. 132 A Student's Guide to A2 Religious Studies for the OCR Specification By Michael Wilcockson [40] P. Brahmanism. Professor Emeritus of History of Religions at the Union Theological Seminary. p. p. Prakrit Bharti Academy." [53] Dundas.. karmic doctrine and atheism" [50] Jain." (http:/ / www. Schneider. 17. Jaipur [49] P. Buddhism and Hinduism. 99 The Wisdom of the Vedas By Jagadish Chandra Chatterji [38] ". India : History. Alexander P. Faith & philosophy of Jainism. Retrieved 26 November 2009.Historical Vedic religion [24] The Hindu history By Akshoy Kumar Mazumdar [25] P. P. expressindia.v. (1979). Jeremy Z. pp. Motilal Banarsidass. G. from Encyclopædia Britannica Online Library Edition. 170 Total Heart Health By Robert H. M. Express India.. Philosophy East and West (1972): "Alongside Brahmanism was the non-Aryan shramanic culture with its roots going back to prehistoric times. Forgotten Books (23 May 2012).17. having become calm and concentrated. wrote in Random House's The American College Dictionary (1966): "It [Vedānta] is concerned with the end of the Vedas. T. com/ patanjali-yoga-darsana-hatha-yoga) InfoRefuge. Cromwell Crawford. Arun. p. one perceives the self (atman). Siddharth. archive.Shridhar B. but it is rather confirmed in everything that we know of the spiritual life of that period." [42] "Patanjali’s Yoga Darsana – The Hatha Yoga Tradition.which states that. soul theory. practices. [37] P. Any theory that attempts to link the two traditions. Religion. 1999. Chapter 7 [30] Macdonell. P. a dictionary By S. org/ web/ 20091028114133/ http:/ / www. 259-60. 95. Joshi. 531 The Yoga Tradition By Georg Feuerstein [35] P. "Jainism. within oneself.24. Fields [34] P." [48] Dr. both chronologically and teleologically. 38 . Shridhar B. "There is no evidence to show that Jainism and Buddhism ever subscribed to vedic sacrifices. Masih (2000) In : A Comparative Study of Religions. UNESCO’s leg-up for city Veda research (http:/ / www. They are parallel or native religions of India and have contributed to much to the growth of even classical Hinduism of the present times. Retrieved 16 June 2012. [43] Kelkar. 210." Flood. and institutions) of the various non-Aryan communities. [52] Helmuth von Glasenapp. [44] * [45] Encyclopædia Britannica s. p. [39] P. [31] Flood. vedic deities or caste. Vedic Mythology. was in origin merely one component of a north Indian ascetic culture that flourished in the Ganges basin from around the eighth or seventh centuries BCE. inforefuge. com/ latest-news/ unescos-legup-for-city-veda-research/ 280908/ ). p. 51 The Complete Idiot's Guide to Yoga By Joan Budilovsky. Eve Adamson [33] P." [54] "Buddhism". comes in the way of the supposition that Jainism was established by Parsva around 800 BCE. 538 The Yoga Tradition By Georg Feuerstein [36] Flood. The Jains. then. 2008. Jainism: an Indian religion of salvation. html) by Swami Dayanand Saraswati." [47] Y. 94–95. 169 "Jainas themselves have no memory of a time when they fell within the Vedic fold. com/ Athens/ Ithaca/ 3440/ chapterseven. Devadas Pillai [29] Light of Truth (http:/ / web. Vision And Contribution To The World. 2008. Delhi. In Encyclopædia Britannica. geocities." [46] S. Arthur Anthony. [51] Svarghese. Kalghatgi. Hindu philosophy: "The great epic Mahabharata represents the attempt of Vedic Brahmanism to adjust itself to the new circumstances reflected in the process of the aryanization (integration of Aryan beliefs. review of L. 164 The Doctrine of the Upaniṣads and the Early Buddhism By Hermann Oldenberg. moreover fails to appreciate rather distinctive and very non-vedic character of Jaina cosmology. ISBN 81-208-0815-0 Page 18. 2002. 1988 In: Study of Jainism. Shrotri. Hume. 94. Motilal Banarsidass Publ : Delhi. from the philosophical and the historical point of view.S. (2009). The Jaina Path to Purification. 285 Indian sociology through Ghurye. [32] P. Jaini. Paul. P. Shrotri [41] Robert E. "Thus not only nothing.

Aitareya and Kausitaki. As persons trained for the ritual and proficient in its practice. neṣṭṛ. the role of the adhvaryu grew in importance. i. strophes (triples called tṛca or pairs called pragātha). As each phase of the ritual required an invocation. This was a specialized role in the major soma sacrifices: a characteristic function of the udgātṛ was to sing hymns in praise of the invigorating properties of soma pavamāna. the brahman function was usually performed by a bahvṛca ("one who has many verses". Brahman A similar attempt at symmetry. to bring the animal and immolate it. either intact or adapted. and many verses of the ṛgveda were incorporated. Eventually a full complement of sixteen ṛtvijas became the custom for major ceremonies. prashāstṛ (meaning the maitrāvaruna). • The hotṛ was the reciter of invocations and litanies. Chief priests The older references uniformly indicate the hotṛ as the presiding priest. The sixteen consisted of four chief priests and their assistants.e. agnīdh and acchāvāka.Vedic priesthood 39 Vedic priesthood Priests of the Vedic religion are officiants of the yajna service. The rgvedic Brahmanas. or entire hymns (sukta). as well as an attempt to inflate the importance of the Atharvaveda. the Atharvaveda was the fourth and presumably superior veda for the fourth and senior most of the chief priests. to fetch wood and water. just as specific vedas were associated with the other three chief priests. • The brahman was superintendent of the entire performance. As members of a social class. specify seven hotrakas to recite shastras (litanies): hotṛ. a Rgvedin). These could consist of single verses (ṛca). They also carry a legend to explain the origin of the offices of the subrahmanya and the grāvastut. into the texts of the yajurveda. potṛ. the name of the priest is brahmán. a term for the Somayajna). to build the altar. to prepare the sacrificial vessels. they were generically known as vipra ("sage") or kavi ("seer"). According to Monier-Williams. neṣṭṛ. was a claim (in the Gopatha Brahmana) that this veda was the province of the brahman: allegedly." among other duties. as opposed to (and morphologically derived from) the term bráhman "sacred utterance" (and hence "Universal Soul".). as the Atharvaveda made no contribution to the liturgy of the solemn high rituals. Each action was accompanied by supplicative or benedictive formulas (yajus).1.2 enumerates them as the hotṛ. In practice. adhvaryu and brahman (meaning the brāhmanācchamsin).[citation needed] Note that the Vedic accent is distinctive in this case. etc. the freshly pressed juice of the soma plant. brāhmanācchamsin. • The adhvaryu was in charge of the physical details of the sacrifice (in particular the adhvara. drawn from the ṛgveda. agnīdh. the hotṛ had a leading or presiding role. Over time. to light the fire. This theoretical fancy had no basis in fact or likelihood. . potṛ. • The udgātṛ was a chanter of hymns set to melodies (sāman) drawn from the sāmaveda. maitrāvaruna. and responsible for correcting mistakes by means of supplementary invocations. with perhaps only the adhvaryu as his assistant in the earliest times. the adhvaryu "had to measure the ground. suggesting a historical split of the duties of the hotṛ in the development of the brahman as a distinct role. they were called ṛtvij ("regularly-sacrificing"). drawn from the yajurveda. The phrase "seven hotars" is found more than once in the Rgveda. RV 2. Specialization of roles attended the elaboration and development of the ritual corpus over time.

Vedic priesthood


The requirements of the fully developed ritual were rigorous enough that only professional priests could perform them adequately. Thus, whereas in the earliest times, the true sacrificer, or intended beneficiary of the rite, might have been a direct participant, in Vedic times he was only a sponsor, the yajamāna, with the hotṛ or brahman taking his stead in the ritual. In this seconding lay the origins of the growing importance of the purohita (literally, "one who is placed in front"), a term originally for a domestic chaplain, especially of a prince. It was not unusual for a purohita to be the hotṛ or brahman at a sacrifice for his master, besides conducting other more domestic (gṛhya) rituals for him also. In latter days, with the disappearance of vedic ritual practice, purohita has become a generic term for "priest".

The Wedding of Satyabhama and Krishna from Bhagavata Purana

In the systematic expositions of the shrauta sutras, [1] which date to the fifth or sixth century BCE, the assistants are classified into four groups associated with each of the four chief priests, although the classifications are artificial and in some cases incorrect: • With the hotṛ: • the maitrāvaruna • the acchāvāka • the grāvastut (praising the Soma stones) • With the udgātṛ: • the prastotṛ (who chants the Prastâva) • the pratihartṛ ("averter") • the subrahmanya • With the adhvaryu: • the pratiprasthātṛ • the neṣṭṛ • the unnetṛ (who pours the Soma juice into the receptacles ) • With the brahman: • the brāhmanācchamsin • the agnīdh (priest who kindles the sacred fire) • the potṛ ("purifier") This last classification is incorrect, as the formal assistants of the brahman were actually assistants of the hotṛ and the adhvaryu.Wikipedia:Please clarify

Vedic priesthood


Philological comparisons
Comparison with the sacred texts of Zoroastrianism, a distinct religion with the same origins, shows the antiquity of terms for priests such as atharvan (cognate to Avestan athravan) and hotar (Av. zaotar) "invoker, sacrificer". While hotar/zaotar is well understood, the original meaning of atharvan/athravan is unknown. The word atharvan appears in the Rig Veda (e.g., in RV 6.16.13 where Agni is said to have been churned by Atharvan from the mind of every poet). In the Younger Avesta appears in a context that suggests "missionary," perhaps by metathesis from Indo-Iranian *arthavan "possessing purpose." In the Upanishads, the term appears for example in atharvāngiras, a compound of atharvan and angiras, either two eponymous rishis or their family names. In present-day Indian Zoroastrian (Parsi) tradition the word athornan is used to distinguish the priesthood from the laity (the behdin). These subdivisions (in the historical Indian context, castes), and the terms used to describe them, are relatively recent developments specific to Indian Zoroastrians and although the words themselves are old, the meaning that they came to have for the Parsis are influenced by their centuries-long coexistence with Hinduism. It appears then that the Indian Zoroastrian priests re-adopted the older athravan (in preference to the traditional, and very well attested derivative asron) for its similarity to Hinduism's arthavan, which the Parsi priests then additionally assumed was derived from Avestan atar "fire". This folk-etymology, which may "have been prompted by what is probably a mistaken assumption of the importance of fire in the ancient Indo-Iranian religion" (Boyce, 1982:16). There is no evidence to sustain the supposition that the division of priestly functions among the Hotar, the Udgatar and the Adhvaryu is comparable to the Celtic priesthood as reported by Strabo, with the Druids as high priests, the Bards doing the chanting and the Vates performing the actual sacrifice.

[1] Shānkhāyana SS 13.4.1, Āsvalāyana SS 4.1.4-6.

External links
• e-learning of Basic Vedic Mantras & rituals from Home for Brahmins (http://swadharmam.blogspot.in) Online Vedic Courses through Video Conferencing by Vedic Priests • The Turning-Point in a Living Tradition (http://www.ejvs.laurasianacademy.com/ejvs1001/1001a.txt)

Vedic mythology


Vedic mythology
Vedic mythology refers to the mythological aspects of the historical Vedic religion and Vedic literature, most notably alluded to in the hymns of the Rigveda. The central myth at the base of Vedic ritual surrounds Indra who, inebriated with Soma, slays the dragon (ahi) Vrtra, freeing the rivers, the cows and Dawn. It has directlyWikipedia:Disputed statement contributed to the evolution and development of later Hinduism and Hindu mythology.

Vedic mythology
Vedic lore contains numerous elements which are common to Indo-European mythological traditions, like the mythologies of Persia, Greece, and Rome, and that of the Celtic, Germanic and Slavic peoples. The Vedic god Indra in part corresponds to Dyaus Pitar, the Sky Father, Zeus and Jupiter. The deity Yama, the lord of the dead, is Yima of Persian mythology. Vedic hymns refer to these and other deities, often 33, consisting of 8 Vasus, 11 Rudras, 12 Adityas, and the late Rigvedic Prajapati. These deities belong to the 3 dimensions of the universe/heavens, the earth, and the intermediate space. Some major deities of the Vedic tradition include Indra, Surya, Agni, Vayu, Varuna, Mitra, Aditi, Yama, Soma, Ushas, Sarasvati, Prithvi, and Rudra.[]

The Vedas in Puranic mythology
The Vishnu Purana attributes the current arrangement of four Vedas to the mythical sage Vedavyasa.[1] Puranic tradition also postulates a single original Veda that, in varying accounts, was divided into three or four parts. According to the Vishnu Purana (3.2.18, 3.3.4 etc.) the original Veda was divided into four parts, and further fragmented into numerous shakhas, by Vishnu in the form of Vyasa, in the Dvapara Yuga; the Vayu Purana (section 60) recounts a similar division by Vyasa, at the urging of Brahma. The Bhagavata Purana (12.6.37) traces the origin of the primeval Veda to the syllable aum, and says that it was divided into four at the start of Dvapara Yuga, because men had declined in age, virtue and understanding. In a differing account Bhagavata Purana (9.14.43) attributes the division of the primeval veda (aum) into three parts to the monarch Pururavas at the beginning of Treta Yuga.It also describes that the myth of jasmebo is inevitable in the Kali Yuga. Rig, Sama, Yajur and Atharva constitute the "Four Vedas".[2] The Rig Veda (mantras) is a collection of inspired songs or hymns and is a main source of information on the Rig Vedic civilization. The Sama Veda (songs) is purely a liturgical collection of melodies (saman). The hymns in the Sama Veda, used as musical notes, were almost completely drawn from the Rig Veda and have no distinctive lessons of their own. The Yajur Veda (rituals) is also a liturgical collection and was made to meet the demands of a ceremonial religion. The Atharva Veda (spells) is completely different from the other three Vedas and is next in importance to Rig-Veda with regard to history and sociology.

a heroic god. • • • • • • Indra 289 Agni 218 Soma 123 (most of them in the Soma Mandala) Vishvadevas 70 the Asvins 56 Varuna 46 [1] • the Maruts 38 • Mitra 28[1] . Dyaus continuing Dyeus. Ansa and Daksha. The names of Indra. ABC-Clio Inc.Vedic mythology 43 References Further reading 1. ISBN 1-57607-106-5. the Devas and the Asuras. Thacker. Mitra-Varuna.J. and Soma the ritual drink dedicated to Indra are the most prominent deities. semi-divine craftsmen.google.google. slayer of Vrtra and destroyer of the Vala. There are two major groups of gods. ISBN 0-87722-122-7. (the wind). the Ashvins and the Rbhus. Vishnu and Rudra. and the god of the underworld and death. Williams. suggesting that the some of the religion of the Mitannis was very close to that of the Rigveda. Handbook of Hindu Mythology (http://books. the prominent deities of later Hinduism (Rudra being an early form of Shiva) are present as marginal gods. Cornelia (1978). Buitenen. 3. Spink & co. violent storm gods in Indra's train and the Ashvins. Vivasvant. Rivers play an important role. and Apas (the waters). Surya is the personification of the Sun. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. here counted doubly. Bhaga. Invoked in groups are the Vishvedevas (the "all-gods"). the Asuras are not yet demonized. Soma-Rudra. also worshipped as a deity. the chief god of the Proto-Indo-European religion.google. Indra. but Savitr. such as Indra-Agni. Varuna and the Nasatyas are also attested in a Mitanni treaty. most of them dedicated to specific deities. Unlike in later Vedic texts and in Hinduism. after Griffith (1888). (1882). with Aryaman. liberator of the cows and the rivers. also have aspects of solar deities.com/books?id=ZBUHAAAAQAAJ&). Aditi is the mother both of Agni and of the Adityas or Asuras.com/ books?id=ZBUHAAAAQAAJ&). Wilkins. J. van. Hindu mythology. W. Deities by prominence List of Rigvedic deities by number of dedicated hymns. led by Mitra and Varuna. the most prominent goddess of the Rigveda. George (2001). Dimmitt. Mitra and Varuna being their most prominent members. most prominently the Sapta Sindhu and the Sarasvati River. Mitra. Rigvedic deities There are 1028 hymns in the Rigveda. B. Agni the sacrificial fire and messenger of the gods. Classical Hindu mythology: a reader in the Sanskrit Puranas (http://books. 2. Vedic and Purānic (http://books. Other natural phenomena deified include Vayu.com/ books?id=SzLTWow0EgwC&). A. and Ushas (the dawn). the twin horsemen. the Maruts. deified as goddesses. Yama is the first ancestor. Dyaus and Prithivi (Heaven and Earth). Some dedications are to paired deities.

deified in 10. deified e.58 Dakshina (Reward for priests and poets).84 dedicated to Earth alone Apas (Waters) 6 Adityas 6 Vishnu 6 Brahmanaspati 6 Rudra 5 Dadhikras 4 the Sarasvati River / Sarasvati 3 Yama Parjanya (Rain) 3 Vāc (Speech) 2 (mentioned 130 times. deified in 10.Rigvedic deities • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Ushas 21 Vayu (Wind) 12 Savitr 11 the Rbhus 11 Pushan 10 the Apris 9 Brhaspati 8 Surya (Sun) 8 Dyaus and Prithivi (Heaven and Earth) 6. in 10. prominent concept. a form of Indra) 2 44 Minor deities (one single or no dedicated hymn) • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Manas (Thought). deified in 10. prominent concept.107 Jnanam (Knowledge).125) Vastospati 2 Vishvakarman 2 Manyu 2 Kapinjala (the Heathcock.90) Aditi Bhaga Vasukra Atri Apam Napat Ksetrapati Ghrta Nirrti Asamati Urvasi Pururavas Vena Aranyani Mayabheda Tarksya Tvastar • Saranyu . plus 5.g. prominent concept.71 Purusha ("Cosmic Man" of the Purusha sukta 10.

2010.III.H."Man's Relation to God in the Varuna Hymns. George Menachery. Griffith. Vol. Thomas Christian Encyclopaedia of India." in the St.4 ff. • Ralph T. Hymns of the Rigveda (1888). Ed.Rigvedic deities 45 References [1] Noel Seth. pp. .

Indus valley.Indus Valley Civilization 46 Indus Valley Civilization Bronze Age ↑ Chalcolithic Near East (3600-1200 BC) Caucasus. literature sword.260. along with its contemporaries. Inhabitants of . mature period 2600–1900 BCE) in the northwestern region[1] of the Indian subcontinent. Anatolia. chariot ↓ Iron Age The Indus Valley Civilization (IVC) was a Bronze Age civilization (3300–1300 BCE. the civilization[4][5][6]</ref> extended east into the Ghaggar-Hakra River valley[7] and the upper reaches Ganges-Yamuna Doab. the Indus Civilization may have had a population of well over five million. Levant.000 km². Jiroft Bronze Age collapse Europe (3200-600 BC) Aegean (Minoan) Caucasus (Maykop culture) Basarabi culture Coțofeni culture Pecica culture Otomani culture Wietenberg culture Catacomb culture Srubna culture Beaker culture Unetice culture Tumulus culture Urnfield culture Hallstatt culture Atlantic Bronze Age Bronze Age Britain Nordic Bronze Age Romanian Bronze Age Southeastern European Bronze Age Italian Bronze Age Indian Subcontinent (3300-1200 BC) China (3000-700 BC) Korea (800-300 BC) Upper Oxus (2300-1700 BC) arsenical bronze writing.[8][] it extended west to the Makran coast of Balochistan. At its peak. The civilization was spread over some 1. Mesopotamia. The Indus Valley is one of the world's earliest urban civilizations. Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt. making it the largest known ancient civilization. Elam. north to northeastern Afghanistan and south to Daimabad in Maharashtra.[2][3] Flourishing around the Indus River basin.

[11]Wikipedia:Citing sources[12] 47 Discovery and excavation The ruins of Harrappa were first described in 1842 by Charles Masson in his Narrative of Various Journeys in Balochistan. the city of Brahminabad was reduced to ballast. and the Punjab. out of which 96 have been excavated. The shaded called Brahminabad. later director general of the archeological survey of northern India. in the same area of the Harappan Civilization. visited Harappa where the British engineers John and William Brunton were laying the East Indian Railway Company line connecting the cities of Karachi and Lahore. as the first of its cities to be unearthed was located at Harappa.056 cities and settlements have been found. often called Early Harappan and Late Harappan. and tin). Lothal. bronze. The Indus Valley Civilization is also known as the Harappan Civilization. and. of hard well-burnt bricks. he found it full area does not include recent excavations. roadside drainage system. seal carving) and metallurgy (copper. with important breakthroughs occurring as recently as 1999. The Harappan civilisation is sometimes called the Mature Harappan culture to distinguish it from these cultures.Indus Valley Civilization the ancient Indus river valley developed new techniques in handicraft (carnelian products. Up to 1999. General Alexander Cunningham. "convinced that there was a grand quarry for the ballast I wanted".[] . Kalibanga. A relationship with the Dravidian or Elamo-Dravidian language family is favored by a section of scholars. and multistoried houses. but no archaeological interest would attach to this for nearly a century. John's brother William Brunton's "section of the line ran near another ruined city. Extent and major sites of the Indus Valley Civilization. They were told of an ancient ruined city near the lines. The civilization is noted for its cities built of brick. Visiting the city. further north. Mohenjo-daro (UNESCO World Heritage Site). Dholavira. where locals talked of an ancient city extending "thirteen cosses" (about 25 miles).[10] There were earlier and later cultures. lead. and Rakhigarhi.[] mainly in the general region of the Indus and Ghaggar-Hakra river and its tributaries. These bricks now provided ballast along 93 miles (150 km) of the railroad track running from Karachi to Lahore".[9] Excavation of Harappan sites has been ongoing since 1920.[] The Harappan language is not directly attested and its affiliation is uncertain since the Indus script is still undeciphered. bricks from which had already been used by villagers in the nearby village of Harappa at the same site.[13] In 1856. Among the settlements were the major urban centres of Harappa. excavated in the 1920s in what was at the time the Punjab province of British India (now in Pakistan). John wrote: "I was much exercised in my mind how we were to get ballast for the line of the railway".[] A few months later. Afghanistan. over 1.

 J. Two terms are employed for the periodization of the IVC: Phases and Eras. in 1912. Brij Basi Lal. Mehrgarh VII) Era Early Food Producing Era Regionalisation Era 5500-2600 . "There we have the whole sequence. much of Mohenjo-Daro had been excavated. as far east as at Alamgirpur. respectively—the entire Indus Valley Civilization may be taken to have lasted from the 33rd to the 14th centuries BCE. respectively. archaeological adviser to the Government of Pakistan. such as that led by Sir Mortimer Wheeler. E. "Discoveries at Mehrgarh changed the entire concept of the Indus civilization".[16][17] The Early Harappan. By 1931. and excavations from this time include those led by Sir Mortimer Wheeler in 1949. Nausharo I. 2600 to 1900 BCE. MacKay."[18] Date range 7000–5500 BCE 5500–3300 3300–2600 3300–2800 2800–2600 Phase Mehrgarh I (aceramic Neolithic) Mehrgarh II-VI (ceramic Neolithic) Early Harappan Harappan 1 (Ravi Phase) Harappan 2 (Kot Diji Phase. Outposts of the Indus Valley civilization were excavated as far west as Sutkagan Dor in Baluchistan.[14] It was half a century later. right from the beginning of settled village life. director of the Archaeological Survey of India in 1944. and Localisation eras. Islamabad. Fleet. and Late Harappan phases are also called the Regionalisation. professor emeritus at Quaid-e-Azam University. Uttar Pradesh. the bulk of the archaeological finds were inherited by Pakistan where most of the IVC was based. With the inclusion of the predecessor and successor cultures—Early Harappan and Late Harappan. and at Mohenjo-daro by Rakhal Das Banerjee. as far north as at Shortugai on the Amu Darya (the river's ancient name was Oxus) in current Afghanistan. according to Ahmad Hasan Dani.Indus Valley Civilization 48 In 1872–75 Alexander Cunningham published the first Harappan seal (with an erroneous identification as Brahmi letters). Surat Dist. Among other archaeologists who worked on IVC sites before the partition of the subcontinent in 1947 were Ahmad Hasan Dani. H. Following the Partition of India. with the Regionalization era reaching back to the Neolithic Mehrgarh II period. India. Mature Harappan. prompting an excavation campaign under Sir John Hubert Marshall in 1921–22 and resulting in the discovery of the civilization at Harappa by Sir John Marshall.[15] Chronology The mature phase of the Harappan civilization lasted from c. with the Great Bath in the front and Sir John Marshall. Excavated ruins of Mohenjo-daro.. India and as far south as at Malwan. Nani Gopal Majumdar. Rai Bahadur Daya Ram Sahni and Madho Sarup Vats. and Sir Marc Aurel Stein. but excavations continued. Integration. that more Harappan seals were discovered by J.

[32] consequently. Kalibangan.[30] the Harappan Civilization "is a fusion of the Bagor. Other IVC colonies can be found in Afghanistan while smaller isolated colonies can be found as far away as Turkmenistan and in Gujarat. more than 500 Harappan sites have been discovered along the dried up river beds of the Ghaggar-Hakra River and its tributaries.[25] Indus Valley sites have been found most often on rivers. but also on the ancient seacoast. Indus sites have been discovered in Pakistan's northwestern Frontier Province as well.[27] and on islands. Northern Black Polished Ware (Iron Age) Indo-Gangetic Tradition Localisation Era Integration Era 2600–1900 2600–2450 2450–2200 2200–1900 1900–1300 1900–1700 1700–1300 1300–300 Geography The Indus Valley Civilization extended west to the Makran coast of Balochistan. second. Balakot.[29] According to J. and at Alamgirpur on the Hindon River.[28] There is evidence of dry river beds overlapping with the Hakra channel in Pakistan and the seasonal Ghaggar River in India.[26] for example. these politically inspired arguments are disputed by other archaeologists who state that the Ghaggar-Hakra desert area has been left untouched by settlements and agriculture since the end of the Indus period and hence shows more sites than found in the alluvium of the Indus valley. according to the common archaeological usage of naming a civilization after its first findspot.[19] The geography of the Indus Valley put the civilizations that arose there in a highly similar situation to those in Egypt and Peru. only 28 km from Delhi.[24] India. for example.[31] in contrast to only about 100 along the Indus and its tributaries. and Ganwariwala. Coastal settlements extended from Sutkagan Dor[20] in Western Baluchistan to Lothal[21] in Gujarat. in their opinion. was a tributary of the Indus. desert. Hakra. and ocean. An Indus Valley site has been found on the Oxus River at Shortughai in northern Afghanistan. Dholavira.[23] at Manda.Indus Valley Civilization 49 Mature Harappan (Indus Valley Civilization) Harappan 3A (Nausharo II) Harappan 3B Harappan 3C Late Harappan (Cemetery H). with rich agricultural lands being surrounded by highlands. when it existed.Jammu on the Beas River near Jammu.[33] "Harappan Civilization" remains the correct one. and Koti Dij traditions or 'ethnic groups' in the Ghaggar-Hakra valley on the borders of India and Pakistan". However. Rakhigarhi. so the new nomenclature is redundant. Ochre Coloured Pottery Harappan 4 Harappan 5 Painted Gray Ware. Recently.[7] Among them are: Rupar. Shaffer and D. Sothi. the north to northeastern Afghanistan and south to Maharashtra. the appellation Indus Ghaggar-Hakra civilisation or Indus-Saraswati civilisation is justified. east to Uttar Pradesh.[7] According to some archaeologists. that the number of Harappan sites along the Ghaggar-Hakra river beds have been exaggerated and that the Ghaggar-Hakra. G. Many Indus Valley (or Harappan) sites have been discovered along the Ghaggar-Hakra beds. A. . Lichtenstein.[22] in the Gomal River valley in northwestern Pakistan.

Another town of this stage was found at Kalibangan in India on the Hakra River. and cotton. by this time. brick platforms. The earliest examples of the Indus script date from around 3000 BCE. Villagers had. or.Indus Valley Civilization 50 Early Harappan The Early Harappan Ravi Phase. which lined the major streets. The massive walls of Indus cities most likely protected the Harappans from floods and may have dissuaded military conflicts. from where the mature Harappan phase started.[35] Trade networks linked this culture with related regional cultures and distant sources of raw materials. more than 1.[34] Kot Diji (Harappan 2) represents the phase leading up to Mature Harappan. accessibility to the means of religious ritual. Houses opened only to inner courtyards and smaller lanes. It is related to the Hakra Phase. The quality of municipal town planning suggests the knowledge of urban planning and efficient municipal governments which placed a high priority on hygiene. domesticated numerous crops. Cities A sophisticated and technologically advanced urban culture is evident in the Indus Valley Civilization making them the first urban centres in the region. sesame seeds. Pakistan. this urban plan included the world's first known urban sanitation systems: see hydraulic engineering of the Indus Valley Computer-aided reconstruction of coastal Civilization. Mature Harappan By 2600 BCE. Such urban centres include Harappa. Harappan 2). mainly in the general region of the Indus Rivers and their tributaries. dates. Mohenjo-Daro and the recently partially excavated Rakhigarhi. Pakistan obtained water from wells. alternatively. In total. warehouses. waste water was directed to covered drains. near Mohenjo Daro. Kalibangan. with the citadel representing centralised authority and an increasingly urban quality of life. The house-building in some villages in the region still resembles in some respects the house-building of the Harappans. Rakhigarhi. and predates the Kot Diji Phase (2800-2600 BCE. including lapis lazuli and other materials for bead-making. individual homes or groups of homes Harappan settlement at Sokhta Koh near Pasni. The advanced architecture of the Harappans is shown by their impressive dockyards. Ganeriwala. Early Harappan communities turned to large urban centres by 2600 BCE. Within the city. From a room that appears to have been set aside for bathing. As seen in Harappa.[] The mature phase of earlier village cultures is represented by Rehman Dheri and Amri in Pakistan. Mohenjo-Daro in modern day Pakistan. named after a site in northern Sindh. the Early Harappan communities had been turned into large urban centres.[36] The ancient Indus systems of sewerage and drainage that were developed and used in cities throughout the Indus region were far more advanced than any found in contemporary urban sites in the Middle East and even more efficient than those in many areas of Pakistan and India today. named after the nearby Ravi River. Rupar. and Lothal in modern day India. including the water buffalo.[citation needed] .052 cities and settlements have been found. including peas. identified in the Ghaggar-Hakra River Valley to the west. as well as animals. granaries. and Dholavira. and protective walls. lasted from circa 3300 BCE until 2800 BCE.

Pakistan Although some houses were larger than others. Indus Civilization cities were remarkable for their apparent. egalitarianism. There is no conclusive evidence of palaces or temples—or of kings. In sharp contrast to this civilization's contemporaries. who lived with others pursuing the same occupation in well-defined neighbourhoods. A comparison of available objects indicates large scale variation across the Indus territories. Steatite seals have images of animals. and everybody enjoyed equal status. there are indications of complex decisions being taken and implemented. For instance. was approximately 1.[37] Indus Valley seals. armies. late Mature Harappan period. which is marked on an ivory scale found in Lothal. mass. seals. • Harappan society had no rulers. the standardised ratio of brick size. They were among the first to develop a system of uniform weights and measures. no large monumental structures were built. This gives the impression of a society with relatively low wealth concentration. and the establishment of settlements near sources of raw material. beads and other objects. National Museum. the evidence for planned settlements. Karachi. Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt.704 mm. people (perhaps gods). These are the major assumptions: • There was a single state. though clear social levelling is seen in personal adornments. Found at one city is an enormous well-built bath (the "Great Bath"). or priests. if relative. Their smallest division. which may have been a public bath. Technology The people of the Indus Civilization achieved great accuracy in measuring length. Harappan engineers followed the decimal division of measurement for all practical purposes. All the houses had access to water and drainage facilities. Among the artifacts discovered were beautiful glazed faïence beads. • There was no single ruler but several: Mohenjo-daro had a separate ruler. including the measurement of mass as revealed by their hexahedron weights. including the yet un-deciphered writing system of the Indus Valley Civilization. and time. British Museum . Authority and governance Archaeological records provide no immediate answers for a center of power or for depictions of people in power in Harappan society. Some structures are thought to have been granaries. Although the citadels were walled. Materials from distant regions were used in the cities for constructing seals. Mohenjo-Daro. the extraordinary uniformity of Harappan artifacts as evident in pottery.Indus Valley Civilization 51 The purpose of the citadel remains debated. given the similarity in artifacts. and other types of inscriptions. Some of the seals were used to stamp clay on trade goods and most probably had other uses as well. Harappa another. But. it is far from clear that these structures were defensive. So-called "Priest King" statue. the smallest division ever recorded on a scale of the Bronze Age. Most city dwellers appear to have been traders or artisans. weights and bricks. and so forth. They may have been built to divert flood waters.

5. In 2001. had knowledge of proto-dentistry. archaeologists studying the remains of two men from Mehrgarh. Part bull. with each unit weighing approximately 28 grams. that makes us wonder whether. and other ornaments from all phases of Harappan sites and some of these crafts . as in other cultures. The engineering skill of the Harappans was remarkable. they seemed to completely upset all established ideas about early art. However. 50. there is insufficient evidence to substantiate claims that the image had religious or cultic significance.. terra-cotta and stone figurines of girls in dancing poses reveal the presence of some dance form. and steatite have been found at excavation sites. [citation needed] Many crafts "such as shell working. and agate and glazed steatite bead making" were used in the making of necklaces. lead. especially in building docks. bears. these terra-cotta figurines included cows. and dogs. Eleven drilled molar crowns from nine adults were discovered in a Neolithic graveyard in Mehrgarh that dates from 7.Indus Valley Civilization These chert weights were in a ratio of 5:2:1 with weights of 0. in these statuettes. The weights and measures later used in Kautilya's Arthashastra (4th century BCE) are the same as those used in Lothal. The animal depicted on a majority of seals at sites of the mature period has not been clearly identified. Modeling such as this was unknown in the ancient The "dancing girl of Mohenjo Daro" world up to the Hellenistic age of Greece. According to the authors. and culture..871. it is just this anatomical truth which is so startling. A number of gold. and 500 units. bronze. their discoveries point to a tradition of proto-dentistry in the early farming cultures of that region. 2. and I thought.e..[41] Sir John Marshall is known to have reacted with surprise when he saw the famous Indus bronze statuette of a slender-limbed dancing girl in Mohenjo-Daro: When I first saw them I found it difficult to believe that they were prehistoric. Now. 100.5.000 years ago. it was announced in the scientific journal Nature that the oldest (and first early Neolithic) evidence for the drilling of human teeth in vivo (i. therefore. actual weights were not uniform throughout the area. Greek artistry could possibly have been anticipated by the sculptors of a far-off age on the banks of the Indus.. 20. 0. 0. similar to the English Imperial ounce or Greek uncia.500-9. As yet. Pakistan. which was probably used for testing the purity of gold (such a technique is still used in some parts of India).2. bangles. but the prevalence of the image raises the question of whether or not the animals in images of the IVC are religious symbols. that these figures had found their way into levels some 3000 years older than those to which they properly belonged .[38] Harappans evolved some new techniques in metallurgy and produced copper. part zebra. monkeys. in this all-important matter. and tin. that some mistake must surely have been made. in a living person) was found in Mehrgarh.1. Also.05. pottery. made the discovery that the people of the Indus Valley Civilization.[40] 52 Arts and crafts Various sculptures. 10. it has been a source of speculation. from the early Harappan periods. 1. bronze. Later. in April 2006. and smaller objects were weighed in similar ratios with the units of 0. gold jewelry. with a majestic horn. seals. and anatomically detailed figurines in terracotta.[39] A touchstone bearing gold streaks was found in Banawali. 0. ceramics. 200.

dredged canal and what they regard as a docking facility at the coastal city of Lothal in western India (Gujarat state). ornaments.5 cm). among them cubical dice (with one to six holes on the faces). has however also been discovered by H. During 4300–3200 BCE of the chalcolithic period (copper age). document intensive caravan trade with Central Asia and the Iranian plateau. (12. Brooklyn Museum 53 This figure. perhaps driven by sail. the use of collyrium and a special three-in-one toiletry gadget) that were found in Harappan contexts still have similar counterparts in modern India. the Indus Valley Civilization area shows ceramic similarities with southern Turkmenistan and northern Iran which suggest considerable mobility and trade. An extensive canal network. the so-called Pashupati. the Veda. Archaeologists have discovered a massive.Indus Valley Civilization are still practised in the subcontinent today. The IVC may have been the first civilization to use wheeled transport. 2800-2600 BCE) which had red colour applied to the "manga" (line of partition of the hair). Fragment of Large Deep Vessel.[44] Trade and transportation The Indus civilization's economy appears to have depended significantly on trade. Chanhudaro.E. similar to those one can see on the The docks of ancient Lothal as they are today Indus River today. Francfort. has been variously identified.[46] . During the Early Harappan period (about 3200–2600 BCE).-P. it would be evidence that some aspects of Hinduism predate the earliest texts.[42] Some make-up and toiletry items (a special kind of combs (kakai).[] Terracotta female figurines were found (ca. as well as boats. which were found in sites like Mohenjo-Daro. however. sometimes known as a Pashupati. flat-bottomed craft. Shiva.[43] If this can be validated. A harp-like instrument depicted on an Indus seal and two shell objects found at Lothal indicate the use of stringed musical instruments. 415/16×6⅛ in. below).5×15. seals. which was facilitated by major advances in transport technology. similarities in pottery. circa 2500 B. and another sitting cross-legged in what some call a yoga-like pose (see image. etc.[] Seals have been found at Mohenjo-Daro depicting a figure standing on its head. figurines. used for irrigation.C. The Harappans also made various toys and games. Most of these boats were probably small. Sir John Marshall identified a resemblance to the Hindu god. Red pottery with red and black slip-painted decoration. there is secondary evidence of seagoing craft.[45] These advances may have included bullock carts that are identical to those seen throughout South Asia today.

Typical Indus inscriptions are no more than four or five characters in length. however. Writing system Between 400 and as many as 600 distinct Indus symbols[50] have been found on seals. which is less than 1 inch (2. a crop derived from two-row barley (see Shaffer and Liechtenstein 1995. Dholavira While the Indus Valley Civilization is generally characterized as a literate society on the evidence of these inscriptions.[48] Such long-distance sea trade became feasible with the innovative development of plank-built watercraft. but this claim leaves unexplained the appearance of Indus symbols on many ritual objects.Indus Valley Civilization Judging from the dispersal of Indus civilization artifacts.[47] There was an extensive maritime trade network operating between the Harappan and Mesopotamian civilizations as early as the middle Harappan Phase. the trade networks. including portions of Afghanistan. Others have claimed on occasion that the symbols were exclusively used for economic transactions. comparing the pattern of symbols to various linguistic scripts and non-linguistic systems. this description has been challenged by Farmer. most of which (aside from the Dholavira "signboard") are tiny. north of Pasni). is 17 signs long. published in Science. and Balakot (near Sonmiani) in Pakistan along with Lothal in India testify to their role as Harappan trading outposts. northern and western India. 54 Subsistence Some post-1980 studies indicate that food production was largely indigenous to the Indus Valley. the longest on any object (found on three different faces of a mass-produced object) has a length of 26 symbols. north of Jiwani). including a "signboard" that apparently once hung over the gate of the inner citadel of the Indus city of Dholavira. computer scientists. There is some evidence that trade contacts extended to Crete and possibly to Egypt.54 cm) square. cultural developments". small tablets. and Witzel (2004)[51] who argue that the Indus system did not encode language. including DNA and a computer programming language.[52] In a 2009 study by P. the longest on a single surface. such as Dorian Fuller. dubbed "Signboard". but not isolated. Shallow harbors located at the estuaries of rivers opening into the sea allowed brisk maritime trade with Mesopotamian cities. Several coastal settlements like Sotkagen-dor (astride Dasht River. many of which were mass-produced in moulds. Shaffer (1999: 245) writes that the Mehrgarh site "demonstrates that food production was an indigenous South Asian phenomenon" and that the data support interpretation of "the prehistoric urbanization and complex social organization in South Asia as based on indigenous. and Mesopotamia. the coastal regions of Persia. Others. with much commerce being handled by "middlemen merchants from Dilmun" (modern Bahrain and Failaka located in the Persian Gulf). Sproat.[49] and the major cultivated cereal crop was naked six-row barley. Archaeologist Jim G. found that the Indus script's pattern is closer to that of spoken words.[53][54] . N. 1999). equipped with a single central mast supporting a sail of woven rushes or cloth. It is known that the people of Mehrgarh used domesticated wheats and barley. Rao et al. indicate that it took some 2000 years before Middle Eastern wheat was acclimatised to South Asian conditions. Ten Indus Scripts. supporting the hypothesis that it codes for an as-yet-unknown language. No parallels to these mass-produced inscriptions are known in any other early ancient civilizations. integrated a huge area. economically. but was instead similar to a variety of non-linguistic sign systems used extensively in the Near East and other societies. ceramic pots and more than a dozen other materials. Sokhta Koh (astride Shadi River.

cannot distinguish linguistic systems from non-linguistic ones. Sproat.[55] Farmer et al.Indus Valley Civilization Farmer. 55 Religion Some Indus valley seals show swastikas. Each seal has a distinctive combination of symbols and there are too few examples of each sequence to provide a sufficient context. edited by Asko Parpola and his colleagues. Buddhism.[60][61][62] According to Iravatham Mahadevan symbols 47 and 48 of his Indus script glossary The Indus Script: Texts. volume. that they spuriously claim represent the structures of all real-world non-linguistic sign systems".000 fully ordered signs.[63] Swastika Seals from the Indus Valley Civilization preserved at the British Museum . MacKay (1938.000 randomly ordered signs and another of 200. could describe Hindu deity Murugan. third.[58][59] The so-called Shiva Pashupati seal Many Indus valley seals show animals. Formerly. and Jainism. The final. The earliest evidence for elements of Hinduism are alleged to have been present before and during the early Harappan period. did not actually compare the Indus signs with "real-world non-linguistic systems" but rather with "two wholly artificial systems invented by the authors. There have. researchers had to supplement the materials in the Corpus by study of the tiny photos in the excavation reports of Marshall (1931). 1943). pointing out that Rao et al. Concordance and Tables (1977). representing seated human-like figures. Wheeler (1947). 2010). obtained with Indus signs. nonetheless. These interpretations have been marked by ambiguity and subjectivity. especially in Indian religions such as Hinduism. or reproductions in more recent scattered sources.[56] The messages on the seals have proved to be too short to be decoded by a computer. and Witzel have disputed this finding. along with many discovered in the last few decades. have also demonstrated that a comparison of a non-linguistic system like medieval heraldic signs with natural languages yields results similar to those that Rao et al. an epithet of the later Hindu gods Shiva and Rudra. One motif shows a horned figure seated in a posture reminiscent of the Lotus position and surrounded by animals was named by early excavators Pashupati (lord of cattle).[56]:69 Photos of many of the thousands of extant inscriptions are published in the Corpus of Indus Seals and Inscriptions (1987. The symbols that accompany the images vary from seal to seal. 1991. one consisting of 200. republished photos taken in the 1920s and 1930s of hundreds of lost or stolen inscriptions. which are found in other religions worldwide. They conclude that the method used by Rao et al.[57] Phallic symbols interpreted as the much later Hindu Shiva lingam have been found in the Harappan remains. making it impossible to derive a meaning for the symbols from the images. been a number of interpretations offered for the meaning of the seals.

they have not been identified. unearthed at Mohenjodaro portrays a person with 3 or possibly 4 faces. the Indus Valley Civilization did not disappear suddenly.[73] Previously. Clark who sees it as an inadequate explanation of the function and construction of many of the figurines. Jain iconography frequently depicts its Tirthankaras with four faces.[64] However.Indus Valley Civilization In view of the large number of figurines found in the Indus valley. symbolizing their presence in all four directions. or changes in the course of the river may have contributed to the collapse of the IVC. whose companion animal is the bull. House . floods. It is possible that a temple exists to the East of the great bath. scholars soon started to reject Wheeler's theory. and many elements of the Indus Civilization can be found in later cultures. and not violent aggression.[72] In addition.[] . In the Adi Purana Book XV III. states[69] that.[71] Seal 420. some scholars believe that the Harappan people worshipped a Mother goddess symbolizing fertility. and authors such as Christopher Key Chappel and Richard Lannoy support the Jain interpretation.[41] Ram Prasad Chanda. As evidence. This seal can be interpreted in many ways. Lannoy. a common practice among rural Hindus even today.[66] However. the Harappans buried their dead. later.”[70] Christopher Key Chappel also notes some other possible links with Jainism. speculation about the religion of the IVC is largely based on a retrospective view from a much later Hindu perspective. Thomas McEvilley and Padmanabh Jaini have all suggested that the abundant use of the bull image in the Indus Valley civilization indicates a link with Rsabha.[67] In the earlier phases of their culture. Depictions of a bull appear repeatedly in the artifacts of the Indus Valley. he cited a group of 37 skeletons found in various parts of Mohenjo-Daro. Sir Mortimer Wheeler proposed that the decline of the Indus Civilization was caused by the invasion of an Indo-European tribe from Central Asia called the "Aryans". There is a Buddhist reliquary mound on the site and permission has not been granted to move it. This four-faced attribute is also true of many Hindu gods. since the skeletons belonged to a period after the city's abandonment and none were found near the citadel. and passages in the Vedas referring to battles and forts.[68] Until there is sufficient evidence. If there were temples. and by around 1700 BCE. 1000-900 BCE and was partially contemporaneous with the Painted Grey Ware culture. deforestation. however. However. important among them being Brahma. the Kayotsarga posture is described in connection with the penance of Rsabha. this view has been disputed by S.[65] There are no religious buildings or evidence of elaborate burials.[] Today. who supervised Indus Valley Civilisation excavations. In 1953. also known as Vrsabha. the chief creator deity. especially in the Cemetery H culture of the late Harrapan period. many scholars believe that the collapse of the Indus Civilization was caused by drought and a decline in trade with Egypt and Mesopotamia. most of the cities were abandoned.[] Harvard archaeologist Richard Meadow points to the late Harappan settlement of Pirak. The Kayotsarga posture is peculiarly Jain. Subsequent examinations of the skeletons by Kenneth Kennedy in 1994 showed that the marks on the skulls were caused by erosion. but the site has not been excavated. the standing deities on the seals also show Kayotsarga (a standing or sitting posture of meditation) position. It is a posture not of sitting but of standing. which thrived continuously from 1800 BCE to the time of the invasion of Alexander the Great in 325 BCE. “Not only the seated deities on some of the Indus seals are in Yoga posture and bear witness to the prevalence of Yoga in the Indus Valley Civilisation in that remote age. it was also believed that the decline of the Harappan civilization led to an interruption of urban life in the Indian subcontinent. signs of a gradual decline began to emerge.[71] 56 Collapse and Late Harappan Around 1800 BCE.[] It has also been suggested that immigration by new peoples. Current archaeological data suggest that material culture classified as Late Harappan may have persisted until at least c. However. they also cremated their dead and buried the ashes in burial urns.1 in HR-A area in Mohenjadaro's Lower Town has been identified as a possible temple.

urban IVC .[78] 57 Legacy In the aftermath of the Indus Civilization's collapse. contradicting a Harappan time mighty "Sarasvati" river. from the University of Aberdeen. Early Dynastic to Ur III Mesopotamia. to varying degrees showing the influence of the Indus Civilization. to investigate how the courses of rivers have changed in this region since 8000 years ago. After the discovery of the IVC in the 1920s. In the formerly great city of Harappa. The actual reason for decline might be any combination of these factors. in particular the Old Elamite period. a practice dominant in Hinduism today. The residents then migrated towards the Ganges basin in the east. A tectonic event may have diverted the system's sources toward the Ganges Plain. linked to a general weakening of the monsoon at that time. and the cities died out. just as in most areas of the world. the water supply for the agricultural activities dried up. and were rain-fed instead.[76][77] According to their theory. A 2004 paper indicated that the isotopes of the Ghaggar-Hakra system do not come from the Himalayan glaciers.[] A possible natural reason for the IVC's decline is connected with climate change that is also signalled for the neighbouring areas of the Middle East: The Indus valley climate grew significantly cooler and drier from about 1800 BCE. Alternatively. which in turn supported the development of cities. burials have been found that correspond to a regional culture called the Cemetery H culture. As the monsoons kept shifting eastward. New geological research is now being conducted by a group led by Peter Clift. though there is complete uncertainty about the date of this event. the Ochre Coloured Pottery culture expanded from Rajasthan into the Gangetic Plain. as most settlements inside Ghaggar-Hakra river beds have not yet been dated.[79] The mature (Harappan) phase of the IVC is contemporary to the Early to Middle Bronze Age in the Ancient Near East. the number of sites in India increased from 218 to 853. These link "the so-called two major phases of urbanization in South Asia". At the same time. Prepalatial Minoan Crete and Old Kingdom to First Intermediate Period Egypt. Excavations in the Gangetic plain show that urban settlement began around 1200 BCE. there was a continuous series of cultural developments.[75] The team's findings were published in PNAS in May 2012. It has been compared in particular with the civilizations of Elam (also in the context of the Elamo-Dravidian hypothesis) and with Minoan Crete (because of isolated cultural parallels such as the ubiquitous goddess worship and depictions of bull-leaping). The discovery of the advanced. The monsoon-supported farming led to large agricultural surpluses.[74] A research team led by the geologist Liviu Giosan of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution also concluded that climate change in form of the easterward migration of the monsoons led to the decline of the IVC. The Cemetery H culture has the earliest evidence for cremation.Indus Valley Civilization Recent archaeological excavations indicate that the decline of Harappa drove people eastward. the slow eastward migration of the monsoons across Asia initially allowed the civilization to develop. Mortimer Wheeler interpreted the presence of many unburied corpses found in the top levels of Mohenjo-Daro as the victims of a warlike conquest. The IVC residents did not develop irrigation capabilities. relying mainly on the seasonal monsoons. After 1900 BCE.[] Archaeologists have emphasized that. it was immediately associated with the indigenous Dasyu inimical to the Rigvedic tribes in numerous hymns of the Rigveda. and famously stated that "Indra stands accused" of the destruction of the IVC. The small surplus produced in these small communities did not allow development of trade. a crucial factor may have been the disappearance of substantial portions of the Ghaggar Hakra river system. Historical context and linguistic affiliation The IVC has been tentatively identified with the toponym Meluhha known from Sumerian records. to test whether climate or river reorganizations are responsible for the decline of the Harappan. only a few centuries after the decline of Harappa and much earlier than previously expected. where they established smaller villages and isolated farms. regional cultures emerged. The association of the IVC with the city-dwelling Dasyus remains alluring because the assumed timeframe of the first Indo-Aryan migration into India corresponds neatly with the period of decline of the IVC seen in the archaeological record.

[32] e. 2009) (http:/ / www. Reveals New Study of Ancient Symbols (http:/ / newswise. but this usage is disputed on linguistic and geographical grounds. safarmer. is approximately . or the Indo-Europeanization of Western Europe. (Science. Delhi: Archaeol. [41] Keay. the breakup of proto-Dravidian corresponding to the breakup of the Late Harappan culture. html The civilization is sometimes referred to as the Indus Ghaggar-Hakra civilization or the Indus-Sarasvati civilization. pdf) Retrieved on 19 September 2009. and that an early form of Dravidian language must have been the language of the Indus people. com/ articles/ view/ 551380/ ) Newswise. The civilization is sometimes referred to as the Indus Ghaggar-Hakra civilization or Indus-Sarasvati civilization by Hindutva groups. where ancient copper smelting were found dating back almost 5. Early Sites Research Society (West) Monograph Series. ISBN 97801995933347 [50] Wells. [43] Marshall. 32-3. Surv. A. 5: 105-8 and pl. which lends credence to the theory. Mohenjo-Daro and the Indus Civilisation. Oxford University Press. com/ Refutation3. A Review. p. comparable to the Germanic migrations after the Fall of Rome. Report for the Year 1872-73. Sir John. the Dravidian language family is concentrated mostly in southern India and northern Sri Lanka. Germany. in an interview with the Deccan Herald on 12 August 2012. Retrieved on 5 June 2009. Calcutta: Archaeological Survey of India. harappa. India. 2010. msn. Excavations at Alamgirpur. Wendy Doniger. [13] Note that the coss.[81] Proto-Munda (or Para-Munda) and a "lost phylum" (perhaps related or ancestral to the Nihali language)[82] have been proposed as other candidates. It was often suggested that the bearers of the IVC corresponded to proto-Dravidians linguistically.000 years. mohenjodaro. 24. html http:/ / uk. . com/ har/ indus-saraswati. com/ encyclopedia_761556839/ indus_valley_civilization. but pockets of it still remain throughout the rest of India and Pakistan (the Brahui language). [14] Cunningham. London: Arthur Probsthain. or the Kassite invasion of Babylonia. 2.g.[] or the Indus-Sarasvati civilization. html http:/ / www. The appellation Indus-Sarasvati is based on the possible identification of the Ghaggar-Hakra River with the Sarasvati River of the Nadistuti sukta in the Rig Veda. pp. B. The Inscriptions of the Indus civilization Norderstedt. [36] It has been noted that the courtyard pattern and techniques of flooring of Harappan houses has similarities to the way house-building is still done in some villages of the region. [7] See map on page 263 [8] Indian Archaeology. heavy floods hit Haryana in India and damaged the archaeological site of Jognakhera. net/ mohenjodaroessay. Independence MO 1999 [52] These and other issues are addressed in [54] Indus Script Encodes Language. The Indus Valley Civilization site was hit by almost 10 feet of water as the Sutlej Yamuna link canal overflowed. 2000. 1875.[85] Notes and references Notes [1] [2] [3] [4] http:/ / www. This move away from simplistic "invasionist" scenarios parallels similar developments in thinking about language transfer and population movement in general. a measure of distance used from Vedic period to Mughal times. New York: Grove Press.67. such as in the case of the migration of the proto-Greek speakers into Greece. 2006.[80] Today. p. Asko Parpola clarified his position by admitting that Sanskrit-speakers had contributed to the Indus Valley Civilization. encarta. John.[83][84] 58 Developments in July 2010 On 11 July. India. 1958-1959. Rainer.Indus Valley Civilization however changed the 19th century view of early Indo-Aryan migration as an "invasion" of an advanced culture at the expense of a "primitive" aboriginal population to a gradual acculturation of nomadic "barbarians" on an advanced urban civilization.<ref name="Ching 2006 28–32"> [5] McIntosh 2001.. 1931 [45] Hasenpflug. a HIstory. 3 vols. [55] A Refutation of the Claimed Refutation of the Non-linguistic Nature of Indus Symbols: Invented Data Sets in the Statistical Paper of Rao et al. 51–52. An Introduction to Indus Writing. However. Archaeological Survey of India. Finnish Indologist Asko Parpola concludes that the uniformity of the Indus inscriptions precludes any possibility of widely different languages being used. [47] The Hindus.

1007/BF00978474). The Wonder That Was India. safarmer. Hindi Granth Karyalay : Mumbai. P. Bal In: Jaya Gommatesa. Early India: From the Origins to 1300. Page 84. Chicago: Heinemann. London. • Lahiri. The Indus-Saraswati Civilization: Origins. P. html) [81] Sanskrit has also contributed to Indus Civilization. (2002). ISBN 0-8133-3532-9. L. ISBN 81-7530-034-5. B. Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press. J-P. . The Earliest Civilisation of South Asia (Rise. et al. Gopinath. edu/ ngier/ lalpaper. uidaho. uky. • Kenoyer. • Lal. New York: Cambridge University Press. html [84] http:/ / www. Sujata (2005). Penguin Books. Hinduism. New York/Paris: Routledge/UNESCO. Heuston. 1932) [70] Patil. Jane (2001). Short History of Pakistan (Book 1). [57] The BBC names a bath and phallic symbols of the Harappan civilization as features of the "Prehistoric religion (3000-1000BCE)". Oxford University Press.) (2000). From the Third Millennium to the Seventh Century BC. Bridget (1997). Delhi: Pratibha Prakashan. University of Karachi. London: Sidgwick & Jackson. A Peaceful Realm: The Rise And Fall of the Indus Civilization.Indus Valley Civilization [56] 'Conditional Entropy' Cannot Distinguish Linguistic from Non-linguistic Systems (http:/ / www. Maturity and Decline). webpages. Rao.276 [68] Wolpert. Chicago: Heinemann. S. com/ content/ 79062/ sanskrit-has-contributed-indus-civilisation. • Aronovsky. The lost Sarasvati and the Indus Civilisation. • Lal. Journal of World Prehistory 5 (4): 1–64. Problems and Issues. University of California Press. 6-9 [73] Knipe. com/ more. Origins of a Civilization: The Prehistory and Early Archaeology of South Asia. India 1947-1997: New Light on the Indus Civilization. Gujarat". New Delhi: Aryan Books International. (1996). 2006 ISBN 81-88769-10-X [71] Christopher Key Chappel (1993). Nayanjot (ed. Volume III. Nonviolence to Animals. San Francisco: Harper. Jonathan Mark (1991). 11–14. (1997).) (1996). Stanley. The Decline and Fall of the Indus Civilisation. ISBN 0-415-09306-6. B.doi. Delhi: Permanent Black. Boulder: Westview Press. • McIntosh. Berkeley. [66] Thapar. Mohen. 1991 [69] In his article "Mohen-jo-Daro: Sindh 5000 Years Ago" in Modern Review (August. Ahmad Hassan (1984). Jonathan Mark (1998). ISBN 0-19-517422-4. Raymond (ed. The Indus Valley. doi: 10. • Chakrabarti. • Dani. The Archaeology of Early Historic South Asia: The Emergence of Cities and States. New York: Viking. • Kathiroli. (ed. India. (2008) The Ancient Indus Valley : New Perspectives.) (1995). htm 59 References Bibliography • Allchin. Mumbai: Marg Publications. • Lal. "The Indus Valley tradition of Pakistan and Western India". The Indus Valley. pdf) Retrieved on 19 September 2009. ISBN 0-19-577940-1. Jane. • Kenoyer. David. ABC-CLIO. • Kirkpatrick.) (1995). • Basham. 2002 [67] McIntosh. • Allchin. Journal of Indian Ocean Archaeology (1): 141–149. • Kenoyer. History of Humanity. (2004). B. Ahmad Hassan. ISBN 81-7305-129-1. • Gupta. ISBN 81-85268-46-0. Deccan Herald. on. • Gupta. harappa. The Ancient South Asian World. B. Indus Civilization Sites in India: New Discoveries. Kimberly (2005). Ancient cities of the Indus Valley Civilisation. (1998). "Recent Marine Archaeological Finds in Khambhat. (2004). Jonathan Mark. Jodhpur: Kusumanjali Prakashan. 1991 [80] Indus Writing Analysis by Asko Parpola (http:/ / www. ms. Romila. and Self in Asian Traditions SUNY Press ISBN 0-7914-1497-3 Pp. html) [83] http:/ / www. edu/ ~sohum/ sanskrit/ yogavasishtha/ backup/ doc_z_otherlang_english/ sarasvati. Naida (2002). • Dani. ISBN 81-85026-63-7. (eds. pp. S. Earth. D. B. 12 August 2012 (http:/ / www.org/10. The Sarasvati flows on. A. B. Ilona. K. (1967).1007/BF00978474 (http://dx. deccanherald. com/ script/ parpola0.

"Study of the Indus Script" (http://www. • Parpola. "Migration. Philology and South Asian Archaeology".). (1999). ISBN 1-888789-04-2. ISBN 969-0-01350-5.upenn. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Jim G.cc.edu/~witzel/ IndusLang.). Michael (February 2000). "The Indus Valley. Berlin u. Asko (19 May 2005).: de Gruyter. New Delhi: Aditya Prakashan.a. Dept. Gregory (2002). • Witzel. Aryan and Non-Aryan in South Asia. Ferozesons.html) • Cache of Seal Impressions Discovered in Western India (http://www. In George Erdosy (ed. • Shaffer. • Rita P. Electronic Journal of Vedic Studies.Indus Valley Civilization • Mughal. Shikaripura Ranganatha (1991).fas.). • Rao. Jim G. • Shaffer. • Shaffer. Chronologies in Old World Archaeology (Second ed.pdf).harappa. W. In Bronkhorst and Deshpande (eds. (50th ICES Tokyo Session) • Possehl.). ISBN 978-0-521-57652-9 60 External links • Harappa and Indus Valley Civilization at harappa. 2010. ISBN 81-85179-74-3. Wright.people. Ancient Cholistan. "Cultural tradition and Palaeoethnicity in South Asian Archaeology".harvard. Cambridge University Press. In R.ac. Dawn and Devolution of the Indus Civilisation. ISBN 3-11-014447-6. of Sanskrit and Indian Studies. Case Studies in Early Societies.jp/indus/ english/index. php?674&soc) . Walnut Creek: Alta Mira Press. "The Languages of Harappa" (http://www. (1995). The Ancient Indus: Urbanism Economy and Society.com (http://www. Mohammad Rafique (1997).com) • An invitation to the Indus Civilization (Tokyo Metropolitan Museum) (http://pubweb. Indo-Aryans of Ancient South Asia. Jim G.edu/researchatpenn/article.harappa. Ehrich (ed.pdf). (1992). The Indus Civilisation. Cambridge: Harvard University. Baluchistan and Helmand Traditions: Neolithic Through Bronze Age".com/script/indusscript.u-tokai. Archaeology and Architecture.

5 mm) and these are marked out in decimal subdivisions with amazing accuracy—to within 0. in fact. and figures of some religious importance into one structure. steps leading down to water. was originally used more as an ornament than as a fastening. Harappa. which combines a bathing pool.[1] Ian McNeil (1990) holds that: "The button.[6] The three features of stepwells in the subcontinent are evident from one particular site. India. 2650 [] BC. Rulers made from Ivory were in use by the Indus Valley Civilization in what today is Pakistan and some parts of Western India prior to 1500 BCE. Inventions • Button. and Unger claimed it was used as a measurement standard.[3] Excavations at Lothal (2400 BCE) have yielded one such ruler calibrated to about 1/16 of an inch—less than 2 millimeters."[2] • Ruler: The oldest preserved measuring rod is a copper-alloy bar Computer-aided reconstruction of Harappan which was found by the German Assyriologist Eckhard Unger while coastal settlement in Pakistan on the westernmost outreaches of the civilization excavating at Nippur (pictured below).[5] Both the wells and the form of ritual bathing reached other parts of the world with Buddhism. The extent of Indus Valley Civilization.[5] . the earliest known being found at Mohenjo-daro in the Indus Valley.005 of an inch.32 inches (33. It is also called the Harappan Civilization. The bar dates from c. abandoned by 2500 BCE.[1] Some buttons were carved into geometric shapes and had holes pierced into them so that they could be attached to clothing by using a thread.[3] Ian Whitelaw (2007) holds that 'The Mohenjo-Daro ruler is divided into units corresponding to 1. after one of its the centres. ornamental: Buttons—made from seashell—were used in the Indus Valley Civilization for ornamental purposes by 2000 BCE.List of inventions and discoveries of the Indus Valley Civilization 61 List of inventions and discoveries of the Indus Valley Civilization The list of inventions and discoveries of the Indus Valley Civilization refers to the technological and civilizational achievements of the Indus Valley Civilisation. It is made of a curved shell and about 5000 years old. Ancient bricks found throughout the region have dimensions that correspond to these units.'[4] • Stepwell: Earliest clear evidence of the origins of the stepwell is found in the Indus Valley Civilization's archaeological site at Mohenjodaro in Pakistan [5] and Dholavira. a lost civilization which flourished in the Bronze Age around the Indus River basin in what is today mainly Pakistan and northwest portions of the Republic of India.[5] The early centuries immediately before the common era saw the Buddhists and the Jains of India adapt the stepwells into their architecture.

852. (1998). (2002). • Possehl. Dundurn Press Ltd. (second edition). and Chausar". Princeton Architectural Press. The World’s Last Mysteries. Taylor & Francis.. and Medicine in Non-Western Cultures (2nd edition) edited by Helaine Selin. Massachusetts: Brill Academic Publishers. JSTOR  529703 (http://www. • Dales. Maryland: Rowman Altamira. (Illustrated edition). Gregory L.2307/529703). ISBN 1-55002-726-3. . ISBN 0-909486-61-1 • Encyclopedia of Indian Archaeology (Volume 1). ISBN 0-7591-0172-8. page 14 [4] Whitelaw. John (2000). doi: 10. Shadows: A Modern Puppet History.List of inventions and discoveries of the Indus Valley Civilization Rock-cut step wells in the subcontinent date from 200-400 CE. The Indus Civilization: A Contemporary Perspective. George (1974). New Delhi: APH Publishing Corp. Robert H. [3] Whitelaw. Barbara Ann (2000). Greenwood Publishing Group.). Jewelrymaking Through History: An Encyclopedia. Pakistan. Massey. Morna & Beach. • Koppel. page 15 [5] Livingston & Beach. Utpal Kumar (2006). The Ancient Indus Valley: New Perspectives.org/10. Raj (2004). • Livingston. ISBN 0-313-33507-9. University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology. Third revised edition. A. 20 [6] The Lost River by Michel Danino. Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing Group. An Introduction To Cultural Anthropology. Tom (2007). ISBN 306461587. • McIntosh. • Kipfer. Abhinav Publications. ISBN 0-313-29497-6. New York: Springer. ISBN 90-04-09264-1. Edited by Amalananda Ghosh (1990). 32 (35). Ian (1990). (2001) [1967]. L. Springer.2307/529703 (http://dx. Wayne State University Press. ISBN 978-1-4020-4559-2. Ebb and Flow: Tides and Life on Our Once and Future Planet. Encyclopedic Dictionary of Archaeology. ISBN 0-415-01306-2. page xxiii Sources • Basham.doi. Present and Future.jstor. Sydney: Readers’ Digest. ISBN 1-57607-907-4.[7] 62 References [1] Hesse. ISBN 81-7648-581-0. The Wonder That was India. 35. [2] McNeil. Norman (1964). W. • Pruthi. ISBN 81-7017-435-X. Masterson Press. "The Indian Games of Pachisi. Indian Puppets: Past. "Excavations at Balakot. Shigeo (2008). Chaupar. Reginald. Journal of Field Archaeology 1 (1-2): 3–22 [10]. Technology. ISBN 0-89558-156-6. Hands. 32-35. • Brown. • Iwata. Encyclopaedia of the History of Science. "Cities of Mystery: The Lost Empire of the Indus Valley". Rayner W. • Lowie. • Nejat. Rayner W. • Bell. ISBN 0-283-99257-3. Jane (2007). (2007). Karen Rhea Nemet. Steps to Water: The Ancient Stepwells of India. (2007) [1940]. • Ghosh. California: ABC-CLIO. Robert (1978). 2254–2255. ISBN 1-56898-324-7. New Delhi: Rupa & co. Milo (2002). Expedition.org/stable/ 529703). ISBN 1-4067-1765-7. • Davreu. S. and Banerjee. "Weights and Measures in the Indus Valley".[7] Subsequently the wells at Dhank (550-625 CE) and stepped ponds at Bhinmal (850-950 CE) were constructed. Daily Life in Ancient Mesopotamia. & Hesse (Jr. An encyclopaedia of the history of technology. Strings. Prehistory and Harappan Civilization. 1973". Illustrated edition. Penguin India 2010 [7] Livingston & Beach.

ISBN 0-312-37026-1. New Hampshire: Libraries Unlimited. coffin burial. semi precious beads etc. • Varadpande. Manohar Laxman (2005). seaport Balu. Important IVC Town. Dindy & Estes. (1992). World Cultures Through Art Activities. and three other bronze sculptures. First town which is Excavated and studied in detail Sahiwal District Punjab . Anantharama (2000). use of lipstick. The History of Cartography .List of inventions and discoveries of the Indus Valley Civilization • Rao. without a citadel [2] only Indus site Chanhudaro Sindh Pakistan Dholavira Gujarat India Figure of chariot tied to a pair of bullocks and driven by a nude human. [] Barley. Ian (2007). Bhagwat Saran (1954).B. Haryana Banawali Bargaon Haryana Haryana Uttar Pradesh Indian India India Earliest evidence of garlic. Water harvesting and number of reservoirs. Granaries. • Schwartzberg. Andhra Pradesh: The Institute of Ancient Studies Hyderabad. The Ancient World. ISBN 81-87699-00-0 • Robinson. Lot of artefacts. Joseph E. Edited by J. yoked to two oxen.Cartography in the Traditional Islamic and South Asian Societies (Volume 2 Book 1). "Part 2: South Asian Cartography: 15. ISBN 0-226-31635-1. New York: Oxford University Press USA. New Delhi: Abhinav Publications. India: Vidya Publishing House [Michigan: University of Michigan]. ISBN 81-7017-430-9. with 65 burials. terracotta figure of plough Bhagatrav Gujarat India Bhirrana Haryana India Graffiti of a dancing girl on pottery. A Measure of All Things: The Story of Man and Measurement. Largest burial site of IVC. found in India Daimabad Late Harappan Ahmadnagar District Maharashtra India Farmana Ganeriwala Gola Dhoro Harappa Rohtak District Haryana Punjab Gujarat India Pakistan India Pakistan Production of shell bangles. Rebecca (1996). • Whitelaw. 45 cm long and 16 cm wide. • Upadhyaya. which resembles dancing girl statue found at Mohenjo-daro Bead making factory. Vision 21st Century. History of Indian Theatre. Site Alamgirpur Balakot District Meerut District Mansehra District Fatehabad Hisar District Saharanpur [1] District Bharuch District Fatehabad District Nawabshah District Kutch District Province/State Uttar Pradesh Hazara Country India Pakistan Image Excavations/Findings Impression of cloth on trough Earliest evidence of furnace. 63 List of Indus Valley Civilization sites This is a List of Indus Valley Civilization sites. K. Macmillan. driven by a man 16 cm high [3] standing in it. use of rocks for constructions a sculpture of a bronze chariot. Introduction to South Asian Cartography". Harley and David Woodward. ISBN 1-56308-271-3.

Seaport Rangpur Ahmedabad District Gujarat India Rehman Dheri Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan . Great granary. earliest cultivation of rice (1800 BC) Northern Most Harappan site in Himalayan foodhills [6] Southern Most Harappan site in India [5] Manda. fire altars.figuries. Pashupati seal. by evaporating sea water [] Khirasara Gujarat India Kerala-no-dhoro or Padri Kot Bala Kutch District Gujarat India Lasbela District Khairpur District Fatehabad District Rajkot District Sukkur District Larkana District Mehsana District Ahmedabad District Jammu District Balochistan Pakistan Kot Diji Sindh Pakistan Kunal. Large site.Jammu Jammu & Kashmir Gujarat Uttar Pradesh India Malwan Mandi Mehrgarh Mitathal Surat District India India Pakistan India Bolan District Bhiwani District Larkana District Balochistan Haryana Earliest agricultural community Mohenjo-Daro Sindh Pakistan Great Bath (the biggest bath ghat). gold. Small port [] Kuntasi Lakhueen-jo-daro Larkana Gujarat Sindh Sindh India Pakistan Pakistan Loteshwar Gujarat India Ancient archeological site [4] Lothal Gujarat India Bead making factory. three cylindrical seals of the Mesopotamian type. shell objects and weight hoards Salt production centre. a piece of woven cloth Mundigak Kandahar Province Kandahar Afghanistan Nausharo Ongar Pir Shah Jurio Pirak Rakhigarhi Hisar District Karachi Balochistan Sindh Sindh Balochistan Haryana Pakistan Pakistan Pakistan Pakistan India Terrecotta wheels. copper. button seal. toys. painted jar. small circular pits containing large urns and accompanied by pottery Ware House. Bronze dancing girl. Copper smelting. partially excavated. Bull seal. fire altars.List of Indus Valley Civilization sites 64 India Hulas Saharanpur District Hanumangarh District Kutch District Uttar Pradesh Kalibangan Rajasthan India Baked/burnt bangles. Industrial area. terracotta toys. semi precious stone. dockyard.pottery. Bearded man. Haryana Haryana India Earliest Pre-Harappan site.

in/ asi_exca_2007_sanauli. Maharaja Sayyajirao University. nic. Baroda. pdf) . Excavations at Shikarpur. nic.Gujarat 2008-2009. [7] Archeological Survey of India (http:/ / asi. com/ goladhoro/ Shikarpur-2008-2009. asp) [8] Department of Archeology and Ancient History. pdf) [3] (http:/ / www.Page 19. com/ pdf_files/ 121/ 1218186467. harappa. (http:/ / www. [8] Gujarat Shortugai Sothi Surkotada Sutkagan Dor Gujarat India Food habit details of Harappans Afghanistan Haryana Kutch District Gujarat Balochistan India India Pakistan Bones of a horse (only site) Bangles of clay.List of Indus Valley Civilization sites 65 Gujarat Punjab India India Rojdi Rupar Rajkot District Rupnagar District Baghpat District Kutch District Sanauli [7] Uttar Pradesh India Burial site with 125 burials found Shikarpur. Western most known site of IVC [9] References [1] Archeological Survey of India Publication:Indian Archeology 1963-64 A Review (http:/ / asi. Archeological Survey of India. A Review. pdf) [5] India Archeology 1976-77. rhinoresourcecenter. in/ nmma_reviews/ Indian Archaeology 1963-64 A Review.

Anatolia. The darkest areas are the oldest. Bronze Age ↑ Chalcolithic Near East (3600-1200 BC) Caucasus. Jiroft Bronze Age collapse Europe (3200-600 BC) Aegean (Minoan) Caucasus (Maykop culture) Basarabi culture Coțofeni culture Pecica culture Otomani culture Wietenberg culture Catacomb culture Srubna culture Beaker culture Unetice culture Tumulus culture Urnfield culture Hallstatt culture Atlantic Bronze Age Bronze Age Britain Nordic Bronze Age Romanian Bronze Age Southeastern European Bronze Age Italian Bronze Age Indian Subcontinent (3300-1200 BC) China (3000-700 BC) Korea (800-300 BC) Upper Oxus (2300-1700 BC) . Levant. Indus valley.Bronze Age 66 Bronze Age Diffusion of metallurgy in Europe and Asia Minor. Elam. Mesopotamia.

Worldwide. the Copper Age served as a transition from the Neolithic to the Bronze Age. slavery. Of these. as proposed in modern times by Christian Jürgensen Thomsen. though the place and time of the introduction and development of bronze technology was not universally synchronous. or by trading for bronze from production areas elsewhere. with the Mycenaean culture (Linear B)—had viable writing systems. The Bronze Age was a time of heavy use of metals and of developing trade networks (See Tin sources and trade in ancient times). but in some parts of the world. An ancient civilization can be in the Bronze Age either by smelting its own copper and alloying with tin. chariot ↓ Iron Age The Bronze Age is a period characterized by the use of copper and its alloy bronze and proto-writing. then added to molten copper to make the bronze alloy. and organized warfare. China (oracle bone script)—and the Mediterranean. Tin must be mined (mainly as the tin ore cassiterite) and smelted separately. invented the potter's wheel. "the cradle of civilization") practised intensive year-round agriculture. created a centralized government. as reflected in the fact that there were no tin bronzes in western Asia before the third millennium BC. but consider the Bronze Age and Iron Age historically valid. According to archaeological evidence. cultures in Egypt (hieroglyphs). . literature sword. The overall period is characterized by the full adoption of bronze in many regions. History The term "Bronze Age" ultimately derives from the Ages of Man. Copper-tin ores are rare. the Iron Age intruded directly on the Neolithic from outside the region except for Sub-Saharan Africa where it was developed independently. the Bronze Age generally followed the Neolithic period. the Near East (cuneiform).Bronze Age 67 arsenical bronze writing. modern historians categorize the Golden Age and Silver Age as mythical. Near East Southeast Asia / Middle East The Bronze Age in the ancient Near East began with the rise of Sumer in the 4th millennium BC. the stages of human existence on the Earth according to Greek mythology.[1] Bronze Age cultures differed in their development of the first writing. law codes. Cultures in the ancient Near East (often called. and empires. and introduced social stratification. Although the Iron Age generally followed the Bronze Age.[2] Man-made tin bronze technology requires set production techniques. and other features of urban civilization. for classifying and studying ancient societies. in some areas. The Bronze Age is the second principal period of the three-age Stone-Bronze-Iron system. developed a writing system. Societies in the region laid the foundations for astronomy and mathematics.

1750 : MBA II A 1750 . The period dates and phase ranges are [3][4][5] solely applicable to the Near East. Intermediate Bronze Age (IBA) 2100 .1200 BC 1550 . but not applicable universally.2200 : EBA III 2200 .2100 : EBA IV Middle Bronze Age (MBA) Also.1650 : MBA II B 1650 .1550 : MBA II C Late Bronze Age (LBA) 1550 .Bronze Age Near East timeline Dates are approximate.2700 : EBA II 2700 . Early Bronze Age (EBA) 3300 .1550 BC 2100 .1400 : LBA I 1400 .1200 : LBA II B (Bronze Age collapse) . consult particular article for details 68 Age sub-divisions The Ancient Near East Bronze Age can be divided as follows: Near East Bronze Age Divisions The archetypal Bronze Age divisions of the Near East have a well-established triadic clearness of expression.3000 : EBA I 3000 .1300 : LBA II A 1300 .2000 : MBA I 2000 .2100 BC 3300 .

The Amorite dynasty established the city-state of Babylon in the 19th century BC. Over 100 years later. Grapes were grown. The cities of the Ancient Near East housed several tens of thousands of people.Bronze Age Mesopotamia In Mesopotamia. even under outside rule. a division primarily based on art-historical and historical characteristics is more common. Ur in the Middle Bronze Age and Babylon in the Late Bronze Age similarly had large populations. The usual tripartite division into an Early. The height of this urban development was reached in the Middle Bronze Age c. remained an important cultural center throughout the Bronze and Early Iron Age. Altyn-Depe was a major centre even then. the Sumerian language was no longer spoken. it briefly took over the other city-states and formed the first Babylonian empire during what is also called the Old Babylonian Period. This corresponds to level IV at Namazga-Depe. In the Early Bronze Age the culture of the Kopet Dag oases and Altyn-Depe developed a proto-urban society. Babylonia adopted the written Semitic Akkadian language for official use. it was centered in Susa in the Khuzestan lowlands. Persian Plateau Persian Bronze Age 69 Late 3rd Millennium BC silver cup from Marvdasht. The Akkadian and Sumerian traditions played a major role in later Babylonian culture. Instead. Pottery was wheel-turned. The earliest mention of Babylonia appears on a tablet from the reign of Sargon of Akkad in the 23rd century BC.[7] This Bronze Age culture is called the . Fars. and from the mid-2nd millennium BC. Elam consisted of kingdoms on the Iranian plateau. Middle and Late Bronze Age is not used. with linear-Elamite inscription. 2300–1700 BC and centered on the upper Amu Darya (Oxus). In the Old Elamite period (Middle Bronze Age). but was still in religious use. By that time. corresponding to level V at Namazga-Depe. the Mesopotamia Bronze Age begins about 2900 BC and ends with the Kassite period. centered in Anshan. Elam was an ancient civilization located to the east of Mesopotamia. Its culture played a crucial role in the Gutian Empire and especially during the Achaemenid dynasty that succeeded it. The Oxus civilization[6] was a Bronze Age Central Asian culture dated to ca. and the region. 2300 BC.

It probably bordered it. In the 14th century BC. was located in southern Balochistan (Gedrosia) ca. encompassing central Anatolia. Agriculture was the economical base of this people. Israel. Konar Sandal is associated with the hypothesized "Jiroft culture". an Ensi (governor) for Ur III during the reign of Amar-Sin of Ur. Arzawa was the western neighbor—sometimes a rival and sometimes a vassal—of the Middle and New Hittite Kingdoms. The Assuwa league was a confederation of states in western Anatolia that was defeated by the Hittites under an earlier Tudhaliya I. Ibbit-Lim was the first attested king. southwestern Syria as far as Ugarit. After 1180 BC. providing evidence for a highly developed water management system. Anatolia The Hittite Empire was established in Hattusa in northern Anatolia from the 18th century BC. The Kulli culture. and may even be an alternative term for it (at least during some periods). At several places dams were found. 2500 .Bronze Age Bactria–Margiana Archaeological Complex (BMAC).[8][9] similar to those of the Indus Valley Civilization. Negev Desert. Arzawa has been associated with the much more obscure Assuwa generally located to its north. a 3rd millennium BC culture postulated on the basis of a collection of artifacts confiscated in 2001. amid general turmoil in the Levant associated with the sudden arrival of the Sea Peoples. around 1400 BC. 1850 to 1600 BC. the kingdom disintegrated into several independent "Neo-Hittite" city-states. Ebla is mentioned in texts from Alalakh from ca. Arzawa in Western Anatolia during the second half of the second millennium BC likely extended along southern Anatolia in a belt that reaches from near the Turkish Lakes Region to the Aegean coast. This is attested to only by the fragmentary Hurro-Hittite Song of Release. by a Hittite king (Mursili I or Hattusili I). Ebla experienced an apogee from ca. The first known ruler of Ebla in this period was Megum. the Hittite Kingdom was at its height.2000 BC. some of which survived until as late as the 8th century BC. and upper Mesopotamia. . The city was destroyed again in the turbulent period of 1650–1600 BC. 1750 BC. Levant Mediterranean Bronze Age 70 Chalcolithic copper mine in Timna Valley.

This era ended in northern Mesopotamia with the expulsion of the Amorite dominated Babylonians from Assyria by King Adasi c. The Old Kingdom of the regional Bronze Age[11] is the name given to the period in the 3rd millennium BC when Egypt attained its first continuous peak of civilization in complexity and achievement – the first of three "Kingdom" periods. Larsa. arose in Mari. and his queen. Founded by an Indo-Aryan ruling class that governed a predominately Hurrian population.[13] often described as a "dark period" in ancient Egyptian history. 3150 BC. At the height of its power. The hallmarks of ancient Egyptian civilization. Qatna. they were divided into independent kingdoms all across the Near East. with the Theban kings conquering the north. Amarna letters from Ugarit ca. with the ascent of the Hittite empire. The Mitanni was a loosely organized state in northern Syria and south-east Anatolia from ca. 1350 BC records one letter each from Ammittamru I. However. It is generally taken to include the First and Second Dynasties. The Aramaeans are a Northwest Semitic semi-nomadic and pastoralist people who originated in what is now modern Syria (Biblical Aram) during the Late Bronze Age and the Iron Age. and also Babylon. or the beginning of the Old Kingdom. Yamkhad. the term Amurru is usually applied to the region extending north of Canaan as far as Kadesh on the Orontes. 71 . 3100 BC. c. The Aramaeans never had a unified empire. it had outposts centered around its capital. it is unclear at what time these monuments got to Ugarit. Niqmaddu II. ca. 1595 BC). 2000–1600 BC. The earliest known Ugarit contact with Egypt (and the first exact dating of Ugaritic civilization) comes from a carnelian bead identified with the Middle Kingdom pharaoh Senusret I. 1971 BC–1926 BC. The First Intermediate Period was a dynamic time when rule of Egypt was roughly divided between two competing power bases: Heracleopolis in Lower Egypt and Thebes in Upper Egypt. However. architecture and many aspects of religion. Large groups migrated to Mesopotamia where they intermingled with the native Akkadian (Assyrian and Babylonian) population. The archaic early Bronze Age of Egypt. which archaeologists have located on the headwaters of the Khabur River. These two kingdoms would eventually come into conflict. Assyria. the capital moved from Abydos to Memphis with a unified Egypt ruled by an Egyptian god-king. 1500 BC–1300 BC. resulting in reunification of Egypt under a single ruler during the second part of the 11th Dynasty. Abydos remained the major holy land in the south. spanned about 100 years after the end of the Old Kingdom from about 2181 to 2055 BC. c. their political influence was confined to a number of Syro-Hittite states. Mitanni came to be a regional power after the Hittite destruction of Kassite Babylon created a power vacuum in Mesopotamia.Bronze Age Amorite kingdoms. Mitanni succumbed to Hittite. Very little monumental evidence survives from this period. Mitanni's major rival was Egypt under the Thutmosids. known as the Early Dynastic Period of Egypt. Memphis in the Early Bronzee Age was the largest city of the time. At its beginning. The First Intermediate Period of Egypt. From the 15th century BC onward. Ancient Egypt Early Bronze dynasties In Ancient Egypt. took shape during the Early Dynastic period. lasting from the Protodynastic Period of Egypt until about 2686 BC. especially from the early part of it. With the First Dynasty. such as art. which brought new ethnic groups—particularly Kassites—to the forefront in southern Mesopotamia. A stela and a statuette from the Egyptian pharaohs Senusret III and Amenemhet III have also been found. which were entirely absorbed into the Neo-Assyrian Empire by the 8th century BC. which mark the high points of civilization in the lower Nile Valley (the others being Middle Kingdom and the New Kingdom). and later Assyrian attacks. during the 14th century BC. Eventually. 1720 BC.[10] Isin. From the 16th to the 13th century BC Ugarit remained in constant touch with Egypt and Cyprus (named Alashiya).[11][12] immediately follows the unification of Lower and Upper Egypt. and was reduced to a province of the Middle Assyrian Empire. Washukanni. the Bronze Age begins in the Protodynastic period. Mitanni and Egypt made an alliance to protect their mutual interests from the threat of Hittite domination. After the Bronze Age collapse. and in the south with the Hittite sack of Babylon (c.

[16][17] . and emerged from the Second Intermediate Period in control of Avaris and the Delta.[] This migration took place in just five to six generations and led to peoples from Finland in the west to Thailand in the east employing the same metal working technology and. lasted from the 16th to the 11th century BC. in some areas. recent genetic testings of sites in south Siberia and Kazakhstan (Andronovo horizon) would rather support a spreading of the bronze technology via Indo-European migrations eastwards. economic and political changes triggered a rapid and massive migration westward into northeast Europe.000 miles. By the 15th Dynasty. is also known as the Ramesside period. Finnish. The unified kingdom was previously considered to comprise the 11th and 12th Dynasties. and they were expelled at the end of the 17th Dynasty. including Hungarian. they ruled lower Egypt.[] However. The later New Kingdom. the Osiris funerary cult rose to dominate Egyptian popular religion. Estonian and Lappish. The Hyksos first appeared in Egypt during the 11th Dynasty. the 19th and 20th Dynasties (1292-1069 BC). also referred to as the Egyptian Empire. which ruled from Thebes and the 12th[14] and 13th Dynasties centered around el-Lisht.[15] Ancient Egypt fell into disarray for a second time. after the eleven pharaohs that took the name of Ramesses. as this technology was well known for quite a while in western regions. began their climb to power in the 13th Dynasty. eastward into China and southward into Vietnam and Thailand across a frontier of some 4.[] It is further conjectured that the same migrations spread the Uralic group of languages across Europe and Asia: some 39 languages of this group are still extant. between the end of the Middle Kingdom and the start of the New Kingdom. During this period. Late Bronze dynasties The New Kingdom of Egypt. i. but historians now at least partially consider the 13th Dynasty to belong to the Middle Kingdom. The period comprises two phases: the 11th Dynasty. It is best known for the Hyksos.e. The New Kingdom followed the Second Intermediate Period and was succeeded by the Third Intermediate Period.Bronze Age Middle Bronze dynasties The Middle Kingdom of Egypt lasted from 2055 to 1650 BC. 72 Central Asia Seima-Turbino Phenomenon The Altai Mountains in what is now southern Russia and central Mongolia have been identified as the point of origin of a cultural enigma termed the Seima-Turbino Phenomenon. horse breeding and riding.[] It is conjectured that changes in climate in this region around 2000 BC and the ensuing ecological. whose reign comprised the 15th and 16th dynasties. During the Second Intermediate Period. It was Egypt's most prosperous time and marked the peak of Egypt's power.

Bronze Age


East Asia
East Asia timeline Dates are approximate, consult particular article for details

China Chinese Bronze Age

A Shang Dynasty two-handled bronze gefuding gui (1600–1046 BC).

Spring and Autumn Period pu bronze vessel with interlaced dragon design (722–481 BC)

Historians disagree about the dates of a "Bronze Age" in China. The difficulty lies in the term "Bronze Age", as it has been applied to signify a period in history when bronze tools replaced stone tools, and, later, were themselves replaced by iron ones. The medium of the new "Age" made that of the old obsolete. In China, however, any attempt to establish a definite set of dates for a Bronze Age is complicated by two factors: 1. arrival of iron smelting technology, and 2. persistence of bronze objects. The earliest bronze artifacts have been found in the Majiayao culture site (between 3100 and 2700 BC),[18][19] and from then on, the society gradually grew into the Bronze Age. Bronze metallurgy in China originated in what is referred to as the Erlitou (Wade–Giles: Erh-li-t'ou) period, which some historians argue places it within the range of dates controlled by the Shang dynasty.[20] Others believe the Erlitou sites belong to the preceding Xia (Wade–Giles: Hsia) dynasty.[21] The U.S. National Gallery of Art defines the Chinese Bronze Age as the "period between about 2000 BC and 771 BC," a period that begins with Erlitou culture and ends abruptly with the disintegration of Western Zhou rule.[22] Though this provides a concise frame of reference, it overlooks the continued importance of bronze in Chinese metallurgy and culture. Since this is significantly later than the discovery of bronze in Mesopotamia, bronze technology could have been imported rather than discovered independently in China. While there may be reason to believe that bronzework developed inside China separately from outside influence,[23][24] the discovery of European mummies in Xinjiang suggests a possible route of transmission from the West.[25] The Shang Dynasty[26][27] of the Yellow River Valley rose to power after the Xia Dynasty. While some direct information about the Shang Dynasty comes from Shang-era inscriptions on bronze artifacts, most comes from oracle bones — turtle shells, cattle scapulae, or other bones, which bear glyphs that form the first significant corpus of recorded Chinese characters.

Bronze Age Iron is found from the Zhou Dynasty, but its use is minimal. Chinese literature dating to the 6th century BC attests a knowledge of iron smelting, yet bronze continues to occupy the seat of significance in the archaeological and historical record for some time after this.[28] Historian W. C. White argues that iron did not supplant bronze "at any period before the end of the Zhou dynasty (256 BC)" and that bronze vessels make up the majority of metal vessels all the way through the Later Han period, or to 221 BC.[29] The Chinese bronze artifacts generally are either utilitarian, like spear points or adze heads, or "ritual bronzes", which are more elaborate versions in precious materials of everyday vessels, as well as tools and weapons. Examples are the numerous large sacrificial tripods known as dings in Chinese; there are many other distinct shapes. Surviving identified Chinese ritual bronzes tend to be highly decorated, often with the taotie motif, which involves highly stylized animal face(s). These appear in three main motif types: those of demons, of symbolic animals, and of abstract symbols.[30] Many large bronzes also bear cast inscriptions that are the great bulk of the surviving body of early Chinese writing and have helped historians and archaeologists piece together the history of China, especially during the Zhou Dynasty (1046-256 BC). The bronzes of the Western Zhou Dynasty document large portions of history not found in the extant texts that were often composed by persons of varying rank and possibly even social class. Further, the medium of cast bronze lends the record they preserve a permanence not enjoyed by manuscripts.[31] These inscriptions can commonly be subdivided into four parts: a reference to the date and place, the naming of the event commemorated, the list of gifts given to the artisan in exchange for the bronze, and a dedication.[32] The relative points of reference these vessels provide have enabled historians to place most of the vessels within a certain time frame of the Western Zhou period, allowing them to trace the evolution of the vessels and the events they record.[33] Korea The beginning of the Bronze Age on the peninsula is around 900 BC - 800 BC.[34][35] Although the Korean Bronze Age culture derives from the Liaoning and Manchuria, it exhibits unique typology and styles, especially in ritual objects.[36] The Mumun pottery period is named after the Korean name for undecorated or plain cooking and storage vessels that form a large part of the pottery assemblage over the entire length of the period, but especially 850-550 BC. The Mumun period is known for the origins of intensive agriculture and complex societies in both the Korean Peninsula and the Japanese Archipelago. The Middle Mumun pottery period culture of the southern Korean Peninsula gradually adopted bronze production (c. 700–600? BC) after a period when Liaoning-style bronze daggers and other bronze artifacts were exchanged as far as the interior part of the Southern Peninsula (c. 900–700 BC). The bronze daggers lent prestige and authority to the personages who wielded and were buried with them in high-status megalithic burials at south-coastal centres such as the Igeum-dong site. Bronze was an important element in ceremonies and as for mortuary offerings until 100.


South Asia
South Asia timeline Dates are approximate, consult particular article for details

Indus Valley The Bronze Age on the Indian subcontinent began around 3300 BC with the beginning of the Indus Valley civilization. Inhabitants of the Indus Valley, the Harappans, developed new techniques in metallurgy and produced copper, bronze, lead and tin. The Indian Bronze Age was followed by the Iron Age Vedic Period. The Harappan culture, which dates from 1700 BC to 1300 BC, overlapped the transition from the Bronze Age to the Iron Age; thus it is difficult to date this transition accurately.

Bronze Age


Southeast Asia
Dating back to the Neolithic Age, the first bronze drums, called the Dong Son drums, have been uncovered in and around the Red River Delta regions of Vietnam and Southern China. These relate to the prehistoric Dong Son Culture of Vietnam. In Ban Chiang, Thailand, (Southeast Asia) bronze artifacts have been discovered dating to 2100 BC.[37] In Nyaunggan, Burma bronze tools have been excavated along with ceramics and stone artifacts. Dating is still currently broad (3500–500 BC).[38]

European timeline A few examples of named Bronze Age cultures in Europe in roughly relative order. The chosen cultures overlapped in time and the indicated periods do not correspond to their estimated extends.

Aegean Aegean Bronze Age

Bronze Age copper ingot found in Crete

The Aegean Bronze Age began around 3200 BC,[39] when civilizations first established a far-ranging trade network. This network imported tin and charcoal to Cyprus, where copper was mined and alloyed with the tin to produce bronze. Bronze objects were then exported far and wide, and supported the trade. Isotopic analysis of tin in some Mediterranean bronze artifacts points to the fact that they may have originated from Great Britain.[40] Knowledge of navigation was well developed at this time, and reached a peak of skill not exceeded (except perhaps by Polynesian sailors) until 1730 when the invention of the chronometer enabled the precise determination of longitude. The Minoan civilization based in Knossos appears to have coordinated and defended its Bronze Age trade. Illyrians are also believed to have roots in the early Bronze Age. Ancient empires valued luxury goods in contrast to staple foods, leading to famine.[41]

Thus. 1450 BC) the cities of Crete burned and the Mycenaean civilization took over Knossos. suggest that the centre of Minoan Civilization at the time of the eruption was actually on Thera rather than on Crete. post-Thera. also suddenly lost much of its population. administrative and economic centre by the eruption as well as the damage wrought by the tsunami to the coastal towns and villages of Crete precipitated the decline of the Minoans. Indeed. which then lost crucial naval battles. so that in the LMIB/LMII event (c. 1600 BC. and had no access to the distant resources of an empire by which they could easily recover. Archaeological findings. preventing the trade that would previously have relieved such famines and prevented illness caused by malnutrition. or some combination of those three.[46] The colonies of the Minoan empire then suffered drought. The Thera eruption occurred around the Aegean Collapse. and thus probably some cultivation. and that trade network ceased to function as it did formerly.1250 BC) are revealed as mere continuations of the steady encroachments of the Greeks upon the weakened Minoan world. 110 km (68 mi) north of Crete. the Santorini Eruption is usually dated to c. but it could have triggered the instability that led to the collapse first of Knossos and then of Bronze Age society overall.1450 BC) and Troy (c. At the end of the Bronze Age in the Aegean region. the catastrophic loss of the political. famine. A weakened political entity with a reduced economic and military capability and fabled riches would have then been more vulnerable to human predators. 1630 BC. the Mycenaean administration of the regional trade empire followed the decline of Minoan primacy. One such theory looks to the role of Cretan expertise in administering the empire. and not to the end of the Late Bronze Age. the main justification for the tin trade ended. The Aegean Collapse has been attributed to the exhaustion of the Cyprus forests causing the end of the bronze trade. c. then the Mycenaeans may have made political and commercial mistakes in administering the Cretan empire.[43][44][45] These forests are known to have existed into later times.[42] Several Minoan client states lost much of their population to famine and/or pestilence. According to this theory. Aegean Collapse has also been attributed to the fact that as iron tools became more common. If the eruption occurred in the late 17th century BC (as most chronologists now think) then its immediate effects belong to the Middle to Late Bronze Age transition. including some on the island of Thera. If this expertise was concentrated in Crete. while the Mycenaean Greeks first enter the historical record a few decades later. war. This would indicate that the trade network may have failed. the area north of the Black Sea. A tsunami may have destroyed the Cretan navy in its home harbour.Bronze Age Aegean Collapse Bronze Age collapse theories have described aspects of the end of the Age in this region. the later Mycenaean assaults on Crete (c. It is also known that in this era the breadbasket of the Minoan empire. and experiments have shown that charcoal production on the scale necessary for the bronze production of the late Bronze Age would have exhausted them in less than fifty years. Speculation include a tsunami from Thera (more commonly known today as Santorini) destroyed Cretan cities. 76 .

followed by the Ottomany and Gyulavarsand cultures. In the eastern Hungarian Körös tributaries. All in all. which is characterised by inhumation burials in tumuli (barrows). Adlerberg and Hatvan cultures. The Unetice culture is followed by the middle Bronze Age (1600–1200 BC) Tumulus culture. cemeteries of this period are rare and of small size.Bronze Age Central Europe Central European Bronze Age 77 Jenišovice cup Grenoble cuirass Bronze Age weaponry and ornaments In Central Europe. such as the one located at Leubingen with grave gifts crafted from gold. (1300–700 BC) is characterized by cremation burials. Some very rich burials. The Central European Bronze Age is followed by the Iron Age Hallstatt culture (700–450 BC). the early Bronze Age Unetice culture (1800–1600 BC) includes numerous smaller groups like the Straubing. . It includes the Lusatian culture in eastern Germany and Poland (1300–500 BC) that continues into the Iron Age. point to an increase of social stratification already present in the Unetice culture. The late Bronze Age Urnfield culture. the early Bronze Age first saw the introduction of the Mako culture.

The civilization developed in the Middle and Late Bronze Age. They take their name from the characteristic nuragic towers. Switzerland 78 The Bronze Age in Central Europe has been described in the chronological schema of German prehistorian Paul Reinecke. The nuraghe towers are unanimously considered the best preserved and largest megalithic remains in Europe. between the 17th and the 13th centuries BC. Their effective use is still debated: some scholars considered them as monumental tombs. Sesia and Serio rivers. It takes its name from the fortified boroughs (Castellieri. . between the Po.in what is now northern Lombardy . Terramare were widespread in the Pianura Padana (specially along the Panaro river. The Canegrate culture developed from the mid-Bronze Age (13th century BC) till the Iron Age in the Pianura Padana. which built dolmens and menhirs. although human groups of hunters. in what is are now western Lombardy. prisons or. when the islands were already Romanized. Friulian cjastelir) that characterized the culture. according to Strabo. halberds. ovens for metal fusion. The Terramare was an early Indo-European civilization in the area of what is now Pianura Padana (northern Italy) before the arrival of the Celts. Remains of the Golasecca culture span an area of c. It takes its name from Golasecca. South Europe The Apennine culture (also called Italian Bronze Age) is a technology complex of central and southern Italy spanning the Chalcolithic and Bronze Age proper. the Nuragic civilization lasted from the early Bronze Age (18th century BC) to the 2nd century AD. The Castellieri culture developed in Istria during the Middle Bronze Age. These villages were built on land. Located in Sardinia and Corsica. but generally near a stream. The Canegrate culture migrated from the northwest part of the Alps and descended to Pianura Padana from the Swiss Alps passes and the Ticino. solid bracelets) and phases Hallstatt A and B (Ha A and B). The whole complex denoted the nature of a fortified settlement. in the 20th century. and in other parts of Europe. with roads that crossed each other at right angles. other as fortresses.during the Iron Age.000 square kilometers south to the Alps. The Camuni were an ancient people of uncertain origin (according to Pliny the Elder. Zug. some fifty tombs with ceramics and metal objects were found. between Modena and Bologna) and in the rest of Europe. from the 15th century BC until the Roman conquest in the 3rd century BC. abbot Giovanni Battista Giani excavated its first findings (some fifty tombs with ceramics and metal objects). flanged axes. they were Rhaetians) who lived in Val Camonica . in the early 19th century. pins with perforated spherical heads. which evolved from the pre-existing megalithic culture. eastern Piedmont and Ticino. temples for a solar cult. They lived in square villages of wooden stilt houses. finally. 20. they were Euganei. The Golasecca culture developed starting from the late Bronze Age in the Po plain. stone wrist-guards. It takes its name from the township of Canegrate where. He described Bronze A1 (Bz A1) period (2300–2000 BC : triangular daggers. a locality next to the Ticino where. flint arrowheads) and Bronze A2 (Bz A2) period (1950–1700 BC : daggers with metal hilt. others as Houses of the Giants. shepherds and farmers are known to have lived in the area since the Neolithic. dating from the 9th to the 4th century BC. It lasted for more than a millennium.Bronze Age Important sites include: • • • • Biskupin (Poland) Nebra (Germany) Vráble (Slovakia) Zug-Sumpf. flat axes.

Migration brought new people to the islands from the continent. forcing the population away from easily defended sites in the hills and into the fertile valleys. and cultural change was significant. Galicia and the British Isles. 1400–1100 BC) to exploit these conditions. unified by a regular maritime exchange of some of their products. Social groups appear to have been tribal but with growing complexity and hierarchies becoming apparent. Somerset) is much later. until this period. It is marked by economic and cultural exchange. Recent tooth enamel isotope research on bodies found in early Bronze Age graves around Stonehenge indicate that at least some of the migrants came from the area of modern Switzerland. The Beaker culture displayed different behaviours from the earlier Neolithic people. Large livestock farms developed in the lowlands and appear to have contributed to economic growth and inspired increasing forest clearances. the Bronze Age is considered to have been the period from around 2100 to 750 BC. where once the weather was warm and dry it became much wetter as the Bronze Age continued. whereas in the Neolithic a large chambered cairn or long barrow housed the dead. For example.[49] The earliest identified metalworking site (Sigwells. The greatest quantities of bronze objects in England were discovered in East Cambridgeshire. Golden helmet (Leiro. The Deverel-Rimbury culture began to emerge in the second half of the Middle Bronze Age (c. had usually been communal) became more individual. Andalusia. as many of the early henge sites were seemingly adopted by the newcomers. Devon and Cornwall were major sources of tin for much of western Europe and copper was extracted from sites such as the Great Orme mine in northern Wales. the climate was deteriorating. where the most important finds were recovered in Isleham (more than 6500 pieces). The identifiable sherds from . The Atlantic Bronze Age was defined by a number of distinct regional centres of metal production. Great Britain In Great Britain. Additionally. The rich Wessex culture developed in southern Britain at this time.[47] Alloying of copper with zinc or tin to make brass or bronze was practised soon after the discovery of copper itself. Early Bronze Age people buried their dead in individual barrows (also commonly known and marked on modern British Ordnance Survey maps as tumuli). or sometimes in cists covered with cairns. Integration is thought to have been peaceful.[48] At Alderley Edge in Cheshire. carbon dates have established mining at around 2280 to 1890 BC (at 95% probability). One copper mine at Great Orme in North Wales. Commercial contacts extend to Denmark and the Mediterranean. Galicia) The Atlantic Bronze Age is a cultural complex of the period of approximately 1300–700 BC that includes different cultures in Portugal. dated by Globular Urn style pottery to approximately the 12th century BC. Burial of dead (which.Bronze Age West Europe Atlantic Bronze Age Atlantic Bronze Age 79 Ceremonial giant dirk (1500–1300 BC). extended to a depth of 70 meters.

Tumulus culture. sites present rich and well-preserved objects made of wool. fishing and trade. Lusatian culture) lasting until ca. Derryniggin (c. its ethnic and linguistic affinities are unknown in the absence of written sources.Bronze Age over 500 mould fragments included a perfect fit of the hilt of a sword in the Wilburton style held in Somerset County Museum. These may have a history as far back as the neolithic period and continue into the Pre-Roman Iron Age. and Late Bronze Age (1200 – c. Numerous artifacts of bronze and gold are found.[] Ireland The Bronze Age in Ireland commenced around 2000 BC. There are five main types of flat axes: Lough Ravel (c. Ireland is also known for a relatively large number of Early Bronze Age burials. The period is divided into three phases: Early Bronze Age (2000–1500 BC). Many rock carvings depict ships. 2000–1600 BC). wood and imported Central European bronze and gold. No written language existed in the Nordic countries during . when copper was alloyed with tin and used to manufacture Ballybeg type flat axes and associated metalwork. as shown by the Hjortspring boat. The Bronze Age in Northern Europe spans the entire 2nd millennium BC (Unetice culture. c. most probably representing sewn plank built canoes for warfare. halberds and awls in copper. and a number of metal ingots in the shape of axes. The Northern Bronze Age was both a period and a Bronze Age culture in Scandinavian pre-history. 2200 BC). 600 BC. with sites that reached as far east as Estonia. Urnfield culture. It is followed by the Pre-Roman Iron Age. Even though Northern European Bronze Age cultures were fairly late. Succeeding the Late Neolithic culture. Thousands of rock carvings depict ships. 2000 BC). daggers. and the large stone burial monuments known as stone ships suggest that shipping played an important role. and came in existence via trade. 1600 BC). Killaha (c. 1700-500 BC. 500 BC). Middle Bronze Age (1500–1200 BC). 2000 BC). Terramare culture. Ballybeg (c.[51] North Europe Bronze artifacts 80 Assorted Celtic bronze castings dating from the Bronze Age. Ballyvalley (c. There are many mounds and rock carving sites from the period. One of the characteristic types of artifact of the Early Bronze Age in Ireland is the flat axe [50]. The preceding period is known as the Copper Age and is characterised by the production of flat axes.

2800-2200 BC.[55] Later appearance of limited bronze smelting in West Mexico (see Metallurgy in pre-Columbian Mesoamerica) suggests either contact of that region with Andean cultures or separate discovery of the technology. pushing them west and north. whereas. reaching the Cape around AD 200. 81 Americas The Moche civilization of South America independently discovered and developed bronze smelting. traces of the Bell beaker tradition are found in Morocco). 1100 BC) of North Africa and remained attached to the Neolithic way of life. The process was not in a developed state.Category:Self-contradictory articles Iron and copper working then continued to spread southward through the continent. Africa did not develop its own metallurgy until the Phoenician colonization (ca. the Pit Grave culture and the Poltavka culture. ritual and ceremonial artifacts were mainly made of bronze. Outside the Bronze Age Japan The Jōmon period lasted until 500 BC and. Africa Although North Africa was influenced to certain extent by European Bronze Age cultures (for examples. It is a successor to the Yamna culture. ca.[54] Bronze technology was developed further by the Incas and used widely both for utilitarian objects and sculpture. It's seemed more of as an areal term to cover several smaller related archaeological cultures. inhabitants at Termit. The Srubna culture was a Late Bronze Age (18th-12th centuries BC) culture. Iron was mainly used for agricultural and other tools. indication smelting was not foreign. . industrial quantities. driving out and absorbing the rock tool using hunter-gatherer societies they encountered as they expanded to farm wider areas of savannah. It became mature about the 1500 BC. The rock carvings have been dated through comparison with depicted artifacts.[53] Pontic-Caspian steppe The Yamna culture is a late copper age/early Bronze Age culture of the Southern Bug/Dniester/Ural region (the Pontic steppe). became the first iron smelting people in West Africa and among the first in the world around 1500 BC. The bronze and iron using Yayoi people slowly began the two thousand year long ethnic cleansing of the Jōmon people. refers to an early Bronze Age culture occupying essentially what is present-day Ukraine.Bronze Age the Bronze Age. the Japanese experienced the introduction of bronze and iron simultaneously. The civilization of the Ancient Egypt. In the region of the Aïr Mountains in Niger we have the development of independent copper smelting between 3000–2500 BC.[52] This innovation resulted in the circulation of arsenical bronze technology over southern and eastern Europe. producing iron for tools and weapons in large. Caucasus Arsenical bronze artifacts of the Maykop culture in the North Caucasus have been dated around the 4th millennium BC. The name also appears in English as Pit Grave Culture or Ochre Grave Culture. Bronze and iron smelting techniques from the Korean peninsula spread to the Japanese archipelago via the Yayoi invaders from the Korean peninsula. whose influence did not cover the rest of Africa. In Sub-Saharan Africa. The technologically superior Bantu-speakers spread across southern Africa and became wealthy and powerful. after the end of the period. dating to the 36th–23rd centuries BC. in eastern Niger. The widespread use of iron revolutionized the Bantu-speaking farming communities who adopted it. The Catacomb culture. was rather an exception from this rule as regarding the whole range of ancient cultures of Africa.

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com/index.3943) • Roberts. London : Springer. p. New York: Ballantine Books.A. G. Leiden: Sidestone Press. Knopf.ohost. • Müller-Lyer. (2009): Bronze Age volcanic event recorded in stalagmites by combined isotope and trace element studies. Volume 37. Eibner. 23/6. New York: Alfred A.dziejba. A. In: Wagner. Balkans and Western Anatolia .htm) Ancient bronze idol 13 cent B. 2009. John (1994) Fenland survey : an essay in landscape and persistence. [54] El bronce y el horizonte medio (http:/ / www.com) Umha Aois . 331p. ISBN 1-85074-477-7 • Pernicka. p.A. raised using only bronze age tools . org/10.doi.org) • Aegean and Balkan Prehistory (http://www.wmv) Reconstructing the Danish Trundholm Sun Chariot (http://web. G. 2000-800 BC): A research into the preservation of metallurgy related artefacts and the social position of the smith (http://www. (2008).com/ library/bronze-age-metalworking-in-the-netherlands-c2000-800bc).Bronze Age [53] Gimbutas.. (1930). F. C. Troia and the Troad : scientific approaches. George (1983) The hoards of the Irish later Bronze Age. V. Lake.ac.aegeobalkanprehistory. 143–172 • Waddell. htm) 83 References • Figueiredo. • Kuijpers. G.comhem. External links • • • • • • • Web index Bronze Age in Europe (http://bronzeage. Wagener.html) Bronze Age Experimental Archeology and Museum Reproductions (http://www. Öztunah.: (http://galich. C. V.sidestone. Berlin. John (1998) The prehistoric archaeology of Ireland. G." Journal of Archaeological Science.. site-reports and bibliography database concerning the Aegean. Additional reading • Childe. 112-122. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry.Wola Radziszowska (near Cracow) . 801-808. the Metropolitan Museum of Art.C.Reconstructed Bronze Age metal casting (http://www.3943 (http://dx.bronze-age-craft. New York.de/) Ancient tin: old question and a new answer (http://antiquity. ISBN 1-901421-10-4 • Siklosy et al.W. Archaeological report 1. • Kelleher. The history of social development. M. New York: The Macmillan Company.Poland (http://www. Galway University Press. David and Coles. (1921).. H-P.comhem. Ö. org/ blaavirtual/ publicacionesbanrep/ bolmuseo/ 1996/ jldi41/ jldi01a.. H. lablaa.se/vikingbronze/sunchariot.edu/BenjaminRoberts/Papers/340888/Development_of_metallurgy_in_Eurasia). Development of Metallurgy in Eurasia (http:// britishmuseum. B. E. The bronze age. ISBN 0-87099-230-9. 433 p.ancient bronze casting videoclip (http://web. Pernicka. Elin (2010) "Smelting and Recycling Evidences from the Late Bronze Age habitat site of Baioes.C. 170 p. Bronze Age metalworking in the Netherlands (c.se/vikingbronze/umha_aois_06.academia. (2003) "Early Bronze Age Metallurgy in the Northeast Aegean".Europeans 3500-2500 BC. Natural science in archaeology. Dublin : University College. ISBN 0-901120-77-4 • Hall. C. H.. London : English Heritage. (eds). Antiquity 83. ISBN 3-540-43711-8. doi: 10. 1623–1634 • Eogan. and Uerpmann..uk/ProjGall/nezafati et al/index. Bradford (1980).P. Issue 7. Treasures from the Bronze Age of China: An exhibition from the People's Republic of China...net) articles. E.com/) Umha Aois . E..umha-aois. "The Beginning of the Bronze Age in Europe and the Inclo. Lake.1002/rcm.br. Thornton. and Pigott.. C.1002/rcm." Journal of Indo-European Studies 1 (1973): 177.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=248& Itemid=1) Northern Russia (Russian) • Hypothetical reconstruction of a Lusatian culture settlement.

Painted Grey Ware culture || • (1200–600 BCE).uk/server/show/ConWebDoc. 272-232 BC) indicating the gradual onset of historicity. 1000 BCE at Komaranhalli (Karnataka) showed that the smiths of this site could deal with large artifacts. and the states succeeding this period. Tamil Nadu[1] at around 1000 BC.[2][3] which drew attention to the presence of iron in Chalcolithic deposits at Ahar.uk/1/hi/england/ northamptonshire/4330031. 8:15. The North Indian Iron Age can be taken to end with the rise of the Maurya Empire and the appearance of literacy (the edicts of Ashoka. South India simultaneously enters historicity with the Sangam period. Archaeologically. r. succeeds the Late Harappan (Cemetery H) culture. The earliest Iron Age sites in South India are Hallur. 1300–1000 BCE). Pandya Kingdom.bbc.Bronze Age • Downloadable article: " Evidence that a West-East admixed population lived in the Tarim Basin as early as the early Bronze Age (http://www.biomedcentral.english-heritage. . Chera Kingdom. BMC Biology 2010. 5611) Iron Age India • • Outline of South Asian history History of Indian subcontinent Iron Age India.stm) • Moor Sands finds. the cultural landscape of Northern India is transformed with lasting effect with the intrusion of the Indo-Scythians and Indo-Greeks.com/content/pdf/1741-7007-8-15. The development of early Buddhism takes place in the Magadha period (5th to 4th centuries BC). including a remarkably well preserved and complete sword that has parallels with material from the Seine basin of northern France (http://www. Northern Black Polished Ware (700–200 BCE). also known as the last phase of the Indus Valley Tradition. the Iron Age in the Indian subcontinent(South Asia). From the 2nd century BC. Karnataka and Adichanallur. and suggested that “the date of the beginning of iron smelting in India may well be placed as early as the sixteenth century BC” and “by about the early decade of thirteenth century BC iron smelting was definitely known in India on a bigger scale”. up to the medieval Muslim conquests are conventionally grouped as Middle kingdoms of India or Classical India.[4] The North Indian Iron Age can be taken to last roughly form 1200 to 300 BCE.org. South India enters its proto-historical period from about 300 BCE. 84 Seafaring • Divers unearth Bronze Age hoard off the coast of Devon (http://news. Pallava Empire. The main Iron Age archaeological cultures of India are the Painted Grey Ware culture (1100 to 350 BC) and the Northern Black Polished Ware (700 to 200 BC). Chola Empire.pdf)" Li et al. Technical studies on materials dated c. implying that they had already been experimenting for centuries.co. Most of the Vedic period (excepting the earliest phase of the core of the Rigveda) falls within the early part of the Indian Iron Age (12th to 6th centuries BC). this includes the Black and Red ware culture (c. beginning in the 3rd century BC.

edited by R. J. Erdosy. Oxford University Press and American Institute of Pakistan Studies.K. U.L. M.).M. 1991a The Indus Valley Tradition of Pakistan and Western India. M. Material Culture and Ethnicity. Berlin.K. • Chakrabarti. India http:/ / www. 1995a Interaction Systems.Iron Age India 85 References • Kenoyer. • 1999. net/ artifacts/ iron-ore. India An Archaeological History. • 1974. Chicago. By Rakesh Tewari . • Kenoyer. pp. 1985: 228-29 Sahi (1979: 366) The origins of Iron-working in India: New evidence from the Central Ganga Plain and the Eastern Vindhyas. Delhi: Oxford University Press. 1998 Ancient Cities of the Indus Valley Civilization.P. State Archaeological Department. • Kenoyer. J. Mukhopadhyay. The Early Use of Iron in India. 213–257. D. In The Indo-Aryans of Ancient South Asia: Language. Delhi: Oxford University Press Notes [1] [2] [3] [4] http:/ / www. In Chronologies in Old World Archaeology (3rd Edition). The Beginning of Iron in India. G. W. pp. html . Specialized Crafts and Culture Change: The Indus Valley Tradition and the Indo-Gangetic Tradition in South Asia. Antiquity 4: 114-124. in A. University of Chicago Press. J. Karachi. Beginning of Iron in India: Problem Reconsidered. 441–464. • 1992. J. hindu. • Shaffer. In Journal of World Prehistory 5(4): 331-385. Calcutta: Firma K. 1992 The Indus Valley. Ghosh (ed. com/ 2007/ 05/ 25/ stories/ 2007052502532200. • 1976. archaeologyonline. DeGruyter. htm Agrawal et al. Ehrich. edited by G. Baluchistan and Helmand Traditions: Neolithic Through Bronze Age.Director. Perspectives in Palaeoanthropology: 345-356.

Pottery) Starčevo and Vinča culture agriculture. stock-rearing (pigs. West Africa and Sahara (Caliphate) Central Africa. Australia and Oceania. Antarctica.Synoptic table of the principal old world prehistoric cultures 86 Synoptic table of the principal old world prehistoric cultures The synoptic table of the principal old world prehistoric cultures gives a rough picture of the relationships between the various principal cultures of prehistory outside the Americas. Table The Principal prehistoric cultures of the Old World Prehistoric Europe Period & Climate Europe Prehistoric Africa North Africa. stock-rearing. It also serves as an index of the broad features of that prehistory to be followed through links to articles. South and East Africa (Sahelian kingdoms) Mapungubwe Bantu expansion Middle East Prehistoric Asia South Asia. 4700 BC/6700 BP) 7000 BP Mehrgarh[bhirana] haryana . sheep) Bantu expansion Late Bronze Age Early Iron Age development of Indian Iron Age Chinese Bronze Age Neolithic of Tichit Tenerean Middle Bronze Age (Sumer) Indus Valley civilisation writing Chinese Neolithic of Longshan 5000 BP Beginning of the Hunter-gatherer art of South Africa Early Bronze Age Regionalization Era 6000 BP Mediterranean and Egyptian Neolithic Neolithic of the Sahara/Sahel Beginning of Neolithic in East Africa Uruk period Chalcolithic (copper metallurgy) Ubaid period ceramic Cyprus Mehrgarh Neolithic of Yang-Shao rice-growing (?) Hongshan culture of Northeast Asia (c. and Central Asia East Asia and South-East Asia 1000 Before (Middle Ages) Present (BP) 2000 BP Iron Age (Caliphate) (Middle Kingdoms) (Song Dynasty) (Ancient North Africa) Copper Age in Niger (Classical Antiquity) (Iron Age India) (Han Dynasty) 11th century Urnfield culture BC (3000 Bronze Age BP) 4000 BP Bell beaker Chalcolithic corded ware domestication of the horse Yamna culture. enclosed villages first megaliths Chalcolithic of Central Europe Samara culture Lower Neolithic Danubian Neolithic Cardial and Linear Pottery (agriculture. bovine.

000 BP Emirian Jabroudian 50.000 BP latest glacial began (95. Homo sapiens Aurignacian (art) Szeletian (Hungary) Homo neanderthalensis.000 BP Ibero-Maurisian Mushabian Sebilian Lupemban culture Kebarian Bhimbetka rock Athlitian paintings south Asia Beginning of Neolithic religion at Göbekli Tepe (Southeastern Turkey) pre-Jōmon ceramic (Japan) Gravettian (France) Pavlovian Aurignacian (art) Kostienki (western Russia) Châtelperronian Homo neanderthalensis.000 BP glacial ended (130. southern France) Backed point culture (Federmesser) Mezine (Ukraine) Magdalenian Solutrean Epigravettian Hamburg culture Capsian Hoabinhian of Southeast Asia 11. Azilian and Asiloid cultures (northern Spain. barley) Goats domestication Zagros in Iran First towns Near East at Aşıklı Höyük and Jericho hunter gatherers of Jōmon (ancient Japan) 10.000 BP Balangoda Culture[bhimbetka rock paintings] Angara Culture Sen-Doki 40.000 BP Holocene began glacial ended (12.000 BP) 20.000 BP Magosian Natufian Kandivili 12.000 BP Mousterian Homo neanderthalensis Homo neanderthalensis Soanian Ngandong culture 80.000 BP) 100.000 BP) Mousteroid Homo sapiens Ordos culture Homo neanderthalensis Sangoan Homo sapiens Homo neanderthalensis Acheulean Soanian . Homo sapiens Mousterian Homo neanderthalensis Homo neanderthalensis Micoquien (the Netherlands) Upper Acheulean Homo neanderthalensis Mousterian Homo neanderthalensis Homo neanderthalensis Micoquien Fauresmithian Homo sapiens Aterian Stillbay Antelian Aurignacian (art) Sơn Vi culture (northern Vietnam) 30.Synoptic table of the principal old world prehistoric cultures 87 Neolithic with ceramic MehrgarhBhirrana Ubaid period (India) Neolithic of northern China 8000 BP Tardenoisian cultures (gathering of legumes) Neolithic (Greece and the Eastern Mediterranean ) Sesklo and Choirokoitia Sauveterrian cultures Komornica culture Wiltonian 9000 BP Pre-ceramic B Pre-ceramic A Neolithic in Turkey (wheat.000 BP Ahrensburg culture.000 BP) glacial at its coldest (20.

6. New Age. traditional martial arts of India Modern • Hindu views on evolution • Pseudoscientific claims of a prefiguration of modern science in the Vedas. scientific and unscientific. 5.000 BP Homo erectus worked pebbles lower Acheulean Oldowan worked pebbles 2. the six ancient disciplines subservient to the understanding and tradition of the Vedas 1. Chandas (chandas): meter Vyakarana (vyākaraṇa): grammar Nirukta (nirukta): etymology Jyotisha (jyotiṣa): astrology (Hindu astronomy) Kalpa (kalpa): ritual Traditional • • • • Historical Indian mathematics Traditional Hindu units of measurement Ayurveda. proto-scientific.000 BP) 300. France) Lower Acheulean Homo neanderthalensis Pre-Soanian 500. metaphysical.Synoptic table of the principal old world prehistoric cultures 88 Homo neanderthalensis Acheulean 200. 3. occultist. or pseudoscientific found in or based on the Vedas (the oldest holy texts of the Hindu religion. England. 1000 BCE). see scientific foreknowledge in the Vedas • Maharishi Vedic Science of Maharishi Mahesh Yogi • Bharati Krishna Tirtha's Vedic mathematics (not to be confused with historical Indian mathematics) . Homo ergaster bhimbetka findings cupules Vedic science Vedic science may refer to a number of disciplines: ancient and modern. religious. Vedic period • Vedanga.000 BP Homo erectus pekinensis 1. 4.000 BP glacial began (352.000.000. written beginning ca.000 BP Homo neanderthalensis Tayacian (southern France) Homo neanderthalensis Homo sapiens Acheulean middle Acheulean Homo neanderthalensis Clactonian (England) Lower Acheulean Homo heidelbergensis Homo neanderthalensis worked pebbles worked pebbles Homo antecessor (northern Spain. Shiksha (śikṣā): phonetics and phonology (sandhi) 2. traditional medicine of India Dhanurveda. Hindu.000 BP Homo habilis.

. Other traditions. The Yajurveda. This is reconstructed as being derived from the Proto-Indo-European root *u̯eid-.19."to know". fuel. cognate to Greek (ϝ)εἶδος "aspect". 3.Vedas 89 Vedas Part of a series on Vedic scriptures The Vedas (Sanskrit वेदाः véda.[3][4][5] They are supposed to have been directly revealed. the word appears only in a single instance in the Rigveda. notably Buddhism and Jainism. Yajurveda. the term Veda is often used loosely to refer to the Samhitas (collection of mantras. "knowledge") are a large body of texts originating in ancient India.[9][10] In addition to Buddhism and Jainism. the texts constitute the oldest layer of Sanskrit literature and the oldest scriptures of Hinduism.[15] As a noun. containing formulas to be sung by the udgatar or priest that chants."[16] The noun is from Proto-Indo-European *u̯eidos. Root cognates are Greek ἰδέα. or presiding priest. Sikhism[11][] and Brahmoism. skilled in sacrifice.5. Some selected Vedic mantras are still recited at prayers. etc. The fourth is the Atharvaveda. in RV 8. containing formulas to be recited by the adhvaryu or officiating priest. and reverence. 2. The Vedic texts or śruti are organized around four canonical collections of metrical material known as Saṃhitās. Composed in Vedic Sanskrit. which did not regard the Vedas as authorities are referred to by traditional Hindu texts as "heterodox" or "non-orthodox" (nāstika) schools. translated by Griffith as "ritual lore": yáḥ samídhā yá âhutī / yó védena dadâśa márto agnáye / yó námasā svadhvaráḥ "The mortal who hath ministered to Agni with oblation. and thus are called śruti ("what is heard").[1][2] The Vedas are apauruṣeya ("not of human agency"). or chants) of the four canonical Vedas (Rigveda. The Samaveda. Schools of Indian philosophy which cite the Vedas as their scriptural authority are classified as "orthodox" (āstika). cognate to Greek (ϝ)οἶδα (w)oida "I know". of which the first three are related to the performance of yajna (sacrifice) in historical Vedic religion: 1. Latin videō "I see". containing hymns to be recited by the hotar. a collection of spells and incantations. wisdom" is derived from the root vid. Not to be confused is the homonymous 1st and 3rd person singular perfect tense véda. 4. The Rigveda.[14] Etymology and usage The Sanskrit word véda "knowledge. ritual lore. which are called smṛti ("what is remembered"). . apotropaic charms and speculative hymns.[17] In English. English wit. Samaveda and Atharvaveda).[6][7] distinguishing them from other religious texts. The various Indian philosophies and sects have taken differing positions on the Vedas. etc. meaning "see" or "know". Certain South Indian Brahmin communities such as Iyengars consider the Tamil Divya Prabandham or writing of the Alvar saints as equivalent to the Vedas. "form" .[12] many non-Brahmin Hindus in South India [13] do not accept the authority of the Vedas.[8] The individual verses contained in these compilations are known as mantras. religious functions and other auspicious occasions in contemporary Hinduism.

A literary tradition set in only in post-Vedic times.[24] • The Brahmanas are prose texts that discuss. surviving manuscripts rarely surpass an age of a few hundred years. Yajur-Veda. In some contexts. Michael Witzel gives a time span of c. of which 72. dating to c. Any text considered as "connected to the Vedas" or a "corollary of the Vedas"[23] Vedic Sanskrit corpus The corpus of Vedic Sanskrit texts includes: • The Samhita (Sanskrit saṃhitā. in agada-veda "medical science". It is frequently read in secondary literature.[18] 90 Chronology The Vedas are among the oldest sacred texts. 1500 BCE to c. Witzel makes special reference to the Near Eastern Mitanni material of the 14th century BCE the only epigraphic record of Indo-Aryan contemporary to the Rigvedic period. the 12th to 10th centuries BCE.g. and the "circum-Vedic" texts. They may also include the Aranyakas and Upanishads. the solemn sacrificial rituals as well as comment on their meaning and many connected themes. 500-400 BCE. and 1200 BCE (the early Iron Age) as terminus post quem for the Atharvaveda. date to c. The Samhitas date to roughly 1500–1000 BCE. most of which are available in several recensions (śākhā). or the Late Bronze Age and the Iron Age. He gives 150 BCE (Patañjali) as a terminus ante quem for all Vedic Sanskrit literature. preserved with precision with the help of elaborate mnemonic techniques. There are four "Vedic" Samhitas: the Rig-Veda. however. are collections of metric texts ("mantras"). which were probably essentially complete by 1200 BCE. were composed by people who meditated in the woods as recluses and are the third part of the Vedas.Vedas The Sanskrit term veda as a common noun means "knowledge". spanning the mid 2nd to mid 1st millennium BCE. Sama-Veda. but can also be used to refer to fields of study unrelated to liturgy or ritual. "collection"). 1000 CE. • The Aranyakas. however oral tradition predominated until c. and Atharva-Veda. perhaps earliest in the Kanva recension of the Yajurveda about the 1st century BCE.000 padas (metric feet). and reaches its end in the age of Buddha and Panini and the rise of the Mahajanapadas (archaeologically. e. 1000-500 BCE. the term Veda is used to refer to these Samhitas. "wilderness texts" or "forest treaties". resulting in a Vedic period. with the establishment of the various shakhas all over Northern India which annotated the mantra samhitas with Brahmana discussions of their meaning.[20] Transmission of texts in the Vedic period was by oral tradition alone. Texts composed in Vedic Sanskrit during the Vedic period (Iron Age India) 2. there are a number of older Veda manuscripts in Nepal belonging to the Vajasaneyi tradition that are dated from the 11th century onwards. . Categories of Vedic texts The term "Vedic texts" is used in two distinct meanings: 1.000 occur in the four Samhitas. in technical fashion. durveda means "with evil knowledge. after the rise of Buddhism in the Maurya period. Each of the Brahmanas is associated with one of the Samhitas or its recensions. The texts contain discussions and interpretations of dangerous rituals (to be studied outside the settlement) and various sorts of additional materials. Northern Black Polished Ware). The Brahmanas may either form separate texts or can be partly integrated into the text of the Samhitas.[19] The Vedic period reaches its peak only after the composition of the mantra texts. This is the oldest layer of Vedic texts. as well as the redaction of the Samhitas.[22] The Benares Sanskrit University has a Rigveda manuscript of the mid-14th century. apart from the Rigvedic hymns. The complete corpus of Vedic mantras as collected in Bloomfield's Vedic Concordance (1907) consists of some 89.[21] Due to the ephemeral nature of the manuscript material (birch bark or palm leaves). sasya-veda "science of agriculture" or sarpa-veda "science of snakes" (already found in the early Upanishads). ignorant".

it is still widely used. it is advisable to stick to the division adopted by Max Müller because it follows the Indian tradition. and published in five volumes in 1935-1965.. Taken together. 6th century BCE) marks the end of the Vedic period. The Brahmanas. Upanişads ."[25] The Upanishads are largely philosophical works in dialog form. while it is subject to some debate.. there are various dialects and locally prominent traditions of the Vedic schools. 91 Shruti literature The texts considered "Vedic" in the sense of "corollaries of the Vedas" is less clearly defined. . divinely revealed like the Vedas themselves. Aranyakas. the Shrautasutras and the Grhyasutras..Vedas • Some of the older Mukhya Upanishads (Bṛhadāraṇyaka. and Upanishads often interpret the polytheistic and ritualistic Samhitas in philosophical and metaphorical ways to explore abstract concepts such as the Absolute (Brahman). are late Vedic in language and content. they are the basis of the Vedanta school. extending to about 1800 pages. are sometimes not to be distinguished from Āraṇyakas. Texts not considered to be shruti are known as smriti (Sanskrit: smṛti. and may include numerous post-Vedic texts such as Upanishads or Sutra literature. The Vedic Sanskrit corpus is the scope of A Vedic Word Concordance (Vaidika-Padānukrama-Koṣa) prepared from 1930 under Vishva Bandhu. most of the 108 Upanishads of the full Muktika canon date to the Common Era. conveys the historical sequence fairly accurately. introducing Vedanta philosophy. there is a large number of Upanishads composed after the end of the Vedic period. While most of the ten Mukhya Upanishads can be considered to date to the Vedic or Mahajanapada period. regarded as belonging to the smriti. and are thus known as Vedānta ("the end of the Vedas"). translations. Its scope extends to about 400 texts. This indigenous system of categorization was adopted by Max Müller and. As Axel Michaels explains: These classifications are often not tenable for linguistic and formal reasons: There is not only one collection at any one time..[25][26] • Certain Sūtra literature. and at the same time the beginning of the flourishing of the "circum-Vedic" scholarship of Vedanga. For long. was published in 1973-1976. one of the major trends of later Hinduism. they have been regarded as their putative end and essence. Brāhmaṇas contain older strata of language attributed to the Saṃhitās. Nevertheless. of human origin. including the entire Vedic Sanskrit corpus besides some "sub-Vedic" texts. i. They discuss questions of nature philosophy and the fate of the soul. and the soul or the self (Atman). These texts are by many Hindu sects considered to be shruti (Sanskrit: śruti.[26][27] The composition of the Shrauta and Grhya Sutras (c.e. introducing the early flowering of classical Sanskrit literature in the Mauryan and Gupta periods. While production of Brahmanas and Aranyakas ceases with the end of the Vedic period. The Shrauta Sutras. Volume I: Samhitas Volume II: Brahmanas and Aranyakas Volume III: Upanishads Volume IV: Vedangas A revised edition. Chandogya. "the remembered"). and contain some mystic and spiritual interpretations of the Vedas. but rather several handed down in separate Vedic schools. thus forming part of the Vedic Sanskrit corpus. "the heard"). Kaṭha).. and underlies the current editions. and monographs on Vedic literature.

early 19th century .[28] Multiple recensions are known for each of the Vedas. then repeated in the reverse order. is testified to by the preservation of the most ancient Indian religious text. the Rigveda.[] Four Vedas Rigveda (padapatha) manuscript in Devanagari. Elaborate methods for preserving the text were based on memorizing by heart instead of writing. as redacted into a single text during the Brahmana period.[] That these methods have been effective. without any variant readings. (See also: Vedic chant) Prodigous energy was expended by ancient Indian culture in ensuring that these texts were transmitted from generation to generation with inordinate fidelity. and finally repeated again in the original order. memorization of the sacred Vedas included up to eleven forms of recitation of the same text. literally "branch" or "limb") each of which specialized in learning certain texts. and each Vedic text may have a number of schools associated with it. Forms of recitation included the jaṭā-pāṭha (literally "mesh recitation") in which every two adjacent words in the text were first recited in their original order. The texts were subsequently "proof-read" by comparing the different recited versions.Vedas 92 Vedic schools or recensions Study of the extensive body of Vedic texts has been organized into a number of different schools or branches (Sanskrit śākhā.[29] For example. Specific techniques for parsing and reciting the texts were used to assist in the memorization process.

Its recitation also produces long life. 3. giving discussions and directions for the detail of the ceremonies at which the Mantras were to be used and explanations of the legends connected with the Mantras and rituals. and intended for singing at the Soma ceremonies. next to their own independent Yajus. 4. and chanting (SV). "the triple sacred science" of reciting hymns (RV). 2. Each of the four Vedas seems to have passed to numerous Shakhas or schools. calling them trayam-brahma-sanātanam. They each have an Index or Anukramani. . it contains very old materials in early Vedic language. which are verses of praise in metre. The Yajurveda. probably due to its use in sorcery and healing. performing sacrifices (YV). the Mantras are properly of three forms: 1. However. sorcery and speculative mantras. VS) Samaveda (SV) Atharvaveda (AV) Of these. Thus.[33][34] This triplicity is so introduced in the Brahmanas (ShB. that is. 3. which often speaks of the three Vedas. The Atharvaveda like the Rigveda.. The Atharvaveda is the fourth Veda. which are in metre. ABr and others). also called "trayī vidyā". Each of the four Vedas consists of the metrical Mantra or Samhita and the prose Brahmana part. 2. and intended for loud recitation. Ric. It has no direct relation to the solemn Śrauta sacrifices. Rigveda (RV) Yajurveda (YV. Yajus. is a collection of original incantations. "the triple eternal Veda". and other materials borrowing relatively little from the Rigveda. Both these portions are termed shruti (which tradition says to have been heard but not composed or written down by men). Manusmrti. except for the fact that the mostly silent Brahmán priest observes the procedures and uses Atharvaveda mantras to 'heal' it when mistakes have been made. or effects the ruin of enemies. and intended for recitation in lower voice at sacrifices.[32] 1. Its status has occasionally been ambiguous. giving rise to various recensions of the text. Sāman. Samaveda and Atharvaveda are independent collections of mantras and hymns intended as manuals for the Adhvaryu. which are in prose. Udgatr and Brahman priests respectively. the principal work of this kind being the general Index or Sarvānukramaṇī. but the Rigveda is the older work of the three from which the other two borrow. with the main division TS vs. cures diseases. the first three were the principal original division.Vedas 93 Part of a series on Hindu scriptures Vedas and their Shakhas Hinduism portal The canonical division of the Vedas is fourfold (turīya) viz.

the Atharvanaveda has less connection with sacrifice. known as the "Black" (Krishna) and "White" (Shukla) Yajurveda (Krishna and Shukla Yajurveda respectively).[35] It is a collection of 1. which exists in a Kashmir and an Orissa version. concerned with protection against demons and disaster.[44] and some parts of the Atharva-Veda are older than the Rig-Veda[43] though not in linguistic form.[45] The Paippalada text.028 Vedic Sanskrit hymns and 10. in that each mantra must accompany an action in sacrifice but. and about 160 of the hymns are in common with the Rigveda. is longer than the Saunaka one. spells for the healing of diseases. deriving from the Proto-Indo-Iranian times. for long life and for various desires or aims in life.[49] The Atharvaveda is a comparatively late extension of the "Three Vedas" connected to priestly sacrifice to a canon of "Four Vedas".600 verses in all. organized into ten books (Sanskrit: mandalas). commonly dated to the period of roughly the second half of the 2nd millennium BCE (the early Vedic period) in the Punjab (Sapta Sindhu) region of the Indian subcontinent. but some sections are in prose.[42] Two major recensions remain today. as the repertoire of the udgātṛ or "singer" priests who took part in the sacrifice. the e Black Yajurveda intersperses the Samhita with Brahmana commentary.[43] Most of the verses are metrical. the term for a melody applied to metrical hymn or song of praise[41]) consists of 1549 stanzas. While White Yajurveda separates the Samhita from its Brahmana (the Shatapatha Brahmana). there are a total of 1875 verses numbered in the Samaveda recension translated by Griffith. Some of the Rigvedic verses are repeated more than once. Samaveda The Samaveda Samhita (from sāman. Of the Black Yajurveda four major recensions survive (Maitrayani.[40] Yajurveda The Yajurveda Samhita consists of archaic prose mantras and also in part of verses borrowed and adapted from the Rigveda.[43][48] The second part of the text contains speculative and philosophical hymns. Katha.[36] The hymns are dedicated to Rigvedic deities. Atharvaveda The Artharvaveda Samhita is the text 'belonging to the Atharvan and Angirasa poets.[43] It was compiled around 900 BCE. the Kauthuma/Ranayaniya and the Jaiminiya. taken almost entirely (except for 78 stanzas) from the Rigveda. It has 760 hymns. the Samans have been changed and adapted for use in singing.[25] Like the Rigvedic stanzas in the Yajurveda. There are two major groups of recensions of this Veda. it was compiled to apply to all sacrificial rites.[43] According to Apte it had nine schools (shakhas). often associated with the Andronovo culture.Vedas 94 Rigveda The Rigveda Samhita is the oldest extant Indic text.[50] . Including repetitions. Unlike the other three Vedas. Taittiriya). the earliest horse-drawn chariots were found at Andronovo sites in the Sintashta-Petrovka cultural area near the Ural Mountains and date to c.[39] Rigveda manuscripts have been selected for inscription in UNESCO's "Memory of the World" Register 2007. 2000 BCE. Kapisthala-Katha. This may be connected to an extension of the sacrificial rite from involving three types of priest to the inclusion of the Brahman overseeing the ritual. although some of its material may go back to the time of the Rigveda. not merely the Somayajna.[37] The books were composed by poets from different priestly groups over a period of several centuries. the Paippalāda and Śaunaka. unlike the Samaveda. it is only partially printed in its two versions and remains largely untranslated. The Atharvaveda is preserved in two recensions.[46][47] Its first part consists chiefly of spells and incantations. Its purpose was practical.[38] There are strong linguistic and cultural similarities between the Rigveda and the early Iranian Avesta. Its purpose was liturgical.

compared to them.6).2).5. all beings are in the triple Veda"). which all Vedas declare.2.4. The Upanishads reduce the "essence of the Vedas" further.3. human knowledge is like mere handfuls of dirt (TB 3. I will tell you briefly it is Aum" (1.1.5. which all austerities aim at. The six subjects of Vedanga are: • • • • • • Phonetics (Śikṣā) Ritual (Kalpa) Grammar (Vyākaraṇa) Etymology (Nirukta) Meter (Chandas) Astronomy (Jyotiṣa) .2. 10. The association of the three Vedas with the bhūr bhuvaḥ svaḥ mantra is found in the Aitareya Aranyaka: "Bhūḥ is the Rigveda. Vāc "speech" is called the "mother of the Vedas" (ŚBM 6.5. 95 Brahmanas The mystical notions surrounding the concept of the one "Veda" that would flower in Vedantic philosophy have their roots already in Brahmana literature.3-5). for example in the Shatapatha Brahmana. and which humans desire when they live a life of continence.2. Vedanta renounced all ritualism and radically re-interpreted the notion of "Veda" in purely philosophical terms. bhuvaḥ is the Yajurveda."[51] These subjects are treated in Sūtra literature dating from the end of the Vedic period to Mauryan times.11.3. The knowledge of the Vedas is endless.4.8. svaḥ is the Samaveda" (1.4. The Vedas are identified with Brahman. Apte defines this group of works as: "N. in particular circumstances and similarly this point is a departure from the three other vedas. The universe itself was originally encapsulated in the three Vedas (ŚBM 10. Atharvaveda also sanctions the use of force. to the syllable Aum (ॐ).22 has Prajapati reflecting that "truly.Vedas The Atharvaveda is concerned with the material world or world of man and in this respect differs from the other three vedas. Thus. S.1. seeing the transition from late Vedic Sanskrit to Classical Sanskrit. the universal principle (ŚBM 10. Vedanta While contemporary traditions continued to maintain Vedic ritualism (Śrauta.15) In post-Vedic literature Vedanga Six technical subjects related to the Vedas are traditionally known as vedāṅga "limbs of the Veda". the Katha Upanishad has: "The goal.1). V. of a certain class of works regarded as auxiliary to the Vedas and designed to aid in the correct pronunciation and interpretation of the text and the right employment of the Mantras in ceremonials. Mimamsa). 10.10.

[citation needed] Buddhism Buddhism does not deny that the Vedas in their true origin were sacred although have been amended repeatedly by certain Brahmins to secure their positions in society. Bhâradvâjo. Buddhist and Jain views Buddhism and Jainism do not reject the Vedas. who by severe penances had acquired the power to see by divine eyes. was divided into three or four parts. with 113 and 95 verses respectively. dealing mainly with details of ritual and elaborations of the texts logically and chronologically prior to them: the Samhitas. in varying accounts.18.14. and further fragmented into numerous shakhas. only the literature associated with the Atharvaveda is extensive. 3. associated with the Atharvaveda But Sushruta and Bhavaprakasha mention Ayurveda as an upaveda of the Atharvaveda.245)[59] section the Buddha names these rishis. and Bhagu"[60] but that it was altered by a few Brahmins who introduced animal sacrifices. Vessâmitto. at the urging of Brahma. associated with the Samaveda Military science (Shastrashastra). in the Dvapara Yuga. Brahmanas. there are 79 works. The Bhagavata Purana (12. the Vayu Purana (section 60) recounts a similar division by Vyasa.37) traces the origin of the primeval Veda to the syllable aum. The Buddha declared that the Veda in its true form was declared by Kashyapa to certain rishis. because men had declined in age. • The Āśvalāyana Gṛhya Pariśiṣṭa is a very late text associated with the Rigveda canon. Shilpa Shastras (arts and crafts) are mentioned as fourth upaveda according to later sources.6. and declared that the original Veda the Vedic rishis "Atthako. appendix" is the term applied to various ancillary works of Vedic literature.088) also mentions the division of the Veda into three in Treta Yuga.[54] Puranic tradition also postulates a single original Veda that. Vâsettho. • The Kātiya Pariśiṣṭas. consist of 18 works enumerated self-referentially in the fifth of the series (the Caraṇavyūha)and the Kātyāyana Śrauta Sūtra Pariśiṣṭa. The .43) attributes the division of the primeval veda (aum) into three parts to the monarch Pururavas at the beginning of Treta Yuga. The Charanavyuha mentions four Upavedas: • • • • Medicine (Āyurveda). Aranyakas and Sutras. According to the Vishnu Purana (3.[56][57] Lists of what subjects are included in this class differ among sources.3. Vâmako. ascribed to Kātyāyana. Vâmadevo. • The Kṛṣṇa Yajurveda has 3 parisistas The Āpastamba Hautra Pariśiṣṭa. The Mahabharata (santiparva 13. Sthapatyaveda (architecture).2. virtue and understanding. Parisista works exist for each of the four Vedas. Angiraso. However.[52] Puranas A traditional view given in the Vishnu Purana (likely dating to the Gupta period[53]) attributes the current arrangement of four Vedas to the mythical sage Vedavyasa. Yamataggi. collected as 72 distinctly named parisistas. the Vārāha Śrauta Sūtra Pariśiṣṭa • For the Atharvaveda. • The Gobhila Gṛhya Pariśiṣṭa is a short metrical text of two chapters.[58] In the Buddhist Vinaya Pitaka of the Mahavagga (I. In a differing account Bhagavata Purana (9. which is also found as the second praśna of the Satyasāḍha Śrauta Sūtra'. associated with the Rigveda Archery (Dhanurveda). by Lord Vishnu in the form of Vyasa.) the original Veda was divided into four parts.Vedas 96 Parisista Pariśiṣṭa "supplement.4 etc. associated with the Yajurveda Music and sacred dance (Gāndharvaveda). Naturally classified with the Veda to which each pertains. but merely their absolute authority. and says that it was divided into four at the start of Dvapara Yuga. Kassapo.[55] Upaveda The term upaveda ("applied knowledge") is used in traditional literature to designate the subjects of certain technical works.

as those in the more ancient times?" The Buddha replied. for whom no joy exists in the world. practice the same rites. regarding them as friends and relatives. without obstruction . whose spirit is humble..Their riches and possessions consisted in the study of the Veda and their treasure was a life free from all evil. men who had subdued all passion by the keeping of the sila precepts and the leading of a pure life. Further. "No. seats. are declared in the Vedic mantras.[64] the Buddha declares: The one who annihilates the sins in himself. The Buddha replied: "There were formerly rishis. but they procured useful medicaments from the cows. Other Buddhas too were said to have been born as Brahmins that were trained in the Vedas.. The animals that were given they did not kill." The elderly Brahmins asked the Buddha that if it were not inconvenient for him. that he would tell them of the Brahmana Dharma of the previous generation. "Do the present Brahmans follow the same rules.[67] Jainism A Jain sage intereprets the Vedic sacrifices as metaphorical: "Body is the altar.[61] Also in the "Brahmana Dhammika Sutta" (II. clothes.: that one is lawfully called a brahman.."[68] Further.[69] Jain are in conformity with the Vedas in reference to both the Vedas' and Jainism' acceptance of the 22 Tirthankaras: Of Rishabha (1st Tirthankara Rishabha) is written: "But Risabha went on. unperturbed by anything till he became sin-free like a conch that takes no black dot.... and oil.7)[62] of the Suttanipata section of Vinaya Pitaka[63] there is a story of when the Buddha was in Jetavana village and there were a group of elderly Brahmin ascetics who sat down next to the Buddha and a conversation began.166) Of Aristanemi (Tirthankara Neminatha) is written: 97 ." So in this passage also the Buddha describes when the Brahmins were studying the Veda but the animal sacrifice customs had not yet began. Jain Sage Jinabhadra in his Visesavasyakabhasya cites a number of passages from the Vedic Upanishads.. In the Mahavagga. The Mahasupina Jataka[65] and Lohakumbhi Jataka[66] declares that Brahmin Sariputra in a previous life was a Brahmin that prevented animal sacrifice by declaring that animal sacrifice was actually against the Vedas. The elderly Brahmins asked him. for a time. beauty and health. which is the epithet of the First World-teacher.Vedas Vinaya Pitaka's section Anguttara Nikaya: Panchaka Nipata says that it was on this alteration of the true Veda that the Buddha refused to pay respect to the Vedas of his time. though they did not ask for them. whose products give strength. continued to do right and received in alms rice. who is passionless.. may become the destroyer of enemies" (Rig Veda X. the Suttanipata 1000 declares that 32 mahapurusha lakshana (auspicious symbols of the Buddha) that Buddhism uses. The Buddha was declared to have been born a Brahmin trained in the Vedas and its philosophies in a number of his previous lives according to Buddhist scriptures. who is not proud. mind is the fire blazing with the ghee of knowledge and burning the sacrificial sticks of impurities produced from the tree of karma.The Brahmans.. who has comprehended the Vedas and is chaste.

Of the remaining. Sanskrit literature (2003) in Philip's Encyclopedia. and 16. . "Buddhism: Critical Concepts in Religious Studies. Gonda. Michael. [26] Witzel.'" R. Michael. H.b. [27] For a table of all Vedic texts see Witzel. the teacher of the Veda. ancient. Michael. ed. Rig Veda) 98 "Fifth" and other Vedas Some post-Vedic texts. Pokorny's 1959 Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch s. '². "Vedas and ". Joshi 1994. [5] Apte. Michael. Varga 7. Upanishads or Sutras [25] . . M. "Hindus themselves often use the term to describe anything connected to the Vedas and their corollaries (e. Rix' Lexikon der indogermanischen Verben. Hindu Sacred Texts (http:/ / hinduism. in: [21] For the possibility of written texts during the 1st century BCE see: Witzel. [16] K. [12] "Eclecticism and Modern Hindu Discourse. htm). specifically the Upanishads.v.857 appear in the other three Samhitas. [28] [30] [31] [32] . [18] Monier-Williams (1899) [19] Gavin Flood sums up mainstream estimates.[72] Ralph T. "Vedas and ". in: . in: .575 are Rigvedic. published 1889 to 1899. . The Bhakti movement. Der Rig-Veda. The importance of Vedic Sanskrit for Indo-European studies was also recognized in the early 19th century. 1977 [10] "The brahmin by caste alone. English translations of the Samhitas were published in the later 19th century. Gombrich in Paul Williams. Cambridge 1951 [17] see e." Taylor and Francis 2006. 34. Accessed 2007-08-09 [2] Sanujit Ghose (2011). [20] Witzel. com/ article/ 230/ )" in Ancient History Encyclopedia. pp.g. Arthur Schopenhauer drew attention to Vedic texts. in: . Harvard Oriental Series 33-37. Nair 2008. The Atharvaveda and the Gopatha-Brahmana.405 are known only from Brahmanas. including the Mahabharata. "Vedas and ".1. Brahmins who have memorized the three Vedas (tevijja) really know nothing: it is the process of achieving Enlightenment — what the Buddha is said to have achieved in the three watches of that night — which constitutes the true 'three knowledges. 84-227. OUP 1999" [13] The Dravidian Movement by Gail Omvedt [14] The Vernacular Veda by Vasudha Narayanan [15] . has "not of the authorship of man.[70] The earliest reference to such a "fifth Veda" is found in the Chandogya Upanishad. pp. Michael. Vedic culture)". com/ tradition/ 1105.[71] Western Indology The study of Sanskrit in the West began in the 17th century. iskcon. page 120. according to which the Rigveda was compiled from as early as 1500 BCE over a period of several centuries. "Dravida Veda" is a term for canonical Tamil Bhakti texts. see: . I. Witzel. Wiesbaden 1975. '.2 The Ritual Sutras. pp.F. in: .Vedas "So asmakam Aristanemi svaha Arhan vibharsi sayakani dhanvarhanistam yajatam visvarupam arhannidam dayase" (Astak 2.F. " Religious Developments in Ancient India (http:/ / www. (Grundriss der Indo-Arischen Philologie und Altertumskunde II. Geldner. eu.g. in: . In the early 19th century.g. J.[citation needed] Other texts such as the Bhagavad Gita or the Vedanta Sutras are considered shruti or "Vedic" by some Hindu denominations but not universally within Hinduism.) Strassburg 1899. "Vedas and ". Notes [1] see e. Witzel. the Natyasastra and certain Puranas. in the Sacred Books of the East series edited by Müller between 1879 and 1910. Michael.1 Vedic literature (Samhitas and Brahmanas). [24] 37. A history of Indian literature: I. and Gaudiya Vaishnavism in particular extended the term veda to include the Sanskrit Epics and Vaishnavite devotional texts such as the Pancaratra. of divine origin" [8] Bloomfield.. 109f. Griffith also presented English translations of the four Samhitas. 91-93. refer to themselves as the "fifth Veda". is (jokingly) etymologized as the 'non-meditator' (ajjhāyaka). "Vedas and ". "Vedas and ". Brian Hatcher. [23] according to ISKCON. For oral composition and oral transmission for "many hundreds of years" before being written down.

Vaman Shivram (1965). compared with history and science By Robert Spence Hardy [62] P. with an introductory essay on its form and character By Ivan Pavlovich Minaev [65] P. ISBN 81-215-0607-7 [53] dates it to the 4th century CE. to Prāna. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. [49] "The latest of the four Vedas. and so on. Hinduism: Past and Present. [48] . see numbering given in Ralph T. Burjor (2007). Indra. Rashtriya Veda Vidya Pratishthan. 491-99. ISBN 81-208-0567-4. Pāli grammar: a phonetic and morphological sketch of the Pāli language. [50] "There were originally only three priests associated with the first three . 245 The Vinaya piṭakaṃ: one of the principle Buddhist holy scriptures . Soma. Princeton University Press. Veda and Torah. see: . htm [41] . the 'Word'. etc. Ch IV.600 verses and division into ten mandalas. ISBN 0-312-29309-7. M. is. Gavin. in: . 45-46 The legends and theories of the Buddhists. Barbara A. pdf)" in [35] see e. B. xxx. [38] see e. 2010). India: The Ancient Past. ISBN 978-0-415-35616-9 • Flood. [58] P.". com/ od/ scripturesepics/ a/ rigveda. The essential Max Müller: on language. [40] http:/ / hinduism. people. as being of equal standing with the other texts. SUNY Press. mythology. (author. 1840. 121 The Buddha Image: Its Origin and Development By Yuvraj Krishan [68] P. au/ books?id=Q96EsUCVlLsC& printsec=frontcover& dq=Max+ Müller& ei=SRjkS6LcI4TulQSj6InGCQ& cd=3#v=onepage& q& f=false) (accessed: Friday May 7. Friedrich Max (author) & Stone. Michael Witzel gives 1450-1350 BCE as terminus ad quem. ISBN 0-691-08953-1 . Varuna. ibiblio. . (1995). translation by Horace Hayman Wilson.. http:/ / www. Source: (http:/ / books. which had been somewhat distinct from the other and identified with the lower social strata. [45] .. Volume 2 by Moriz Winternitz [63] P. the 'Breath of Life'. com. Kessinger Publishing. Volume 1 edited by Hermann Oldenberg [61] P.hymns to Skambha. Repetitions may be found by consulting the cross-index in Griffith pp. (http:/ / www. ISBN 0-7914-1639-9 • MacDonell. [46] . compared with history and science By Robert Spence Hardy [64] P. Max Müller gave 1700–1100 BCE.44 99 References • Apte. [37] For characterization of content and mentions of deities including Agni.Vedas [34] Witzel. The Blackwell Companion to Hinduism. MA: Blackwell. [42] For 1875 total verses. H. Palgrave Macmillan. editor) (2002). html) Accessed 5 April 2007.g. harvard. 494 The Pali-English dictionary By Thomas William Rhys Davids. 94 A history of Indian literature. 1993. as we have seen. to Vāc. 92 Studies in Jain literature by Vaman Mahadeo Kulkarni. see: . (2003).. The Practical Sanskrit Dictionary (4th revised & enlarged ed. Malalasekera [66] P." . • Avari. Griffith's introduction mentions the recension history for his text. London: Routledge. [47] Witzel. ISBN 978-0-312-29309-3. sacred-texts. . for the Brahman as overseer of the rites does not appear in the ' and is only incorporated later. Gavin (1996). " The Development of the Vedic Canon and its Schools : The Social and Political Milieu (http:/ / www. [54] Vishnu Purana. New Delhi. but here and there we find cosmological hymns which anticipate the Upanishads. ISBN 0-521-43878-0 • Flood. com/ hin/ vp/ vp078. -. 177 The sacred books of the Buddhists compared with history and modern science By Robert Spence Hardy [59] P. ISBN 1-4179-0619-7 • Michaels. 44 The legends and theories of the Buddhists. Arthur Anthony (2004). Jon R.P. "Vedas and ". and religion. Surya. Axel (2004). edu/ ~witzel/ canon. Śreshṭhī Kastūrabhāī Lālabhāī Smāraka Nidhi [72] Müller. Michael. [52] BR Modak. 30 The Jataka or Stories of the Buddha's Former Births By E. ed. org/ sripedia/ ebooks/ mw/ 0200/ mw__0240. Śreshṭhī Kastūrabhāī Lālabhāī Smāraka Nidhi [69] P. Griffith. google. William Stede [60] P. Cambridge University Press. [43] . ISBN 1-4051-3251-5 • Holdrege. about.028 hymns and 10. An Introduction to Hinduism. Cowell [67] P.g. who is seen as the first principle which is both the material and efficient cause of the universe. [57] . the Atharva-Veda. 577 Dictionary of Pali Proper Names: Pali-English By G. largely composed of magical texts and charms.. htm [56] . Malden. thereby showing the acceptance of the Atharva Veda. [36] For 1. [51] . Illustrated edition. 93 Studies in Jain literature by Vaman Mahadeo Kulkarni. A History of Sanskrit Literature.). the 'Support'. The Ancillary Literature of the Atharva-Veda. fas. [44] . p.

103-125. A. Santucci. Max (1891). • S.com/?id=J8Zo_rtoWAEC).uni-goettingen. History of Religions. Hoshiarpur. Princeton University Press. Hindu Scriptures. ISBN 978-3-447-01603-2. Original Sanskrit Texts on the Origin and Progress of the Religion and Institutions of India (http://books. "The Religious Authority of the Mahabharata: Vyasa and Brahma in the Hindu Scriptural Tradition". Nataraj Books. S. Arlo and Houben.com/hinduism/vedas/) Vedas and Upanishads Complete set (http://www. (2004).sacred-texts.).). C. John (1861). • Smith. ISBN 1-881338-58-4. London: Everyman's Library 100 Literature Overviews • J. Monier.org/veda.Kireet Joshi (http://www.com/hin/index. M. Chips from a German Workshop (http://books. • Muir.377 (http://dx. Harvard Oriental Series. Pranava Prakashan (1977). Michael (ed.google. B. Bhaskaran Nair (eds. Groningen Oriental Studies 20. Sama.html) Glimpses of Vedic Literature .kireetjoshiarchives. • Sullivan.gayathrimanthra. Monier-Williams Sanskrit Dictionary. Gonda. 1963–1965. • Radhakrishnan. Scribner's sons. Cambridge: Harvard University Press • Zaehner. Vedic Literature: Saṃhitās and Brāhmaṇas. 2. Jan E. Opera Minora vol. Veda and Upanishads (1975).doi. A Vedic Concordance (1907) • Vishva Bandhu. • Witzel. M. New Approaches to the Study of the Vedas.comparative-religion. Groningen : Forsten. R.htm#vedas) Vedas: Rig.com/indian_culture/ glimpses_vedic/) . Bloomfield.com/?id=_VCXTBk-PtoC).google.2. Bhim Dev. ed. Yajur. A History of Indian literature. A Sourcebook in Indian Philosophy (12th Princeton Paperback ed.Vedas • Monier-Williams. • J. Concordances • M. The Vedas : texts. A Comprehensive History of Vedic Literature — Brahmana and Aranyaka Works. Leiden 2002. doi: 10.org/10.2. External links • • • • • • Veda In Hindi & Sanskrit (http://www. An Outline of Vedic Literature (1976).htm#Veda) The Vedas at sacred-texts. Sarvepalli. Moore. The University of Chicago Press (1992)..1093/jaarel/LXII.) (1997). Brian K.. ISBN 90-6980-149-3. New York: C.).1093/jaarel/LXII. Inside the Texts.com (http://www. Journal of the American Academy of Religion 62 (1): 377–401. Charles A. (2006). Vaidika-Padānukrama-Koṣa: A Vedic Word-Concordance.htm) GRETIL etexts (http://www.de/ebene_1/fiindolo/gretil. Beyond the Texts. 1. (1966).377).sub. and Atharva (http://www. Conference proceedings • Griffiths. language & ritual: proceedings of the Third International Vedic Workshop. ISBN 0-691-01958-4. revised edition 1973-1976. (1957). (eds. eds. Vol.com/Library. Canonical Authority and Social Classification: Veda and "Varṇa" in Ancient Indian Texts-.aryasamajjamnagar. (Summer 1994). Williams and Norgate • Müller. Vishveshvaranand Vedic Research Institute. Shrava.

Origins Part of a series on Indo-European topics Indo-European studies The first people to have settled in India during Paleolithic times appear to have been an Australoid group who may have been closely related to Aboriginal Australians. with Sikh. (2003) indicates that: "(1) there is an underlying unity of female lineages in India. some non-religious atheist/agnostic and Christians Related ethnic groups Other Indian people · Bangladeshis · Sri Lankans · Nepalis · Maldivians · Pakistanis · Dravidian peoples  · Europeans · Romani people · Iranians · Nuristanis · Dard people · Dom people · Lom people · Indo-Iranians Indo-Aryan or Indic peoples are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group referring to the wide collection of peoples united as native speakers of the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-Iranian family of Indo-European languages. Today. most of them native to South Asia. Buddhist and Jain minorities) and Islam.000 Languages Indo-Aryan languages Religion Indian religions (Mostly Hindu.[4] From a genetic anthropological point of view.21 billion Regions with significant populations  India  Pakistan 856 mil [1] Over 164 mil [2]  Bangladesh Over 150 mil [3]  Nepal  Sri Lanka  Maldives Over 26 mil Over 14 mil Over 300. there are over one billion native speakers of Indo-Aryan languages.Indo-Aryan peoples 101 Indo-Aryan peoples Indo-Aryan peoples Total population approximately 1. indicating that the . where they form the majority. the research of Basu et al.

the deities Mitra. Kikkuli's horse training text (circa 1400 BCE) includes technical terms such as aika (eka. five). (8) the upper castes show closer genetic affinities with Central Asian populations. Therefore he prefers to derive the Indo-Aryans from the intermediate stage of the Bactria–Margiana Archaeological Complex (BMAC) culture. supporting the hypothesis that they may have shared a common habitat in southern China. In a treaty between the Hittites and the Mitanni (between Suppiluliuma and Matiwaza. . (2) the tribal and the caste populations are highly differentiated. three). proper names and other terminology of the Mitanni exhibit an Indo-Aryan superstrate. But although horses were known to the Indo-Aryans. (9) historical gene flow into India has contributed to a considerable obliteration of genetic histories of contemporary populations so that there is at present no clear congruence of genetic and geographical or sociocultural affinities.g. Parpola (1999)[11] elaborates the model and has "Proto-Rigvedic" Indo-Aryans intrude the BMAC around 1700 BCE. na (nava.P. He assumes early Indo-Aryan presence in the Late Harappan horizon from about 1900 BCE. satta (sapta. Likewise. nine). tera (tri.[6] The Nuristani languages probably split in such early times.[9] Archaeologist J.[12][13] 102 Indo-Aryan superstrate in Mitanni Some theonyms. although those of southern India are more distant than those of northern India. (6) the Dravidian tribals were possibly widespread throughout India before the arrival of the Indo-European-speaking nomads. but the two groups of tribals can be differentiated on the basis of Y-chromosomal haplotypes. providing support to one anthropological hypothesis while refuting some others. and that no actual traces of the Andronovo culture (e. The numeral aika "one" is of particular importance because it places the superstrate in the vicinity of Indo-Aryan proper as opposed to Indo-Iranian or early Iranian (which has "aiva") in general. By the mid 2nd millennium BCE early Indo-Aryans had reached Assyria in the west (the Indo-Aryan superstrate in Mitanni) and the northern Punjab in the east (the Rigvedic tribes). Indra. Bryant 2001: 216). Varuna. (4) a major wave of humans entered India through the northeast. but retreated to southern India to avoid dominance. Recently Leo Klejn proposed a hypothesis of linking the earliest stage of Indo-Aryan peoples with the Catacomb culture. (5) the Tibeto-Burman tribals share considerable genetic commonalities with the Austro-Asiatic tribals. 1380 BCE). and Nasatya (Ashvins) are invoked. evidence for their presence in the form of horse bones is missing in the BMAC.[10] Parpola (1988) has argued that the Dasas were the "carriers of the Bronze Age culture of Greater Iran" living in the BMAC and that the forts with circular walls destroyed by the Indo-Aryans were actually located in the BMAC. but not as far as the seats of the Medes. and are classified as either remote Indo-Aryan dialects or as an independent branch of Indo-Iranian. and "Proto-Rigvedic" (Proto-Dardic) intrusion to the Punjab as corresponding to the Swat culture from about 1700 BCE. suggesting that an Indo-Aryan elite imposed itself over the Hurrian population in the course of the Indo-Aryan expansion. panza (pancha.Indo-Aryan peoples initial number of female settlers may have been small. (7) formation of populations by fission that resulted in founder and drift effects have left their imprints on the genetic structures of contemporary populations. Some scholars trace the Indo-Aryans (both Indo-Aryans and European Aryans) back to the Andronovo culture (2nd millennium BCE). on linguistic grounds. Mallory (1998) finds it "extraordinarily difficult to make a case for expansions from this northern region to northern India" and remarks that the proposed migration routes "only [get] the Indo-Iranian to Central Asia. Persians or Indo-Aryans" (Mallory 1998. Asko Parpola (1988) connects the Indo-Aryans to the BMAC. one). in terms of a "Kulturkugel" model of expansion. vartana (vartana.[7] The spread of Indo-Aryan languages has been connected with the spread of the chariot in the first half of the 2nd millennium BCE. (3) the Austro-Asiatic tribals are the earliest settlers in India. Other scholars[8] have argued that the Andronovo culture proper formed too late to be associated with the Indo-Aryans of India. to roughly 1800 BCE. round). warrior burials or timber-frame materials) have been found in India and Southern countries like Sri Lanka and the Maldives. seven). ca."[5] The separation of Indo-Aryans proper from Indo-Iranians is commonly dated.

western. suggesting that extant Indian caste groups are primarily the descendants of Indo-European migrants. and further east with the Kosala and Videha. Trubachev (1999. grey). (2009) and Sharma et al. Chaturvedis and Bhargavas) and two Muslims groups (Shia and Sunni) were genotyped" found that "a substantial part of today's North Indian paternal gene pool was contributed by Central Asian lineages who are Indo-European speakers. (Hindustani) or Hindi/Urdu speakers of India. Zhao et al. Of the 23 national languages of India. Mirabel et al. However. Bangladesh and Pakistan number more than half a billion native speakers. 2009). the latter also known as "Indoi" and described by Hesychius as "an Indian people". (2007. Priyamazda (priiamazda) as Priyamedha "whose wisdom is dear" (Mayrhofer II 189. For Hellenistic times. Tushratta (tṷišeratta.Indo-Aryan peoples Another text has babru(-nnu) (babhru. Vedic Tveṣaratha "whose chariot is vehement" (Mayrhofer I 686. I 736). Indaruda/Endaruta as Indrota "helped by Indra" (Mayrhofer I 134).[15] Middle Ages The various Prakrit vernaculars developed into independent languages in the course of the Middle Ages (see Apabhramsha). Non-native speakers of Indo-Aryan languages also reach the south of the peninsula. The Mitanni warriors were called marya (Hurrian: maria-nnu). constituting the largest community of speakers of any of the Indo-European languages. central and eastern regions of the Indian subcontinent. etc. Bengali and Punjabi. 103 Antiquity An influx of early Indo-Aryan speakers over the Hindukush (comparable to the Kushan expansion of the 1st centuries CE) together with Late Harappan cultures gave rise to the Vedic civilization of the Early Iron Age. Biridashva (biridašṷa. Citrarata as citraratha "whose chariot is shining" (Mayrhofer I 553).[citation needed] This civilization is marked by a continual shift[citation needed] to the east. parita(-nnu) (palita. tušratta. The Maeotes and the Sindes. first to the Gangetic plain with the Kurus and Panchalas. such as those of Kivisild et al. Mayrhofer II 209.[14] note mišta-nnu (= miẓḍha. The largest groups are the Hindi. This Iron Age expansion corresponds to the black and red ware and painted grey ware cultures. Genetic anthropology A study headed by geneticist Z. Hyderabad in southern India. Sanskritic interpretations of Mitanni names render Artashumara (artaššumara) as Arta-smara "who thinks of Arta/Ṛta" (Mayrhofer II 780). Šubandhu as Subandhu 'having good relatives" (a name in Palestine. elaborating on a hypothesis by Kretschmer 1944) suggests that there were Indo-Aryan speakers in the Pontic steppe. and in most parts of Sri Lanka and the Maldives. forming the Abahatta group in the east and the Hindustani group in the west. (2009) based on an analysis of "32 Y-chromosomal markers in 560 North Indian males collected from three higher caste groups (Brahmins. brown). red)."[16] An increasing number of studies have found South Asia to have the highest level of diversity of Y-STR haplotype variation within R1a1a. studies based on Y-STR haplotype variation have been recently criticized as being inaccurate and highly unreliable because the results are often affected by which markers are consciously chosen for analysis. biriiašṷa) as Prītāśva "whose horse is dear" (Mayrhofer II 182). Shativaza (šattiṷaza) as Sātivāja "winning the race price" (Mayrhofer II 540. 696).~ Sanskrit mīḍha) "payment (for catching a fugitive)" (Mayrhofer II 358). II378). Contemporary Indo-Aryan peoples Contemporary Indo-Aryans are spread over most of the northern. and pinkara(-nnu) (pingala. (2003). the term for (young) warrior in Sanskrit as well. The Romani people (also known as Gypsies) are believed to have left India around 1000 CE.) as *tṷaiašaratha. Their chief festival was the celebration of the solstice (vishuva) which was common in most cultures in the ancient world. In a 2011 . Oleg N. 16 are Indo-Aryan languages (see also languages of India). 735).

although we cannot be certain without a date for ANI–ASI mixture. who compare both the accuracy and reliability of the Zhivotovsky evolutionary mutation rate (6. the authors conclude: "Subsequently. a more highly-structured patriarchal caste system developed . while "genealogical" estimates gave a good fit with the linguistic dates. As these populations grew. and expanded.9 x 10-4 per locus per generation) with a genealogical rate (2. we update the STR-based age of important nodes in the Y chromosome tree.[22] 104 List of Indo-Aryan peoples Historical . which allows additional comparison with these "historical" dates. in their 2006 paper in the American Journal of Human Genetics say that "Our overall inference is that an early Holocene expansion in northwestern India (including the Indus Valley) contributed R1a1-M17 chromosomes both to the Central Asian and South Asian tribes". (2009) indicates that the modern Indian population is a result of admixture between Indo-European (ANI) and Dravidian (ASI) populations. we suggest that most STR-based Y chromosome dates are likely to be underestimates due to the molecular characteristics of the markers commonly used. With time.[18] Unfortunately. our data are consistent with a model in which nomadic populations from northwest and central Eurasia intercalated over millennia into an already complex."[20] Reich et al. such as their mutation rate and the range of potential alleles that STR can take. (2011). showing that credible estimates for the age of lineages can be made once these STR characteristics are taken into consideration. a system of social stratification likely developed in situ. genetically diverse set of subcontinental populations."[17] Sengupta et al. As a consequence.. which has been reconstructed as ancestral to both Sanskrit and European languages. The authors of the study write: "The historical record documents an influx of Vedic Indo-European-speaking immigrants into northwest India starting at least 3500 years ago. (2008) also reject the Sengupta study. a method which has been severely criticized by Balanovsky et al. and we propose a set of STRs that should be used in these cases. These immigrants spread southward and eastward into an existing agrarian society dominated by Dravidian speakers. In both cases."[19] The latest research conducted by Watkins et. Finally we show that the STRs that are most commonly used to explore deep ancestry are not able to uncover ancient relationships. but only because of the stochasticity of uniparental markers which may have been affected by natural selection. the historical (archaeological) date is similar to a genetic estimate based on the "genealogical" mutation rate. mixed.. spreading to the Indo-Gangetic plain. they also argue for the need to analyze autosomal polymorphisms in addition to both Y-chromosomal and mitochondrial DNA in order to generate a comprehensive picture of population genetic structure. The authors of the study write: "It is tempting to assume that the population ancestral to ANI and CEU spoke 'Proto-Indo-European'. which potentially leads to a loss of time-linearity.Indo-Aryan peoples study examining the effects of microsatellite choice and Y-chromosomal variation." [21] Recent research indicates a massive admixture event between ANI-ASI populations 3500 to 1200 years ago. At least two population events in the Caucasus are documented archaeologically. the haplotype dating methodology employed by the Sengupta paper is based on the "evolutionarily effective" mutation rate for Y-chromosomal STR loci. al.1 x 10-3 per locus per generation): "We found that "evolutionary" estimates of most clusters fall far outside the range of the respective linguistic dates. According to these researchers. and then southward over the Deccan plateau.

cshlp. gov/ library/ publications/ the-world-factbook/ geos/ bg. 36. Nos. vol. languages and texts. Klejn (1974). Stephen Byzantine. p. "Indo-Iranian languages". Strabo.Indo-Aryan peoples 105 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Kashi Ikshvaku • Ahir Angas Charans Gandharis Gangaridai Gupta [][][23] • • • • • • • • • Maurya Nanda Pala Paundra Rigvedic tribes Satavahanas Sena Shakya Vanga Varanasi Videha Gurjara Empire • Jats Kalingas Kambojas Kolis/Koris Kurus Licchavis Magadhis Contemporary • • • • • • • • • • • • Assamese people • Bengali people Bhils Chhettris Kushwaha Chittagonians Dogras Dom people Garhwali people Gujarati people Gurkhas Hindkis • • • • • • • • • • • Hindkowans Kambojs Khas people Khatris [][] • • • • • • • • • • • Mers Muhajirs Nahali Nais Oriya people Punjabi people Rajputs Ramgarhia Romani people Saraiki people Sinhalese people Sindhi people Koli people Konkani people Lhotshampas Lohanas Dhivehi people Marathi people Marwaris Kumaoni people • Notes [1] https:/ / www. gov/ library/ publications/ the-world-factbook/ geos/ pk. Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture. 3 and 4: 1 – 17. [8] Brentjes (1981). cia. (http:/ / indoeuro. full [7] e. [11] Parpola. II 293 [15] Sindoi (or Sindi etc. Kristiansen and T. III: Artefacts. Francfort (1989).g. [13] The Bronze Age of Europe: Reflections on K. Etymologisches Wörterbuch des Altindoarischen. London and New York: Routledge. [14] Manfred Mayrhofer. 2001 [10] e. Matthew. 1997:161 ff. "The formation of the Aryan branch of Indo-European". The horse.) were also described by e. s. abc. cia.228. html#People [3] https:/ / www. Lyonnet (1993). 41 (2). Polienus.v. Archaeology and Language. ncbi. the wheel and language. Heidelberg 1986-2000. vol. Herodotus. html#People [4] http:/ / www. Bernard Sergent. nlm. [12] Review of: David Anthony. Genèse de l'Inde. – Journal of Indo-European Studies. net.g. – Norwegian Archaeological Review. org/ content/ 13/ 10/ 2277. 2008: 213 . in Blench. com/ archive/ article17. 2007. html) [16] http:/ / www. Asko (1999). cia. Larsson: The Rise of Bronze Age Society (2005). Dionysius. 306. gov/ library/ publications/ the-world-factbook/ geos/ in. Hiebert (1998) and Sarianidi (1993) [9] Edwin Bryant. nih. htm [5] http:/ / genome. au/ science/ articles/ 2009/ 07/ 24/ 2635149. gov/ pmc/ articles/ PMC2755252/ .g. html#People [2] https:/ / www. Roger & Spriggs. bizland.

Nauka. and 9B. 1Human Genetics Unit. 3Department of Genetics. 6University of Tripura. org/ content/ 28/ 10/ 2905 [20] http:/ / www. Stanford University. ISBN 0-19-513777-9. 2N. Sil. In The Bronze Age and Early Iron Age Peoples of Eastern and Central Asia. India (http:/ / www. 1999: Indoarica.pdf) • A tale of two horses (http://www. Thakur. Q. Mehdi. Oleg N. External links • Horseplay at Harappa . Chow. Q. pdf [22] http:/ / www. Kolkata. Coimbatore.1 and Peter A.3 Cheryl-Emiliane T. Vavilov Institute of General Genetics. A. edu/ ~reich/ 2009_Nature_Reich_India. Raipur.9 L. pubmedcentral. nih. Mumbai.3 S. 5School of Studies in Anthropology. 1998. Wadia Hospital for Children. Khan Research Laboratories.6 A. abstractsonline. com/ Plan/ ViewAbstract. fcgi?artid=1380230) [19] http:/ / mbe. aspx?sKey=8d6ec7f1-ee68-4677-8a42-ae3d2c294db4& cKey=6980c0cf-b9d1-4cc8-b638-af5c78d7a09a& mKey={DFC2C4B1-FBCD-433D-86DD-B15521A77070} [18] Polarity and Temporality of High-Resolution Y-Chromosome Distributions in India Identify Both Indigenous and Exogenous Expansions and Reveal Minor Genetic Influence of Central Asian Pastoralists. 7Department of Genetics. • Mallory. India. India.edu/~witzel/ RAJARAM/Har1. University of Madras. V. Ramesh.3 Alice A.1 Lev A. med. J.4 Christopher A. nlm.Indo-Aryan peoples [17] http:/ / www. nih.. I. Stanford.7 M. org/ cgi-bin/ ichg11s?author=Moorjani%20P& sort=ptimes& sbutton=Detail& absno=20758& sid=15004 106 References • Bryant.Harvard University (http://www. Mair. harvard.8 Chitra M. Dr.frontlineonnet. 4Biomedical and Genetic Engineering Division. The Quest for the Origins of Vedic Culture. India. "A European Perspective on Indo-Europeans in Asia". Luca Cavalli-Sforza. Tripura. gov/ pmc/ articles/ PMC2621241/ ?tool=pubmed [21] http:/ / genepath. ncbi. gov/ articlerender. Majumder.com/fl1723/17231220. • Trubachov. oxfordjournals. Indian Statistical Institute.3 Partha P.People Fas Harvard .3 Mitashree Mitra. Washington DC: Institute for the Study of Man. Chennai. Islamabad. Lin.Frontline . Ed.fas. 8Department of Environmental Sciences. Zhivotovsky. JP. Underhill3. ichg2011. India. Moscow. Bharathiar University. Edwin (2001). Moscow. Pandit Ravishankar Shukla University.harvard. Usha Rani. Edmonds.5 Samir K. Oxford University Press.2 Roy King.people.htm) . by Sanghamitra Sengupta. Russian Academy of Sciences. India.

The account of the Dasharajna battle (Battle of the Ten Kings) in Mandala 7. one of the Anu kings. RV 1.[3] These settlements were headed by a tribal chief (raja.22).List of Rigvedic tribes 107 List of Rigvedic tribes The Indo-Aryan tribes mentioned in the Rigveda are described as semi-nomadic pastoralists. the fire having to be kept alive by the care of men). they were subdivided into temporary tribal settlements (vish. and that the Bolan Pass derives its name from the Bhalanas. King Anga. mentions 6.1 with the Turvaśa (tribe). the entire Bharata tribe is described as crossing over.5 (both times listed together with the Druhyu) and.The Bhalanas are one of the tribes that fought against Sudas in the Dasarajna battle. Bharatas . especially in Mandala 3 attributed to the Bharata sage Vishvamitra and in and Mandala 7.They were probably one of the tribes defeated by Sudas at the Dasarajna. rājan) assisted by warriors (kshatra) and a priestly caste Geography of the Rigveda.000-6.000 "rajas".4.[1] During the Rigvedic period. suggesting that a single tribe could muster several thousand warriors.[2] When not on the move. the land was mentioned by the Chinese pilgrim Xuanzang. In one of the "river hymns" RV 3.7) . the extent of the Swat and Cemetery H cultures are also indicated. is the name of a ruler in the Rigvedic account of the Battle of the Ten Kings (7. viś) composed of several villages. Ānava. the vrddhi derivation of Anu. (brahma). that is noblemen. and as a name of Rudra in RV 2. The meaning ánu "living. is mentioned as a "chakravartin" (AB 8. they formed a warrior society.[6] The amateur historian S. 3. Āyu[10] 4. hymn 18. RV 8. "to be maintained".[12][13] 6.8.[14] Bharatá is also used as a name of Agni (literally. Bhalanas. because much later.13) and at 8. Talageri identifies them with the Greeks (Hellenes). with their chariots and . Some scholars have argued that the Bhalanas lived in Eastern Afghanistan Kabulistan.33.18. engaging in endemic warfare and cattle raids ("gaviṣṭi") among themselves and against their enemies. the "Dasyu" or Dasa. Bhajeratha[11] 5. human" (Naighantu) cannot be substantiated for the Rigveda [9] and may have been derived from the tribal name.000 (A Late Vedic tribe of Vesali mentioned in the Pali texts refers to 7. viz.) This is a list of Indo-Aryan tribes mentioned in the text of the Rigveda: List of Tribes 1.18. Anu is a Vedic Sanskrit term for one of the 5 major tribes in the Rigveda.[8] In the late Vedic period.666 casualties in a devastating defeat of a confederation of ten tribes.108.The Bharatas are an Aryan tribe mentioned in the Rigveda.10. with river names.36. and each village was composed of several families.8.[7] 2. much later also in the Mahabharata.[4] The size of a typical tribal settlement was probably of the order of a few thousand people. while the average size of a whole tribe may have been 3.[5] and it has been suggested that they lived to the north-east of Nurestan. Alina people (RV 7. in the 7th century CE.

[39] 29. at the confluence of the Vipash (Beas) and Shutudri (Satlej).[21] Some early scholars have placed them in the northwestern region. conqueror of 'all of India'. some writers[23] have ahistorically asserted that the Druhyu are the ancestors of the Iranian. Brahmanda 3. They are mentioned in the Rigveda. Nahuṣa[36] 24. 7. Vayu 99.23. the eponymous ancestor becomes Emperor Bharata. 'slave'.The Druhyu were a people of Vedic India. Pārthava 30. the Epic and the Puranas.) mention the Bharatas as the protagonists in the Battle of the Ten Kings. Krivi[29] 17.9.The Parsus have been connected with the Persians. Paktha.[38] This is based on the evidence of an Assyrian inscription from 844 BC referring to the Persians as Parshu. Hymns by Vasistha in Mandala 7 (7. Dasyu (Iranian: Dahyu.). 'servant')[17] 10.18 etc. Bhrigus[15] 8. locate them in the "north". The sons of the later Druhyu king Pracetas too settle in the "northern" (udīcya) region (Bhagavata 9. to know' [25] It has also been alleged that the Rg Veda and the Puranas describe this tribe as migrating North. Mahīna[32] 20.17. however. Chedi[16] 9.5. Pārāvata 28. Śimyu 108 . Maujavant[33] 21. in Greek as: Daai)[18] 11. Recently.[22] The later texts. where they are on the winning side. Sārasvata 33. (Vishnu Purana IV.[24] The word Druid (Gallic Celtic druides).74. Dasa (dāsa. Aratta and Setu. though this view is disputed. there is nothing of this in the Rigveda and the Puranas merely mention that the Druhyu are "adjacent (āśrita) to the North" 13.[23][24] However. Parsu (Parśu) . They appear to have been successful in the early power-struggles between the various Aryan and non-Aryan tribes so that they continue to dominate in post-Rigvedic texts.) 26. Pañca Jana/Kṛṣṭi (etc. mentioned in Latin as: Dahae.[20] usually together with the Anu tribe. Druhyus . Guṅgu[27] 15. Satvant 34. Visnu 4. Puru (Pūru) 31. Meenas[35] 23. and his tribe and kingdom is called Bhārata. Kuru[31] 19. Panis (Iranian Parni?) 27. the Mahābhārata. is derived from Proto-Indo-European vid "to see. Gandhari[26] 14. or of the Celtic Druid class. Dṛbhīka[19] 12. Ruśama 32.. Kīkaṭa[30] 18. in Gandhara.15-16.[37] 25. that is.11-12 and Matsya 48.List of Rigvedic tribes wagons.11-12. Matsya[34] 22. Iksvaku[28] 16. Greek or European peoples. and the Behistun Inscription of Darius I of Persia referring to Parsa as the home of the Persians. Śigru 35. "Bhārata" today is the official name of the Republic of India (see also Etymology of India).17) The Druhyus were driven out of the land of the seven rivers by Mandhatr and their next king Gandhara settled in a north-western region which became known as Gandhāra. and later in the (Epic) tradition.

Vaikarṇa 43. Aryan and Non-Aryan names in Vedic India. [14] Frawley. articledashboard. com/ 2011101915735/ what-were-the-salient-features-of-vedic-society. Interpretation and Ideology. Turvasa (Turvaśa) 41. E. 252-283. 180-183. Dict. Paris 1982: 37 [26] Warraich.-J.. p. D. B.List of Rigvedic tribes 36. S. and Keith. WHO WERE THE BHRIGUIDS?. The Rig Veda and the History of India: Rig Veda Bharata Itihasa. Problematic passages in the Rig-Veda. Keith (1912). (2001). The Dasa–Dasyu in the Rigveda. On a special meaning of jána-in the Rgveda. (Ed. (1974). (1974). ART. Viṣānin 46.—The First Mandala of the Rig-Veda. A.8. (1893). S. A. org/ audarya/ vedic-culture/ 203103-sanskrit-english. 18(3). CULTURAL IDENTITY. . XIX. C. Under king Sudas they defeated the Puru confederation at the Battle of the Ten Kings. 7. Aditya Prakashan. F. B.: Harvard University (Harvard Oriental Series: Opera Minora III). 1900–500 BC. 287. [17] Sircar. A. H. R. 1986. P. S. M. Indra in the Rig-Veda. The Rigveda: A Historical Analysis. 15. [12] Macdonell. Vedic Index 1912. (1869). Greek and Vedic geometry. Some problems of Indian history and culture. A.. Yadu 48.). (1997). D. (2005). 6. Data for the linguistic situation. Vibhindu 45. [27] Grassmann. pt. Yakṣu 109 References [1] Staal. [20] e. 105-127. Henry Frowde. Urvaçī. (Eds. preservearticles. [19] Geiger. M. [33] Witzel. [16] MALVIYA. D. Indo-Aryan Deities and Worship as Contained in the Rig-Veda. & Khare. (1999). Etym. Journal of the Boy. S. (2011). c. 40.Guyonvarc'h. C. D. (2011). [18] Sircar. D. 27(1). Macdonell and A. com/ Article/ A-Look-At-The-Ancient-Vedic-Civilization-Through-The-Vedas/ 549222 Sharma. G. Vol. Cambridge Mass. Rural Sociology. D. The Rigveda as a source of Indo-European history. M. A.5. F. [32] Perry. 395 [23] Talageri 2000 [24] Sanskrit in English (http:/ / www. 29(2). Rig-veda-sanhita (Vol.A.10. 117-208.46. [30] Rig-Veda-Sanhitá: A collection of ancient Hindu hymns. By. The Rigveda as a source of Indo-European history. Macdonell and A. 74 [10] Bloomfield. Tritsu The Trtsus are a sub-group of the Bharata mentioned in Mandala 7 of the Rigveda (in hymns 18. [22] Macdonell-Keith. T. Keith (1912). The Indo-Aryan Controversy: Evidence and Inference in Indian History. [29] Pike. Son. F. 11. (1885). Vṛcīvant 47. 16(Part II). I 39. 332. 3. [15] Weller.108. (1986). Annals of the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute. Pearson Education India. 1857. (2005). Atlantic Publishers & Dist. [34] Muller. S. 1). (1999). The Vedic Index of Names and Subjects. Śiva 37.. Civilization of the Eastern Irānians in Ancient Times: Ethnography and social life (Vol. Journal of the American Oriental Society.. [35] Babu. [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] http:/ / www. Journal of the American Oriental Society. (1937). The Indo-Aryan Controversy: Evidence and Inference in Indian History. 1912. Evidence. New Delhi 2000 Talageri. Uśīnara 42. Some problems of Indian history and culture.18. 20. I p. D. Journal of Indian Philosophy. [28] PINCOTT. D. A. (1992).8 [21] Hopkins. W. GANDHARA: AN APPRIASAL OF ITS MEANINGS AND HISTORY. Aditya Prakashan. 39. (2001). E. A.B. 1. Les Druides. Vedic Index of Names and Subjects. M. FA Brockhaus. H. Indo-Iranian Journal. [13] Talageri. [11] Zimmer. vol. Asiat. Journal of the American Oriental Society. K. Aryan and Non-Aryan in South Asia. html name=Macdonell1139 A. (1899). Kessinger Pub. The Myth of Purūravas. [31] Frawley. and Âyu. 33 and 83). 332. Aditya Prakashan. (1876). Caste in Life: Experiencing Inequalities. http:/ / www. Le Roux & C. Srñjaya 38. W.). I. C. RV 1. (1885). The Dasa–Dasyu in the Rigveda. Rig-veda (Vol. The Rig Veda and the History of India: Rig Veda Bharata Itihasa. THE ROOTS OF DEMOCRACY IN INDIAN CULTURE. Śvitna 39. 1). G. 296-302. 1). & Sanjana. 109-115. [9] Mayrhofer. R. html) [25] F. Vedic Index of Names and Subjects. 8. Vaśa 44. indiadivine.g.

A. Ancient Buddhist texts like Anguttara Nikaya[1] make frequent reference to sixteen great kingdoms and republics (Solas Mahajanapadas) which had evolved and flourished in a belt stretching from Gandhara in the northwest to Anga in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent and included parts of the trans-Vindhyan region. . 23). Keith (1912). 300 BC → Map of the 16 Mahajanapada Capital Religion Not specified Vedic Hinduism Buddism Jainism Republics Monarchies Iron Age Established Disestablished c. 600 BC–c. Kendrīya-Tibbatī-Ucca-Śikṣā-Saṃsthānam Published by Central Institute of Higher Tibetan Studies. ISBN 81-208-0405-8. (from maha. Macdonell and A. and janapada "foothold of a tribe".List of Rigvedic tribes [36] Griffith. R. 300 BC Government Historical era - • • Outline of South Asian history History of Indian subcontinent Mahājanapada (Sanskrit: महाजनपद. [39] Radhakumud Mookerji (1988). 1990 Original from the University of California Page 78 [38] A.[2] The sixth century BC is often regarded as a major turning point in early Indian history. 110 Mahajanapada Mahā-Janapada ← c. literally "great realm". Esa Upāsaka. The Rig-Veda. "country") refers to ancient Indian kingdoms that existed between the sixth and third centuries BC. T. Mahājanapada). Chandragupta Maurya and His Times (p. Vedic Index of Names and Subjects.[] prior to the rise of Buddhism in India. [37] History of Buddhism in Afghanistan By Sī. B. 600 BC c. (2009). Motilal Banarsidass Publ. The Rig Veda. "great".

[7][8] The Jaina Bhagavati Sutra gives a slightly different list of sixteen Mahajanapadas viz: Anga. Machcha (or Matsya) 12. Ladha (Lata). Kosala. the following few isolated facts. The fact that Janapada is derived from Jana points to an early stage of land-taking by the Jana tribe for a settled way of life.[6] Chulla-Niddesa. Anga 2. Obviously. another ancient text of the Buddhist canon. Assaka (or Asmaka) 14. Vaccha. at several places. Accha. Videha 6."[9] The main idea in the minds of those who drew up the Janapada lists was basically more tribal than geographical. He omits the nations from Uttarapatha like the Kamboja and Gandhara. Malavaka. Kamboja Another Buddhist text. Malaya. . the Digha Nikaya. These early Vedic Janas later coalesced into the Janapadas of the Epic Age. Surasena 13. Magadha 5.[5] gives a list of sixteen great nations: 1. Early Vedic texts attest several Janas or tribes of the Indo-Aryans. Padha. As the Buddhist and Jaina texts only casually refer to the Mahajanapadas with no details on history. adds Kalinga to the list and substitutes Yona for Gandhara. at best. Each of these Janapadas was named after the Kshatriya tribe (or the Kshatriya Jana) who had settled therein. The term "Janapada" literally means the foothold of a tribe. Kuru 10. since the lists include the names of the people and not the countries. mentions only the first twelve Mahajanapadas and omits the last four in the above list. Bajji (Vajji). The more extended horizon of the Bhagvati and the omission of all countries from Uttarapatha "clearly shows that the Bhagvati list is of later origin and therefore less reliable. Malla 7. living in a semi-nomadic tribal state and fighting among themselves and with other Non-Aryan tribes for cows. Avaha and Sambhuttara. Banga (Vanga). the author of Bhagvati has a focus on the countries of Madhydesa and of the far east and south only. The Buddhist Anguttara Nikaya. Vatsa (or Vamsa) 9. Kashi 4. Gandhara 16. Moli (Malla).Mahajanapada 111 Overview The political structure of the ancient Indians appears to have started with semi-nomadic tribal units called Jana (meaning "people" or by extension "ethnic group" or "tribe"). are gleaned from them and other ancient texts about these ancient nations. They do not give any connected history except in the case of Magadha. sheep and green pastures. Kochcha (Kachcha?). Janapada stands for country and Janapadin for its citizenry. Chedi 8. Kosala 3.[3][4] The Buddhist and other texts only incidentally refer to sixteen great nations (Solasa Mahajanapadas) which were in existence before the time of Buddha. Panchala 11. The Pre-Buddhist north-west region of the Indian sub-continent was divided into several Janapadas demarcated from each other by boundaries. Avanti 15. In Pāṇini. thus listing the Kamboja and the Yona as the only Mahajanapadas from Uttarapatha. Magadha. Kasi. This process of first settlement on land had completed its final stage prior to the times of the Buddha and Pāṇini.

Kosala The country of Kosalas was located to the north-west of Magadha with its capital at Savatthi (Sravasti). Raghuvansha. Rakshas and Asuras.e Central and Eastern Uttar Pradesh. the kingdom was ruled by king Prasenjit during the era of Mahavira and Budhha followed by his son Vidudabha. This detailed map shows the locations of Kingdoms mentioned in the Indian epics. It was located about 60 miles north of modern Ayodhya at the border of Gonda and Behraich districts in the Sahet-Mahet region. Several Jatakas bear witness to the superiority of its capital over other cities of India and speak highly of its prosperity and opulence. Later. Other great kings were Prithu. Kasi was the most powerful of the sixteen Mahajanapadas. Ramayan and Mahabharat.Mahajanapada 112 Kashi The Kasis was located in the region around Varanasi (modern Banaras). Before Buddha. Matsya Purana and Alberuni read Kasi as Kausika and Kaushaka respectively. King Brihadratha of Kasi had conquered Kosala but Kasi was later incorporated into Kosala by King Kansa during Buddha's time. . The Kasis along with the Kosalas and Videhans find mention in Vedic texts and appear to have been a closely allied people. Koshala and Ayodhya hold a central place in the Hindu scriptures. Its territory corresponding to the modern Awadh (or Oudh) in i. It had the river Ganges for its southern. According to these texts. All other ancient texts read Kasi. There was a long struggle for supremacy between them. the river Gandak (Narayani) for its eastern and the Himalaya mountains for its northern boundary. Koshala was the most powerful and biggest kingdom ever in the recorded history.Ikshvakuvansha was the longest continuous dynasty. Benares and Sravasti were the chief cities of Kosala. The city was bounded by the rivers Varuna and Asi in the north and south which gave Varanasi its name. Dilip who find mention in different Puranas. Harishchandra. Anga and Magadha. Itihas and Purana. Saketa. Its kings allied with Devatas in various wars against Daityas. Kosala was ultimately merged into Magadha when Vidudabha was Kosala's ruler. It finds mention as the center of Vedic Dharma. Ayodhya. There was a struggle for supremacy between king Pasenadi (Prasenjit) and king Ajatasatru of Magadha which was finally settled once the confederation of Lichchavis became aligned with Magadha. Lord Rama was a king in this dynasty. The Jatakas speak of a long rivalry of Kasi with Kosala. The capital of Kasi was at Varanasi.

apparently as a despised people. Punpun and Gandak. The first Buddhist Council was held in Rajagriha in the Vaibhara Hills. On the ruins of his kingdom arose the republics of the Licchhavis and Videhans and seven other small ones. Pataliputra became the capital of Magadha. The Licchavis were followers of Buddha.magadha became the most powerful kingdom of all the Mahajanapadas. Anga was annexed by Magadha in the time of Bimbisara. The alluvial plains of this region and its proximity to the iron rich areas of Bihar and Jharkhand helped the Ancient Cities of India during the time of Ramayana. The capital city Pataliputra( Patna. in the south by the Vindhya mountains and in the west by the river Sona. Vaishali. The mother of Mahavira was a Licchavi princess. It was an active center of Jainism in ancient times. The Licchavis are represented as the (Vratya) Kshatriyas in Manusmriti. Gandharis and the Mujavats. Bihar) was situated on the confluence of major rivers like Ganga. Vasumati. The Second Buddhist Council was held at Vaishali. Mahabharata and Buddha. in the east by the river Champa. Vajji or Vriji The Vajjians or Virijis included eight or nine confederated clans of whom the Licchhavis. These factors helped Magadh to emerge as the most prosperous state of that period. Brihadrathapura. Later on.Mahajanapada 113 Anga The first reference to the Angas is found in the Atharva-Veda where they find mention along with the Magadhas. . It was in the time of king Janaka that Videha came into prominence. Son. The kingdom of the Magadhas roughly corresponded to the modern districts of Patna and Gaya in southern Bihar and parts of Bengal in the east. Kushagrapura and Bimbisarapuri. Magadha The Magadha was one of the most prominent and prosperous of mahajanpadas. Vaishali was located 25 miles north of the river Ganges and 38 miles from Rajagriha and was a very prosperous town. The Jaina Prajnapana ranks Angas and Vangas in the first group of Aryan people. the headquarters of the powerful Vajji republic and the capital of the Licchavis was defeated by king Ajatasatru of Magadha. They were closely related by marriage to the Magadhas and one branch of the Licchavi dynasty ruled Nepal until the start of the Middle Ages but have nothing to do with the current ruling shah dynasty in Nepal. Vaishali (modern Basarh in the Vaishali District of North Bihar) was the capital of the Licchavis and the political headquarters of the powerful Varijian confederacy. The last king of Videha was Kalara who is said to have perished along with his kingdom on account of his attempt on a Brahmin maiden. Mithila (modern Janakpur in district of Tirhut) was the capital of Videha and became the predominant center of the political and cultural activities of northern India. The capital city of Patna was It was bounded in the north by river Ganges. kingdom to develop good quality weapons and support the agrarian economy.[10] It was also a great center of trade and commerce and its merchants regularly sailed to distant Suvarnabhumi. The Licchavis were a very independent people. the Jnatrikas and the Vajjis were the most important. The other names for the city were Magadhapura. Buddha is said to have visited them on many occasions. the Videhans. Its earliest capital was Girivraja or Rajagriha (modern Rajgir in Patna district of Bihar). It mentions the principal cities of ancient India. During Buddha's time its boundaries included Anga.

Sotthivatnagara. which means "to leave Santha or Sanstha". According to old authorities. Many historians believe that with the decline of Buddhism. Jainism and Buddhism found many followers among the Mallas. Chedis lay near Yamuna midway between the kingdom of Kurus and Vatsas. The Mallas. the 24th Tirthankara took their last meals at Kushinara and Pava/Pavapuri respectively. Kuśināra and Pava are very important in the history of Buddhism and Jainism since Buddha and Lord Mahavira. In the mediaeval period. The 80th descendent from Bisva Sen was Raja Hardeo Sen who received the title of "Malla" around the eleventh century from the Delhi king on account of his bravery. During the Buddhist period. Two of these confederations . the Mallas/Malls Kshatriya were republican people with their dominion consisting of nine territories[11] corresponding to the nine confederated clans. These ancient Malla should not be confused with the Majhauli Malla of Deoria.one with Kuśināra (modern Kasia near Gorakhpur) as its capital and the second with Pava (modern Padrauna. The Mallas appeared to have formed an alliance with the Licchhavis for self defense but lost their independence not long after Buddha's death and their dominions were annexed to the Magadhan empire. the Sukti or Suktimati of Mahabharata. like the Licchavis. whereas lord Mahavira took his Nirvana at Pava puri. The Mallas were a brave and warlike people. Mayur Bhat.Mahajanapada 114 Malla The Mallas are frequently mentioned in Buddhist and Jain works. Panduputra Bhimasena is said to have conquered the chief of the Mallas/Malls in the course of his expedition in Eastern India. A branch of Chedis founded a royal dynasty in the kingdom of Kalinga according to the Hathigumpha inscription of Kharvela. These Santhagara kshatriyas were placed below Vedic kshtriyas in the social hierarchy and were termed "Santha-war (Sainthwar)". Due to their ancient lineage they considered themselves to be the purest of the Kshatriyas. Kushinagar is now the centre of the Buddhist pilgrimage circle which is being developed by the tourism development corporation of Utter Pradesh. was the capital of Chedi. According to Mahabharata. had a son "Bisva Sen" who was the first man of the "Bisen Rajput"[12] clan. 12 miles from Kasia) as the capital . by one of his Surajvanshi rani "Surya Prabha". Buddha was taken ill at Pava and died at Kusinara. Chetis or Chetyas had two distinct settlements of which one was in the mountains of Nepal and the other in Bundelkhand near Kausambi. Koliyas and Shakya were ruling from their Santhagara. are mentioned by Manusmriti as Vratya Kshatriyas. Princess Surya Prabha is assumed to be from the non-buddhist Malla dynasty. It is widely believed that Lord Gautam died at the courtyard of King Sastipal Mall of Kushinagar/Kushinara. They are called Vasishthas (Vasetthas) in the Mahapparnibbana Suttanta. The Chedis were an ancient people of India and are mentioned in the Rigveda. Chedi or Cheti The Chedis. There were a total of nine Malla rulers during Buddha's period. The Mallas originally had a monarchical form of government but later they switched to one of Samgha (republic). . However. Malla along with other Sanghiya kshtriyas like the Licchhavis. The descendants of Malls can still be found in the neighbouring areas of Gorakhpur/Deoria and Kushinagar. the southern frontiers of Chedi extended to the banks of the river Narmada. There are two theories about Majhauli Malla. They were a powerful people dwelling in Northern South Asia. These republican states were known as Gana. which was like an assembly hall. the members of which called themselves rajas. Majhauli Malla claim their descendents from famous ascetic Mayur Bhat who was a descendent of Rishi Jamdagni. Malla from Nepal are completely different lot. republic Kshatriyas following Buddhism around Gorakhpur and Deoria district reverted to Hindusim though the exact period is not known.had become very important at the time of Buddha.

warlike and fond of hunting. There is a Jataka reference to king Dhananjaya. According to the Buddhist text Sumangavilasini. Kuru The Puranas trace the origin of Kurus from the Puru-Bharata family. state of Delhi and Meerut district of Uttar Pradesh. It had a monarchical form of government with its capital at Kausambi (identified with the village Kosam. He was very powerful. Machcha or Matsya The country of the Matsya or Machcha tribe lay to the south of the Kurus and west of the Yamuna. It was the most important entreport of goods and passengers from the north-west and south. the Bhojas. Trigrata s and the Panchalas. In Pali literature. In the fourth century BC. The Vatsa or Vamsa country corresponded with the territory of modern Allahabad in Uttar Pradesh. thus showing that Matsya once formed a part of the Chedi kingdom. Panchala The Panchalas occupied the country to the east of the Kurus between the mountains and river Ganges. The Kurus had matrimonial relations with the Yadavas. Kausambi was a very prosperous city where a large number of millionaire merchants resided. The Kurus of the Buddhist period did not occupy the same position as they did in the Vedic period but they continued to enjoy their ancient reputation for deep wisdom and sound health. The country was divided into Uttara-Panchala and Dakshina-Panchala. The western Matsya was the hill tract on the north bank of the Chambal. The capital of Matsya was at Viratanagara (modern Bairat) which is said to have been named after its founder king Virata. son of Samvarsana of the Puru lineage. while southern Panchala had it capital at Kampilya or Kampil in Farrukhabad District. The northern Panchala had its capital at Adhichhatra or Chhatravati (modern Ramnagar in the Bareilly District). was the eponymous ancestor of the Kurus and the founder of Kururashtra (Kuru Janapada) in Kurukshetra. the Matsyas are usually associated with the Surasenas. Initially king Udayana was opposed to Buddhism but later became a follower of Buddha and made Buddhism the state religion.[13] the people of Kururashtra (the Kurus) came from the Uttarakuru. Kautiliya's Arthashastra also attests the Panchalas as following the Rajashabdopajivin (king consul) constitution. . It roughly corresponded to modern Budaun. the capital of the Kurus was Indraprastha (Indapatta) near modern Delhi which extended seven leagues. which separated them from the Panchalas. In the fourth century BC. the Panchals appear to have switched to republican corporation in the sixth and fifth centuries BC. King Sujata ruled over both the Chedis and Matsyas.Mahajanapada 115 Vamsa or Vatsa The Vatsas. 38 miles from Allahabad). the time of Buddha. Vamsas or Vachchas are stated to be an offshoot of the Kurus. Though a well known monarchical people in the earlier period. Originally a monarchical clan. the Kurus are known to have switched to a republican form of government during the sixth to fifth centuries BC. and included the whole of Alwar with portions of Bharatpur. the Kuru country was ruled by a titular chieftain (king consul) named Korayvya. A branch of Matsya is also found in later days in the Vizagapatam region. Vayu Purana attests that Kuru. Udayana was the ruler of Vatsa in the sixth century BC. Kautiliya's Arthashastra also attests the Kurus following the Rajashabdopajivin (king consul) constitution. The famous city of Kanyakubja or Kanauj was situated in the kingdom of Panchala. The Matsyas had not much political importance of their own during the time of Buddha. At Buddha's time. Aitareya Brahmana locates the Kurus in Madhyadesha and also refers to the Uttarakurus as living beyond the Himalayas. Farrukhabad and the adjoining districts of Uttar Pradesh. introduced as a prince from the race of Yudhishtra. The country of the Kurus roughly corresponded to the modern Thanesar. According to the Jatakas. It roughly corresponded to the former state of Jaipur in Rajasthan.

Ujjaini was the capital of integrated Avanti. a descendant of Yayati.[15] Hecataeus of Miletus (549-468) refers to Kaspapyros (Kasyapura i. The river Godavari separated the country of the Assakas from that of the Mulakas (or Alakas). the Dakshinapatha. In Kautiliya's Arthashastra. Gandhara formed a part of the kingdom of Kashmir. The other three being Kosala. King Nandivardhana of Avanti was defeated by king Shishunaga of Magadha.36. the Gandharas were destroyed by Pramiti (aka Kalika) at the end of Kaliyuga. In Buddha's time. . The Jataka also gives another name Chandahara for Gandhara. Initially. According to Gandhara Jataka. which corresponds to Paudanya of Mahabharata. the capital of Surasena was also known at the time of Megasthenes as the centre of Krishna worship. The country of Assaka lay outside the pale of Madhyadesa. The Surasena kingdom had lost its independence on annexation by the Magadhan empire. Haryana and Rajasthan.107). The country of Avanti roughly corresponded to modern Malwa. through whose help Buddhism gained ground in Mathura country. the king of Surasena was the first among the chief disciples of Buddha. Pāṇini mentioned both the Vedic form Gandhari as well as the later form Gandhara in his Ashtadhyayi. The river Indus watered the lands of Gandhara. well-trained in the art of war. are said to have been named after Taksa and Pushkara. Avantiputra. Mathura. Assaka included Mulaka and abutted Avanti. Assaka or Ashmaka The Country of Assaka or the Ashmaka tribe was located in Dakshinapatha or southern India. Vatsa and Magadha. The capital of the Assakas was Potana or Potali. The Gandharas were a furious people. The Andhakas and Vrishnis of Mathura/Surasena are referred to in the Ashtadhyayi of Pāṇini.e. the two cities of this Mahajanapada. It had its capital at Madhura or Mathura. The Ashmakas are also mentioned by Pāṇini. and north-west of the Panjab (modern districts of Peshawar (Purushapura) and Rawalpindi). This corresponds roughly to the Brij region of Uttar Pradesh. but at the times of Mahavira and Buddha. this Janapada was founded by Gandhara. Andhakas and other allied tribes of the Yadavas formed a samgha and Vasudeva (Krishna) is described as the samgha-mukhya. The commentator of Kautiliya's Arthashastra identifies Ashmaka with Maharashtra. It was located on a southern high road. According to Vayu Purana (II. Gandhara The wool of the Gandharis is referred to in the Rigveda. The Gandharas and their king figure prominently as strong allies of the Kurus against the Pandavas in the Mahabharata war. a prince of Ayodhya.[14] Avanti The country of the Avantis was an important kingdom of western India and was one of the four great monarchies in India in the post era of Mahavira and Buddha. the Assakas were located on the banks of the river Godavari (south of the Vindhya mountains). They are placed in the north-west in the Markendeya Purana and the Brhat Samhita. Gandhara Mahajanapada of Buddhist traditions included territories of east Afghanistan. and Ujjaini (Sanskrit: Ujjayini) was of northern Avanti. The Vrishnis. The princes of this country are said to have come from the line of Druhyu who was a famous king of the Rigvedic period. Both Mahishmati and Ujjaini stood on the southern high road called Dakshinapatha which extended from Rajagriha to Pratishthana (modern Paithan).Mahajanapada 116 Surasena The country of the Surasenas lay to the east of Matsya and west of Yamuna. Nimar and adjoining parts of the Madhya Pradesh. The Gandhar Panjab. Mahissati (Sanskrit Mahishamati) was the capital of Southern Avanti. the two sons of Bharata. Avanti was an important center of Buddhism and some of the leading theras and theris were born and resided there. and Gwalior region of Madhya Pradesh. at one time. Avanti was divided into north and south by the river Vetravati. Its capital was Takshasila (Prakrit Taxila). Kashmira) as Gandharic city. Taksashila and Pushkalavati. the Vrishnis are described as samgha or republic. The Gandhara kingdom sometimes also included Kashmira. Avanti later became part of the Magadhan empire. At one time. According to Puranic traditions. son of Aruddha.

the first fourteen of the above Mahajanapadas belong to Majjhimadesa (Mid India) while the last two belong to Uttarapatha or the north-west division of Jambudvipa.[16][17][18] It is also contended that the Kurus. the Indian genius of grammar and Kautiliya are the world renowned products of Taxila University.[27] The capital of Kamboja was probably Rajapura (modern Rajori) in the south-west of Kashmir. . Vatsyas and other neo-Vedic tribes of the east Panjab of whom nothing was ever heard except in the legend and poetry. some clans of the Kambojas appear to have crossed the Hindukush and planted colonies on its southern side also. Gandhara was located on the grand northern high road (Uttarapatha) and was a centre of international commercial activities. but with time. A bitter line in the Brahmin Puranas laments that Magadhan emperor Mahapadma Nanda exterminated all Kshatriyas. Cyrus I is said to have destroyed the famous Kamboja city called Kapisi (modern Begram) in Paropamisade.[25] 117 Kamboja Kambojas are also included in the Uttarapatha. In a struggle for supremacy that followed in the sixth/fifth century BC. Shah. Kamboja and Gandhara formed the twentieth and richest strapy of the Achaemenid Empire. This obviously refers to the Kasis. they may have once been a cognate people. Pāṇini's Sutras. Kosalas. the Gandhara and Kamboja were nothing but two provinces of one empire and were located coterminously.[28] The trans-Hindukush region including the Pamirs and Badakhshan which shared borders with the Bahlikas (Bactria) in the west and the Lohas and Rishikas of Sogdiana/Fergana in the north.[21][22][23][24] Gandhara was often linked politically with the neighboring regions of Kashmir and Kamboja. The Kambojas are known to have had both Iranian as well as Indian affinities. Pāṇini. constituted the Parama-Kamboja country. Kurus. Ancient Kamboja is known to have comprised regions on either side of the Hindukush. the Gandharas and Kambojas were cognate people. But these nations also fell prey to the Achaemenids of Persia during the reign of Cyrus (558–530 BC) or in the first year of Darius. never came into direct contact with the Magadhan state until Chandragupta and Kautiliya arose on the scene. According to one school of scholars. The evidence in the Mahabharata and in Ptolemy's Geography distinctly supports two Kamboja settlements. The Kambojans and Gandharans.[30][31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38][39][40] The Kambojas were also a well known republican people since Epic times. none worthy of the name Kshatrya being left thereafter.[26] The cis-Hindukush region from Nurestan up to Rajauri in southwest of Kashmir sharing borders with the Daradas and the Gandharas constituted the Kamboja country. It was an important channel of communication with ancient Iran and Central Asia. the growing state of the Magadhas emerged as the most predominant power in ancient India. annexing several of the Janapadas of the Majjhimadesa. Gandharas and Bahlikas were cognate people and all had Iranian affinities.[29] The trans-Hindukush branch of the Kambojas remained pure Iranian but a large section of the Kambojas of cis-Hindukush appears to have come under Indian cultural influence. Panchalas.[20] Naturally. These latter Kambojas are associated with the Daradas and Gandharas in Indian literature and also find mention in the Edicts of Ashoka. The original Kamboja was located in eastern Oxus country as neighbor to Bahlika. Kambojas. hence influencing each others language. XIII also attest that the Kambojas followed republican constitution. however. the Kamboja is variously associated with the Gandhara. Darada and the Bahlika (Bactria). where scholars from all over the world came to seek higher education. The Mahabharata refers to several Ganah (or Republics) of the Kambojas.[43] though tend to convey that the Kamboja of Pāṇini was a Kshatriya monarchy. L. King Pukkusati or Pushkarasarin of Gandhara in the middle of the sixth century BC was the contemporary of king Bimbisara of Magadha. The Kamboja Mahajanapada of the Buddhist traditions refers to this cis-Hindukush branch of ancient Kambojas.[19] According to Dr T. but "the special rule and the exceptional form of derivative" he gives to denote the ruler of the Kambojas implies that the king of Kamboja was a titular head (king consul) only.Mahajanapada The Taxila University was a renowned center of learning in ancient times.[44] According to Buddhist texts. In ancient literature.[41] Kautiliya's Arthashastra[42] and Ashoka's Edict No.

1973. Vairamas. Age of Imperial Unity. K Mishra . p 200. Kambojas. Paradise of Gods. R.3. Yaska in his Nirukta (II. 199. p 648 B. iloveindia.). Kautiliya's Arthashastra (11. Sakas. Rajaram Narayan Saletore. 98 by Dr T. p 200. e.Sanskrit literature. Qamarud Din Ahmed . 1996.S. [17] Early Indian Economic History. Dr Ramesh Chandra Majumdar. p 52. History of India for 1000 years. 324. Dr B. Volume 4 (http:/ / books. 1988.127-43. p 481 [14] Dr Bhandarkaar [15] Jataka No 406. Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan.S. The History and Culture of the Indian People. [5] Anguttara Nikaya: Vol I. Valhikas. Shah. p 153.28-30). Maha-Chinas.1-19. Kambojas etc but it does not mention the Gandharas as a people separate from the Kambojas. Yavanas.37). Niharas. The Journal of Academy of Indian Numismatics & Sigillography. Journal of Indian Museums. Sudras. Panchalas. Mamata Choudhury . The Journal of the Numismatic Society of India. Kambojas. Mekhalas. Paradas. p 119. Yavanas. L.37. [18] Myths of the Dog-man. Madrakas. 1968. Academy of Indian Numismatics and Sigillography . Sethna. [6] Digha Nikaya. Yavanas. Barbaras and Mlechchas etc joined the army of sage Vasishtha during the battle of Kamdhenu against Aryan king Viswamitra of Kanauj. Nishadas. Abravantis. Chandra Chakraberty . The well-known Puranic legend (told in numerous Puranas) of king Sagara's war with the invading tribes from the north-west includes the Kambojas. Y. p 330. p 197. pp 14.2007. p 221. co.2) refers to the Kambojas but not to the Gandharas. K. Mlecchas.Bihar (India). Keralas. Dept. C.Oriental studies. Tukharas. Cf: Rivers of Life: Or Sources and Streams of the Faiths of Man in All Lands. IV. Vrishnis. Pulindas. the Chulla-Niddesa list (fifth century BC). Russell. p 37. Sakas. G. Madrakas.Numismatics . This shows that when Chulla-Niddesa Commentary was written. four Volumes. History & Culture of Indian People. Museums Association of India. Neechas. p 9. pp 38. Dr B. [9] Political History of Ancient India. Ch-Em Ruelle. 1977. and Paradas but again the Gandharas are not included in Haihayas's army (Harivamsa 14. pp 237. The Pāradas: A Study in Their Coinage and History. Kiratas. Cholas. 2002.21.187. formed part of the Kamboja Mahajanapada around this time---thus making them one people. D. Tungas. In both the references in the Ramayana. Problems of Ancient India. Oriental Institute (Vadodara. Tanganas. Aushmikas. Prasthalas. Dr B. 2000.1-4) (fourth century BC) refers only to clans of the Kurus. However. Vishnu Purana (5. The Tribes and Castes of the Central Provinces of India.Pakistan. p 58. 260 etc. p xxiv.55.1. Abhiras. Barbaras.61. 1968. the Kambojas are conspicuously mentioned in the lists of north-western frontier peoples. google. includes the Kamboja and Yona but no Gandhara (See: Chulla-Niddesa. Nipas. in all probability.50-1. 1977. but no reference is made to the Gandharas or the Daradas. p 131. India) . 256. p 50.). Bhāratīya Itihāsa Samiti. Sabha Parava of the Mahabharata enumerates numerous kings from the north-west paying tribute to Pandava king Yudhistra at the occasion of Rajasuya amongst whom it mentions the Kambojas. Tribal Coins of Ancient India.43). Padma Purana (6. Rishikas. Pahlavas. p 86. Journal of the Department of Sanskrit. the Kambojas in the Uttarapatha were a predominant people and that the Gandharans. 1974. Mukherjee . Bharatas.Mahajanapada 118 References [1] Anguttara Nikaya I.. [20] Ancient India.Ethnology. Valhikas. Again. Pulindas. Sakas. Vol II. the north-western martial tribes of the Sakas. 1966. Chinas. Vol I.Pāradas. Yavanas. html [3] India as Known to Panini: A Study of the Cultural Material in the Ashṭādhyāyī.2 seq ). India in the Time of Patañjali.54. Romikas.Numismatics. The lists does not include the Gandharas since they are counted as the same people as the . J. 1972. p 68. [2] http:/ / www. Pahlavas. 261. Vidarbhas.285-86) and Kathasaritsagara of Somadeva (18. p. Bahlikas and Kiratas but again it does not include the Gandharas in Chandragupta's army list. which is one of the most ancient Buddhist commentaries. (P. Vol IV. Haritas/Tukharas. see Dr Chandra Chakraberty's views in: Literary history of ancient India in relation to its racial and linguistic affiliations. Pragjyotisha. pp 252. p lxv. p 213. Law & Some Ksatriya Tribes of Ancient India. [21] Important note: The ancient Buddhist text Anguttara Nikaya's list of Mahajanapadas includes the Gandhara and the Kamboja as the only two salient Mahajanapadas in the Uttarapatha. Utkalas. Yavanas. I. Kankas. Vana Parva of Mahabharata states that the Andhhas. Pahlavas. For Kuru-Kamboja connections. Surasenas. Yet at another place in the Ramayana (I. Vasudeva Sharana Agrawala . Devendra Handa Coins. [4] A History of Pāli Literature. 2007. Aurnikas and Abhiras etc will become rulers in Kaliyuga and will rule the earth (India) un-righteously(MBH 3.g Vayu Purana 88. p 2.Ethnology. [8] Lord Mahāvīra and his times. p 265. Shiva Purana (7.T. V. Mlechchas. of Sanskrit. pp 252. Parasikas etc but they do not mention the Gandharas. [13] II.T. [7] Chulla-Niddesa (P. p 18. 1944. Puri . 1938.seqq). 1989. Hunas. Pundras. p 427. Sakas (from Saka-dvipa). Brahma Purana (8. [16] Revue des etudes grecques 1973. p. 1919. The Mudrarakshasa Drama by Visakhadatta also refers to the Sakas. Brahmanda Purana (3. in/ books?id=VfKA9FGPTQoC& pg=PA530& lpg=PA530& dq=).India. Tukharas. Kambojas. Vedas. N. etc etc (Mahabharata 2. p 213. Here there is no mention of Gandhara since it is included amongst the Kamboja.63. Brhat Katha of Kshmendra (10. Kambojas. Chinas. Kambojas. C. Rabindra Bharati University. Journal of the Oriental Institute.15-21). Tribes of Ancient India. Law. The Racial History of India. com/ history/ ancient-india/ 16-mahajanapadas. 1973. 1924. Yavanas. 2009. 1919. Kurus. Pulindas.16-33) etc etc). Numismatic Society of India . Harahunas.1.35-51). p 114. p 7.123-141). Dr Kailash Chand Jain. Kiratas. Yavanas. Forlong. David Gordon White. Nirayavali Sutra [12] R. Association pour l'encouragement des etudes grecques en France. Tusharas.23). p 15-16 [10] Digha Nikaya [11] Kalpa Sutra. 1963. Daradas.India. pp 230-253. the Valmiki Ramayana --(a later list) includes the Janapadas of Andhras.17. Pasupalas etc (Ramayana 4. Socio-economic and Political History of Eastern India. 2000 Edition. Avantis. 1972.1. Indic . 256. Dasharnas. Among the several unrighteous barbaric hordes (opposed to Aryan king Vikarmaditya).76-78) each list the Sakas. N. [19] Journal of the Oriental Institute. Kiratas. Pandyas.

Hara-hurava. Chola. John Watson McCrindle .1999. And last but not least. Sammoha Tantra list also contains 56 nations and lists Kashmira. Malava. History . pp 97-99. Strirajya. Gauda. The Satapancasaddesavibhaga of Saktisagama Tantra (Book III.. Kavyamimasa of Rajasekhara (880-920 AD) also lists 21 north-western countries/nations of the Saka. 1997. the Daradas and Gandharas are also treated as the Kambojas.Arya and Dasa where an Arya could become Dasa and vice-varsa (Majjima Nakayya 43. Pundra. [22] There are also several instances in the ancient literature where the reference has been made only to the Gandharas and not to the Kambojas. thus indicating them to be same group of people. p 257.23. Kasi. Vahvala.A. Huna and the Kamboja. Here again no mention of the Gandharas though Raghu does talk of the Kambojas. 2004. Mudgala. contains a list of 75 countries among which it includes Khorasahana. Edwin Bryant. Mekalas. Magadha. Kalingas and those on Mt Mahendra). p 99. Talbert) and Ambautai people located to south of Hindukush Mountains(Geography 6. Kolisarpas. K. Hist of Punjab. p 47. Besides. Kanyakubja. 17-18). Kuru Saindhava. Tukharas. Yavana. the Parasikas. Dr Sylvain Lévi. 1923. M. the Kambojas have obviously been counted among the Gandharas themselves. 1-55) lists Gurjara. From Monghyr inscriptions of king Devapala (810 . Hariala (Haryana). 1994.4. 119 . Again in another of its well-known shlokas. Khurasana. Mahishakas. 2005. Matsya. Sindhu. Similarly. Dravidas. Dr L. Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World. Kambojas. the Kambojas and the Gandhara do seem to have been a cognate people. 1885. Kosala. 1957.60 seq). Kalinga. trans. Usinaras. Utsavasketas. Barbara. Parvartaka. Kambojas. Vol. Pandu. Kiratas. Here again. Kamboja. Bahlika. Gandharas. Sindhu. also: Kavyamimasa Editor Kedarnath. Virata. Saurashtra. Abhira.207. Dr. Kambojas and other nations. Maru. Kirata. Trigarta. C. James Fergusson). Chola. p 268. Pishacha. Minakshi. Avanti. furnishes a list of northern nations which king Lalitaditya Muktapida (Kashmir) (eighth century CE) undertakes to reduce in his dig-vijaya expedition. Shakas. Utkala. Valukambudhi.164. Ramatha and Karakantha etc but no mention of Gandhara or Darada (See: Kavyamimasa. Kerala. Sikanda Purana (Studies in the Geography. Pahlavas.1. but no mention of Gandharas (Rajatarangini: 4. Tushara. pp 226-227). 1971. we get the list of the nations as Utkala (Kalinga). Malaya. 5. Gandhara and the Kira (Kangra) which he boasts of as if they are his vassal states. 1971. Sahuda. Avanti. Hence. K. name Gandhara implied all the countries west of Indus as far as Candhahar"(The Tree and Serpent Worship. Pulindas. refers to the Kambojas. Kamboja. Kekaya. These are the nations which the cavalry of Pala king Devapala is said to have scoured during his war expeditions against these people. Siva.43-44). Ursa. p 8). Avanti. Kuluta. Nepala etc but no mention of Gandhara in this list of 75 countries. Jalandhara (Jullundur). Apparently the Gandharas are counted among the Kambojas.20-23. p 190.Geography. Uttarakurus and Pragjyotisha respectively. Konkana. 35. Pandya. Interestingly. the Mahabharata (XIII. Obviously the Kamboja of the Monghyr inscriptions of king Devapala here is none other than the Gandhara of the Kalimpur inscription of king Dharamapala. Daradas and Khasha besides also the Paundrakas. Sircar.175). Paundrakas. A.27. Vanayuja. and then of the north-west (like the Yavanas. it does not make any mention of the Gandharas in this very elaborate list of the Vrishalah Ksatriyas (Manusamriti X. Dardura. the Daradas and Gandharaa are included among the Kambojas. Paradas. Vahlika. Surasena. the Gandharas are definitively included among the Kambojas as if the two people are same. p 78.. Barbara. Pre Aryan and Pre Dravidian in India. Latas. Nepala. Vatsa. Madra. George Erdosy. Kirata. Gurjara (Bhoja). The list includes the Kambojas. p 168. Asian Educational Services) while land of Ambautai has also been identified by Dr Michael Witzel (Harvard University) with Sanskrit Kamboja (Electronic Journal of Vedic Studies. Dravidas but surprisingly enough. Yavana. Turushaka. Vidarbha. Parsika. the Gandharas and the Kambojas are definitely treated as one people. Obviously. Lampaka. the Hindu law book. the Mahabharata furnishes a key list of twenty-five ancient Janapadas viz: Anga. a Sanskrit text from the north.(Editors) Richard J. M. issue 1 (September). [25] Encyclopedia Americana. Malava. Kachcha. cf: Geographical Data in the Early Puranas. p 259-62. then of the south (including Pandyas. Magadha. Dasherka. Studies in the Tantra. [26] Ptolemy's Geography mentions Tambyzoi located in eastern Bactria (Ancient India as Described by Ptolemy: Being a Translation of the Chapters . Lada. even the well known Manusmriti. It does not include the Gandharas in the list though in yet another similar shloka (MBH 12. Vangas. Rajatarangini of Kalhana.3. Kamboja. and Darada (MBH 7/11/15-17). The Indo-Aryans of Ancient South Asia: : Language. Hamsamarga (Hunza). In the context of Krsna digvijay. Maharashtra.850AD) the successor of king Dharmapala.43-44). Cina. Dr Jean Przyluski. the same epic now brands the Yavanas.Mahajanapada Kambojas. p 40. Huhuka. Sudras.5. Sircar. Bhauttas (in Baltistan in western Tibet). Kuru. Thus in the first shlokas. Gauda. Daradas. and Kerals). then of the west (Aprantas). Laurie L. Huna. Kachcha among the 56 countries but the list does not include the Gandharas and Daradas. Dakshinatya. D. Jules Bloch. N. Thus. p 122. Indo-Aryan Controversy: Evidence and Inference in Indian History. See map in McCrindle. Kuru. Kashmira. Yavanas. C. Dravida. The Assalayana-Sutta of Majjima Nakaya says that in the frontier lands of the Yonas. Karusha. In these cases.18. no mention is made to Gandhara in this list. II. Maha-Cina. Vatadhana. Chinas. Witzel. p 5-6. The above references amply demonstrate that the Gandharas were many times counted among the Kambojas themselves as if they were one and the same people. 1993. Ch VII. Kamboja. 1995. Kamarupa. Garga. Utkalas. Kinnaras. Pragjyotishas) etc etc (See: Raghuvamsa IV. Ancient. Vokkana. Tangana. [23] Kalimpur Inscriptions of Pala king Dharmapala of Bengal (770-810 AD) list the nations around his kingdom as the Bhoja (Gurjara). Kira. p 277. [28] See: Problems of Ancient India. Bhadra (Madra). Bahlika. lists the Sakas. the Gandhara and the Kamboja are used interchangeably in the records of the Pala kings of Bengal. Kosala. Yavanas. Kalingas. Chapter 17. there were Janapadas of Kurus and Panchalas also. Malava.2000. Material Culture and Ethnicity. Dr S Levi has identified Tambyzoi with Kamboja (Indian Antiquary. Magadha. Avanti. Chodas. Pragjyotisha (Assam). Kaikeya. Simhala etc but no mention of Daradac and Gandhara (See quotes in: Studies in Geography. [24] James Fergusson observes: "In a wider sense. Huna. 33. Saurashtra. Vanga. Daradas etc as the Vrishalas/degraded Kshatriyas (See also: Comprehensive History of India. Patton. p 326. p 54. Bagchi). Sastri). 2000. Raghu Vamsa by Kalidasa refers to numerous tribes/nations of the east (including the Sushmas. the Hunas. Kiratas and Barbaras (Yauna Kamboja Gandharah Kirata barbaraih) etc as Mlechcha tribes living the lives of the Dasyus or the Barbarians. Rajashekhara.4. the Kambojas) and finally those of the north Himalayan (like the Kirats. there are only two classes of People .3). Joshi and Dr Fauja Singh (Editors)). Pancala. Encyclopedias and Dictionaries. Vidarbha. Kamboja. [27] MBH VII. XIII. Dr P. Kashmira. Bahlika. Kiratas. Here in both the lists.

S.168-175. Surya Kanta. p 33.). Dr V. 1953. p 58.S. M. Peggy Melcher . Prācīna Kamboja. p 49. W. [33] Balocistān: siyāsī kashmakash. Wilber. K. p 384. p 2. Dr Jiyālāla Kāmboja . Fraser.Mahajanapada [29] MBH II. [41] MBH 7/91/39... 1962. Dr Vasudeva Sharana Agrawala. p 107. Barnett. [39] Geographical and Economic Studies in the Mahābhārata: Upāyana Parva. Dr Vasudeva Sharana Agrawala. p 52. p 49. A. [31] Ethnology of Ancient Bhārata – 1970. Dr Keith.Kamboja (Pakistan). p 138. 1945. Gillet. its Society. [37] Iran. Parts I and II. [34] India as Known to Panini: A Study of the Cultural Material in the Ashṭādhyāyī – 1953. Jacob Wackernagel..1. Herbert Harold Vreeland. Dr Macdonnel. its Culture. Dr Jacob Wackmangel.. Dr Kashi Prasad Jayaswal . [38] Geogramatical Dictionary of Sanskrit (Vedic): 700 Complete Revisions of the Best Books. Dr A. Dr Ram Chandra Jain. [36] Afghanistan.India.. 120 . its People.27. p 80. [42] Arthashastra 11/1/4. Munīr Aḥmad Marrī..27. Donal N. C. 1956. [44] Hindu Polity: A Constitutional History of India in Hindu Times. p 49. Dr Moti Chandra . 1981. [32] The Journal of Asian Studies – 1956. [40] A Grammatical Dictionary of Sanskrit (Vedic): 700 Complete Reviews of the . [43] Ashtadhyayi IV. 311 etc. Dr Surya Kanta.Constitutional history. muz̤mirāt va rujḥānāt – 1989. Dr Peggy Melcher. people and country. 1953. Agarwala. [30] Vedic Index I. Arthur Anthony Macdonell. McDonnel. Association for Asian Studies. [35] Afghanistan. 1955. jana aura janapada =: Ancient Kamboja. Clifford R. Far Eastern Association (U. p 53..India.

000 km² (1.Maurya Empire 121 Maurya Empire Mauryan Empire ← ← 322 BCE–185 BCE → → → → Maurya Empire at its maximum extent (Dark Blue). Capital Languages Religion Pataliputra (Modern day Patna) Old Indic Languages (e. including its vassals (Light Blue).000. Other Prakrits.930.g.511 sq mi) Panas . Sanskrit) Jainism Buddhism Ājīvika Absolute Monarchy as described in the Arthashastra Government Samraat (Emperor) Historical era Area Currency Established Disestablished 320–298 BCE 187–180 BCE Chandragupta Maurya Brhadrata Antiquity 322 BCE 185 BCE 5. Magadhi Prakrit.

administration. Ashoka sponsored the spreading of Buddhist ideals into Sri Lanka. Chandragupta Maurya's embrace of Jainism increased social and religious renewal and reform across his society. the period of Mauryan rule in South Asia falls into the era of Northern Black Polished Ware (NBPW). and it dissolved in 185 BCE with the foundation of the Sunga Dynasty in Magadha. but it excluded a small portion of unexplored tribal and forested regions near Kalinga (modern Odisha). Southeast Asia. Its decline began 60 years after Ashoka's rule ended. After the Kalinga War. and expansion of the sciences and of knowledge.[] The Maurya Empire was one of the world's largest empires in its time. By 320 BCE the empire had fully occupied Northwestern India. south eastern parts of Iran and much of what is now Afghanistan. agriculture and economic activities. religious transformation.[] The population of the empire has been estimated to be about 50-60 million making the Mauryan Empire one of the most populous empires of the time. Under Chandragupta.[3][4] Archaeologically. The Arthashastra and the Edicts of Ashoka are the primary sources of written records of Mauryan times. while Ashoka's embrace of Buddhism has been said to have been the foundation of the reign of social and political peace and non-violence across all of India. it conquered beyond modern Pakistan. At its greatest extent. internal and external trade. . ruled by the Mauryan dynasty from 322 to 185 BCE. who had overthrown the Nanda Dynasty and rapidly expanded his power westwards across central and western India taking advantage of the disruptions of local powers in the wake of the withdrawal westward by Alexander the Great's Greek and Persian armies. a Greek general from Alexander's army. defeating and conquering the satraps left by Alexander. and to the east stretching into what is now Assam. all thrived and expanded across India thanks to the creation of a single and efficient system of finance. West Asia and Mediterranean Europe. eastern Uttar Pradesh) in the eastern side of the Indian subcontinent. the empire stretched to the north along the natural boundaries of the Himalayas. and the largest ever in the Indian subcontinent. The Lion Capital of Asoka at Sarnath has been made the national emblem of India. Under Chandragupta and his successors. To the west. The Empire was expanded into India's central and southern regions by the emperors Chandragupta and Bindusara. Chandragupta then defeated the invasion led by Seleucus I. including the modern Herat[] and Kandahar provinces. the Empire experienced half a century of peace and security under Ashoka. until it was conquered by Ashoka. Originating from the kingdom of Magadha in the Indo-Gangetic plains (modern Bihar.[1][2] The Empire was founded in 322 BCE by Chandragupta Maurya.Maurya Empire 122 Today part of  India  Afghanistan  Bangladesh  Bhutan  Iran  Maldives  Pakistan  Nepal  Sri Lanka  China  Myanmar  Turkmenistan  Uzbekistan  Tajikistan  Kyrgyzstan • • Outline of South Asian history History of Indian subcontinent The Maurya Empire was a geographically extensive Iron Age historical power in ancient India. annexing Balochistan. which was under Macedonian rule. the Mauryan Empire conquered the trans-Indus region. the empire had its capital city at Pataliputra (modern Patna). Mauryan India also enjoyed an era of social harmony. and security.

. The Greek generals Eudemus. On one hand. and Peithon. Rakshasa became Chandragupta's chief advisor. These men included the former general of Taxila. any conclusions are hard to make without further historical evidence. but was insulted by its king Dhana Nanda. Rakshasa accepted Chanakya's reasoning. angered him. The Mudrarakshasa of Visakhadutta as well as the Jaina work Parisishtaparvan talk of Chandragupta's alliance with the Himalayan king Parvatka. and made him understand that his loyalty was to Magadha. Soon after Alexander died in Babylon in 323 BCE. handing power to Chandragupta. Chanakya also reiterated that choosing to resist would start a war that would severely affect Magadha and destroy the city. with help from Chanakya. Chanakya traveled to Magadha. p18. the conquering armies of Alexander the Great refused to cross the Beas River and advance further eastward. Rakshasas. the representative of King Porus of Kakayee.[] Chandragupta Maurya's rise to power is shrouded in mystery and controversy. He also managed to create an atmosphere of civil war in the kingdom. ruled until around 316 BCE. A kshatriya tribe known as the Maurya's are referred to in the earliest Buddhist texts. Chanakya managed to win over popular sentiment. A battle was announced and the Magadhan army was drawn from the city to a distant battlefield to engage Maurya's forces. leaving several smaller disunited satraps. insisting that he continue in office. such as the drama Mudrarakshasa (Poem of Rakshasa – Rakshasa was the prime minister of Magadha) by Visakhadatta. of the Nanda Dynasty. Chandragupta first emerges in Greek accounts as "Sandrokottos".[5] He is also said to have met the Nanda king. a kingdom that was large and militarily powerful and feared by its neighbors.). describe his royal ancestry and even link him with the Nanda family. and Chanakya assumed the position of an elder statesman. accomplished students of Chanakya. However. when Chandragupta Maurya (with the help of Chanakya. Chandragupta gathered many young men from across Magadha and other provinces. According to several legends. his empire fragmented. Mahaparinibbana Sutta. a Brahmin teacher at Takshashila. As a young man he is said to have met Alexander. not to the Nanda dynasty. Maurya came up with a strategy. Using his intelligence network. his son Malayketu. Chanakya contacted the prime minister. sometimes identified with Porus (Sir John Marshall "Taxila". Maurya's general and spies meanwhile bribed the corrupt general of Nanda. plus the resources necessary for his army to fight a long series of battles. which culminated in the death of the heir to the throne.Maurya Empire 123 Early history Chanakya and Chandragupta Maurya The Maurya Empire was founded by Chandragupta Maurya. a number of ancient Indian accounts.[] Meanwhile. deterred by the prospect of battling Magadha. Chanakya swore revenge and vowed to destroy the Nanda Empire.[7][8][9] Conquest of Magadha Chanakya encouraged Chandragupta Maurya and his army to take over the throne of Magadha. and al. Alexander returned to Babylon and re-deployed most of his troops west of the Indus river. and Chandragupta Maurya was legitimately installed as the new King of Magadha. who was now his advisor) utterly defeated the Macedonians and consolidated the region under the control of his new seat of power in Magadha. and went into exile and was never heard of again. and made a narrow escape. and local kings declared their independence. men upset over the corrupt and oppressive rule of king Dhana. Ultimately Nanda resigned.[6] Chanakya's original intentions were to train a guerilla army under Chandragupta's command. Preparing to invade Pataliputra. and the rulers of small states.

in which the Greeks offered their Princess for alliance and help from him. The Maurya Empire when it was first founded by Chandragupta Maurya c. Chandragupta established a strong centralized state with a complex administration at Pataliputra." Chandragupta's son Bindusara extended the rule of the Mauryan empire towards southern India. and Seleucus I received 500 war elephants that were to have a decisive role in his victory against western Hellenistic kings at the Battle of Ipsus in 301 BCE. and established superiority over the southern kingdoms.000 men. 305 BCE. Megasthenes describes a disciplined multitude under Chandragupta. in the process of creating the Seleucid Empire out of the eastern conquests of Alexander the Great.Maurya Empire 124 The approximate extent of the Magadha state in the 5th century BCE. 320 BCE. after conquering the Nanda Empire when he was only about 20 years old. but are . such as the historian Megasthenes. named Deimachus (Strabo 1–70). especially when in camp. Chandragupta extended the borders of the Maurya Empire towards Seleucid Persia after defeating Seleucus c. found that the thefts reported on any one day did not exceed the value of two hundred drachmae. Seleucus failed (Seleucid–Mauryan war). but the two rulers finally concluded a peace treaty: a marital treaty (Epigamia) was concluded. was "surrounded by a wooden wall pierced by 64 gates and 570 towers— (and) rivaled the splendors of contemporaneous Persian sites such as Susa and Ecbatana. and this among a people who have no written laws. who live simply. Arachosia (Kandhahar) and Gedrosia (Balochistan). Diplomatic relations were established and several Greeks. and do not know writing: "The Indians all live frugally. 265 BCE. which. and consequently they observe good order. according to Megasthenes. wherein lay 400. Megasthenes says that those who were in the camp of Sandrakottos. They dislike a great undisciplined multitude. 323 BCE. The Nanda Empire at its greatest extent under Dhana Nanda c. Theft is of very rare occurrence. tried to reconquer the northwestern parts of India in 305 BCE. Deimakos and Dionysius resided at the Mauryan court. Ashoka the Great extended into Kalinga during the Kalinga War c. 300 [10] BCE. He also had a Greek ambassador at his court. UNIQ-ref-0-dccf41007ced04a0-QINU Chandragupta extended the borders of the empire southward into the Deccan Plateau c. Chandragupta Maurya Chandragupta campaigned against the Macedonians when Seleucus I Nicator. honestly. Chandragupta snatched the satrapies of Paropamisade (Kamboja and Gandhara).

Chanakya helped Bindusara "to destroy the nobles and kings of the sixteen kingdoms and thus to become absolute master of the territory between the eastern and western oceans. They never drink wine except at sacrifices. Chandragupta not knowing about poison. but Bindusara could not suppress it in his lifetime. by that time a drop of poison had already reached the baby and touched its head due to which child got a permanent blueish spot (a "bindu") on his forehead. 53–56. nevertheless. ruled by King Ilamcetcenni. Chandragupta's Guru and advisor Chanakya used to feed the emperor with small doses of poison to build his immunity against possible poisoning attempts by the enemies. Bindusara's guru Pingalavatsa (alias Janasana) was a Brahmin[15] of the Ajivika sect. Kalinga (modern Odisha) was the only kingdom in India that didn't form the part of Bindusara's empire. Chanakya entered the room the very time she collapsed. Northern. happily enough. During his reign. He brought sixteen states under the Mauryan Empire and thus conquered almost all of the Indian peninsula (he is said to have conquered the 'land between the two seas' . Thus. The queen not immune to the poison collapsed and died within few minutes. he immediately cut open the dead queen's belly and took the baby out. being simple in their manners and frugal." Strabo XV. the newborn was named "Bindusara". as far as what is now known as Karnataka. and Cheras. just 22 year-old. the empire expanded southwards. It was crushed by Ashoka after Bindusara's death.Maurya Empire ignorant of writing.[13] Bindusara. Queen Subhadrangi (alias Queen Aggamahesi) was a Brahmin[16] also of the Ajivika sect from Champa (present Bhagalpur district). quoting Megasthenes[11] 125 Bindusara Bindusara was the son of the first Mauryan emperor Chandragupta Maurya and his queen Durdhara. According to a legend mentioned in the Jain texts. Their beverage is a liquor composed from rice instead of barley. The reason for the second revolt is unknown. who served as the viceroy of Ujjaini during his father's reign. Bindusara's life has not been documented as well as that of his father Chandragupta or of his son Ashoka. the original name of this emperor was Simhasena.the peninsular region between the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea). They live. inherited a large empire that consisted of what is now. Unlike his father Chandragupta (who was a follower of Jainism).[12] One day. According to the Rajavalikatha a Jain work. Chanakya continued to serve as prime minister during his reign. He maintained good relations with the Hellenic World. and must therefore in all the business of life trust to memory. Bindusara extended this empire to the southern part of India. Central and Eastern parts of India along with parts of Afghanistan and Baluchistan. Bindusara didn't conquer the friendly Dravidian kingdoms of the Cholas. the Pandyas. shared his food with his pregnant wife queen Durdhara who was 7 days away from delivery. the citizens of Taxila revolted twice. It was later conquered by his son Ashoka. The reason for the first revolt was the maladministration of Suseema. Apart from these southern states. and in order to save the child in the womb. . Bindusara's wife."[14] During his rule. i. Bindusara believed in the Ajivika sect. his eldest son. Bindusara is accredited with giving several grants to Brahmin monasteries (Brahmana-bhatto).[17] Bindusara died in 272 BCE (some records say 268 BCE) and was succeeded by his son Ashoka the Great. Ambassadors from the Seleucid Empire (such as Deimachus) and Egypt visited his courts. and their food is principally a rice-pottage. According to the mediaeval Tibetan scholar Taranatha who visited India.

Maurya Empire 126 Ashoka the Great Chandragupta's grandson i. are found throughout the Subcontinent. and renounced war and violence. Ashoka began feeling remorse. Tulamaya (Ptolemy). Although the annexation of Kalinga was completed. The Edicts also accurately locate their territory "600 yojanas away" (a yojanas being about 7 miles).. Hundreds of thousands of people were adversely affected by the destruction and fallout of war. Ashoka implemented principles of ahimsa by banning hunting and violent sports activity and ending indentured and forced labor (many thousands of people in war-ravaged Kalinga had been forced into hard labor and servitude). and Gandharas as peoples forming a frontier region of his empire. Kambojas. and one in both Greek and Aramaic. Ashoka was a brilliant commander who crushed revolts in Ujjain and Taxila. The Edicts of Ashoka. Ranging from as far west as Afghanistan and as far south as Andhra (Nellore District).[18] . Ashoka's edicts state his policies and accomplishments.000 soldiers and civilians were killed in the furious warfare. He sent out missionaries to travel around Asia and spread Buddhism to other countries. Ashoka expanded friendly relations with states across Asia and Europe.232 BCE). two of them were written in Greek. He remains an idealized figure of inspiration in modern India. Maka (Magas) and Alikasudaro (Alexander) as recipients of Ashoka's proselytism. Amtikini (Antigonos). corresponding to the distance between the center of India and Greece (roughly 4. Ashoka's edicts refer to the Greeks. Although predominantly written in Prakrit.000 miles). Over 40 years of peace. They also attest to Ashoka's having sent envoys to the Greek rulers in the West as far as the Mediterranean. Bindusara's son was Ashokavardhan Maurya who was also known as Ashoka or Ashoka The Great (ruled 273. harmony and prosperity made Ashoka one of the most successful and famous monarchs in Indian history. While he maintained a large and powerful army. But it was his conquest of Kalinga (1842 CE) which proved to be the pivotal event of his life. As a young prince. The edicts precisely name each of the rulers of the Hellenic world at the time such as Amtiyoko (Antiochus). As monarch he was ambitious and aggressive.000 of Ashoka's own men. When he personally witnessed the devastation. an estimated 100. Ashoka embraced the teachings of Buddhism. and he sponsored Buddhist missions. to keep the peace and maintain authority. including over 10. set in stone. Although Ashoka's army succeeded in overwhelming Kalinga forces of royal soldiers and civilian units.e. He undertook a massive public works building campaign across the country. re-asserting the Empire's superiority in southern and western India.

the names of the four provincial capitals are Tosali (in the east). which one of the four. According to Megasthenes. Ujjain (in the west). It is the emblem of India. The head of the provincial administration was the Kumara (royal prince). 30. British Museum. To the West. Administration The Empire was divided into four provinces. 4th–3rd century BCE. which was erected around 250 BCE. and Taxila (in the north). The distribution of the Edicts of [19] Ashoka. From Ashokan edicts. with standing goddess. The expansion and defense of the empire was made possible by what appears to have been the largest standing army of its time[citation needed]. and 9.000 infantry. 3rd century BCE. and bordered the contemporary Hellenistic metropolis of Ai Khanoum. the empire wielded a military of 600. Musée Guimet.Maurya Empire 127 A representation of the Lion Capital of Ashoka. Suvarnagiri (in the south). who governed the provinces as king's representative. it went as far as Kandahar (where the Edicts were written in Greek and Aramaic).000 war elephants. A vast espionage system collected intelligence for both internal and external security purposes.000 cavalry. with the imperial capital at Pataliputra. This organizational structure was reflected at the imperial level with the Emperor and his Mantriparishad Mauryan ringstone. Having renounced offensive warfare and expansionism. Statuettes of the Maurya period. The kumara was assisted by Mahamatyas and council of ministers. look like a giant crescents. Northwest Pakistan. Historians theorize that the organization of the Empire was in line with the extensive bureaucracy described by Kautilya in the Arthashastra: a sophisticated civil service governed everything from municipal hygiene to international trade. (Council of Ministers). Ashoka nevertheless . is a concrete indication of the extent of Ashoka's rule.

Maurya Empire continued to maintain this large army, to protect the Empire and instill stability and peace across West and South Asia.


For the first time in South Asia, political unity and military security allowed for a common economic system and enhanced trade and commerce, with increased agricultural productivity. The previous situation involving hundreds of kingdoms, many small armies, powerful regional chieftains, and internecine warfare, gave way to a disciplined central authority. Farmers were freed of tax and crop Silver punch mark coin of the Mauryan empire, collection burdens from regional kings, paying instead to a nationally with symbols of wheel and elephant. 3rd century administered and strict-but-fair system of taxation as advised by the BCE. principles in the Arthashastra. Chandragupta Maurya established a single currency across India, and a network of regional governors and administrators and a civil service provided justice and security for merchants, farmers and traders. The Mauryan army wiped out many gangs of bandits, regional private armies, and powerful chieftains who sought to impose their own supremacy in small areas. Although regimental in revenue collection, Maurya also sponsored many public works and waterways to enhance productivity, while internal trade in India expanded greatly due to newfound political unity and internal peace. Under the Indo-Greek friendship treaty, and during Ashoka's reign, an international network of trade expanded. The Khyber Pass, on the modern boundary of Pakistan and Afghanistan, became a strategically important port of trade and intercourse with the outside world. Greek states and Hellenic kingdoms in West Asia became important trade partners of India. Trade also extended through the Malay peninsula into Southeast Asia. India's exports included silk goods and textiles, spices and exotic foods. The Empire was enriched further with an exchange of scientific knowledge and technology with Europe and West Asia. Ashoka also sponsored the construction of thousands of roads, waterways, canals, hospitals, rest-houses and other public works. The easing of many over-rigorous administrative practices, including those regarding taxation and crop collection, helped increase productivity and economic activity across the Empire.

Mauryan cast copper coin. Late 3rd century BCE. British Museum.

In many ways, the economic situation in the Mauryan Empire is analogous to the Roman Empire of several centuries later. Both had extensive trade connections and both had organizations similar to corporations. While Rome had organizational entities which were largely used for public state-driven projects, Mauryan India had numerous private commercial entities. These existed purely for private commerce and developed before the Mauryan Empire itself.[20] (See also Economic history of India.)

Maurya Empire


Hinduism was the major religion at the time of inception of the empire[citation needed], Hindu priests and ministers used to be an important part of the emperor's court, e.g. Chanakya. James Hastings writes that they are devotees of Narayana (Vishnu), although Shilanka speaking of the Ekandandins in another connection identifies them as Shaivas (devotees of Shiva).[22] Scholar James Hastings identifies the name "Mankhaliputta" or "Mankhali" with the bamboo staff.[22] Scholar Jitendra N. Banerjea compares them to the Pasupatas Shaivas.[23] Another scholar, Charpentier, believes that the Ajivikas worshiped Shiva before Makkhali Goshala.[24] As Chanakya wrote in his text Chanakya Niti, "Humbly bowing down before the almighty Lord Sri Vishnu, the Lord of the three worlds, I recite maxims of the science of political ethics (niti) selected from the various satras (scriptures)".[25] Even after embracing Buddhism, Ashoka retained the membership of Hindu Brahmana priests and ministers in his court. Mauryan society began embracing the philosophy of ahimsa, and given the increased prosperity and improved law enforcement, crime and internal conflicts reduced dramatically. Also greatly discouraged was the caste system and orthodox discrimination, as Mauryans began to absorb the ideals and values of Jain and Buddhist teachings along with traditional Vedic Hindu teachings.

Balarama, holding mace and conch (lower right) on a Maurya coin. Balarama was originally a powerful independent deity of Hinduism, and was considered an avatar of Vishnu. 3rd–2nd century BCE. British Museum.


Ashoka initially practiced Hinduism but later embraced Buddhism; following the Kalinga War, he renounced expansionism and aggression, and the harsher injunctions of the Arthashastra on the use of force, intensive policing, and ruthless measures for tax collection and against rebels. Ashoka sent a mission led by his son Mahinda and daughter Sanghamitta to Sri Lanka, whose king Tissa was so charmed with Buddhist ideals that he adopted them himself and made Buddhism the state religion. Ashoka sent many Buddhist missions to West Asia, Greece and South East Asia, and commissioned the construction of Buddhist proselytism at the time of king Ashoka monasteries, schools and publication of Buddhist literature across the (260–218 BCE). empire. He is believed to have built as many as 84,000 stupas across India i.e. Sanchi and Mahabodhi Temple, and he increased the popularity of Buddhism in Afghanistan, Thailand and North Asia including Siberia. Ashoka helped convene the Third Buddhist Council of India and

Buddhist stupas during the Mauryan period were simple mounds without decorations. Butkara [21] stupa, 3rd century BCE.

Maurya Empire


South Asia's Buddhist orders, near his capital, a council that undertook much work of reform and expansion of the Buddhist religion. Indian merchants embraced Buddhism and played a large role in spreading the religion across the Mauryan Empire.[26]

Emperor Chandragupta Maurya embraced Jainism after retiring. At an older age, Chandragupta renounced his throne and material possessions to join a wandering group of Jain monks. Chandragupta was a disciple of Acharya Bhadrabahu. It is said that in his last days, he observed the rigorous but self-purifying Jain ritual of santhara i.e. fast unto death, at Shravana Belgola in Karnataka. However, his successor, Emperor Bindusara, was a follower of a Hindu ascetic movement, Ājīvika and distanced Mauryan architecture in the Barabar Mounts. Grottoe of Lomas Richi. 3rd century BCE. himself from Jain and Buddhist movements. Samprati, the grandson of Ashoka also embraced Jainism. Samrat Samprati was influenced by the teachings of Jain monk Arya Suhasti Suri and he is known to have built 125,000 derasars across India. Some of them are still found in towns of Ahmedabad, Viramgam, Ujjain & Palitana. It is also said that just like Ashoka, Samprati sent messengers & preachers to Greece, Persia & middle-east for the spread of Jainism. But to date no research has been done in this area. Thus, Jainism became a vital force under the Mauryan Rule. Chandragupta and Samprati are credited for the spread of Jainism in South India. Lakhs of temples & stupas were erected during their reign. But due to lack of royal patronage & its strict principles, along with the rise of Shankaracharya and Ramanuja, Jainism, once the major religion of southern India, began to decline.

Architectural remains
Architectural remains of the Maurya period are rather few. Remains of a hypostyle building with about 80 columns of a height of about 10 meters have been found in Kumhrar, 5 km from Patna Railway station, and is one of the very few sites that has been connected to the rule of the Mauryas. The style is rather reminiscent of Persian Achaemenid architecture.[27] The grottoes of Barabar Caves, are another example of Mauryan architecture, especially the decorated front of the Lomas Rishi grotto. These were offered by the Mauryas to the Buddhist sect of the Ājīvikas.[28] The most widespread example of Maurya architecture are the Pillars of Ashoka, often exquisitely decorated, with more than 40 spread throughout the Indian subcontinent. ==

The edicts proclaim that many followed the king's example in giving up the slaughter of animals. The Office of the Chief Elephant Forrester should with the help of guards protect the elephants in any terrain. for skins. the food-gatherers or aranyaca to guard borders and trap animals. tigers and other predators to render the woods safe for grazing cattle. the edicts of Ashoka reflect more the desire of rulers than actual events. They regarded all forest tribes with distrust and controlled them with bribery and political subjugation. Yakshini.. one of them proudly states:[30] Our king killed very few animals.[30] . 3rd century BCE The Mauryas valued certain forest tracts in strategic or economic terms and instituted curbs and control measures over them.Maurya Empire 131 The protection of animals in India became serious business by the time of the Maurya dynasty. fishing and setting fires in forests. but also unambiguously specifies the responsibilities of officials such as the Protector of the Elephant Forests. he brought about significant changes in his style of governance. Military might in those times depended not only upon horses and men but also battle-elephants. —Edict on Fifth Pillar However. its denizens and fauna in general is of interest. Kautilya's Arthashastra contains not only maxims on ancient statecraft. —Arthashastra The Mauryas also designated separate forests to protect supplies of timber. the most important forest product was the elephant. The legal restrictions conflicted with the practices freely exercised by the common people in hunting. and even relinquished the royal hunt. felling. The slaying of an elephant is punishable by death. the attitude of the Mauryas towards forests. Elsewhere the Protector of Animals also worked to eliminate thieves. The Mauryas sought to preserve supplies of elephants since it was cheaper and took less time to catch.[30] When Ashoka embraced Buddhism in the latter part of his reign.[29] On the border of the forest. one of Alexander's former generals. which included providing protection to fauna. tame and train wild elephants than to raise them. He was the first ruler in history to advocate conservation measures for wildlife and even had rules inscribed in stone edicts. these played a role in the defeat of Seleucus. he should establish a forest for elephants guarded by foresters. the mention of a 100 'panas' (coins) fine for poaching deer in royal hunting preserves shows that rule-breakers did exist. being the first empire to provide a unified political entity in India. as well as lions and tigers. For them. The sometimes tense and conflict-ridden relationship nevertheless enabled the Mauryas to guard their vast empire. The Mauryas firstly looked at forests as a resource. They employed some of them.

the Macedonian satrap of the Asian portion of Alexander's former empire.4.12–13[32] "Later.Maurya Empire 132 Contacts with the Hellenistic world Foundation of the Empire Relations with the Hellenistic world may have started from the very beginning of the Maurya Empire. he himself oppressed the very people he has liberated from foreign domination" Justin XV. who fought Chandragupta Maurya. Mauryan Statuette. ruler in the western Punjab until his departure in 317 BCE or Peithon. Having thus acquired royal power. as if shaking the burden of servitude. Plutarch 62-3[31] Reconquest of the Northwest (c. History of Rome. but he had transformed liberation in servitude after victory. Sandracottos possessed India at the time Seleucos was preparing future glory. probably around Taxila in the northwest: "Sandrocottus. "India. Hyrcania." Justin XV. Sogdia. a huge wild elephant went to him and took him on his back as if tame. among whom may have been Eudemus. Appian.4. as far as the river Indus. 2nd Century BCE. after the death of Alexander. ruler of the Greek colonies along the Indus until his departure for Babylon in 316 BCE. The Syrian Wars 55[34] Silver coin of Seleucus I Nicator. History of Rome. and we are told that he often said in later times that Alexander narrowly missed making himself master of the country. when he was a stripling. The Syrian Wars 55). The whole region from Phrygia to the Indus was subject to Seleucus". saw Alexander himself. strong in arms and persuasive in council. since.19[33] Conflict and alliance with Seleucus (305 BCE) Seleucus I Nicator. Arabia. The author of this liberation was Sandracottos. since its king was hated and despised on account of his baseness and low birth". Persis. so that the boundaries of his empire were the most extensive in Asia after that of Alexander. in the territories formerly ruled by the Greeks. and later made an alliance with him. Bactria. until in 305 BCE he entered in a confrontation with Chandragupta: "Always lying in wait for the neighboring nations. and he became a remarkable fighter and war leader. where he fought the satraps (described as "Prefects" in Western sources) left in place after Alexander (Justin). after taking the throne. conquered and put under his own authority eastern territories as far as Bactria and the Indus (Appian. 'Seleucid' Cappadocia. Parthia. son of Agenor. . and other adjacent peoples that had been subdued by Alexander. Arachosia. Armenia. he [Seleucus] acquired Mesopotamia. Plutarch reports that Chandragupta Maurya met with Alexander the Great. Tapouria. as he was preparing war against the prefects of Alexander. 310 BCE) Chandragupta ultimately occupied Northwestern India. had assassinated his prefects.

Seleucos went to war against Antigonus.[41][42] Archaeologically. according to Strabo. Regardless. and the Balochistan province of Pakistan. was forced to surrender much that was already his." ” “ "After having made a treaty with him (Sandrakotos) and put in order the Orient situation. such as when Chandragupta sent various aphrodisiacs to Seleucus: "And Theophrastus says that some contrivances are of wondrous efficacy in such matters [as to make people more amorous].4. modern day Afghanistan. sent to Seleucus. chapter 32[44] . ceded a number of territories to Chandragupta. Exchange of ambassadors Seleucus dispatched an ambassador.[40] Exchange of presents Classical sources have also recorded that following their treaty. Accordingly. is also recorded by Pliny the Elder as having sent an ambassador named Dionysius to the Mauryan court. is also recorded by Pliny the Elder as having sent an ambassador named Dionysius to the Mauryan court. 133 “ "He (Seleucus) crossed the Indus and waged war with Sandrocottus [Maurya]. or both[citation needed]." ” [43] —Junianus Justinus. who dwelt on the banks of that stream. including southern Afghanistan and parts of Persia. Seleucus obtained five hundred war elephants. a gift from Seleucus to formalize an alliance. Seleucus dispatched an ambassador. to Chandragupta. including the Hindu Kush. while some. were to banish love" Athenaeus of Naucratis. In addition to this treaty. Later Ptolemy II Philadelphus. the ruler of Ptolemaic Egypt and contemporary of Ashoka. Chandragupta and Seleucus exchanged presents. it is clear that Seleucus fared poorly against the Indian Emperor as he failed in conquering any territory. king of the Indians.Maurya Empire Though no accounts of the conflict remain. . or a Greek Macedonian princess. on the contrary. and later Deimakos to his son Bindusara. concrete indications of Mauryan rule.[40] Mainstream scholarship asserts that Chandragupta received vast territory west of the Indus. Historiarum Philippicarum libri XLIV. until they came to an understanding with each other and contracted a marriage relationship. by reference to some of the presents which Sandrakottus. "The deipnosophists" Book I. Megasthenes. Marital alliance It is generally thought that Chandragupta married Seleucus's daughter. such as the inscriptions of the Edicts of Ashoka. and in fact. XV. In a return gesture. are known as far as Kandahar in southern Afghanistan. Seleucus. Chandragupta sent 500 war elephants. which were to act like charms in producing a wonderful degree of affection.[][35][36][37][38][39] a military asset which would play a decisive role at the Battle of Ipsus in 302 BCE. And Phylarchus confirms him. Seleucus and Chandragupta ultimately reached a settlement and through a treaty sealed in 305 BCE. Later Ptolemy II Philadelphus. although it is unclear whether it occurred among dynastic rulers or common people. Megasthenes. at the Mauryan court at Pataliputra (modern Patna in Bihar state). at the Mauryan court at Pataliputra (Modern Patna in Bihar state). the king of the Indians. to Chandragupta. the ruler of Ptolemaic Egypt and contemporary of Ashoka the Great.15 The treaty on "Epigamia" implies lawful marriage between Greeks and Indians was recognized at the State level. and later Deimakos to his son Bindusara. a military asset which would play a decisive role at the Battle of Ipsus in 301 BCE.

the Andhras and the Palidas. and some dried figs. everywhere people are following Beloved-of-the-Gods' instructions in Dharma". Eusebeia) to men. Kabul Museum. Ashoka describes that Greek population within his realm converted to Buddhism: "Here in the king's domain among the Greeks. Fragments of Edict 13 have been found in Greek. the king of the Indians. in opposition to the past also in the future. but it is not lawful for a sophist to be sold in Greece" Athenaeus. they have ceased from their intemperance as was in their power. Rock Edict Nb13 (S. using sophisticated philosophical terms. from Kandahar. "Deipnosophistae" XIV. they will live better and more happily". (Click those who (are) huntsmen and fishermen of the king have image for translation). and obedient to their father and mother and to the elders. and a sophist. In this Edict. and other men and Ashoka.67[45] 134 Greek population in India Greek population apparently remained in the northwest of the Indian subcontinent under Ashoka's rule. "The dry figs and the sweet wine we will send you. And Bilingual edict (Greek and Aramaic) by king the king abstains from (killing) living beings. as Aristophanes says. entreating him (it is Hegesander who tells this story) to buy and send him some sweet wine.Maurya Empire His son Bindusara 'Amitraghata' (Slayer of Enemies) also is recorded in Classical sources as having exchanged present with Antiochus I: "But dried figs were so very much sought after by all men (for really. And if some (were) intemperate. Carratelli [46]) . and that Antiochus wrote to him in answer. desisted from hunting.P. by G. written in both Greek and Aramaic has been discovered in Kandahar. (Trans. the Kambojas. the Bhojas. that even Amitrochates. the Nabhakas. Ashoka uses the word Eusebeia ("Piety") as the Greek translation for the ubiquitous "Dharma" of his other Edicts written in Prakrit: "Ten years (of reign) having been completed. Dhammika). some of them written in Greek. "There's really nothing nicer than dried figs"). set in stone. It is said to be written in excellent Classical Greek. and everything thrives throughout the whole world. and from this moment he has made men more pious. and a full Edict. wrote to Antiochus. the Nabhapamkits. King Piodasses (Ashoka) made known (the doctrine of) Piety (εὐσέβεια. the Pitinikas. In his Edicts of Ashoka. by so acting on every occasion.

as a descendant of Pradyumna. 2nd Rock Edict The Greeks in India even seem to have played an active role in the propagation of Buddhism. Dhammika). Wherever medical roots or fruits are not available I have had them imported and grown. are described in Pali sources as leading Greek ("Yona") Buddhist monks. in the Edicts of Ashoka. described in ancient Greek sources.39 [48] . King Piyadasi's [Ashoka's] domain. the Cholas. Magas and Alexander rule.600 km) away. until he had a hundred and fifty altogether. and as far as Tamraparni (Sri Lanka). on the borders. everywhere has Beloved-of-the-Gods. 13th Rock Edict. set out again personally with his army: leaving Androsthenes of Cyzicus the duty of taking home the treasure which this king had agreed to hand over to him". Antigonos. renewed his friendship with Sophagasenus the king of the Indians. or Kunala. the Keralaputras. as some of the emissaries of Ashoka. and even six hundred yojanas (5. Along roads I have had wells dug and trees planted for the benefit of humans and animals". and also in the list of the Yadava dynasty. made provision for two types of medical treatment: medical treatment for humans and medical treatment for animals. as far as Tamraparni and where the Greek king Antiochos rules. after having made peace with Euthydemus in Bactria. Wherever medical herbs suitable for humans or animals are not available. the Seleucid king. I have had them imported and grown. and among the kings who are Front view of the single lion capital in Vaishali. likewise in the south among the Cholas. and among the people beyond the borders. the Satiyaputras. received more elephants. in their territories: "Everywhere within Beloved-of-the-Gods. and having once more provisioned his troops. possibly in Gandhara. where the Greek king Antiochos rules. His name is mentioned in the list of Mauryan princes[citation needed]. neighbors of Antiochos. for men and animals.Maurya Empire 135 Buddhist missions to the West (c. and named Subhagsena or Subhashsena in Prakrit. Polybius 11. Subhagsena and Antiochos III (206 BCE) Sophagasenus was an Indian Mauryan ruler of the 3rd century BCE. went to India in 206 BCE and is said to have renewed his friendship with the Indian king there: "He (Antiochus) crossed the Caucasus and descended into India. He ruled an area south of the Hindu Kush. XII[47]). although no Western historical record of this event remain: "The conquest by Dharma has been won here. beyond there where the four kings named Ptolemy. Antiochos III. the Pandyas. such as Dharmaraksita. Ashoka mentions the Hellenistic kings of the period as a recipient of his Buddhist proselytism. King Piyadasi. 250 BCE) Also. S." (Edicts of Ashoka. active in Buddhist proselytism (the Mahavamsa. the Pandyas. He may have been a grandson of Ashoka. Ashoka also claims that he encouraged the development of herbal medicine.400–9. the son of Ashoka.

and Kalingas are unclear. Regarding the decline much has been written. the modern city of Sialkot. The capture of power by Pushyamitra Sunga shows the triumph of Brahmins. Brihadrata. The book Divyavadana refers to the persecution of Buddhists by Pushyamitra Sunga. Sunga coup (185 BCE) Brihadrata was assassinated in 185 BCE during a military parade. 3.[50] Pusyamitra may have been the main author of the persecutions. The Indo-Greeks would maintain holdings on the trans-Indus region. the last ruler of the Mauryan dynasty. the region of Mathura. some maintain the view that brahminical reaction was responsible for the decline because of the following reasons. However. who then took over the throne and established the Sunga dynasty. The Greco-Bactrian king. Asoka's claim that he exposed the Budheveas (Brahmins) as false gods shows that Ashoka was not well disposed towards Brahmins. and one of their kings Menander became a famous figure of Buddhism. Demetrius. Although the extent of their successes against indigenous powers such as the Sungas. According to Sir John Marshall. Asoka's compassion towards animals was not an overnight decision. All of these four points can be easily refuted. have argued that archaeological evidence in favor of the allegations of persecution of Buddhists are lacking. and that the extent and magnitude of the atrocities have been exaggerated. although he still upheld the Buddhist faith. The book Divyavadana cannot be relied upon since it was during the time of Pushyamitra Sunga that the Sanchi and Barhut stupas were completed. Even Brahmins gave it up. he was to establish a new capital of Sagala. although later Sunga kings seem to have been more supportive of Buddhism. the extent of their domains and the lengths of their rule are subject to much debate. Satavahanas. held territories that had shrunk considerably from the time of emperor Ashoka. 1. and make forays into central India. Basing themselves on this thesis. such as Etienne Lamotte[51] and Romila Thapar. Numismatic evidence indicates that they retained holdings in the subcontinent right up to the birth of Christ. and he conquered southern Afghanistan and Western India around 180 BCE.[49] and a resurgence of Hinduism. Haraprasad Sastri contends that the revolt by Pushyamitra was the result of brahminical reaction against the pro-Buddhist policies of Ashoka and pro-Jaina policies of his successors. for about a century. capitalized on the break-up. Repulsion of animal sacrifices grew over a long period of time. forming the Indo-Greek Kingdom. Other historians.Maurya Empire 136 Decline Ashoka was followed for 50 years by a succession of weaker kings. renamed Indo-Scythians. Buddhist records such as the Asokavadana write that the assassination of Brhadrata and the rise of the Sunga empire led to a wave of persecution for Buddhists. Had not the partition taken place. 1. Another immediate cause was the partition of the Empire into two. and Gujarat. The impression of the persecution of Buddhism was probably created by . brought about the demise of the Indo-Greeks from around 70 BCE and retained lands in the trans-Indus. One obvious reason for it was the succession of weak kings. 2. the Brahmin general Pusyamitra Sunga. by the commander-in-chief of his guard.[52] among others. 2. Prohibition of the slaughter of animals displeased the Brahmins as animal sacrifices were esteemed by them. Establishment of the Indo-Greek Kingdom (180 BCE) The fall of the Mauryas left the Khyber Pass unguarded. what is clear is that Scythian tribes. and a wave of foreign invasion followed. Under them. Buddhism flourished. 4. the Greek invasions could have been held back giving a chance to the Mauryas to re-establish some degree of their previous power. Reasons The decline of the Maurya Dynasty was rather rapid after the death of Ashoka/Asoka.

His own inscriptions bear ample withness to the fact. Sunga art conformed more to 137 .Asokan period surplus wealth was used by the rising commercial classes to decorate religious buildings. The sculpture at Barhut and Sanchi and the Deccan caves was the contribution of this new bourgeoisie. Buddha himself was looked upon in his lifetime and afterwards as a Hindu saint and avatar and his followers were but another sect in the great Aryan tradition. Viewed like this. This argument is based on the view that Sunga art (Sculpture at Barhut and Sanchi) is more earthy and in the folk tradition that Maruyan art. Ashoka was a Buddhist in the same way as Harsha was a Budhist. He based his arguments that unnccessary measures were taken up to increase tax and the punch-marked coins of the period show evidence of debasement.Maurya Empire Menander's invasion. the beloved of the gods. sramansa (Buddhist priests) and others equally. The organization were ready to accept any one who could promise a more efficient organisation. his gifts are to the brahmibns. Which addressing the tribal people Asoka expressed his willingness to for given. the very fact that a Brahmin was the commander in chief of the Mauryan ruler proves that the Mauryas and the Brahmins were on good terms. Asoka was essentially a Hindu. The reign of Asoka was an asset to the economy. The character of Sunga art changed because it served a different purpose and its donors belonged to different social classes. The unification of the country under single efficient administration the organization and increase in communications meant the development of trade as well as an opening of many new commercial interest. which was unknown to India for a long time. Instead the economy prospered as shown by archaeological evidence at Hastinapura and Sisupalqarh. The victory of Pushyamitra Sunga clearly shows that the last of the Mauryas was an incompetent ruler since he was overthrown in the very presence of his army. as indeed was the founder of the sect to which he belonged. This contention too cannot be up held. Well he was wordly-wise to enslave and-and-half lakh sudras of Kalinga and bring them to the Magadha region to cut forests and cultivate land. But in the view of the people of the day he was a Hindu monarch following one of the recognized sects. Moreover. 4. While his doctrines follow the middle path. 3. Killing the Mauryan King while he was reviewing the army points to a palace coup d'état not a revolution. He was shrewd enough in retaining Kalinga although he expressed his remorse. Also. The exclusiveness of religious doctrines is a Semitic conception. After all. since he was a Buddhist. More draconian was Ashoka's message to the forest tribes who were warned of the power which he possessed. Apart from these two major writers there is a third view as expressed by kosambi. This view of Raychoudhury on the pacifism of the State cannot be substantiated. Also if Pushyamitra was really a representative of brahminical reaction he neighbouting kings would have definitely given him assistance. The word 'budheva' is misinterpreted because this word is to be taken in the context of some other phrase. Still another view regarding of the decline of Mauryas was that the coup of Pushyamitra was a peoples' revolt against Mauryans oppression and a rejection of the Maurya adoption of foreign ideas. The idea that Ashoka was a kind of Buddhist Constantine declearing himself against paganism is a complete misreading of India conditions. More important point is the fact that the material remains of the post-Asokan era do not suggest any pressure on the economy. and this had nothing to do with brahminical reaction against Asoka's patronage of Buddhism. The empire had shrunk considerably and there was no revolution. It is quite possible that debased coins began to circulate during the period of the later Mauryas. the word has nothing to do with brahminism. On the other hand the debasement may also indicate that there was an increased demand for silver in relation to goods leading to the silver content of the coins being reduced. as far interest in Mauryan Art. The argument that the empire became effete because of Asokan policies is also very thin. His own name of adoption is Devanam Priya. More than this his tours of the empire were not only meant for the sake of piety but also for keeping an eye on the centrifugal tendencies of the empire. Which gods? Surely the gods of the Aryan religion. This is more stretching the argument too far. Buddhism had no gods of its own. or Kumarapala was a Jain. In the post . the distinction between Hinduism and Buddhism in India was purely sectarian and never more than the difference between saivism and vaishnavism. All the evidence suggests that Asoka was a stern monarch although his reign witnessed only a single campaign. Raychaudhury too rebuts the arguments of Sastri.

138 . And as the successors of Asoka happened to be weak. There was a total absence of any advisory institution representing public opinion. Asoka did ban festive meetings and discouraged eating of meat.Maurya Empire the folk traditions because Buddhism itself had incorporated large elements of popular cults and because the donors of this art. If the Mauryan Empire did not survive for long. the Mauryan empire and the philosophy of the empire was not in tune with the spirit of the time because Aryanism and brahminism was very much there. the king was only an upholder of dharma. The land tax varied from region to region according to the fertility of the soil and the availability of water. This meant that a change of king could result in change of officials leading to the demoralization of the officers. Land could frequently change hands. the sentiment of the people towards the political factor. The Mauryan Empire declined without anyone's regret. That is why the Mauryas depended greatly on the espionage system. The sophisticated cities and the trade centers were a great contrast to the isolated village communities. popular uprising or economic pressure. Such being the reality. which was very burden some to the cultivator. These too might have entagonised the population but it is doubtful whether these prohibitions were strictly enforced. Mauryas had no system of ensuring the continuation of well-planned bureaucracy. After the death of Asoka there was definitely a weakening at the center particularly after the division of the empire. were culturally more in the mainstream of folk tradition. It is also argued by these theorists that Asokan policy in all its details was continued by the later Mauryas. Further more. In other words. it could be because of the failure of the successors of Asoka to hold on to the principles that could make success of such an empire. Also. Thus the decline of the Mauryan empire cannot be satisfactorily explained by referring to Military inactivity. Brahmin resentment. many of whom may have been artisans. The causes of the decline of the Mauryan empire must. The above argument (people's revolt) also means that Asoka's policy was continued by his successors also. The figure of one quarter stated by Magasthenes probably referred only to the fertile and well-watered regions around Pataliputra. which inevitably led to the breaking of provinces from the Mauryan rule. Added to this lack of representative institutions there was no distinction between the executive and the judiciary of the government. An incapable king may use the officers either for purposes of oppression or fail to use it for good purpose. All these differences naturally led to the economic and political structures being different from region to region. Further. The causes of the decline were more fundamental. Fertility wise the region of the Ganges was more prosperous than northern Deccan. the empire inevitably declined. but never the crucial or architecture factor influencing the whole of life. It is also a fact that even the languages spoken were varied. it should be borne in mind that all the officials owed their loyalty to the king and not to the State. Had the southern region been more developed. But historical evidence shows something else. Still another argument that is advanced in favour of the idea of revolt against the Mauryas is that the land tax under the Mauryas was one-quarter. it is unlikely that there was sufficient national consciousness among the varied people of the Mauryan empire. that is the State was never established in India. an assumption not confirmed by historical data. which is not a historical fact. The next important weakness of the Mauryan Empire was its extreme centralization and the virtual monopoly of all powers by the king. According to the Brahmin or Aryan philosophy. The history of a sub-continent and their casual relationships. Mauryan administration was not fully tuned to meet the existing disparities in economic activity. One more reasoning to support the popular revolt theory is based on Asoka's ban on the samajas. Another associated point of great importance is the fact that the Mauryan Empire which was highly centralized and autocratic was the first and last one of its kind. Also the people of the sub-continent were not of uniform cultural level. the empire could have witnessed economic homogeneity. when the successors of Asoka failed to make use of the institution and the thinking that was needed to make a success of a centralized political authority. The organization of administration and the concept of the State were such that they could be sustained by only by kings of considerably personal ability. Other factors of importance that contributed to the decline and lack of national unity were the ownership of land and inequality of economic levels.

46 [27] "L'age d'or de l'Inde Classique". Chandragupta's grandson. (2001) India's Wildlife History. praefectos eius occiderat. tufts. Dhammika. 6.12). perseus. p 118. He conquers parts of Deccan. 269-232 BC : The Maurya Empire reaches its height under Ashoka. pp 7. M. 266 Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Part 1 By James Hastings [23] P. co.za (http:/ / www. (Ex qua fatigatione cum somno captus iaceret. 24 Buddhism in comparative light by Anukul Chandra Banerjee [17] P. 01. when he was a stripling. html) "asti tava Shaka-Yavana-Kirata-Kamboja-Parasika-Bahlika parbhutibhih Chankyamatipragrahittaishcha Chandergupta Parvateshvara balairudidhibhiriva parchalitsalilaih samantaad uprudham Kusumpurama" (Sanskrit original. translation S. be attributed to top heavy administration where authority was entirely in the hands of a few persons while national consciousness was unknown. and we are told that he often said in later times that Alexander narrowly missed making himself master of the country. 139 Timeline 1. 1980. 212 Age of the Nandas and Mauryas By K. 3. [9] For Harahunas being a group of the Hunas. [31] Plutarch 62-3 (http:/ / www. since its king was hated and despised on account of his baseness and low birth. sed ad regni potestatem maiestate numinis inpulsus. Ishwar Nath Topa [18] Edicts of Ashoka. leo ingentis formae ad dormientem accessit sudoremque profluentem lingua ei detersit expergefactumque blande reliquit. Nilakanta Sastri [25] Chanakya at Hinduism. com/ sol3/ papers. org/ literature/ justin/ texte15." Justin XV.109 A brief history of India by Alain Daniélou. (http:/ / papers. 1) [32] "(Transitum deinde in Indiam fecit). C. ssrn. 4. edu/ projectsouthasia/ history/ primarydocs/ Foreign_Views/ GreekRoman/ Megasthenes-Indika. Kenneth Hurry [15] P. the last emperor." Plutarch 62-3 Plutarch 62-3 (http:/ / www. [8] The Hunas mentioned in Mudrarakshasa play (II) of Vishakhadatta are same people as the Harahunas of the Mahabharata (II. Quippe cum procacitate sua Nandrum regem offendisset. htm) [14] P.15 "Fuit hic humili quidem genere natus. [22] P. 5. Dr Michael Witzel. Sircar.32. 0243& layout=& loc=62. Harvard University. interfici a rege iussus salutem pedum ceieritate quaesierat. hinduism. see also: Early History of Iranians and Atharvaveda. p23 [28] "L'age d'or de l'Inde Classique". pp 8. 322 BC : Chandragupta Maurya founds the Maurya Empire. 250 BC : Ashoka builds Buddhist stupas and erects pillars bering inscriptions. A. 261 BC : Ashoka conquers the kingdom of Kalinga.4. 92 Paurānic and Tāntric Religion: Early Phase By Jitendra Nath Banerjea [24] P. [21] Source: "Butkara I". Notes [5] :"Androcottus. Hoc prodigio primum ad spem regni inpulsus) contractis latronibus Indos ad nouitatem regni sollicitauit. 2. [30] Rangarajan. Auctor libertatis Sandrocottus fuerat.15 (http:/ / www. Persica-9. 01. forumromanum. is killed by a rival dynasty. tufts. 14 siquidem occupato regno populum quem ab externa dominatione uindicauerat ipse seruitio premebat. p 66.Maurya Empire in large part. [11] Source:Megasthenes fragment XXVII (http:/ / www. mssu.4. htm) [26] Jerry Bentley. za/ chanakya. 301-269 BC : Reign of Bindusara. quae post mortem Alexandri. edu/ cgi-bin/ ptext?doc=Perseus:text:1999. ueluti ceruicibus iugo seruitutis excusso. M. Old World Encounters: Cross-Cultural Contacts in Pre-Modern Times (New York: Oxford University Press). perseus." Justin XV. 184 BC :The empire collapses when Brihadnatha. Dr D. They were located in Herat/Aria according to Dr Moti Chandra and were an earlier branch of the Hunas (See: Geographical and Economic Studies in the Mahābhārata: Upāyana Parva. Also: Studies in the Geography of Ancient and Medieval India. org/ literature/ justin/ trad15." Justin XV. 171 Asoka and his inscriptions.co. Volume 1 by Beni Madhab Barua. 146 History and doctrines of the Ājīvikas: a vanished Indian religion by Arthur Llewellyn Basham [16] P. 138 and P. 1945. Facenna. Mudrarakshasa 2). forumromanum. southern India. 1) [6] :"He was of humble Indian to a change of rule. cfm?abstract_id=796464) University of Michigan. edu/ cgi-bin/ ptext?doc=Perseus:text:1999. [20] The Economic History of the Corporate Form in Ancient India. (2001) India's Wildlife History.4. p22 [29] Rangarajan. .12–13 (http:/ / www. 0243& layout=& loc=62. 13th Rock Edict. p 33. Dr Moti Chandra. saw Alexander himself. sed titulum libertatis post uictoriam in seruitutem uerterat . 1971. Chandragupta's son.

Asian Educational Services. 21) [41] Vincent A. wisc. pg. "A Guide to Sanchi".org/Asoka. (Kachroo ." Justin XV. Indiam possidebat. "Deipnosophistae" XIV. Gotham Books. [40] Pliny the Elder. de/ cgi-bin/ ptext?lookup=Plin. tufts. The Syrian Wars 55 (http:/ / www.allempires.kamat.223) [38] W.cs. The Journal of Hellenic Studies 60.amazon. + Nat. Fuller. "Two Notes on Seleucid History: 1. 39 [49] [50] [51] [52] According to the Ashokavadana Sir John Marshall. Classical Philology 14 (4).htm) The Mauryan Empire from Britannica (http://www. livius. (Hunter. mpiwg-berlin. W. Deip. [39] Partha Sarathi Bose (2003). net/ afghanistan/ mauryans. I. + 11. [43] http:/ / www.britannica.edu/~malaiya/ashoka.amazon.htm) Extent of the Empire (http://www. The Generalship of Alexander the Great ISBN 0-306-81330-0 (http://www.org/man-md/mauryas/mauryas. History of Rome.indianchild. org/ ap-ark/ appian/ appian_syriaca_11.p. wisc.p.php?q=mauryan_empire) at All Empires Livius. Tarmita".com/gp/ product/0306813300) • Siddharth Petare 14 February 2013 @ 2 pm External links • • • • • • • The Mauryan Empire (http://www. 84-94. Eastern Book House. afghanan. forumromanum. Arthashastra ISBN 0-14-044603-6 (http://www. AthV3& isize=M& page=1044) [46] http:/ / www. + 6. Sic adquisito regno Sandrocottus ea tempestate. ISBN 1-59240-053-1.4.167) [37] The evolution of man and society. com/gp/product/0140513353) • Chanakya.colostate.F. p.html) Mauryan Empire of India (http://www.buddhistcouncil. Seleucus' 500 Elephants.amazon. Chap.38 E. perseus.19 (http:/ / www.org: Maurya dynasty (http://www.com/eb/article-9051518) Ashoka and Buddhism (http://www. mpg. The Penguin Historical Atlas of Ancient Greece ISBN 0-14-051335-3 (http://www. Alexander the Great's Art of Strategy. html) [48] http:/ / www.livius. Institut Orientaliste. (Darlington . html [44] Ath. edu/ cgi-bin/ Literature/ Literature-idx?type=goto& id=Literature.196) [36] The Imperial Gazetteer of India. Tarn (1940). edu/ cgi-bin/ ptext?lookup=Plb.67 (http:/ / digicoll. Lamotte: History of Indian Buddhism. Asoka. org/ mahavamsa/ chapters. ISBN 81-206-1303-1. org/ literature/ justin/ trad15. p. forumromanum.com/article/index. library. 2. "The Importance of Hellenism from the Point of View of Indic-Philology". html) [34] Appian. [42] Walter Eugene Clark (1919).html) Preceded by Magadha dynasties Succeeded by Nanda dynasty Sunga dynasty . qua Seleucus futurae magnitudinis fundamenta iaciebat.htm) Ashoka's Edicts (http://www. 21 (http:/ / perseus.com/kalranga/ancient/maurya. html) [35] Ancient India. "The Natural History".C. Louvain-la-Neuve 1988 (1958) Asoka and the Decline of the Mauryas by Romila Thapar. 297-313.com/mauryan_empire. Oxford University Press. Smith (1998).32 (http:/ / digicoll. library.com/gp/product/0140446036) • J. edu/ cgi-bin/ Literature/ Literature-idx?type=turn& entity=Literature000701860036& isize=M& pview=hide) [45] Athenaeus.p. htm [47] Full text of the Mahavamsa Click chapter XII (http:/ / lakdiva. org/ literature/ justin/ trad15. 1960 P200 140 References • Robert Morkot.Maurya Empire html) [33] "Molienti deinde bellum aduersus praefectos Alexandri elephantus ferus infinitae magnitudinis ultro se obtulit et ueluti domita mansuetudine eum tergo excepit duxque belli et proeliator insignis fuit. 1990. ISBN 81-85204-32-2.

Harsha Gurjara-Pratihara Pala Empire Paramara dynasty Solanki Eastern Ganga dynasty Sena dynasty • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Southern India Pandyas Cholas Cheras Satavahana Empire Kalabhras dynasty Kadamba Dynasty Western Ganga Dynasty Vishnukundina Pallava Kalachuri Chalukya Rashtrakuta Yadava dynasty Western Chalukyas Kakatiya dynasty Hoysala Empire • • • • • Northeastern India Varman dynasty Kamarupa kingdom Mlechchha dynasty Pala dynasty Kamboja-Pala dynasty (Persian rule) (Greek conquests) • • • • • • • • • Indo-Greek Kingdom Yona Indo-Scythians Indo-Parthians Pahlava Kushan Empire Indo-Sassanids Kidarite Kingdom Indo-Hephthalites (Huna) (Islamic conquests) • Kabul Shahi (Islamic Empire) List of Mauryan rulers The Maurya dynasty ruled over a geographically extensive empire in India from 321 to 185 BC.272 BC 304 . 185 BC c.224 BC 232 BC 224 BC 215 BC 202 BC 195 BC 187 BC 224 BC 215 BC 202 BC 195 BC 187 BC 185 BC Mauryan dynasty Mauryan dynasty Mauryan dynasty Mauryan dynasty Mauryan dynasty Mauryan dynasty Lifespan 345 .298 BC 320 .Maurya Empire 141 Classical India Timeline: 6th century BCE  5th century BCE  4th century BCE  3rd century BCE  2nd century BCE  1st century BCE  1st century CE  2nd century  3rd century  4th century  5th century  6th century  7th century  8th century  9th century 10th century 11th century • Northwestern India Gandhara • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Northern India Magadha Shishunaga dynasty Nanda empire Kalinga Maurya Empire Sunga Empire Maha-Meghavahana Dynasty Kuninda Kingdom Western Satraps Gupta Empire Maitraka Vakataka dynasty. Rulers Name Chandragupta Maurya Bindusara Ashoka the Great • ashoka Dasaratha Samprati Salisuka Devavarman Satadhanvan Brihadratha d. 252 .232 BC Reign start 322 BC 298 BC 274 BC Reign Notes end 298 BC 272 BC 232 BC Family Mauryan dynasty Mauryan dynasty Mauryan dynasty Image .

List of Mauryan rulers 142 References Nanda Empire Nanda Empire ← 424 BC–321 BC → The Nanda Empire at its greatest extent under Dhana Nanda circa 323 BC. the Nanda Empire extended from Bengal in the east. to Punjab in the west and as far south as the Vindhya Range.[1] The Nanda Empire was later conquered by Chandragupta Maurya. Capital Languages Religion Pataliputra Sanskrit Jainism Hinduism Buddhism Monarchy Mahapadma Nanda Dhana Nanda Historical era Established Disestablished Antiquity 424 BC 321 BC Government Samrat • • Outline of South Asian history History of Indian subcontinent The Nanda Empire originated from the region of Magadha in ancient India during the 5th and 4th centuries BC. . who founded the Maurya Empire. At its greatest extent.

2. The Nandas who usurped the throne of the Shishunaga dynasty were thought to be of low origin with some sources stating that the dynasty's founder. 424 BC – ?) • • • • • • • • • Pandhuka Panghupati Bhutapala Rashtrapala Govishanaka Dashasidkhaka Kaivarta Mahendra Dhana Nanda (Argames) (? – c. List of Nanda rulers • Mahapadma Nanda (c. 31.[citation needed]. 80. According to Plutarch however. was the son of a Shudra . was the ruler of the Nanda dynasty for all but 12 of the dynasty's 100 years. Asmakas. 28–33.000 infantry. to name a few . Kasis. He expanded his territory south of the Deccan plains. 321 BC) Asiain 323 BC. defeated the Panchalas. Surasenas and the Vitihotras. Kurus. Haihayas. who invaded India at the time of Dhana Nanda. Footnotes [1] Radha Kumud Mookerji. However. numbering 200.000 war elephants.Nanda Empire 143 Establishment of the dynasty Mahapadma Nanda. Kalingas. the size of the Nanda army was even larger. 8. To this purpose they built up a vast army. since Alexander had to confine his campaign to the plains of Punjab. They inherited the large kingdom of Magadha and wished to extend it to yet more distant frontiers.000 war chariots and 3. Mahapadma. who died at the age of 88. (Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass.000 cavalry. the Nandas never had the opportunity to see their army up against Alexander. 1988 [1966]).000 cavalry. 20. frightened by the prospect of facing a formidable foe. This river thus marks the eastern-most extent of Alexander's conquests. mutinied at the Hyphasis River (the modern Beas River) refusing to march any further. 4th ed.000 war chariots. showing borders of the Nanda Empire in relation to Alexander's Empire and neighbors. Chandragupta Maurya and His Times. Mahapadma Nanda. consisting of 200.000 infantry. Preceded by Nanda Dynasty Succeeded by Shishunaga dynasty (345 BC–321 BC) Maurya dynasty . for his forces. and 6. Maithilas.000 war elephants (at the lowest estimates). [2] Nanda rule The Nandas are sometimes described as the first empire builders in the recorded history of India. who has been described as "the destroyer of all the Kshatriyas".

Nanda Empire 144 Classical India Timeline: 6th century BCE  5th century BCE  4th century BCE  3rd century BCE  2nd century BCE  1st century BCE  1st century CE  2nd century  3rd century  4th century  5th century  6th century  7th century  8th century  9th century 10th century 11th century • Northwestern India Gandhara • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Northern India Magadha Shishunaga dynasty Nanda empire Kalinga Maurya Empire Sunga Empire Maha-Meghavahana Dynasty Kuninda Kingdom Western Satraps Gupta Empire Maitraka Vakataka dynasty. Harsha Gurjara-Pratihara Pala Empire Paramara dynasty Solanki Eastern Ganga dynasty Sena dynasty • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Southern India Pandyas Cholas Cheras Satavahana Empire Kalabhras dynasty Kadamba Dynasty Western Ganga Dynasty Vishnukundina Pallava Kalachuri Chalukya Rashtrakuta Yadava dynasty Western Chalukyas Kakatiya dynasty Hoysala Empire • • • • • Northeastern India Varman dynasty Kamarupa kingdom Mlechchha dynasty Pala dynasty Kamboja-Pala dynasty (Persian rule) (Greek conquests) • • • • • • • • • Indo-Greek Kingdom Yona Indo-Scythians Indo-Parthians Pahlava Kushan Empire Indo-Sassanids Kidarite Kingdom Indo-Hephthalites (Huna) (Islamic conquests) • Kabul Shahi (Islamic Empire) .

Magadhi Prakrit. Sanskrit) Hinduism Jainism Buddhism Brahmanism Absolute Monarchy as described in the Arthashastra Antiquity 500 BC Government Historical era .Established .Disestablished 321 BC Currency Today part of Panas  India  Bangladesh • • Outline of South Asian history History of Indian subcontinent .g. then Pataliputra (Modern day Patna) Old Indic Languages (e. Other Prakrits.Magadha 145 Magadha Kingdom of Magadha ← 500 BC–321 BC → The approximate extent of the Magadha state in the 5th century BCE Capital Languages Religion Rajagriha. Maithili.

Magadha 146 Part of a series on the History of Bangladesh History of Bengal • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Vedic period NBWP culture Gangaridai Magadha Maurya Empire Pundravardhana Vanga Suhma Anga Harikela Magadha Pradyota dynasty Shishunaga dynasty Nanda Empire Sunga Empire Kanva dynasty Gupta Empire Kamboja Pala dynasty Shashanka Pala Empire Sena dynasty Delhi Sultanate Sultanate of Bengal Deva dynasty Raja Ganesha Mughal Empire Maharaja Pratap Aditya Nawab of Bengal Baro-Bhuyan Zamindari system Bengal famine of 1770 Company Raj British Raj Bengal Renaissance Partition of Bengal (1905) Partition of Bengal (1947) East Bengal Partition of India East Pakistan Liberation War .

most significantly a belief in rebirth and karmic retribution.[4] Early Jaina and Brahmanical scriptures describe varieties of ascetic practices that are based on shared assumptions. Aurangabad. mathematics. and parts of Bengal in the east. on the south by the Vindhya mountains and on the west by the river Sone. It was bounded on the north by the river Ganges. Two of India's major religions.[2] The earliest reference to the Magadha people occurs in the Atharva-Veda where they are found listed along with the Angas. and philosophy and were considered the Indian "Golden Age". Nawadah and Gaya in southern Bihar. two of India's greatest empires. The Magadha state c.[5] The belief in rebirth and karmic retribution was an important feature in later developments in Indian religion and philosophy. Mahabharata. Much of the second urbanisation took place here from c. It is also mentioned in the Ramayana. Villages had their own assemblies under their local chiefs called Gramakas. Jehanabad. . before it expanded The importance of Magadha's culture can be seen in that both Buddhism and Jainism adopted some of its features.[1] followed by much of eastern Uttar Pradesh and Orissa. Jainism. religion.[3] This region of Greater Magadha had a culture and religious beliefs of its own that predated the sanatan dharma. originated from Magadha. Puranas. and Mujavats. and Buddhism have roots in Magadha. its first capital was Rajagriha (modern Rajgir) then Pataliputra (modern Patna). its boundaries included Anga. 600 BC. The Magadha kingdom included republican communities such as the community of Rajakumara. During the Buddha’s time and onward. and military functions. These practices and their underlying assumptions were present in the culture of Greater Magadha at an early date and are likely to have influenced Jainism and other religions. The ancient kingdom of Magadha is heavily mentioned in Jain and Buddhist texts. Geography The kingdom of the Magadha roughly corresponds to the modern districts of Patna. judicial.Magadha • 147 People's Republic of Bangladesh See also • • • Timeline Rulers of Bengal Legendary kings of Magadha Bangladesh portal Magadha (Sanskrit: मगध) formed one of the sixteen Mahā-Janapadas (Sanskrit: "Great Countries") or kingdoms in ancient India. on the east by the river Champa. These empires saw advancements in ancient India's science. astronomy. Their administrations were divided into executive. 500 BCE onwards and it was here that Jainism became strong and Buddhism arose. Magadha expanded to include most of Bihar and Bengal with the conquest of Licchavi and Anga respectively. Gandharis. The core of the kingdom was the area of Bihar south of the Ganges. the Maurya Empire and Gupta Empire. These assumptions included the belief that liberation can be achieved through knowledge of the self. Nalanda.

Magadha 148 Recorded History There is little certain information available on the early rulers of Magadha. king of neighboring Kosala and brother-in-law of King Bimbisara. conquering Anga in what is now West Bengal. King Bimbisara of the Haryanka dynasty led an active and expansive policy. King Pasenadi(Prasenajit). the Nanda Dynasty ended and Chandragupta became the first king of the great Mauryan Dynasty and Mauryan Empire with the help of Vishnugupta. It took fifteen years for Ajatashatru to defeat them. Gupta Dynasty expanded beyond Magadha. Jain texts tell how Ajatashatru used two new weapons: a catapult. the Mauryan Empire ended. As the scene of many incidents in his life. Sunga and Khārabēḷa Empire ended and the Gupta Empire began. Śiśunāga Dynasty ruled Magadha from 684 – 424 BC. such as the Pāli Canon. the army of Alexander approached the boundaries of Magadha. and a covered chariot with swinging mace that has been compared to a modern tank. was persuaded that it was better to return and turned south. King Prasenajit allowed him and his army return to Magadha. Magadha is often considered a blessed land. Pataliputra began to grow as a center of commerce and became the capital of Magadha after Ajatashatru's death. Ajatashatru was trapped by an ambush and captured with his army. mutinied at the Hyphasis (modern Beas) and refused to march further East. Torn by disagreements the Licchavis with many tribes that fought with Ajatashatru. Magadha rose to prominence under a number of dynasties that peaked with the reign of Asoka Maurya. Accounts differ slightly as to the cause of King Ajatashatru's war with the Licchavi republic. The Haryanka dynasty was overthrown by the Shishunaga dynasty. Later. Harayanka Dynasty. In 326 BC. Kalasoka was assassinated by Mahapadma Nanda in 424 BC. one of India's most legendary and famous emperors. Magadha Dynasties Brihadratha Dynasty. it appears that Magadha was ruled by the Haryanka dynasty for some 200 years. the Buddhist Chronicles of Sri Lanka. The last ruler of Shishunaga Dynsty. The Empire later extended over most of Southern Asia under King Asoka. an area north of the river Ganges. c. The most important sources are the Puranas. The capital of the Gupta Empire remained Pataliputra. conquering his way down the Indus to the Ocean. Ajatashatru built a fort at the town of Pataliputra. Pradyota Dynasty. Maurya Dynasty. after the meeting with his officer. The Nanda Dynasty ruled for about 100 years. 684 BC – 424 BC. including his enlightenment. Based on these sources. Sunga Dynasty. in Magadha. and other Jain and Buddhist texts. Afterwards the Nanda Dynasty. Siddhartha Gautama himself was born a prince of Kapilavastu in Kosala around the 5th century BCE. The death of King Bimbisara was at the hands of his son. Around 321 BC. the first of the so-called Nine Nandas (Mahapadma and his eight sons). King Pasenadi also gave his daughter in marriage to the new young king. and restored the province of Kashi. Alexander. However. Amongst the sixteen Mahajanapadas. Prince Ajatashatru. during the Haryanka dynasty. retook the gift of the Kashi province and a war was triggered between Kosala and Magadha. It appears that Ajatashatru sent a minister to the area who for three years worked to undermine the unity of the Licchavis. who was at first known as 'Asoka the Cruel' but later became a disciple of Buddhism and became known as 'Dhamma Asoka'. . Coenus. exhausted and frightened at the prospect of facing another giant Indian army at the Ganges. Kanva Dynasty. To launch his attack across the Ganges River. The army.

Gautama Buddha in the 6th or 5th century BC was the founder of Buddhism. when it was overthrown by the Shishunaga dynasty. The kingdom had a particularly bloody succession. and under whose rule the dynasty reached its largest extent. it is thought that a civil revolt led to the emergence of the Nanda dynasty. the Magadha Empire was established by the Brihadratha Dynasty. The first prominent Emperor of the Magadhan branch of Bharathas was Emperor Brihadratha. His son Jarasandha appears in popular legend and is slain by Bhima in the Mahabharatha. later Pataliputra. Bimbisara (543–493 BCE) was imprisoned and killed by his son Ajatashatru (ruled 491–461 BCE) who then became his successor. Anuruddha eventually succeeded Udaybhadra through assassination. Udayabhadra eventually succeeded his father. This dynasty was succeeded by the Nanda dynasty. Pradyotas ruled over another Mahajanapada Avanti and conquered Magadha for very short span of 138 years. later Pataliputra. During their time. The land of Kosala fell to Magadha in this way. and his son Munda succeeded him in the same fashion. The Shishunaga dynasty in its time was one of the largest empires of the Indian subcontinent. Shishunaga dynasty According to tradition. the Shishunaga dynasty founded the Magadha Empire in 430 BC. it is reported that crimes were commonplace in Magadha.Magadha 149 Brihadratha dynasty According to the Puranas. He established the Magadha empire (in 430 BC). with its original capital in Rajgriha. Bimbisara was responsible for expanding the boundaries of his kingdom through matrimonial alliances and conquest. near the present day Patna in India. This period saw the development of two of India's major religions that started from Magadha. Ajatashatru. Its courtesan. Pradyota dynasty The Brihadrathas were succeeded by the Pradyotas who (according to the Vayu Purana) ruled for 138 years. Shishunaga (also called King Sisunaka) was the founder of a dynasty of 10 kings. the Haryanka dynasty founded the Magadha Empire in 684 BC. Due in part to this bloody dynastic feuding. while Mahavira revived and propagated the ancient religion of Jainism. This dynasty lasted until 424 BC. Licchavi was an ancient republic which existed in what is now Bihar state of India. which later spread to East Asia and South-East Asia. Haryanka dynasty According to tradition. Ambapali. whose capital was Rajagriha. Vayu Purana mentions that the Brihadrathas ruled for 1000 years. Ajatashatru.[6][7] Vaishali was the capital of the Licchavis and the Vajjian Confederacy. collectively called the Shishunaga dynasty. This empire. who was the sixth in line from Emperor Kuru of the Bharata dynasty through his eldest son Sudhanush. . is thought to have ruled from 491–461 BCE and moved his capital of the Magadha kingdom from Rajagriha to Patliputra. Pradyota dynasty continued to rule in Avanti until it was conquered by Shishunaga who defeated the last Pradyota king Nandivardhana. since before the birth of Mahavira (born 599 BC). whose capital was Rajagriha. under him Patliputra became the largest city in the world. This led to the emergence of the Haryanka dynasty. One of the Pradyota traditions was for the prince to kill his father to become king.[8] Ajatashatru went to war with the Licchavi several times. However. near the present day Patna. later shifted to Pataliputra (both currently in the Indian state of Bihar). was famous for her beauty. and helped in large measure in making the city prosperous. the people rose up in civil revolt and elected Haryanka to become the king. as did his son Nagadasaka. Tired of the dynastic feuds and the crimes.

They inherited the large kingdom of Magadha and wished to extend it to yet more distant frontiers. The Nanda Empire at its greatest extent Maurya dynasty In 321 BC. Kshemadharman (618–582 BC). barring the extreme south and east. Chandragupta was succeeded by his son Bindusara.Magadha 150 Shishunaga dynasty Rulers Shishunaga (430 BC). exiled general Chandragupta Maurya founded the Maurya dynasty after overthrowing the reigning Nanda king Dhana Nanda to establish the Maurya Empire. ruling the bulk of this 100-year dynasty. The Nandas are sometimes described as the first empire builders of India. The Maurya Empire at its greatest extent(Asoka's empire) . the Mauryan empire under Chandragupta would not only conquer most of the Indian subcontinent. Nanda dynasty The Nanda dynasty was established by an illegitimate son of the king Mahanandin of the previous Shishunaga dynasty. conquering the Gandhara region. Kalasoka. but also push its boundaries into Persia and Central Asia. who expanded the kingdom over most of present day India. most of the subcontinent was united under a single government for the first time. his empire is inherited by his illegitimate son Mahapadma Nanda. The greatest extent of the empire was led by Dhana Nanda. Kshatraujas (582–558 BC). Capitalising on the destabilization of northern India by the Persian and Greek incursions. During this time. established the kingdom of Magadha. Mahanandin (until 424 BC). The Nandas were followed by the Maurya dynasty. Mahapadma Nanda died at the age of 88. Kakavarna (394–364 BC).

about fifty years after Ashoka's death. the Satavahana dynasty of the Andhra kingdom replaced the Magandhan kingdom as the most powerful Indian state. . Pusyamitra Sunga then ascended the throne. Following the collapse of the Kanva dynasty. The Edicts of Ashoka are the oldest preserved historical documents of India. approximate dating of dynasties becomes possible. In the aftermath of the carnage caused in the invasion of Kalinga. built during the Mauryan period Sunga dynasty The Sunga dynasty was established in 185 BC. Kanva dynasty The Kanva dynasty replaced the Sunga dynasty. he renounced bloodshed and pursued a policy of non-violence or ahimsa after converting to Buddhism. Ashoka the Great has been described as one of the greatest rulers the world has seen. In 30 BC. while he was taking the Guard of Honour of his forces. The Mauryan dynasty under Ashoka was responsible for the proliferation of Buddhist ideals across the whole of East Asia and South-East Asia.Magadha 151 The kingdom was inherited by his son Ashoka The Great who initially sought to expand his kingdom. when the king Brihadratha. Pusyamitra Sunga. fundamentally altering the history and development of Asia as a whole. The Kanva ruler allowed the kings of the Sunga dynasty to continue to rule in obscurity in a corner of their former Extent of the Sunga Empire dominions. the southern power swept away both the Kanvas and Sungas and the province of Eastern Malwa was absorbed within the dominions of the conqueror. and from Ashoka's time. Magadha was ruled by four Kanva rulers. was assassinated by the then commander-in-chief of the Mauryan armed forces. The Buddhist stupa at Sanchi. The last ruler of the Sunga dynasty was overthrown by Vasudeva of the Kanva dynasty in 75 BC. and ruled in the eastern part of India from 71 BC to 26 BC. the last of the Mauryan rulers.

mathematics. art. was invented in India during this period. technology.Magadha 152 Gupta dynasty The Gupta dynasty ruled from around 240 to 550 AD. including the concept of zero. and painting. Sri Lanka. 376–415) —brought much of India under their leadership. The military exploits of the first three rulers—Chandragupta I (c. Samudragupta (c. dialectic. Strong trade ties also made the region an important cultural center and established it as a base that would influence nearby kingdoms and regions in Burma. engineering. with their capital at Bamiyan. literature. logic. the Malay Archipelago. astronomy.[16] Science and political administration reached new heights during the Gupta era. Varahamihira.[14] The high points of this cultural creativity are magnificent architecture. Gupta Empire (240 to 550 AD) Vishnu Sharma. religion.[12] The decimal numeral system. much of the Deccan and southern India were largely unaffected by these events in the north.[17] They successfully resisted the northwestern kingdoms until the arrival of the Hunas. 319–335). • • • • • • • • • • • Brihadratha Jarasandha Sahadeva Somapi (1678–1618 BC) Srutasravas (1618–1551 BC) Ayutayus (1551–1515 BC) Niramitra (1515–1415 BC) Sukshatra (1415–1407 BC) Brihatkarman (1407–1384 BC) Senajit (1384–1361 BC) Srutanjaya (1361–1321 BC) • Vipra (1321–1296 BC) • Suchi (1296–1238 BC) .[13] The peace and prosperity created under leadership of Guptas enabled the pursuit of scientific and artistic endeavors in India. The Gupta period marked a watershed of Indian culture: the Guptas performed Vedic sacrifices to legitimize their rule. and philosophy that crystallized the elements of what is generally known as Hindu culture. and Indochina. who established themselves in Afghanistan by the first half of the 5th century.[9][10] This period has been called the Golden Age of India[11] and was marked by extensive achievements in science.[19][20] Kings of Magadha Brihadratha Dynasty Semi-legendary rulers in Purana accounts. but they also patronized Buddhism. and Vatsyayana who made great advancements in many academic fields. which continued to provide an alternative to Brahmanical orthodoxy. The Gupta Empire was one of the largest political and military empires in ancient India. and Chandragupta II (c. 335–376). sculpture. Aryabhata.[15] The Gupta period produced scholars such as Kalidasa.[18] However.

• Dasaratha (232–224 BC) • Samprati (224–215 BC) • Salisuka (215–202 BC) • Devavarman (202–195 BC) • Satadhanvan (195–187 BC). illegitimate son of Mahanandin. Xandrammes) (until 321 BCE).The greatest emperor of ancient India founded the Mauryan Empire after defeating both the Nanda Empire and the Macedonian Seleucid Empire • Bindusara or Amritrochates (301–273 BC) • Ashoka Vardhana (Ashoka the Great) (273–232 BC).Magadha • • • • • • • • • • • Kshemya (1238–1210 BC) Subrata (1210–1150 BC) Dharma (1150–1145 BC) Susuma (1145–1107 BC) Dridhasena (1107–1059 BC) Sumati (1059–1026 BC) Subhala (1026–1004 BC) Sunita (1004–964 BC) Satyajit (964–884 BC) Biswajit (884–849 BC) Ripunjaya (849–799 BC) 153 Pradyota dynasty Ruling 799–684 BC according to calculations based on the Vayu Purana[citation needed]. the Mauryan Empire had shrunk by the time of his reign . grant animal rights and promote non-violence. • Pradyota • Palaka • Visakhayupa • Ajaka • Varttivarddhana Nanda Dynasty (345–321 BCE) • Mahapadma Nanda Ugrasena (from 345 BCE). lost his empire to Chandragupta Maurya after being defeated by him Maurya Dynasty (324–184 BC) • Chandragupta Maurya (Chandragupta The Great) (Sandrakottos) (324–301 BC). considered the greatest ancient Indian emperor. adopt Buddhism.often called the emperor of all ages. a secular administrator. first emperor to unify India (after conquering most of South Asia and Afghanistan). founded the Nanda Empire after inheriting Mahanandin's empire • Pandhuka • Panghupati • Bhutapala • Rashtrapala • Govishanaka • Anal • Dashasidkhaka • Kaivarta • Dhana (Agrammes.

son and successor of Pusyamitra Vasujyeshtha (141–131 BC) Vasumitra (131–124 BC) Andhraka (124–122 BC) Pulindaka (122–119 BC) Ghosha Vajramitra Bhagabhadra. 240–290) • Ghatotkacha (290–305) • Chandra Gupta I (305–335).c. 66 BCE) • Bhumimitra (c. the Chinese pilgrim Fa-Hsien describes Indian culture during his reign • Kumara Gupta I (415–455) • Skanda Gupta (455–467) • Kumara Gupta II (467–477) • Buddha Gupta (477–496) • Chandra Gupta III (496–500) • Vainya Gupta (500–515) • Narasimha Gupta (510–530) • Kumara Gupta III (530–540) • Vishnu Gupta (c.c. 26 BCE) Gupta Dynasty (c. 240–550 AD) • Sri-Gupta I (c. mentioned by the Puranas Devabhuti (83–73 BC).c. 66 . which is often regarded as the golden age of Indian culture • Samudra Gupta (335–370) • Rama Gupta (370–375) • Chandra Gupta II (Chandragupta Vikramaditya) (375–415). founder of the Gupta Empire. 540–550) . 73 . 40 BCE) • Susarman (c. last Sunga king Kanva Dynasty (73–26 BC) • Vasudeva (c. 52 BCE) • Narayana (c. the Gupta Empire achieved its zenith under his reign.c. 40 .Magadha • Brihadrata (187–184 BC). founded the dynasty after assassinating Brihadrata Agnimitra (149–141 BC). assassinated by Pusyamitra Shunga 154 Shunga Dynasty (185–73 BC) • • • • • • • • • • Pusyamitra Shunga (185–149 BC). 52 . son of Samudra Gupta.

p 650.. p172. M.Magadha 155 Notes [1] Ramesh Chandra Majumdar (1977). Motilal Banarsidass Publ. [3] Satapatha Brahmana 13.1. D. A. Encyclopædia Britannica Online] [8] Vin.i. Harsha Gurjara-Pratihara Pala Empire Paramara dynasty Solanki Eastern Ganga dynasty Sena dynasty • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Southern India Pandyas Cholas Cheras Satavahana Empire • • • Northeastern India Varman dynasty Kamarupa kingdom Mlechchha dynasty Pala dynasty Kamboja-Pala dynasty (Persian rule) (Greek conquests) • • • • • • • • • Indo-Greek Kingdom Yona Indo-Scythians Indo-Parthians Pahlava Kushan Empire Indo-Sassanids Kidarite Kingdom Indo-Hephthalites (Huna) • Kalabhras dynasty • Kadamba Dynasty Western Ganga Dynasty Vishnukundina Pallava Kalachuri Chalukya Rashtrakuta Yadava dynasty Western Chalukyas Kakatiya dynasty Hoysala Empire (Islamic conquests) • Kabul Shahi (Islamic Empire) . com/ eb/ article-9074639/ Vaisali)].org/stream/ ancientindiantri032697mbp#page/n111/mode/2up). References 1. ISBN 90-04-15719-0 [5] ibid. www. (1972). Mahajan. Dr R. Bimala Churn (1926). History and Culture of Indian People. www. 2007.4.com/page/ancient-history) Classical India Timeline: 6th century BCE  5th century BCE  4th century BCE  3rd century BCE  2nd century BCE  1st century BCE  1st century CE  2nd century  3rd century  4th century  5th century  6th century  7th century  8th century  9th century 10th century 11th century • Northwestern India Gandhara • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Northern India Magadha Shishunaga dynasty Nanda empire Kalinga Maurya Empire Sunga Empire Maha-Meghavahana Dynasty Kuninda Kingdom Western Satraps Gupta Empire Maitraka Vakataka dynasty. South Asia Series.14-17 [4] Bronkhorst.5 and 1. p 50. p 339. Dr V. Smith. Dr V. britannica. ISBN 81-208-0436-8.8. Majumdar. Studies in the Culture of Early India. I. H. McGovern. Handbook of Oriental Studies. Motilal Banarsidas.peopleofbihar. Pusalkar.archive. [20] Ancient India. 2003.268 [18] Iaroslav Lebedynsky. [19] Early History of India. "4. Law. Political History of Ancient India. External links • Ancient History of Great Magadha (http://www. com/ eb/ article-9048151/ Licchavi) [7] [[Vaishali (ancient city)|Vaishali (http:/ / p2. Raychaudhuri. The Age of Imperial Kanauj.C. Johannes. Greater Magadha. The Magadhas" (http://www. Brill Academic Publishers Inc. Dr A. Ancient Indian Tribes. Calcutta: University of Calcutta Unknown parameter |loc= ignored (help). See also Early Empire of Central Asia (1939). britannica. D. C.1. W. Ancient India. section 2.1 [6] "Licchavi". 2. "Les Nomades". Encyclopædia Britannica Online (http:/ / p2.

ruled this kingdom from 543-491 BC and belonged to the Hariyanka dynasty. as it stated in the Puranas. Buddhist texts and Jaina texts. However. ruled Magadha for 1000 years followed by the Pradyota dynasty which ruled for 138 years. these rulers are mentioned in the Hindu texts. His descendants. a son of Brihadratha. Kings in the Vayu Purana The list of legendary kings of Magadha according to the Vayu Purana are as follows Reign of Magadhan Kings (Brihadratha Dynasty) Emperor Reign start (According to Modern Historians)[citation needed] Reign end (According to Modern Historians)[citation needed] Reign start (According to Aryabhatta)[citation needed] Reign end (According to Aryabhatta)[citation needed] Brihadratha Jarasandha Sahadeva Somapi Srutasravas Ayutayus Niramitra Sukshatra ? 1760 BC 1718 BC 1676 BC 1618 BC 1551 BC 1515 BC 1415 BC ? 1718 BC 1676 BC 1618 BC 1551 BC 1515 BC 1415 BC 1407 BC 1384 BC 1361 BC 1321 BC 1296 BC 1238 BC 1210 BC 1150 BC 1145 BC 1107 BC 1059 BC 1026 BC 1004 BC 964 BC 884 BC 849 BC ? ? ? 3009 BC 2951 BC 2884 BC 2848 BC 2748 BC 2740 BC 2717 BC 2694 BC 2654 BC 2629 BC 2561 BC 2533 BC 2473 BC 2468 BC 2430 BC 2382 BC 2349 BC 2327 BC 2287 BC 2207 BC ? ? ? 2951 BC 2884 BC 2848 BC 2748 BC 2740 BC 2717 BC 2694 BC 2654 BC 2629 BC 2561 BC 2533 BC 2473 BC 2468 BC 2430 BC 2382 BC 2349 BC 2327 BC 2287 BC 2207 BC 2172 BC Brihatkarman 1407 BC Senajit Srutanjaya Vipra Suchi Kshemya Subrata Dharma Susuma Dridhasena Sumati Subhala Sunita Satyajit Biswajit 1384 BC 1361 BC 1321 BC 1296 BC 1238 BC 1210 BC 1150 BC 1145 BC 1107 BC 1059 BC 1026 BC 1004 BC 964 BC 884 BC .Legendary kings of Magadha 156 Legendary kings of Magadha The Magadha empire was established very likely by semi-mythical king Jarasandha who was. However. Jarasandha appears in the Mahabharatha as the "Magadhan Emperor who rules all India" and meets with an unceremonious ending. also known as King Shrenik. according to the Vayu Purana. no sufficient evidence to prove the historicity of this claim. one of the descendants of eponymical Puru. King Bimbisara.

Legendary kings of Magadha 157 799 BC 2172 BC 2122 BC Ripunjaya 849 BC Reign of Magadhan Kings (Pradyota Dynasty) Emperor Reign start (According to Modern Historians)[citation needed] Reign end (According to Modern Historians)[citation needed] Reign start (According to Aryabhatta)[citation needed] Reign end (According to Aryabhatta)[citation needed] Pradyota Palaka Visakhayupa Janaka 779 BC 776 BC 752 BC 702 BC 776 BC 752 BC 702 BC 681 BC 661 BC 2122 BC 2119 BC 2085 BC 2035 BC 2014 BC 2119 BC 2085 BC 2035 BC 2014 BC 1994 BC Nandivardhdhana 681 BC Kings in the Matsya Purana Reign of Magadhan Kings (Brihadratha Dynasty) Emperor Reign start (According to Modern Historians) [citation needed] Reign end (According to Modern Historians) [citation needed] Reign start (According to Aryabhatta) [citation needed] Reign end (According to Aryabhatta) [citation needed] Brihadratha ? Jarasandha Sahadeva Somapi 1760 BC 1718 BC 1676 BC ? 1718 BC 1676 BC 1618 BC 1433 BC 1407 BC 1367 BC 1311 BC 1288 BC 1238 BC 1198 BC 1170 BC 1170 BC 1142 BC 1078 BC 1078 BC 1020 BC 992 BC 944 BC 914 BC 882 BC 832 BC ? ? ? 3009 BC 2951 BC 2884 BC 2848 BC 2748 BC 2740 BC 2717 BC 2694 BC 2654 BC 2629 BC 2561 BC 2533 BC 2473 BC 2468 BC 2430 BC 2382 BC 2349 BC 2327 BC 2172 BC ? ? ? 2951 BC 2884 BC 2848 BC 2748 BC 2740 BC 2717 BC 2694 BC 2654 BC 2629 BC 2561 BC 2533 BC 2473 BC 2468 BC 2430 BC 2382 BC 2349 BC 2327 BC 2287 BC 2122 BC Srutasravas 1497 BC Apratipa Niramitra Sukshatra Brihatsena Senajit Srutanjaya Vidhu Suchi Kshemya Subrata Sunetra Nivritti Trinetra Mahatsena Netra Abala Ripunjaya 1433 BC 1407 BC 1367 BC 1311 BC 1288 BC 1238 BC 1198 BC 1234 BC 1170 BC 1142 BC 1113 BC 1078 BC 1020 BC 992 BC 944 BC 914 BC 882 BC .

Legendary kings of Magadha 158 Reign of Magadhan Kings (Pradyota Dynasty) Emperor Reign start (According to Modern Historians) [citation needed] Reign end (According to Modern Historians) [citation needed] Reign start (According to Aryabhatta) [citation needed] Reign end (According to Aryabhatta) [citation needed] Pradyota Palaka Visakhayupa Suryaka 832 BC 809 BC 781 BC 708 BC 809 BC 781 BC 728 BC 687 BC 667 BC 2122 BC 2119 BC 2094 BC 2041 BC 2020 BC 2119 BC 2085 BC 2041 BC 2020 BC 2000 BC Nandivardhdhana 687 BC Preceded by Magadha dynasties Succeeded by None Pradyota dynasty Pradyota dynasty Pradyota dynasty is an ancient Indian dynasty. According to both Buddhist texts and Jain texts.S. During their time. which ruled over Avanti in the present-day Madhya Pradesh state. This led to the emergence of the Haryanka dynasty in Magadha. the people of Magadha rose up in civil revolt and elected Haryanka to become the king in 684 BCE. it is reported that crimes were commonplace in Magadha. (2007). preserved in the University of Dhaka) say that this dynasty succeeded the Barhadratha dynasty in Magadha. p.300 . Pradyota dynasty continued to rule in Avanti until it was conquered by Shishunaga who defeated the last Pradyota king Nandivardhana and also destroyed the Haryanka dynasty of Magadha in 413 BCE. making the kingdom powerful. ISBN 81-7276-413-8. Mumbai: Baratiya Vidya Bhavan. However. Palaka. the son of the Avanti king Pradyota. Ancient Indian Dynasties. conquered Kaushambi. though most of the Puranas (except a manuscript of the Brahmanda Purana. Pradyotas of Avanti annexed Magadha and ruled there for 138 years from 799–684 BCE.[1] According to the Vayu Purana. Pradyota dynasty rulers • • • • • Pradyota Mahasena Palaka Visakhayupa Ajaka or Aryaka Varttivarddhana or Nandivardhana Preceded by Avanti dynasties Succeeded by Vitihotra dynasty Shishunaga dynasty Notes [1] Misra. one of Pradyota tradition was that king's son would kill his father to become the successor. Tired of the dynastic feuds and the crimes. V.

Bimbisara was not the founder of this dynasty. Initially. According to the Puranas.Established 684 BC . but the Puranas refer him as Hemajit. as he was anointed king by his father at the age of fifteen. near the present day Patna in India. the capital was Rajagriha.[1] According to another Buddhist text.[2] According to Turnour and N. Later. it was shifted to Pataliputra. Dey. Kshetroja or Ksetrauja and the Tibetan texts mention him as Mahapadma. later Pataliputra Sanskrit Hinduism Buddhism Monarchy Bimbisara Ajatashatru Udayabhadra Government King History . but an earlier authority. This dynasty was succeeded by the Shishunaga dynasty. which succeeded the Barhadratha dynasty.Haryanka dynasty 159 Haryanka dynasty Haryanka dynasty ← Capital Languages Religion 684 BC–413 BC → Rajagriha. Kshemajit. the Mahavamsa. the name of the father of Bimbisara was Bhatiya or Bhattiya.Disestablished 413 BC • • Outline of South Asian history History of Indian subcontinent The Haryanka dynasty was the second ruling dynasty of Magadha. an ancient kingdom in India.L.[3] The reign of this dynasty probably began in 684 BCE. who is mentioned as a ruler of the Shaishunaga dynasty in the Puranas. Ashvagosha in his Buddhacharita refers to Bimbisara. the second ruling dynasty was the Shaishunga dynasty. . as a scion of the Haryanka-kula.

ruled by the Licchavis. under whose rule the dynasty reached its largest extent.Haryanka dynasty 160 Bimbisara The Haryanka king Bimbisara was responsible for expanding the boundaries of his kingdom through matrimonial alliances and conquest. as did his son Nagadasaka. Anuruddha eventually succeeded Udaybhadra through assassination. Ajatashatru. Due in part to this bloody dynastic feuding. He is believed to have ruled for sixteen years. which under the later Mauryan dynasty.000 small settlements. He built a stupa in Rajgirha on the Ashes of Lord Buddha. Ajatashatru Eastern border of the Achaemenid Empire In some sources. Estimates place the territory ruled by this early dynasty at 300 leagues in diameter. He remained a devout devotee and follower of Buddha throughout his life. he incorporated kashi and vajji into his kingdom. Udayabhadra The Mahavamsa text tells that Udayabhadra eventually succeeded his father. moving the capital of the Magadha kingdom to Pataliputra. Bimbsara was contemporary of Lord Mahavir and devout follower of Buddha. due to a border dispute involving gem mines. Bimbisara was imprisoned and killed by his son and successor. He is thought to have ruled from 492 to 460 BCE. First Bodh sangati was held during his rule in Rajgirh in which Bodh education was scripted in two books named sutpatika and vinyapatika. He ruled 28 years according to Purana and according to Bodh he ruled 32 years. went to war with the kingdom of Magadha at some point. He is referred to as King Shrenik in Jain scriptures. Due to his expanding stategy. it is thought that a civil revolt led to the emergence of the Shishunaga dynasty. Udayin killed him and became the king of magadha. Possibly preceded Haryanka dynasty Succeeded by: by: Shishunaga dynasty Brihadrathas dynasty . Lord Buddha got nirvan in his eighth year of his rule[citation needed]. The land of Kosala fell to Magadha in this way. and his son Munda succeeded him in the same fashion. Ajatasattu (or Ajatashatru). and encompassing 80. Later rulers The kingdom had a particularly bloody succession. Vaishali. would become the largest city in the world.

C. Calcutta: University of Calcutta Unknown parameter |loc= ignored (help). . (1972). Political History of Ancient India. Raychaudhuri.Haryanka dynasty 161 Notes References 1. H.

[2] The capital of this dynasty initially was Rajagriha. Kakavarna was succeeded by his ten sons.Shishunaga dynasty 162 Shishunaga dynasty Shishunaga Empire ← Capital Languages Religion 413 BC–345 BC → vaishali Sanskrit Hinduism Buddhism Monarchy Government King History Established 413–395 BCE Shishunaga 367–345 BCE Mahanandin 413 BC Disestablished 345 BC • • Outline of South Asian history History of Indian subcontinent The Shishunaga dynasty is believed to have been the third ruling dynasty of Magadha. According to tradition.[5] . with its original capital in Rajgriha. But according to the Puranas. The Shishunaga dynasty in its time was the rulers of one of the largest empires of the Indian subcontinent.[1] Shishunaga. he was killed by a dagger thrust in to his throat in the vicinity of his capital. later shifted to Pataliputra (both currently in the Indian state of Bihar). During Shishunaga's reign.[3] Shishunaga Shishunaga (also called King Sisunaka) was the founder of this dynasty. the founder of this dynasty was initially an amatya (minister) of the last Haryanka dynasty ruler Nagadasaka and ascended to the thone after a popular rebellion in c.345 BCE. Wilhelm Geiger and Ramakrishna Gopal Bhandarkar concluded that both are same. 413 BCE.[4] According to the Harshacharita. a kingdom in ancient India. This empire. He established the Magadha empire in 413 BCE. Kakavarna Kalashoka According to the Puranas. this dynasty is the second ruling dynasty of Magadha. On the basis of the evidence of the Ashokavadana. but later shifted to Pataliputra. which succeeded the Barhadratha dynasty. Two most significant events of his reign are the Second Buddhist council at Vaishali and the final transfer of capital to Pataliputra. near the present day Patna during the reign of Kakavarna. Hermann Jacobi. known as the Shishunaga or Shaishunaga dynasty. he was the governor of Varanasi. Shishunaga was succeeded by his son Kakavarna and according to the Sinhala chronicles by his son Kalashoka.[] This dynasty was succeeded by the Nanda dynasty in c.

Jalika.Shishunaga dynasty 163 Later rulers According to tradition. Sanjaya. ISBN 81-219=0887-6. reprint 2007). Korandavarna. Calcutta: University of Calcutta Unknown parameter |loc= ignored (help).[] Nandivardhana or Mahanandin was probably the last ruler of this dynasty. V. H. The Mahabodhivamsa states their names as Bhadrasena. Koravya.C. Nandivardhana. Preceded by Haryanka dynasty (Magadha) Pradyota dynasty (Avanti) Shishunaga Dynasty 413–345 BCE Succeeded by Nanda Dynasty Classical India Timeline: 6th century BCE  5th century BCE  4th century BCE  3rd century BCE  2nd century BCE  1st century BCE  1st century CE  2nd century  3rd century  4th century  5th century  6th century  7th century  8th century  9th century 10th century 11th century • Northwestern India Gandhara • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Northern India Magadha Shishunaga dynasty Nanda empire Kalinga Maurya Empire Sunga Empire Maha-Meghavahana Dynasty Kuninda Kingdom Western Satraps Gupta Empire Maitraka Vakataka dynasty. Chand. Harsha Gurjara-Pratihara Pala Empire Paramara dynasty Solanki Eastern Ganga dynasty Sena dynasty • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Southern India Pandyas Cholas Cheras Satavahana Empire • • • Northeastern India Varman dynasty Kamarupa kingdom Mlechchha dynasty Pala dynasty Kamboja-Pala dynasty (Persian rule) (Greek conquests) • • • • • • • • • Indo-Greek Kingdom Yona Indo-Scythians Indo-Parthians Pahlava Kushan Empire Indo-Sassanids Kidarite Kingdom Indo-Hephthalites (Huna) • Kalabhras dynasty • Kadamba Dynasty Western Ganga Dynasty Vishnukundina Pallava Kalachuri Chalukya Rashtrakuta Yadava dynasty Western Chalukyas Kakatiya dynasty Hoysala Empire (Islamic conquests) • Kabul Shahi (Islamic Empire) . Mangura. Ancient India. New Delhi: S. Shishunaga dynasty rulers • Shishunaga (413–395 BCE) • Kakavarna Kalashoka (395–367 BCE) • Mahanandin (367–345 BCE) Notes References • Mahajan. Political History of Ancient India. Ubhaka. • Raychaudhuri. ten sons of Kalashoka ruled simultaneously. Sarvanjaha. Nandivardhana and Panchamaka. Only one of them mentioned in the Puranic lists. his empire was inherited by his illegitimate son Mahapadma Nanda. (1972).D. (1960.

Sunga Empire 164 Sunga Empire Shunga Empire शुंग राजवंश ← 185 BCE–75 BCE → Approximate extent of the Sunga empire in (c. after the fall of the Maurya Empire. The dynasty was established by Pusyamitra Sunga. Capital Pataliputra Vidisa Sanskrit Prakrit Pali Brahmanism Buddhism Jainism Monarchy Languages Religion Government Emperor Historical era Today part of Established Disestablished 185–151 BCE 83–75 BCE Pusyamitra Sunga Devabhuti Antiquity 185 BCE 75 BCE  India  Bangladesh  Nepal The Sunga Empire (Sanskrit: शुंग राजवंश) or Shunga Empire was an Aryan dynasty from Magadha that controlled vast areas of the Indian Subcontinent from around 185 to 73 BCE. Its capital was Pataliputra. 185 BCE). but later emperors such as Bhagabhadra also .

165 Origins The Shunga dynasty was established in 185 BCE. Satavahanas. The empire is noted for its numerous wars with both foreign and indigenous powers. Pusyamitra Sunga then ascended the throne. The Sunga Empire played an imperative role in patronizing Indian culture at a time when some of the most important developments in Hindu thought were taking place. and the city of Ujjain[3] in central India. Pusyamitra Sunga. larger stone sculptures. Musee Guimet. Sunga period (2nd–1st century BCE). Agnimitra was viceroy of Vidisha when the . The empire of Pushyamitra was extended up to Narmada in the south. education. They fought battles with the Kalingas. 2nd century BCE. and possibly the Panchalas and Mathuras. He was succeeded by son Agnimitra. Patanjali`s Yoga Sutras and Mahabhasya were composed in this period. Artistry also progressed with the rise of the Mathura school of art.[2] while he was taking the Guard of Honour of his forces. and the renowned Great Stupa at Sanchi. Art. Thereafter. The Kabul Valley and much of the Punjab passed into the hands of the Indo-Greeks and the Deccan to the Satavahanas. Pushyamitra Sunga became the ruler of the Magadha and neighbouring territories.[1] Pushyamitra Sunga ruled for 36 years and was succeeded by his son Agnimitra. Sunga Period Balustrade-holding Yaksa. there was a downfall of the dynasty and Kanvas succeeded around 73 BCE. Yaksa reliefs. was assassinated by the then commander-in-chief of the Mauryan armed forces. about 50 years after Ashoka's death. This prince is the hero of a famous drama by one of India's greatest playwrights. and other forms of learning flowered during this period including small terracotta images. There were ten Sunga rulers.Sunga Empire held court at Besnagar. The script used by the empire was a variant of Brahmi and was used to write the Sanskrit language. Pushyamitra died after ruling for 36 years (187–151 BCE). and controlled Jalandhar and Sialkot in the Punjab in the north-western regions. Bharhut. the last of the Mauryan rulers. Kalidasa. and architectural monuments such as the Stupa at Bharhut. The Sunga rulers helped to establish the tradition of royal sponsorship of learning and art. the Indo-Greeks. Madhya Pradesh. modern Vidisha in Eastern Malwa. philosophy. when the emperor Brhadratha.

[6][7]" Sunga royal family. Gandhara and Bactria.Sunga Empire story takes place. • An inscription at Bodh Gaya at the Mahabodhi Temple records the construction of the temple as follows: "The gift of Nagadevi the wife of Emperor Brahmamitra. The Sungas were succeeded by the Kanva dynasty around 73 BCE.[4] However. Buddhism flourished in the realms of the Bactrian kings. and is believed by some historians to have persecuted Buddhists and contributed to a resurgence of Brahmanism that forced Buddhism outwards to Kashmir. University of Calcutta. 1st century BCE. the mother of living sons and the wife of Emperor Indragnimitra.[5] Some writers believe that Brahmanism competed in political and spiritual realm with Buddhism[4] in the Gangetic plains. the first Brahmin emperor was Pusyamitra Sunga. West Bengal. The existence of Buddhism in Bengal in the Sunga period can also be inferred from a terracotta tablet that was found at Tamralipti and is on exhibit at the Asutosh Museum." • Another inscription reads: "The gift of Kurangi. The power of the Sungas gradually weakened. there is doubt as to whether he did persecute Buddhists actively. The gift also of Srima of the royal palace shrine. . It is said that there were ten Sunga emperors. 166 Buddhism Following the Mauryans. son of Kosiki. [citation needed] Some Indian scholars are of the opinion that the orthodox Sunga emperors were not intolerant towards Buddhism and that Buddhism prospered during the time of the Sunga emperors.[4] Support given Later Sunga emperors were seen as amenable to Buddhism and as having contributed to the building of the stupa at Bharhut.

Satavahanas. Wars of the Sungas War and conflict characterized the Sunga period. The net result of these wars remains uncertain. however. From around 180 BCE the Greco-Bactrian ruler Demetrius. Bloch reads these nine letters as "raja-pasada-cetikasa" and translates this expression in relation to the preceding words: "(the gift of Kurangi. etc. "to the caitya (cetika) of the noble temple". 1st century BCE. As regards the first coping inscription. the caitya". suggesting that "the mention of the raja-pasada would seem to connect the donor with the king's family. Sunga. taking the word raja before pasada as an epithet on ornans. the first nine of which read "rajapasada-cetika sa". he has found traces of eleven Brahmi letters after "Kuramgiye danam".Sunga Empire 167 Cunningham has regretted the loss of the latter part of these important records. The Shunga Empire's wars with the Indo-Greek Kingdom figure greatly in the history of this period." Cunningham has translated the expression by "the royal palace. distinguishing the temple as a particularly large and stately building similar to such expressions as rajahastin 'a noble elephant'. rajahamsa `a goose (as distinguished from hamsa 'a duck'). and possibly the Panchalas and Mathuras. The Indo Greek Menander is credited with either joining or leading a campaign to Pataliputra with other Indian rulers." Luders doubtfully suggests "to the king's temple" as a rendering of "raja-pasada-cetikasa." Amorous royal couple. very little is known about the exact nature and success of the campaign. the wife of Indragnimitra and the mother of living sons). the Indo-Greeks. West Bengal. conquered the Kabul Valley and is theorized to have advanced into the trans-Indus. They are known to have warred with the Kalingas. Extent of the Sunga Empire .

2002 edition. Paragraph 47–48. Moreover. Indian Museum. valiant in battle. military victories on their coins ("Victory of the Arjunayanas". However. will reach Kusumadhvaja ("The town of the flower-standard". in which the Indians defeated the Greeks and Pushyamitra successfully completed the Ashvamedha Yagna.[10] relates the attack of the Indo-Greeks on the capital Pataliputra.100-80BC. . Eastern India. Audumbaras and finally the Kunindas also started to mint their own coins). Reddish brown [8] sandstone. on the Indus river. Pataliputra). the Yavanas.Sunga Empire 168 Some interpretations of the Mahabharata and Yuga Purana have attempted to account for this: The Anushasanaparava of the Mahabharata affirms that the city of Mathura was under the joint control of the Yavanas and the Kambojas. very little can be said with great certainty.[11] and describes the ultimate destruction of the city's walls: "Then. after having approached Saketa together with the Panchalas and the Mathuras. Pushyamitra is recorded to have performed two Ashvamedha Yagnas and Sunga imperial inscriptions have extended as far as Jalandhar. 2nd–1st century BCE. the Trigartas. Then.[9] Also the Hindu text of the Yuga Purana. if it was lost. c. in the Punjab." (Yuga Purana. a play by Kālidāsa which describes a battle between Greek cavalrymen and Vasumitra. a magnificent fortified city with 570 towers and 64 gates according to Megasthenes. what does appear clear is that the two realms appeared to have established normalized diplomatic relations in the succeeding reigns of their respective rulers. the grandson of Pushyamitra. Accounts of battles between the Greeks and the Sunga in Northwestern India are also found in the Mālavikāgnimitram. Calcutta (drawing). and during the 1st century BCE. Scriptures such as the Divyavadhana note that his rule extended even farther to Sialkot.) Vedika pillar with Greek warrior. which describes Indian historical events in the form of a prophecy.[12] Nevertheless. Madhya Pradesh. Mathura was regained by the Sungas around 100 BCE (or by other indigenous rulers: the Arjunayanas (area of Mathura) and Yaudheyas mention Bronze coin of the Sunga period. Bharhut. "Victory of the Yaudheyas"). once Puspapura (another name of Pataliputra) has been reached and its celebrated mud[-walls] cast down. all the realm will be in disorder. Sunga Period.

A relief from Bharhut. to the court of the Sunga emperor Bhagabhadra at the site of Vidisha in central India. . 169 Cultural contributions While there is much debate on the religious politics of the Sunga dynasty. It remains uncertain whether these works were due to the weakness of the control of the Sungas in these areas. as indicated by the Heliodorus pillar. Sunga masculine figurine (molded plate). Sunga Yakshi. The Sunga dynasty was then replaced by the subsequent Kanvas. which is considered the indigenous counterpart to the more Hellenistic Gandhara school of Afghanistan and Pakistan. Buddhist activity also managed to survive somewhat in central India (Madhya Pradesh) as suggested by some architectural expansions that were done at the stupas of Sanchi and Barhut. Sunga Yaksa. which records the dispatch of a Greek ambassador named Heliodorus. philosophy. He was assassinated by his minister (Vasudeva Kanva) and is said to have been overfond of the company of women. or a sign of tolerance on their part. Most notably. It is also noted for its subsequent mention in the Malavikaagnimitra. This work was composed by Kalidasa in the later Gupta period. education. The last of the Sunga emperor was Devabhuti (83–73 BCE). 2nd–1st century BCE. it is recognized for a number of contributions. 2nd–1st century BCE. 2nd–1st century BCE. Sunga woman with child. Artistry on the subcontinent also progressed with the rise of the Mathura school. with a background of court intrigue. Art. During the historical Sunga period (185 to 73 BCE). from the court of the Indo-Greek king Antialcidas. originally started under Emperor Ashoka.Sunga Empire The Indo-Greeks and the Sungas seem to have reconciled and exchanged diplomatic missions around 110 BCE. 2nd–1st century BCE. and other learning flowered during this period. and romanticized the love of Malavika and King Agnimitra. Patanjali's Yoga Sutras and Mahabhasya were composed in this period.

2nd–1st century BCE. 2nd–1st century BCE. The script is thought to be an intermediary between the Maurya and the Kalinga Brahmi scripts.Sunga Empire 170 Sunga fecundity deity.[13] List of Sunga Emperors • • • • • • • • • • Pusyamitra Sunga (185–149 BCE) Agnimitra (149–141 BCE) Vasujyeshtha (141–131 BCE) Vasumitra (131–124 BCE) Andhraka (124–122 BCE) Pulindaka (122–119 BCE) Ghosha (?) Vajramitra (?) Bhagabhadra (?) Devabhuti (83–73 BCE) Preceded by Magadha dynasties Succeeded by Maurya dynasty Kanva dynasty . Script The script used by the Sunga was a variant of Brahmi. and was used to write the Sanskrit language. Sunga fecundity deity.

and that a ditch encompassed it all round. Bopearachchi. A study and translation of the Asokavadana".nic. 2003) ISBN 0-19-860560-9 • "Ashoka and the decline of the Mauryas" Romila Thaper (London 1961). CO. Mitchener. which wandered on the right bank of the Sindhu river and was seized by Yavana cavalrymen. net/ bodh_gaya/ bodh_gaya02.. and that the wall was crowned with 570 towers and had four-and-sixty gates.html#Magadha) • Medallions from Barhut (http://ignca. The Asiatic Society. The "Sindhu" referred to in this context may refer the river Indus: but such an extension of Sunga power seems unlikely./ ete ashava. the Yuga Purana is an important source material" Dilip Coomer Ghose.14–24) that Puspamitra appointed his grandson Vasumitra to guard his sacrificial horse.". John Strong. ISBN 0-691-01459-0 References • "Dictionary of Buddhism" by Damien KEOWN (Oxford University Press. edu.net/india. 1996.] Megasthenes informs us that this city stretched in the inhabited quarters to an extreme length on each side of eighty stadia. edu/ projectsouthasia/ history/ primarydocs/ Foreign_Views/ GreekRoman/ Megasthenes-Indika.kushaladasinatyasi charminah. 2002 [11] "The greatest city in India is that which is called Palimbothra. htm) [12] "Indo-Greek. 10.M.upenn. John E." Arr. britannica.asp?projid=rar26) • Sunga art in North India (Bharhut and Bodgaya) (http://www. "Of Pataliputra and the Manners of the Indians. ISBN 81-208-0955-6 pg 223 [6] (Barua. Mitchiner.N. org/ sici?sici=0004-3648(1975)37:1/ 2<101:ASCFV>2. General Secretary.the latter being thereafter defeated by Vasumitra. B. mssu.hostkingdom. 2002.2-R& size=LARGE) [2] "Pusyamitra is said in the Puranas to have been the senānī or army-commander of the last Maurya emperor Brhadratha" The Yuga Purana. org/ alfabetos/ sunga. 0.html) . plate 17 [9] "tatha Yavana Kamboja Mathuram. Jha.. "A History of Indian Buddhism: From Sakyamuni to Early Mahayana". htm) [8] D. ' Old Buddhist Shrines at Bodh-Gaya Inscriptions (http:/ / ccbs. buddhanet.yuddha. Also: "Kalidasa recounts in his Mālavikāgnimitra (5. 1983. in the dominions of the Prasians [. ISBN 81-7236-124-6 External links • List of rulers of Magadha (http://www."Early India: A Concise History"p. html) References • "The Legend of King Asoka.edu/104/caves. tw/ FULLTEXT/ JR-ENG/ bar. proel.15.Sunga Empire 171 Notes [1] (http:/ / links. [13] Source (http:/ / www. Princeton Library of Asian translations. [3] India :: The Shunga Empire– Britannica Online Encyclopedia (http:/ / www. Ind. Motilal Banarsidass Publ..150.abhitash cha ye.in/asp/showbig. htm)) [7] (http:/ / www. com/ eb/ article-46867/ India) [4] Sarvastivada pg 38–39 [5] Akira Hirakawa. and that its breadth was fifteen stadia. or the Kali-Sindhu river which is a tributary of the Chambal. quoting Megasthenes Text (http:/ / www. Kolkata. which was six hundred feet in breadth and thirty cubits in depth. Kolkata. 2002. • "The Yuga Purana".. The Asiatic Society. Mitchener. ntu. p16. and it is more probable that it denotes one of two rivers in central India -either the Sindhu river which is a tributary of the Yamuna. Indo-Scythian and Indo-Parthian coins in the Smithsonian institution".arthistory." The Yuga Purana. Kumbhakonam Ed) [10] "For any scholar engaged in the study of the presence of the Indo-Greeks or Indo-Scythians before the Christian Era."//5 — (MBH 12/105/5. jstor. Paul Groner. 2002.

Rulers • • • • Vasudeva (c. 30 BCE) Preceded by Magadha dynasties Succeeded by Sunga dynasty Gupta dynasty References • Raychaudhuri. 40 BCE) Susharman (c. 52 – c. 66 BCE) Bhumimitra (c. was overthrown by Vasudeva of the Kanva dynasty in 75 BC. 52 BCE) Narayana (c. 75 – c. Hemchandra Political History of Ancient India. . 1972. Magadha was ruled by four Kanva rulers. Their dynasty was brought to an end by the ruler of the Satavahana Dynasty or 'Andhra bhritya' dynasty in Pratishthan or Paithan in Maharashtra. University of Calcutta.Kanva dynasty 172 Kanva dynasty • • Outline of South Asian history History of Indian subcontinent The Kanva dynasty replaced the Sunga dynasty in Magadha.Devbhooti. The Kanva ruler allowed the kings of the Sunga dynasty to continue to rule in obscurity in a corner of their former dominions. 66 – c. 40 – c. The last ruler of the Sunga dynasty. and ruled in the eastern part of India from 75 BCE to 30 BCE.

Gupta Empire 173 Gupta Empire Gupta Empire ← ← 320 CE–600s CE → → → → Gupta Empire 320–600 CE Capital Languages Religion Pataliputra Sanskrit Hinduism Buddhism Monarchy Government Maharajadhiraja Historical era Area Established Disestablished 240s–280s 319–335 540–550 Sri-Gupta Chandragupta I Vishnu Gupta Ancient history 320 CE 600s CE 3.000 km² (1.351.500.358 sq mi) .

[2] The peace and prosperity created under the leadership of the Guptas enabled the pursuit of scientific and artistic endeavors. who established an empire in the first half of the 7th century. From his accounts. Altekar. logic. The empire gradually declined because of many factors such as substantial loss of territory and imperial authority caused by their own erstwhile feudatories and the invasion by the Huna peoples from Central Asia.[5] Chandra Gupta I. Kanauj. astronomy. the Guptas' did indeed prosper. He started his journey from China in 399 CE and reached India in 405 CE. Kiratas etc. India was again ruled by numerous regional kingdoms. Samudra Gupta the Great. mathematics. and Southeast Asia. credits Guptas with having conquered about twenty one kingdoms.[13] After the collapse of the Gupta Empire in the 6th century. technology. Kushinagar. Sri Lanka. Aryabhata.[16] also regarded the caste of the Guptas as Vaish on the basis of the ancient Indian texts on law. A minor line of the Gupta clan continued to rule Magadha after the disintegration of the empire. the dynasty is a model of a classical civilization.[8] The Gupta period produced scholars such as Kalidasa. Brannigan. which prescribe the name-ending with Gupta for a member of the Vaish caste.[12] The earliest available Indian epics are also thought to have been written around this period. These Guptas were ultimately ousted by Vardhana ruler Harsha Vardhana. until the Rome-China trade axis was broken with the fall of the Han dynasty. the rise of the Gupta Empire was one of the most prominent violations of the caste system in ancient India. During his stay in India up to 411 CE. Kapilavastu. The Penal Code was mild and offences were punished by fines only.[14][] Historian Ram Sharan Sharma asserts that the Vaish Guptas "appeared as a reaction against oppressive rulers". he went on a pilgrimage to Mathura. Gupta Sāmrājya) was an ancient Indian empire which existed from approximately 320 to 550 CE and covered much of the Indian Subcontinent. and Chandra Gupta II the Great were the most notable rulers of the Gupta dynasty.[1] Founded by Maharaja Sri Gupta. Origin of the Guptas According to many historians. literature. who has written several books on Gupta coinage. Varahamihira. Fa Xian was pleased with the mildness of administration. the Hunas.[6] The 4th century CE Sanskrit poet Kalidasa. the Kambojas tribes located in the west and east Oxus valleys. sculptures and paintings.[15] A.S. both in and outside India. the Kinnaras. the Gupta Empire was a Vaish dynasty. .[9][10] Science and political administration reached new heights during the Gupta era. Kashi and Rajgriha and made careful observations about the empire's conditions. Pataliputra. religion and philosophy that crystallized the elements of what is generally known as Hindu culture. According to historian Michael C. the Gupta Empire was a prosperous period. a historian and archaeologist.[7] The high points of this cultural creativity are magnificent architecture. engineering. art.[] Fa Xian was the first of the Chinese pilgrims who visited India during the reign of Gupta emperor Chandragupta II. dialectic. including the kingdoms of Parasikas (Persians).[11] Strong trade ties also made the region an important cultural center and set the region up as a base that would influence nearby kingdoms and regions in Burma.Gupta Empire 174 Today part of  India  Pakistan  Bangladesh  Nepal Warning: Value specified for "continent" does not comply • • Outline of South Asian history History of Indian subcontinent The Gupta Empire (Sanskrit: गुप्त साम्राज्य. Vaishali.[3] This period is called the Golden Age of India[4] and was marked by extensive inventions and discoveries in science. Vishnu Sharma and Vatsyayana who made great advancements in many academic fields.

He established a realm stretching from the Ganges River to Prayaga (modern-day Allahabad) by 321 CE. He took the kingdoms of Ahichchhatra and Padmavati early in his reign.[17] His son and successor Ghatotkacha ruled probably from c. he had incorporated over twenty kingdoms into his realm and his rule extended from the Himalayas to the river Narmada and from the Brahmaputra to the Yamuna. until his death in 380 CE. and ruled for about 45 years. British Museum. 240–280 CE. Chandragupta I Ghatotkacha (reigned c. Chandragupta set about expanding his power. 280–319 CE). In contrast to their successor. P. all of which were tribes in the area. 335–380 CE. so as to display the power of king and to underline the importance of his conquest. a Lichchhavi princess—the main power in Magadha.[19] He performed Ashwamedha yajna in which a horse is left to freely roam in the entire nation. with Garuda pillar. Jayaswal. A number of modern historians. the Yaudheyas. Chandragupta I.) In a breakthrough deal. 280–319 CE. now in Akbar’s Fort at Allahabad. who is mentioned as Maharajadhiraja. the Arjunayanas. think he and his son were possibly feudatories of the Kushans. Chandragupta was married to Kumaradevi. depicted on a coin of their son Samudragupta. He assumed the imperial title of Maharajadhiraja. the Maduras and the Abhiras. . which include Rakhaldas Bandyopadhyay and K. Parakramanka succeeded his father in 335 CE. Historian Vincent Smith described him as the "Indian Napoleon". The Samudragupta Prashasti inscribed on the Ashokan Pillar. founder of the Mauryan Empire. had a son named Chandragupta (reigned c. stone replica of the horse. By his death in 380.Gupta Empire 175 Srigupta and Ghatotkacha The most likely time for the reign of Sri Gupta is c. Queen Kumaradevi and King Chandragupta I. conquering much of Magadha. With a dowry of the kingdom of Magadha (capital Pataliputra) and an alliance with the Lichchhavis. He gave himself the titles King of Kings and World Monarch. He then attacked the Malwas. he and his son Ghatotkacha are referred to in inscriptions as Maharaja[18] At the beginning of the 5th century the Guptas established and ruled a few small Hindu kingdoms in Magadha and around modern-day Bihar. The Coin of Samudragupta. then prepared. Samudragupta Samudragupta. 319–335 CE) (not to be confused with Chandragupta Maurya (340–293 BCE). is in the Lucknow Museum. is an authentic record of his exploits and his sway over most of the continent. Prayaga and Saketa.

Rama Gupta Although. Agarawala. coins also have been found from the Eran-Vidisha region and classified [21] in five distinct types. which include the Garuda. lion and border legend types. It may be a possibility that he was dethroned because of not being the worthy enough to rule and his younger brother Chandra Gupta II took over. He was a firm believer in Hinduism and is known to have worshipped Lord Vishnu. . D.Gupta Empire 176 Samudragupta was not only a talented military leader but also a great patron of art and literature. Garudadhvaja. Entry frame of the Dashavatara Temple.[20] He provided a gold railing around the Bodhi Tree. He was a poet and musician himself. R.[22] In opinion of art historian Dr. That monastery was called by Xuanzang as the Mahabodhi Sangharama.. Litt. A large number of his copper from the Gupta era. A. The Brahmi legends on these coins are written in the early Gupta style. He became king because of being the eldest. the historicity of Rama Gupta is proved by his Durjanpur inscriptions on three Jaina images. Rama Gupta may be the eldest son of Samudra Gupta. the narrative of the Devichandragupta is not supported by any contemporary epigraphical evidence. He was considerate of other religions and allowed Sri Lanka's Buddhist king Sirimeghvanna to build a monastery at Bodh Gaya. where A Terracotta relief panel of a meditating Buddha he is mentioned as the Maharajadhiraja. The Dashavatara Temple or Vishnu Temple also called Gupta temple at Deogarh. The important scholars present in his court were Harishena. Vasubandhu and Asanga.

Kalidasa was particularly known for his fine exploitation of the shringara (romantic) element in his verse. Amongst these men was the immortal Kalidasa whose works dwarfed the works of many other literary geniuses. and for this reason there is also a long history of non-Hindu Gupta period art. Vikramaditya (the Sun of Power).[] 177 Chandra Gupta II"Vikramaditya" According to the Gupta records. but with his main opponent Rudrasimha III defeated by 395. defeating the Saka Western Kshatrapas of Malwa. Emperor Chandra Gupta II expanded his realm westwards. Chandra Gupta II. culture and science. a group of nine who excelled in the literary arts. . born of queen Dattadevi. not only in his own age but in the ages to come. especially during the reign of Chandra Gupta II. estabilshed a second capital at Ujjain and was the high point of the empire. built during the Gupta era.[23] His son Kumaragupta I was married to Kadamba princess A Terracotta relief panel depicting a scene from the Rāmāyaṇa. the Vakataka ruler of Deccan. ruled from 380 until 413. The court of Chandragupta was made even more illustrious by the fact that it was graced by the Navaratna (Nine Jewels). the reign is remembered for its very influential style of Hindu art. Gujarat and Saurashtra in a campaign lasting until 409. of Karnataka region. the Gold coins of Chandragupta II. In particular. Guptas were supportive of thriving Buddhist and Jain cultures as well. Gupta period Buddhist art was to be influential in most of East and Southeast Asia. Some excellent works of Hindu art such as the panels at the Dashavatara Temple in Deogarh serve to illustrate the magnificence of Gupta art. This extended his control from coast-to-coast. Despite the creation of the empire through war. literature. His daughter Prabhavatigupta from this Naga queen was married to Rudrasena II. amongst his many sons. Many advances were recorded by the Chinese scholar and traveller Faxian (Fa-hien) in his diary and published afterwards. as his successor.Samudragupta nominated prince Chandra Gupta II. and crushing the Bengal (Vanga) chiefdoms.Gupta Empire Hindu God Vishnu reclining on the serpent Shesha (Ananta) on a side panel of the Vishnu temple of 5th century. Chandra Gupta II also married to a Kadamba princess of Kuntala region and a princess of Naga lineage (Nāgakulotpannnā). Above all it was the synthesis of elements that gave Gupta art its distinctive flavour. During this period. Kuberanaga.

2. Mahendraditya. Skandagupta died in 467 and was succeeded by his agnate brother Purugupta. Parasikas. born of Mahadevi Dhruvasvamini.Obv: Bust of king. Kiratas etc. 455 CE. credits Chandragupta Vikramaditya with having conquered about twenty one kingdoms. and a devotee of Vishnu". King of Kings. rose in power to threaten the empire. known in India as the Sweta Huna. by annihilating these sinful Mlecchas completely". Fa-Hsien. in the style of the Western Satraps. king Vikramaditya (Chandra Gupta II) had "unburdened the sacred earth of the Barbarians like the Sakas. Rev: Legend in Brahmi. he wrote about life under the Gupta emperors. He repulsed a Huna attack c.[26][27][28] Fa-Hsien In 399. The Brihatkathamanjari of the Kashmiri writer Kshmendra states. But the expense of the wars drained the empire's resources and contributed to its decline. Vikramaditya (Chandra Gupta II) proceeded northwards. went to India to study the sacred writings of Buddhism. Hunas. subjugated the Parasikas (Persians). with corrupted Greek [24][25] legend "OOIHU". Kumaragupta I Chandragupta II was succeeded by his second son Kumaragupta I. both in and outside India. the Pushyamitras. with traces of corrupt Greek script. He assumed the titles of Vikramaditya and Kramaditya. but then was faced with invading Hephthalites or "White Huns". Skandagupta Skandagupta. and lands into India proper.[33] Silver coin of the Gupta King Kumara Gupta I AD (414–455) (Coin of his Western territories. son and successor of Kumaragupta I is generally considered to be the last of the great Gupta rulers. Decline of the empire . Thereafter.In the 10 years he was there. the king proceeds across the Himalaya and reduced the Kinnaras. design derived from the Western Satraps). Mitchiner 4821–4823.[32] He defeated the Pushyamitra threat. Kambojas. Tusharas. Rev: Garuda standing facing with spread wings. Mlecchas. around a peacock. 15mm.[29] He ruled until 455. Kumaragupta I assumed the title. a Chinese Buddhist. then the Hunas and the Kambojas tribes located in the west and east Oxus valleys respectively. Towards the end of his reign a tribe in the Narmada valley. "Chandragupta Vikramaditya.1 grams. minted in his Western territories. Yavanas. After finishing his campaign in the East and West India.Gupta Empire 178 Chandra Gupta II's campaigns against Foreign Tribes 4th century CE Sanskrit poet Kalidasa.[7] Silver coin of Chandragupta II. His writings form one of the most important sources for the history of this period.Obv: Bust [30][31] of king with crescents. from the northwest. etc. Brahmi legend: Parama-bhagavata rajadhiraja Sri Kumaragupta Mahendraditya.

Kumaragupta III. In the 480's the Hephthalites broke through the Gupta defenses in the northwest. The empire disintegrated under the attacks of Toramana and his successor Mihirakula. regarded as a military classic of the time. but the tail end recognized ruler of the dynasty's main line was king Vishnugupta.[34] The succession of the sixth-century Guptas is not entirely clear. although their power was much diminished. Narasimhagupta. continued to resist the Huns. the factors. depicting a Gupta king holding a bow. Gold coin of Gupta era. . Historically. offers some insight into the military system of the Guptas.Gupta Empire Skandagupta was followed by weak rulers Purugupta (467–473). The Huns were defeated and driven out of India in 528 AD by a coalition consisting of Gupta emperor Narasimhagupta and the king Yashodharman from Malwa. Vishnugupta. Budhagupta (476–495?). which contribute to the decline of the empire include competition from the Vakatakas and the rise of Yashodharman in Malwa. a contemporary Indian document. and much of the empire in northwest was overrun by the Hun by 500. Kumaragupta II (473–476). However. the Siva-Dhanur-veda. Vainyagupta and Bhanugupta. It appears from inscriptions that the Guptas. In addition to the Hun invasion. the best accounts of this come not from the Hindus themselves but from Chinese and Western observers. reigning from 540 to 550.[] 179 Military organization The Imperial Guptas could have achieved their successes through force of arms with an efficient martial system.

internal dissolution sapped the ability of the Guptas to resist foreign invasion. The Guptas also had knowledge of siegecraft. 20. The Indian longbow was reputedly a powerful weapon capable of great range and penetration and provided an effective counter to invading horse archers. the steel bow was capable of long range and penetration of exceptionally thick armor.000 charioteers and 10. Parthian. Unlike the composite bows of Western and Central Asian foes. the Gupta empire was the most powerful empire in the world during his reign. and longswords. During the reign of Chandragupta II. Archers were frequently protected by infantry equipped with shields. and the bow was one of the dominant weapons of their army. The Guptas also maintained a navy. The Iron pillar of Delhi is notable for the composition of the metals used in its construction. Gupta military success likely stemmed from the concerted use of elephants. 50.000 elephants along with a powerful navy with more than 1200 ships. Iron shafts were used against armored elephants and fire arrows were also part of the bowmen's arsenal. Able commanders like Samudragupta and Chandragupta II would have likely understood the need for combined armed tactics and proper logistical organization. armored cavalry. One of these was the steel bow. the Gupta armies were probably better disciplined.000 infantry. The collapse of the Gupta Empire in the face of the Huna onslaught was due not directly to the inherent defects of the Gupta army. These were less common weapons than the bamboo design and found in the hands of noblemen rather than in the ranks. The Guptas apparently showed little predilection for using horse archers. Chandragupta II controlled the whole of the Indian subcontinent. However. or more typically bamboo. bows of this design would be less prone to warping in the damp and moist conditions often prevalent to the region. javelins. and Hepthalite (Huna) enemies. Due to its high tensility. at a time when the Roman Empire in the west was in decline.Gupta Empire 180 The Guptas seem to have relied heavily on infantry archers. despite the fact these warriors were a main component in the ranks of their Scythian.000 cavalry. and other sophisticated war machines. More likely. Gupta empire maintained a large army consisting of 500. and fired a long bamboo cane arrow with a metal head. which after all had initially defeated these people under Skandagupta. . The Hindu version of the longbow was composed of metal. allowing them to control regional waters. catapults. and foot archers in tandem against both Hindu kingdoms and foreign armies invading from the Northwest. India historically has had a prominent reputation for its steel weapons. as was simultaneously occurring in Western Europe and China.

elephants. Instead of the prevailing cosmogony in which eclipses were caused by pseudo-planetary nodes Rahu and Ketu. A Vishayapati administered the Vishaya with the help of the Adhikarana (council of representatives). The ancient Gupta text Kama Krishna and Radha playing chaturanga on an 8x8 Sutra is widely considered to be the standard work on human sexual Ashtāpada behavior in Sanskrit literature written by the Indian scholar Vatsyayana. It was divided into 26 provinces. . Prithvi and Avani.Gupta Empire 181 Gupta administration A study of the epigraphical records of the Gupta empire shows that there was a hierarchy of administrative divisions from top to bottom. Mandala. Doctors also invented several medical instruments. Prathamakulika and Prathama Kayastha. Chess is said to have originated in this period. dates to the Gupta period. which is said to have inspired Goethe. The Indian numerals which were the first positional base 10 numeral systems in the world originated from Gupta India. and even performed operations. These and the other scientific discoveries made by Indians during this period about gravity[37] and the planets of the solar system spread throughout the world through trade. respectively. which translates as "four divisions [of the military]" – infantry. Desha. which were styled as Bhukti. which is a Sanskrit redaction text on all of the major concepts of ayurvedic medicine with innovative chapters on surgery. he explained eclipses in terms of shadows cast by and falling on Earth. Rashtra. postulated the theory that the Earth moves round the Sun.The famous Sushruta Samhita. The empire was called by various names such as Rajya. who wrote plays such as Shakuntala. Kalidasa.[35] There were also trade links of Gupta business with the Roman empire. Legacy of the Gupta Empire Scholars of this period include Varahamihira and Aryabhata. and rook. which comprised four representatives: Nagarasreshesthi. but is instead round and rotates about its own axis. who was a great playwright. cavalry. a noted mathematician-astronomer of the Gupta period proposed that the earth is not flat. knight. who is believed to be the first to come up with the concept of zero. and studied solar and lunar eclipses. Pradesha and Bhoga. and marked the highest point of Sanskrit literature is also said to have belonged to this period. bishop.[36] where its early form in the 6th century was known as caturaṅga. Sarthavaha. He also discovered that the Moon and planets shine by reflected sunlight. Provinces were also divided into Vishayas and put under the control of the Vishayapatis. and chariotry – represented by the pieces that would evolve into the modern pawn. A part of the Vishaya was called Vithi. Aryabhata.

[38] 182 Art and literature During the Gupta period. The Buddha in this example is making the gesture known as abhay-mudra. The paintings show scenes from the life of the Buddha.a task which must have taken years of labour with the simple tools the Guptas used. The cave-shrines are dark but beautifully decorated with sculptures and paintings. This dynasty was founded by Srigupta. and other devotional subjects. • Cave shrines Many of the Buddhist cave-shrines in western India were cut out of the cliffs . Classical forms of music and dance. • Wall paintings There are more than 30 Buddhist shrines and monasteries in the Ajanta hills. Magnificent palaces and temples contained the highest quality sculpture and paintings. This was fashion that continued for hundreds of years. from around 320 to 550. Indonesia. The walls of many of these were decorated with colourful frescoes. or having no fear. The rulers are: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Sri Gupta Ghatotkacha Chandragupta I Nishamusgupta Samudragupta Ramagupta Chandragupta II Kumaragupta I Skandagupta Purugupta Kumaragupta II Budhagupta Narasimhagupta Baladitya Kumaragupta III Vishnugupta Vainyagupta Expansion of Gupta Empire • Bhanugupta • Shashankgupta . The building’s design in Gupta architecture reflects India's influence on the region. created under the Guptas. are still practiced today all over Asia. Gupta dynasty rulers The main branch of the Gupta dynasty ruled the Gupta Empire in India. Indian artists created some of their finest works. or wall paintings.Gupta Empire Borobudur in Java.

edu:8001/ ~dee/ ANCINDIA/ GUPTA. ISBN 81-208-0592-5. ISBN 0-12-421171-2.. while on the reverse.about.191–200 [31] "Evidence of the conquest of Saurastra during the reign of Chandragupta II is to be see n in his rare silver coins which are more directly imitated from those of the Western Satraps. ISBN 81-208-0592-5. Historybits. [11] The Gupta Empire of India | Chandragupta I | Samudragupta (http:/ / www. com/ books?id=pSKNeJsH7QgC& pg=PA511) [25] "Evidence of the conquest of Saurastra during the reign of Chandragupta II is to be seen in his rare silver coins which are more directly imitated from those of the Western Satraps. 567. 320 : Chandragupta I founds the Gupta Empire. The Andhras etc. The Andhras etc. and encourages trade. Retrieved on 2011-11-21. they retain some traces of the old inscriptions in Greek characters. html). p. Tokharas and the . com/ EBchecked/ topic/ 249590/ Gupta-dynasty). [13] Agarwal. Indian history – India (http:/ / www. Ashvini (1989). org/ a/ OL9771A/ Anant-Sadashiv-Altekar) in the Open Library. 2002. 4. Ashvini (1989). p. 510 [33] Raychaudhuri. [3] India – Historical Setting – The Classical Age – Gupta and Harsha (http:/ / historymedren. Retrieved on 2011-11-21. Elementary Number Theory with Applications. fsmitha. king Vikarmaditya is said to have destroyed all the barbarous tribes such as the Kambojas.". britannica. art in the Gupta empire. Retrieved on 2011-11-21. PBS. html). Britannica Online Encyclopedia.. Britannica Online Encyclopedia. National Council of Teachers of English Committee on Recreational Reading – Sanskrit language..D. p.264–9 [16] List of Altekar's publications (http:/ / openlibrary. Delhi:Motilal Banarsidass. Academic Press.com [5] Ancient India.. [9] Mahajan. 5. they substitute the Gupta type (a peacock) for the chaitya with crescent and star. p. Notes [2] The Gupta Dynasty and Empire (http:/ / www. Ashvini (1989). [17] Agarwal. and up into the northern mountains. 554 : The Gupta dynasty ends when the last emperor Shashakgupta dies. nupam.1.76–78 [28] Cf:"In the story contained in Kathasarit-sagara.84–7 [18] Majumdar.com.511 (http:/ / books. they substitute the Gupta type (a peacock) for the chaitya wit crescent and star. htm). nupam. p. archive.". Greek script. wsu. 487 [23] Raychaudhuri. htm). pp. Retrieved on 2011-11-21. Kshmendra). they retain some traces of the old inscriptions in Greek characters. 10/1/285-86.60–75 [8] Gupta dynasty (Indian dynasty) (http:/ / www. GOLDEN AGE OF INDIA (http:/ / www.com (11 September 2001). Historymedren. 6.com.. Retrieved on 2011-11-21. ISBN 81-208-0592-5. britannica. [12] Trade | The Story of India – Photo Gallery (http:/ / www. 330-376 : Samudragupta expands the empire from the Indus River to the Bay of Bengal. and dates as on Saka coins" in Early history of Jammu region: pre-historic to 6th century A. pp. p. 450 : Empire begin to collapse under pressure from invading Huns. pp. Delhi:Motilal Banarsidass. 415-450 : Kalidas composes most of his poetry in the reign of Kumargupta(415-455).. Delhi:Motilal Banarsidass.. Parsikaanshcha tayakatacharan vishrankhalan hatya bhrubhangamatreyanah bhuvo bharamavarayate (Brahata Katha. com/ gupta. Retrieved on 2011-11-21. Yavanan neechan Hunan Sabarbran Tushara. org/ thestoryofindia/ gallery/ photos/ 8. google. org/ web/ 20081204082030/ http:/ / www. Yavanas. [27] Kathasritsagara 18. Indianchild. [7] Raghu Vamsa v 4. com/ gupta_empire. 540 [10] Gupta dynasty: empire in 4th century (http:/ / www. Fsmitha.cli [32] Raychaudhuri. com/ EBchecked/ topic-art/ 285248/ 1960/ The-Gupta-empire-at-the-end-of-the-4th-century). by Raj Kumar p. htm). pbs. 530–1 [37] Thomas Khoshy. about. while on the reverse. 516 [34] Columbia Encyclopedia [35] Mahajan. p." in Rapson "A catalogue of Indian coins in the British Museum. indianchild. htm). [4] GUPTA DYNASTY. 3. historybits. . com/ h1/ ch28gup. Rise and Fall of the Imperial Guptas.. Hunas. p." in Rapson "A catalogue of Indian coins in the British Museum. Retrieved on 2011-11-21. HTM). com/ Sgupta1. com/ library/ text/ bltxtindia7. wsu. 474 [20] Mahajan. The Age of the Guptas (http:/ / web. 2.Gupta Empire 183 Timeline 1. Rise and Fall of the Imperial Guptas. 489 [24] "The conquest is indicated by the issue of the new Gupta silver coinage modelled on the previous Saka coinage showing on observe the King's head.com (17 June 2010). pp. p.cli [26] ata shrivikramadityo helya nirjitakhilah Mlechchana Kamboja. 376-415 : Chandragupta II makes the empire secure. Rise and Fall of the Imperial Guptas. [29] Agarwal.edu [6] Gupta Empire in India.

Calcutta: University of Calcutta ISBN 1-4400-5272-7 • Shiv Chhatrapati 14 February 2013 @ 5:43 pm Further reading • Andrea Berens Karls & Mounir A.sdstate. (1972).C.google.C. (1977).edu/projectsouthasia/Docs/index.com/fl2422/stories/20071116504306400. H.flonnet. World History The Human Experience. cfm) • Coins of Gupta Empire (http://www. Farah.htm) • Regents Prep:Global History:Golden Ages:Gupta Empire (http://regentsprep. R.Gupta Empire 184 References • Majumdar.com) Preceded by Kanva dynasty Magadha dynasties AD 240–550 Succeeded by possibly Pala dynasty Classical India Timeline: 6th century BCE  5th century BCE  4th century BCE  3rd century BCE  2nd century BCE  1st century BCE  1st century CE  2nd century  3rd century  4th century  5th century  6th century  7th century  8th century  9th century 10th century 11th century • Northwestern India Gandhara • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Northern India Magadha Shishunaga dynasty Nanda empire Kalinga Maurya Empire Sunga Empire Maha-Meghavahana Dynasty Kuninda Kingdom Western Satraps Gupta Empire Maitraka Vakataka dynasty. New Delhi:Motilal Banarsidass. Ancient India. ISBN 81-208-0436-8 • Raychaudhuri. Harsha Gurjara-Pratihara Pala Empire Paramara dynasty Solanki Eastern Ganga dynasty Sena dynasty • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Southern India Pandyas Cholas Cheras Satavahana Empire • • • Northeastern India Varman dynasty Kamarupa kingdom Mlechchha dynasty Pala dynasty Kamboja-Pala dynasty (Persian rule) (Greek conquests) • • • • • • • • • Indo-Greek Kingdom Yona Indo-Scythians Indo-Parthians Pahlava Kushan Empire Indo-Sassanids Kidarite Kingdom Indo-Hephthalites (Huna) • Kalabhras dynasty • Kadamba Dynasty Western Ganga Dynasty Vishnukundina Pallava Kalachuri Chalukya Rashtrakuta Yadava dynasty Western Chalukyas Kakatiya dynasty Hoysala Empire (Islamic conquests) • Kabul Shahi (Islamic Empire) .com/ books?id=pGwjFsqwF0YC&printsec=frontcover). External links • Frontline Article on Gupta Period Art (http://www.shivlee.cfm) • Inscriptions of the Guptas and their contemporaries (http://www. Political History of Ancient India (http://books.org/Regents/global/themes/ goldenages/gupta.

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