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FOREWORD It is a particular pleasure and privilege to write a foreword to the first of three fundamental monographs on the Early Neolithic

of Eastern Hungary. It is a pleasure because of the long association I have enjoyed with the principal author, Jnos Makkay, with the Szarvas Museum, with the landscapes of the Szarvas-Gyomaendrd zone and even of the gulyas-pubs of those villages. I could fill many more than my allotted space with stories of Jnos, the Szarvas campsite and the village police, the delights of frogs legs at Szarvas restaurants, the consumption of 1.8m of Szarvasi kolbasz by a now retired colleague in one morning, the old men of Szarvas Second World War experiences, and many, many more. But, as Jnos notes in his own Preface, these are best left for memoirs (mine also are as yet unwritten caveat emptor!). It is a privilege because it is my view that the triad of volumes one here published, two still in preparation will form the cornerstone of Early Neolithic studies in Eastern Hungary for the remainder of this century. Many of the most-quoted excavations ever conducted on Krs sites since 1960 are reported on here in the stratigraphic detail that they merit not least Szarvas 8/23 and Endrd 3/6, 3/35, 3/39 and 3/119. We have had to subsist for so long on the bare bones of these sites the preliminary reports, the scattered publications of interesting finds that the meat in this volume provides a full-scale feast to last for years. And, just as we are sated from volume one, the delights of the next two volumes appear for our delectation! This volume contains not only the stratigraphic details of most of the Krs sites that Jnos has ever excavated but also an overview of the history of these excavations and a magisterial summary of the place of the Krs culture in Eurasian prehistory. The history of the struggle to achieve these results seemingly in the teeth of opposition from most of the colleagues in the Archaeological Institute is vintage Makkay and few former colleagues escape without blushes. Even so, the invective has been sensibly toned down by skilful editing by Paolo Biagi and Elisabetta Starnini, without whose support these volumes would never appear (for full versions of past struggles, see the series of polemics [alas in Hungarian] from Jnos own publishing house). Jnos Preface is required reading for anyone seeking a view of the battlefield that has been Hungarian Neolithic studies since 1970. The concluding summary is known to Krs aficionados from the Szolnok County Museum publication Between three worlds those of the Mesolithic hunter-gatherers, the agriculturalists of Near Eastern origin and the resulting Krs amalgam. Itself an amalgam of the two dominant aspects of Jnos academic personality inescapable Oriental diffusionism and local Hungarian innovation and independence, this view goes much further than the ecological determinism of recent years in advancing a persuasive case for cultural interaction in the Alfld Plain. There are other contributors to the volume, whose importance is not diminished by their occurrence in appendices. Istvn Vrs account of the animal bones from a pit of the Latest Copper Age one of the very few settlement finds coeval with the well-known barrows; Tibor Paluchs excellent review of all known Krs burials; a report on the Szarvas 8/23 lithics set in the wider context of Starevo-Krs and Vina lithics and the Proto-Vina debate by Magorzata Kaczanowska and Janusz K. Kozowski; and, finally, the publication of a Boian II Importstck from Bksszentandrs-Furugy by Jnos Makkay. Each appendix resembles a delightful souffl after a Schweinshaxe of a main course. I remember well a conversation with Jnos in the late 1980s, when he confessed that, having excavated two million Krs sherds, he was hanging up his shovel. At the time, I realised that that surely meant a lifetime of digging. In his own Preface, Jnos indeed confirms that the book you are about to read contains a whole lifetimes academic work from 1953 to 2004. This is a unique opportunity to appreciate what that lifetimes work has contributed to European Neolithic scholarship. It is a matter of regret that the archaeologists who were so much a part of Jnos life as well as contributing to the Krs story Ida Bognr-Kutzian, Sndor Bknyi and most recently Andrew Sherratt are no longer with us to read it. JOHN CHAPMAN 17/IX/2006

Interroga de diebus antiquis qui fuerunt ante te (Deut. 4.32)

Since its foundation in 1959, the Archaeological Institute of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (abbreviated AI in the following) has carried out many excavations and field surveys all over the country. The Institutes collections number hundreds of thousand objects, which derive from the Institutes own field researches, which are now (or were) temporarily kept in the attic stores and basements of the AI, with the exception of the finds from my excavations, which were sent back to the local museums. Their importance is enhanced by the fact that most of them are supported by documentation, including field notes, photographs, maps and drawings that provide valuable cultural contexts for these objects. Now these collections, whose final publication is in progress, are being sent back to their territorially responsible local county or town museums. In the case of the materials from my Krs excavations, the finds were first formally divided between the museums of Bkscsaba and Szarvas, both in the Krs region of Southeast Hungary. As plans for the reorganization of the county and district museums have moved forward in 2000 and again 2001, the authorities decided to unify the whole material into the collections of the Szarvas Town Museum, the Tessedik Smuel Museum. Unfortunately I had the opportunity to catalogue only a part of the assemblages, mainly reconstructed vessels and small finds (i.e. figurines, bone tools and others) 1 in the inventory books of the Bkscsaba County Museums. From 1988 onwards the central authorities endowed S. Bknyi (the then Director of the Archaeological Institute) with excavation rights on the Microregional Area in the Krs Valley, covering the central part of the Szarvas Topography volume 2. Since then, and till his death on December 25 th, 1994, he did not continue to inventorise the excavated finds (animal bones included). As a consequence, the huge assemblages of pottery etc. of Endrd 3/119 have been awaiting the chance to be catalogued. At present the entire collection (inventoried and uninventoried assemblages together) is housed in the Szarvas Museum and deposited in hard paper boxes on shelves according to their excavation contextual and box reference numbers (BRN, see Appendix VI). Nevertheless the finds stored in the Szarvas Museum are kept in an unsafe place and might be damaged 3. County Bks was the third in the general programme of the Hungarian Archaeological Topography, i.e. the Intensive Field Survey of Hungary, the most important of the AI archaeological programmes. In the early 1960s, it was planned to cover the whole territory of Hungary, according to the 1963 district organisation of the country. The districts were the territorial units of the local government administration from their introduction, in the XV century, to their dissolution in 1984. Especially in the 1960s, they underwent many local territorial changes, although the Topography plan insisted on keeping the original district map of 1964. As a result, the northernmost of the Szarvas volumes, dealing with the territory of the village Gyoma, became part of County Szolnok in 1975. While there were 105 districts in the territory of Hungary in the late 1950s, the Topography programme was planned to be carried forward, written and published in 105 volumes as a county-by-county survey. Most of the scientific and documentary materials and the finances were provided by the AI, with additional projects given by different central programs of the Academy and the State, and partly by the local county museums. The publication and sale of the individual district volumes was an exclusive right of Budapest Academic Press. From the beginning to the end of the programme, in 1999-2000, only ten volumes were issued (SHERRATT, 1982: 287-288; 1983: 14-15). After some introductory works (between 1970 and 1974, carried out by K. Bakay), in April 1974 the author was invited by the AI to organize the intensive field survey of the Szarvas district of the Krs Valley (M AKKAY, 1989: 9-19). The topographic surveys of Hungary were conceived in response to two major problems or programs in the Hungarian prehistory, Roman Imperial, Early Medieval and Medieval history, in a period when the international scientific interest for prehistoric and later ages of this part of
1. 2.

These are mainly finds exhibited in the Tessedik Museum, Szarvas. Excavation permit of the Hungarian Excavation Committee, dated March 16th, 1988, and April 21st, 1989, nn. 213-06-109-/88A and 312-06-152-/89A respectively, both signed by S. Bknyi. A similar situation is reflected by the permission he gave to I. Takcs to publish the fish bones of Endrd 3/119 (BKNYI, 1992: 301, note 1). 3. According to Dr. Irn Juhsz, the former director of the Tessedik Museum, Szarvas.

Europe had increased. In effect, present-day Hungary is located at the fringes of wide territories, which played a decisive role in the development of human civilisation throughout the millennia: a. Here was located the northernmost border of more southerly cultural regions which had been the home of prosperous farming cultures whose sedentary way of life had, by a process of cultural and/or demic diffusion (throughout the Krs Culture), generated the earliest Central European farming cultures, or, as Gordon Childe termed it, the Danubian I-III, i.e. the Linear Pottery Culture, its variants and later descendants (extending from the Atlantic Ocean to the Black Sea shores). It is a recent misconception that the LBK (Linienbandkeramik) people in central Europe descended en masse from the Balkan EN. Recent studies on the European Mesolithic and LBK cranioskeletal remains point to a biological continuity between the Central European Mesolithic and the LBK (DAY, 2001: 221-224). b. The vast steppic belt of Eurasia extends from the Far East, as a long and relatively narrow band, as far as the Carpathians. Its isolated, small enclaves, with semi-steppic environmental conditions, can be found also in the Tisza and Krs Valleys west of the above-mentioned chain. This characteristic geographic area favoured the western expansion (or only distribution) of a number of oriental, originally steppe bound, cultures: Proto-Iranian (or Late Indo-Iranian) tribes or groups of the Yamna (Pit grave, Ochre grave or Kurgan) Culture in the second half of the 3rd millennium BC, Pre-Scythian Cimmerians around the turn of the 2nd and 1st millennium BC (i.e. the grave of Gyoma [MAKKAY in MRT8, 1989: 214-219 and Pl. 29]), the Early Iranian Scythians from the middle of the VIII century BC (HAVASSY, 2001), and much later the invasions or diffusions of their genetic successors, the Middle and Late Iranian Sarmatian, Roxolan, Jazygian and Alanian tribes. The distribution territory of most of these eastern conquerors (including groups of the much earlier Pit Grave people) covered areas east and within the Tisza Valley and rarely extended to the west beyond it. c. Mainly after the two Dacian wars of Emperor Traian, between 101 and 106 AD, the central parts of the Carpathian Basin (and especially the middle and lower Tisza Valley) were the scene of recurring wars between Rome and the martial tribes of the Alfld-Iranians (as for example the long lasting Sarmatian wars of Marcus Aurelius the philosopher). These military and political actions played a decisive role in the later history of the Roman Empire, including also events of the centuries after the collapse of the Western Empire (i.e. the Hunnic and Avar periods between the V and IX centuries AD). d. In the wake of these Iranian peoples, there came subsequent waves of purely Asiatic nomad populations who were horse breeders, first the Huns of Attila. His power centre, in the first part of the V century AD, was somewhere in the Tisza Valley, most probably around the Szeged Medieval Castle, just a few metres behind the building of the Szeged Museum. The positive and also negative role the Huns played in shaping the fate of the Roman Empire is well known. e. Peoples of similar inner Asiatic (probably Mongolian) background were the folks of Bajan: the Early Avars (called also Var+Chunni/Huns, with their Hungarian variant Vrkonyok = the people of the Vrkonys). They occupied the entire Carpathian Basin and founded their state-like empire, the Early Avar Khaganat, around 567-570 AD. With the further support of genetically related eastern newcomers (Vrkonys and Onogurs) around 585, and again around 675, the whole Carpathian Basin was kept under their rule until the end of the VIII century AD, when the Avar wars of Charlemagne (and the attacks of the Bulgarian kagan Krum in the following years of the IX century AD) put an end to the independence of the Late Avar proto-state. f. The end of the IX century AD, which was the Dark Age of the early history of the Carpathian Basin without any, or with only a few written sources, saw the arrival of the Old Turkic (Onogur) tribes (the Seven Tribes) of archedux rpd, who conquered the Carpathian Basin between 894 and 907, and with his people, ten centuries ago, founded the State of the Holy Crown of Hungary. Because some specific characteristics of the early medieval history of Hungary determined archaeological activity during the dark decades of the Communist rule, a few of them merit a short mention. During the four decades, from the end of the Second World War to the collapse of the communist system in 1990-1991, Hungarian archaeology was characterised primarily by sporadic sondages, rescue works and trial operations, occasionally test excavations preparing larger (mostly never accomplished4) projects, and rarely by large-scale or full excavations for the following reasons. Whereas prehistoric and early medieval

The Neolithic programme of the first five-year-plan of Hungarian Archaeology (FLEP, 1951: 11 and 12) including topics as the origin of Neolithic cultures and the ethnogenesis of their peoples, or to gain a full picture of the life of Neolithic man, was never accomplished. The planned programs were among others the exploration of the west Hungarian peat bogs, the Mesolithic period in eastern Hungary, research of the eastern [scil. Soviet] relations of Neolithic cultures in Hungary. The Neolithic cultures of present-day Hungary have, except for the Krs Culture, very few eastern connections, if any, because there were no such connections during the entire Middle Neolithic period.


archaeology in the neighbouring socialist countries was, and still is, a reason of national pride, whose scope is to demonstrate the independent origin and development of these nations on their present territory since immemorial times (the Daco-Roman and Thracian theory) or since early Protohistory (Slavic migrations supposedly, and wrongly, sometimes dated even to the I-II centuries AD), in Hungary archaeology was considered only a part of the Marxist conception of history, based more on false ideological suggestions than facts. This idea was also supported by the fact that only in the VI-VIII centuries AD the Hungarian speaking groups arrived in the Carpathian Basin under the Avar rule and conduct, bringing with them their mixed Finno-Ugric-Turkic culture and Finno-Ugric language (with strong Turkic influence), which has remained an isolated island in Central Europe since then. As a consequence the whole prehistory and protohistory of the Carpathian region (before the VI century AD) was in no way related to the origin and later development of the Hungarian language and ethnicity. This is the only possible conclusion, given that the Hungarian speaking tribes arrived here in the VI-VIII centuries AD, and subsequently the seven (or eight) Turkic tribes of rpd conquered the Carpathian Basin at the very end of the IX century AD. The first was the shift of the Hungarian language (in connection with the arrival of the Early and Onogur Avars), while the latter brought forth the foundation of the Hungarian State and Kingdom in 1000 AD that was marked by the coronation of the first Hungarian King, Saint Stephen, the great-grandson of rpd on the Christmas day 1000, on the 200th anniversary of the coronation of Charles the Great in Rome. The Hungarian historical tradition is diametrically opposed to the Marxist ideology, which resulted in the sovietised Hungarian state (which had nationalised all the Hungarian museums and archaeological collections in 1949), allocating virtually nothing for large excavations. Rescue operations were all that were left. During the three decades before the start of our intensive field survey in 1974, only a few rescue excavations were carried out in the entire territory of the Szarvas district during the Communist rule. The scope of the Hungarian topography was to collect all the available data from the museum collections, the full literature of the identified and identifiable sites and also the stray finds. This county-by-county survey consisted not only in the systematic recording of the already known finds, but also fieldwork. On the basis of these documents, to conduct field surveys (terepjrs in Hungarian) in order to locate as many sites as possible, and then to identify part of them with the already known sources and data. The technical details of these surveys have never been described in any Hungarian archaeological paper. When I wrote a summary of the works made in the Szarvas district, from the point of view of the fieldwork methodology, I realised that our methods were essentially similar to those of R. McC Adams in the Near East (MAKKAY, 1989: 14-16). However, we did not make any grid walking and square sampling (i.e. walking for 20 etc. minutes on a surface of 10 or 20 m2) although in the case of the presence of potsherds on the surface, we continued to work for hours or returned several times on the same spot. Our method was mainly walking on a field along parallel lines, some 10 m apart. All the sherds even smaller than 3 cm, both diagnostic and non-diagnostic, were collected. General field notes were taken to record sherd density and visibility as well as the general context of the surface (fallow, ploughed field, slope, possible habitation remains, irregular depressions as in the case of Sarmatian settlements, etc.). All the areas of a given site were surveyed down to the lower parts of the levees or low riverbanks, where the occurrence of potsherds on the surface usually ceased. However, the field collections were made along transects radiating from the site in any direction. In most cases, we defined the site boundaries according to the sherds density, because a number of sherds had often moved to peripherical, unsettled parts by ploughing or so-called digo5 activity. We decided that five potsherds was the minimum number required to define a site, and that at least three were to belong to the same culture or period. Rarely we used the method of shovel and trowel to define the exact attribution and distribution of the sherds. These small pits, however, are not to be considered trial trenches because they were made only to collect a few more sherds. These works in the Szarvas district began in 1974 and were completed in 1980. The manuscripts ready for printing waited for nine years, until 1989, to be printed in their final form, and the editor in chief (L. Gerevich), the serial editor (E. Patek) and the director of the AI (S. Bknyi) did not promote any earlier publication. Sooner or later, however, it became clear that we were unable to understand the cultural aspects represented in this area and their chronology only on the basis of surface collections. The solution seemed to be the excavation of some sites where the surface finds were enough abundant and showed a well-defined context. The team members decided to open a few trial trenches according to their interests, and the present

For the interpretation of the word dig, digzs see MAKKAY (1989: 16 and 17). The Hungarian word dig, whose first occurrence dates to 1835, comes from the Venetian word dico i.e. digo I say.


writer became responsible for the small-scale excavations at the Neolithic sites. This decision did not change the excavation strategy of contemporary Hungary. Nevertheless these small-scale excavations, centred in a limited territory, allowed the definition of a fine internal chronology of the individual sites (as for example the case of Endrd 3/35 and 3/36; for more details, see below the description of the sites). However, AI opposed our intentions, because of the orthodox archaeological theories and practices of the country. On the other hand, we were helped by the Bks Country Museums and Szarvas Museum and, occasionally, also the moral and financial support of the Central Offices of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, especially of its then low-ranking member, Sndor Jankovi. I do not want to list here the counteractions, obstacles and interdicts of the leading officials and also colleagues of the AI. Some details will form a part of my memories, still to be written6. Such restrictive measures continued until the publication of the Szarvas volume in 1989 (i.e. the year of the collapse of the communism). One of the most powerful opponents was the then secretary of the Hungarian Communist Party group of the AI, who did his best to oppose our excavation plans and to discredit their results (KALICZ, 1980: 101)7. Under these conditions, it was a real wonder that we were able to open 42 trial excavations at 33 sites. Four were supported and financed by the AI; one large-scale excavation, at Endrd 39, was financed by the Central Office of the Academy, and 28 were (partly rescue) trial trenches funded by the central and independent budget of the Topography8. The currently available cultural periodisation of the area clearly shows that the problems and internal chronology of the archaeological periods, which were not covered by the excavations, have remained obscure or almost unresolved since then, as is the case for the whole Bronze and Iron Ages. As a consequence, we were incapable to achieve even an approximate idea of the local problems of the Copper Age Pit Graves, the Middle Bronze Age Tell Cultures or the transition between the Early Iron Age and the succeeding Scythian period. On the other hand, the excavations carried out at Endrd 3/6 have contributed to the discovery of a semi-subterranean house of the Pit-Grave Culture containing Cernavoda-Bolerz Culture potsherds associated with Corded Ware fragments of the Pit Graves (see below and figs. 49-54). Nevertheless nine excavations (in twenty-two campaigns) were carried out by the author at eight Krs Culture sites between 1974 and 1989. They all are located south of the Triple Krs River, on levees along abandoned early Holocene riverbeds. They were selected for excavation mainly because of logistic reasons, as for example village traffic facilities, distance of sites from the villages where the labourers were enrolled, but first of all by the density of surface sherds. The base of the excavations was established at the Szarvas Museum, where we were free to use all the building facilities. The museum staff gave valuable help in practical matters. Our foremen, Jzsef Tth of Szarvas and Gza Valuska of Endrd, provided considerable expertise in techniques of careful excavation, first learnt during the excavations at Szarvas 8/23 and Endrd 3/119 and skill in training the team of workmen drawn from the towns of Szarvas and later Endrd. Tibor Kdas acted as photographer during the four campaigns at Endrd 3/119 (1986-1989). During the same years, we employed a water sieve but the samples we collected (ca 50, weighing some 20 kg each) are still waiting for identification on the shelves of the Szarvas Museum. Photographs and drawings were made by the author and, in 1986-1989, also by Sndor sy and other members of the AI staff. gnes Zamadits, Lucia Glattfelder-McQuirk and Katalin Horusiczky, AI experienced restorers, gave assistance during some excavation seasons, and made post-excavation pottery restoration in Budapest. Their work lead to the reconstruction of more than 500 vessels from my excavations. If one compares this number with that of the 18 reconstructed vessels from one of the first extensive excavations at Nea Nikomedeia in Greece (YIOUNI, 1996: figs. 5.7, 6; 5.8, 4-6; 5.9, 1-3; 5.10, 7; 5.11, 1; 5.12, 4; 5.13, 1 and 2; 5.14, 2 and 7; 5.15, 2 and 4; 5.17, 3), or from any other published or unpublished assemblage of complete/reconstructed EN vessels from Romanian, Serbian, Macedonian, Thessalian etc. sites, it would be surprising to read that The Krs culture ... does not have the same range of forms as the Starevo culture (WHITTLE et al., 2002: 64)9. Apparently without some knowledge and the detailed analysis of the vessel shapes recovered from the Krs sites of Szarvas 8, Szarvas 23, Endrd 6, Endrd 35, Endrd 39, Endrd 119, Mhtelek-Ndas, Furta-Cst and also of the final

One of these measures was the decision that sherds from our intensive field surveys had not to be washed in the Archaeological Institute. At the same time, the official yearly reports prepared for, and sent to the Central Offices of the Academy always emphasised that the first ranked and most important project of the Archaeological Institute was and would be the Bks Topography. 7. According to this author the context of the white painted sherds of Szarvas 23 is uncertain (WHITTLE et al., 2002: 86 and 87). See MAKKAY (1982b: 37, note 60) and KALICZ and KOS (2000: 19, note 19) who doubt the correct restoration of the largest ALP clay figurine from Szarvas 8/107, without any detailed information about the preconditions, reasons, way and method of its reconstruction. For the figurine see MAKKAY (1999a: 34; fig. 20). 8. The second season at Szarvas 8/8 was financed by the Szarvas town council. The director of the Topography Project, Dr. I. Torma gave his constant support to our works. 9. See the case of phases 1 and 2 of the Franchthi Neolithic pottery. There was there an abundance of pottery: over two and a quarter metric tons, more than one million pieces, three only of which are complete (i.e. reconstructed) vessels. See VITELLI (1993: xix).


report on Donja Branjevina (KARMANSKI, 2005) etc., such misinformed and unfounded opinions might lead to misleading statements resulting in a further misinterpretation of important aspects of the Krs Culture. Since the sites were located in agriculture fields, cultivated for several hundred years or millennia, abundant Krs pottery, bones and wattle-and-daub fragments were visible all over the field surfaces. However, it was immediately evident that the ceramic finds were grouped in very dense scatters in some slightly elevated parts. Usually a first test-trench or square test-pit was opened within these scatters. The twenty-two soundings of my eight excavations were successfully opened above rich rubbish pits and other Krs Culture features10. The objective of our research was exclusively stratigraphic and typological, in order to obtain the most complete record of the cultural sequence (internal chronology of the most relevant sites) and the inventory of vessels, tools, small finds, etc. It was impossible to carry out any large excavation to locate structures such as houses, ovens, working places, because of the limited budget at our disposal. After the small-scale test-trenches opened at Szarvas 8/8 and 8/23, Endrd 3/39, 3/35 (1974-1979), and also the large-scale rescue excavation at Endrd 3/39 (1976-1978), the preparation of the Szarvas Topographic volume (finalized 1980) prevented me from any further fieldwork. In 1979 and 1980, on the basis of the evidence gathered by our field surveys and small trial excavations, I conceived another programme to investigate some sites and some periods of the topography area with large-scale or even full-scale excavations and other operations in a limited part of it, called micro-regional research. The then AI director, Dr. S. Bknyi left my proposal unanswered. In 1983 he was still uncertain about two or three areas where to conduct the program11. The final decision taken for the central region of the Szarvas Topography volume was the southern territory of the village Gyomaendrd12. The excavations at Endrd 3/119 and Endrd 3/6 were carried out in 1983-1989, within the scope of this second micro-regional survey project, and the small Krs Culture site of Endrd 3/119 was almost fully excavated. My excavation strategy was simple. First, the uppermost ploughed soil was removed, sometimes using heavy machinery (Szarvas 8/23, Endrd 3/119). According to the Hungarian agro-technology, the average depth the disturbed soil was 30-40 cm and, in a few cases, 40-90 cm because of agriculture soil loosening. During this work, a number of steel wedges, some 80 cm long, and 30-40 cm from each other, were pulled along at a depth of approximately 80 cm in the soil. This method loosens the soil below the plough zone condensed under the pressure of heavy machinery such as tractors and combines. The purpose of this loosening is to improve the water-drainage capacity of the subsoil. Although this technique does not destroy everything between the upper plough zone and the depth of 80 cm, it undoubtedly causes breakages and dislocation13. Then a trench was excavated from the topsoil down to the natural soil (virgin yellow clay of the Krs Valley, at a depth of 80-100 cm with a 20-30 cm thick subsoil just above it). It was considered appropriate to have a separate designation for each excavation trench, square and ditch. They were labelled with Roman numbers: I, II, III etc. (or Arabic numbers, as was the case for Endrd 3/119). In order to achieve an independent record of the stratigraphic sequence, we used a method of horizontal arbitrary layers or spits, 20 or 30 cm thick, 10 cm thick in a few specific cases (thin burnt layers, complete or almost complete vessels, heaps of broken vessel fragments, debris of wattle-and-daub or fired clay, built ovens and fireplaces, dense scatters of sherds and net-weights, rarely stamped, and never plastered, house floors14, graves, etc.). After removing each spit, the excavated surface was accurately cleaned. Once the undisturbed virgin soil had been reached, the outlines of pits, postholes, every kind of intrusion and their discolouration patterns were recorded (photographed and drawn), and the excavation of their infill continued in 10 cm spits, mainly by hand. The sequence within the Krs refuse pits with an almost homogenous fill, containing hundreds or thousands of sherds, net-weights and animal bones, was hard to record and interpret. On the other hand, the relative absence of good structural and architectural evidence is generally characteristic of the Krs sites, which often lie on the top of the buried soil and close to the present surface, very much affected by agricultural activities. Animal bones, wattle-and-daub fragments, heavy net-weights, stone implements and also small finds were separated from the potsherds immediately after their recovery. Nevertheless we never sorted out the potsherds on
10. 11.

The sounding carried out in 1975 by P. rkus and J. Makkay at Endrd 3/45 (figs. 119-122) did not yield any rich Krs assemblage (MRT8, 1989: 148). Promising candidates were the area of the Small Balaton program and also that around the surface coal mines in the southern part of Co. Borsod (Northeastern Hungary), northwest of the Tisza River. 12. See the colour map at the back of BKNYI (1992): archaeological sites covered by the Microregional (or Gyomaendrd) Survey Project. 13. The best example is the large storage vessel recovered within one of the postholes of a surface-built long house of Endrd 3/119 (House 2) in a sacrificial context (MAKKAY, 2002, and the detailed description below, figs. 90 and 91). 14. See Endrd 3/39, house in Trench XX and also house in Trench I, where the dense occurrence of complete and broken vessels marked the area of a house, and also Endrd 3/119, House 2 (fig. 94, 3-6).


the site or during washing, and everything has been kept in our collections (down to the smallest potsherds) since then15. This is to be mentioned because in a few cases (as for instance at Endrd 3/119, Pits 12 and 13) the amount of potsherds from the refuse pits was enormous16. The finds, subdivided into groups according their characteristics (complete vessels or fragments supposedly belonging to the same vessel, sherds, bones, net-weights, etc.) were washed using the Szarvas Museum facilities or were taken for treatment to the AI. The potsherds were first treated with dilute hydrochloric acid, and then rinsed with running water. The profiles were drawn in areas with intersecting features or across individual features, and drawings and photos were taken together with the baulks. Field notes were taken using a tape recorder, later fully transcribed into a typewritten manuscript. This method favoured a more detailed description of the structures, particular occurrences, etc. The field notes are kept in the archives of the AI and the Hungarian National Museum (MNM Adattr). As mentioned above, I never had access to the excavation records and other field notes taken by S. Bknyi during his two or three campaigns carried out in 1987-1989 at Endrd 3/119. This is the reason why in this case I have utilised my own field notes. The results of these excavations were briefly summarised in the yearly reports published in the Rgszeti Fzetek17. In the case of Endrd 3/119, a longer preliminary report was issued in August 1989, shortly after the end of the fieldwork. Since this manuscript should have been finished in January 1990, given the short time at my disposal, I was able to produce only a summary of my work (MAKKAY, 1992). The full publication had not been planned until I took up the post of senior fellow of the AI at the end of 1993. After 1982, the oil crisis, and after 1990, the changes, which took place in the Iron Curtain countries and the consequent economic and political crisis, intervened in the preparation and publication of the final reports. This is the first of three volumes, which deal with the features and finds brought to light during these excavations. They will include the results of the still unpublished rescue excavations carried out at the Neolithic sites of Furta-Cst18, Tiszacsege-Homokbnya, Battonya-Basarga and Mhtelek-Ndas19. The preliminary report or the final publication of specific categories of materials have been published in several articles written by the present author since 1981 (MAKKAY (1963; 1965; 1969; 1974; 1978): painted pottery (MAKKAY, 1981), the Endrd flint hoard (KACZANOWSKA et al., 1981), general questions (MAKKAY, 1983; 1996; 1999; 2000a; 2001), stamp seals (MAKKAY, 1984; 2005), chronological problems (MAKKAY, 1984a and 1984b), foundation offerings (MAKKAY, 1986; 1989a; 2002), contacts with the Alfld Linear Pottery (ALP) (MAKKAY, 1987), the Protovina problem and its implications for the origin of the Vina Culture from the northern area of the Krs-Starevo complex (MAKKAY, 1990), bone, antler and boar tusk implements (MAKKAY, 1990a), a selection of clay figurines, amongst which a hitherto unique stone figurine (fig. 11, n. 2; MAKKAY, 1993), clay spindle-whorls (MAKKAY, 1997; 2001c), fine incised, polished and channelled decorations (MAKKAY, 2000), Indo-European questions and their relationships with the Krs Culture (MAKKAY, 2001a), textile impressions, the earliest known documents of the European textile industry in the Early Neolithic (MAKKAY, 2001c), and finally complete vessels with a secondarily perforated base (MAKKAY, 2001b). E. Starnini published the final report on the stone implements (STARNINI, 1993; 1994; 2000; 2002; STARNINI and SZAKMNY, 1998). In particular, my study of the pottery fragments with textile impressions showed that a thorough and careful examination of all the potsherds is extremely important, if not indispensable. The total number of different textile impressions on the Krs potsherds found at four sites in the Hungarian part of the Krs Valley is higher than 40 (MAKKAY, 2001c with further details)20. This number is surprisingly high if compared with the virtual absence of any Early Neolithic textile impression in Southeast Europe and the Balkans, except for a few cases (SIMOSKA and SANEV, 1975: Pl. III.5). This observation needs a short explanation. The following possibilities are improbable or impossible:


With the exception of the animal bones, because S. Bknyi selected most of the faunal remains from these sites when preparing his publication and he only kept the so-called important part of them. Also on his order, part of the pottery fragments from the refuse pits of Endrd 3/119 were reburied in the excavated features of a nearby Tiszapolgr Culture settlement (site Endrd 3/130: kind personal information of I. Zalai-Gal, AI). A large part of the pottery excavated from the site was sent back by him to the Szarvas Museum before restoration, and it is now in the museum stores. See our list of these finds in Appendix VII. 16. As far as I know, the largest amount of potsherds (34,000 fragments) was discovered in an enormously rich refuse pit at Rszke-Ldvr during the 1965 excavation. Unfortunately these finds are still unpublished (TROGMAYER, 1966). 17. See MRT8, under the numbers of the individual sites, with further references to short articles of the Hungarian serial Rgszeti Fzetek (scil. Archaeological Fascicles, in effect yearly reports on excavations), published by the Hungarian National Museum, recently by the Cultural Heritage Protection Office with a new title Rgszeti Kutatsok Magyarorszgon. 18. I am very grateful to Mrs. Ibolya Nepper of the Dri Museum staff, Debrecen, for her information about her excavations at Furta-Cst. 19. The second volume will regard the pottery assemblages (MAKKAY and STARNINI, forthcoming 2). The figurines and other small finds will be the subject of a third volume (MAKKAY and STARNINI, forthcoming 3). 20. CHAPMAN (2003: 99, 100 and 102) was apparently unaware of MAKKAY (1999a; 2000a; 2001c), concerning the textile impressions of the Krs Culture, the oldest Neolithic evidence of textile industry in Europe.


a. That the manufacture and use of textiles (and other woven fabrics: i.e. mats) were known only at the Krs Culture sites of the Krs Valley, during the Early Neolithic of Southeast Europe and the Balkans; b. That during the manufacture of pottery only the Krs people used textiles for finishing vessels, as for example, to cover freshly made vessels and dry them; c. That the chemical processes resulting in textile impressions on the carbonate-impregnated surface of vessels were active only in the Krs Valley during the lifetime of the Krs Culture. Therefore I can suggest that during the excavation of hundreds of Early Neolithic sites with millions of potsherds, the Hungarian and Southeast European archaeologists were not aware of the fact that hundreds or thousands of sherds bear textile impressions hidden below the calcium carbonate incrustations covering the inner and outer vessel surfaces. The only conclusion is that some prehistorians in Hungary, and also abroad, did not accurately analyse their pottery assemblages, either before washing or during conservation and preparation for publication (MAKKAY, 2001c: fig. 107, 3 and 4)21. The present volume includes the accounts of the sondages and their stratigraphic details, the description of the structural remains, among which are ovens and fireplaces, and also the graves with profiles, plans, photographs and drawings. The second volume will contain the detailed description of the pottery assemblages, based on a study made in 1999-2003, thanks to the excellent drawings by E. Starnini. The site drawings have been made by the author and the draftsmen of the AI in the field and prepared for their final publication by E. Starnini. The site photographs were taken by J. Makkay and occasionally by T. Kdas, those of the finds by T. Kdas and L. Sugr. A report on the skeletal remains from the burials was compiled by I. Pap (and partly Zs. Zoffmann: Appendix III). The final report on the animal bones has already been published by S. BKNYI (1992a). A catalogue and interpretation of the presently known Krs burials is provided in Appendix II. As mentioned above, all the excavated material, with the exception of a few inventoried vessels and small finds, is now in the stores of the Szarvas Museum, where three showcases contain a display of Krs material, with the exception of the animal bones, which are stored in an unknown place22. A few samples without a precise stratigraphic context were radiocarbon dated (WHITTLE et al., 2002: 115)23. The permission to study the material published in these volumes should be requested from the author. All the deposit was excavated in spits. Significant artefacts (complete or almost complete vessels, dense scatters of potsherds probably belonging to the same vessel), structures and features (fireplaces, ovens, rubbish layers above house floors, sacrificial pits and their internal deposits, pits, banks, trenches) and any disturbance of the layer were recorded with a specific unit number. If a spit of 20 or 30 cm was too thick, it was further subdivided into thinner cuts. Each spit was labelled with a number, which corresponds to a given depth within the trench. In most cases each unit, single pot and special find was mapped with three coordinates. Part of the material, among which are mapped potsherds and complete vessels, special finds (painted and red-slipped fragments, imported ALP potsherds [figs. 141 and 142], figurines, altars, other small finds, complete net-weights, sherds with textile impressions, if already detected, spindle whorls, bone and stone implements, polished and ground stones, etc.) was separated from the bulk pottery and their stratigraphic labels were marked with black ink. These finds, together with other selected, specific fragments are at present in the AI, until the completion of the final report. Most of them will be illustrated in volumes 2 and 3 with drawings and/or photographs. All these potsherds and other specimens have a box reference number24 written on their inner surface in black ink, which relates to the serial box numbers according to their associated assemblage deposited in the Szarvas Museum. For instance, the finds from Szarvas 8/23 are marked with A, and these A-boxes are numbered from 1 to 114. In this system, boxes A90a+b contain finds (mainly potsherds) from Trench VI/1975, arbitrary layer 125-175 cm (two boxes). Separated pieces of this assemblage, which are now temporarily kept in Budapest, were also marked and labelled with the reference numbers A90a or A90b. In late autumn 1993, on the instructions of S. Bknyi, a few weeks before his retirement at the end of the same year, an important part of the Endrd 119 material, in course of restoration, was dispatched to the Szarvas Museum. This material has been stored in the museum basement in some 100 large plastic bags. The transport was made in a hurry, without the presence and cooperation of the author of this volume. These unfavourable
21. 22.

The relevant sites are Endrd 3/35, Endrd 3/39, Endrd 3/119 and Szarvas 8/23. One piece of Endrd 3/35 has already been published by MAKKAY (1999a: fig. 24). Most of the animal bones were discarded by S. Bknyi after their study and description. 23. The data by WHITTLE et al. (2002: 115) cannot be correlated, in some cases, with the stratigraphy published by MAKKAY (1992). For example, sample OxA-9583 comes from east ash pit, which does not exist in our excavation records. This pit might be referred to a feature recorded by S. Bknyi in his excavation field notes (now lost?). Sample OxA-9589 comes from a pit in square 35 (WHITTLE et al., 2002: 83) which, in turn, can be Pit 13 but also sacrificial Pit A4. 24. All the potsherds are now stored in labelled, hard cardboard boxes.


circumstances, together with the humid conditions of the Szarvas Museum basement, resulted in a significant damage of the finds (mixing together units from different features, loss of labels), indecipherable labelling on the outer surface of the large plastic bags and on their labels, etc. On a one-day trip made on April 16th, 2003 we tried to make a quick evaluation of these finds, and the results were recorded in a list published in Appendix VII25. Also on S. Bknyis order, a part of the pottery fragments from the refuse pits of Endrd 3/119 were reburied in the excavated features of a nearby Tiszapolgr Culture settlement under excavation (site Endrd 3/130) (ZALAI-GAL, pers. comm. 2003). It is unfortunate that most of these ceramics were not studied when preparing volume 2, and they will not be published there. However, the reconstructed vessels and small finds, among which are stones, bone implements, textile impressions, etc. were separated from this material well before dispatching (as mentioned above, already during the excavations), and they will be discussed in the forthcoming two volumes (MAKKAY and STARNINI, forthcoming 2; forthcoming 3). During their study, the potsherds were subdivided according to their characteristics (fine, medium and coarse ware), their position in the vessel (i.e. rim, wall and bottom fragments), their decoration (in the case of wall fragments: pinched, barbotine, incised and plastic patterns), technology and shape (in the case of base fragments), etc. Complete or reconstructed vessels were numbered from 1 onwards. The details of their shape, dimension, capacity, decoration, finish etc. were recorded on independent sheets. Most of the vessels are now in the stores of the Szarvas Museum. For more details, see the introduction of volume 2 (MAKKAY and STARNINI, forthcoming 2). A detailed description of the geographic location of the sites can be found in the Szarvas Topography volume (MRT8, 1989). Besides the yearly planned financial support from the independent Field Survey budget of the AI, further grants were never received from the AI or from any other authority26. Funding in support of post-excavation and post-restoration studies has never been provided either by the AI, or any other Office, Trust or Foundation (with the exception of the first series of photographs and of course the restoration and preservation programmes). Additional costs of photographs and drawings, computer programs and printing, xerox copies, printing and translucent paper, Chinese ink for numbering the boxes, and other small things as for example a pair of scales for weighing the sherds and seeds for measuring the capacity of the vessels, were bought and paid by the author and Dr. E. Starnini. My AI colleague, Dr. A. Vaday, always gave help in computer matters when needed. The personal responsibility for the publication of the results of my excavations has been a considerable burden over two decades. It was in this context that I invited my close friend Dr. E. Starnini (Genoa University, Italy) to join me in the preparation of the final report of the pottery assemblages (MAKKAY and STARNINI, forthcoming 2) and the small finds (MAKKAY and STARNINI, forthcoming 3). I owe special thanks to her for her technical assistance in completing this manuscript: without her help, I could have never prepared the illustrations of this first volume. Her Hungarian studies have been supported and sponsored by the Ministry of Education, Budapest (granted as MAE-MB scholarship). To my immense pleasure, Prof. Dr. P. Biagi (Ca Foscari University, Venice, Italy) agreed to publish these bulky volumes in the series of the Quaderni della Societ` a per la Preistoria e Protostoria della Regione Friuli-Venezia Giulia, a noble gesture offered by him and by the Society which can be considered a further proof of traditional friendship between Italy and my country. I express my best thanks to Dr. J. Chapman for reading the original manuscript. The readers must be aware of the fact that they have a whole life work in their hands, beginning with a seminary paper on the Krs Culture in the autumn of 1953 to the completing of the manuscript of this volume five decades later, at the end of 2004. Papers dealing with the Krs material and its associates in the neighbouring countries, mainly hypothesise that the Early Neolithic Krs-Starevo pottery embodies a long chronological sequence consisting of 6, 8 or even 14 shorter phases (MAKKAY, 1992: 36, and note 1), and also internal evidence for detecting its origins and faraway connections. Its absolute and relative chronology seems to be solved by listing a long series of often-contradictory radiocarbon dates. At the same time, amongst the mass of such radiocarbon hypotheses and suggested solutions, the finds and results of dozens of excavations are waiting for publication. This volume would provide the reader with material details and practical suggestions rather than theories. My excavation programme began with an initial season at Szarvas 8/23 in autumn 197427.
25. 26.


A copy of the full version of the record was sent to the AI and also the archives of the Bkscsaba and Szarvas Museums. With the only exception of Endrd 3/39, i.e. the rescue excavations of 1976-1978, when we enjoyed the financial support of the Central Office of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (the 1978 season) and also of the Bks County Museums (the 1977 season). The 1975 sounding at Szarvas 8/23 was sponsored by the same museum. Site numbers like Szarvas 8/23 or Endrd 3/39 refer to the code-list of the Szarvas Topography volume (MRT8, 1989) where the serial number of Endrd is 3 and Szarvas is 8.


Fig. 1 - Location of the Krs sites mentioned in the text. 1: Szarvas, site 8/23. 2: Bksszentandrs-Furugy, site 1/28 and Szarvas, site 8/8. 3: Szarvas, site 8/56. 4: Endrd, sites 3/6 and 3/158. 5: Gyoma, site 4/51. 6: Endrd, site 3/39. 7: Endrd, site 3/119. 8: Endrd, sites 3/35, 3/36 and 3/82. 9: Dvavnya. 10: Furta-Cst. 11: Mhtelek-Ndas. 12: Tiszacsege-Homokbnya. 13: Battonya-Basarga. 14: Szentes. 15: Maroslele-Pana. 16: Gylart. 17: Deszk. 18: Endrd, site 3/45.


Szarvas 8/23 lies ca 2 km east of the southern suburb of Szarvas (fig. 1, 1), at the intersection of three roads: the NW-SE highway from Szarvas (Budapest) to Bkscsaba, the SW-NE road from Szarvas to Endrd28, and the local W-E road from Szarvas to rmnykt, branching off from the former in the centre of the site (fig. 3). The dimensions of the Egyhzfld settlement were once approximately 500x300 m. The original, large settlement has been affected by different, successive and destructive building and other activities29. The area, which had remained intact until the time of the topographic survey, is only a small SE portion of the original site. In 1974, most of the settlement (a few metres south of my 1974 Trenches I-II: see the general map in fig. 2 and also fig. 3) was some 1.5-2 m higher than the surrounding plain30. The site extends along and west of the western levee of an old, Pleistocene bed (once a huge meander) of the Pre-Krs Great Eastern River (i.e. the antecedent of both the Maros and Triple Krs Rivers, nowadays called Kondoros River). This bed is filled with very young deposits. During the Early Holocene, the head of this Pleistocene bed was cut by a new meander of the Krs, currently called Cigny-r.31 All the above-mentioned small sites (WHITTLE et al., 2002: 74) lie along the southern bank of the Cigny-r, while the northern bank remained unsettled in prehistory. The unusual geographic setting of site 23, misunderstood by the authors of the 2002 paper32, has given me the opportunity to date its early occupation phases to the beginning of EN Krs sequence33. The north-eastern greater part of the site, north of the Szarvas-Endrd road, along the southern bank of the Cigny-r, had already been destroyed by the clay borrow pits for local brickwork (the Hitelbank Credit Bank - brickwork), which were active from the 1860-1870s to roughly 1965. Trees planted in the 1970s, now cleared, covered the western part of this area. The westernmost part of the site, west of the Szarvas-Bkscsaba highway, had been used as an agricultural plot until the building of a poultry slaughterhouse in 1987-1988 (fig. 3, some 100-150 m west of the rmnykt road). No archaeological activity was possible before and during the very rapid growth of the large factory halls, and only some sporadic Krs fragments were collected34. The area between the Bkscsaba and rmnykt roads was (is) the place where the central operative buildings and small factories of the Dzsa Agricultural Cooperation, or Kolkhoz, were built from the early 1950s onwards. During our fieldwork, agricultural drying machines were built and placed south of the Endrd road (fig. 3: west of the rmnykt road) and many features of the Krs Culture, and also graves of the Sarmatian Period cemetery, were destroyed. Stray finds of both periods went into the collections of the Szarvas Museum35. To sum up, as a result of the industrial activities and agricultural investment of the 19th and 20th centuries, most of the site was destroyed. At present only its south-eastern part, in the corner between the rmnykt and Endrd roads, is intact for further archaeological investigations. As mentioned above, the major, northern part of the levee, on the western bank of the Kondoros River, was heavily affected by brick clay borrow pits. This might be an important point because often the levee parts of the Krs settlements (near the head of the meander) yielded the richest deposits. Here the site did not show a linear structure (i.e. one row of houses along the river bank), but it was in two or more rows on the levee and also on the slightly low-lying parts, west of the levee36. The good, light, loose soils of these levees were suitable for prehistoric agriculture and were excellent areas for building houses on small
28. 29.

The distribution map of the Szarvas sites (MRT8, 1989: unnumbered map between pages 376 and 377) wrongly represents the intersections of these three roads. WHITTLE et al. (2002: 74) describe the site, lying on a ridge beside the great meander of an old branch of the River Krs, as one of the string of Krs occupations here. In effect the other sites of this string are, if compared to site 23, only localities, which yielded poor Krs pottery assemblages. This circumstance was emphasized under the particular site numbers of the Topography 30. This low elevation, where the excavations of Soma Sipos were probably undertaken in 1880, was obliterated in 1988 by digging the wheat Silos 1-5 (see their description below). 31. The Cigny-r was finally abandoned during the canalisation of the rivers in the second half of the XIX century and slowly became a muddy area and, unfortunately, a refuse dump of the town. I suppose that this old Holocene meander, called Cigny-r, was closed from the main course of the Triple Krs much earlier, in the XI-XIII centuries AD at least. 32. I should make a reference to the comment of WHITTLE et al. (2002: 74). The writers did not study the work by JANKOVICH et al. (1989: i.e. MRT8, 1989) they referred. They gave a thoroughly account of the different geographical position of site 23 at p. 392. See also p. 394, where I write that site 23 occupied the area on the bank of the Kondoros River bed and not of the Cigny-r. 33. WHITTLE et al. (2002) are sceptical about such an early dating of some parts of the site and its white-on-brown/red painted fragments (p. 86) referring to THISSEN (2000) who is apparently dubious of the early date of white painting and suggests that few Krs sites date before 5700-5600 Cal BC. Apart from the recent Oxford radiocarbon dates (WHITTLE et al., 2002: 115, calibrated at 2) that contradict this suggestion since two of them are older than 5800 Cal BC. 34. During our field survey no Krs occupation was detected here, because this area was covered by a thick alfalfa plantation. This is why MRT8 (1989: the Szarvas map before p. 377) only represents the central and eastern distribution of the site. 35. The description of these works can be found in my excavation records compiled during the second season, in 1975, p. 1. Most probably, at least five Krs Culture refuse pits were obliterated. 36. A similar situation can also be noticed at Endrd 3/39, where between the eastern and western row of the houses and their adjoining pits there was a deep depression in the central part of the site. See below in the description of the site and fig. 60.


elevations, sheltered from eventual floods. The waterlogged clay of the low swamps and the dry fields of the eroded surfaces of the neighbouring, alluvial fan, in the area east of the Kondoros bed and south of the site, were places for grazing animals, and gathering reeds and withies. This very favourable geographic location of site 23 had already been pointed out by one of the greatest human geographers of Hungary, Tibor Mendl (1905-1966) who was born in a small village in the vicinity of Szarvas37. In his 1928 dissertation, he wrote that site 23 lies at the point where, during the Early Holocene, the then new bed of the River Krs (i.e. the Cigny-r) cut a Pleistocene meander (i.e. the Pleistocene meander of the Kondoros River. In effect site 23 is located on the left bank of this meander, at the head of the western branch). The head of this Pleistocene meander, however, remained opened, and during high waters (spring thaw, heavy rains and June floodings) the water flowed into this old bed, at least in its head parts still unfilled. At the same time, the elevated banks of the bed were ideal for Neolithic habitation (MENDL, 1928: 19 and 33)38. The site lies exactly at the boundary between the region of the partly desiccated river branches, dating to the pre-Holocene and Early Holocene periods, and the more recent, huge alluvial fan of the Great Eastern River, the Pleistocene ancestor of both the Maros and the Triple Krs. The area of the more southern alluvial fan was ideal for hunting. I was very disappointed by the extent of the area of this still intact site destroyed by the construction of huge, underground wheat storage pits (silos) in 1988 (fig. 2, silo-Trenches 1-5)39. The rapid operations were against the cultural heritage laws in force and the Fig. 2 - Szarvas, site 8/23. General map of the excavations carried out between responsible cultural authorities were not informed of 1974 and 1988. Nos. I-IX are Trenches of the 1974-1979 excavations. Arabic the works to be made. This happened during the last numbers 1-5 refer to 1988 silo-trenches and their features. G = graves. * marks the place of discovery of the native copper in 1982 (see CHAPMAN and year of the communist regime. TYLECOTE, 1983). Local intellectuals had already initiated the first explorations at the site in the early Seventies of the XIX century. According to a local journal, Soma Sipos, a Szarvas journalist and publisher, began to collect archaeological finds at least as early as 1871. He reported: heavy rains washed out a great number of ancient pottery sherds from walls of clay borrow pits beyond the [Halesz] farmstead on the periphery of Szarvas. After some examination, a part of them turned out to have been fragmented vessels from the Stone Age, 3000-4000 years old40. A few years later, Soma Sipos returned to the site to organise a small exhibition for (and later also in the wake of) the 1876 Budapest VIII Congress of Prehistory and Protohistory and he found an enormous number of clay pottery fragments on the surface of the site, which extends along the bank of the Cigny-r [i.e. at the head of the Kondoros-meander], and human and animal bones and flint and obsidian stone implements can also be collected from a depth of a few centimetres41. In 1877 he also found traces of Sarmatian Period graves in the area of the

MAKKAY in MRT8 (1989: 396) wrongly wrote that his birthplace was Szarvas, whilst he was born in the village of Nagyszns, in the close neighbourhood of Szarvas. 38. After the summary by MAKKAY in MRT8 (1989: English translation in MAKKAY, 2000a: 27). 39. For the rescued material see Box Reference Numbers A94-99 and also 102-114. For more details see below. 40. The weekly Bks, 3: 100, Dec. 14, 1871: 3. See MAKKAY in MRT8 (1989: 19, note 29; 450, note 1). 41. MAKKAY in MRT8 (1989: 393). These find places can be very probably partly identified with sites 8/21 (Strzsahalom) and 8/121 (Halesz). See MRT8 (1989: 391 and 450).


yellow clay, borrow pits of the brickwork (i.e. in the north-eastern part of site 23) and promised to conduct excavations. The surface collection continued during 1876 in the area between the Halesz farmstead and the brickworks. The short report by Sipos mentions potsherds with pinched decoration (Krs finds) and decorated with straight and serpentine-like winding (incised) lines (ALP)42. Here began an enigmatic story of the Hungarian prehistory concerning the chronological relationships between the Krs and the ALP Cultures, which was finally solved by the researches of F. Tompa and J. Banner half a century later43. The excavations were carried out in 1880 on a low elevation near the road to Fig. 3 - Szarvas, site 8/23. Plan of the excavations (1974-1979 seasons). Mezberny (i.e. the Szarvas-Endrd road) where a great number of prehistoric remains were discovered, among them pottery fragments and human bones in a great quantity, together with clay net-weights (MAKKAY in MRT8, 1989: 393). Soma Sipos mentions a number of net-weights, which he refers to the Krs Culture, because the production and use of heavy clay weights of different shape is a specific characteristic of this culture (MAKKAY and STARNINI, forthcoming 2). The low elevation close to the road is most probably part of the surviving SE quarter of the site, in the area of the 1988 storage pits. Trenches I-II of my 1974-1975 excavations were opened in the northern part of (probably) the same elevation, which was later covered by the storage pits (figs. 2-3). Unfortunately the finds of the 1880 excavation were dispersed without leaving any trace. If Soma Sipos had published his results in Archaeologiai rtest44, they would be the first written report on the Krs-Starevo Culture. In her pioneering volume published in 1944, Ida KUTZIN (1944: 7-9) wrote that a systematic collection of finds of the Krs culture began in co. Bks. She mentions sites as, for instance, Szarvas 8/1 (the Kovcshalom), 8/21 (Strzsahalom) and 8/121 (Halesz), which belong to the Late Neolithic Szaklht-Tisza Culture with sporadic Krs assemblages. The research at sites contemporary with the Krs Culture, called Starevo and Cri45, began decades later in Serbia and Transylvania, with the only exception of sites discovered and described in the last quarter of the 19th century when the Vojvodina and Transylvania were part of the Hungarian Kingdom46. Unfortunately these earliest discoveries made by Soma Sipos went into oblivion because the archaeological activity did not continue after the 1876 Congress generation. In 1910, the local archaeologist Endre Krecsmrik47 announced the discovery of an archaeological site in the clay borrow pits of the Hitelbank Brickworks, with rich

The Editorial in the Archaeologiai rtest, 1877, 11: 65 and 66, with reference to the original article of Soma Sipos published in Szarvasi Ujsg (The Szarvas Chronicle), number 1, January 1877. Fragments of ALP became the eponymous types of the Szarvas-rpart (i.e. Cigny-r part) variant a few decades later. As a matter of fact, surface finds of ALP and Szaklht types were also collected in the abandoned clay borrow pits of the northeastern part of site in 1974-1976 and also in the territory of the storage pits in 1988 (fig. 143, 9 and 10). According to the above-mentioned paper by Sipos, the central part of the site with prehistoric remains lay close to the Halesz farmstead, and also the entire Cigny-r Valley belonged to it. 43. For comments see MAKKAY in MRT8 (1989: 383) with further references to the works of J. Banner and F. Tompa. 44. The only central forum of the Hungarian archaeology in the XIX century, following its establishment in 1869. 45. When Vlassa published his paper on the Krs-Cri of Transylvania in 1966, not one single site was known from the Transylvanian part of the Krs-Cri Valleys. The then known 18 Krs sites were identified from more central and eastern areas of Transylvania. See MAKKAY (1982: 19 and 20 and note 19). 46. KUTZIN (1944: 22-26) with further references to Szerbkeresztur, Trkkanizsa, Gombos-Bogojevo, Monostorszeg-Opoljenik, besseny-Bukova puszta at present in Romania and Serbia. 47. His activity will be discussed in the chapter on site Szarvas 8/8, i.e. the Szappanos halom.


refuse pits most probably attributable to the Krs Culture. Two years later, during the building of the Szarvas-Endrd local road, he saw and studied large rubbish pits sometimes 15 m long (MAKKAY in MRT8, 1989: 393). The area of my excavations, and also of the five storage pits, lay a few metres south of the same road. Krecsmarik planned to excavate the site in 1917, but the war period was not ripe for scientific studies. Since the 1920s, further isolated excavations were carried out in the area, in settlements and cemeteries of much later periods. After the death of Krecsmarik, in 1930, very little, or nothing, happened to the prehistoric sites of one of the richest archaeological regions of the Carpathian basin. Apart from minor rescue excavations, the research was resumed only in 1974, in the framework of the Hungarian Topography.

2.2. THE 1974-1979 SOUNDINGS 2.2.1. The first season: October 28th-November 3rd, 1974
As mentioned above, the first season of my excavations programme began in the autumn of 1974 at Szarvas 8/2348. Its scope was to discover any possible stratigraphic evidence of the chronological relationships between the Krs and ALP Cultures. Typical ALP sherds had been found by Krecsmrik in 1912 in the clay borrow pits and along the same road (MAKKAY in MRT8, 1989: 393). It was hoped that this excavation would elucidate the question of the interrelationships between the two cultures, debated in the 1970s (TROGMAYER, 1968a; 1971). As far as I know this was the first excavation at a major Krs site after O. TROGMAYERs (1964; 1966; 1966a; 1968b) researches in the mid 1960s49. During the first 1974 season, two trenches were opened down to the virgin soil, i.e. to a depth of 250 cm (the deepest part of Pit 1). Trench I/1974 was 20 m long and 5 m wide. An extension to its western corner was opened (called Trench II) without baulks, to form an open area (Trenches I-II). Parts of the pit to the south and west remained unexcavated (fig. 4). The excavation of storage Pit 2/2 (1988) revealed these unexcavated parts, as demonstrated by refitting fragments of one large Krs container from the different areas (fig. 5). These fragments belong to the wide, slightly concave base of a vessel with an impressed, geometric decoration on its inner surface. The fragments were found near and inside the western wall of Trench II/1974. Therefore Pit 2/2 represented the western part of Pit 1/1974 (fig. 2, in the north-eastern part of storage Pit 2). In 1974, first the disturbed, ploughed soil was removed over an area of 30x6 m, to a depth of ca 40 cm. The exposed surface was later cleaned to remove a 10 cm thick muddy layer (the work was started under a heavy autumn rain) to reveal discolourations indicating, first of all, postholes and the contours of refuse pits. Later a trench 20x5 m was opened in its centre, in a NW-SE direction. Removing the arbitrary layer between 50 and 70 cm, the yellow virgin soil made its appearance in the eastern part of the trench, at a depth of 70 cm, without any trace of features, with the exception of the outlines of three postholes in the centre of the trench, lying in a N-S direction, respectively 30, 38 and 50 cm deep into the virgin subsoil (fig. 4, section A-A). Their fill contained much ash. These structures belong to the Krs Culture, although their function (a surface Krs house?) remained uncertain. Inside one of them, there were 3 Krs fragments. At the western end of the trench, thick scatters of Krs pottery were found between 50 and 70 cm and, after cleaning, at 70 cm, the uncertain outlines (discolouration) of a large Krs refuse pit (Pit 1 in Trenches I-II) were observed. After repeated cleanings, to define the discolouration, it was possible to notice the emerging patterns of the refuse pit, since the contrast between its ashy, dark colour and the virgin soil was defined. The work continued only in this part of the trench, i.e. in Pit 1 with an arbitrary layer between 70 and 90 cm of depth. A thick concentration of finds made its appearance in the NW corner (i.e. above the deepest part of the pit in this area), where the sherds were much scarcer in the NE part of Pit 1. Here the edge of the pit was clearly visible at a depth of 90 cm. A similar fill was found in the arbitrary layers 90-110 and 110-130 cm, with thin levels of ash and also Unio freshwater shells. Close to the northern edge of Pit 1, along the trench wall, we discovered another small pit (Pit 2) most of which lay north, outside Trench I-II. Its fill contained a number of coarse net-weights. It was impossible to complete its excavation. During the excavation of the storage pit, carried out in 1988, a similar concentration of elongated, flat clay weights was found in the central part of silo-Trench 1 (fig. 2, no. 2 in silo-Trench 1, and fig. 13, 1 and 2).

48. 49.

See footnote 27. Unfortunately his 1968 dissertation (TROGMAYER, 1968c) concerning his Krs excavations at Maroslele-Pana, Szeged-Gylart, Deszk-Olajkt and Rszke-Ldvr has remained unpublished. I was so fortunate to take part in these excavations, and as a result, I started my Krs excavations not without any basic experience. The works at Mhtelek were carried out before 1974.


Fig. 4 - Szarvas, site 8/23. Plan and section A-B of Pit 1 in Trenches I-II/1974.

At a depth of some 130 cm, and also between 130 and 150 cm, the fill of Pit 1 yielded only a few potsherds, near Pit 2. The daybook reports a number of thin clayey and blackish layers one above the other. They later turned out to be thin layers of the backfill in the pit of Grave 2, whose contours were recorded at a depth of 150-155 cm. It was cut into the virgin soil at 40-50 cm (fig. 4, plan). Grave 2 belonged to the Sarmatian cemetery of site 23 (fig. 12, 2). The arbitrary layer between 110 and 130 cm yielded a great number of animal bones. Szarvas 8/23, Grave 1: a skeleton of a 17-18 years female (ZOFFMANN, 1986: 40 and 41)50 was found on its left side, in a crouched position, with the arms brought up against the chest, at a depth of 135-150 cm, between the edge and the deeper part of Pit 1 (fig. 4, plan and 6, 1). There were no traces of a burial pit above the skeleton. Its orientation was approximately N-S. The length of the skeleton, measured in situ, was 135 cm. The base of the skull was found at a depth of 150 cm, i.e. 10 cm beneath the legs. The body was at the top of the 40 cm thick fill, above the virgin clay soil, interred with the left knee forming an angle of more than 90, while the right leg was not bent so strongly. Above and besides the skeleton there were potsherds, partly belonging to the same large container, in a good state of preservation. It was impossible to define if the body had been intentionally covered with large vessel fragments at the time of its deposition. No grave goods were found. Only a small part of the lower jaw with traces of an old breakage lay in its original position. The larger, matching part of the jaw was later found in the arbitrary layer 190-210 cm, in the extension of Trench I, i.e. Trench II.

The skull and the post-cranial bones show gracility. The deceased was of a short stature. The taxonomic identification, however, was not possible. The parietal bones of the skull show traces of a strong hit but she survived it.


Fig. 5 - Szarvas, site 8/23. Fragments of a large bowl with impressed linear decoration in its inner surface. 1: Fragments from Trenches I-II/1974, Pit 1 (P.100.346, Inv. nos. 78.42.20, 78.42.22, 78.42.25). 2: silo Pit 2/2, 1988 (drawings by E. Starnini).


Fig. 6 - Szarvas, site 8/23. 1: Grave 1/1974 (P.79.733 and D.29.593). 2: Grave 2/1988 (see also fig. 13, 4). 3: Grave 4/1975 (D.29.588).

During the excavation of Pit 1 fill, arbitrary layer 130-150, burnt traces of two fireplaces were discovered 50 and 100 cm respectively from the skull of Grave 1, in a NW direction. The first fireplace was found at a depth of 135 cm. It was circular, 30 cm in diameter and 5-6 cm thick. It was a thin, plastered layer with a smoothed surface, which most probably served as a fireplace. The other wider fireplace with a similar structure (diameters 30 and 50 cm), was found at the same depth, further to the NW. They both were probably parts of the same larger

structure covered with a thin level of white ash. Heavy firing on this place corresponded with a great quantity of grey ash found in the central parts of the fill, in the spits around and beneath them. On the other hand, the presence of much ash was also characteristic of the arbitrary layer beneath spit 90-100 cm (figs. 4 and 12, 2). This observation was of basic importance for the further subdivision of the pottery and other material recovered from two different spits at 50-110 and 110-220 cm respectively (see the box reference numbers). Sporadic material was collected below 220 cm. Fragments of painted pottery were found above and also below 110 cm, and both black-on-red and white-on-light red/brown fragments were recovered from both spits (MAKKAY, 1996: 47-49, Pls. 9, 1, 8, 12, 15 [white-on-red or brown]; 10, 27 and 13, 1, 6 [black-on-red]). This evidence is opposite to the traditional, although stratigraphically never demonstrated, relative chronology of the black-on-red painted ware of the Krs-Starevo Culture in comparatively later phases of the sequence. A short discussion of the stratigraphic and chronological position of the white-on-brown or white-on-red painted sherds The presence of white-painted sherds on a red or light brown slip in this pit, associated with characteristic black-on-red painted fragments (MAKKAY, 1996: 47-49, figs. 14 and 15 and Pl. 12 and 13), has requested some comments since their discovery in 1974. First N. KALICZ (1980: 101) gave his opinion, when he wrote that the stratigraphic context of these sherds was uncertain51. Kalicz obtained his information from the manuscript of my 1978 candidates dissertation with only a short mention of these painted fragments (MAKKAY 1982b), without a single word about their stratigraphic position. My short remark, not mentioning the stratigraphic distribution of these finds, is as follows (MAKKAY, 1982b: 37 and 39): there are sites where different types of painting were found together in closed contexts and associated also with several types of barbotine decoration, and the white painted ware occurs together with all types of barbotine pottery in great number. And further: white painted fragments found on some Krs sites of the Alfld can be considered imports proving that a group of the Alfld Krs sites can chronologically be paralleled with early phases of Donja Branjevina, i.e. the earliest Krs-Starevo phase. Kaliczs remarks were unfounded as it was the comment by EHRICH and BANKOFF (1992: 378 and 379). They distinguished the Karanovo I horizon from the Karanovo II and Starevo related cultures, dating these latter to the 2nd and 3rd phases of the southeastern European Early Neolithic, following the controversial52 earliest Neolithic Phase (Neolithic I) of Thessaly (called also Frhkeramikum, Early Pottery or simply developed Monochrome pottery53) (COLEMAN, 1992: 254). The correlations suggested by EHRICH and BANKOFF (1992: 378) are shown in the following table 1:
Thessaly EN-I: Frhkeramikum EN-II: Proto-Sesklo EN-III-MN: Pre-Sesklo Northeastern Balkans Carpathian Basin ?Karanovo I? G. Baciului-Anzabegovo-Karanovo I Donja Branjevina54 Middle Neolithic Karanovo II-III-Starevo-Krs-Cri

Table 1 - Cultural correlations between Thessaly, the NE Balkans and the Carpathian Basin according to EHRICH and BANKOFF (1992).

To sum up, the two authors suggested that the Carpathian Neolithic sequence would start from the very late phase of the EN-II, and the earliest types of the Krs Culture belong to the very end of this long sequence, representing the beginning of the Middle Neolithic: Generally the levels of this period [i.e. the Gura Baciului-Anzabegovo-Karanovo I development of EN-II55] occur independently. Only at Donja Branjevina does the excavator claim that the pottery appeared in association with Starevo material, particularly the so-called altars. Although some scepticism has been voiced as to the manner of excavation, it also seems quite possible that this admixture [my emphasis] may have resulted from a
51. 52.

In the German original it reads ihre Fundzusammenhnge sind noch unsicher. Controversial because their sequence of the Early Neolithic pottery types/phases was built on the chronology of MILOJI-V. ZUMBUSCH and MILOJI (1971) (MAKKAY, 1963; 1965; 1969 and especially 1974). 53. Concerning the series of contradictory statements and opinions about the occurrence of early and developed monochrome wares (the typological differences between early and developed monochrome have never been described), see my review (MAKKAY, 1978: 446) of the Anza excavations (GIMBUTAS, 1976). The extraordinary low number of such finds from Anza Ia (24 small fragments of painted pottery and three atypical bottom parts representing the coarse ware) makes it impossible to distinguish between Anza Ia and Ib. The famous painted vessel found in the 1960 Yugoslavian excavations attributed by GIMBUTAS (1976: 64) to Anza I is in effect a very characteristic type of the Hacilar II fantastic style, which suggests that Anza I cannot be dated to a very early phase of the Early Neolithic sequence of the Southern Balkans. See also MAKKAY (1974: 153) with further literature, and also point j. below. 54. Donja Branjevina does not lie in the northern part of the Baka-Bcska as reported by WHITTLE et al. (2002: 87), but in its south-westernmost part. According to the tradition, the Baka-Bcska is the name of the old Hungarian county Bcs-Bodrog, and the northern border of it was (and is) north of Kecskemt. The distance of Donja Branjevina from the Northern Bcska is around 150 km. On the other hand, Krs-Starevo sites cannot be found in the Northern Bcska because it lies north of the final distribution line of this culture. 55. I again make my reference to the so-called Ia and Ib phases of Anzabegovo (MAKKAY, 1974: 153). R. W. Ehrich accepted my view concerning this question at that time. See his letter of 16. 6. 1980: I was very much interested in your review of Marija [Gimbutas]s Prehistoric Macedonia. I think that you were most kind, although your disapproval does shine through.


disturbance of the earlier level and a backfill during subsequent Starevo, or even later, times. The five sherds56 painted in this style from Szarvas 23 (MAKKAY, 1981) may well have a similar history of contamination (EHRICH and BANKOFF, 1992: 379. See the slightly different view of WHITTLE et al., 2002: 87, and also SCHUBERT, 1999: 33, 76 and 7757). This means that 1) the five white-painted sherds from Szarvas originally belonged to a later phase of the site and dropped into the pit fill, i.e. that they date to a post-Krs habitation period; or 2) they originally belonged to a very early Krs period coming into the fill of Pit 1 by contamination. Both these opinions would suggest a poor experience of these authors in archaeological excavations. These five sherds might derive from contamination, but they do not. Here follow a few comments about the allegation of disturbances or contaminations: a. Neither Ehrich, nor Bankoff, or anybody else who believes in the chronological discrepancy between the southern (mainly south of the Danube) and northern (Krs) assemblages, have ever seen or studied personally any of the potsherds in question from the sites of Szarvas, Endrd and Mhtelek (EHRICH and BANKOFF, 1992: 381). The case of the above-mentioned fragments with textile impressions proves the superficiality of the study of the contemporary assemblages in general. A reference can be made to another similar case: the potsherds decorated with linear motifs of stroke burnishing, rarely pattern burnishing and (not incised, but stroked or polished-in) impressions are abundant in the Krs assemblages of the Krs Valley as 119 published specimens and others awaiting publication (MAKKAY and STARNINI, forthcoming 2) sufficiently demonstrate (MAKKAY, 2000). The fragments of these vessels are almost (or totally) unknown from the published and unpublished assemblages of other Krs Culture sites and also from sites of the Starevo and Karanovo Cultures of more southern regions58. I do not believe that this type of decoration was known only to (and used by) the potters of the villages of the lower course of the Krs Valley in co. Bks. Nevertheless I cannot prove that this decorative pattern was invented by the Krs potters of the region between Szarvas and Endrd (MAKKAY, 2004b: 20-22). b. One of the hypothetical differences between the Krs and Starevo aspects that used to be mentioned counting the virtual or actual uniformity of pottery, is that, at least in Hungary, the Krs people depended more on sheep and goats and wild game, whereas the Starevo ones on cattle (EHRICH and BANKOFF, 1992: 380). This suggestion was probably partly based on the identifications of the faunal remains from Ludas-Budzsk near Subotica-Szabadka at the Serbian-Hungarian border. Here the percentages of cattle and sheep bones are very similar (77 [46.11%] and 78 [46.71%] respectively: BKNYI, 1984: 30). This small assemblage (167 bones of domesticated and 614 of wild animals) contradicts every statistic and interpretation made on the EN faunal remains excavated in the Middle and Lower Danube area. Before such a view will become established in the academic circles, I mention the opinion of S. Bknyi expressed after one of his visits to pre-1990 Yugoslavia. According to him, this difference was based on the local excavation techniques, i.e. during the excavations it is much easier to notice and collect large cattle bones than the bones of small livestock (sheep and goats)59. As a matter of fact, I do not know any complete publication of archaeozoological assemblages from any Early Neolithic excavation carried out in Greece, Bulgaria, former Yugoslavia and Romania, which can be compared to the 23,000 bone remains of Endrd 3/11960. Only preliminary reports were published on the faunas from Sofia-Slatina and Karanovo, while the animal bones of the recent excavations at Vina and Divostin are mainly Late Neolithic61. Furthermore, the Donja Branjevina final publication (KARMANSKI, 2005: 74-76) reports only

The white-on-brown or red-painted sherds from Pit 1 in Trenches I-II/1974 (MAKKAY, 1981: figs. 1, 1 and 2 and 2, 1, 3 and 4). 7 fragments of 7 different vessels were found in four different features of the site: Pit 1 in Trenches I-II/1974, Pit in Trench VI/1975, and silo-Pits 1/4 and 3/8 in 1988: see MAKKAY (1996: Pl. 9, 1, 3, 8, 9, 11, 12, 15). 57. SCHUBERT (1999) dates the white-painted fragments of Szarvas 8/23 and Endrd 3/119 (see his Pl. 7, 6, a fragment from Endrd 119 and not from Szarvas) into his earliest, Protostarevo phase (I or II?) at the periphery of the same horizon. Unfortunately, he mixed up the sites, in this case arvas (in present Croatia) with Szarvas in the Krs Valley (and not in the Balkans as he wrongly remarked; see his p. 33 and Pl. 7, 1-9). The name of both arvas and Szarvas goes back to the same Hungarian word meaning cervus. SCHUBERT (1999: Pl. 7, 5, 6, 8 and 9) are painted fragments from Szarvas and Endrd. It is sad that colleagues dealing with this topic, mentioning also territorial-geographic divergences resulting in alleged chronological differences, sometimes do not have any idea of the geography of the territories themselves. An archaeologist ought to have a general knowledge of, and interest in, those areas in which he/she is working with their material. 58. According to T. EFE (pers. comm.) these decorated specimens are abundant in his west Anatolian Chalcolithic material. 59. His personal comment in 1987 or 1988. The above-mentioned bones from Ludas-Budzsk support the opinion of Bknyi. This interpretation of Bknyi significantly differs from the opinion expressed by the same author in 1974 that The animal keeping of the Krs culture is completely identical with that of pre-pottery Neolithic in Thessaly, with the difference that here, in the North, important hunting, fishing and gathering activities were added to animal keeping (BKNYI, 1974: 51-56). As J. CHAPMAN (2003: 90) remarked, by this BKNYI (1974: 24) meant that high percentages of ovicaprids in the domestic bone assemblage were shared by Greece and Eastern Hungary but not in the intervening regions. The curiosity of these shared social practices ` (2001: in Greece and Hungary is that we have a meagre evidence of the pre-pottery Neolithic in Thessaly, if any. For its hypothetical character see PERLES 64-79) with a detailed discussion. 60. The statistics from six EN sites show the magnitude of the Endrd 119 bone assemblage (KALICZ, 1990: 96-98 and Beilage 2). 61. For the relevant publications of S. Bknyi see his full bibliography till 1994 in Archaeologiai rtest, 121 and 122 (1994-1995): 198 and 199, nn. 166, 167, 177, 198 and 201. S. Bknyi also studied the animal bones from the excavations carried out by S. Karmanski (see the following footnote).


a relatively small number of bones from Trenches I-III/198862. 66.36 % (1,750 specimens) of the identified 3,889 (or 3,606) bones belong to four species of domesticated animals (table 2):
Number of dom. bones Bos taurus L. Ovis/Capra Sus domesticus L. Canis familiaris L. total 404 1,306 26 14 1,750 % of total (3889) 15.32 49.52 0.98 0.53 66.35 % of domesticates (1750) 23.08 74.62 1.40 0.80 100.00

Table 2 - Domestic animal species from Donja Branjevina in the Vojvodina (after KARMANSKI, 2005).

If one compares these data with the results from Endrd 3/119 by S. Bknyi, the following picture emerges (unfortunately the number of individuals from Donja Branjevina were not provided) (table 3):
Specimens Bos taurus L. Ovis/Capra Sus scrofa dom. L. Canis fam. L. Subtotal dom. wild mammals large wild mammals other wild animals (birds, fishes) total 5,139 15,357 140 87 20,723 1,645 1,428 1,279 23,647 % of total dom. sp. 24.70 74.10 0.67 0.40 100.00 Individuals 183 788 20 12 1,003 137 105 % of tot. dom. ind. 18.25 78.56 1.99 1.20 100.00

Table 3 - Domestic (and wild) animal species from Endrd 3/119 (after BKNYI, 1992a, Table 13).

The comparison between the percentages of the domesticated mammals (i.e. 24.70 [23.08%] and 74.10 [74.62%]) suggests that any difference between the animal husbandry of the Starevo Culture (i.e. Donja Branjevina and the Starevo Culture territory) and that of the Krs Valley is artificial. It would seem contradictory (although it is not) to state that, independently from the high number of sheep/goat bones (specimens and individuals), both the Krs and Starevo populations relied more on cattle than sheep and goats. First, the number of bones and individuals of large wild mammals (aurochs, red and roe deer, boar: 1428 bones and 105 individuals) should be added to the subtotal number of domesticated mammals. BKNYIs (1992a: 235 and 236) results, based on the relationships between numbers and individuals and meat quantities of domesticated and of large wild mammals, show the meat supply condition at Endrd 3/119 (table 4):
no. of individuals Domestic Cattle Sheep/Goat Pig Domestic total Wild Large mammals 183 788 20 999 105 % 18.25 78.56 1.99 98.10 80.50 caprovine unit no. of individuals 1,281 788 30 2,099 roe deer unit 1,061 % 60.86 37.43 1.43 99.72 95.60

Table 4 - Number and percentage of domestic and wild animals from Endrd 3/119 (after BKNYI, 1992a, Table 13).

The caloric values of these meat quantities are as follows (table 5):
Individ. Cattle Sheep/Goat Pig Domestic total 183 788 20 999 Meat /kg 27,450 14,184 0,840 42,474 % 64.41 33.28 1.97 99.66 96.74* Cal./kg 1,500 2,000 3,000 Cal. quantity 41,175000 28,368000 2,520000 72,063000 25,030000 % 56.91 39.21 3.48 99.60 95.42*

14,251 Large wild 105 *percentages against small wild animals (i.e. birds, etc.).

Table 5 - Caloric values of the animal meat supply from Endrd 3/119 (after BKNYI, 1992a, Table 14).

The analysis was made by Svetlana Blai, Beograd (KARMANSKI, 2000: 183 and 184). The paper of S. Bknyi, mentioned in the bibliography of KARMANSKI (2000) Hunting-fishing-gathering in the Starevo-Krs Culture, is still unpublished.




e. f.


To conclude, cattle and aurochs63 played a main role in the meat diet of the Krs-Starevo groups of the Carpathian Basin and presumably also the northern Balkans (Donja Branjevina). I am sure that any other discussion about the preference of Starevo and Krs groups for beef or mutton and lamb has no scientific relevance. It might be correct to observe that the routine roasting or grilling of lamb and mutton was a common recipe of both the Greek and Krs Early Neolithic communities although the consumption of beef joints was not occasional (CHAPMAN, 2003: 101). As the statistics show, it was the major source of animal protein. We can observe that there are no archaeozoological indications (meat-eating, the division of carcasses, or the dispersal of bones) of any cultural diversity between the Early Neolithic of the southern Baka/Bcska (i.e. Donja Branjevina) and the northernmore Krs Valley. The differences between the southernmore Serbian and the Krs assemblages can derive from, and explained by the habitudes of the Serbian prehistorians to collect animal bone samples without sieving. To write and speak about an alleged admixture seems to be an old method to compromise excavation records and results, which otherwise would not fit into any conceptions. The best known case of so-called mixed assemblages is Pit 5A at Starevo, about which scholarly opinions have been divided since the early 1930s. The question was whether the Vina A-like carinated ware was contemporaneous with the true Starevo-Krs types or one or the other of these types was in the pit as a later intrusion, i.e. they resulted from an admixture. Another suggestion was that at Starevo the black on red ware is definitely a somewhat later phenomenon than the barbotine pottery (FEWKES, 1936: 33; MAKKAY, 1969: 20-24; 1990: 113; EHRICH, 1977). The features I excavated (i.e. pit in Trench VIII at Szarvas 8/23: figs. 9, 1; 23, 8; 24, 8 and 27, 3; pit in Trench XVIII at Endrd 3/39: fig. 70; and also the western pit in Trench XVIII at Endrd 3/6: figs. 47 and 48) demonstrate that the so-called Vina types, in my terminology Protovina shapes and ceramics (MAKKAY, 1990: 114 and 119; 1996: 44-47), were already present in the early/middle Krs assemblages, suggesting a Krs-Starevo based internal development of the Vina Culture in the northern territories of the former Krs-Starevo Culture over a large area, mainly north of the Danube (MAKKAY, 1990: 113 and 114, and Pls. 1-3). At the same time, the characteristic barbotine pottery, with all its variants, occurs in all the Krs assemblages, although occasionally with varying percentages of different subtypes (i.e. true, diffused, fluted variants, and also vertical rows of arcade or channelled barbotines). The well-known altars or lamps cannot be considered Krs-Starevo short phase indicators, because of the absence of any detailed chronology of these objects (LAZAROVICI, 2003). Their systematic recurrence within all the Krs assemblages most probably indicates that they were in use throughout the whole life of this culture until the Protovina phase. The finds from Pit 1, in Trenches I-II/1974, at Szarvas 8/23, the same pit containing white-on-red or brown fragments, consist of very different types of altars (fig. 23)64. One can speculate whether they were contemporaneous inside the pit or a part of them dropped into the fill from later or even earlier (?) deposits65. The earlier level of EHRICH and BANKOFF (1992) was not specified, i.e. never identified in the excavations. The seven white-on-brown or white-on-red painted sherds from Szarvas 8/23 (Pit 1 in Trenches I-II/1974, silo-Pits 1/4 and 8/3; these two latter pieces are from rapid rescue operations, and their closed character might be disputed), and the two (or three) similar white-on-brown fragments from a closed assemblage at Endrd, 3/119 (i.e. Pit 12 in Trenches 26 and 32, from depths below 60 and 140 cm respectively; the pit was sealed with a 25-30 cm stratified rubble of House 2) prove their stratigraphic position. Furthermore, the three fragments from Endrd 119 were parts of the same vessel from the earliest occupation of the small site (MAKKAY, 1992: 126 and 127; see also below the respective chapter of Endrd 3/119 and especially the chronological chart). Since the occupation of Endrd 3/119 ended before the Protovina phase (MAKKAY, 1992: 127), the white-on-red or brown painted vessel (i.e. its three partly adjoining fragments) from Pit 12 can be attributed only to an early Krs Culture period, two full phases before the Protovina one (see the internal chronology of the site in table 14 below). Even though the sherds with a distinctive dotted or linear white painted decoration are (would be) intrusive in three different pits of Szarvas 8/23, they demonstrate that the site was inhabited during an early phase of the Neolithic in the Szarvas area prior to the Classic or Middle Krs Culture, which is characterised by the (complete) absence of painted pottery. Intrusive vessel fragments with white-painted, linear

63. 64.

The number of individuals of the wild fauna from Endrd 119 is the following: aurochs 23, red deer 16, roe deer 37 and boar 29 (BKNYI, 1992a: 197, Table 2). One fragment belongs to the type of four-footed altars from Gura Baciului (LAZAROVICI and MAXIM, 1995: fig. 29). 65. Altar or lamp fragments found in Pit 1 in Trenches I-II/1974 at Szarvas 8/23 represent more types than the preliminary list provided by SCHUBERT (1999: 179). There are many fragments from my Krs sites, which belong to altars; also this evidence is against the conclusions of SCHUBERT (1999: 178).


decoration could not have been brought here from a great distance (similarly, intrusive white painted sherds cannot come from much later, i.e. Protovina assemblages). In this case Donja Branjevina represents the closest site in the Carpathian Basin with this distinctive pottery style (the only exception, with sporadic cases is the Hdmezvsrhely-Szeged area: MAKKAY and TROGMAYER, 1966: Abb. 2, 2 and 4; 6, 1; FOGAS, 2003: 49). Similarly, it is difficult to suggest that tradesmen, adventurers or missionaries brought fragments of white dotted vessels from more southern sites to a still unsettled river bank of the Old Krs in pre-Krs times. The layers of Pit 1 with white and black-painted sherds belong to a very early period in the development of the Krs-Starevo Culture, and the two painted varieties (i.e. black-on-red and white-on-red) were deposited contemporaneously into the pit-fill. Why do we have to suppose that the Krs potters did not know the black and white-painted styles simultaneously? h. The white-painted sherds (with dotted or linear motifs) do not occur at the neighbouring assemblages with characteristic late (Protovina) shapes or their direct typological forerunners (see point c. above). On the other hand, black-on-red painted sherds are occasionally present in assemblages with Protovina carinated shapes. i. Since some stratigraphic data of Donja Branjevina can be seriously questioned, it would be premature to draw any final conclusions before their complete publication. j. The material of my 22 excavations at eight Krs Culture sites allows me to say a few words about the monochrome pottery and its allegedly earliest variant, the early monochrome ware also called monochrome pre-phase (SCHUBERT, 1999: 74, 75, 92 and 93)66, which includes also fine, red monochrome pottery, which was, as compared to other features of the Krs Valley, abundant in Pit 1, Trenches I-II of Szarvas 23 (MAKKAY, 1981: 97 and fig. 1, 3)67. The conclusions drawn by M. ZDOAN (1999: 218 and 219) on the stratigraphic position of different ceramics at Hoca eme, seem to be relevant to this case: By phase II it is evident that the fine red and black monochrome wares of the preceding phases still persist, but their walls are now considerably thicker, and their burnish less lustrous. New to the assemblage is a significant amount of coarse pottery. By the end of the phase, the so-called barbotine wares of Southeastern Europe have begun to appear. Not introduced until the later stages of Phase II, these surface-roughened wares rapidly increase in percentage to represent one of the most important pottery categories of Phase I. Thus, the chronological and geographical distribution of this ware is very important. These ceramics, which are unknown to the Anatolian assemblages, make their appearance in the Balkans from the Early Neolithic onwards, up to the Bronze Age. In Karanovo I and in the regions of Starevo, Krs and Cri, they make their appearance together with the fine red-painted wares of the earliest phases. Another significant innovation at Hoca eme is the use of white-on-red painted pottery. Although they are not numerous, they are identical in ware, technique and decoration to the Karanovo I ceramics and also to the white-on-red painted fragments found in the Krs Valley. It is also of note that the painted sherds at Hoca eme represent the first known examples of this type, which harks from the coastal areas of the Aegean, thus revealing that the Balkan Neolithic cultures possessed southern and/or maritime links. The technique of the incision employed is rather special: it was executed not by scratching, but by the consecutive impressions of a tool held at nearly a right angle to the surface i.e. by the same technique, used to produce pottery decorated with impressed lines in the Krs Valley, as discussed above. Considering the common presence of the listed pottery types within phase II at Hoca eme, the earliest Krs Culture period documents the initial spread of these elements into the Carpathian Basin. The solution to these questions is that the Trianon border drawn in Versailles in 1920, cannot be correlated with a (otherwise non-existing) hypothetical cultural border between the northern Starevo and the northernmost Krs Cultures. From the viewpoint of the pottery technology, the majority of the Krs pottery, the so-called plain (fine) ware, is monochrome and undecorated. It is usually slipped with different, mainly dark colours. Volume 2 of this final report (MAKKAY and STARNINI, forthcoming 2) will illustrate a very high quantity of monochrome pottery unparalleled in the hitherto published Early Neolithic assemblages of entire southeast Europe. On the other hand, I do not know any thorough description of the technological and decorative differences between the early and common monochrome wares. Schematic drawings of the Early Neolithic monochrome pottery from Bulgaria show Krs shapes together (in context?) with much later vessel types and handles (TODOROVA, 2003: figs. 9a-c). Similar conclusions can be drawn on the chronological position of the monochrome ware in the Eastern Adriatic. Its relative contemporaneous presence in an early horizon Ib was postulated from atal Hyk in

Schuberts hypothesis on the chronological position of Maroslele-Pana lacks definite information about this site, as for example the existence of well-defined assemblages of different chronology. 67. In a few of these sherds organic temper was probably not used when preparing the body paste.


Central Anatolia across Thessaly to karin Samograd in the Eastern Adriatic by J. Mller, H. Parzinger and others between 1988 and 1994. Having analysed the stratigraphic sequences and corresponding pottery assemblages in the region, they found monochrome pottery in a cave site at karin Samograd deposited in the lowest layer superimposed with a later one that contains impresso-cardium pottery. Mller and Parzinger applied the typological sequence to the whole region, maintaining the concept of an initial Neolithic that has yet to be correlated with the appearance of monochrome pottery. Not for long; a year later Mller pointed out that, in the microregion, two incompatible sequences are available and that, in fact, impresso-cardium pottery is older than monochrome (PETRU and BUDJA, 2003: 189). Until detailed investigations are completed, the nature of the early monochrome pottery and its chronology in the entire Northern Balkans and the Carpathian Basin remains a mystery. The arbitrary layers of Trench II (i.e. the 1975 extension) were excavated in similar 20 cm spits. The remains of Grave 3 were brought to light at a depth of 130 cm near the SW trench wall. It also belonged to the Sarmatian period (fig. 4, plan). Below 190 cm, only small depressions were found deepening into the virgin subsoil. The arbitrary layer 190-210 cm contained much ash with potsherds, animal bones and burnt wattle-and-daub fragments, while deeper spits yielded less material. The number of clay net-weights containing much chaff from these depths was very high. Parts of Pit 1, beneath 150 cm, were fully excavated while its edges towards the south and the west, above 150 cm, remained unexcavated. Most of the assemblage (potsherds, bones etc.) was discovered above the central, deepest parts of the structure. As mentioned above, the unexcavated southern and western parts of the same pit were discovered in 1988 (fig. 5).

2.2.2. The second season: October 21st-31st, 1975

The second campaign was carried out during the autumn of 1975 with the same enthusiastic and already experienced team of Szarvas workmen. It was a rescue operation sponsored by the Bks County Museum Directory, because the plan for the water pipeline of the newly built Corn Drying Factory was to cross the site, between Trenches I-II/1974 and the Szarvas-Endrd road (figs. 3 and 7). The main thrust of this excavation was the exposure of more Early Neolithic structural remains, keeping in mind the original scope to find stratigraphic evidence relating the Krs and Alfld Linear structures. Trial Trench III/1975 was 12 m long and 0.8 m wide in the area of the planned pipeline ditch. After removing the plough soil, between 0 and 30 cm, the next spit was excavated between 30 and 60 cm. The mixed soil was dry and contained Krs fragments out of context. The 60 cm surface was cleaned and dark coloured outlines and the bones of two graves were noticed in an otherwise uniform fawn-coloured cultural fill, i.e. the transitional deposit at the top of the virgin subsoil. Graves 4 and 5 contained the contracted skeletal remains of Late Bronze Age-Early Hallstatt (so-called Pre-Scythian) burials. Spit 60-90 cm yielded a few Krs sherds and some burnt wattle-and-daub fragments at the northernmost end of the trench. The dark contours of a pit emerged at the southernmost edge of the trench although most of this, probably Sarmatian feature, lay in the unexcavated area. The outline of the Sarmatian Grave 6 pit was discovered after repeated cleanings at a depth of 90 cm. A dense scatter of Krs fragments was recorded at the northernmost end of the trial trench between 90 and 100 cm. Trial Trench IV (15x1 m) joined Trench III in an angle of 45 at its northernmost point, leading eastwards. The Krs pottery was found mainly in arbitrary layers 30-60 and 60-90 cm, near to the junction of Trenches III and IV. The cleaning at a depth of 90 cm showed the outline of a refuse pit of the Krs Culture (pit in Trench VI: figs. 7, 2 and 8, 1 and 2). Two more Sarmatian Graves (7 and 8) were discovered in this part of the trench. The burial pits were excavated into the fill of the Krs pit to a depth of 90 cm; therefore they did not disturb the lower part of the deposit of the pit. At a depth of 110 cm, the works were abandoned over most of the trench and also in trial Trench V (continuing the eastern end of Trench IV, 10x1 m), while a further Trench VI (6.5x5.2 m), was opened above the Krs Culture refuse pit (Trench VI/Pit 1; see box reference numbers A19, A39, A57, A88-89, A92a-d). Grave 9, a Sarmatian burial, was found in Trench V. The spits 30-60, 60-90 and 90-125/130 cm of Pit 1 in Trench VI, contained typical Krs pottery, a few animal bones, fragments of clay figurines and burnt wattle-and-daub fragments in the northern part of the trench at a depth of ca 60 cm, with red burnt earth around it (it was a hearth in the pit). Similar burnt fragments were also found in the lower spit, i.e. between 60 and 90 cm, in the same place. Most probably these fragments were brought into the pit from the removal of a neighbouring structure (house or oven).


Fig. 7 - Szarvas, site 8/23. 1: General map of Trenches III-VI/1975. 2: Plan of Trench VI/1975.


Fig. 8 - Szarvas, site 8/23. 1: Trench VI as seen from NNE (P.84.833 and P.84.835). 2: Section A-A of the same pit. 3: Bowl with perforated bottom found at the NW edge of Trench VI/1975 (from MAKKAY, 2001b: fig. 3, 1).


Cleaning at a depth of some 95 and 125 cm revealed the outline of the pit mainly in Trench VI (with a small portion out of the SE wall of the trench). A rich assemblage of pottery and Unio shells was found between 125 and 148 cm, together with a lower number of partly burnt animal bones around the ashy deposit. There are burnt clay fragments with embedded pottery fragments, which were thrown into the pit fill. Therefore, originally they were parts of surface constructions. The finds of the arbitrary layers below 125 cm were collected together and labelled as 125-175 cm. The pit fill above 125 cm, and below it, was different because the upper arbitrary layers contained many more potsherds. The deepest point of the pit was at 177 cm. An entire Krs vessel, a complete clay figurine and a cylindrical bowl, part of an altar (the piece already mentioned in note 85) with white incrusted decorations were found on the surface of the virgin subsoil, in the burnt ashy fill of a small depression, near Grave 8. Another complete vessel with a pierced base was discovered during the cleaning of the west wall (MAKKAY, 2001b: 287 and fig. 3, 1). It probably belonged to a grave lying outside the pit (fig. 8, 3), which could not be excavated.

2.2.3. The third season: October 13th-21st, 1979

The third campaign focused on the edge of the surviving site a few metres south of the Szarvas-Endrd road. The main objective was the exploration of that part of the site where the Agricultural Cooperation prepared the building of a road for heavy machines. Trench VII was opened at a short distance from Trench 1975/III, 6 m long and 1 m wide, in SE-NW direction (figs. 2 and 9, 1). After the removal of the disturbed plough soil, the first arbitrary layer was excavated between 40-70 cm, with the sporadic presence of Krs pottery in most of the trench, and a rich pit-like fill at a depth of 60-70 cm, at the NE end. The fill colour was light grey, with animal bones and vessel fragments with complete profiles. The cleaning, at a depth of 70-80 cm, revealed the outline of a refuse pit, without any other discolouration in the other part of the trench. Before finishing the excavation of this pit (Pit VIII/1), a new trial trench was opened from the NW edge of Trench VII. This was Trench VIII, 10 m long and 1 m wide. During its excavation, human bones were discovered at the depth of 40-50 cm. Grave 11 is the lower part of a crouched skeleton (fig. 9, 1 and 2), most probably disturbed by the digging of Pit 1 in Trench VIII (Pit VIII/1)68. The body was buried on its right side at a depth of some 40-50 cm, NE-SW oriented, in a greyish Krs layer. A complete, small, hemispherical vessel with broken lip was found a few centimetres from the back part (pelvis) of the skeleton. This vessel had been deposited as a grave good. It contained a small stone chisel and a stone axe (fig. 9, 3 and 4). Grave goods are very rare in the Krs burials (see also the vessel with a pierced base in the wall of Trench VI: fig. 8, 3)69. I am not aware of any similar grave goods from the Carpathian Basin. On the other hand, the attribution of the hemispherical bowl and the two stone tools to the Krs period is certain. Grave 10 was a grave vessel of the Gva Culture (or Pre-Scythian period) without cremated remains (the urn itself was very badly damaged by ploughing and/or soil loosening), while Grave 12 was a Sarmatian skeleton (fig. 9, 1). Graves 4, 5 and 10 probably belong to the same Gva Culture biritual cemetery (MAKKAY, 2003: 520, the chronological chart). The cleaning at a depth of 70 cm revealed the outlines of Pit 1 and Pit 2. The chronology and character of Pit 2 have remained unknown. It probably was a disturbed Late Bronze Age burial. To excavate Pit 1, in Trench VIII/1979, we opened two extensions, 1.4 and 1.5 m wide respectively, towards the NW and SE in the NE part of Trench VIII. The arbitrary layer between 70 and 90 cm was extended to the northern quarter of the trench, while deeper parts (as deep as 140 cm) narrow down to a small inner depression of circular shape. A thin layer of soot covered the walls and the pit bottom. The filling between 70 and 90 cm was a light greyish loose soil. The fill above it was greyish, with very much ash. It extended beyond the edges of the pit cut into the virgin subsoil at 90 cm. Most probably the pit was excavated from above into this greyish Krs layer. This fact determines its chronology within the sequence, which is supported by the pottery assemblage, represented by Protovina shapes (figs. 23, 8; 24, 8 and 27, 3; see also MAKKAY, 1990: 120 and figs.). An extraordinarily important find was discovered in the ashy layer: a fragment of a broken stone figurine with an incised decoration (fig. 11, 2). This is the only stone figurine so far known in the entire Krs Culture inventory (MAKKAY, 1993: fig. 2, 2a-d). The fill below 90 cm was dark, loose brown in the centre, and light brown and yellowish towards the edges.

According to the excavation records the skeleton was disturbed by soil loosening (MAKKAY in MRT8, 1989: 395). At present, this suggestion seems to be unrealistic, because the broken parts of the skulls, destroyed by soil loosening, are to be found in close vicinity, in such cases. 69. See Grave 5 of Deszk-Olajkt, site 1, with one vessel as grave good (TROGMAYER, 1968b: 13). The grave had been excavated into a refuse pit. On the other hand, several finds from a grave of a young woman from the Transdanubian Starevo site Mriaasszonysziget (remains of a large pedestalled bowl, scattered Unio shells, fish scales, two large, flat grinding stones) regarded as grave goods seem to be highly conjectural (KALICZ et al., 2002: 16 and 17). According to the Hungarian text, the skeleton was found below the Starevo Culture refuse pit (Starevo hulladkgdr, alatta a Starevo kultra temetkezse). According to this sentence, however, the burial was intrusive in the fill of the Starevo feature 52 (KALICZ et al., 2002: 17). The context and Early Neolithic attribution of the burial is dubious, because of the absence of any stratigraphic evidence.


Fig. 9 - Szarvas, site 8/23. 1: Plan of Trenches VII and VIII/1979 with Graves 10 (Gva Culture), 11 (Early Neolithic) and 12 (Sarmatian period), and Pits VIII/1 and VIII/2. 2: Grave 11 and the position of its grave furniture. 3-4: Rounded bowl and two stone axes found in Grave 11.


Fig. 10 - Szarvas, site 8/23. 1: Plan of Trench IX with Graves 14 (Early Neolithic) and 13 (Sarmatian period), and Pit 1 in Trench IX. 2: Plan and section A-A of Pit 1 in Trench IX/1979. 3: view of Pit 1 in Trench IX taken from the south (P.103.422).


Fig. 11 - Szarvas, site 8/23. 1: Graves 13 (Sarmatian period) and 14 (Early Neolithic) in Trench IX/1979 (P. 103.424). 2: Broken stone figurine from Trench VIII/1979, Pit 1, -60 cm (P.109.584: see MAKKAY, 1993: fig. 2, 2).


Trench IX, 1979 (4x4.5 m) was excavated east of Trench VIII, below a thick surface scatter of Krs potsherds (fig. 10, 1-3). After removing two arbitrary layers (0-35 and 35-70/75 cm), the cleaning revealed the outline of a medium-sized pit with a mainly dark colour fill, containing much ash with many wattle-and-daub fragments and animal bones, whilst the presence of Krs pottery was scarce. The fill had much ash with snails near the WSW wall, while the opposite part was harder and darker in colour. Its deepest part lay at a depth of 185 cm. The WNW part of the pit extends beyond Trench IX. In order to excavate this outer part we opened an extension Trench 9, m long and 1 m wide. The cleaning showed that only a few centimetres of Pit 1 were inside the area of this trial trench. Further cleaning revealed Grave 13, a Sarmatian burial. During the excavation of Grave 13, the bones of a crouched skeleton were found in its SW corner (Grave 14). The Sarmatian Grave 13 had been robbed, and the digging of both the burial pit and the robbers pit had cut the lower part of the legs and the skull of Grave 14 (the complete skull was later found in the fill of the robbers pit). The body was found on its left side, in a crouched position, at the depth of 85 cm, in a greyish layer above the virgin subsoil, with its arms bent towards the face. It was oriented SE-NW (figs. 10, 1 and 11, 1). It was a Krs Culture burial and, similarly to Grave 11, it had been deposited in the Neolithic palaeosoil outside a refuse pit. The deposition of a measuring device on September 14th-15th, 1982

At I. Bognr-Kutzins request, a dosimeter for thermoluminescence measurements was placed in a small (6x3 m) trench north-east of the 1974-1979 trenches, 8 m from the edge of the Szarvas-Endrd road, on its southern bank (fig. 2, where an asterisk marks the place of the deposition of the device in the southwestern part of silo-Trench 1). The two small, metal cartridges were placed into the grey layer of the late (Protovina) phase of the Krs Culture (they were never recovered again). During the froth flotation of the soil samples collected from a layer close to this late Krs horizon, two small fragments (ca 1.5x2 mm) of green mineral closely resembling malachite were recovered (CHAPMAN and TYLECOTE, 1983: 374; MAKKAY, 1997a: 37, note 8). The finds were collected together with a great number of Late Krs ceramics, which, according to their characteristics are contemporaneous with the finds from the pit in Trench VIII/1979 (fig. 9, and for the finds, MAKKAY, 1990: 120, and the respective illustrations). It is important to point out that Middle and Late Neolithic or Copper Age finds were not discovered in this part of the site and that the fill of the 1982 deposition pit did not show any disturbance. The occurrence of copper finds from the Early Neolithic sites of SE Europe (CHAPMAN and TYLECOTE, 1983; MAKKAY, 1997a: 37 and notes 3-7) might suggest the use of native copper already in Late Krs times.

2.2.4. 1988 short rescue excavations

In 1988 the amount of wheat produced by the Dzsa Agricultural Cooperation lands was very great and its storage capacity limited. The Kolkhoz decided to store four thousand tons of wheat in underground silos to be excavated in the area adjacent to the centre of the Cooperation, i.e. in the area of site 23, between the Endrd and rmnykt roads (figs. 2 and 3), without reporting to the local museum or other authorities. The third excavation of the Microregion Project was carried out at Endrd 3/119 in July1988. One morning, driving to the site, I suddenly realised an extraordinary heavy bulldozer activity on the site, which, as mentioned above, is located near the Szarvas-Endrd local road. Soon the Tessedik Museum started the rescue operations and the Endrd team arrived to help excavate the Neolithic features. During the few days at our disposal, it was impossible to carry out any stratigraphic excavations within the territory of the five silo-trenches of squared, irregular shape, each measuring some 50x7 m (fig. 2, Trenches 1-5/1988), parallel to the Szarvas-Endrd local road, spaced at 8-10 m from each other (fig. 12 shows the excavation of the silo-trenches in progress)70. The silos were dug as deep as 4 m, and there was a possibility to carry out rescue excavations in those eight days in order to recover archaeological features. 23 or 26 graves were discovered, 11 of which belonged to the Krs Culture, 9 to the Sarmatian Period, and 1 to the period of the Hungarian conquest. The number of the partly excavated features reached 25 (JUHSZ, 2002: 89). The account of the features within each silo-trench was limited to brief observations on the characteristics of the fill. None of the pits were even briefly described nor were samples collected. Some pits profiles were drawn (figs. 13, 5 and 19, 3) showing their shape and outline. Nevertheless since these had been obtained after the pit had been completely emptied (excavated) they could not be used to obtain information regarding the fill (stratigraphy, etc.). In most cases, the excavation strategy was limited to the

The general map of the operation, the photographs of the graves and a short excavation report were made by Dr. Irn Juhsz, the then director of the Szarvas Museum. I express my best thanks for her cooperation and data.


Fig. 12 - Szarvas, site 8/23. 1: 1988 rescue excavations (courtesy of T. Kdas). 2: View of Pit 1 in Trench I/1974 from the south, with Sarmatian grave 2 (P.79.738).


Fig. 13 - Szarvas, site 8/23. 1: Ritual Pit 2 in silo-Trench 1/1988, with bread-shaped clay weights. 2: One of the bread-shaped clay weights with an embedded Krs sherd. 3: Reconstructed vessel from silo-Trench 5, at 50 m in the northeastern edge of Trench 4: Grave 2/1988 (see also fig. 6, 2). 5: Section A-B with the position of Grave 17/1988.

collection of pottery and also animal bones71, and the detection and recording of small finds and graves from the fill, in most cases photographically. The following table refers to the photographs72 of the features and graves

My visit in the Tessedik Mzeum, Szarvas on April 16th, 2003 led to the discovery of numerous large plastic bags deposited in the basement of the Museum, which contain animal bones from Szarvas 8/23 (1988 rescue excavations), which were not studied by S. Bknyi or anybody else. 72. The numbers refer to the negative numbers of the archives of the AI, Budapest. Most of the photographs were taken by I. Juhsz and T. Kdas.


(figs. 6, 2 and 3; 14, 1 and 2; 15, 1 and 2; 16, 1 and 2 and 17, 1 and 2) taken during those few days in relation to the rescued, Krs Culture finds recorded under the box reference number (BRN): Photograph numbers73 141.850 141.851 141.852 141.853 141.854 141.855 141.872 141.881 141.882 141.884 141.897 141.898 141.899 141.900 141.901 141.902 141.905 141.906 141.907 141.908 141.909 141.910 142.040 142.041 142.041 Silo-Trench features 1/2 1/2 1/1 1/1 1/1 1/1 2/Grave 10 3/2 3/2 3/8 3/3 3/3 2/Grave 10 2/Grave 10 2/Grave 12 2/Grave 12 3/3 3/3 3/Grave 16 3/3 3/Grave 15 3/3 3/2 1/2 1/2 Box Ref. Numbers A102 A102 A103-104 A103-104 A98 A97, A113 A97 A97, A113 A97, A113 A97, A113 A97, A113 A96, A104 -

There are no documents (photographs) of the following features with box reference numbers (with their carefully collected archaeological material):
1/3 A102

1/5c 1/7 2/1


A102 A102 A93, A103

A104, A112

2/Pit North 3/1 3/4 3/5 3/8 (fig. 18, 3) 4/1 4/2 4/8 5/50 m 5/1 5/2 5/3 5/4 5/6

A94 A95, A103 A105 A106 A98, A106 A107 A99a-d A108 A11474 A110 A109 A110 A111 A103, A111

It must be emphasised that the refuse Pits 3/3 and 4/2 were excavated by the workmen of the Endrd 119 team under the supervision of the present author and that they have to be considered closed assemblages.

Negative numbers of the Archive of the Institute of Archaeology of the Hungarian Academy of Science. The photographs are the only available documents for the features and graves excavated in 1988. 74. A reconstructed large storage jar (fig. 13, 3).


There are further, still unstudied ceramic finds in the basement collections of the Tessedik Museum coming from the following silo features, referred here according to their Plastic Bag Numbers (= number written on the large plastic bags, in the Tessedik Museum): Silo-Trench features 1/3 1/5 1/7 1 2/1 2/2 2 silo-Trench 2 or 3 3/1 3/2 3/4 3/7 silo-Trench 3 or 4 4/1 4/2 4/3 4/7 5/2 5/3 5/4 5/5 5 PB Number 192 92 28 123, 130, 152, 158, 169 170, 185 174 51, 155, 17, 180 18, 63, 109, 128 21 11, 53, 184 190 187 166 188 10, 173, 175-177, 189, 191 171, 182 183 179 181 186 172 2, 178

The noticeable discrepancy between the excavation records made by the staff of the Tessedik Museum (mainly amateur students) and our registered archaeological material derives from the methodology employed: the workmen of the Endrd team collected only finds (mainly vessel fragments) from the discovered features very carefully using labels provided by the Museum. The drawings with a short description made by the museum staff have survived only for some three features: the crouched skeletons, Pit 3/3 (figs. 18, 1 and 19; see also Appendix I) and finally the unique deposit of flat, oval clay weights (fig. 13, 1, 2 and 4). First I will present a full list of the EN graves discovered in 1988. A number of graves were discovered in the silos, half of which belonging to the Sarmatian Period cemetery. The crouched skeletons were considered burials of the Krs Culture. These graves are: Grave 2: crouched skeleton discovered in feature 3, in silo-Trench 1, SE-NW oriented, lying on its right side. The body was placed in the fill of a rubbish pit and became (or was) covered with large wattle-and daub fragments (G2 in figs. 2; 6, 2 and 13, 4). Grave 3: the only available document of this grave is the schematic general map of the 1988 operations described as object 3 in silo-Trench 2 = G3 (fig. 2, silo-Trench 2, near Grave 10 = G10). It was very probably a crouched skeleton lying on its left side, oriented towards WSW. Grave 10: a crouched skeleton of an adult found in silo-Trench 2, ca N-S oriented, lying on its left side, at a depth of 83-89 cm, with its arms drawn in front of the face (fig. 15, 1). According to the note of the draftsman, parts of the skeleton were disturbed and the right side of the skull had been cut by the bulldozer. Grave 12: tightly flexed burial, lying on its right side, WSW-ENE oriented, with both hands bent in front of the face. The bones of the skeleton of an adult were in an excellent state of preservation; the upper part of the skull had been cut by a machine. It was found in silo-Trench 2 at a distance of 34 m from one (unrecorded) end of the silo-trench. The vertebrae near the pelvis were missing. Sex unknown, no grave goods (fig. 15, 2). Grave 14 was exposed in silo-Trench 2, W-E oriented, lying on its right side. The legs were tightly contracted, the right arm bent below the skull and the left arm in front of the chest, although the upper part of the skeleton was disturbed (fig. 16, 1). No grave goods. Many sherds were found beneath the bones, which means that the dead body was buried in the fill of a rubbish pit. Unfortunately there is no further information about this hypothetical pit. Grave 15 was found lying on its left side in silo-Trench 3, almost N-S oriented. Legs sharply contracted, arms held in front of the face (fig. 16, 2). No grave goods. Red-burnt clay plaster fragments were discovered beneath the legs. The body was most probably buried in an unidentified rubbish pit.


Fig. 14 - Szarvas, site 8/23. Bread-shaped clay weight with dermatoglyphic impressions (drawings by E. Starnini).


Fig. 15 - Szarvas, site 8/23. 1: Grave 10/1988 in silo-Trench 2, (P.141.872). 2: Grave 12 in silo-Trench 2 (P.141.501).


Fig. 16 - Szarvas, site 8/23. 1: Grave 14/1988 in silo-Trench 2 (P.141.500). 2: Grave 15/1988 in silo-Trench 3 (P.141.909).


Fig. 17 - Szarvas, site 8/23. 1: Grave 16/1988 in silo-Trench 3 (P.141.507). 2: Grave 17 in silo-Trench 3 (photograph by R. Glser).


Fig. 18 - Szarvas, site 8/23. 1: Grave 18/1988 in silo-Trench 2. 2: Grave 23/1988 in silo-Trench 4 (P.141.819). 3: Pit 8 in silo-Trench 3 (Pit 3/8), human representation on the wall of a large container with barbotine decoration (drawing by L. Hornyk).

Grave 16 was found undisturbed in silo-Trench 3, lying on its left side and ESE-WNW oriented. Legs sharply contracted, arms bent in front of the chest (fig. 17, 1). No grave goods. Grave 17: the bones of an irregularly placed, contracted skeleton were found in silo-Trench 3, lying on its right side and NW-SE oriented. The back part of the skeleton was cut by the bulldozer. No grave goods (fig. 17, 2). Grave 18: in silo-Trench 2 at a depth of 110 cm, a strongly crouched skeleton lying on it left side, with arms in front of the face and the finger bones on the neck. Oriented towards ENE (fig. 18, 1). No grave goods.


Grave 23: bones of a disturbed, crouched skeleton discovered in silo-Trench 4 (fig. 18, 2). Grave 26: the only available information about this grave is a short description without any photograph or drawing. A crouched skeleton was found in silo-Trench 5 near Oven 3 (the cultural attribution of this oven is unknown). It was oriented W-E on its right side. The body was placed in the ashy layer of a Krs Culture rubbish pit. It is very sad to report that the largest number of graves ever yielded by a Krs site (a total of 13 graves with bones in a good state of preservation) in most cases lack any detailed anthropological description (see Appendix III). The table in Appendix II shows their position and orientation. Regarding the details of these burials, no definite rules can be applied for the orientation of the body, or for the direction the body faced. Most graves were oriented towards the west or northwest (12/1988, 14/1988, 17/1988, 26/1988). They were lying on their right side, with the exception of grave 11/1979, lying on its right side, but oriented towards the NE, and grave 3/1988 on its left side, also oriented towards the WSW. The graves oriented towards the N-S (Graves 1/1974, 10/1988 and 15/1988) were laid on their left with their face towards the east. Sacrificial Pit 1/2: a strange feature: object 2 was found in silo-Trench 1 (fig. 13, 1 and 2). It was a small pit intruding into the uppermost layer of the yellow, virgin subsoil. It came to light when the bulldozer scraped the lowermost palaeosoil. According to its location, in the central part of silo-Trench 1 (fig. 2, Trench 1, n. 2), this feature cannot be identical to the similar deposit found near the northern edge of Pit 1/1974 at the trench wall (Pit 2/1974) most of which was outside Trenches I-II (fig. 2, the western corner of Trench I/1974, between G1 and G14). Its fill contained 12 pieces75 of large loaf-shaped weights made of coarse ware. We were unable to excavate it properly. Only one photograph and one drawing (fig. 13, 1) were made after its cleaning. Both deposits contained the same concentration of flat, elongated, clay weights. In effect, object 2 in silo-Trench 1/1988 lay opposite to Pit 2 in Trenches I-II/1974. Two clay weights from the 1988 deposit contained an embedded Krs sherd of polished, red slipped ware, which attribute it to the same culture (fig. 13, 2). The wall of the 1988 shallow depression was heavily burnt and red-burnt powder-like soil filled the space between the unpierced clay weights or loafs. They are of the same flat and elongated, oval shape, made of medium-coarse ware with much straw, chaff as organic temper, and were well fired. A few of the complete pieces are deformed, as if the potter dropped them to the ground or pushed them into a hard surface. Finger impressions are common on their surface, and in one case dermatoglyphs are visible (fig. 14). Large cattle bones were also found in the assemblage (fig. 13, 1), which make a sacrificial purpose reasonable. Records do not mention whether these bones were found burnt or unburnt. Altogether 12 complete or almost complete pieces were found associated with a few fragments of these bread-like weights or plaster sling missiles which, to my knowledge, are unparalleled in the whole Krs-Starevo material of the Carpathian Basin (fig. 13, 1 and 2). On the other hand Early Migration period assemblages contain similar bread-like clay weights (see below). The 8th millennium excavated material of some villages in Southeastern Turkey, contains plaster sling missiles of a somewhat different shape, often in great quantities, and were clearly not intended to keep flocks of sheep (one of the workmen showed the excavators how shepherds used slings to hurl stones at predators ` S, 2001: 229). These 8th millennium clay sling missiles are identical to the Greek threatening their sheep) (PERLE and Roman sling stones suggesting that they were used for warfare (LEBLANC, 2003: 19 and 20). The sacrificial character of the Szarvas pieces does not exclude such a purpose. Clay sling bullets are often found in clusters in the Neolithic contexts of Greece and the Balkans, and are ` S, 2001: 228-231; CHAPMAN, 2003: 99). At Elateia, commonly considered fighting or hunting weapons (PERLE three clusters of twenty-eight and six pieces were found in the house floors. These sling bullets are of a standardised, ovoid shape, with two more or less pointed butts, and often have a small-flattened surface (see the flattened pieces of Szarvas) on which they can rest without rolling over. They are often simply dried or half-baked, differing very much from their Szarvas parallels. Moreover their length (average 6 cm) and diameter (3 cm) are considerably smaller than those of the Szarvas specimens. This circumstance alone makes improbable the practical use of the Szarvas pieces. Clay weights or breads of a similar character have been found also at some early Slavic sites of the north-eastern part of the Carpathian basin, dated to the VII century AD (ISTVNOVITS, 2001: 171 and 172 and fig. 10). According to a detailed analysis, a part of them was used to build or reinforce the walls of the ovens, while others, among which the flattened pieces were (unknown) ritual objects, called clay breads or loafs


The complex undoubtedly contained more pieces because the feature was found after a heavy bulldozer had cut its upper part and damaged some of them. Unfortunately, only parts of pieces were collected, which seemed possible to reconstruct.


(STANCIU, 1998). The remoteness of the parallel, however, makes it hard to accept these interpretations in the case of the Szarvas clay weights. The dimensions (length, width and thickness) of the Szarvas pieces are correlated among themselves. They show a close, formal similarity (even a standardized shape) indicating that they reflect the same (although unknown) symbolic function. Their correlation is shown in table 6 below.
Weight/gr. 1045 1065 1140 1185 1210 1275 1280 1325 1340 1390 1430 1475 Length 16.0 19.5 17.2 19.9 17.8 16.4 17.5 17.5 16.5 17.0 17.8 16.8 Width 11.6 11.5 9.8 11.3 11.2 10.8 10.7 11.2 11.8 11.2 10.9 11.1 Thickness 6.0 5.7 6.2 6.7 6.8 6.6 6.8 7.2 5.6 7.6 7.0 6.9 Shape flat deformed rounded deformed flat rounded rounded rounded flat flat flat rounded State complete restored complete complete complete complete complete complete restored complete complete complete Notes

carbonate and ceramic inclusions finger impressions Krs ceramic inclusions, finger imp. carbonate inclusions, finger impressions finger impressions carbonate inclusions, finger impressions carbonate and ceramic inclusions many carbonates, finger impressions carbonate and ceramic inclusions, dermatoglyhps finger impressions, Krs sherd

Table 6 - Characteristics of the clay breads from Szarvas 8/23, Pit 1/2. Measures in cm.

Lengths and thicknesses, but especially widths, fall into categories with restricted limits and the measure of the twelve widths is very close (between 9.8 and 11.8 cm). This fact can be interpreted in such a way that the potter, during the manufacture of these objects76 wanted to keep standardised measures77. Of special interest is a piece weighing 1430 grams with fingertip impressions i.e. dermatoglyphs (fig. 14). The anthropologists believe that dermatoglyphic traits can provide valuable information about population history. Unfortunately, for ancient times we have only very sporadic dermatoglyphic records from the Eastern Mediterranean. The Swedish scholars have collected about 200 fingerprints impressed in clay and paint on Mycenaean, Minoan and LBA Cypriot pottery and on Linear B tablets (DAY, 2001: 148-151) while there is no (published) evidence of Neolithic dermatoglyphs. Sacrificial Pit 3/3 was discovered by the northern wall of silo-Trench 3. It was the only Neolithic feature (together with Pit 4/2) properly excavated and recorded in the excavation notes. The pottery from this feature (BRNs A97 and A113) is represented by eight complete/reconstructed vessels, among which are strongly carinated and pedestalled bowls (figs. 19; 28, 2, 5; 29, 1 and 3-7). These typical markers of late Krs-Protovina periods were associated with characteristic Krs types of both fine and coarse ware, among which are barbotine decorations (true, diffuse and fluted variants and also vertical rows of arcade barbotine) and fingertip impressions on globular storage jars. Two small body sherds show the well-known decoration technique of thin, incised, and impressed, vertical lines (see MAKKAY, 2000: no. 105). Vessel bases are also characteristic Krs types (solid pedestals, flat distinct and defined disc bases, low rings), while pedestals 4-6 cm high are characteristic of the developed and late Krs phases. The material collected from Pit 3/3 can be roughly contemporaneous with Pit 4/2 with a small, although non-unimportant difference: the pottery from Pit 3/3 does not contain a single piece of ALP fragments or linear-decorated pieces resembling the Early ALP = Szatmr and ALP decoration patterns (fig. 30). This fact defines its position in the internal chronological sequence of Szarvas 8/23, placing Pit 3/3 immediately before Pit 1, in Trench VIII/1979. The photographs of the excavation show that, at the bottom of the silo-trench scraped by the bulldozer, a discoloured (darker area) was noticed, containing fragments of large vessels. The excavation of the fill of this dark pit brought to light a large antler near the wall of the silo-trench, lying in an oblique position, with a broken four-footed clay altar placed on one of the branches and an upturned conical small bowl on another tip (fig. 19, 1-9). The antler was found between two thin charcoal layers, while the central part of the pit contained much ash. Above the upper charcoal layer, there was a fill of loose, brown soil. The lower and upper fill contained a number of potsherds, although, at the same time, a careful search resulted in finding 21 stone implements, all but one of Zempln-Tokaj
76. 77.

I believe that these pieces were made by the same potter. This very early standard measure was probably in relation with human hand. For instance, the Greek daktyloi () refer to very ancient times when there had been inventions of different crafts: arts, carpentry and pottery making (MAKKAY, 2001: 51, note 58).


Fig. 19 - Szarvas, site 8/23. 1-9: Sacrificial Pit 3/3 in silo-Trench 3/1988. 1-3: Plan and section of the pit. 4-5: Broken clay altar and conical bowl from the pit. 6-9: photographs of the pit.


obsidian. Most of them are unretouched flakes or broken bladelets except for a few, which are retouched instruments (see Appendix I). Most of them were found at the depth of the antler and beneath it (fig. 19, 3). Pit 3/3 is unparalleled in the presently known material of the Krs Culture and also in its neighbouring and contemporary cultures. The uniqueness of the feature, the presence of a deposited antler between two layers with burnt wooden (and also plant?) remains, the deposition of a (broken) clay altar and the small bowl on tips of an antler, finally the great number of obsidian implements (not documented elsewhere) makes it very probable that this feature was a sacrificial pit (a ritual shaft?, like the similar shafts of Endrd 3/119; see below: sacrificial pits), and its deposited finds were remains of probably repeated sacrifices. The precise character of these sacrifices (fertility cult?, a totally unknown cult related to the preparation of the stone tools?, hunting magic?) has, however, remained obscure. The discovery of flint artefacts in the ditches of some henge monuments make probable the existence of Neolithic ritual customs connected with the preparation of stone tools (MAKKAY, 2001d: 20, note 89)78. A great number of exclusively obsidian flakes and implements (71 specimens: see Appendix I) were also found in silo-Trench 4, Pit 2 (i.e. Pit 4/2): The obsidian of the assemblage was imported from the Zempln-Tokaj sources, and belongs to the Erdbnye variant (STARNINI, 1993: 66). Trapezes recur also in the Mhtelek assemblage (fig. 131, 4), and the presence of many end-scrapers (together with the extensive use of obsidian) are signs of development towards the ALP. On the other hand, not a single piece of Banat flint was found in these two assemblages, which is a common characteristic of both the typical Krs and also Mhtelek chipped stone assemblages (STARNINI, 1993: 69, fig. 17, 1). The presence, in this pit, of Zempln-Tokaj obsidian in a relatively great quantity can be correlated with the nine ALP type pedestalled bowl fragments (fig. 30, 6). It is well known that the obsidian sources of the Zempln-Tokaj region were controlled by the Early ALP (i.e. Szatmr) groups during the transitional period between the Krs and the following ALP Culture. The general characteristics of these two stone assemblages of Szarvas 23 are presented in Appendix I (figs. 31-34). There is abundant information about the other finds (first of all pottery) from this pit, together with some other potsherds now in the stores of the Szarvas Museum (PBN 10; 173; 175-177; 189 and 191). According to the schematic excavation map (fig. 2), Pit 4/2 was one of the largest refuse pits of the Krs site, found in 198879. One of the main characteristics of this pit is the presence of nine ALP fragments of pedestalled bowls and other shapes (figs. 26, 6 and 30, 6), associated with Late Krs, i.e. Protovina types. The rich pottery assemblage (BRNs A99a-e) is composed of thirty-three complete or reconstructed vessels and a great number of fragments of carinated bowls (more than one hundred pieces, belonging to at least thirty different vessels; figs. 21; 22; 23, 1-6; 24, 1-6; 25; 26, 1 and 6 and 27, 2, 6 and 8), which sometimes probably belong to pedestalled forms, although sherds of finger-pinched and fingertip impressed, coarse Krs pottery were also present. Other classic Krs elements are semicircular and shell impressions, solid central discs of defined bases and characteristic true barbotine decorations. Strangely, the characteristic Szatmr type coarse pottery (which is present at some features at Endrd 3/6, see below) was not present in the Szarvas 23 features, not even in association with its contemporary Protovina shapes. To conclude, as mentioned above, Pit 2/2 and Pit 1 in Trenches I-II/1974 refer to the same structure, with potsherds from the lower layer, between 110-230 cm (fig. 5)80.


At the end of the summer of 1993, the owner of the area (the Gallicoop Ltd, Tel Aviv, Israel) decided to refill the five silo-trenches excavated in 1988. There was the possibility to investigate, partly, a few Early Neolithic features (i.e. parts of refuse pits), which had been discovered in 1988 and left unexcavated. These assemblages are composed of characteristic Krs material. One reconstructed vessel is a large four-footed handled cup, a unique shape within this class81. The finds of this last rescue operation are at present stored in the Szarvas Museum (PBN 130, 123, 51, 155, 167, 63, 128 and 166, listed here in the order of the numbering of the features in question).


A similar ritual activity can also be connected with the Alvastra enclosure where some 40 specimens of a specific axe type were prepared and left unfinished (MAKKAY, 2001a: 28). 79. The small collection of potsherds from this feature was found in the basement (or PB) collections of the Szarvas Museum on 16 th April, 2003 but remained unstudied. See Appendix VII. 80. The Inventory Number of the Bkscsaba Museum is 78.42.22. 81. For this characteristic Krs shape see MAKKAY (1980: 210 and 211, Pls. 119-122). The number of this type in the Krs features, unrecorded in the assemblages of the Krs Culture before my 1980 paper, has significantly increased since then. A full catalogue will be presented in MAKKAY and STARNINI (forthcoming 2).


Fig. 20 - Szarvas, site 8/23. 1-9: Reconstructed clay lamps or altars from Pit 1 in Trenches I-II/1974 from different depths. 1: Trench II/70-90 cm. 2: Trench II/150-170 cm. 3: Trenches I-II/110-130 cm. 4: Trenches I-II/60-90 cm. 5: 0-50 cm. 6: Trench I/70-90 cm. 7: Trench I/110-130 cm. 8: The baulk between Trenches I-II/0-130 cm. 9: Trenches I-II/90-110 cm.


Fig. 21 - Szarvas, site 8/23. Reconstructed vessels of the Protovina phase from silo-Trench 4, pit 2 (Pit 4/2; P.144.971, 144.989, 144.995, 145.020, 145.023, 145.025, 145.057).


Fig. 22 - Szarvas, site 8/23. Reconstructed vessels of the Protovina phase from silo-Trench 4, Pit 2 (Pit 4/2) (drawings by E. Starnini).


Fig. 23 - Szarvas, site 8/23. 1-6: Reconstructed vessels of the Protovina phase from silo-Trench 4, Pit 2 (Pit 4/2). 7: Silo-Trench 5, Pit 3 (Pit 5/3). 8: Pit 1 in Trench VIII/1979 (drawings by E. Starnini).


Fig. 24 - Szarvas, site 8/23. 1-6: reconstructed Protovina vessels from silo-Trench 4, Pit 2 (Pit 4/2). 7: Fragment of a very carinated bowl from Pit 1 in Trench VIII/1979 (drawings by E. Starnini).


Fig. 25 - Szarvas, site 8/23. 1-3: Reconstructed deep bowls and pedestalled bowl of the Protovina phase from silo-Trench 4, Pit 2 (Pit 4/2) (P145.045, 145.018, 144.970).


Fig. 26 - Szarvas, site 8/23. Reconstructed coarse ware bowls of Szatmr type from the Protovina phase with incised decoration. 1, 6: from silo-Trench 4, Pit 2 (Pit 4/2). 2: from silo-Trench 5, at 50 m in the northeastern edge of Trench. 4. 3: from Trench IX/Pit 1, 75-180 cm. 4: from silo-Trench 5, Pit 3 (Pit 5/3). 5: from silo-Trench 5, Pit 2 (Pit 5/2) (drawings by E. Starnini).


Fig. 27 - Szarvas, site 8/23. Reconstructed carinated and pedestalled bowls of the Protovina phase. 1: Pit 1 in Trench I/1974, 50-110 cm. 2, 6 and 8: Pit 4/2 in silo-Trench 4/1988. 3: Pit 1 in Trench VIII/1979. 5: Pit 1 in Trench I/1974, 110-220 cm (Inv. no. 78.1.19). 7: Pit 2/1 in silo-Trench 2/1988. 9: Pit 1 in Trench I/1974, 130-150 cm (Inv. no. 78.1.20; P.84.957 (drawings by E. Starnini).


Fig. 28 - Szarvas, site 8/23. Reconstructed vessels and carinated bowls from silo-trenches of 1988. 1: Pit 2/1 (P.148.502). 2 and 5: Pit 3/3 (P.148.408, 145.027). 3: (P.148.522). 4: Pit 4/3 (P.148.534). 6: Pit 3/8 (P.148.539). 7: Pit 3/2 (P.148.523).


Fig. 29 - Szarvas, site 8/23. Reconstructed carinated and rounded bowls partly of the Protovina phase (1, 3 and 5) from silo-trenches of 1988. 1, 3-7: Pit 3/3. 2: Pit 2/2 (drawings by E. Starnini).


Fig. 30 - Szarvas, site 8/23. Reconstructed rounded bowl (1) and broken pedestals of the Protovina phase, partly with linear incised decoration (2-3 and 6) from silo-trenches of 1988. 1: Pit 3/2. 2: Pit 5/4. 3: Pit 5/6. 4-5: Pit 5/3. 6: Pit 4/2 (drawings by E. Starnini).


Fig. 31 - Szarvas, site 8/23. 1-11: Chipped stone artefacts from Pit 3/3 (see Appendix I).


Fig. 32 - Szarvas, site 8/23. 1-9: Chipped stone artefacts from Pit 3/3 (see Appendix I).


Fig. 33 - Szarvas, site 8/23. 1-8: Chipped stone artefacts from Pit 4/2 (see Appendix I).

Szaklht ALP Early ALP Krs V Krs IV Krs III Krs II Krs I83

Stray finds (fig. 143, 9 and 10) Stray finds Pit 4/2, 1988 Pit 1 in Trench VIII/1979 Sacrificial Pit 3/3, 1988 Other features Pits 1/1974 and VI/1975 Lower part of Pit 1/1974

Characteristic pottery finds

Krs VI

Krs, Protovina and Early ALP types Krs and Protovina types with few Early ALP Krs and Protovina types without Early ALP Classic Krs without white paint Classic Krs with white and black paint Early Krs with white and black paint

Table 7 - Relative chronology of the occupation phases at Szarvas 8/23.


The earliest phase of the ALP is contemporaneous with the fifth settlement phase (typical pedestalled bowl fragments are represented in the assemblage) although the settlement features (i.e. the Szatmr and Gyoma 4/107 variants) are so far totally absent. 83. These phases refer to some Krs occupation periods and not to the entire Krs sequence.


Fig. 34 - Szarvas, site 8/23. 1-13: Chipped stone artefacts from Pit 4/2 (see Appendix I).


During the period of the early discoveries, in the first third of the XX century, it was E. Krecsmarik who busied himself with collecting antiquities and conducting small excavations at Szarvas and its surroundings. He devoted most of his work to the collection and excavation of graves and cemeteries of the Early rpdian period. Nevertheless he also uncovered much Krs pottery and graves from the famous site of Szarvas-Szappanos i.e. Szarvas 8/8 (KUTZIN, 1944: 28-30; MRT8, 1989: 380-383). The place of Szappanos halom (Szappanos mound or kurgan) lies on the left bank of the N-S Holocene bed of the River Krs (fig. 1, 2), which became a dead arm only after the canalisation of the meandering watercourse of the Krs in the late XIX century84. A 2 m high elevation, perhaps a low kurgan85, once stood in the central part of the site, although the evidence and interpretation of Krecsmariks excavations would contradict this suggestion. This elevation has been almost completely obliterated by different works up-to-now86, ploughing, and Krecsmariks excavations. Another low elevation lies in the northern part of the ca 200 m long Krs settlement, at a distance of 100-120 m from the former. This is the location of an ALP site. The discovery of the site took place in 1911, when the owner of the land parcel opened an irregular trench, some 2 m wide, searching for river sand and black earth. He came upon an enormous ceramic vessel (of about 30-40 gallons), together with large clay net-weights lying at a depth of some 1 m. He crashed the huge jar in many pieces and gave the net-weights, decorated characteristic with finger pinching, to Krecsmarik. At the same time, the owner found two skeletons: one of an adult and the other of a child (Graves A and B). Krecsmarik carried out his first, one-day, excavation (June 29th, 1911) in the same place and contradictorily concluded that prehistoric finds could also be found in the basal core of, or below, the low hill. Nevertheless the remains of a true prehistoric settlement were to be excavated in the body of the low mound itself, with crouched skeletons. He wrote that according to the burnt wattle-and-daub fragments, a prehistoric habitation structure once stood on the top of the mound (MRT8, 1989: 380). After its destruction, around the middle of the XX century, it would be a speculation to suggest that the elevation had been that of a low Krs Culture tell-like settlement87. Krecsmarik also noticed that the planting of fruit trees heavily disturbed the uppermost layer(s). His second excavation was carried out on July 8th-19th, 1912. During the first week, potsherds, fragments of stone tools and net-weights were found, and also the mandible of a prehistoric human skeleton (Grave C). The works were continued in the next parcel, to the north. A trial trench was opened along the northern slope of the mound. The grave of a tall, adult woman was discovered at a depth of 80 cm (Grave D), in a crouched position, lying on its left side, oriented towards E-W. It was found in a black soil layer mixed with loam, a characteristic fill of the Pit Grave kurgans, between a great number of potsherds and net-weights. The state of preservation of the bones also suggested a similar chronology: they were crumbling like so many Pit Grave skeletons. Moreover the skeleton was found in a frog-like position, with its knees and elbows more distant from each other than hands, legs or other parts. Such bodies were originally laid on their backs with their knees raised (i.e. in a vertical, crouched position). The legs probably fell sideward later or collapsed sideways outwards, giving shape to the unique frog-like position in which the bodies were found (MAKKAY, 2000d: 18 and 19 and figs. 1-3). There were small pieces of red ochre around skull D, also indicating a Pit Grave burial88. The chronology of Graves E and F, both containing crouched skeletons, is uncertain. Further discoveries are represented by a group of some 30 net-weights and a huge storage jar with an applied barbotine decoration. Krecsmarik summarised the results of his two weeks excavation, writing that the prehistoric site in the Szappanos orchards demonstrated the existence of a pure Neolithic culture and, according to the ceramic assemblage and the crouched burials, it resembled the famous Neolithic sites of besseny and Bukovapuszta (MRT8, 1989: 382, note 34)89.
84. 85.

The Szappanos meander was once the longest open meander of the Triple Krs, some 38 km long. The description given by E. Krecsmarik of the characteristics of the soil found in the body of the low elevation, suggests that it was a typical kurgan fill: black soil and clay with white traces of silt. Moreover, the mound profile, from its top down to the virgin soil, showed a continuous, homogeneous structure without any stratification. See MRT8 (1989: 381). 86. According to the information provided by the late Dr. J. Palov, once Director of the Szarvas Museum, the soil of the low hill was carried away before1984. On one occasion, black earth was borrowed from the northern slope of the hill to reinforce the neighbouring Krs enbankment and also to build a house with sun dried mudbricks (MRT8, 1989: 380). 87. As it is well known, true tells were not present in the whole territory of the Carpathian Basin during the Early Neolithic and this site would be the only exception. See MAKKAY (1982b: 108-110 and also 1982a: 159). 88. The occurrence of red ochre, however, is also a characteristic of the Krs burials. See table in Appendix III. 89. For the two sites, now in the Rumanian Banat, see KUTZIN (1944: 29 and 25). In effect, the two mentioned sites of besseny and Bukovapuszta are the same. It is located close to the spot where the world famous Early Medieval (Avar) gold treasure of Nagyszentmikls was found in 1799 (BLINT, 2004).


Early rpdian burials, and a great number of potsherds with incised geometric motifs were found during the third, 1913 campaign. The finds included sherds with plastic patterns, among which is the representation of a goat head, and broken figurines. There are no detailed descriptions of the fourth and fifth seasons, carried out in 1914 and 1915. After the First World War, the sixth and seventh seasons were carried out in 1926 and 1930, both in the area of the land parcels north of the low mound, where the rpdian Graves I, J and K were discovered90. Unfortunately, most of the excavated and other finds collected by Krecsmarik (thousands of sherds and other material) did not survive the vicissitudes of the Second World War, and the depredations of the Soviet Red Army and its Hungarian allies. Nevertheless twenty-one pieces are stored in the collections of the Hungarian National Museum, plus a few finds in the Szarvas Museum and also in the study collection of Szeged University. His selective publications report a few important discoveries, as for instance the fragment of a small ring (arming or fingering?) made from a mammoth tusk (a unique piece, if it really was made of a mammoth tusk, for any Krs assemblage) and fragmented stone bracelets (MRT8, 1989: 382). The scientific, and quasi-scientific, studies of E. Krecsmarik on the chronology and other Krs Culture problems represent a unique chapter of the history of the Hungarian archaeological scholarship91. To sum up, during his excavations, Krecsmarik recovered a few Krs Culture crouched skeletons, i.e. part of graves A-F, J, K, and some sporadic human bones that indicate the presence of (disturbed) graves of the same period. Most probably, Graves 1 and 2 of my excavations were recovered just to the north of the burials of Krecsmarik. As it is well known, land snail and freshwater molluscs are common to the Krs pits (KOSSE, 1979), where sometimes they occur en masse in well-defined layers, in several features, especially refuse pits92. E. Krecsmarik was a pioneer investigator of such finds and his discoveries turned out to be remains of Unio pictorum, Anodonta Cygnea, Helix pomatia L., Paludina vivipara L. and Planorbis corneus L.93. The last pre-Topography, small-scale excavation was carried out by Gy. Gazdapusztai between October 28th and November 10th, 1957. Its scope was to achieve a clear understanding of this long known site, with meagre success. His 7x5.5 m trial trench was opened 50 m north of the low mound. Most of it lay in the area of one of Krecsmariks former trenches: therefore Gazdapusztai came upon disturbed Krs remains. A small part of the excavated or collected finds of the Krs Culture went to the collections of the Szarvas Museum. The field notes of the excavator mention the recovery of two clay stamps, which, however, are not in the inventory and have been lost since then (MAKKAY, 1984: 56)94. According to the results of the Topography fieldwalking, the Krs Culture surface finds were first collected in the southern part of the site, i.e. around the low mound, while sherds of the Szaklht group and ALP were mainly collected in the northern one, in the case of the ALP, and on the surface of the northern elevation, in the northernmost edge of the site.

3.1.1. The first season: November 1st-13th, 1974

Following the information provided by the owner (who was born in 1902 in the same house where he lives now, i.e. in 1974, east of the low mound, and, as a child, was a witness of Krecsmariks excavations), the Krecsmarik squares or trial trenches did not extend to one of his narrow W-E land parcels. Trench I/1974 (9x3 m) was opened in this parcel in a N-S direction, along the northern slope of the low mound (fig. 35). After removing the uppermost, ploughed soil down to a depth of ca 30 cm, the first arbitrary layer was made between 30 and 50 cm. The compact black soil contained many potsherds and net-weights, especially in its southern edge, while animal bones were extremely rare over the whole area. The shape of the net-weights is commonly cylindrical, which contrasts with those of Szarvas 8/23, where tomato-shaped weights were found in a great quantity. Another difference is that the fabric of the weights from Szarvas 23 is richer in organic (chaff) temper and highly fired.

90. 91.

MRT8 (1989: 382 reports them and the seventh and eighth seasons incorrectly). For some details see MAKKAY in MRT8 (1989: 383 and 384). For his suggestions concerning the typological and chronological relationships between the Krs and Linear Pottery Cultures see volume 2 and below: AVK imports and imitations in the Krs assemblages (figs. 141 and 142). 92. The major concentration of snails was found in one of the refuse pits of the site Deszk-Olajkt, excavated by O. Trogmayer and the author in 1965. 93. For comparable data, see the reports on the Endrd 3/119 excavations below, sacrificial pit A1 in trench 7. See MAKKAY (1989a: fig. 5, with a minor mistake at p. 244, mentioning Trench 6: the occurrence of Lymnea stagnalis, Planorbarius corneus and Discus ruderatus). 94. One of the two pieces might be identical to no. 304, at present in the collections of the Szentes Museum. After the death of Gy. Gazdapusztai, the then director of the Szentes Museum, J. Csalog began studying his (i.e. Gazdapusztais) excavated material, and supposedly he took the piece with him to Szentes. Another Krs stamp, most probably found at the site by Krecsmarik, was mentioned when the inventory of the archaeological collection of the Szarvas Secondary School was compiled by E. Mrey-Kdr before 1956: a pintadera carved from sandstone, with long conical body and a slightly concave face. face bears serrated edges like a crest. Height 2.6 cms, width 2 cms. This would be the only stamp made of stone of the whole assemblage of the Krs and Starevo Cultures (MAKKAY, 1984: 56).


Fig. 35 - Szarvas, site 8/8. Location of Trenches I-V/1974-1975.

The arbitrary layer between 60 and 90 cm was very poor. It yielded a few potsherds and animal bones, grouped together at the southern edge of the trench. The outlines of two narrow, slightly curved trenches were observed in this part: they both contained abundant Krs pottery, down to a depth of some 90 cm. Their detailed chronology and nature has remained unknown since then, although the undisturbed character of this part of the trench, together with the fact that the first spit between 30 and 60 cm, contained undisturbed Krs deposits, suggest that they belonged to an undefined, circular Krs construction. The traces of similar black channels were found, during the following November 1975 fieldwork season (fig. 36, 3) also in the southern part of Trench III, cutting or bordering wattle-and-daub house remains. The lowest, sterile, arbitrary layer lay at the top of the virgin soil, disturbed by many animal burrows. Its cleaning showed the outlines of four postholes (ns. 1-4) excavated into the virgin soil, to the depth of 165, 145, 138 and 115 cm respectively, from the surface. They date to the Krs period, although their function cannot be ascertained. There is only a slim chance that they belonged to a building represented by the four postholes. Trench II (12x2 m) was opened in N-S direction, north of Trench I, at a distance of 7 m. The Krs finds were very abundant in the first arbitrary layer, between 30-60 cm of the northern third of the trench, associated with many net-weights and animal bones. Traces of one of Krecsmariks trial trenches were observed at the southern end of Trench II. The cleaning, at a depth of 60 cm, showed that the buried soil lay at a depth of 60-70 cm in most of the trench, just above the virgin clay. The only exception was its northeastern corner, which yielded a rich assemblage of pottery, net-weights, stone and bone implements, broken figurines, etc. This was considered to be the southwestern edge of a refuse pit or layer, extending towards the northeast (fig. 37, 1 left). Later this pit revealed to be a characteristic refuse pit of the Sarmatian Migration period, penetrating into the grey Krs layer, which contained many Krs Culture potsherds in a secondary position. The leg bones of a crouched skeleton, embedded into the grey Krs layer, were found during the cleaning of the NE corner, at a depth of 50-60 cm. An exquisite find of this layer were a few surprisingly thin, very well fired, body fragments of a large Krs storage jar with the plastic representation of a goat, roe or red deer (?) (fig. 38). The complete excavation of the pit and Grave 1 (fig. 37, 3) was delayed to the following second season.


Fig. 36 - Szarvas, site 8/8. 1: Plan of Trenchs III-V with house rubble of fired clay, and the position of mass Grave 2. 2: Mass Grave 2. 3: Section A-B from the north. 4: Mass Grave 2 from the NW from a distance of 3.5 m (P.84.820). Detail of mass Grave 2 (P.84.823).


Fig. 37 - Szarvas, site 8/8. 1: Plan of Trenchs II-V. with Grave 1 (D. 29.591). 2: The position of Grave 1 above the Sarmatian Pit 3 (D.29.590). 3: Grave 1, photograph taken from NNW (P.84.838 and D.29.592).

3.1.2. The second season: November 2nd-12th, 1975

Trench III (5x5 m) joined Trench II at its northeastern corner (fig. 37, 1). The uppermost ploughed soil was surprisingly thin, only 15-20 cm, and the first arbitrary layer was excavated between 15 and 43 cm. Finds of the Krs Culture were concentrated in the southwestern area of the trench, while sherds of the Szaklht group were discovered in the opposite NE corner, in a layer above a Krs refuse pit (fig. 37, 1) belonging to a Szaklht pit (Pit 2 in Trench III). The cleaning, at a depth of 43 cm, yielded a scatter of wattle-and-daub fragments in the western half of the trench (fig. 36, 6), probably the disturbed remains of a surface house.


Fig. 38 - Szarvas, site 8/8. Plastic decorated vessel fragment with an animal representation (goat, red deer or roe deer?) from Trench III/Southwest. Inv. no. 78.32.5.

The arbitrary layer 2 was excavated between 43 and 68 cm, and the finds of two pottery concentrations with Szaklht and Krs material were collected separately (the Szaklht finds were labelled A, while the Krs ones were not labelled). The burnt wattle-and-daub fragments turned out to be unstratified rubble, which could not be attributed to any well-defined construction. Only a few Krs finds were discovered amongst the burnt fragments. The cleaning, at a depth of 70 cm, showed three different discolourations, i.e. pit outlines, in the NE corner, by the western trench wall (near the area of grave 1 i.e. the Sarmatian pit), and also near the northern wall, this latter containing many Szaklht net-weights (Pit 2 in Trench III). Later, after cleaning at a depth of 100 cm, Pits 1 and 2 turned out to be parts of the same refuse pit. The Szaklht deposits were responsible for the considerable disturbance of the earlier Krs remains. The third arbitrary layer was made between 68-100 cm, and the outline of Trench III/Pit 1 (fig. 37, 1: the northeastern corner) was clearly visible after cleaning. In the southernmost parts of the trench, the virgin layer was discovered at a depth of some 100-105 cm. It yielded a few Krs Culture bone tools. Grave 1: was discovered, in a Krs Culture layer, between Trenches II and III, in a very crouched position, lying on its left side (fig. 37, 1-3)95. The upper part of the skeleton (i.e. the skull and the humeri) was at a depth of some 90 cm, while the lower bones were found 40 cm above it. The upper part of the skeleton was sunk in the filling of the Sarmatian Pit 3 (fig. 37, 2). The skull and the left humerus were disturbed by the same refuse pit. The orientation was east-west. No grave goods were found, although red ochre paint was visible on the left temple. According to the anthropological study, the skull is of a 53-59 years very robust old female, with archaic facial features (ultrahyperdolichocephalus and taxonomically leptomorphic). The outlines of a discolouration containing the broken bones of a child were found in the SW corner of Trench III and an extension called Trench IV (3x2 m) was opened to uncover it (fig. 36, 1). Burnt wattle-and-daub fragments were also found here, in a position similar to those of Trench III. The discolouration traces, indicating Grave 2, were visible at a depth of some 100 cm. The arbitrary layers below 80 cm did not yield any cultural remains. Grave 2 was a multiple burial, with the bones of at least 7 individuals (fig. 36, 1, 2, 4 and 5). Most of them were found in a disturbed, disarticulated position, as if the dead had been buried in two or three different occasions. The size of the large, squared, grave pit with rounded corners (1.5x1.2 m), however, suggests that it had been first

Fragments of a large Krs storage jar were found here, among which is a wall fragment decorated with finger pinching and the relief representation of a goat, roe deer or red deer (fig. 38).


excavated for the burial of 2-3 individuals, most probably for the bones (including the skulls) of skeletons 3 (a child), 5 (another child) and 6 (with post cranial bones lying near to the west wall of the burial pit, partly in their original position). Their bones were mainly found in the lower layer of the burial pit, while the bones of the other three skeletons lay in the upper layer, also in a disturbed context. It can be assumed that the lower burials had been disturbed during the deposition of the other individuals, although there are no reasons to explain why the overlying bodies were also disturbed. A piece of red ochre, found between skulls 1 and 2, represents the only grave good. The attribution of Grave 2 to the Krs Culture is supported by the detailed field notes, especially because an undisturbed layer of burnt wattle-and-daub was excavated 20-45 cm above the grave, both in Trench IV and also in the baulk between Trenches II and IV. It is worth noting that both the field notes and the anthropological analyses mention six skulls. The results of the anthropological study of the skeletons (primarily the skulls) can be summarised as follows96: most of the post-cranial bones were broken and this circumstance made their anthropological analysis difficult. They might belong to more than six individuals (ZOFFMANN, 1986: 44-47). Grave 2, skull 1: a 10-12 years old child. Skull 2: it belongs to a gracile, juvenile female of leptomorphic group, Skull 3: a 8-9 years old child. Skull 4: it belongs to a juvenile-adult male, represented by a robust mandible. Skull 5: the gracile braincase of a female 23-40 years old, belonging to a leptomorphic group. Skull 6: a 6-8 years old child. The bones of an adult male, two females (23-40 years old and a juvenile) and 3 children 6-12 years old, might well represent a nuclear family in which an adult male was polyandrous. Another possibility is that this nuclear family consisted of the parents and four children (i.e. the three younger children plus the juvenile daughter). In such a case the whole family might be the victims of an epidemic. This is, of course, only a hypothesis that cannot be verified. The black fill of one of Krecsmarik trenches was found in the SW corner of Trench IV (not marked in the map of fig. 36, 2). This identification was possible thanks to unique favourable circumstances. In fact, one of his trenches was excavated in 1930, in the land parcel of the owner J. Sovny97, the father of the present owner of the same parcel, Mihly Sovny. Our Trench IV was opened in this area. Trench V was a double extension, along both the eastern and northern sides of the northeastern corner of Trench III, in order to reveal as much as possible of Pit 1, in Trench III. The southern part of this extension was excavated to a depth of only 60 cm, while its adjacent part, in the northern extension (labelled Pit 4, in the central of the eastern parts of the trench) was opened to a depth of 167 cm, i.e. to the virgin soil. It contained characteristic Krs refuse and was very rich in artefacts. Unfortunately, the scarcity of time prevented us from completing the excavation of this large and rich rubbish pit. The probably undisturbed pit is very promising for further research at the site, since it contained, for instance, white-on-red painted potsherds (MAKKAY, 1996: Pl. 9, 14). The typological characteristics and general chronology of the excavated parts of the site will be discussed in the next volume together with the description of its pottery assemblage. My preliminary impression is that it did not contain pottery shapes characteristic of the Late Krs i.e. Protovina and Szatmr phases. Therefore the internal chronology of the site can be reconstructed as follows (table 8):

Szaklht Culture, Classic Phase: excavated finds No deposits of the Late ALP-Early Szaklht phases and transitional Furugy types Presence of the ALP Classic Phase: surface finds Gap between the Classic Krs Culture Phase and the Classic ALP (i.e. during the Protovina, Szatmr and Early ALP [Gyoma 107] phases) Classic phase of the Krs Culture: main occupation phase Presence of Early Krs Culture deposits (white-on-red paint): Pit 1 in Trenches III-V
Table 8 - Internal chronology of Szarvas 8/8.


Contrary to the skeletons excavated at Endrd 3/119, Endrd 3/6 and Szarvas 8/23, those discovered during the 1988 rescue operations at Szarvas 8/23, Trench I-II (i.e. Grave 1), Endrd 3/35, and also Szarvas 8/8, were deposited in the collections of the Hungarian National Museums and were studied by Zs. ZOFFMANN (1986). 97. See the short article by E. Krecsmarik in the local journal Bks Megyei Kzlny, 57: 59, July 23, 1930: 5.


According to the Archaeological Topography (MRT8, 1989: 126-129), Endrd 3/6 is called Kpolna halom (i.e. Chapel Hill) because a rpdian, very small church (4.5 m long and wide) was built on its top in the XI century AD (fig. 1, 4). At present it is totally destroyed after the 1975 rescue operations, together with the kurgan that lay below it (fig. 39, 1; MRT8, 1989: 126 and 127, figs. 6 and 7). Its first destruction was made in 1241 when barbaric, Mongolian invaders emptied much of the Hungarian Plain, Transylvania and Pannonia and most of their Hungarian villages and townships. The surface finds collected between 1974 and 1978, have shown evidence of the following periods: Early (Krs) and Middle (ALP and Szaklht) Neolithic refuse pits, sporadic Early and Middle Copper Age pottery (belonging to the period of a large subterranean house of the Early-Middle Copper Age with a few decorated Corded Ware pottery of eastern type), a Late Copper Age burial mound or kurgan (the Early rpdian Age church was built on its top), Late Bronze Age ceramic finds, Sarmatian and Late Avar Migration period as well as the church and the graves of the Arpadian age (both graves of a row-cemetery and ad sanctos burials). Originally, according to the surface finds, the Krs site occupied an area of some 200x200 m, on a low hill at the head of an old meander of the Krs River. The modern Krs River bed lies 3 km north of the site. The present surface soil is brown loess. The southern part of the site was destroyed by a large, sand quarry pit (fig. 39, 1) and its Neolithic features were decimated by structures and graves of the above-mentioned later periods (MRT8 (1989: 126, map in fig. 6)98. As a result, the Krs period settlement structure will remain unknown, except for 10 or more refuse pits. The first excavation was carried out by D. Jankovich in 1975. They revealed rpdian graves and features, and also some finds of the late phase of the ALP Culture (MRT8, 1989: 126 and 127).

4.1.1. The short rescue operations of 1982, 1985 and 1986

The author carried a two days rescue excavation on February 22nd-24th, 1982, under adverse weather conditions. Krs finds were discovered in the profile of a large sand quarry-pit excavated in 1978-1981 and destroyed the central part of site Endrd 6 (figs. 39, 1 and 40, 2, 3 and 5). The Krs finds were found in a large refuse pit or thick layer, some 6 m long, as visible from its profile (Endrd 6, Pit 1/1982, fig. 41, 4, the hard grey layer to the left of the black pit99). An unidentifiable part of the pit or layer had already been destroyed, and its northern part was later excavated by the Bkscsaba Museum (fig. 40, 3). Due to these circumstances, the interpretation of this feature (whether a pit or a layer) is uncertain. During our work, the profile wall was cleaned and cut to a length of 3 m, and the archaeological deposit was investigated by a 1 m cut (fig. 41, 1 and 2). The lowest, grey layer contained a rich Krs Culture pottery assemblage. It seemed to be the earliest Neolithic deposit of the site (fig. 42, 1-8). However, some of the potsherds resemble late Krs (Protovina) types (fig. 42, 2), while others are characteristic of the classic Krs (fig. 42, 1, 5, 7 and 8) and the earliest ALP (Szatmr) phase (figs. 42, 3, 4 and 6 and 46, 6). This assemblage seems to be contemporaneous with the Western pit in Trench XVIII (see below). It is possible that both features were parts of the same large Late Krs pit, while the Eastern pit between them was intrusive with finds of slightly later characteristics (i.e. Latest Krs and Szatmr types without the presence of Protovina carinated shapes: fig. 46, 1, 4 and 5). This stratigraphic sequence is reinforced by the fact that the leg bones of Grave A, belonging to the Western pit, were cut by the digging of the Eastern pit (fig. 40, 3 and 4). There were signs of intrusion in the eastern part of the grey layer or feature. The opening of a black pit was observed, at the bottom of the unploughed black soil, at a depth of some 73 cm from the surface. It contained an undisturbed ALP deposit (figs. 43 and 44) with Krs types found with ALP material because of a secondary mixing. Typologically, it is easy to separate these two assemblages. The fill of the greyish Krs pit, or layer, was very hard, while the filling of the black pit was similar to that of the ALP pits.100 The finds of the black pit, together with the pottery of an ALP refuse pit excavated by the author in 1986-1987 in Trench XXVIII (fig. 39,
98. 99.

The position of the sand pit in the map is wrong. A part of the modern sand pit lies south of the kurgan with the church on its top. The box reference numbers are: C6a+b = at the foot of the skeletons of Grave 1, 40-100 cm + the West corner of the pit = Trench I/1982, western end of the Krs pit. C7a+b = Trench I/1982. C8 = Trench I/1982. C9 = Trench I/70-100 cm. C10a+b+c+d+e = Trench I/1982, 100-120 cm. 100. Box reference number: C5a+b = Trench I/1982, black pit. For the characteristics of the AVK/ALP pits see my paper (MAKKAY, 1982a: 160 and 161). The main fill of the Krs pits is always loose, of greyish colour, with a considerable amount of ash and organic material. The ALP refuse and house pits usually yield the same amount of pottery (as for instance the very rich pits from Szarvas 8/102 and Gyoma 4/107) although the fill itself is hard, almost tar-like and of black colour. This would imply that the climate was drier during the ALP period, a possibility supported by the fact that some sites also occur in lowerlying areas i.e. as low as 82.5 m a.s.l. in the Szarvas district.


Fig. 39 - Endrd, site 3/6. 1: General map of the excavations. 2-3: Plan and photograph of the ALP pit in Trench XXVIII (P.135.220).


Fig. 40 - Endrd, site 3/6. 1: Mass Grave 1/1982. 2: Place of the 1982 excavations with the mass Grave 2 (D.23.456). 3: Trench XVIII with the contours of the Western (w = Nyugati) and Eastern (e = Keleti) pits (D.23.456), with Grave A, and the place of section A-A of the Western Pit on the northern wall of the Trench (see fig. 41, 1). 4: Grave A. 5: Section A-B across the Western and Eastern Pits with the location of Grave A.


Fig. 41 - Endrd, site 3/6. 1: A-A section of the Western pit in Trench XVIII (D.24.827). 2: Plan of the 1982 excavations with the Black Pit and the mass grave. 3: A-B section of the 1982 February excavations. 4: The Western pit in the western part of Trench XVIII from the north (P.135.224).


Fig. 42 - Endrd, site 3/6. Pottery of the late Krs Culture from 1982. 1: Near the foot bones of skeleton 1 of the mass grave, from a depth of 70-100 cm (P.119.483). 2: From a depth of 40-100 cm, near to the western edge of the Black pit (P.119.473). 3-4: From a depth of 70-100 cm, the grey layer (P.119.481). 5: Near to the foot bones of skeleton 1, from a depth of 40-100 cm. 6: At the western edge of the Black Pit (P.119.473). 7-8: Around the foot bones of skeletons 1-2 of the mass grave from a depth of 70-100 cm in the grey layer (P.119.483). 9: profile of piece n. 7.


Fig. 43 - Endrd, site 3/6. Characteristic vessel fragments of the Classical ALP from 1982, from a depth of 40-100 cm, the westernmost of the Black Pit, near to the foot bones of skeleton 1 of the mass grave (P.119.480).


Fig. 44 - Endrd, site 3/6. Finds of the ALP from the 1982 excavations. 1, 4 and 8: The lowermost layer of the Black Pit (P.119.472 and 119.482). 2: The western end of the Black Pit at the foot bones of skeleton 1 of the mass grave (P.119.479). 3, 5-7 and 10: From the Black Pit (P.119.482, 133.482). 9: Trench I/1982, 100-120 cm (133.482).


Fig. 45 - Endrd, site 3/6. Late Krs pottery fragments with Szatmr-like elements from Pit 4c in Trench VIII (drawings by E. Starnini).


Fig. 46 - Szarvas, site 8/23 and Endrd, site 3/6. Pottery of Late Krs-Protovina and Szatmr character. 1, 4-5: Endrd, site 3/6, the Eastern Pit in Trench XVIII/70-90 cm. 2: Szarvas, site 8/23, Trench VI/1975, 30-60 cm (P.86.747). 3: Szarvas, site 8/23, Pit 2 in silo-Trench 4 (Pit 4/2; P.145.019). 6: Endrd, site 3/6, Trench I/1982, from the deepest part of the grey layer, near to the bones of the mass grave. 7: Endrd, site 3/6, Trench VII/100-120 cm (drawings by E. Starnini).


Fig. 47 - Endrd, site 3/6. Characteristic vessel shapes, mostly carinated bowls of Protovina type from the Western Pit in Trench XVIII/100-130 cm (1-2, 4-11) and 90-130 cm (3) (drawings by E. Starnini).


Fig. 48 - Endrd, site 3/6. Finds of Late Krs-Szatmr character from the Western Pit in Trench XVIII/130-200 cm (1, 5-7), 85-110 cm (2), 100-130 cm (3-4, 8) (drawings by E. Starnini).


2 and 3, unpublished), can be attributed to the Classic phase of the ALP, which represents an independent settlement phase (table 9). Four human skeletons were recorded in the bottom layer of the light greyish, very hard fill, west of the black ALP pit, in a crouched position and partly excavated, or better hurriedly removed, in the freezing February weather. The bodies were found in this level before the filling of the grey layer (or before the end of the deposition of the grey fill into a pit) and therefore they belong to the Krs Culture. There were no contours of any grave pit visible from above in the sand pit profile. We were able to excavate skeleton 1 completely, although the legs of the other three skeletons were below the unexcavated part of the pit. The photographs show them (especially skeleton 2) without leg bones (fig. 40, 1). The grave was excavated on September 14th-15th, 1982. Grave 1, skeleton 1: crouched skeleton of an adult, oriented towards the south, lying on its left side at a depth of 142 cm. The left arm is bent in front of the face, while the right one is unnaturally strongly bent back, very probably tied up. The skull was broken. The leg bones were probably cut by the black pit. Grave 1, skeleton 2: adult, prone burial, lying on its face, with a N-S orientation. The leg bones in a very good state of preservation. The arms were bent in front of the face. Grave 1, skeleton 3: disturbed or disarticulated (?) skeleton of an adult, originally, probably E-W oriented, lying on the left (?) side, above skeleton 4. Its cranial and postcranial bones were very strong; the braincase bones being more than 1 cm thick101. Grave 1, skeleton 4: an adolescent or child in a contracted position, lying on its left side, N-S oriented. It seems that the skeletons 1-4 were deposited simultaneously as a multiple burial, without any grave goods. Their contemporaneousness is further supported by the fact that all lay at, or around, a depth of 142 cm in the same light grey fill of the Krs occupation debris, without traces of later disturbance. Three adults and an adolescent were interred in Grave 1. Age and sex are provided in the report on the human bones (Appendix III). The bodies were thrown into this mass grave impiously, which means that the dead were subject to an epidemic or plague. Another possibility is that they were killed during a conflict or an enemy attack. Particularly interesting are the parallels that can be extended to other Starevo graveyards. At Mala Vrbica, 17 skeletons were found in a mass grave (a group of people presumably died of an epidemic), while at Velesnica, one pit contained 1 male, 4 adult male skeletons and the bones of 2 children (MINICHREITER, 1999: 20)102. After my short, 1982 excavation report, S. Bknyi, the then director of the AI, told the staff of the Bkscsaba Museum the recent discoveries made at the Endrd sand pit. They carried out a rescue excavation in 1982, after the works of February and September. A small area was opened adjoint to that investigated by the author. Here, two Krs and one ALP refuse pits were brought to light103, most probably parts of the 1982 grey and black pits. According to the oral information from the then director of the Bkscsaba Museum, also a few skeletons were uncovered, most probably belonging to the mass grave. The relative field notes and documentation, if any, concerning these discoveries and the material from the pits were not available for study to the present author. The excavations at Endrd 3/6 continued, on a large scale, in 1985, when my colleague D. Jankovich started his research programme at the rpdian village and graves of the churchyard and ad sanctos cemetery of the same period (JANKOVICH and KVASSAY, 1986). The circumference of the sand pit was investigated in a ca. 5 m wide strip, except for the area close to the 1982 excavation, where only the uppermost, ploughed surface layer was removed and its investigation was postponed to the next 1986 campaign. However, the sand quarrying continued between 1982 and 1985, and there was no possibility to ascertain how wide was the sand pit area destroyed during these three years (fig. 39, 1). In 1985 the author began the excavation of a huge semi-subterranean house attributable to the transition phase between the Middle and Late Copper Age Bodrogkeresztr and Cernavoda III-Bolerz Cultures. The excavation of this 56 sq m feature was completed in 1986 (MAKKAY, 1986a).

101. 102.

The average parietal thickness of the human skulls is 6.5-7 mm. See also MAKKAY (2000b: 22, note 14) for the Krs Culture mass graves, with further literature, and PETER-RCHER (2002), with further literature on the Neolithic mass graves. See also BANNER (1935: 102 and Abb. 1). Three crouched male skeletons were found in the deepest layer of the refuse pit G.11 at a depth of 3 m, lying with their face down. 103. See the brief excavation report in Rgszeti Fzetek, 1983, I (1): 36, Archaeological excavations in 1982, Budapest, 14, No. 20, with the misleading caption Gyomaendrd-Olh tanya, without referring to the correct site numbering of the Topography volume. Further details of this rescue operation have remained unknown to me. The report is misleading because later we were able to record the approximate measures of the Bkscsaba trial trench and there was not enough place there for two Krs refuse pits and a few graves.


4.1.2. September 16th-25th, 1985 and 1986 campaigns. The Middle/Late Copper Age house
The large-scale excavation carried out by D. Jankovich revealed also some prehistoric features part of which belonged to the Krs Culture. The 1985 season was mainly devoted to the exposure of the semi-subterranean house in Trenches VI, VII, VIII and XIX with their Krs fill along the edges of the Copper Age house and outside it to the west, in the western part of Trench VIII, and also east of the house in the unnumbered trench between Trenches VI and XVIII (fig. 39, 1). The pottery from the house consisted of mixed Bodrogkeresztr-Cernavoda III/Bolerz material with sporadic Tiszapolgr Culture types (fig. 50). These latter were (together with Krs and some ALP-fragments) in a secondary position. The house was excavated into the deposits of these three earlier cultures and its deepest part lay below 250 cm. Its inner canals, large inner pits (made for refuse or for inner posts?) and other structures, contained an enormous quantity of large mammal bones, mainly cattle (fig. 53, 4). An unknown part of these bones at present is missing from the AI and Bks County Museums collections, although a preliminary rough estimate, made by S. Bknyi on the site, showed that horse bones were not represented. The surviving part of these bones was identified by I. Vrs (Appendix IV). According to my interpretation, this semi-subterranean house can be attributed to the initial infiltration phase of the eastern steppe Pit Grave or Yamna Culture groups. The (almost) complete absence of horse bones is a very important argument against the hypothesis according to which steppe horse breeding, nomadic groups occupied the central regions of the Carpathian Basin around the end of the Bodrogkeresztr Culture104. The feature (figs. 39, 1 and 49) was discovered and excavated in Trenches VI-VII-VIII (numbered from east to west, VI being to the east, VII in the centre and Trench VIII covering the western part) and XIX (north of Trenches VI-VII i.e. the area of the northernmost pit-house) during the 1985 (July and September) and 1986 seasons (figs. 49-54). Trench XVIII was also excavated northeast of Trench VI. Unfortunately, the 1986 field notes and drawings of the final recovery of this house, made by S. Bknyi and M. Vicze (the latter was then in the staff of the AI), are at present missing from the archives of the AI, and only the photos and the profile drawing made by the present author during the last days of the campaign are available (figs. 51-54). According to the surviving field records, from 1985 and 1986, the outlines of Pit 4/a (written also 4/A; not marked on the map, because it is identical to a part of the pit-house of figs. 49 and 51, 2 left) were discovered in Trench VIII, together with sporadic Tiszapolgr Culture and also ALP potsherds in a secondary position, around the pit, at a depth of 65 cm and below. In the southern part, a rpdian house was also recorded (House 1), into the black fill of the Copper Age house. A characteristic rim fragment with corded decoration was found in a secondary position in the fill of this rpdian house (fig. 50, 1) and, most probably, it had derived from the deeper layers of the pit-house. At a depth of some 95 cm (i.e. at the bottom of the next arbitrary layer), there was a yellow layer in Pit 4/a, which was first thought to be the virgin soil. Nevertheless, it was an intentionally deposited, ca 5 cm clay layer, probably a stamped floor with a layer of black soil below it, containing many organic remains in the presence of a highly fired clay (called black greasy horizon). The inner part of the pit-house, in Trenches VI-VIII, consisted of a number of pit-like depressions containing a homogeneous black fill with alternate yellow levels (figs. 52, 2 and 53, 6). These depressions were in three N-S rows, separated by two parallel, raised banks or ridges of the yellow virgin soil. A profile was taken in W-E direction, across Trench VI, which was later extended to the whole cross-section of the pit-house in Trenches VI, VII and VIII. Unfortunately the draft of the drawing (fig. 52, 1) was not found amongst the field records, and only the profile along the baulk separating Trenches VI and VII from Trench XIX can be published here (fig. 54, 1 and 2). It was made in the northernmost part of the pit-house, when only a few centimetres of the northern part of the house were to be excavated (the left canal is not visible in the photograph and drawing of fig. 54, because the excavation of the pit-house was unfinished when these records were taken). Pit 4c was excavated west of the pit-house (fig. 49). It yielded characteristic Earliest ALP = Szatmr type pottery and Krs finds (fig. 45), surprisingly without carinated shapes of the contemporary Protovina-phase, which are present in the other features associated with Szatmr finds: the grey layer of 1982 (Protovina: fig. 42, 2; Szatmr: figs. 42, 3, 4, 6 and 46, 6), and the Western Pit in Trench XVIII (Protovina: figs. 47, 1-7 and 9; Szatmr: figs. 47, 11 and 48, 1, 2, 4 and 6). At the southwestern edge, or corner, of the pit-house105, a dense

For a detailed discussion of the Kurgan theory, as an unsuccessful attempt of the late M. Gimbutas to solve some questions of Indo-European origins, see A. HUSLER (2003) and also MAKKAY (1995; 1996b; 2002a). 105. The field note of July 18 th, 1985 wrongly mentions the southeastern edge or corner.


Fig. 49 - Endrd, site 3/6. Plan of the Copper Age semisubterranean house in Trenches VI-VIII and XIX with Pit 4/c (D.23.523 and 67.954).


Fig. 50 - Endrd, site 3/6. Copper Age sherds from the semisubterranean house in Trench VII/120-140 cm. 1: Corded ware. 2: Tiszapolgr Culture. 3: Bodrogkeresztr Culture. 4: Cernavoda III-Bolerz phase (P.131.508-509) (drawings by E. Starnini).


Fig. 51 - Endrd, site 3/6. Copper Age house in Trenches VI-VIII from the east (1), south (2) and north (3) (uninventorised photographs by the author).


Fig. 52 - Endrd, site 3/6. Copper Age house in Trenches VI-VIII. 1: Section on the Northern wall of Trenches VI and VII (P.127.922). 2: Section on the fill of one inner pit (P.127.923).


Fig. 53 - Endrd, site 3/6. Copper Age house in Trenches VI-VIII. 1-2: General view from the SW (P.131.564, 131.578). 3: Pit D in Trench XIX (P.131.566). 4: Pit in Trench VI, near to the eastern edge of the house, with concentration of animal bones in its lower part (P.131.560). 5: The western edge of the Copper Age house taken from SE (P.131.567). 6: Section of an inner pit of the house taken from the south (P.131.576).


Fig. 54 - Endrd, site 3/6. 1-2: Copper Age house in Trenches VI-VIII. 1: A-B section at the northernmost edge (redrawn by E. Starnini after the original draft by J. Makkay). 2: Detail of the northern end of the Copper Age house in Trenches VI-VII and XIX, with section A-B in fig. 54, 1 (P.131.558).

scatter of early ALP pottery was also found at a depth of 90-100 cm. These fragments belonged to the fill of Pit 4c at its outer edge, because the pit-house had cut this earlier Neolithic pit106. Pit 4c contained much fragmented pottery and animal bones. According to the identifications by S. Bknyi, bones of roe deer, boar, cattle, sheep and goat, domesticated pig and duck were found associated with obsidian and red flint blades and many fish scales107. Unfortunately these latter could not be found in the collections of the AI or the responsible local museums of Bkscsaba and Szarvas. Near the north section wall, between Trenches VI-VII and XIX (in the northern part of Trenches VI and VII), the remains of a simple clay floor were discovered with traces of a hearth (see fig. 49: yellow clay floor).
106. 107.

For its material see BRN C2a+b+c+d+e+f+g+h = Trench VIII/1985, Pit 4c. According to the unpublished field notes.


In the eastern part of the pit-house, another vessel fragment with a corded decoration (or a body fragment with brushed decoration) was found (now lost). The field notes are unfortunately unclear concerning the characteristics of this sherd108. In the northeastern part of Trench VI, the corner of the pit-house was recorded at a depth of 80 cm (from the modern surface) into the yellow virgin soil. The eastern edge of the house was found during following works, at the same depth. The excavation continued into the inner fill of the house. At the same time, four small postholes were discovered in its north-western corner. They probably belonged to the construction of the house entrance (fig. 49). The works were resumed between September 16th and 25th, 1985109. The inner fill of the house was excavated in arbitrary layers, first between 100 and 120, then down to 140 cm. A yellow virgin soil was found in some places of the parallel yellow banks or ridges, while dry and very hard black soil in other deeper places (the above-mentioned internal canals) contained Cernavoda III-Boleraz potsherds together with (Late?) Bodrogkeresztr fragments (fig. 50, 3 and 4), and occasionally also much earlier (i.e. Neolithic and Tiszapolgr) ceramics (fig. 50, 2). For this reason, the animal bones from these mixed assemblages (Neolithic sherds were also found in a secondary position) were not collected. A great number of animal bones was located between 120 and 140 cm, in a brownish hard layer undoubtedly belonging to the house in the southern part of Trenches VI and VII. The southern edge of the house was at a depth of 140 cm. The inner fill, however, continued to a greater depth in the central and northern part, and the fill between 165-200 cm (the next arbitrary layer) contained the same dry, hard, black soil. In the northeastern part of Trench VII, there was a loose black fill with small sherds of Copper Age type and many animal, mainly cattle bones. The arbitrary layer between 200 and 225 cm, was a black hard soil with many animal bones and a few sherds of Late Copper Age type, while near the western wall, the yellow virgin soil had already been found. Thin (2-3 cm thick), yellow clay layers embedded in a compact black soil, were discovered here, most probably the remains of renewed clay floors and fireplaces, with a black ashy layer at their top in several places, especially close to the northern section wall (fig. 54, 2). The next arbitrary layer, between 225 and 250 cm, revealed the yellow virgin clay in most places. The cleaning showed that the inner construction of the pit-house consisted of three canals in a north-northwest/south-southwest direction, between the edges of the house, and two inner ridges, or banks, left from the virgin soil. The deepest parts of these canals continued below 250 cm, while the upper (top) parts of the inner ridges were recorded at a depth of 225 cm, or above. The above-mentioned fireplaces (near the northern section wall) were placed on the clay floors that covered the canals, most probably supported by heavy beams (sporadic traces of which were found, among which are very thin, whitish, powdery layers). There were lenses of ash and charcoal above the eastern and middle canals, near the section wall, deposited above thin yellow clay (floor) layers, while a red-burnt fireplace was found above the western canal containing much ash and soot (fig. 54, 1, Hearth 1). The finds, among which are animal bones, became more rare below 200 cm. The edges of the house became clear on the eastern, western and northern sides (fig. 51 and also 53). Unfortunately, the sand pit before the beginning of the excavations had largely destroyed its southernmost part. The house has an irregular, squared shape, and its western edge was found below the baulk between Trenches VII and VIII. The internal canals widen at some places, and these pit-like inner depressions contain a very hard, dry, black fill, with many animal bones (fig. 53, 4) and a few, very fragmented sherds. They are of beehive-shape and their black fill showed yellow stripes, probably the remains of a renewed, sunken floors (figs. 52, 2 and 53, 6). Such pits occur in all the three canals, although those of the eastern canal contained most of the animal bones (fig. 53, 4). Four large, circular pits (with a diameter of more than 1 m) were observed also at the southern edge of the house, out of the house pit. They probably were postholes belonging to a row of posts standing in front of the southern end wall of the building. Their depths, however, did not reach that of the inner canals and their pits (postholes). Unfortunately, the excavation of this pit-house could not be concluded in 1985 with additional work in Trench XVIII, and it was temporarily covered with a large, plastic sheet until the 1986 season. The recovery of the house continued, and was finished in 1986, but, as mentioned above, there are no field documents available. Contemporary to these additional works, I started the excavations at Endrd 3/119 and, during my occasional visits to the nearby site Endrd 3/6, I recorded some notes, took photographs and also prepared the draft of the section drawing seen on fig. 54, 1. Also Dr. M. Sfriad` es (Rennes) took part in the 1985 excavations, and made the drawings of some corded decorated potsherds. Unfortunately these small fragments
108. 109.

Field note of July 22 nd, 1985. Field records by J. Makkay dated between September 16th and 25th (archives of the AI).


are presently missing from the archaeological material excavated and collected from this site. Dr. Sfriads has not answered to my request of sending copies of his drawings of these important, imported corded ware sherds of Steppic (probably pre-Yamna) type. The unusual character of the building construction, its large dimensions and inner pits, yellow floors and fireplaces close to the supposed entrance at the north-western corner, indicate that it was, most probably, a large pit-house. The mixed character of its finds, especially the Cernavoda III-Bolerz potsherds and the fragments of the Late Bodrogkeresztr Culture, date it to the first phase of the local Late Copper Age, which is contemporaneous to the early appearance of the Pit (Yamna) graves in the Hungarian Plain, i.e. to the first burial found in kurgan 6 at Ktegyhza (ECSEDY, 1979: 28-31 and Pls. 10-12). It is of particular importance that some ceramic types, found below the body of the kurgan, although contemporaneous to the first grave, find parallels in the Late Bodrogkeresztr period (i.e. Hunyadi-halom group) (ECSEDY, 1979: 30). This circumstance makes the occurrence of corded ware fragments in the context of the Cernavoda-Bolerz types chronologically important. The house dates to the period of the first appearance of the Pit Grave (Yamna or Ochre grave) eastern groups and very probably it represents a unique case. The horse bones found at Ktegyhza, associated with Cernavoda-Bolerz III type material are the oldest evidence of (domesticated?) horse bones in Hungary (ECSEDY, 1979: 31). The analysis of the Endrd 3/6 bones made by I. Vrs are summarised in Appendix IV. Trench VIII yielded also a group of Krs potsherds in the central part of a shallow depression. Krs pottery was also found in Trenches VI-VII and XVII110.

4.1.3. The 20th -22nd August, 1986 season

During this short season, the 1982 trench and the supposed place of the 1982 Bkscsaba Museum trench were located and mapped (figs. 39 and 41). Trench XVIII was later opened in a neighbouring part of the undisturbed area. As mentioned above, the topmost, ploughed layer had already been removed to a depth of some 70 cm. Below 70 cm, its cleaning revealed the outlines of two differently coloured parts, called Eastern and Western Pits (fig. 40, 3 and 5, marked with w and e). A clear outline of the Western Pit, in Trench XVIII, was observed at a depth of some 80 cm, while the sherds to its east belonged to the Eastern pit, in Trench XVIII. The bottom fill in the eastern part of the Eastern Pit, just above the virgin soil, was heavily burnt. It contained a few Szatmr potsherds with typical early ALP decorative patterns (fig. 46, 1, 4 and 5), i.e. short and sharp incisions covering part of the outer surface, associated with pinching. The collapsed remains of an oven, or plastered wall, were discovered in the western part of the Eastern pit. The southernmost part of the Western Pit (a ca 1 m wide strip) was destroyed by the sand exploitation (and its eastern end was probably found in 1982: i.e. the area between the grey layer and the Western Pit). Its left parts extended north and northwest of Trench XVIII. Its fill, between 70 and 110 cm, was a hard greyish soil (similar to the grey layer around the mass grave discovered in 1982) rich in pottery. In the layer 110-150 cm below, the potsherds became rare, in a dry, brownish-blackish loose soil. A ridge of the Western pit probably cut the north-western corner of the burial pit of Grave A, while the Eastern Pit cut both the legs and the pelvic bone of skeleton 3 (fig. 40, 1), and its skull was disturbed during the preparation of the area, in 1985. The chronological relationships between the Western Pit and grave A is known: it was buried during the use of the Western Pit somewhat later than its first utilisation as a refuse pit. Grave A in Trench XVIII/1986 is a crouched, S-N oriented skeleton of an adult lying on its right side. The right arm is bent back in front of the chest, while the left hand was placed on the left knee. No grave goods. For its sex and age, see Appendix III. The outline of the grave pit became clear after its cleaning. It was oblong with rounded corners, cut into the virgin soil to a depth of 17 cm. Its fill was dark with some yellow particles. The excavation of the Western pit could not be completed during these two days. It was continued in 1987, in Trench XXXI (11x4 m), conjoining the north and west walls of Trench XVIII (not represented in the general map of fig. 40). The Western pit yielded Late Krs fragments (figs. 47, 8 and 10; 48, 3, 7 and 8) and Protovina vessel forms in the lowermost part of its deposits, between 165-170 cm, among which are strongly carinated bowl fragments (fig. 47, 1-7 and 9) and sherds of storage jars with pinched decoration. Fragments of Szatmr coarse ware were also found (fig. 48, 1, 4, 6 and 7: short incised sharp lines or, more rarely impressed

The box reference numbers are: C12a+b = Trench VII/1985, 130-165 cm. C13 = Trench VII/1985, 140-160 cm, the Eastern part. C14 = Trench VII/1985, 225-250 cm, the Eastern part. C15a+b = Trench VII/1985, 165-200 cm. C16 = Trench VII/1985, Pit 5, 190-200 cm. C17 = Trench VII-VIII/old baulk, 0-100 cm + Trench VII/West, 140-160 cm + Trench VIII/old baulk, 80-120 cm. C18 = Trench XVII/50-80 cm. C19 = Trench XVII/1985, 90-115 cm.


barbotine channels, sometimes arranged into a so-called wreath motif111), without any characteristic, incised ALP pottery. According to the field notes, the fill of the Western pit showed two distinct layers: 1) a 25-30 cm thick, hard, burnt layer, below 70-85 cm, containing many animal bones and characteristic Protovina potsherds, without any incised ALP sherd of Late Szatmr type; 2) the fill below 135 cm was loose, of brownish-yellowish colour, with less pottery, including Protovina types. Also the small portion of the Eastern pit, in Trench XXXI, contained fragments of Late Krs-Szatmr bowls (fig. 46, 1, 4 and 5). It is easy to understand why the wreath motif is not present in the Late Szatmr assemblages of the later ALP territory (Mezkvesd-Mocsolys: KALICZ and KOS, 2000a), in the Late Krs assemblages of the north Krs region (Dvavnya-Barci kishalom: ORAVECZ, 1997; csd-Kirit: RACZKY, 1988: figs. 5-9) and in the northern border zone of the Krs distribution area (Ktelek-Huszsrsarok: RACZKY, 1988: figs. 10-19)112. Mezkvesd yielded finds of the latest, short Szatmr phase transitional towards the Classic ALP, while the Ktelek material from Pit 8 can be attributed to the same short, although culturally somewhat different, horizon113. Nevertheless I cannot accept the attribution of the Ktelek Pit 8 finds to the beginning of the ALP Middle Neolithic114. There is not one single published potsherd that shows the characteristic ALP incised technology and decoration (RACZKY, 1983: figs. 12-20). There are, however, carinated shapes (RACZKY, 1983: fig. 18, 6), high pedestalled bowls with high and wide upper part (RACZKY, 1983: figs. 12, 3, 6-8; 13, 1, 2, 4 and 5), obliquely incised, short and sharp lines (RACZKY, 1983: figs. 19, 6 and 21, 5), conical bowls with pinching, shouldered bowls with a low, vertical neck (RACZKY, 1983: figs. 18, 4 and 5 and 19, 3 and 4). These shapes and decorations are very similar to the main characteristics of the Late Krs-Protovina-Szatmr assemblages from Endrd 6, without the presence of linear, incised ALP ware (similar to the assemblage of the lower part of the Western Pit). To conclude, the Dvavnya (fig. 1, 9) assemblage is very poor in vessel types, while that of csd cannot be classified from this point of view.
Cernavoda-Bolerz-Yamna Bodrogkeresztr Culture Tiszapolgr Culture Gap Tisza Culture Middle Szaklht Phase Early Szaklht Phase Late Alfld, Furugy Phase Classic Alfld, Phase Szarvas 102 Early Alfld, Phase Gyoma 107 Late Krs+Szatmr Late Krs+Protovina+Szatmr Latest Classic Krs+Protovina (without Szatmr= Early ALP) Classic Krs Early Krs Table 9 - Internal chronology of Endrd 3/6.

Late Copper Age House, Trenches VI-VIII, XIX Settlement finds Settlement finds The site was unsettled Probably unsettled Sporadic finds before 1982 Sporadic finds before 1982 Black pit of 1982, and the ALP pit in Trench XXVIII Not represented yet Pit 4c in Trench VIII and Eastern Pit in Trench XVIII Grey layer of 1982 and upper part of the Western Pit in Trench XVIII; Grave A and Grave 1 Some types from the grey layer of 1982, before the burials, and the lower part of the Western Pit Not represented Not represented

For the wreath motif (or hanging triangles) see MAKKAY (1974: 146 and 148, and figs. 1, 2; 2, 3 [Furta-Cst], 2, 4 [Nagyecsed-Pterzug] and 2, 5 [Tiszaug-Tpart]). 112. Dvavnya-Rhely cannot be taken into consideration from this point of view, because the publication does not contain any illustration (GOLDMAN, 1991: 33-42). The material, however, very probably dates to a late Protovina phase of the Krs Culture, as the presence of the biconical, carinated vessels show together with (?) Early ALP (Szatmr) finds (p. 39). 113. The material from Pit 1, however, is represented by Classic Krs Culture types (RACZKY, 1983: figs. 5-7). The Ktelek material, as far as I was informed consists of two assemblages (pit 1 of the Krs Culture and pit 8 of the Late Krs-Szatmr phase) which were collected after a heavy ploughing before the planting of an orchard. 114. RACZKY (1983: 187 a kteleki 8. gdr leletanyagt kulturlisanhelyesebb az AVK 1. szakasznak nevezni, amely a Kzp- s a Fels-Tiszavidken a kzps neolitikum kezdett jelenti = the assemblage of pit 8 from Ktelek can properly be called the first phase of the ALP, which represents the beginning of the Middle Neolithic in the Middle and Upper Tisza region).


The site is located east of Endrd 3/39, in the old vineyards of Endrd village, along the southern bank of an E-W old riverbed of the Krs (fig. 1, 8). It is a part of a row of small prehistoric (Late Neolithic and Tiszapolgr Culture) and later (Scythian and Sarmatian) settlements (MAKKAY in MRT8, 1989: trial excavations at Tiszapolgr sites 3/37 and 3/44). Site 3/36 lies to its east (fig. 55, 1), where interesting Middle Neolithic painted pottery was found from both the house debris and the small, cylindrical pits (MAKKAY, 1993a: 126, and fig. 1, 2-20)115. During the 1974 and 1975 surveys a dense scatter of Krs and Linear decorated pottery (ALP and Szaklht phases) was observed along the slope of the levee. According to this evidence, a trial excavation was opened between August 12th and 23rd, 1975.

5.1.1. Trial excavation: August 12th-23rd, 1975

Trench I (20x2 m) was opened in a W-E direction. The uppermost, ploughed layer of 0-20/30 cm (the latter depth was measured at the NE corner) contained mixed pottery of Krs, Linear Pottery, Sarmatian and rpdian Age (fig. 56, 1). The first arbitrary layer, between 30 and 60 cm, yielded the remains of different features, mainly belonging to later periods: a circular, plastered surface, and the destroyed remains of a plastered oven of the Middle Neolithic Linear Pottery (Szaklht group; fig. 56, 1, II) and also the rpdian Age. At the southeastern corner of the trench, a greyish discolouration was observed both on the cleaned surface, at a depth of 60 cm, and again, at 85-90 cm, with finds of both the Krs and Linear Pottery Cultures. In the second arbitrary layer, however, i.e. between 30 and 60 cm, only Linear Pottery characteristic fragments were recovered. To investigate this pit (previously called Pit 3 in Trench I) more closely, an extension was opened (Trench III; see fig. 56, 1 and 2). The arbitrary layers were excavated according to spits of 0-30, and again 30-60 cm without a baulk. Below 60 cm, a section was made down to the virgin soil (fig. 56, 3). According to the field notes and the drawing of the profile, the second spit between 30 and 60 cm, was continuous and contained exclusively sherds of the Szaklht group. The next spit between 60-80 and/or 60-90 cm contained a mixed assemblage of Szaklht and Late ALP ceramics and Krs fragments in a secondary position, deriving from the fill of the lower-lying Krs pit. The recurrence of ALP sherds in this Szaklht layer with a mixed darker fill might be due to the disturbance of the upper part of the ALP pit in the Szaklht period. This ALP pit was located in the western part of Trench III (to a depth of 178 cm into the virgin soil: fig. 56, 2). Its excavation had cut the western edge of the Krs Pit III/3. The fill of the ALP pit was of brownish colour with yellow clay lumps, while that of the Krs one was greyish with much ash. A skeleton of the Szaklht group was found at the bottom of the Szaklht layer at the top of the original fill of the Krs pit (fig. 56, 3). Its only grave good was a small, fragmented, characteristic, undecorated globular vessel of a dark colour (fig. 57, 3). Grave 1 (Szaklht group): a crouched skeleton lying on its left side, oriented towards east-west (fig. 57, 2 and 4)116. The small, globular vessel mentioned above was found at the same depth (i.e. 85 cm) on the top of the surface of the Krs fill and most probably it was a grave offering (fig. 57, 3). The field notes emphasise that the finds from the western part of the deeper spits of the trench (disturbed by the ALP pit) were collected separately. This mixed assemblage contains only Krs and ALP sherds without any Szaklht pottery (two reconstructed ALP vessels: fig. 58, 1 and 2). The eastern part of the trench, below 85-90 cm, yielded only typical Krs pottery at the same depth. These data confirm that the characteristic ALP material of this pit dates to a period preceding the Early Szaklht group, the pottery often associated with the late ALP finds. Therefore, the painted pottery of Endrd 3/36 (which lies in a distance of only ca 150 m: fig. 55, 1) is contemporaneous with the very short period between the burial of Grave 1 and the pure (Classic) Szaklht phase without any presence of ALP types. This attribution is further supported by the presence of Late ALP potsherds in a context with this type of painted pottery at site 36, which does not show any close parallel with both the typical ALP and Szaklht assemblages117. Regarding the typological transition between the ALP and the Szaklht phases, according to the evidence of Bksszentandrs-Furugy, see Appendix V.

115. 116. 117.

The finds from the 1991 second trial excavation are still unpublished. The bones were lost in the collections of the Natural History Museum, Department of Anthropology, Budapest. MAKKAY (1993a: fig. 1, 7-9 and also the contemporaneous finds of Esztr type painting: fig. 1, 5).


Fig. 55 - Endrd, sites 3/35 and 3/36. 1: Location of the sites 3/35 and 3/36 on a contour map (D.21.901). 2: Trenches I-III of the site Endrd, no. 3/35 on the land parcel of the owner (D.20.870).


Fig. 56 - Endrd, site 3/35. 1: Map of Trenches I-III with different features (D.10.871). 2: Plan of Trench III with Krs Culture and the ALP (AVK) pits and Graves 1 and 2. 3: Section A-B of the Krs pit with Graves 1 and 2.


Fig. 57 - Endrd, site 3/35. 1: Krs Pit 3 in Trench III from NNE with Grave 2 in the background and the ALP refuse pit to the right (P.84.813). 2 and 4: Grave 1 of the Szaklht group, from the north (P.84.847). 3: Reconstructed bowl of the Szaklht group, probably from Grave 1 (P.91.878, Inv. no. 78.3.29). 5: Remains of a Szaklht oven in Trench I/East, extension, 30-60 cm (P.91.878).


Fig. 58 - Endrd, site 3/35. 1: Reconstructed bowl of the Classical ALP phase from the ALP pit, 100-120 cm ( 78.3.26). 2: Characteristic high bowl of the ALP from the upper part of the ALP pit in Trench III/West, 60-80 cm (P. 84.849). 3: Reconstructed high necked jar of the Krs Culture from the Krs Pit 3 in Trench III (Inv. no. 78.3.13; P.86.726). 4-5: Krs Culture Grave 2 found in Pit 3 in Trench III (P.84.815, taken from NNE) (drawings by E. Starnini).


The Krs pit below the Szaklht layer (fig. 56, 2 and 3) was of relatively small dimensions, reaching a depth of 231 cm. A greyish layer, between 80 and 105 cm, joined its eastern part. This might indicate that the pit was excavated into the Neolithic subsoil and virgin soil from some 70-80 cm. However, the original opening of the Krs pit was later destroyed by Szaklht activities. The pit fill was homogeneous with thin, ashy lenses. Around the edge of the pit, on its eastern side, the finds were undisturbed at a depth of some 70 cm118. Similar, undisturbed deposits, above the central part, were discovered only at a depth of some 100 cm. This situation can be interpreted in two different ways: 1) during the period when of ALP people came to the site, a small depression was visible above the Krs pit, and the soil was deposited in this depression to a depth of 1 m, during the AVK period, or 2) the complete Krs Culture vessel discovered at 70 cm of depth was not caught by the edge of the ALP pit or during ALP and Szaklht activities. A thick concentration of Krs Culture material was discovered in the central part of the arbitrary layers between 100-140 cm, mainly animal bones, between 100 and 120 cm, and potsherds between 120 and 140 cm. Below 145 cm, the finds were concentrated only in the central part of the pit, whose western wall, excavated into the yellow clayey virgin soil, was almost vertical, between 80 and 230 cm. Between 119 and 149 cm, the bones of a child were found very close to the wall, surrounded by fragments of several large vessels (Grave 2; fig. 58, 4 and 5). Parts of these vessels (one reconstructed high-necked jar119: fig. 58, 3) lay in an inclined layer leaning towards the southern wall of the dome-shaped pit. They were probably deposited intentionally to cover the child burial. This assemblage might otherwise represent a pithos burial, although the age of the child (6-7 years: ZOFFMANN, 1986: 42) and the measure of the reconstructed necked jar precludes this latter possibility. There is no doubt that the child was buried in the freshly discarded refuse of the site, and was covered by potsherds intentionally fragmented for that purpose. The pelvic bones of the skeleton were found at a depth of 150 cm. Another Krs pit (Pit 6 in Trench III) was found in the NE corner of Trench III, but the absence of funds and time made its excavation impossible.
Endrd, site 3/35
Tisza Culture Classic Szaklht Phase (Bksszentandrs-Furugy120 lower layer) Layer of the earliest Szaklht phase and Grave 1 with late AVK and painted pottery of Esztr style. Early Zseliz imports121 Pit of the Late Classic ALP (contemporaneous with Endrd 42 containing Esztr and Transdanubian [Early Zseliz] imports122) Classic ALP = Szarvas 102 Gaps (Krs-Protovina and Gyoma, site 107) Krs Pit 3 in Trench III/1975: Classic Krs Table 10 - Relative chronology of Endrd 3/35 and 3/36.

Endrd, site 3/36

Surface-built house of the Bodrogkeresztr Culture Gap Gap Early Szaklht layer with latest AVK and Esztr sherds, in context of red and dark painted and black polished fine pottery characteristic only for this site (MAKKAY, 1993a: fig. 1, 10-20) No feature The emergence of the red and dark painted and black polished fine pottery

No feature No feature Gaps Unsettled (MAKKAY in MRT8, 1989: 142)

It is not possible to confirm whether these short pottery phases of the ALP and Szaklht were partly overlapping and contemporaneous, or followed each other diachronically in short phases. It is even difficult to tell if such units represented a subsequent, uninterrupted sequence within these two neighbouring sites. If interruptions occurred, the question emerges whether the original Classic ALP population of Endrd 35 moved to Endrd 36 or other people moved into the site. This question is further complicated by the finds from Endrd 3/42, lying 2 km to the west, with its Late Classic ALP assemblage containing also Esztr and Transdanubian imports (MAKKAY, 1992: Pl. 15, 3). The closed assemblage of Endrd 42, however, did not yield any Szaklht pottery. This is why it was most probably contemporaneous with the ALP pit deposit of Endrd 35.
118. 119.

As, for instance, a complete Krs Culture bowl found at the depth of 70 cm (MAKKAY and STARNINI, forthcoming 2) For its close parallel see the specimen from Szarvas 8/56: fig. 118. 120. Recently P. SMEGI (2003) discussed the paleoenvironmental problems of a Krs settlement in the area of Bksszentandrs-Furugy. He did not identify it within the sites of the Topography volume (MRT8, 1989). 121. Regarding the fragments of the Zseliz group of the Transdanubian Linear Pottery see MAKKAY (1992b: Pl. 15: 13 [from Endrd 3/42], Pl. 16: 3 [Endrd 3/6, from the 1975 excavations of D. Jankovich], and also Pl. 16: 4-6 [from Endrd 3/35]). Fragments of the Esztr group from Endrd, 3/35: MAKKAY (1992b: Pl. 16, 1 and 2). 122. See note 167. Other fragments of black and red painted ware, characteristic only of site 3/36 (MAKKAY, 1992b: Pl. 15, 12 and 16, 7).


The site (fig. 1, 6) was discovered in 1970-1971 when deep ploughing and soil loosening (MAKKAY, 1980: 209-210) affected the area and brought rich Krs pottery and also human bones of Sarmatian and rpdian burials to the surface. The system of land use of the decades between 1950 and 1990 during which the whole area was machine-cultivated by large collective farms (kolkhozes) for the production of grain (mostly wheat and maize123) and fodder-crops (especially lucerna = alfalfa), produced relatively uniform and good conditions (with the exception of the alfalfa) for surface survey. Scatters of coarse pottery and daub could be seen in isolated groups on the surface. This fact was mentioned by tractor-drivers to one teacher of the local school. Later on, groups of young students of the elementary school, escorted by their teachers, visited the site on some occasions, collected pottery from several scatters, and occasionally made small trial pits to collect more finds. These finds were kept in the store of the local school until 1975, when the Bkscsaba Museum acquired them. The archaeologist of the Museum Dr. Borbla Marz visited the site in 1971. She recorded Krs pottery and also located four low kurgans lying partly in the area of the site and further to its west and south (MRT8 1989: Endrd 3/122 and 3/118)124. There were human bones on the surface of the low kurgan mound lying on the eastern part of the settlement. These latter belonged to the graves of the Sarmatian and Early rpdian cemeteries, partly excavated during our campaigns (MRT8, 1989: 143)125. During our 1975 surveys, the site was an alfalfa field not ideal for the recovery of surface finds. The site lies on a large low elevation surrounded by shallow depressions (sedimented old river beds or palaeochannels) and divided by a similar NW-SE channel (discovered during the excavations and called here as the internal depression: fig. 60, Trenches V and VIII) into two parts. The Early rpdian cemetery was on the eastern ridge, east of this internal channel or depression. This was the reason why this part of the Neolithic settlement was excavated (the only exception is Trench I lying in the western row of surface-built houses observed during the field walking). Trench IV, however, was opened north of the north-western end of this internal depression (figs. 59 and 60). A low kurgan was visible on the eastern ridge, while a farmhouse, not belonging to the collective farm, still stood on the northern part surrounded by a kitchen garden (the Katona farm: fig. 61, 1). This area was suitable for our first trial trench (figs. 60; 62, 1 and 63). Settlements of the Krs Culture show a variety of forms, the most common of which is the linear arrangement of houses and rubbish pit clusters on levees along river beds: the so-called shoreline or linear settlements, when long, narrow sites, distributed along a palaeochannel represent successive movements of a small number of household, in some cases one house (MAKKAY, 1979; 1982b). There are, however, a few large settlements, which can be considered, nucleated villages (SHERRATT, 1983a: 157). The surface remains of these sites usually concentrate in a circular or oval area. At site 39, the surface scatters were in two, parallel N-S rows on the two low ridges, on the western and eastern side of the central, inner depression or redeposited channel (fig. 60). The site belongs to the category of nucleated villages. First, the area south of the farmhouse was field walked and settlement debris and pottery indicated three rich features. It was possible to carry out a small excavation at two of them (Trenches I and IV). The first trial trench was opened in the undisturbed northern part of the western ridge lying near to, and partly, in the kitchen garden. As mentioned already, deep ploughing and soil loosening did not affect this part of the site, around the private farmstead.

6.1.1. The first season: May 17th-30th, 1975

Trench I/1975 was a 10x4 rectangle (figs. 61, 4, 6 and 8 and 62, 1-4)126. Dense concentrations of broken potsherds were visible on the surface. First, the uppermost, ploughed loose soil was removed from the top of the undisturbed soil to a depth of some 20 cm, with the deeper furrows reaching 40 cm. After cleaning, the first arbitrary layer was excavated between 20 and 40 cm, the second between 40 and 68 cm. A grid of five 2x4 sq m was laid out for the separate collection of the rich ceramic content of the layer (labelled 1 to 5, from east to west).
123. 124.

Called kukorica, tengeri or more rarely trkbza (i.e. Turkish wheat) in Hungarian. Joint Italian-Hungarian excavations were carried out at the latter site Paphalom. 125. For the Sarmatian cemetery see B.M. SZKE and A. VADAY (1983). For the graves of the period of the Hungarian Conquest (fig. 62, 5 and 7) and the rpdian Age see MRT8 (1989) and FODOR (1996: 219). 126. The box reference numbers are B1a-f and B1g.


Fig. 59 - Endrd, site 3/39. General map of the 1975-1978 excavations with Trenches I-XXX.

Discolourations in the eastern and southeastern parts show the presence of grave pits, which later turned out to be of Sarmatian and Early rpdian (figs. 61, 5 and 7 and 62, 1). In the eastern area, Trenches 1 and 2 yielded sporadic Krs pottery from these arbitrary layers, while Trenches 3-5, to the west, gave a fill rich in vessel fragments and large burnt wattle-and-daub pieces, in an unburnt dark soil. Complete vessels and profiles of several pots (fig. 63, 1-7), in the presence of wall plaster fragments, show that they belong to the furniture of a surface built house partly destroyed by ploughing (fig. 62, 1-4). The burnt plaster fragments at a depth of 68-70 cm, may have belonged to a structure, most probably a destroyed oven or a walled fireplace with an opening to the south (not represented in fig. 62, 1). The lower part of this structure was not plastered and only the walled floor was burnt red. The cleaning of the southeastern parts of Trenches 1 and 2, revealed a discolouration at a depth of some 68 cm, with a fill of lighter colour and many wall plaster fragments, while the surface of the western Trenches were brownish. This latter was the area where the rich pottery assemblage was found between 20 and 68 cm. Continuing the work in spit 3 (68-98 cm), no pottery was found in the western areas. The brownish compact soil was the Neolithic buried soil on the top of which House 1 in Trench I/1975127 was built (fig. 62, 1). The virgin, clayish soil made its appearance here in at a depth of some 98 cm. Cleaning, to look for discolouration, at a depth of 98 cm, showed the contours of a rubbish pit (Trench I/1975, Pit 1128) deepening into the yellow virgin clay subsoil, although most of it lay out of Trench I, to its southeast (figs. 61, 4 and 8 and 62, 1 and 4). In contrast to the western Trenches of the same depth, the fill of lighter ashy greyish colour of this pit contained many finds, mainly potsherds and animal bones. Below 68 cm the finds were separated from those of the layer of House 1. One extension of 4x2 m was opened southeast of Trench I to uncover Pit 1 (Extension East). The finds were collected separately, according to the spits between 40-60, 60-80 cm and below. The materials from these
127. 128.

The box reference numbers of Trench I/1975, House 1 are B1g, B2-9, B12, B16a; House 1 in the extension of Trench I is B16b. Box reference numbers B11, B13-15 and B17-22.


Fig. 60 - Endrd, site 3/39. Map of the 1975-1978 excavations with places of houses and refuse pits.

respective depths were added to those from the other part of the pit, in Trench I. The deeper parts of this pit contained thin-layered deposits of yellow and brownish clay, with alternate thin, white ashy layers occasionally alternated with charcoal (fig. 62, 4). Animal bones were abundant in these deeper parts with a lower number of potsherds. At a depth of some 120 cm, there was a 50x60 cm burnt plaster layer, 5-6 cm thick, which overlaid the northern edge and the wall of the pit. Probably, the burning remains of a surface structure (oven or fireplace?) were thrown into this part of the pit. Another possibility is that a fireplace was made here because much ash and charcoal was found near the plastered surface in the lower part of the pit. Extension East was too small to reveal the whole pit, and Extension South was also laid out on a surface of 6x2 m sq. It was excavated in spits identical to these of Extension East and also our observations were similar. We had a baulk wall between parts of the pit in Trench I and Extension South. After the excavation of the pit we drew a profile of the baulk (fig. 62, 4). The interpretation of the chronological relationship between House 1 and the pit was not an easy task, because the cleaning at a depth of 68 cm did not clearly show the pit outline. As a consequence, the stratigraphy


Fig. 61 - Endrd, site 3/39. Details of the 1975-1978 excavations. 1: Work in progress in Trench V, taken from the south, with the Katona farmstead in the back (P.94.349). 2: Excavation of Pit Grave 15 (P.89.592). 3: View of Trenches VI and VII from the south (P.89.613). 4: Pit in Trench I taken from the West (P.84.802). Grave 1 from the period of the Hungarian Conquest from the north (P.84.798). 6: Section C-D in Pit 1 in Trench IV, from the north (P.89.427). 7: Grave 1 from the NNE (P.84.799). 8: Pit 1 in Trench I from the north (P.84.803-84.804).


Fig. 62 - Endrd, site 3/39. 1: House 1 in Trench I, plan with section E-F, and sections A-B and C-D of the ditch around Sarmatian Grave 4, and locations of Grave 1 (Hungarian Conquest Period) and Graves 2-3 (Sarmatian). 2-3: Sections A-B and C-D. 4: Section E-F of House 1 and Pit 1.


Fig. 63 - Endrd, site 3/39. Vessels from House 1 (1-4 and 6) and Pit 1 (5 and 7) in Trench I (P.84.981, P84.984, D.14.852-14.853). Inventory numbers: 78.4.21 (1), 78.4.10 (2), 78.4.23 (3), 78.4.25 (4), 78.4.5 (5), 78.4.24 (6), 78.4.2 (7).


Fig. 64 - Endrd, site 3/39. 1: Plan of Pit 1 in Trench IV (D.11.673). 2: Section A-B from the north with a circular hole in the foreground (P.89.442). 3: Section A-B of Pit 1 in Trench IV.


Fig. 65 - Endrd, site 3/39. 1: Trench III, the vessel of the stone hoard from the west (P.89.460). 2: The same from the south (P.89.457). 3: The same from the west (P.89.462). 4: Male clay figurine. Surface find from the area of Pit 1 in Trench IV, 1976 (P.109.574; Inv. no. 78.34.4). 5: Horn of consecration, part of a bull statue from Trench VII, 30-60 cm (D.13.233).


Fig. 66 - Endrd, site 3/39. Pit 1 in Trench VIII/1977 (= Pit 1 in Trenches VIII-X, XIV and XIX). 1: Plan. 2: Section A-B. 3: Section C-D.


Fig. 67 - Endrd, site 3/39 and 3/119. 1: Reconstructed clay figurine from Pit 1 in Trench VIII/1977. The upper part from Trench X/90-110 cm, the lower part from Trench XIX/South (drawing by K. rps). 2: White painted figurine of a dog from Endrd, site 3/119, Trench 44/Southwest, 70-90 cm. 3: Head of a lion figurine from Endrd, site 3/119, Pit 9 in Trench 19 (see fig. 83).


Fig. 68 - Endrd, site 3/39. 1: Pit 1 in Trench VIII/1977 from the northeast (P.93.981). 2: House 1 in Trench X/extension, with net-weights from the south (P.94.019). 3: Detail of the net-weights (drawings by E. Starnini).

of the southeastern part of Trench I was puzzling. During the fieldworks I considered the possibility that the pit had been excavated during the building of the house to extract clay for making its wattle-and-daub plastered walls and was left open for a while during the life of the house. Another possibility is that the pit was opened later and cut into the southeastern part of the house. Both these possibilities are to be left open. This is why the pottery of the two assemblages were kept separately while the cultural material collected above of 68 cm was mixed, except for the vessels reconstructed from conjoining fragments found in the western grid squares of Trench I, belonging to House 1. A detailed pottery analysis demonstrates the chronological difference between the two


Fig. 69 - Endrd, site 3/39. 1: Oven in Trench VIII at the bottom of the internal depression, section. 2: House 1 in Trench XX (P.99.138). The arrow marks the place of the pit of the foundation ritual. 3: House in Trench XX, fragment of a flat clay weight (D.14.930). 4: Reconstructed vessel from the house in Trench XX. 5: Reconstructed vessel no. 12 from the house in Trench XX (Inv. no. 78.159.16).


Fig. 70 - Endrd, site 3/39. 1-2: Pit 1 in Trench XVIII, plan (D.14.205) and section D-D (D.14.206). 3-4: Reconstructed vessels found in Pit 1 in Trench XVIII/90-120 cm. Inv. nos. 78.159.12 (right) and 78.159.8 (left).


Fig. 71 - Endrd, site 3/39. 1-5: House 1 in Trench XX. 1: The foundation deposit, section. 2: The foundation deposit (P.99.110a). 3-4: Reconstructed vessels from the foundation deposit. Inv. nos. 79.6.1024 (3) and 78.159.13 (4). 5: Reconstructed vessel 6 from the house (Inv. no. 78.159.16).


Fig. 72 - Endrd, site 3/39. 1-2: Pit 1 in Trench XXX, plan and section (D.14.207).

assemblages. The house layer had been damaged by later grave pits, even though they did not make the interpretation of the internal sequence difficult, and their fill did not contain any potsherd. The cleaning of the pit showed that its eastern part was 115 cm deep, while its western side 195 cm. Potsherds and animal bones were abundant in the deeper layers of the western half, among which were a few fine bone tools. The sterile layer below the buried soil was found beneath the house at a depth of some 90 cm. More thorough cleaning did not reveal the contours of any posthole or other feature. It is to be mentioned that the limited extension of Trench I did not permit the complete excavation of this house (fig. 62, 1). It was, most probably surface-built and the postholes (if any) excavated into the buried, black surface soil, deposited above the virgin clay during the Early Holocene (MAKKAY, 1999b). Its contours became distinct between 40 and 74 cm, marked by a loose, brown soil with many yellow, unburnt plaster fragments. This layer contained a great number of reconstructed vessels.


6.1.2. The second season: September 16th-24th, 1976

After the first season, the fertile soil of the entire land parcel, south of the Katona farmstead, owned by the Kolkhoz, was loosened and ploughed. During the field walking, 8-9 very thick scatters of surface-built houses, and/or refuse pits were found, with a rich greyish fill lying on the western and eastern side of the internal depression. Trench II/1976 was laid out above one of these greyish marks, east of Trench I/1975. It was 13 m long and 3 m wide (fig. 60). The first spit, between 20 and 40 cm, was a dry, lumpy soil. It contained very few Krs fragments, compared with the richness of the surface scatter. The arbitrary layer between 40/50-70 cm was a layer different from the preceding one. It was compact, yellowish and clayey, with red-burnt patches and also a great number of large, red burnt plaster fragments at its top. The layer above was ashy, dark greyish, while the layer below was greyish subsoil. The yellow clay between them was considered the unburnt clay of walls and floor of a Krs house built on the surface (House 1 in Trench III in fig. 60), while the red burnt fragments, very probably belonged to its roof and wall construction. In order to discover this house, we made a 6.5x4 m extension (Trench III/1976) joining the southern wall of Trench II. Nevertheless, it was impossible to recognise the house layer because the deep soil loosening had highly damaged it. The fallen debris of this house contained very few Krs finds probably because its inhabitants (probably a household farm occupied by a single family) emptied it when they moved away. The arbitrary layer between 70-90 cm was an almost sterile deposit of yellowish-brownish soil, damaged by many animal burrows, with no visible features such as postholes. In the centre of Trench III, there were larger plaster fragments in a pile between 50-65 cm. They were most probably wall fragments of a domed oven outside the perimeter of the house, destroyed by soil loosening129. A large ash pit belonging to this oven was found 75 and 100 cm to its southeast. The most remarkable find of this season was an almost complete vessel in the same eastern corner of Trench III at a depth of 60-70 cm, containing a hoard of chipped stone artefacts (fig. 65, 1-3). The hoard was published by KACZANOWSKA et al. (1981). The circumstances of its discovery are briefly described here. As mentioned already, Trenches II-III/1976 yielded part of House 1 in Trench III (fig. 60) made of yellow clay and timber on the upper surface of the Neolithic soil. According to its location, the hoard belonged to the inhabitants of this building. Nevertheless it did not. The house was most probably abandoned without burning and, consequently, the remains of the walls, floor and probably also the roof, formed an unfired, compact yellow clay layer with occasional burnt wattle-and-daub fragments. At the eastern corner of this house, the debris was composed of the above-mentioned collapsed oven (or fireplace) associated with the house, which lay at the same level outside it. Heavy clay weights were discovered amongst the stones of this oven, most probably hung on the outer wall to dry or storage (see the similar position of the clay net-weights in Trench X/extension around the western end of House 1 in Trench X: fig. 68, 1 and 2). An ash pit was found slightly below, east of the open-air hearth. It presumably contained the old ashes from the hearth. The vessel with the flint hoard was discovered a few cms deeper than the house, close to the eastern part of this pit (fig. 65, 1-3) in a loose, greyish, ashy layer. The rim of the small, globular jar, with a low cylindrical neck, which contained 101 flakes of honey-coloured flint, had been intentionally chipped off. A knob or a handle had been broken off from its body. The opening was covered with a lid obtained from the base of a large container. The vessel had been deposited (hidden) in a standing position after the abandonment of the house, because a 25-30 cm thick humus layer covered this part of the site, and the pit with the hoard had been most probably excavated through this layer (KACZANOWSKA et al., 1981: 105-117, figs. 1-10; MAKKAY, 1999a: fig. 2). Concerning the chronology of the hoard: if the house can be referred to the Classic (or Middle) Krs Culture, the vessel might belong to a slightly later period of the same phase, which is not characterised from a typological point of view. The pottery assemblage from the house is represented by Krs types. Since the hoard vessel is of a type which is common throughout the whole sequence of the culture, it is not possible to date it more precisely than to the Classic (Middle) phase. For the technical and cultural conclusions see KACZANOWSKA et al. (1981: 116). Pit 1, in Trench III/1976, was discovered within the house debris. It is of a much later period, after the abandonment of the house, and contained the skull of a dog. Its cultural attribution is still undefined. It is probably to be attributed to the Scythian period. Pit 2, in Trench II/1976, was found near the northern wall of the trench. It contained a complete two-handled, wheel-thrown vessel of probably Sarmatian period.

The box reference numbers of Trenches II-III are: B23a+b = Trench II/1976, 0-70 cm. B24a+b+c = Trench II/1976, West, above the house in Trenches II-III + Trench III/1976, above the house, 20-50 cm. B25a+b = Trench III/1976, East, 50-70 cm, fill of the house in Trenches II-III. B26 = Trench III/1976, West, 50-70 cm, fill of the house in Trenches II-III. B27 = extension of Trench III/1976, E-W, 0-90 cm. B28a+b = extension of house in Trench III, fill of the house in Trenches II-III.


Trench IV/1976 was opened in the kitchen garden of the Katona farmstead, between Trench I and the farmhouse to its north (fig. 64, 1-3). It measured 10x3.5 m. Before World War Two, the ploughed soil of this area was used to erect a low elevation where to build the farmhouse, as a result of which a shallow depression, of light greyish colour, was still visible with very rich Krs Culture surface remains. Nevertheless, as mentioned above, this garden was never affected by deep soil loosening. The field walking led to the discovery of two fragments of flat stone axes and one complete clay figurine representing an old man: a unique find within the Krs assemblages that demonstrates the richness and variety of the Krs plastic art (fig. 65, 4). They all belong to the fill of the lower-lying pit (MAKKAY, 1993: 73, fig. 3, 3 with note 12). A 10 cm surface layer was removed by shovel, and the first arbitrary layer was excavated between 10 and 40 cm. It contained many potsherds, and belonged to the ploughed soil. After cleaning and deepening into the next arbitrary layer, between 40 and 70 cm, the western and central part of the trench revealed a compact yellow layer of unburnt house plaster, very similar to the house debris of Trenches I-II-III at the same depth. Also in this case the yellow layer contained potsherds grouped into wider or smaller, circular depressions. One of them contained large fragments of a large container decorated with coarse channelled barbotine (so-called Schlickwurf). Fragments of the same vessel were also found in the first arbitrary layer and on the surface. They probably belonged to a large storage jar, similar to those deposited in the outer zones of the Krs settlements as part of sacrificial deposits130. The large container was placed in a narrow pit, or depression, in which we observed traces of firing between the pit wall and the vessel. Nevertheless, the outer vessel walls did not show any trace of burning. In the southeastern corner of the trench, large, burnt plaster fragments were discovered, among which was a large specimen with the impression of a large wooden beam. Here, the outline of a pit with a greyish fill was observed in the uppermost part of Pit 1. The greyish-yellowish virgin soil was found at some 70 cm of depth, disturbed by many animal burrows in other parts of the trench. Here the house was also built on the Neolithic surface, although the original Early Holocene grey layer was absent. The outlines of two pits were recognised after cleaning at a depth of some 40 cm. The fill of Pit 2 contained a recent refuse in a loose ashy soil, while Pit 1, in the south-southeastern part of Trench IV, yielded many finds, potsherds and other Krs Culture remains (fig. 64, 1-3). In the next arbitrary layer, between 40 and 70 cm, this rich pit fill continued. Small, sooty deposits containing many land snails were discovered in the grey Neolithic subsoil, in the northeastern corner. The finds from Pit 1 were collected separately, according to the arbitrary layers, from the depth of 40 cm downwards. Its fill, between 40 and 70 cm, was composed of a light, loose grey soil with much ash and burnt remains. The cleaning at a depth of 70 cm showed the outline of the pit, which extended beyond both the eastern and southern trench walls (fig. 64, 1). Before continuing the excavation, we opened two extensions in that direction (2x4 m southwards, and 1.2x1.2 m eastwards). After removing the uppermost 40 cm thick ploughed layer, finds of the next layer were collected as belonging to Pit 1. The potsherds between 40 and 50 cm were found in a compact, blackish, thin layer, which had developed as the uppermost fill of Pit 1. Its finds were undoubtedly part of the pit assemblage. The next 10 cm thick loose layer, not represented in the profile drawing of fig. 64, 3, had a light, yellowish colour with much ash and burnt remains, corresponding to the house layer found outside the pit, in the northwestern part of the trench. It was interpreted as the backfill of the pit, during or soon after the life of a nearby house. From this depth downwards, we started to collect small fishbones very carefully, firstly from the thin, ashy layers and deposits where they were abundant together with many freshwater molluscs131. A fragment of a small clay figurine was found in the arbitrary layer below 50 cm, and its adjoining part was deeper in the fill. Below the depth of 70 cm we continued to work only in the part of the pit in Trench IV to prepare a profile between this part and the southern extension (fig. 64, 2 and 3). We removed the layers according to their characteristics, and the next was a grey ashy fill between 70 and 110 cm in the centre of the pit. It was a rich, thick deposit, which did not extend to the walls of the pit. At the latter place it was deposited on the top of a more humid and yellow fill, around the whole perimeter of the pit wall. Finds (sherds and animal bones) were abundant in the ashy layer and a few were found in the yellowish fill. Between 110 and 130, the humid fill also yielded many remains. However, their number systematically dropped compared to the upper layers. The pit suddenly tightened below 130 cm and continued to deep in its central part. Its fill was very humid and compact with much charcoal and soot, mixed with poorly fired, yellow plaster fragments. Thin ashy layers were present in this part of

MAKKAY (1992: 123, note 4). Already J. Banner had noticed at the site Hdmezvsrhely-Vata tanya, that single large vessels were found in a standing position and in a unique intact state of preservation. For a full list of such intentionally deposited large containers see MAKKAY (2005a). 131. Hundreds or thousands of these fish bones were given to S. Bknyi for identification, but he unfortunately lost all of them. Respective fieldnotes contain the detailed description of the collecting of these small fish bones.


the fill, alternating with thin layers of soot and charcoal, with burnt clay plastering at their top. We recorded three of these short-term fireplaces at a depth between 70 and 130 cm, with a diameter of some 70 cm. Below 130 cm, two small and deep depressions were found in the pit excavated throughout the yellow clay virgin soil: one circular and one oblong. Their fill was similar to that of the layer above them. Half of the wall of one of them was lined with large pottery fragments, like tiling, although this slip did not extend down to the bottom surface (fig. 64, 3 bottom)132. No traces of fire or burning was recorded here and, from this point of view, this central depression was different from a similar one discovered at Endrd 3/119, Trench 7, with a fill of undoubted sacrificial character (figs. 75, 1 and 77, bottom)133. The oblong depression contained large burnt wattle-and-daub fragments, which had been probably parts of the house wall, oven or fireplace. Unfortunately the 6-7 large fragments did not conjoin and it was not possible to reconstruct their original shape and structure. They were thrown here, probably after the deliberate destruction of the structure. After drawing the profile of the northern side of the baulk (fig. 64, 2 and 3) we removed it and continued the excavation of the southern part of the pit in the extension. A leg of a very large, seated clay figurine was found in the baulk, at a depth of 120 and 130 cm. Fragments of 3-4 different clay figurines were discovered in its close vicinity, suggesting that fragments of probably intentionally destroyed small statuettes were deposited in this part of the refuse pit. They were found in the deepest part of the fill on the virgin loess deposit. The southernmost part of the pit extended beyond the southern wall of the southern extension. It was impossible to open it because of the short time at our disposal. At the same time, in the southeastern corner of the eastern extension, the trench wall was heavily burnt due to the presence of a complete, domed oven, whose floor lay below 70 cm. Its inner part was filled with ash. Unfortunately there was no possibility to excavate it and its remains, covered by a plastic sheet, are still waiting to be resumed.

6.1.3. The third season: October 22nd-29th, 1976

This campaign was directed by B. M. Szke. Its scope was to collect more information about the two cemeteries, i.e. the early Sarmatian and the X-XI centuries AD Early rpdian graveyard. Trenches V-VII134 were excavated, and Trench V joined the eastern wall of Trench I/1974 with a baulk of 1 m (figs. 59 and 60). The Krs pottery was mainly found in the western part of this trench, along a stretch 19 m long and 3 m wide. The vessel fragments probably belonged to a refuse pit, independent from Pit 1, in Trench I/1975. Its outline, to the west, was quite clear, while the eastern edge remained uncertain down to the depth of 130 cm. The 1977 excavations in this area yielded a very poor pottery assemblage and its deepest part reached 140 cm. In the central and eastern part, a black fill occupied the whole trench. The deepening of this thick fill coincided with the internal depression between two rows of Krs houses already described in the general part above, and also below (see the description of Trenches VIII and XIX; fig. 60, Trench V). According to Szkes field notes the unnumbered Krs pit contained a rich pottery and animal bone assemblage. His field notes, however, mention only one Krs pit in Trench V, while its material was grouped into four pits (1-4) as shown by our box reference numbers135. Trenches VI (20x3 m) and VII (15x3 m) were opened in a N-S direction at the top of the low kurgan southeast of the farmhouse, near a dirt road along an irrigation canal. There was a 50 cm wide baulk between their junctions. The extension of the excavation was carried out according to the suggestion of the excavator, because both the Sarmatian and rpdian groups preferred to place their burials on low elevations (i.e. kurgans). Concerning the Krs finds, except for the sporadic occurrence of pottery and wattle-and-daub fragments, a rich concentration of material was recognised in the southern end of Trench VII. It yielded very characteristic sherds among which are large pieces of fired clay that lay below a compact, continuous yellow layer (probably the partly unburnt house debris above an earlier refuse pit). This question remained unanswered because the excavation ended without completing the recovery of these features. The clearance made in 1978, showed that an accumulation of house debris (i.e. large burnt wattle-and-daub fragments), which belonged to a Krs Culture surface-built, burnt house, very much affected by deep soil loosening, was present in this part, east of Trenches

For a close parallel of this practise see Endrd 3/119, the description of sacrificial Pit A5. This part of the sacrificial Pit A5 or Pit 12, however, showed traces of heavy burning. 133. Sacrificial Pit A1 (MAKKAY, 1992: the general map and p. 131; 1987: 144 and 145, figs. 5 and 6. See also below). For the parallels of these internal pits occasionally lined with fragments of large vessels see Pit 1 in Trench XVIII below (fig. 70, 2), and also the fragments of a reconstructed large bowl in posthole 2 in Trench 34 and in Pit 12 in Trench 33 at Endrd, 3/119: fig. 99, 2. See also Endrd 3/39, Pit 1 in Trench IV: fig. 64, 3. 134. I later changed the original Arabic numbers of the trenches into Roman numerals. 135. B36 = Trench V/1976, arbitrary layers 1-2. B37a+b+c = Trench V/1976, western part + baulk, 75+95 cm. B38a+b = Trench V1976, black soil in the east and middle part of Trench B39 = Trench V/1976, West, Western Pit, 95-120 cm. B40 = Trench V/1976, above Pit 1. B41a+b = Trench V/1976, Pit 1. B42 = Trench V/1976, Pit 2. B43a+b+c+d+e+f = Trench V/1976, Pit 3. B44 = Trench V/1976, Pit 4. For a detailed description of their finds see volume 2.


VI and VII. This accumulation was identical to that of House 1 in Trench X/1977, i.e. its easternmost corner in Trench XIII (fig. 60). The remains of this house were also found at the junction of Trenches VI and VII, where, according to the field notes large wattle-and-daub fragments were to be seen lying in a regular row on the top of the Neolithic subsoil, very probably belonging to a Krs house. Finally the eastern strip of Trench VI was excavated down to the virgin soil to retrieve a section of the kurgan. Grave 15 was the central grave of the Late Copper Age Pit-Grave Culture kurgan (fig. 61, 2). It was disturbed by grave robbers, probably in Sarmatian times, and the only grave good found was a pierced animal tooth (MRT8, 1989: 144 and fig. 10, 4 and 5). The excavation was stopped at this point and the trenches were kept open, hoping to continue the work during the next year.

6.1.4. The fourth season: September 6th-23rd, 1977

As already mentioned, in 1976the local Kolkhoz made a deep soil loosening in a large plot of land, south of the kitchen garden of the Katona farmhouse. This work damaged many graves, mainly of the Arpadian period, which lay close to the present surface. As a consequence, human bones were visible all over the surface, especially in the area of the low kurgan. With the financial support of the Central Offices of the Academy and the Bks County Museum, a three-week rescue operation was carried out, whose main scope was the excavation of Trenches VIII-XIV/1977 and the recovery of the Sarmatian and Early rpdian Graves 17-81. Trench VIII/1977 (25x3 m) was opened conjoining the northern end of Trench VI. The first arbitrary layer was excavated below the loose, ploughed, humic soil, between 60-80/85 cm. It was an irregular, compact, yellowish-greyish layer, at the top of the virgin clay, with the contours of the grave pits. The dark grey humus continued to a depth of 50-75 cm in the northern part of Trench VIII. The original perimeter of the kurgan, i.e. the circular ditch or depression around it, was found here, filled with a grey soil derived from the uppermost ploughing. Another probable reason for the formation of this depression was the above-mentioned, internal canal. The evidence recorded during the excavation of Trenches IX and XIX supported this view. After cleaning at a depth of some 70 cm, the outline of the easternmost part of a large Krs pit (Trench VIII/1977, Pit 1136) was observed on the surface of the yellow, compact soil with many animal burrows. A small part of it had already been discovered in the northern edge of Trench VI/1976, although it had not been recognised before. Fortunately only a small grave of a child (Grave 18) was cut into its uppermost fill, and its layers were left undisturbed. To define the extension of Pit 1, Trench IX (25x3 m, reaching the width of 3.5 m, at the northern edge) was opened 6 m west of Trench VIII, at a distance of 6 m (Trench XIX was opened in between in 1978). Abundant Krs finds, mainly potsherds, were brought to light in the southern part of Trench VIII, in arbitrary layers 50-70 cm, 70-90 cm, and also in 90-110 cm. The two upper layers were composed of a greyish, loose fill, extending over other parts of the trench, while the arbitrary layer 90-110 cm belonged to the brownish fill of the refuse pit and contained much ash. The cleaning of the surface of the virgin yellow clay, at some 120 cm, clearly showed the outline of the pit. The arbitrary layers between 90 and 110 and 110-120/130 cm yielded a rich pottery assemblage. Below this depth, we continued to work only in the fill of Pit 1. It became obvious that a small part of it, formerly separated as Pit 2 in Trench VIII/1977, was only a shallow depression of Pit 1, with more ash. It was located near Grave 26, along the western wall of Trench VIII, which contained Krs finds. The ashy layer extended to the southernmore parts of the trench. It was 90 cm thick, at its southern edge. It probably lay near an unexcavated oven built on the Neolithic surface. The fill below 120 cm was different. It was of brownish colour between 120 and 150 cm, with a compact brown layer containing few finds beneath it (fig. 66, 2 and 3). After removing the disturbed, uppermost soil of Trench IX to a depth of some 60 cm, the first arbitrary layer between 60 and 90 cm contained an undisturbed, compact, black soil, within most of the trench, while a grey-yellowish fill was found, at a depth of 50-55 cm, at its northernmost edge, with many animal burrows. The rich fill of Pit 1 was found in a grey, ashy layer, below the black humus. It continued below and became wider towards the north, i.e. the black inner depression, where its surface lay at a depth of 110 cm, 7 m from the southern edge of Trench IX.

Unfortunately the first section of this pit was uncovered in 1976, in Trench VI, while some other parts were excavated during the 1978 season. As a result its material was collected under different trench numbers. During the post-excavation restauration works, different labels (i.e. Pit 1 in Trenches VI, VIII, IX, X, XIV and XIX) were unified as Trench VIII/1977, Pit 1, always referring to the exact location of the finds in the different trenches. The box reference numbers are as follows: B48a-h, B53a-c, B54a-h, B56a-c, B59a-b, B60, B61a-b, B64, B65a-b, B66a-b, B67, B68a-b, B69, B78a-f, B79a-k, B85a-h, B87a-i, B88a-t, B89a-f, and B93a-h. This was the largest and richest pit amongst all the features excavated during my Krs campaigns.


The uppermost 10-15 cm of this greyish, ashy layer was very hard, compact and partly burnt in some places. It yielded many vessel fragments and three stamp-seals, at a depth of 123-130 cm. These three pieces were found very close to each other in this rubbish pit, perhaps associated with the surface built house excavated in Trench XX/1978 (MAKKAY, 1984: 20, 53-55). The black fill outside Pit 1, in the central and northern parts of Trench IX, yielded exclusively sporadic Krs finds between 50 and 80 cm. Only its western half was excavated, which was deeper in a smaller area 9.5 m long. Red, burnt plaster fragments were found between 130 and 155 cm, together with fragments of several large ceramic containers and many net-weights. The burnt wall plaster fragments belonged to a domed oven built on the Neolithic yellow clay surface, at the bottom of the inner depression (fig. 69, 1). This surface was covered by a very thin, dark, Neolithic subsoil. The oven wall was built directly on the top of the yellow clay virgin soil, and was heavily burnt. The inner surface of the 7-8 cm wide plastered wall of the oven was smoothed while the outer was rough. 3 large net-weights were found in the oven, and 7 complete specimens just south of it. The top of the oven lay at a depth of 147 cm, covered by the compact, hard, black fill of the later erosional deposit. The black deposit contained many Krs sherds in a secondary position, brought here by erosion. An extension might have been opened here to recover the whole construction, but the area between two rows of houses, seemed very promising for further excavations because of the presence of well preserved Early Neolithic constructions. The excavated evidence from this part of the depression, suggests that it was part of a river meander, closed before the Early Neolithic, because its sedimentation process was still active during the Krs times. It was similar to the meander of the pre-Neolithic Kondoros River at Szarvas 8/23, although this latter was not closed when the site was settled (see above). The depression continues towards the north and another part of it was discovered in Trench V (fig. 60). During the further work, Trench X (21x3 m) was opened west of Trench VI. Deeper arbitrary layers, containing cultural remains, were excavated parallel to those in Trench IX, especially the fill of the large Pit 1 in Trench VIII. Fragments similar to the above-mentioned large wattle-and-daub specimens, first noticed in Trench VI, were found also here. They lay at the top of the brownish subsoil, between 55-60 cm, and were 34-40 cm wide and 35-40 cm thick. They were distributed over an area 1 m wide near Trench VI, although their layer continued towards the south and north in a 15-30 cm wide yellow clay strip. Amongst the wattle-and-daub fragments, there were large pieces of large jars with human and animal plastic representations. The burnt wattle-and-daub fragments and the yellow deposit at the southern edge of Trench X and the adjoining parts of Trenches VI and VII, belonged to the same Krs Culture surface-built house, called House 1 in Trench X (figs. 60 and 68, 2 and 3). It was very disturbed by deep soil loosening137. Parts of the house, which lay out of Trenches VI, VII and X (west of Trench X), were later excavated in two western extensions (fig. 60, near Trench X, squares unnumbered on the map: see the net-weights cluster). A profile of the eastern wall of Trench X shows that the house was built on the top of the Neolithic subsoil, at a depth of some 70-100 cm. The bottom layer of the kurgan, above the stratified house rubble, was found at a depth of 100 cm. The destruction layer of the house consisted of burnt wattle-and-daub fragments, on the southern part, and unburnt yellow clay at the other edge, deposited above the Neolithic surface without a plastered house floor (it had either a trampled earth floor or simply a rammed down soil). A thin, burnt layer subdivided this yellow clay deposit into two horizontal strips, perhaps representing the renewal of the house. The surface of the light brown subsoil showed that the house was placed on a small elevation, which had been levelled. The sherds amongst the wattle-and-daub fragments were heavily burnt. This circumstance suggests that at least the southern edge of the house (a southern room?) had been destroyed by a heavy fire. The upper part of the house debris was disturbed by soil loosening. A body sherd of a storage jar shows a plastic representation of a woman. As mentioned above, an extension was made west of the southern end of Trench X in order to recover the western part of House 1. During the cleaning, a long, sinuous row of net-weights (at least 88 complete pieces of very different typology) was found at the westernmost edge of House l, lying outside the area, covered with wattle-and-daub fragments (fig. 68, 2 and 3). They might represent the remains of a complete fishing net kept close to the wall of the house or hung on the wall for drying. A complete specimen of Szarvas type balancing net-weight was found amongst them. The Szarvas specimen shows that it was bound to the strong lower string of a dragnet (fig. 68, 3)138. Further fragments of large, relief decorated ceramic containers were also found. Nevertheless, during the post-excavation restoration works, we were unable to reconstruct most of the vessel shapes (for the only exception see MAKKAY and STARNINI, forthcoming 2, fig. 240, 1, the reconstruction drawn by E. Starnini)139.
137. 138.

Box reference numbers B70a+b+c+d+e = Trench X/1977, House 1 + extension, and also B77. MAKKAY in MRT8 (1989: 481 and note 12, and Pl. 3, 6a-b and 7). The site where the piece was discovered is unknown, perhaps Szarvas 8/8. See also MAKKAY (2001c: first cover and 8, with note 3). 139. The reason of the unsuccesfull attempts to reconstruct these containers was that parts of them were sent by S. Bknyi to Szarvas Museum, during the restoration works. See PB, no. 119, now in the collections of Szarvas Museum.


Trench XIII was opened east of the adjoining ends of Trenches VI and VII, to locate the eastern edge of House 1 in Trench X. A few more relief-decorated sherds were found in the easternmost corner of the house, in Trench XIII. Outside the house, a greyish, ashy fill was observed at a depth of 60 cm, although this area remained unexcavated. Trench XII was opened east of Trench VIII and parallel to it, while Trench XIV was south of Trench XIX, at the southern end of Trench IX (most of Pit 1 in Trench VIII/1977 lay in the southern part of Trench XIX, excavated in 1978). Trench XII did not yield any Krs feature except for a number of fragments of large Krs containers, which were found in the grey subsoil in its northern part. They did not seem to belong to any context, although a very fine, white, powdery deposit covered both their surfaces. On the other hand, there were further fragments of large containers (partly with relief decoration) in the southern part of Trench XIV, very probably belonging to the contents of House 1 in Trench X, once kept outside the house. They were found on the same grey subsoil, which served as a platform for building the house. The remains of Pit 1 in Trench VIII/1977 were found in the northeastern part of the trench. As already observed, an ashy fill was found between 60 and 100 cm. It contained a very rich pottery assemblage and animal bones. The fill consisted of a loose brown soil below the ashy layer, with much less cultural remains. The deepest part of this pit most probably lay below the l m wide baulk between Trenches X and XIV. Unfortunately this part of the site remained unexcavated because of the huge pile of backfill deposited on it. The area between Trenches VIII and IX was prepared for further excavation to carry out the following season (Trench XIX) and the uppermost ploughed soil was removed with a bulldozer. All the subsoil below the black layer contained Krs Culture potsherds. In Trench XI, the Neolithic remains were very much affected by later grave pits. The excavation of the fill of Pit 1, in Trenches IX and X, was conducted in arbitrary layers below 80, 100 and again 130 cm. The pit was cut into the Neolithic brown subsoil, some 50 cm thick, with its opening at some 80 cm of depth140. Parts of the pit below 130 cm were cut into the yellow loess subsoil. The deepest part of the pit, in Trench X, was 272 cm deep, and the fill of this depression was identical to that of the lowermost layer: a grey soil with much ash and small charcoal pieces. The head of a clay statuette was found close to the northern edge of Trench X, at a depth of 90-110 cm, and two fragments of the lower part of the same, beautifully decorated figurine, were discovered in an adjoining part of Trench XIX (southern end) during the 1978 campaign (MAKKAY, 1993: figs. 1 and 2, 1a-d; 1998: fig. 16) (fig. 67, 1). The small, steatopygous, figurines of the Krs Culture very rarely are decorated with incised patterns: in this case they represent bird wings. This magnificent female representation was misinterpreted by M. GIMBUTAS (1989: 231, fig. 358) as a phallic figurine141. The profile drawings of Pit 1, on the western baulk wall, in Trench IX (from the east: not represented here), Trench XIX (western wall, seen from the east: Section D-C, fig. 66, 3) and along the eastern wall of Trench VIII (Section A-B taken from the west: fig. 66, 2) can be summarised as follows: a. The deepest layer was found in the lower part of the pit, down to the virgin clay. It had a brownish, compact fill, with a few finds in its lowermost part, at various depths (deepest point at 272 cm in Trench X). b. It was followed by a greyish, ashy layer of variable thickness between 70 and 120/130 cm, with traces of burning, also on the palaeosurface outside the pit. It contained much pottery. c. A some 20 cm thick, black colluvial layer coming from erosion of the kurgan. d. A ca 60 cm thick, uppermost ploughed layer heavily disturbed by soil loosening. Trench XI/1977 (21x6 m) was opened 6 m east of Trench VIII. Trench XII, covering the whole area between Trenches VIII and XI, was opened later.

6.1.5. The fifth season: September 4th-29th, 1978

A continuous row of three long Trenches XV (20x3 m), XVI (25x3 m) and XVII (20x3 m) was opened north of Trenches II-III/1976. The northwestern corner of Trench II lay at the junction of Trenches XV and XVI. The presence of Krs finds was very scarce, with the exception of fragments of a large Krs container in Trench XV near grave 82142. The vessel was originally deposited upside down together with other Krs sherds, animal bones and burnt wattle-and-daub fragments, but the soil loosening disturbed the highest parts, i.e. the base and
140. 141.

This depth is due to kurgan covering the Neolithic deposits. According to this author this figurine has a phallic head with lower part shaped like testicles. The correct spelling of the site is Endrd-Szujkereszt, and her reference to my 1985 paper at p. 362 (Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology, vol. 3) is incorrect: such a paper does not exist at all. 142. The box reference number is B106 = Trench XVI/1977, the small pit near Grave 88.


the lower walls of the vessel. It was probably a large storage jar of a type frequently deposited outside the village, or in temporarily uninhabited settlements, which also occur as parts of sacrificial deposits (foundation sacrifices, primitiae offerings, sacrificial pits, etc.) inside the settlement features (MAKKAY, 1992: 123 and 124). Another Krs structure was discovered in Trench XV, at the distance of 3-3.5 m from grave 88. A greyish fill with many sherds, at a depth of spit 30-60 cm suggested the presence of a Krs refuse pit. Its length, in the trench, was some 8 m. The cleaning, at a depth of 90 cm, showed the outline of Krs Pit 1, in Trench XVIII/1978 (fig. 70, 1-4)143. Thanks to an extension, opened north of Trench XV (Trench XVIII/1978: 6x6 m), it was possible to excavate this pit. The first arbitrary layer, between 30 and 60 cm above it, was loose, with much ash. It yielded a rich pottery assemblage, with large burnt wattle-and-daub fragments accumulated along the northern wall of the trench, extending further north outside it. It was impossible to clean the ash surface at 60 cm, where a complete antler axe was found during its scraping (MAKKAY, 1990a: 51 and Abb. 19, 4, wrongly attributed to Pit 1 in Trench XVI). At this depth, the trench was subdivided into two parts: West and East. The western part was excavated in order to draw its profile above and inside the pit (fig. 72, 2). The field notes and drawings show an accumulated greyish, ashy fill below the disturbed plough soil, with white, thin levels of ash in the southern part of the pit, and large wattle-and-daub fragments in and above its northern part, probably belonging to the debris of a surface house north of this unexcavated pit. A compact, brown, clayey level, almost without finds, was recovered below the ashy fill. A circular, shallow depressions in the northern part, into the virgin clay, contained a thin, black deposit (of soot?) at its bottom and lower wall144. A rich pottery assemblage was found in the grey, ashy layer, mainly in those parts represented in the profile (fig. 70, 2 and 3). The small, northernmost part of this pit extended further to the north, outside Trench XVIII. It was left unexcavated. The pit assemblage yielded Classic Krs characteristic vessels, and a few Late Krs pieces, a fragment of a typical, carinated, Protovina low bowl, associated with a fine channelled fragment and a fluted decorated vessel (MAKKAY, 1990: 120, and Pl. 1, 16 and 4, 9 and 13). Other Krs Culture features and find scatters from Trenches XV-XVII seem irrelevant compared with other features. For example, the sporadic occurrence of Krs pottery in the greyish subsoil between 30 and 90 cm, especially in the western part of Trench XVII145. Trench XIX (25x6 m) was opened between Trenches VIII and IX/1977. It was excavated in two sections: first East and then West. As mentioned above, the disturbed uppermost 60 cm had already been removed in 1977. A black deposit was observed in the northern part of the trench, while the greyish fill of Pit 1, in Trench VIII/1977, was noticed in its central and southern parts, with a rich ceramic and faunal assemblage. This area was excavated in arbitrary layers of 60-90, 90-120 and 120-150 cm. Most of the large pit was in Trench XIX and only its peripherical parts extended into the neighbouring trenches. The squared Pit 2 was discovered in the northern part of Trench XIX. It contained a black soil, with grey earth lumps and fragments of poorly fired Krs vessels. Its chronology is uncertain, although it was probably much later than the Early Neolithic. House 1, in Trench XX (12x10 m), was found in Trench VI during the 1976 excavations, although it also extended to Trench XXV (10x4 m: figs. 60; 69, 2-5 and 71, 1-5). The uppermost ploughed and loosened soil was removed first, revealing characteristic house debris (burnt wattle-and-daub fragments, red-burnt powder-like soil, vessel fragments and net-weights) over most of it, at a depth of some 50-60 cm. Pits of later graves, soil loosening and other intrusions disturbed the house, although conjoining vessels fragments were found in several places (figs. 69, 4 and 5 and 71, 3-5). The basic building material of the walls was unfired, heavily chaff-tempered, yellow clay. The fragments were fired red, although originally they might have been sun-dried. The unprepared floor of stamped earth lay on a sterile alluvial brown soil. Apart from a unique foundation sacrifice pit (figs. 60 and 71, 1 and 2), the only structural remains associated with the large wattle and daub fragments were three large postholes excavated into the virgin soil beneath the house floor (fig. 60). One lay at the edge of the wattle-and-daub remains. These posts might have supported large roof beams and/or reinforced the walls. No information is available about the wall height and slope, corner binding and roof construction. Some wattle-and-daub fragments were large lumps of

B112a+b+c+d+e+f+g+h = Trench XVIII/1978, Pit 1, 30-60 cm. B113a+b+c = Trench XVIII/1978, west, 30-120 cm. B114a+b+c+d+e = Trench XVIII/1978, east, 50-110 cm (= Pit 1). B115 = Trench XVIII/1978, east, Pit 1, 110-150 cm. B116a+b+c+d+e+f = Trench XVIII/1978, west, 60-90 cm. B117a+b = Trench XVIII/1978, west, 90-120 cm. B118a+b = Trench XVIII/1978, west, Pit 1, 120-150 cm. B119 = Trench XVIII/1978, 60-90 cm. B120 = Trench XVIII/1978, west, Pit 1. B121 = Trench XVIII/1978, Pit 1. 144. For its parallels see Pit 1 in Trench IV above (fig. 64, 3) and also Endrd 119 (fig. 99, 2). 145. Box reference numbers B110 and B111.


chaff-tempered clay with parallel impressions of medium-sized beams, planks or branches, up to 15-20 cm of diameter. A tentative reconstruction would include the vertical walls and a roof of medium-sized timbers overlaid by a chaff-tempered mud plaster covering. The walls were plastered inside and probably also outside. The house was probably divided in two halves as indicated by its plan and hourglass shape (fig. 60). The distribution of the artefacts within the house was a combination of scattered refuse (vessel fragments, bone implements, spindle whorls, etc.) and pots broken in situ. Post-excavation restoration works succeeded in restoring 5-6 vessels from more than 10 groups of conjoining fragments (figs. 69, 4 and 5 and 71, 3-5)146. The orientation of the squared debris was NNE-SSW. Similar was also the orientation of a narrow, oblong, inner part in its southern half, which was not covered by large wattle-and-daub fragments (figs. 60 and 71, 1 and 2). When the house ruins were removed, the outline of a rectangular depression came out. It was some 1.2 m long and 4.5 m wide in the centre of the southern part (room?). This pit was recognisable because of a few wattle and daub fragments, which were found only in the corresponding part of the house floor, above the pit contour, buried into its upper part. This might indicate that the pit was empty during the existence of the house, or it had a loose fill until the end of the use of the house. Many wattle-and-daub fragments and clay net-weights fallen inside from the ruins of the house, were found in the pit. A deposit of large fragments of several incomplete vessels was discovered against the sidewall of the pit, above the wattle-and-daub fragments. This was not an in situ floor but, more probably, the remains of broken vessels, kept in this part of the house. These remains indicate that after the organic construction and/or fill of the pit had decayed, part of a (wooden?) cover above it fell inside. The shape of this inner place was similar to a very long grave pit, although it later resulted to be part of the house with the foundation ritual, sacrificial pit, in its eastern side (figs. 60 and 71, 1 and 2) (MAKKAY, 1983). A small concentration of burnt, wattle-and-daub fragments, and a yellow unburnt clay layer, were found outside the house, on the surface of Trench XXII, which most probably represented the foreground of House 1. It was covered by a thin layer of house debris, derived from the collapse of the roof. Fragments of a large Krs container with a barbotine decoration were found amongst and around the debris. The large oval pit had been excavated from a level corresponding to the house floor, contemporaneous with the house and the postholes. Therefore we may conclude that it had been filled with a loose soil and covered with organic materials (wooden planks?) just before the construction of the house. It was 40-45cm deep and contained two other features: a posthole, 60 cm in diameter at its western end, and an oven-like domed structure, in its eastern part (fig. 71, 1 and 2). The beehive internal pit, with a domed structure, was excavated into the sterile soil from the bottom of the rectangular depression. The original depth of the feature was some 88-89 cms, from the surface of the fired wattle-and-daub fragments of the house. A 2-3 cm thick slip of pure, yellow clay covered its bottom, showing that the structure was originally, entirely plastered. Also its upper walls were lined with a slip of pure, yellow clay. The virgin soil below the lower surface of the clay coating was porous, of a red-orange colour, caused by an intentional fire opened during an initial (purification?) ceremony or primitiae sacrifice. Of particular interest are two vessels placed on the plastered clay floor. A complete, crashed, globular jar, beneath which the fragments of a large four-feet bowl were found in its centre (fig. 71, 3-5). The globular jar (fig. 71, 4) was partly covered with the same clay plaster layer, applied to the floor and the pit walls. This plaster cover adjoined the wall lining. The loose fill between the bottom clay and the clay plaster contained a considerable quantity of ash, indicating a repeated, kindled sacrificial fire. When the house was destroyed, parts of the superstructure fell or were thrown into the pit, damaging its upper part. Amongst its debris and the original pit fill, there was a number of potsherds and a necked jar (fig. 71, 3) with a pierced base, together with a globular jar and a wide, footed bowl (fig. 71, 5). All these three reconstructed vessels belong to the same Krs Culture Classic phase. The foundation sacrifice of House 1 was probably kept open for a while, because the fragments of several vessels, lying in its western edge, fell into the pit from the above house floor, or were offered repeatedly during ceremonies, after the deposition of the foundation ritual, just before the building of the house. Another possibility is that the sacrificial pit was temporarily covered during the life of the house, and opened for short periods only during repeated ceremonies of specific festivities, as for instance unburnt primitiae offerings after the harvest (MAKKAY, 1992a: 226, note 66; 1988: 15, notes 53 and 54). This reconstruction is supported by the absence of plaster fragments above and within the fill of the sacrificial pit, except for those fallen during the decay of the house, as, for instance, wooden planks covering the pit.

See also MAKKAY and STARNINI (forthcoming 2: Pl. 244, 2, vessel 11; Pl. 244, 7, vessel 3; Pl. 245, 1; Pl. 245, 5, vessel 6; Pl. 245, 4, vessel 12; Pl. 246, 1, vessel 7; Pl. 246, 6, vessel 8).


The function of this structure is unique. Its unusual location, beneath the house floor, shape, inner construction and finds, indicate that it was not an ordinary or storage pit. Its analysis has demonstrated that it was a sacrificial pit, which might have contained the remains of a foundation sacrifice. There is enough evidence to suggest that it was a conventional, domestic building and not a shrine. Furthermore, it seems reasonable to assume that a bloodless foundation sacrifice had been offered in the pit, because of the absence of animal bones. We can distinguish two different parts in the performance of the rite: a. The pouring of a libation with the globular jar, using the necked bowl with a pierced base. The function of these bowls is unclear, while it cultural attribution is simple because they recur in every Krs Culture phase. According to its recovery context, we can deduce that its function was associated with libatio (MAKKAY, 2001b: 287 and 288). b. Burnt offerings, which were primarily or exclusively the offerings of the first fruits (primitae) of the field to the Earth Goddess. Remains of these burnt offerings were buried below the clay plaster covering the globular jar. The role of the pedestalled bowl in the ceremony is unknown. First a sacrificial fire was kindled in the pit. It developed such a heat that the virgin soil around and parts of the clay lining reddened. As the few broken parts of the pedestalled bowl indicate that a ritual breakage of vessels (Scherbenmachen) was part of the ceremony. After the burnt, sacrifices were offered and laid in the pit, a compact layer of pure clay was plastered on the top of the deposited remains, including the libation, globular jar. The pit was perhaps temporary sealed because the house was consecrated with this act (MAKKAY, 1983: 157-160; 1986: 170, fig. 1). Here I have only summarised the most important issues regarding the cultural interpretation of the Krs Culture sacrificial pits. A detailed description of similar ritual offerings will be discussed in the chapter dealing with the features of Endrd 3/119. The supposed function of this pit seems to contradict the fact that the pit itself was cut across the floor, as the profile of fig. 71, 1 shows the debris of the house. The only acceptable interpretation is that the deposition of the foundation sacrifice (i.e. the excavation of the pit) did not necessarily precede the end of the house construction. Building sacrifices can also be deposited during construction works, i.e. inside the building walls. Further, the pit might have been kept empty. It was opened during the life of the house, covered with planks, and the house debris might have fallen inside after its abandonment. Otherwise the pit may have been reopened for repeated ceremonies and this reopening cut through parts of the house floor. Following the cleaning of the surface from the house rubble, burnt wattle-and-daub fragments, which were abundant along its western side, and occasional clusters of vessels, the potsherds were removed and collected together with animal bones, small finds (bone implements, broken figurines and perforated spindle whorls147) and large net-weights. It became clear that the edge of Pit 1 in Trench VIII/1977, with its uppermost fill spreading out on the Neolithic subsoil, lay very close to the house. It is possible that wall and roof plaster fragments fell into the uppermost layer of this pit when the house decayed. As mentioned above, these burnt fragments were found in this part of the pit in Trenches VI and VIII. This indicates that the house and the pit are contemporaneous. Another possibility is that these plaster fragments were thrown here during the digging of grave Pit 10 inside the western part of House 1. Our repeated efforts to find the floor of House 1 remained unsuccessful. It did not show a continuous plastered floor, and most of the living area was mud-plastered or stamped earth constituted its floor. The outline of the house was marked by the debris, surrounded by a compact, black soil with small clay particles and a greyish, ashy soil beneath them. The dimensions of House 1, in Trench XX are: N-S 8.5 m, and E-W 8.4 m, 6.8 m (north end), 9.5 m (south end). The layer of ruined wattle-of-daub remains was 20-25 cm thick from the floor. Large, and also small burnt fragments, often showing wooden plank and also reed impressions, lay on a 1-2 cm thick, burnt layer that covered the stamped floor. This floor yielded no finds. All the vessels fragments and the small finds were found in the destruction deposit. The house was built at the top of a some 30 cm thick Neolithic subsoil, which covered a thin, yellowish-brownish, clay layer, belonging to the virgin soil, which did not yield any finds. The original location of the house was along the north, gentle slope of a small elevation. Its southern end was 40 cm higher than the opposite. No posthole was found inside the house, except for two shallow, circular holes aligned with the inner, oblong, sacrificial pit structure. One more posthole was discovered near the SE corner, east of the sacrificial pit,

For a full collection see MAKKAY (2001c: 21-32). Eight pieces were found within the debris of this house, indicating that spinning was carried out by women as a daily routine work in the houses and their immediate surroundings.


out of the house (not represented in the map of fig. 60). Another shallow depression (posthole?) was discovered out of the eastern side of the house. Trench XXIX contained a rubble-deposit, below the ploughed soil, in a greyish layer at the top of the subsoil, and also part of a refuse pit in the western end, in Trench XXIX/C extending into Trench XXX (called Pit 1 in Trench XXX/1998; fig. 72). Trench XXIX/C revealed a small pit (Pit 1 in Trench XXIX, 140 cm deep). Its loose, brown fill yielded fragments of lamps or altars associated with a few fragments of fine Krs ware.
ALP, phases Gyoma 107 and Szarvas 102 Late Krs-Protovina-Szatmr Late Krs with Protovina elements Classic Krs Early Krs Table 11 - Internal chronology of Endrd 3/39.

Not represented A few sporadic finds Pit in Trench XVIII Most of the houses and pits, with subphases (Early Szatmr incised imports in the final subphases) Stone hoard house in Trench III

Not represented or only its short final subphase

The excavated features of Endrd 3/39 can be attributed to short, overlapping internal phases of the middle, Krs Culture Classic phase as, for instance, the preparation of the stone hoard during the life of House 1 in Trench III and its deposition after the destruction of the house. House 1, in Trenches I-II, can be partly contemporaneous with its neighbouring Pit 1, and House 1, in Trench XX, with the large refuse pit in Trenches VIII, etc. However, the question whether the 4 or 5 houses were contemporaneous or subsequent and used during the entire middle Krs phase, is open. Finds of the early (white-on-brown/red paint) and evolved, Protovina phases are not represented. Seven ALP fragments from seven different features show that these imported pieces were brought into the site just before the end of the Classic phase, followed by abundant Protovina vessel shapes at other sites as, for instance, Endrd 3/6 and Szarvas 8/23.


Fig. 73 - Endrd, site 3/119: General map of the 1986-1989 excavations (corrected version of MAKKAY, 1992: the general map).


As mentioned above, the Microregional Program of the AI was a main research project, which started in 1984, at the prehistoric and later settlements of the central part of the Szarvas Topography volume, i.e. in the southern areas of the villages of Gyoma and Endrd (fig. 1, 7). Within the framework of this project, four excavation seasons were carried out at Endrd 3/119, between 1986 and 1989 (MAKKAY, 1992: 121). The work lasted twenty weeks altogether, between July 14th and August 19th, 1986 (Trenches 1-19), July 13th and August 19th, 1987 (Trenches 20-32), July 4th and 29th, 1988 (Trenches 33-38) and July 17th and August 29th, 1989 (Trenches 39-55). The number of workmen ranged between eight and twelve, thus averaging ten. This means some 1,000 man days during the 100 days period. A surface of some 2,500 sq m was investigated in 55 trenches, which corresponds to 2.5 sq m per capita daily recovery rate. As a result, the entire small site was uncovered, except for its edges, especially its southern parts (as for example an unexcavated small areas belonging to Pit 13 in Trenches 37 and 38). The depth of the site ranged between 30/60 and 200 cm (i.e. the unploughed/not loosened soil and the deepest parts of rubbish pits). Consequently, when a rough mean thickness of 1 m of the cultural deposit is estimated, one may reckon with a mean daily performance of 2.5 m3, the upper limit of the output by which the excavated material may still be appropriately retrieved. For this achievement, thanks are due to a crew recruited in the village of Endrd and especially the first-class, skilled workmen Gza Valuska, Gyrgy Nagy and Sndor Czikkely. The village of Endrd was once famous for its excellent pick-and-shovel men who had participated in huge construction works (roads, embankments, railways) in the Carpathian Basin, Austria and Germany, before World War Two. The present author, who was born and grew up in the same area of Hungary, is very happy to have cooperated with their last generation. The small site was discovered in 1976 by the topographic survey. The small, oval elevation, some 1 m higher than its surroundings, lay in a northeast-southwest direction. Its surface, and especially the top, was covered with Krs Culture sherds and broken net-weights148. At the time of its discovery, this fact was exclusively connected with the intensity of occupation. Later, however, it turned out to be partly the result of tillage, i.e. soil loosening (see Chapter 6.). Fortunately none of the tractor drivers ever worked conscientiously enough to reach the depth of 80 cm, which is required for this kind of tillage. In effect the real depth was only some 50-60 cm. Thus only the first 30-60 cm of the site were disturbed. In addition, the virgin, yellow clay was often found at a depth of 60 cm and it would not have been reasonable to mix this layer with the cultivated humus strata. Consequently, the burnt remains of Houses 1 and 2, built on the original prehistoric surface (buried soil), were discovered within the 30-60 cm layer. Due to tillage, the structural data of the two houses could not be recovered. Furthermore, also the artefacts associated to the houses, which might have been well preserved only a few years before, were badly damaged. For instance, the beautiful figurine of a hybrid creature, with a bird face and woman buttocks (a Siren), was found, without any context, at the top of the fired clay wall and roof fragments, within the ruins of House 2, in Trench 29 (fig. 95, 1, together with an almost complete, carinated, bucchero-type pedestalled bowl of: fig. 94, 5). It was probably applied to the end of the first gable of the house (MAKKAY, 1990: Pl. 1, 1; 1992: Pl. I, 2; 1999a: figs. 12 and 19). The whole area of Endrd-regszlk (Old Vineyards, i.e. the central area of the Microregion Project) is located at the border between two regions, characterised by different soils. It spreads over the northern edge of the alluvial fan of the Old Maros River (more precisely the Late Pleistocene Old Great River), which is interwoven by smaller stretches, and floodplains of the Early Holocene Krs River Valley. If we do not consider the poor material culture remains of Endrd 121, which is located some 200-300 m from the site under study (MRT8, 1989: 167), then Site 119 is the southernmost Krs Culture settlement of the Gyoma-Endrd area of the Krs River Valley. Moving southwards, the closest Krs site is Csorvs-Oroshzi tfl, on the low bank of an Early Holocene dead arm of the Maros, which had cut, into older deposits of the alluvial fan (MAKKAY, 1987: map 1, n. 10). Its peripheral location and small dimension made it suitable for a full excavation and even emphasised the necessity of a research here. Another reason why this site was selected is its proximity to Endrd 3/39, which was excavated in five rescue and test seasons between 1975 and 1978. Thus, this site might contribute to solve the many chronological problems. During the discussions preceding the excavations, the suggestion was that Endrd

J. Chapman and J. Makkay carried out a short trial excavation at the site before 1986 during which they found the southernmost edge of Pit 7 in Trench 7.


119 was a satellite site contemporary with, and depending on, the much larger settlement of Endrd 3/39149. The comparison of the material culture remains, first of all the absence of Early Krs types at Endrd 39 cannot fully support this opinion. On the other hand, the discovery of curious relief representations might help sheds some light on this chronological question.

7.1.1. Female relief figures in total frontality

The plastic representations of goats, red deer and female images, applied to the walls of large, coarse containers are common to, and characteristic exclusively of the Krs assemblages. Some of the female figures are simple and geometric; others are more elaborate and naturalistic, with deeply incised motifs, probably representing tattoos. One rare variant consists in some form of extreme symbolism represented by female images. One of the most important characteristics of the Early Egyptian art is the so-called double frontality (SCHULZ and SEIDEL, 1998: figs. 39; 60; 73 and 76; Pl. 1, etc.). The Egyptian way of representing the human posture was its profile and partly head-on: heads, arms and legs are drawn in profile, the torso (the breast) frontally. In contrast, some of the Krs Culture female relieves depict the human posture in total frontality. Both the upper and the lower body are represented frontally, the breast from the front and the lower body from the back. The reason is that they wanted to emphasise the secondary sexual characteristics, the breasts and the steatopygous buttocks (MAKKAY, 2001: 32-34, fig. 8, 2 and 9, 2). Only two isolated cases of this type of relief, have been recorded up-to-now: the first was found in 1976 on the surface of site 119, the second is another stray find discovered on the surface of Endrd 3/39. This art representation was undoubtedly not influenced by the Egyptian models and it is supposed to reflect local ideas. My suggestion is that their manufacture represents a common cultural heritage of the two sites, which testifies a common background of artistic craftsmanship. Such an astonishing similarity can occasionally be observed also in the pottery manufacture, as shown by the red-slipped and polished fragments of two high necked jars with wide flat circular knobs on their belly, from Szarvas 8/23 (Pit in Trenches I-II, 110-220 cm), Endrd 3/35 (fig. 58, 3), Endrd 3/39 (Trench III, 1975, 50-70 cm) and Szarvas 8/56 (fig. 118)150. The so-called metallic shape and finish of a pedestalled carinated bowl decorated with a wide channelling on its belly, found in the rubble of House 2 at Endrd 3/119 (fig. 95, 4; see above) shows a striking similarity with its smaller variant from Pit 5 of the same site (from a depth of 90 to 130 cm; MAKKAY, 1992: Pl. 1: 1and 2; and also 1990: Pl. 1: 1-3). Shape, decoration and finish suggest that the same potter made these two vessels or they reflect a common, contemporaneous tradition. A similar case was also observed on an interesting vessel from three different features at Endrd 3/39. The three or four hemispherical, open bowls were found in Pit 1, Trenches VIII-X, XIV and XIX151, one very large vessel from the eastern part of Trench XXIX152. Probably also one similar vessel from Pit 1, Trench XXX153, shows a comparable shape and a rare, almost identical decoration: the application of true and fluted barbotine together on the same unusual vessel type (MAKKAY and STARNINI, forthcoming 2: fig. 222, 1 and 2 and 254, 1). The similarities are so close that one can suggest that they were made by the same potter. These chronological comparisons are difficult because of biased speculations regarding the long chronology of the Krs Culture. It is sufficient here to mention an example from site 119. It yielded 140 domesticated pig bones referred to 20 maximum individuals (BKNYI, 1992: 197). In BKNYIs (1992: 237) view, according to the radiocarbon dates, Endrd 3/119 was inhabited throughout the whole span of the Krs Culture (Makkay, pers. comm.). This would mean ca. 500 years (from about 5000 to 4500 years BC). According to the recently suggested lifespan of the culture of at least eight hundred years, from about 6000 to 5200 years BC (WHITTLE et al., 2002: 64). The site itself yielded ceramic types attributable to all the suggested Krs phases and subphases (with the exception of the latest, transitional Protovina phase, represented by the vessels from Pit 1 in Trench VIII/1979 at Szarvas 8/23; see above, and figs. 21-29). Nevertheless it is a commonplace that the Krs pottery is not an easy material for a detailed chronological classification (MAKKAY, 1965; 1969). Together with the neighbouring site Endrd 3/39, it probably represents a continuous occupation throughout most of the entire Krs Culture. Following the time-span suggested by the
149. 150. 151. 152. 153.

CHAPMAN (2003: 95) confused Endrd 39 with Endrd 35. Szarvas 8/23, Pit 1 in Trenches I-II, 1974, 110-220 cm (Inv. no. 78.40.10.) and Endrd 3,/39, Trench III, 1975, 50-70 cm (Inv. no. 78.79. 1.). One large and one smaller specimen, inventory numbers are 79.6.1018 and 79.6.1019. Inventory number 79.6.24. Inventory number 79.6.1029.


radiocarbon dates, should this imply that one pig was killed every 15, 25 or 40 years? The site was fully excavated and the entire bone sample (the largest faunal sample ever collected from the excavation of a Krs settlement or even of a SE European Early Neolithic settlement) was studied by S. BKNYI (1992). In his review of the Gyomaendrd Microregion Project, J.M. OSHEA (1993: 932 and 933) seems to have misunderstood the above figures: Makkay concluded that a small settlement of two houses was occupied continuously for the entire 500-year span of the Krs period, leaving Bknyi to rationalize how a faunal assemblage representing the nutritional needs of two nuclear families for 13.7 years does not conflict with a supposed 500-year occupation of the site. As a matter of fact, I never suggested such a date for Endrd 119 either to Bknyi or anybody else. In contrast, I wrote that the life of this small settlement might be subdivided into two periods, 1) House 2 and the two or three pits associated with it (Pits 12, 13 and perhaps 10) attributable to an earlier phase and 2) House 1, above Pit 5, belonging to a second phase (MAKKAY, 1992: 127). The short occupation of the site, of probably 4-6 generations at the most, is also supported by the very low number of excavated graves (10-11 skeletons or parts of skeletons), characterised by a simple deposition into refuse pits within the site itself. The 500 years duration of the settlement was a mere speculation of S. Bknyi who devoted many of his energies to complicated archaeological issues among which is chronology154. My attribution of the Endrd 119 Krs pottery types to different chronological phases of the possible entire life span means that typologically different Krs Culture ceramics, which are supposed to represent different phases of the culture,

Fig. 74 - Endrd, site 3/119. General plan of the 1986 season.


See BKNYIs (1983-1985) idea on the chronological value of the post-Pleistocene faunal remains: its firm base can only be the changes in the relative frequency of the different species.


Fig. 75 - Endrd, site 3/119. 1: Reconstructed plan of the lowest layer in sacrificial Pit A1 with the dog bones (D.23.399). 2: Plan of Pit 5 in Trenches 6-7 and 10-11 with sacrificial Pit A1 and positions of sections A-B and C-D (D.23.405).


were recovered from pits and other settlement features. Such a suggested chronological differentiation of the ceramic types has not been so far demonstrated, and they will further remain suggestions. For various reasons, the numbering of the individual features (refuse pits, ovens, etc.) recovered during the four excavation seasons started from number one every season. In my preliminary report, the features are renumbered from the first to last, according to their day of discovery (MAKKAY, 1992: the general map, and its corrected version, in fig. 73) except for Pit 2 in Trench 26 (BRN E26) and Pit 1 in Trench 27 (BRN E34), whose original numbers have been maintained. They were kept also in the case of smaller refuse pits and postholes: in such cases, a lower case p is used in their description here: Pit 2 in Trench 26. Every detail concerning our analyses of the ceramics and other assemblages is valid also for this site. According to the late autumn 1993 instructions given by S. Bknyi, 8,744 potsherds from the 1986-1989 excavations at this site were selected and reburied in the neighbouring Tiszapolgr Culture site Endrd 3/130, excavated by I. Zalai-Gal. The sherds were allegedly selected amongst the undecorated, coarse ware fragments then kept in the collections of the AI in Budapest, and hopefully no rim and base fragments were discarded. The present author did not take part either in the selection or burial of this assemblage.

7.1.2. The 1986 season (Trenches 1-19)

The first season was carried out in a 20x20 sq m trench subdivided into 16 5x5 m grids, which were numbered from 1 to 16, and 3 extensions, i.e. Trenches 17-19. They were opened to complete the recovery of refuse pits and other features (fig. 74). First, the uppermost ploughed layer between 0 and 40 cm was removed, and the artefacts were collected and kept according their respective trench (grid) numbers. A dense sherd scatter was found in the centre of the area (i.e. in Trenches 6, 7, 8, 10 and 11) and also in the northeastern corner, in Trench 13 (fig. 74). The first concentration corresponds to the location of Pit 5, while we were not able to discover any feature in the area of Trench 13. The black, ploughed soil was very dry and the uppermost layer had a depth of 0-50 cm at some places, especially in the central area. A few potsherds of the Late Bronze Age Gva Culture were found in the eastern part of Trench 13, while rpdian finds were recovered from Trenches 1 and 2 (House 3 and Pit 1) and also 14 and 15. Typical Bodrogkeresztr Culture potsherds were found in Trenches 11 and 15 at a depth of 40 and 30-50 cms respectively (fig. 116, 8 with other fragments of the same culture in fig. 116, 5-7 and 9). rpdian graves (X-XI century AD) were discovered in the northern part of the area (i.e. Graves 5-9; figs. 74; 75; 77; 78, 3 and 4 and 79, 4). Other rpdian skeletons were recovered from Graves 12 and 15 (fig. 73). Also House 3 in Trench 2 belongs to this period (fig. 74). In the adjoining Trenches 6 and 10, at a depth of some 50 cm, four skeletons were discovered at the bottom of the ploughed and loosened soil: Graves 1, 2, 3 and 4 (figs. 74 and 79, 4). Due to the soil loosening they were very disturbed, also because the Bronze Age Pit 6 had cut the bones of Graves 1-3. The other bones found at the top of the undisturbed soil within the yellowish-greyish Krs Culture layer, can be attributed to this latter culture. Grave 1: E-W oriented bones of an infant, without grave goods. The leg bones were cut by Pit 6. Grave 2: W-E oriented infant without grave goods. Grave 3: W-E oriented skeleton of an adult lying on its ventral side, without any grave goods. The skull and legs were swept away during tillage. Some of the skull fragments and the ribs show traces of burning. This points to a connection with the neighbouring House 1. This indicates that the skeletons belong to the Krs period and their death is probably due to the destruction of the house by fire. Bones of these graves were found in shallow depressions (grave pits?) excavated into the hard greyish Krs house layer, filled with a loose soil. Their orientation differs from that of the rpdian burials. Also this circumstance supports their attribution to the Krs period. Grave 4: infant skull discovered south of the above-mentioned three burials, at the same depth (some 50 cm below the present surface). According to the field notes, it might be attributed to the Neolithic. A concentration of artefacts, broken vessels, net-weights, fired clay, animal bones and a few bone implements (MAKKAY, 1990a: 52-56, n. 1) was discovered at a depth of some 50 cm. It lay at the top and within the uppermost horizon of the undisturbed, grey, ashy soil, mainly in the southern part of Trenches 6 and 7, in the adjoining northern part of Trenches 2, 3 and 4 north and west of Graves 1-3 (figs. 74 and 75, 2). A dense concentration contained fragments of five vessels and heavy net-weights. The sherds of one large jar were found below a large piece of wattle-and-daub, suggesting that it fell on the vessel when the house collapsed. Close to this vessel, there was a six-feet bowl containing freshwater molluscs, fragmented by the collapse of the roof. A


Fig. 76 - Endrd, site 3/119. 1-2: Pit 7, section made on the baulk between Trenches 7 and 11 from the N and NNE (P.131.482-P.131.483).


Fig. 77 - Endrd, site 3/119. 1: Section C-D of Pit 5, Bronze Age Pit 6 and rpdian Age Grave 7. 2: Section A-B of sacrificial Pit A1 (for the numbering of its inner layers see the text).


burnt, ashy deposit belonging to the same horizon, representing the undisturbed part of the debris of House 1 was discovered in Trench 8 with fired wattle-and-daub fragments. House 1 was represented by a characteristic layer of partly burnt rubble in Trenches 2-4, 6-8, 10-12, 14-15, in the centre of the 1986 excavation area, at a depth of 30 to 60 cm (fig. 104, 1 and 2). Its stratigraphic position, the same of the uppermost greyish, ashy level above Pit 5, is between the plough zone and the sterile soil at 60 cm of depth. This rubble of ash and fired wattle-and-daub fragments sloped down to a depth of 70 to 75 cm towards the east, above Pit 5 (figs. 76, 12 and 77, above). This shows that Pit 5 was not completely filled when House 1 was constructed. In Trench 7, a dark greyish layer containing many fired clay fragments was identified between 55 and 90 cm. It seemed to divide the debris of the destroyed house from the lower brownish fill of Pit 5, probably representing the building refuse of House 1 (section C-D, fig. 77, C-D). This should indicate a short deposition phase between the use of the pit and the building of House 1. The finds from these features were collected separately. The house debris was very rich in artefacts in Trenches 7 and 8. A similar situation was noticed in Trench 16, where burnt wattle-and-daub pieces were observed at a depth of 35 to 50 cm above the easternmost part of Pit 9. They might belong to the debris of House 1 or, more probably, to the living area around it, because the fired fragments of a greyish house layer were not observed below the debris. The finds from the rubble of House 1, above Pit 5, include two large fragments of back parts of characteristic bull statuettes, representing consecration horns, usually replastered (fig. 104, 1 and 2). Traces of replastering can easily be seen on the lower, right part of the larger fragment. The inner surface shows traces of heavy fire. It suggests that this part of the debris originally belonged to House 1 and it does not predate the building and use of it. Our fragments have precise parallels in the bull-shaped cult objects with horns on their back from Szolnok-Szanda House 4 (KALICZ and RACZKY, 1981: Pls. 1-5; MAKKAY and STARNINI, forthcoming 3). KALICZ and RACZKY (1981: 16) suggested that a bull cult, related to these figurines came to Southeast Europe along with the knowledge of a food producing economy prior to Hacilar I, in a period contemporary with atal-Hyk. In spite of the fact that Greece had very close links with western Anatolia during the Early Neolithic, the previously mentioned large sculptures of the bull cult from the Carpathian Basin and the Balkans are not known in Greece. If my former parallels are still acceptable, the forerunners of the Cretan horns of sacrifice can be probably found locally, as a representation on an EN stamp-like clay object found at Knossos might suggest (MAKKAY, 1984b: fig. 1 and 2a-b)155. The layer of House 1 was heavily disturbed by tillage, down to a depth of 45 to 50 cm. Graves 1-4 were found at the eastern end of this house rubble layer. They were badly damaged by soil loosening. In addition their bones were partly burnt, partly slightly dislocated. These two facts suggest that they belong to House 1, destroyed by fire and are to be attributed to the Krs period. This house did not yield any postholes. The cleaning at a depth of some 50 cm did not show discolourations or other structural remains, either isolated or belonging to House 1, with the exception of the outlines of Pit 5 and the later structures around it (i.e. Bronze Age Pit 6 and Pit 7 of undefined age). Removing the debris of the house, no plastered or stamped floor was observed. At the same time, the outlines of a further pit were noticed in the southwestern corner of Trench 3, and also in the southeastern corner of Trench 4. After repeated cleanings at the depth of 70-75 cm, the dense scatter of Krs pottery indicated the presence of another Krs refuse Pit 4. Pits 1, 2 and 3 in Trenches 1-4, and also Pit 1 in Trench 18, belong to the rpdian period (figs. 73 and 74). The spits from 50 to 70-75 cm below the fill of House 1 contained sporadic Krs pottery, most probably belonging to House 1. A concentration of Krs artefacts in the northwestern part of Trench 12, and also in the southwestern corner of Trench 16, showed the presence of a Krs refuse pit at a depth of 50 cm. The cleaning later confirmed these observations (Pit 9 lying mainly in Trench 19). The refuse Pit 5, in Trenches 6-7 and 10-11, was excavated in portions, according to the position of section C-D on the northern wall of the baulk between Trenches 6-7 and 10-11 (figs. 75-77). First the northern part of this baulk was excavated. Two later intrusions were observed. The easternmost part of the pit was first cut by Bronze Age Pit 6, and much later by the excavation of the rpdian Grave 7 (figs. 75, 2 and 77, section C-D). The lower deposit of the pit was characterised by a brown soil containing Krs artefacts. An isolated, central part of this structure contained much sand with fired clay fragments156. Above this lower brown fill, there was

See also the Catalogue of the 2001-2204 Exhibition commemorating the 2004 Olympic Games in Athens: The Bull in the Mediterranean World, Myths and Cults. Barcelona-Athens, 2003. 156. Sand can be found in the area of site 119 at a depth below 3 m. Therefore it was extracted intentionally.


a 10-30 cm thick deposit of fired clay embedded in a hard grey soil, probably to be interpreted as the deposited refuse from the building of House 1 during, or shortly after the construction of the house. Above it, a wide, loose ashy layer, possibly contemporaneous with the house, contained many artefacts (or, this ash can result from a huge fire that destroyed the house). The uppermost layer of the house rubble can be correlated with the destruction and decay of House 1 (or the final erosion of the house remains after its destruction). These observations support my original idea that Pit 5 was opened before the building of House 1, although the artefacts inside it can be partly or mainly contemporaneous with the life span of House 1. The excavation of the southern part of Pit 5 revealed a very interesting sequence inside the pit-fill (sacrificial Pit A1; fig. 75, 2, marked with an asterisk, and also fig. 77, section A-B). This part of the refuse pit was as deep as the northern part, some 200 cm, while between the two deepest parts there was a low bank. The upper, destruction layer of the house debris (A) and the ashy deposit (B) continued although, instead of the hard grey, sooty layer, here we found house debris (C) above a light brown soil (D). The next layer (E) corresponded to the lowermost debris (the isolated ashy layer with fired clay in section C-D), and the lowermost thin, brown sand layer (the ashy deposit in section C-D, fig. 77, not represented in section A-B) contained much ash and charcoal (fig. 77, section A-B, after MAKKAY [1989a: 244-246 and fig. 5]). Below it, we reached a 12 to 20 cm thick black layer (lower D). It contained an almost complete four-feet altar, with a broken, upper bowl in an upside-down position, associated with many small fish bones, a few complete fish skeletons, and Lymnea stagnalis freshwater molluscs. This black layer contained much charcoal (which probably corresponds to the lowermost, thin, charcoal layer in the northern part of the pit), ash and small particles of fired clay. The fish bones from the black layer belong to four different species (table 12)157.
Species Pike (Esox lucius L.) Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) Indet. carps (Cyprinidae) Catfish (Silurus glanis L.) Unidentified Total Specimens 19 57 1 7 49 133 Individuals 9 20 1 7 1 11 Right 10 16 5 31 Left 8 2 10

Table 12 - Fish species from Endrd 119, Pit 5, black layer.

At present carp, pike and catfish belong to the ichtyofauna of the Krs River and even today they are the most preferred species. On the other hand, there seems to be no reason why the sacrificers deposited three times more right side bones than left side. Fish sacrifices were common to the Ubaid and Uruk period sites in Ancient Mesopotamia, among which are Eridu, Tello and Uruk. At Eridu (level VII), one of the Ubaid sanctuaries yielded heaps of ash containing fish bones. Apparently they were not part of a food storage or kitchen midden, but the remains of continuous and repeated offering sacrifices to the Earth and Water God Enki (VAN BUREN, 1948; 1952). In the Uruk period layers at Uruk, large quantities of fish bones, among which are complete skeletons and skins, were found crammed into enclosures (BLACK and GREEN, 1997: 158 and 159). The religious character of the Endrd fish-and-altar sacrifice cannot be interpreted only on the basis of these analogies. Even its correlation with the sacrificed dog, deposited into the deepest part of the inner pit is doubtful. If the sacrificial Pit A1, in the deepest part of Pit 5, belongs to the earliest settlement period, well before the destruction of House 1, the ceremony can probably be related to some purification rituals that took place before the building of House 1. The black layer (lower D) became thicker towards the south, with a low percentage of fish bones. Beneath this black layer deeper deposits were found. Their profile (section A-B in fig. 77, F) revealed a very characteristic sacrificial deposit (MAKKAY, 1989a)158 in a piriform pit 105 cm deep. The nine layers of its fill are described from the bottom to the top: 1) The lowest layer i was unique: the braincase of a dog skull was found in its centre, amongst many Lymnea stagnalis freshwater molluscs, while the two lower mandibles were separated from it and also from each other: they had been deposited close to the northern pit-wall (fig. 75, 1). A few dog vertebrae were found at the same depth in anatomic connection, and four ribs close to the opposite wall. From a zoological point of view, the dog
157. 158.

Identified by Imre Nagy. The statistics do not refer to these bones from sacrificial Pit A1. For a more detailed study of the sacrificial pits and their internal stratigraphy see MAKKAY (1963; 1975; 1979; 1982c; 1983; 1986; 1987a; 1988; 1992a; 1996a and 2002).


was domestic, although it showed many wild characters, and its skull belonged to a primitive type, close to that of the wolf (BKNYI, 1992: 219)159. The dog was killed and butchered in another area of the site. 2) Layers b, d, f, h and i are organogenic. Amongst them d, f and h were loose, greyish thin deposits containing much ash and charcoal, while layers b and i were composed of yellow clay with spots of black soil. The lowest four layers yielded many freshwater molluscs. The soil of the lowest deposit (layer i) was greyish-yellowish with charcoal, ash and small particles of fired cay. The number of freshwater molluscs from the lowest four layers (d, f, h and i) remained undefined, although it undoubtedly exceeded a few hundreds. Most of them belonged to the above-mentioned Lymnea stagnalis, which lives in river freshwaters, and fewer to Planorbarius corneus and Discus ruderatus. The first currently inhabits the Hungarian Plain rivers, while the second was present in the Hungarian Plain during the Early Holocene, while at present it is characteristic only for the mountain regions, such as the Mtra Mountains160. 3) The thin layers a, c, e and g contained hard, clay deposits with no man-made artefacts. According to S. BKNYI (1992: 198) the animal bones of this sacrificial pit consisted of a cattle rib fragment, an ovicaprine left, proximal, radius fragment, and the dog skull, two mandible halves, an atlas, an axis, 5 cervical, 7 thoracic, and 4 lumbar vertebrae, the os sacrum, and 4 ribs as well as a wild duck os coracoideum161. This sample was the only exception of the site fauna, which was composed of food remains in addition to butchering debris. During the excavations it was not clear whether the three alternate layers of freshwater molluscs (h, f and d) and clay (layers e and g) belonged to the same ceremony, together with those from the lowest layer (i), or they contained material from different sacrifices that took place over a longer period. Otherwise the time span during which the sacrificial pit was open might have been short. If it lasted a few months or a year, the mouth of the pit was probably covered by planks, which left no traces in the archaeological record. Nevertheless, the uppermost clay layer a, and the underlying grey layer b, testify that the lower part of the fill was formerly covered, while the remains of the fish sacrifice were deposited on their top. The character of this ceremony differs very much from the first blood sacrifices: dog in the lowest layer, fish in the uppermost one (MAKKAY, 1989a: 247)162. After completing the excavation of Pit 5 and sacrificial Pit A1, further works were carried out in Trenches 3 and 17 in order to uncover Pit 4 and sacrificial Pit A2 (figs. 80-82). The outlines of Pit 4 were not clear after cleaning at a depth of some 65-70 cm. Nevertheless its loose, grey fill could be easily separated because it contained many potsherds and animal bones. The finds from the arbitrary layer between 30 and 60 cm undoubtedly belong to this assemblage and were kept separately. Sporadic Late Bronze Age finds were collected from the humus above its eastern end, at a depth of 30-60 cm. They can be probably related to grave 14 in Trench 52 (MAKKAY, 1992: 134 and Pl. 34, 2-4)163. The fill of Pit 4 partly covered the sacrificial Pit A2, which is probably contemporaneous with Pit 4. Pit 4 was irregular (fig. 80, and section E-F in fig. 82). From the bottom to the top it contained the following layers: 1) 194-150/120 cm: sooty, loose, black soil, partly heavily burnt, 2) 150/120-110 cm: brown loose fill, 3) 110-70 cm: very hard, grey, ashy deposit, 4) 70-40 cm: unploughed black soil and 5) 40-0 cm: ploughed, black soil. The pit had four large inner depressions. The southern and western ones, at a depth of 110-120 cm, contained burnt layers, which were probably short-time hearths. A discolouration was discovered during the cleaning of the eastern part of Pit 4 below the hard, grey, ashy layer of the fill (the lowermost, brown loose fill was not present in this part of the structure). It was oblong, extending towards the east (a 2x2 m extension was opened to recover it). Neither the undisturbed black soil, nor the hard grey beneath it (between 70 and 110 cm) showed any intrusion. Therefore sacrificial Pit A2 was excavated before the backfill of the pit came to an end, although it was probably dug after opening the refuse pit. Also the arbitrary layers between 40-80 cm and 60-100 cm, in the eastern extension, above the eastern end of the pit, containing much Krs pottery, did not show any sign of later disturbance. The uppermost part of the 3 m long and 1 m wide shaft-like pit 1.3 m deep from its opening, at the bottom of the refuse pit, or Schlitze (MAKKAY, 1989a: 243 and 244 and figs. 1-4), was undoubtedly closed by the loose, black layer e (=B) (fig. 82, section A-B). The thin-layered deposits below it were present in the narrowing lower part of the shaft. Layers d (beneath e) and also b (the second from the

160. 161. 162.


About the occurrence of skeletons of sacrificed dogs in Neolithic houses see MAKKAY (1988: 14, note 43). For the sacrifices of dogs in the Late Neolithic see ZALAI-GAL (1995). Kind identification by Dr. E. Krolopp, Budapest (MAKKAY, 1989a: 244 and 245). BKNYI (1992) did not indicate where these bones were found inside the sacrificial pit, except for the dog skull. They were probably associated with it. For the temporary closing of the sacrificial pits see MAKKAY (1988: 15 and notes 53 and 54). According to some Baal texts, the New Year ceremony included also the opening of the ceremonial pit to pour libation into it: the opening-up of the ceremonial pit: remove the plank on the closed pit. The plank (dpr) is removed from the sacrificial-refuse pit, the regular cultus being thereby instituted. The grave is represented unnumbered in the general map, southwest of sacrificial Pit A7 (fig. 73).


Fig. 78 - Endrd, site 3/119. 1: Vessel in Trench 14, belonging to House 1 (P.131.480). 2: Pit 5 in the process of excavation from the north. To the right: the lower layer of the burnt debris of House 1 (P.131.471). 3: rpdian Graves 5 and 6 (P.131.470). 4: Grave 9 in Trench 19, near to Pit 9 (P.132.894). 5: Pit 9 in Trench 19 after full cleaning, taken from the west (P.132.896).


Fig. 79 - Endrd, site 3/119. 1: Grave 13 in Trench 41 (P.146.610). 2: Grave 9 in Trench 19. 3: Grave 10 in Pit 13 in Trench 37 (D.26.479). 4: Graves 1-4 in Trench 10.


bottom) were composed of yellow clay, mixed with dark soil lumps and organic remains. At least fifteen thin, ash levels (c), sloping towards the E-W central line of the shaft, were noticed in the northern part of the structure, between the above-mentioned two clay layers. The lowermost six were contained in a humic clay fill, while the upper nine into pure clay. Nevertheless they were easy to distinguish from both their covering clay layer and also from each other. The fill of the six deeper organic deposits yielded Krs potsherds, a few sheep bones, and a few fragments of Lymnea stagnalis, while that of the very thin bottom was a loose black soil (a). Its cultural attribution is based on the presence of scattered Krs sherds. Its relationship with Pit 4 is not very clear although the two features might be contemporaneous. The sacrificial Pit A2 is undoubtedly not earlier than Pit 4. They might represent two succeeding short phases of the same building process. The six different moments of the sacrificial pit-fill can be reconstructed as follows: 1) black soil of the lowermost 10-15 cm thick depression. It probably represents a short, erosional period that occurred when the shaft was open. The clay fill above it (b) might indicate another possibility. The sacrificial pits, yellow clay layers often cover black deposits, which are the remains of organic sacrifices as, for example, primitiae i.e. first fruits, 2) deposition of the virgin clay in layer b, 3 and 4) followed by the deposition of the six, and shortly after it, the nine thin organic layers with their alternate yellow clay levels, 5) covering by a sterile, clay deposit, and finally 5) loose, black fill (B or e) that seals the deposit. The ceremony, of unknown purpose and character, might have consisted of two main parts, respectively represented by layers 1-2 and 3-5, after which the pit was closed. During the 1987 Bylany seminar (see MAKKAY, 1989a), it was suggested that the thin layers c, and also the clay layers b and d, might derive from a natural erosion, which deposited alternate black and yellow layers from the surface surrounding the pit. Nevertheless, the sacrificial finds from other similar shaft-like pits or shafts discovered at this site contradict this impression. Fireplace F1 represented the above-mentioned, southernmost part of Pit 4. The extension Trench 18 (5x5 m) was opened west of Trench 4. Except for one sherd concentration in its southeastern corner (S1 on the general map of fig. 73), it yielded very few Neolithic remains. It seems that, west of House 1, between Houses 1 and 2, there was an empty zone, for different daily activities. This fact is supported by the presence of very few Krs artefacts and the absence of features in the area of Trenches 8, 18, 47 and 48 (the unnumbered trench between 8 and 48 has not been excavated). The arbitrary layer between 40-70 cm, in Trench 18, was very poor in Krs pottery. It yielded only one feature: the rpdian oven O1. Close to its outer wall, a characteristic ALP incised fragment (not represented in fig. 142)164 was found, at a depth of some 70 cm, in association with Krs Culture sherds (see Chapter 15.) and one characteristic coarse Szatmr ceramic fragments. These pieces belonged to the above-mentioned concentration around S1, near the south wall of Trench 18. They can be attributed to a late Krs Culture phase without any Protovina type. The Early rpdian cemetery Graves 5-8 and 10 were excavated in the wider area of Pit 5 (fig. 74). The last 1986 excavation was that of Pit 9 and the Neolithic Grave 9 in Trench 19 (figs. 74; 78, 4 and 5 and 83). The eastern edge of this pit had already been discovered in the westernmost parts of Trenches 12 and 16 (fired clay fragments and one complete stone axe: fig. 86, 6)165. Trench 19 was opened as an extension for its full understanding. Many undisturbed Krs pottery fragments were found in the arbitrary layer between 40 and 50 cm. After cleaning at this depth, it became clear that the outlines of this pit extended outside Trench 19, both north and south of it. The excavation of the fill continued until the two extensions reached the same depth. The outlines of the pit were visible after cleaning at 80-85 cm. They showed a loose, brown soil towards its western edge, with much ash and Krs pottery in its centre. The grey, ashy layer extended to the north, beyond the pit edge. Grave 9: the skeleton was found in a greyish ashy layer, 10-25 cm thick, above a yellowish, sterile subsoil. It was lying on its right side, in a very crouched position, with the face down, in a north-northwest/south-southeast direction (figs. 78, 4 and 83). The left arm was pulled up and bent at the elbow joint, with the phalanges of the left hand below the face. The right forearm was shifted from its original position. The right femur lay below the left femur and tibia, while the bone of the right ankle was found beneath the left ankle joint. Several bones, among which are the right and left tibia, the right femur, and bones of the right forearm are fragmented. This damage may have occurred when the central part of the skeleton was displayed on a deposit softer than the one around it. This fact led to think that the corresponding parts of the vertebral column and the rest of the skeleton had sunk. No grave goods were found. The ashy layer yielded a rich pottery assemblage, mainly in the centre of the pit (fig. 83, section A-B). The burnt wall fragments of a clay, ruined oven were found in its southeastern part. It had been built on the virgin soil, and its fragments had sunk towards the centre. Its shape and dimensions could not be defined. The wall
164. 165.

MAKKAY (1987: Abb. 4,4, with typical Krs sherds in the context on the same Abb. 4, 3-8). STARNINI and SZAKMNY (1998: fig. 4, 1), from diabase or gabbro, found between 30 and 60 cm, supposedly belonging to House 1 or to the fill of Pit 9.


fragments were 7-8 cm wide, with a finely smoothed inner surface, and a rough, outer one. They all were homogeneously red due to burning, and their structure did not contain any wattle. Most of the ash from this layer can be correlated with the utilisation of the oven. Also the layer between 130-150 cm was ashy. It was present only in the central part of the pit, near the (supposed) oven, and it is undoubtedly connected with its use. It was possible to notice a difference between the two ashy layers, because the lower was composed of a pure, white ash, while the upper contained small darker particles. It yielded a rich artefact assemblage with almost complete vessels and at least five reconstructible pots (fig. 84, 1-5). They were kept and used in this central part of the pit when the oven collapsed, and they were probably used for daily kitchen work. The oven wall fragments and also large and heavy net-weights collapsed and buried them. One clay stamp-seal (fig. 83, left) was found at their top. The lowest layer of the fill predates the oven, as supported by the absence of ash.

Fig. 80 - Endrd, site 3/119. Plan of Pit 4 in Trenches 3+17, with sacrificial Pit A2, section C-D and fireplace F1. For sections E-F and A-B see fig. 82.


Fig. 81 - Endrd, site 3/119. 1: Section of sacrificial Pit A2 taken from the west (P.132.333). 2: The eastern part of the fill in sacrificial Pit A2 in the extension of Trench 17 (P.132.336).

The finds from Pit 9 are represented by the head of a lion figurine, most probably of a lion-shaped vessel (fig. 67, 3 and 83; MAKKAY, 1988a: fig. 4), a complete clay stamp seal with typical zigzag decoration on its face (MAKKAY, 1984: figs. I, 5 and IV, 1, 4-6, 8-10, etc.; 2005), a fragmented rod-headed statuette, and the left half of the lower part of a big steatopygous female figurine. The first three were discovered in the uppermost ashy layer, and the last in the ashy fill below. Other parts of the lion figurine (one fragmented paw) were found during the last 1989 season.

7.1.3. The 1987 season (Trenches 20-32)

Pit 10, in Trenches 20-24, is the first feature discovered during the second season. They were opened west of Pit 4, south of the empty Trench 18, along the southern edge of the central part of the small site (figs. 73; 85 and 86, 3-5). Surface finds were relatively rare in this part of the site. The fill of Pit 10 was excavated below 40 cm in two portions, first in Trenches 20-21 and later 22-23/24. A baulk was retained between them and its profile was drawn (fig. 85, section C-C1). The baulk was later removed and its finds were collected according to their respective depths. The work started in Trenches 20 (4x4 m) and 21 (4x4 m). The first undisturbed finds were recovered at a depth of 30 cm, mainly in the northwestern corner of Trench 21. The arbitrary layer between 30 and 60 cm contained a rich Krs pottery assemblage. It included an almost complete vessel with a broken rim, found upside down, in a grey, dry, ashy layer. The cleaning, at a depth of 60 cm, did not clearly show the outlines of the pit and the arbitrary layer between 60 and 90 cm was further excavated. The southern part near the baulk, yielded much pottery and animal bones, in a grey, ashy layer (fig. 85, section C- C1), in the central part of the pit. Below 90 cm the recovery continued in the pit, i.e. the arbitrary layer between 90 and 120 cm. Below the ashy layer there was a sterile, loose, brown fill mixed with yellow clay lumps. The virgin soil, covered by a greyish-yellowish layer, was reached at a depth of some 130 cm. The deepest part of the pit was found further to the south. An eastern extension


Fig. 82 - Endrd, site 3/119. Section E-F of Pit 4 in Trench 17 from the east with section A-B of sacrificial Pit A2 from the west.

was opened because the pit extended also eastwards (Trench 24: 3x7 m, and Trenches 22-23: 4x4 m). Later, a profile of the northern side of the baulk was drawn between Trenches 20-21 and 22-24 (fig. 85, section C- C1). The edge of the pit was found to the east, at a depth of 90 cm, although the ashy layer continued further to the east in a greyish cultural layer, just above the virgin soil. To the south, the largest concentration was observed near the baulk, in the pit centre. It was surprisingly small and shallow compared with other Krs Culture refuse pits, although it contained a characteristic fill with an upper, ashy, grey layer with several finds,

Fig. 83 - Endrd, site 3/119. Plan and section A-B of Pit 9 and Grave 9 in Trench 19 with important finds found in the pit (D.23.411, 26.503). For the lion head see also fig. 67, 3.


Fig. 84 - Endrd, site 3/119. 1-5: Reconstructed vessels from Pit 9, the ashy layer between 130-150 cm. 6: Stone axe from Trench 16, belonging to Pit 9 or House 1 (after STARNINI and SZAKMNY, 1998: fig. 4, 1).


Fig. 85 - Endrd, site 3/119. Trenches 21-23: plan and section C-C1 of Pit 10 from the south and section A-A1 of Oven O4.


Fig. 86 - Endrd, site 3/119. 1: A-A section of the posthole (2) in the northern part of Trench 26 from the SW (unnumbered in the general map; P.135.237; D.24.449). 3: Concentration of sherds in Trenches 22-23/70 cm from the south, near Pit 10 (P.135.231). 4: Pit 10 from the west with Oven O4 to the right (P.135.229). 5: Oven O4 in Trenches 22-23, south of Pit 10, from the west (P.135.232).


Fig. 87 - Endrd, site 3/119. Plan of Trenchs 25-26 with the position of the posthole sacrifice (Pit 4) and Oven O5, and with section G-G of Pit 11 on the baulk between Trenchs 26 and 28.


Fig. 88 - Endrd, site 3/119. 1: Pit 1 in the northern part of Trench 27 with burnt lumps of wattle-and-daub (P.135.170). 2: Pit or Posthole 5 in Trench 26 from the south (P.135.241). 3: Depression in the southern part of Trench 25 with fired clay from the SE (P.135.235). 4: House 5 in Trench 26 from WNW (P.135.177). 5-6: Pit 4 (of the posthole sacrifice) in process of excavation from the NW (6: P.135.238) and excavated from the SE (5: P.135.238).


Fig. 89 - Endrd, site 3/119. 1: Section E-E of Pit 5 in Trench 26. 2-3: Pits 1 and 2 in Trench 27, plan and section A-B.


Fig. 90 - Endrd, site 3/119. 1: Fragments of the large container in situ in Trench 25 (P.135.234). 2: Reconstructed container (P.148.798). 3: Stratigraphy of Pit 4 of the posthole sacrifice with the large container in situ (corrected version of MAKKAY, 2002). 4: The snake representation on the lower part of the large container (detail of 2; P.148.796).


Fig. 91 - Endrd, site 3/119. 1: The snake representation on the lower part of the large container (fig. 90, 2). 2: Crusted red painted clay box reconstructed from sherds found in Trench 45/SE, 30-80 cm and Trench 40/30-60 cm (drawing by S. sy).


Fig. 92: Endrd, site 3/119. 1: House 2 in Trench 29, detail of the surface with fired clay and broken vessel no. 12 (P.135.159). 2: House 2 in Trenches 31 (in the foreground), 29 (in the middle) and 27 in the upper right corner, taken from SSW. The house is in left upper part of the photograph; a posthole in the northern part of Trench 27 can be seen in top middle (P.135.180). 3: Surface of House 2 in Trenches 27-28 and 31 from the south; Trench 31 and House 5 are to the left (P.135.183). 4: Remains of House 2 in Trench 27 taken from the north, with broken vessels and Pit 1 (P.135.242). 5: Vessel c of House 2 in Trench 27 from the NE (P.135.243).


Fig. 93 - Endrd, site 3/119. 1: Section of the southern wall of Trench 26. Left: Pit 11 cutting Pit 12 (to the right). P.135.240. 2: Pit 2 in Trenches 25-26 (D.24.440). 3: The southern wall of Trench 29 from WNW (P.135.129). 4: Pit 1 in Trenches 25-26, section B-B (D.24.439). 5: Section made on the southern wall of Trench 29 with fired clay lumps of House 2 beneath the ploughed soil (D.24.446).


Fig. 94 - Endrd, site 3/119. 1: The northern end in Trench 29 from SSW, with surface remains of House 2 and House 5 (top left; P.135.173). 2: Detail of the remains of House 2 (P.135.152). 3: House 2 in Trench 29 with fragments of vessel 5 amongst wattle-and-daub (P.135.153). 4-6: House 2 in Trench 29 with vessel fragments (P.136.160, P.135.154, P.135.162). 7-8: Net-weights of House 2 in Trench 29 from the South (7: P.135.148; 8: P.135.174).


Fig. 95 - Endrd, site 3/119. 1: Clay figurine of a Syren from the first gable of House 2 found in the house rubbish in Trench 29, Middle, 45-50 cm (P.144.144). 2: Relief female represetantion from House 2 in Trench 29/50 cm (P.141.146; after MAKKAY, 2001: fig. 9, 1). 3: Fragment of a face vessel from Pit 12, 130-150 cm (P.141.166) (after MAKKAY, 1992: pl. 30, 2). 4: Black shiny polished carinated bowl from the rubbish of House 2/Middle, 50-60 cm (after MAKKAY, 1992, pl. 1, 2).


Fig. 96- Endrd, site 3/119. 1-3: Oven O5 in Trenches 28 and 55. 1: Section from the west. 2: Section from the east. 3: Trench 28 with Oven O5 from the west (P.135.188).


and a lower one with a brownish fill and less cultural remains, among which were many animal bones and potsherds. Burnt wattle-and-daub fragments were recovered between 30/35 and 60 cm close to its western edge. Below the arbitrary layer 60-90 cm, the virgin yellow clay was reached at a depth of 100 cm, while in the southeastern corner, outside the pit, a concentration of large pottery fragments and animal bones was found at a depth of some 70 cm, one above the other, on an irregular surface of 1.5 sq m (fig. 86, 3). It was impossible to define whether this find spot represented the remains of a cultural layer into which the pit had been excavated or this latter structure was older than the layer itself. The bottom pit layers, between 60-90 cm and 90-130 cm, were identical to those of Trenches 20-21. The deepest part of the pit was eastwards, down to some 170 cm. A small clay oven built on the Neolithic surface was found west of this potsherds concentration (O4 in the general map of fig. 73 and also fig. 86, 4 and 5). It was interpreted as a rpdian feature although its characteristics and the discovery circumstances might attribute it to the Early Neolithic. Trench 25 (8x4 m) was opened west of Trenches 21 and 23. The first arbitrary layer was excavated to a depth of 30-60 cm after removing the ploughed soil (figs. 87; 88, 3, 5 and 6; 90, 1-4 and 91). Large, fired wattle-and-daub fragments attributable to the debris of House 2 were found in the middle part, near the eastern wall between 40 and 45 cm. They were embedded into an unburnt, yellow clay deposit. A dry, loose soil was found in the northern part of the trench, indicating the presence of the rpdian horse Grave 12 attributable to the second half of the X century AD (fig. 73). The western part of the rpdian oven O3 was discovered near the eastern baulk. Its eastern part had already been recorded in Trench 21. The fragments of a large container were found below 30 cm, in the northwestern corner of Trench 25. Its upper parts had been disturbed by ploughing and loosening. Large, burnt clay fragments were recovered north and northwest of it, at a depth of 30-50 cm. They belonged to the wall and/or roof of House 2 and the large vessel. Before its excavation, a sample was taken for sieving. On the other side of this vessel, there were large yellow lumps of fine clay deliberately deposited, because the virgin clay was not present at this depth. The cleaning south of the vessel, at a depth at 90 cm, showed that the yellow clay belonged to a posthole, south of the large jar. The entire feature can be reconstructed as follows (figs. 88, 5 and 6; 90 and 91) (MAKKAY, 2002): the posthole belonged to House 2 and most probably marked the position of a strong post in its northeastern corner. The fill of the posthole consists of two parts: inside a 70 to 80 cm hole, a 40 cm wide posthole had been excavated. It was visible on the scraped surface by a dark-grey ashy fill. When the post was erected, a packing of pure yellow clay was made to hold its base. This clay was very different from the virgin soil and was probably intentionally levigated166. The post-pit was later widened towards the northwest to a depth of 60-65 cm and a large jar was deposited in a standing position (the bottom of the jar was found, undisturbed, at this depth) or, as became clear during the cleaning, it was placed next to the posthole in a slightly oblique position. The ritual character of this feature is supported by the unique decoration on the lower part of the jar. Besides the unusual admixture of characteristic Krs motifs (fingernail pinching, incisions, barbotine) in several panels (fig. 91, 1), the representation of two (or more?) twisting snakes can be noticed. This scene is a unique, symbolic representation of this culture and the Early Neolithic decorative repertoire in general. The lower part of the vessel shows additional motifs below the barbotine decoration that covers the belly and probably also the upper part. They include a network of straight, incised lines and a horizontal band of fingernail pinches below it. This latter forms a curved line, the first part of which is slightly wider and longer, indicating the head. This is the representation of two or more snakes. These signs seem to demonstrate that the vessel was part of a particular posthole ritual (MAKKAY, 1992: 123), a deposition sacrifice in the corner of the newly built House 2 (MAKKAY, 1975; 1979; 1983; 1986; 1988; 1989a and 1992a). House 2 was found in Trenches 25-33 and 41. Its supposed squared structure was most probably N-S oriented. It was characterised by house rubbles (burnt wattle-and-daub fragments, fired clay clumps, impressed timber and twigs wall fragments, large net-weights, conjoining ceramic potsherds) at a depth of 30-60 cm (figs. 92; 93, 5; 94; 95, 1-4 and 98, 1, 5, and 6). This layer was heavily damaged by tillage. The postholes found in these trenches (figs. 86, 1 and 2; 87; 88, 1, 2, 5 and 6; 89, 1-3 and 93, 4) and in Trenches 34/1989 (fig. 99, 2) and 41/1989 (fig. 73, unnumbered pits in the southern part of the trench) is most probably part of the external features of this house. No fireplaces were found inside the building, although Oven O5, and ash-Pit P11, in Trenches 26 and 28, probably belonged to this structure (figs. 93, 1 and 96, 1-3). Oven O5 (fig. 96, 1-3), excavated into the sterile soil, was divided in two halves, the first almost 0.5 m higher than the other. Its walls were plastered with clay and burnt red. It is attributable to the Krs Culture. It

See the ancient custom of using river clay during the Hittite and earlier Yamna-Pit grave ceremonies (MAKKAY, 1992a: 217, 223, 226, notes 32, 33, 57, 58 and 74).


Fig. 97 - Endrd, site 3/119. 1: Plan of Trench 29 and A-A section of its western wall. 2: Plan of Trench 27 and B-B section of the eastern wall of Trench 29. Both sections represent the respective part of Pit 12.


Fig. 98 - Endrd, site 3/119. 1: The northern wall of Trench 32 on the baulk between Trenches 29 and 30, representing the section of Pit 12 from the SSW, with the rubbish layer of House 2 on the top (P.135.200-201). 2: Trench 29 from the north, with Pit 12 on the top (P.135.128). 3: Trench 32 from ENE with Pit 12 (P.135.203). 4: Trench 32 from WNW with Pit 12 (P.135.202). 5: The western wall of Trench 29 with debris of House 2 and Pit 12 below (P.135.208). 6: Southern part of the west wall of Trench 29 with layer of House 2 (left) and House 5 (right). P.135.209. 7: Trench 29 from NNW with Pit 12 in the back and large animal burrowings in the front (P.135.127). 8: The southern wall of Trench 30 from WNW with Pit 12 in the front (P.135.130).


Fig. 99 - Endrd, site 3/119. 1: Plan of Pit 12. 2: Reconstructed large bowl found in the deepest part of Pit 12 in Trench 33 and in Pit or Posthole 2 in Trench 34 (after MAKKAY, 1992: Pl. 36, 1).


was not completely excavated although its remains were left in their original position for further work. Its profiles were drawn in 1987 and 1989. House 2 was destroyed by fire and some of its internal installations were in situ at the time of its destruction. This is demonstrated by 13 partly restored vessels (figs. 92, 4 and 5; 94, 1-6 and 95, 4) and many net-weights found in several clusters within the ruins (fig. 94, 7 and 8). It is probable that the large, restored jar, discovered in the northwestern corner of Trench 25 (figs. 90 and 91), had been placed into a sacrificial posthole. Pit 2, in Trench 34, was probably another posthole of House 2 (fig. 99, 1 and 2). It is important to point out that a few fragments of a large, coarse bowl (fig. 99, 2) were placed in its upper part, while other sherds of the same vessel were collected from Trench 33, at the bottom of Pit 12, most probably related with sacrificial Pit A5. The sherds stood vertically in the sterile soil along the western wall of Pit 12 or in the westernmost part of sacrificial Pit A5 (fig. 103, 4). If posthole 2 in Trench 34 belonged to House 2167, this habitation was partly contemporaneous with Pit 12 and/or with sacrificial Pit A5. House 2 did not last longer than one season. It overlapped with the beginning of the deposition process of Pit 12 and it later existence probably also with Pit 13. This demonstrates that more than one pit was simultaneously utilised by the two houses. The fragments of one single small vessel were found amongst the debris of House 2 and Pit 10 (MAKKAY, 1992: Pl. 26, 17). This suggests that Pit 10, very close to the eastern side of House 2, was (partly) contemporaneous with House 2 and, consequently, also with part of the refilling of Pit 12. At the same time House 2 covered most of Pit 12, at least in Trenches 27-30 (fig. 98, 1 and 2). The suggested chronological sequence is shown in table 13 at the end of this chapter. The building technique, shape (fig. 99, 1), inner constructions and furniture of House 2 are unknown because of the intensive soil loosening. Its outlines, between 30 and 60 cm, were marked by wall and roof fragments, represented by fired and unfired yellow clay lumps mixed with potsherds, net-weights, bone tools, figurines and other implements (figs. 95, 1-4, and 104, 3). One of the most remarkable pieces is the above-mentioned, bird-headed female figurine (fig. 95, 1). In the southern part of Trench 25, there was a shallow depression of unknown function filled with burnt wattle-and-daub fragments, which undoubtedly belonged to the house. It was, perhaps, a collapsed oven or a plastered fireplace (fig. 87, fireplace F2 and section D-D). Parts of the habitation remains were found undisturbed in several parts of Trenches 25-29. Other parts of the house rubble had been disturbed by later features, as for instance House 5, attributed to the Late Bronze Age Tumulus Culture (figs. 88, 4; 92, 2 and 3; 94, 1 and 98, 6). It was cut into the fill of Pit P15 of the same age. Grave 14, in Trench 52 (unnumbered in the general map: fig. 116, 3 and 4) with three grave vessels, might be contemporaneous to this house (MAKKAY, 1992: Pl. 43, 4, and 36, 2-4). Oven 3 (fig. 73) can be attributed to the rpdian period. Traces of stamped or mud plaster were not found both in House 2 and below the undisturbed rubble parts. All, or some of the above-mentioned postholes, most probably belonged to the inner part and roof of the house. They were made for posts with an average diameter of 20-25 cm, approximately N-S oriented. One (Pit 4 in Trench 25, namely the sacrificial posthole of fig. 90, 3) showed traces of a tight, clay packing 50 cm below the present-day surface. If this packing was made to fill the posthole for holding the base of the post below the house floor, the earthen floor was at the same depth. The occurrence of house debris at 30-50 cm, and sometimes in small depressions down to 60 cm, supports this view. The discoveries made in the southern part of Trench 31 point to the same conclusion: an unburnt yellow clay layer was found here at a depth of some 50 cm, deposited above the buried soil during the first house building stage. During the cleaning of the house rubble, sherd concentrations were discovered and separately packed (figs. 92, 4 and 5 and 94, 1-8). Letter a refers to a small miniature vessel, b is a pedestalled bowl, while group c indicates three or more net-weights and fragments of large vessels. Group d was found above a posthole containing potsherds of at least three different vessels, one fragment with a goat plastic representation and one broken tripod altar. Groups of freshwater molluscs were occasionally found close to the finely polished, black-pedestalled bowl (fig. 95, 4; MAKKAY, 1992: Pl. 1, 1). The outlines of Pit 11 were found during the cleaning in the southeastern part of Trench 26. Another part was later discovered in Trench 25, while its southern extension was in Trench 28 (figs. 73 and 93, 1). Its dark fill, cut into the eastern part of the large refuse Pit 12, contained much ash. In the southeastern corner of Trench 28, at the edge of Pit 11, a very loose, ashy fill was found in the eastern part of the south trench wall. After cleaning, it showed the opening of a domed oven of a probable squared shape, with a heavily burnt floor and inner walls 50 cm high. For technical reasons it was impossible to excavate it, and only a cross section was made in both directions (fig. 96, 1-3). During the

As, for instance, the posthole of a column standing in front of the southern edge of House 1 excludes that the potsherds of the large, coarse bowl were reused for holding the base of a post in a later phase.


Fig. 100 - Endrd, site 3/119. Sacrificial Pit A3 in Trench 31, plan and sections A and B (drawing by R. Glser).


Fig. 101 - Endrd, site 3/119. Sacrificial Pit A4 in Trenches 31 and 35. 1: Vessel in sacrificial Pit A4. 2-3: The pitcher in the sacrificial pit (P.135.178 and P.135.181). 4: Section A-B of the sacrificial Pit A4. 5: Detail of the pitcher: repair on the vessel inner bottom (drawings by E. Starnini).


Fig. 102 - Endrd, site 3/119. 1: Section A-A of the northern wall of Trench 32 in Pit 12. 2: Plan of Trench 32. 3: Section A-A of the eastern wall of Trench 31, showing Pit 12 (D.24.471). 4: Section B-B of the western wall of Trench 31, with sacrificial Pit A4 on the left.


Fig. 103 - Endrd, site 3/119. 1-4: Plan and sections of sacrificial Pit A5 in Trench 33 and its relation with Pit 12 (4).


Fig. 104 - Endrd, site 3/119. Fragments of clay horns of consecration from different features. 1-2: Trench 11/House 1 in the upper, grey ashy layer (P.144.141-144.142). 3: Trench 33/Middle, House 2, 30-50 cm (P.164.002). 4: Pit 12 in Trench 29/90-120 cm (P.164.002).


last 1989 season, Trench 55 was opened east and south of it. Nevertheless, for the above reasons, the oven remained unexcavated. Another trench was opened from the east (fig. 96, 2). The oven, and the few potsherds from its fill, belong to the Krs Culture, because its floor is well below the rpdian ones168. The dark dry fill of Pit 11, in Trenches 26 and 28, contained much ash from this oven. It yielded Krs fragments associated with one single, decorated ALP sherd, which was impossible to recover during the restoration and preservation works. The excavation carried out after the cleaning and removing of the debris of House 2, in the southern part of Trenches 29 and 30, between 30 and 60 cm, yielded a large refuse pit, rich in finds, partly below the house layer and partly south of it (Pit 12). It was uncovered in Trenches 26-33 and 36/1987-1988 (figs. 99 and also 93, 1; 98, 1-5, 7 and 8; 102, 1-3; 103 and 104, 3). Its finds were easy to separate from those from House 2, because this latter partly lay above it. The same distinction was made also on the basis of the colour and characteristics of the layers at 60 cm of depth (burnt red rubble, fired wattle-and-daub, unburnt yellow clay lumps and well-defined clusters of sherds and net-weights in the house layer, grey ashy fill in the pit) (figs. 93, 1 and 3; 97, 1 and 2, sections A-A and A-B; 98, 2, 4-8 and 102, 1 and 3). The finds from these structures were packed separately. Most of the house remains were contained in a burnt layer of wattle-and-daub, at a depth of 30-40 cm. The house rubble was in the baulk between Trenches 30 and 32 at a depth of 40-50 cm. They most probably marked the southernmost part of the structure (fig. 102, 1 and 2). The profile between Trenches 32/1987 and 33/1988 was destroyed by ploughing at the end of 1987. The parts of Pit 12 uncovered in Trench 33 during the 1988 season, could not be conjoined to the already excavated ones, although there was no evidence that they belonged to different features. The artefacts from Trench 33 and Trench 36 were kept separately. Sacrificial Pit A5 (figs. 73; 103 and 106, 1-3) was opened, probably secondarily, into the southern edge of Pit 12 shortly after the excavation of this part of the pit, i.e. before its complete refilling. However the relationships between sacrificial Pit A3 (fig. 100), and Pit 12 are not clear. During the excavation of the arbitrary layer between 30 and 60 cm, in Trench 31, a some 1 m long, loose deposit was observed in the south profile, near the baulk between Trenches 31 and 35. The cleaning of Trench 31, at 60 cm, showed the outline of a pit containing much ash (sacrificial Pit A4: fig. 101 and 102, 4) and another posthole with red burnt wattle-and-daub fragments, close to the southeastern corner of the trench (unnumbered on the general map). This latter was one of the southernmost postholes of House 2. Sacrificial Pit A3 (fig. 100: Pit 4 in Trench 31) was discovered in the southern part of Trench 31. The cleaning, at a depth of 90 cm, showed the outline of a long, narrow pit, 220 cm deep, already visible at a depth of some 60 cm, containing a hard black or dark brown fill, opened from the top of the Neolithic surface. Its lowest part was very narrow, some 20-25 cm wide, and contained the disarticulated bones of a sheep and its skull169. The two profiles (fig. 100: A-A and B-B) show different depositional processes. B-B, near the southern end, is composed of thin, alternate levels of organic black and yellow clay with a dark homogenous fill in between. The sheep bones were found in the lowermost layer of the north half. The burnt clay lumps, in the uppermost part of the structure, belonged to the house debris. This suggests that it was sealed when House 2 was built above it. The structure can be attributed to the Krs Culture: it was most probably connected with some religious performance related to the house construction. Sacrificial Pit A4, first numbered Pit 3 in Trench 31, was found at the edge of Trenches 31/1987 and 35/1988 below the profile wall (figs. 101 and 102, 4). Its western part was destroyed by agricultural activities in the winter of 1987. The upper part of a large vessel was found at a depth of 75 cm from the surface. Its rim was missing because the ploughing disturbed the upper part of the handled pitcher (fig. 101, 1 and 2). It originally stood vertically in the pit bottom in a 1-2 cm thick yellow clay layer covering also its lower body170, which later slightly leaned towards the north. This vessel probably postdates the 3 m narrow ashy pit or shaft, because it was later deposited into the sacrificial pit. The cleaning of the pit showed that the pitcher lay at the top of a 5 cm sequence of alternate yellow clay and brown layers, which suggest that it belonged to the last, pit deposit. The pit opening was at a depth 35-40 cm from the living floor around House 2; therefore, sacrificial Pit A4 was excavated during the building or use of the house. The centre of the lower part of the pitcher contained one complete, cylindrical, typical Krs net-weight (fig. 101, 4). It also yielded a few animal bones and other characteristic Krs potsherds. There are no further indications of the sacrificial character of this feature. A crack is visible in the inner part of this vessel with repairing traces (fig. 101, 5) along the wide break. This bottom probably cracked during the
168. 169. 170.

It is erroneously described as an rpdian oven in the 1987 field notes (p. 12, etc.). BKNYI (1992) did not provide us with any data on these bones. From this point of view see the thin clay layer covering the pit bottom and the deposited vessels at Endrd 3/39, House in Trench XX.


Fig. 105 - Endrd, site 3/119. 1-2: Plan and section A-B of Pit 13.


Fig. 106 - Endrd, site 3/119. 1: Pit 12 with sacrificial Pit A5 from the west in Trench 33. 2 and 4: Sacrificial Pit A5 taken from the SW. Section E-F (see also fig. 103, 2) with the core of a cattle horn, not represented on the drawing (P.142.789-142.790). 3: Small clay figurine from the fill of sacrificial Pit A5 (or Pit 12) in Trench 33/160-200 cm (after MAKKAY, 1992: Pl. 28,1; P.144.175-177).


Fig. 107 - Endrd, site 3/119. 1: Section C-D of Pit 13. 2: Section E-F of Oven O6 in Pit 13. 3: Sherd with textile impression from Pit 13 (after MAKKAY, 2001c: fig. 8). 4: Sherd with textile impression from House 2 in Trench 29/0-30 cm.


Fig. 108 - Endrd, site 3/119. 1: Pit 12 from the east, with the SE corner of Trench 32 in the front (P.135.140). 2: Pit 12 from the west (P.135.138). 3: Pit 12 and Trench 29 (left) from the south (P.135.140). 4: Pit 12 from the SW with the SE corner of Trench 32 on the right (P.135.141). 5: Detail of Pit 12 from the SW (P.135.138). 6: Section of Pit 3 in Trench 31 from the east (not represented in fig. 73; P.135.199). 7: The southern wall of Trench 32 with the section of Pit 12 and debris-layer of House 2 from NNE (P.135.205). 8: The same as no. 7 from a shorter distance (P.135.204).


Fig. 109 - Endrd, site 3/119. Pit 13 in Trenches 37-38. 1: Pit 13 in Trenches 37-38, the West wall (P.141.857). 2: Pit 13 in Trenches 37-38 from the NW with the rpdian Oven O6 in the background (P.141.859). 3: Pit 13 (back) and Pit 2 (front) with Oven O6 in Trenches 35, 37 and 38 (P.141.863). 4: Pit 13 in Trenches 35 and 37 from the north (P.141.862). 5: The southern part of Trenches 35 and 37-38 from the NE with Pit 13 (right) and Pit 12 (left; P.141.860). 6: Trenches 37-38 from the NW with Pit 13 and Pit 2 (left; P.141.865).


Fig. 110 - Endrd, site 3/119. 1-2: Sacrificial Pit A8 in Trench 40 with the rounded bowl. 3: The deposit of sacrificial Pit A8 (P.146.599) with fence trenches of rpdian Age. 4: The reconstructed large storage jar of the deposit.

drying or firing process. The repair was unsuccessfully attempted by applying a soft clay plaster in its inner surface. The crack might be one of the reasons why this piece was deposited in sacrificial Pit A4 (MAKKAY, 1992: 140 and 142, Pl. 172 and 25, 1). Amongst the many characteristics that point to the ritual function of this feature are 1) the presence of one complete vessel in a narrow pit, 2) one large, complete net-weight in the vessel centre, 3) the unusual and rare repair of a coarse container, 4) the alternate yellow and black layers below the pitcher, and 5) also the fine, thin clay layer covering the lower part of the pitcher wall.


The fill of Pit 12 can be briefly described as follows (the depths from the present surface vary according to their position in the different trenches; therefore also the profile can vary: see figs. 97, 1 and 2, and 102, 1, 3 and 4): 1) uppermost layer of the stratified house rubble at 30 and 50-60 cm; 2) layer below the light greyish house debris containing much ash and burnt wattle-and daub fragments, animal bones, net-weights and other artefacts, 3) third layer (below 90 cm in the pit centre) usually harder, of brownish or blackish colour, mixed with yellowish clay lumps, containing less ash and finds, and 4) the lowermost thin fill of black or greyish black or brown colour, on the virgin soil, poorly organic, with very few material culture remains and many charcoals, freshwater molluscs and fish scales. The deepest part of Pit 12 was found at the depth of some 180 cm, for instance in Trench 30. During the cleaning, a fragment of a human skull was found in Trench 29, in the southernmost part of Pit 12, at a depth of 90-120 cm. The excavation of Pit 12 was completed during the third 1988 season.

7.1.4. The 1988 season (Trenches 33-38)

The excavations were resumed in Trenches 33 and 34, which were opened in order to uncover the southernmost portion of Pit 12. The most important feature of this area was sacrificial Pit A5. The western third of sacrificial Pit A5 was excavated into the fill of Pit 12 in Trench 33, and the largest, eastern part outside Pit 12 in the subsoil (figs. 103, 1-4, and 106, 1, 2 and 4). It contained a greyish-brownish fill that contrasted with the light greyish, ashy colour of Pit 12. Its eastern part outside Pit 12 did not yield any material. Pit 12 contained very well preserved finds among which are the only complete clay figurine found during the excavations (fig. 106, 3; MAKKAY, 1992: Pl. 281) and a small, complete face vessel (unpublished). Alternate dark and light layers were found in its lower part, while its upper fill was composed of a greyish-clayey deposit. The unique Krs-Starevo tiny cup with a pointed rim and a human face comes from 160-200 cm of depth. One fragment of a large container, decorated with two plastic, schematic female figures also belongs to this assemblage (MAKKAY, 1992: Pl. 31, 2). The discovery of a complete human figurine, an entire face cup and a rare plastic representation in the same context is unusual and, although they do not belong to sacrificial Pit A5, their deposition might be related to it. All these specimens were found inside the refuse pit a few cm from the westernmost edge of Pit A5. Also the fragments of the above-mentioned large vessel (fig. 99, 2) were deposited in the deepest part of Pit 12, at the western edge of sacrificial Pit A5 or in its proximity, together with many freshwater shells in a 50 cm wide strip. The fill above the large bowl fragments and the other finds was heavily burnt. A few large sherds of different storage jars were placed, like tiles, along the lowermost pit walls (see also Endrd 3/39, Pit 1 in Trench IV above, and fig. 64, 3). A large (domestic?) cattle horn171, in the westernmost part of Pit A5, found very close to the above-mentioned small clay figurine and face cup, indicates that this feature had most probably sacrificial character (fig. 106, 2, right; not represented in both profiles C-D and E-F because it was found between the two sections). A fine clay stamp-seal was found in the northeastern corner of Trench 32 at a depth of 60-80 cm (MAKKAY, 2001: fig. 1, 3), while many freshwater shells were discovered in the easternmost part of the pit fill below 70 cm172. Trench 35 was opened west of Trenches 31 and 34. After removing the uppermost arbitrary layers, the cleaning at a depth in 60 cm showed the outlines of large refuse Pit 13 of greyish colour in its central and southern part, west of Trench 35 (figs. 105, 108, 6 and 109, 1-6). A few traces of a more recent structure were noticed in the southernmost part of the same trench (later they were interpreted as the remains of the rpdian Oven O6), while characteristic potsherds of the Late Bronze Age Gva Culture were found north of the central area of the trench. Bronze Age finds were also collected from the depth of 60-85 cm. The excavation continued in Trench 35, in first the spits from 85 to 115 cm, then from 115 to 140 cm in the fill of Pit 13. It consisted of a loose ashy, greyish soil between 85 and 90 cm, brownish below 90 cm, with compact yellow and black thin layers. These deeper parts yielded a small number of potsherds and animal bones. Trench 37 was opened to uncover the western part of Pit 13. Further work in the arbitrary layers, and the cleaning at a depth of 80 cm, revealed that the large refuse pit extended to the west. A spit between 80 and 100 cm contained a great quantity of pottery. Groups of conjoining sherds of 3-5 vessels were found, upside-down, in three different points, with freshwater shells and fish scales below them as food refuses as if they had been thrown into the pit after the eating of their content. Trench 38 was opened at the depth of 100 cm, west of Trench 37 to excavate the western part of Pit 13. The arbitrary layer 45-60 cm contained much fired clay from the area around House 2.
171. 172.

Unfortunately the piece cannot be identified amongst the seven cattle horns published by BKNYI (1992: 201 and 202 and fig. 1). They were stored in the archaeozoological collections of the AI and are at present missing.


The cleaning at a depth of 80 cm, in Trench 38, revealed that Pit 13 extended south and west of Trench 38 and also Trench 39. This westernmost part could be excavated only in 1989. A great number of fired clay and wattle-and-daub fragments was noticed at the depth of 45-60 cm in the southern part of Trenches 37 and 38, and also in the southern half of Trench 35. They might have belonged to another feature (a third house?) south of the excavated area, although this lower-lying part of the site makes it improbable. Houses 3, 4 and 5 belonged to the Late Avar and/or Early rpdian periods. A few small pieces of petrified wood were found at the depth of 80-110 cm. Similar finds come from the Szarvas 8/23 Krs features (unpublished). One small piece has an inlay of small, circular, mussel or shell pieces, most probably a fragment of a gaming board. The others are parts of unidentified objects (probably a vessel with a characteristic Krs rim), flat rings and one penannular bracelet. The presence of toys (rattles, balls, models, etc.) is known since the Neolithic. The earliest gaming boards are known from Mesopotamia and Egypt, dating to the 3rd millennium Cal BC (BIENKOWSKI and MILLARD, 2000: 297), although wooden specimens have not survived. Boards with a variable number of squares are also known from the Near East. If my assumption about the Endrd specimen is correct it can be considered the earliest so far known. A group of four cattle metacarpal bones come from Pit 13 (80-110 cm) in Trench 38. Together with other specimens from site 119 they are bone spoon rough-outs that confirm J. NANDRISs (1972) suggestions about the manufacture of these tools (MAKKAY, 1990a: 27, 31, 32 and 35, fig. 5, 8-10). The child Grave 10 was found at a depth of 120 cm in Pit 13, Trench 37. The skeleton was on its left side, NE oriented. Its body had been thrown to the surface of the pit. The heavily burnt upper arm and other bones of an adult (Grave 11) were found southeast of it. These two graves lay on the surface of the lowermost level of Pit 13, which consisted of a dark, hard fill with a small quantity of ash and a few sherds, to a depth of 200 cm. To sum up, refuse Pit 13 was discovered in Trenches 35, 37, 38 (and 39 of the 1989 campaign). Its westernmost part was excavated, while a small and shallow southern part remained intact. Close to its southwestern edge it contained Oven O7 (fig. 105). Large lumps of wattle-and-daub, fired to a glassy state, were found north of the oven. Oven O6, attributed to the Late Avar period or to the rpd Dynasty (VIII-XI centuries AD), was found in its southeastern edge, in Trench 37 (fig. 105).

7.1.5. The 1989 season (Trenches 39-55)

The last campaign started with the excavation of the westernmost part of Pit 13 in Trench 39. The remains of Oven O7 were discovered at a depth of 45-80 cm in the southernmost part of Trench 39. It was built on the surface of the rubbish fill, at a depth of some 80 cm, with 15 cm high walls. Its smoothed clay floor, inclined towards the pit centre, was covered with a thick, grey ash layer. The above-mentioned heavily fired wattle-and-daub fragments were found partly above the oven walls, partly to their north. According to their large dimensions, they did not belong to the oven. They had been deposited into the pit as fragments of a house construction destroyed by fire. The arbitrary layers of Trench 40, between 30-60 and 60-80/90 cm, yielded a few Krs fragments in a dry greyish or brownish deposit. The outline of a circular depression was recorded at a depth of 70 cm, down to 110 cm. Conjoining sherds of a large container were found in sacrificial Pit A8 (fig. 110, 1-4) below a grey, clayey layer excavated into the sterile soil, associated with a complete, upside-down, four-footed, hemispherical bowl (fig. 110, 2). The bottom part of the same vessel, lay in the lowermost potsherds layer (fig. 110, 1-4). Four layers of fragments of this vessel were placed into the pit, suggesting that it had been intentionally broken during the ceremony. The lowest layer of sherds was found 10 cm above the pit bottom. It contained only a few animal bones, while a half roe deer antler was found towards the south. No potsherds were noticed close to this feature. Some vessels were covered with a few cm thick layer of virgin yellow clay (not represented in the section of fig. 110, 2). The fill of the pit consisted of a brown, loose soil. Sacrificial Pit A8 is different from the others, although its ritual cannot be reconstructed. The arbitrary layers of Trenches 40 and 45 yielded the conjoining fragments of a squared clay box with a broken upper part and a curvilinear perimeter (fig. 91, 2) whose outer surfaces were crusted with red paint. It shows close parallels with the unpublished fragments from Subotica-Szabadka, Ludas-Budzsk, attributed to the


Fig. 111 - Endrd, site 3/119. 1-5: Oven O8 in Trench 42. 1: Section B-B. 2: The oven from the south with Pit 14 in the foreground. 3: Details of the upper openings (P.146.660). 4: Drawing of the complete wide bowl found in the Oven. 5: Oven O8 in process of excavation.


Fig. 112 - Endrd, site 3/119. 1-5: Plan and sections of O8 in Trench 42.


Copper Age Bodrogkeresztr Culture in the museum catalogue173. Its function is unknown, although it is similar to the Macedonian Porodin Culture house-shaped clay boxes with a chimney-like upper opening174. Trench 41 (and partly also Trench 42) yielded the debris of House 2, disturbed by loosening, and a few circular depressions, which were probably the postholes of another house (?). Trench 42 showed the outline of Pit 14, after cleaning at a depth of 60 and 90 cm. Between 30 and 60 cm, there was an ash fill above a loose, brown soil rich in potsherds. A small, shallow pit with an oven at its northern edge was discovered at some 90 cm of depth. The lowermost pit fill, between 90 and 120 cm, contained a hard dark soil very poor in finds. A thin, yellow clay layer, which might belong to Oven O8, covered the central part of the pit with a thin dark layer below it (figs. 111 and 112). Refuse Pit 14 contained ashes from Oven O8. It was probably excavated to obtain clay for the construction of the oven. It revealed a very complicated structure, which firstly did not look typically Krs. It was significantly different from all the other ovens of the site. Its southern mouth (fig. 111, 5)175 opened towards the uppermost ashy layer of Pit 14, from which the ash had most probably been removed. It consisted of a domed oven, constructed below the Krs surface, although the cavity might have an access from Pit 14. The main cavity was excavated into a sterile soil while the upper one extended to a greyish buried soil. Its walls were plastered while the lower parts, excavated inside the virgin soil, were unplastered. The red burnt plaster was 2 cm thick. Before plastering, rough wooden slabs had been horizontally wedged into the soil from the opening in order to support the scooped, later plastered, dome. The wood imprints were visible in the dome. The wooden pieces were placed radially towards the opening (fig. 112, 1). An oval cross-sectioned shaft, some 50 cm in diameter (a chimney), joined the ovens arch in its western part (fig. 112, 5). The uppermost point of this shaft was observed both in the buried soil and the Krs layer. The cultural attribution of this complex is undoubted because it opens from a Krs refuse pit and it yielded a Krs wide, footed bowl (figs. 111, 4 and 112, 4). It was found on the floor of the eastern part of the feature, above a very thin ash layer. All the bowl fragments were collected although two were lost during its restoration. Its position shows that these structures were also used for the preparation of liquids, as for instance soups and/or stews. The attribution of the oven to the Krs Culture is also supported by the absence of later finds from this area, and its construction technique, which is different from that of all the other ovens of more recent ages. The position of the bowl suggests that the life came to a sudden and unexpected end on this part of the site because of a fire. The cultural attribution of Oven O8 and Pit 14 can be connected with House 1 and three or four partly burnt skeletons close to the eastern wall of House 1. House 1, Pit 14 and Oven O8 should belong to the last settlement phase. The excavations were carried out in the northwestern part of the settlement, most of which did not yield any trace of both large refuse pits and surface houses. A small Krs bipartite, refuse pit was found in Trench 43, containing characteristic pottery among which is a potsherd with a white-on-red paint identical to other specimens from Pit 12, found at a depth of some 30 cm (MAKKAY, 1996: Pl. 9, 6). It cannot be excluded that it originally belonged to the assemblage of Pit 12. Grave 13 was discovered in an irregular burial pit, in Trench 4, at a depth of some 60 cm (fig. 79, 1). The skeleton lay on its right side, NE-SW oriented. The body was on the surface of a thin layer with typical Krs refuses, very close to the present surface. It was covered with a thin layer of black, humic soil, which later became very dry and hard. During its decomposition, the right side of the body sank 20 cm towards the centre of a shallow deposit. The soil loosening damaged its pelvis and feet. Red ochre was observed on the central body bones. No grave goods were found. Sacrificial Pit A6 was found in the southern part of Trench 44, oriented towards NW-SE (fig. 113, 1 and 2). Its outline was first observed after the cleaning at a depth of 53 cm excavated from a greyish cultural layer. The sides were almost vertical. Its uppermost fill consisted of a 30 cm yellow clay layer, below which was a 35-37 cm thick brownish-blackish level with alternate yellow and dark layers below it (fig. 113, 3). It contained only a few small Krs sherds and animal bones.
173. 174.

Ludas-Budzsk material stored in the Szabadka-Subotica Museum. Kind information of the late Szekeres Lszl. See MAKKAY and STARNINI (forthcoming 3). A very similar, fragmented squared clay vessel with two rows of circular impressions on its walls was found at Slatina (Sofia) in House 4, where it was deposited as a foundation offering (NIKOLOV and SIRAKOVA, 2002: 172 and fig. 3, 8). Also this vessel had a red-crusted paint on its outer surface. 175. According to the field notes of August 4th, 1989: 15, during the final cleaning and after completing the excavation of this feature, it was suggested that the opening of the oven was in the northern side. Nevertheless this impression cannot be put forward because the presence of much ash in Pit 14 supports the opposite view.


Fig. 113 - Endrd, site 3/119. 1-3: Sacrificial pit A6 in Trench 44. 1-2: Photographs from the northwest (P.146.612-146.613). 3: Section E-E on the southern wall of Trench 44.


Fig. 114 - Endrd, site 3/119. 1: Plan of Pit 16 in Trench 45 (D.26.492). 2: Section G-G1 of Pit 16 in Trench 45.


Fig. 115 - Endrd, site 3/119. 1: Plan of Pit 19 and section J-J1 of sacrificial Pit A7 in Trench 52. 2: The Northern wall of Trench 33 from the southwest with Pit 12 in the foreground (P.142.794). 3: Pit 18 in Trench 55, with the rpdian House H4 on the right (P.146.626).


Fig. 116 - Endrd, site 3/119. 1: Section I-I1 of sacrificial Pit A7 in Trench 52 (D.26.694). See also fig. 115, 1. 2: Sacrificial Pit A7 from the west. 3: Grave 14 of the Late Bronze Age in Trench 52 (P.146.622). 4: Grave 14 (D.26.477). 5: Sherds of the Middle Copper Age Bodrogkeresztr Culture from the site: stray finds. 5: Stray find. 6: Trench 55/30-60 cm. 7: Trench 33/30-60 cm. 8: Trench 11/30-50 cm. 9: Trenches 20-24.


Fig. 117 - Endrd, site 3/119. 1: Section of Pit 18 in Trench 55 (D.26.500). 2: Fragment of a clay figurine from Pit 1 in Trench 55/30-60 cm (P.159.690). 3: Fragment of a smaller clay figurine of a similar type from Trench 55/West, 30-60 cm (P.159.688). 4: Clay relief fragment from the outer wall of a large jar representing a tortoise, belonging to the ALP assemblage from Szarvas 8/75, object 10 excavated in 1989 (P.159.688) (the courtesy of I. Juhsz).

Pit 16, in Trenches 45 and 50, contained Late Bronze Age finds, among which are three stamp-seals two of which are complete and one fragmentary. Their surface is decorated with irregular impressions. Pit 1, in the northeastern corner of Trench 44 yielded characteristic Krs pottery and a clay stamp-seal. Sacrificial Pit A7 was excavated in Trench 52. Its eastern part extended into the narrow profile baulk between Trenches 52 and 19 excavated in 1986 (fig. 115, 1 and 116, 1 and 2). It did not yield any finds, although it undoubtedly belongs to the Krs period. It might be earlier than Pit 9 and its eastern part was probably truncated by the excavation of this latter structure. Grave 15 was found in the northernmost part of Trench 54. It contained the skeleton of a small infant at the bottom of the black deposit. It was W-E oriented, on its right side at the depth of 45-50 cm. It can be probably


attributed to the Neolithic because it was covered by an undisturbed, very hard black layer, although MAKKAY (1992: 134) previously attributed it to the X-XI centuries AD. Trench 55 was opened west of Pit 12. It led to the discovery of the rpdian House H4 and Pit 18 (fig. 117, 1), a small Krs refuse pit with characteristic pottery, associated with fragments of an unusual clay figurine (fig. 117, 2 and 3). Fragments of similar statuettes were found also in the baulk between Trenches 44 and 51. The flat shapes, the finely tempered clay body and the light brown colour differ from the general typology of the Krs figurines.


Given that the site is 70-75 m long in NE-SW direction, and 40-50 m wide in NW-SE, the 2500-3000 sq m excavation led to its complete recovery. The distribution map of the most important Neolithic features shows that the rich, large refuse pits was distributed in the southern part of the low, oval, NE-SW elevation. Regarding the two Krs buildings, House 1 was close to its northeastern end, along the ridge of the low mound, while House 2 was more close to its southern slope around the mid-line. Only smaller features were found to their north, while the only Krs structures of the central area consisted of sherd scatters, small pits and other finds. Given that the highest point is in the centre of the mound, it is likely that it served as a communal ground for the social life of the settlement, which might have consisted of two houses. The area available for house building was of this dimension also during the late Avar period (800-900 AD) and the rpd Dynasty (X and XI centuries AD). During these periods not more than three buildings (Houses 3, 4 and 5) may have stood in the same elevation, and a small cemetery dated to 950-1000 AD. The very small population size and the short occupation are also indicated by the limited number of Neolithic burials, which yielded not more than ten inhumations, mainly children.

7.2.1. The houses

Detailed information on the Krs Culture houses were no longer available due to the damage caused by tillage a few years before our excavations. Nevertheless two oblong houses, 10-12 m long and 4-6 m wide, N-S oriented, were recorded. They did not contain any trace of ovens or fireplaces. They both had been constructed above a refuse pit. House 1 above Pit 5, and House 2 above most of Pit 12 (fig. 99, 1). House 2 and Pit 12 yielded several conjoinable sherds (MAKKAY, 1992: 149). While House 1 did not yield any posthole, several were recorded from the wider area of House 2, some of which inside the habitation structure, others outside. These postholes did not show any definite outline; furthermore a few of them were proven not to be postholes. No plastered and/or burned floors were recovered. The floors were stamped or simply tramped and defined only on the basis of the finds distribution. House 2 yielded a very rich assemblage. Fragments of at least thirteen vessels were scattered on the floor and amongst its ruins (figs. 92, 4 and 5; 94, 2, 3, 5 and 6 and 95, 4) as well as net-weights grouped in several clusters (figs. 94, 7 and 8) (MAKKAY, 1992: Pl. 1 and 2; 17, 1 and 22, 3 and 4; see also the net-weights in Pl. 41, 4). The large vessel close to another in the northeastern posthole of House 2 is supposed to have a ritual significance (figs. 87, 90, 1-4, 91, 1 and 99 in the northeastern corner of Trench 26). J. BANNER (1935: 105, 115, Pl. XIV: 7, XV: 6 and 7 and XVI: 1 and 2; 1942: 17 and Pls. VII, 2, IX, 7 and X, 7) noticed that single, large vessels were standing intact at the Krs settlement of Kotacpart-Vata tanya, near Hdmezvsrhely. A similar observation can be made for the large ALP face-decorated vessels (KALICZ and MAKKAY, 1972: 15)176. We cannot exclude the ritual function of the Endrd 3/119 object amongst the so-called posthole-sacrifices (MAKKAY, 1988: 3-21). Nevertheless it is possible that large vessel fragments were placed inside the postholes in order to fix the post itself (see the large bowl fragments of fig. 99, 2). Fragments of large vessels were occasionally employed to line the lowermost, inner walls of refuse pits (see Endrd 3/39 pit in Trench IV: fig. 64, 3). Ovens and fireplaces were built in the open spaces between the houses. Three were connected with refuse pits (Pit 10+O4, Pit 11+O5, and Pit 14+O8), while others were placed in their fill (Pit 9+O2, Pit 13+O7, and perhaps also Pit 4 and the oven of fireplace F1; figs. 85; 86, 4 and 5; 87, 96, 1-3; 105; 111; 112 and 87 respectively). It is worth mentioning again that Oven O8 has no parallels with any other Early Neolithic structure (figs. 111 and 112), although it undoubtedly belongs to the Krs Culture, due to the recovery of a complete pedestalled bowl inside it. A very large number of features can be interpreted as sacrificial pits or places. They occur in a variety of forms among which is the sacrificial posthole in Trench 25 (figs. 91 and 92). The simplest is sacrificial Pit 8, which contained a large vessel in a circular, shallow pit, some 80 cm in diameter, excavated into the sterile soil

The most recent example of this sacrifice was discovered at the Bkk Culture site of Garadna, near Miskolc, in NE Hungary, where a 81 cm high storage jar with a face representation was recovered. See the daily Magyar Nemzet, 22.05.2003: 15.


(fig. 110). It was found together with a four-legged, upside-down bowl and a few animal bones. Sacrificial Pit 1, in the central deepest part of Pit 5, differs from the other six (fig. 77). It is a circular, deep, narrow pit filled with 5-6 layers of sacrificial deposit, with numerous freshwater molluscs, covered by a thin layer of yellow clay. An upside-down ceramic lamp with a broken cup was recovered at its top in a mass of fish bones and burnt remains. The deposition of upside-down small vessels and bones was undoubtedly part of the ceremonies, as shown also by the footed bowl in sacrificial Pit A8. The lamp ceremonial character is reinforced by the deposition of a broken (?) ceramic lamp or altar in the sacrificial pit of Szarvas 8/23 on the tip of a red deer antler, together with a small conical cup on the other tip (fig. 19). The Szarvas ritual ceremony consisted also in the deposition of chipped artefacts. It is important to point out the presence of fragmented lamps in both cases. Sacrificial Pit A1 is rather similar to that excavated at Endrd 3/39, in Trench XX, below a Krs house rubble and construction debris (figs. 60 and 71) (MAKKAY, 1983: 157-160; 1986: 170, fig. 1). The difference is that while one single rite was observed at Endrd 39, a multiple ritual is documented from the site under study. Another difference is that the Endrd 39 rite was bloodless, while in our case the sacrifice of a dog was accompanied by the deposition of freshwater shells. It is the repetitive sacrifice that points to the non-constructional character of this offering, which might pre-date the building of House 1. It belongs to another ritual unrelated to the construction of House 1. The other sacrificial features (sacrificial Pit 2-Pit 7) are similar, even though important differences can be noticed (figs. 75, 1; 77; 80-82; 90; 91; 100; 103; 113 and 116). These structures (MAKKAY, 1989a; CHAPMAN, 2000; 2000a), which might be better called ritual shaft, have never been described so far from any Krs-Starevo site, although a few were probably found by J. Banner at Kotacpart-Vata tanya near Hdmezvsrhely. It cannot be excluded that feature E4 was a narrow shaft. Pit 5 was probably a sacrificial shaft with diameters of 2 and 1.4 m, 3 m deep. According to BANNER (1935: 104-105) at a depth of 1 metre this pit broadened to 2.4 metres at which breadth it was 2.5 metres deep. Then it ended in a hardly 0.5 metre broad but 2.8. metres long ditch at a depth of 3.6. metres177. Some sacrificial shafts contained only a few potsherds in a primary position, unrelated to any ritual function, as it is the case for sacrificial Pit A2. One of the characteristics of these pits is that they narrow abruptly around half depth and their deepest point is only a few cm wide. A sequence of alternate dark, organic and virgin clay deposits characterise their lowermost filling. These latter are usually yellow and deepen inwards from the sides (figs. 82; 100 and 113). The curved profile of the yellow layer is shown in fig. 113, 2. A few colleagues who were excavating Linear Pottery houses and features suggested that the alternate black and yellow fill was natural, caused by the erosion. This hypothesis is unfounded because it does not provide any interpretation of the function of these features and is contradicted by the top fill of sacrificial Pit A6 (fig. 113), which is of almost pure yellow clay. This material was not available from the surface of the buried Neolithic soil close to the shaft, and consequently it was brought there artificially for instance during the building of a house. These shafts may be subdivided into two groups according to their content. Some contain artefacts, among which are sacrificial remains. This is the case for sacrificial Pit A4, which yielded a complete, large vessel with a net-weight into it (figs. 99, 1 and 101) and sacrificial Pit A3, with part of the skull and other sheep bones (figs. 99, 1 and 100). The others were empty or yielded only very few potsherds and animal bones. As mentioned above, it was not possible to understand if the small clay figurine (the only complete specimen from the site) and the rare, relief decorated fragment (probably representing dancing women in a Balkan round dance?), as well as a small cup with a human face from Pit 12178, were originally in sacrificial Pit A5 (figs. 103 and 106, 1-4). The sacrificial shafts are oriented in a NNW-SSE and SW-NE direction. One of their edges is always narrower than the other, although the narrow end may point to both directions. They were often excavated into refuse pits or in their close proximity (Pit 5 and sacrificial Pit A1, Pit 4 and sacrificial Pit A2, Pit 12 + sacrificial Pit A3 and A5, Pit 13 + sacrificial Pit A4, Pit 9 + sacrificial Pit A7), although in some cases the refuse pits are not associated with sacrificial pits (Pits 10, 11 and 14). Nevertheless the sacrificial shafts, which are partly or totally located inside refuse Pits (A2 and A5) are independent from them and were excavated secondarily following their partial or complete filling. The recovery of these features significantly contributed to the understanding of the Krs Culture rituals, although it is impossible to explain why these structures have never been recorded from other Krs sites of the region and that they are known predominantly from the Central European Linear
177. 178.

Opposite to the Endrd shafts this feature was very long, and some Copper Age pottery is mentioned from this site. MAKKAY (1992: 124) erroneously mentioned them from Pit 10.


Pottery Culture, sometimes called tanning pits (GRONENBORN, 1989; MAKKAY, 1989a: 243-248). Most of the finds come from ten large and a few small refuse pits (Pit 4, 5, 9, 10, 12, 13, 14 17, 18 and 20: fig. 73). Their size is not necessarily related with the abundance of their contents. For instance, the assemblage of Pit 4 is richer than that of Pit 14. Their upper fill is often composed of ashy layers of a grey, loose deposit, while the lower is brownish and loose. It becomes thicker and darker towards the bottom, where the number of sherds decreases. Smaller or larger burnt patches are common to the sequence of the refuse pits. In a few cases, they might have been fireplaces (as for instance fireplace F1 in Pit 4: figs. 74 and 80). Most of them originated from cinders, which kept burning after being dumped into the pit. Layers of fish scales were also observed, especially in Pits 12 and 13, sometimes associated with vessels179. Almost intact vessels were often found inside these pits. In several cases, the asymmetric wear visible on one of their surfaces indicates that, although they had been thrown inside the refuse pit, they remained exposed for a considerable period (see, for instance, the vessels found in a group in the spit 80-100 cm in Pit 12: MAKKAY and STARNINI, forthcoming 2). Pit 12 was extraordinary both for its richness in ceramic finds and dimensions. Other settlements in the Endrd-Szarvas region (especially Szarvas 8/23 and Endrd 3/39) yielded 220 and even 300 cm deep refuse pits, although their average depth was some 2 m. At this site, only Pit 13 was deeper than 200 cm (fig. 105, 2) down to the water table. The ALP and Krs Culture features systematically show some differences. The upper fill of the Krs refuse pits is usually loose and ashy with a high organic content, which contrasts with the majority of the ALP refuse pits and pit dwellings. The ALP pits usually yield the same quantity of pottery (as for instance Szarvas 8/102 and Gyoma 4/107), although both their upper and the lower fill is hard, almost tar like. This would imply that the climate was drier during the ALP period, which is also supported by the fact that some ALP sites are located in lower-lying areas. The Krs-Starevo sites of the Krs Rivers are never located below 83 m, whereas isolated ALP settlements are often found in lower areas (MAKKAY, 1982a: 160 and 161). 20 kg of soil samples were collected during the 1987-1988 seasons for water sieving. The samples have not been so far studied and only a preliminary unpublished report was written by J. Chapman.

7.2.2. Relative chronology of the features

The two houses and refuse pits represent more than one period of occupation. If we suggest that only one of the houses stood at any given time, housing one family, the question is which of the two buildings was the earliest. It is also likely that some of the refuse pits were originally opened to extract clay for the construction of the houses180. Both Pits 5 and 12 might have been quarries for Houses 1 and 2 respectively181 that partially or totally cover these pits, which might help define their relative chronology. The remaining refuse pits might have been utilised for house construction and renovation and other activities (building ovens, fireplaces and re-plastering houses182). Nevertheless it is impossible to understand which of the small refuse pits played this role. The largest pits, which yielded the richest assemblages, are located in the southern part of the settlement, which was possibly the area in front of the southern entrances of the houses and as such may have been one of the important areas for daily activities. Regarding the relative chronology of some of the pits and houses, the following data are worth considering. Some yielded complete vessels reconstructed from sherds from different depths of the same pit. It is well known that vessel fragments thrown into a refuse pit may end up at considerable distances and depths. They may even mix with the lower pit layers during their filling (as for instance moved by animal burrows183, stamped into deeper parts by cattle roaming freely on the site, activity of dogs, etc.). Furthermore one should assume such movements when the pit is still open and alive and its organic content has not completely decomposed. This period should not be longer than 20-25 years or a generation. The restored vessels and even more the fragments from at least four pits were in varying vertical positions. Fragments from the same vessel were often found 1 m above each other or even

Cfr. the lower quern from this site, which was perhaps used for cleaning fishes, scraping their scales (STARNINI and SZAKMNY, 1998: 290 and fig. 15). According to these authors a post-depositional cause cannot be excluded. 180. My 1960 research in a small gypsy settlement of 65 people at Nagykrs (17 males, 19 females and 29 children living in 13 houses) showed that the material for building their houses were obtained from pits lying close to the house. The clay pits later were used for any kind of litter and rubbish (MAKKAY, 1999b). 181. An opposed view was expressed by MAKKAY (1992: 125). 182. The inhabitants of the Nagykrs gypsy settlement plaster their wattle-and-daub houses twice a year at worn places. For more details see MAKKAY (1999). 183. For the role of the rodents see the recent excavations of L. Domborczki at Tiszaszls-Domahza, a small site north of the Krs Culture distribution line. The excavator believes that he found a Krs Culture rubbish pit (outside its distribution territory) with associated ALP pottery from the lower part of the pit (beneath typical Krs pottery) (DOMBORCZKI, 2003: 30, note 97) It is interesting that ALP forms and motifs can be found towards the top of the pit. For my comments see MAKKAY (2004a: 38-39). L. DOMBORCZKY (2004: 304) wrote that these ALP potsherds penetrated into the lower pit layers due to burrowing activity of rodents and also deep ploughing: az AVK kori jrszintbl beszntott, illetve rgcslk ltal beszlltott szrvnyok.


greater depths (MAKKAY, 1992: Pl. 12: 3: 120 cm and Pl. 13: 140 cm). If the Krs occupation was continuous, assuming that each pit was used at a time and functioned for 20 years, the settlement lasted maximum 200 years. Another data source consists in the restored vessels and other fragments brought to light from two different features. A tabulation shows a high number of associations between House 2 and Pit 12 (10 vessels and a further fragment whose shape could not be completed, 11 altogether: MAKKAY, 1992: 149). Fragments of 2 open bowls from House 2 and Pit 12 show impressed linear decorations on their outer, and in one case, inner surface184. There were other very characteristic fragments of two globular vessels, decorated with a stroke-burnished pattern, whose conjoining parts were brought to light from Pit 12 and Pit 13 (MAKKAY, 1992, Pl. 34: 1 and 2). In a few cases, this might have occurred accidentally, or because of a more recent disturbance. An example is that of the above-mentioned large, coarse bowl (fig. 99, 2, and MAKKAY, 1992: 127 and Pl. 36, 1), whose fragments were found against the wall in the deepest part of Pit 12, while other pieces were placed in the posthole, which probably belonged to House 2. House 2 overlapped Pit 12, and during its later phase also Pit 13. The fragments of a small vessel were found within the rubble of House 2 and Pit 10 (MAKKAY, 1992: Pl. 26, 17). This suggests that Pit 10 was (partly) contemporaneous with House 2 and Pit 12. At the same time House 2 covered most of Pit 12 in Trenches 27-30, and probably also in southernmore trenches (fig. 99). This indicates that more pits were simultaneously in use, while only House 2 stood, and House 1 was built after the abandonment of the other. The chronological sequence of the settlement features might be the following: 1. Pit 12 was the earliest of five features (House 2, Pits 12 and 13, sacrificial Pit A5 and posthole or Pit 2 in Trench 34: fig. 99, Trench 34). It was opened before the construction of House 2 and its clay might have been utilised as house building material. At the time of its construction, however, Pit 12 was not completely filled. For this reason parts of the large bowl placed into the posthole in Trench 34, probably belonging to House 2, refit with the fragments from Pit 12 or sacrificial Pit A5 (fig. 99, 2). 2. The posthole in Trench 34 was excavated during, or slightly before, the building of House 2, and shortly after the opening of (the northern part of) Pit 12. Fragments of a large bowl were probably used for packing the lower part of the posthole to hold the base of a post. Conjoining sherds of the same bowl were found in deepest part of Pit 12, whose lowermost filling is therefore contemporaneous with the posthole. An alternative hypothesis is that these sherds fell into the pit during a ceremony performed near the wall of sacrificial Pit A5. However, in my opinion, these fragments do not belong to the assemblage intentionally deposited into sacrificial Pit A5, but they were set against the deepest wall of Pit 12 (similarly to the large sherds found at Endrd 3/39 [fig. 64, 3] against the wall of the lowest part of Pit 1 in Trench IV, which was a small, internal shaft). 3. During the life of House 2, the parts of Pit 12 not covered by the building, gradually filled above the level containing the large bowl potsherds. Since this regards most of the pit deposit185, one may assume that its main content was composed of construction debris, because only the south pit portion, outside the house, remained empty during the use of the house. However, the northern half of Pit 12 was beneath House 2: therefore its artefacts must be older than those from House 2. Some sherds of the large bowl were found in the posthole in Trench 34, beyond the hypothetical outline of the house. The logic of this deposition process is supported by the reconstructed vessels whose sherds were found amongst the house rubble, while other conjoining fragments come from Pit 12 below, sometimes from considerable depths186. This suggests that Pit 12-House 2 complex was partly contemporaneous, and predated Pit 13. The objects from Pit 12 are more or less contemporaneous with the occupation of the house, with the proviso that some may have been deposited before the construction of the habitation structure. 4. The reason why I suppose that the whole complex is older than Pit 13 is that two large refuse pits could not coexist in close vicinity in a small site like Endrd 3/119, especially if they occupied a large part of the whole settled area. It can be assumed that Pit 13 served as a refuse pit for House 2 when clay Pit 12 was completely filled and its clay was used for the renovation of parts of House 2 and other works. 5. Therefore Pit 13 is more recent than the above-mentioned structures. This feature was not necessarily opened during the lifetime of House 2 (MAKKAY, 1992, 149). Nevertheless the close relationships between Pit 12 and
184. 185.

MAKKAY (2000: nos. 22 = MAKKAY, 1992: Pl. 35) and 23, Pls. 2, 5 and 9, and also 24, not illustrated in the 2000 article. The field note dated to August 19th, 1987: 40 mentions that dbris of house 2 covered Pit 12 till the middle of trench 32, i.e. most of it (fig. 99, 1). This extension, however, only shows the outlines of the house debris after its final destruction, covering an area larger than the original one. A minor diffusion of house debris might also have been caused by the soil loosening as it was the case for square 33/1988. 186. For the list see MAKKAY (1992, 159: Pit 12 and House 2). 11 cases were recorded where parts of the same reconstructed vessels were recovered from different features. Nine of these are from Pit 12 and House 2. Two fragments were found in the deepest part of Pit 12 and in Trench 30 between 100 and 160 cm (MAKKAY, 1992: Pl. 36, 1), other pieces come from pit layers between 60 and 90 cm. See also MAKKAY (2000: fragments 22-24).


13 are indicated by fragments of the same vessel in both features (MAKKAY, 1992: 146 and 149, Pl. 34, 1; 2000: Taf. 4, 45). They are part of a globular pot with a low rim, decorated with stroke burnished or finely incised lines. The two fragments were yielded by two different features and depths (60-90 and 100-160 cm). 6. As mentioned above, House 2 and the fill of Pit 5, below House 1, might have been partly contemporaneous as shown by the presence of two metallic ware vessels from these structures (fig. 96, 4; MAKKAY, 1990: Pl. 1, 1-3; 1992: Pl. 1, 1-3. If this observation is correct the earliest part of the fill of Pit 12 is the oldest of the site. 7. The fragments of only one small vessel were found in House 2 and Pit 10 (MAKKAY, 1992: 149, Pl. 26, 17). This suggests that Pit 10, close to the entrance of House 1, is (partly) contemporaneous with House 2. Pit 11 and Pit 14, with their Ovens O5 and O8, belong to House 1 and House 2, although their relationships will be better understood only after the detailed study of the pottery assemblages. It seems that each house had its own subterranean oven. The refuse Pit 11 cut the eastern part of Pit 12 (fig. 93, 1). 8. It is important to point out that the other features discovered in the eastern part of the settlement (House 1 and Pits 4, 5, 9 and 10) do not show any relationships, as, for instance, conjoining potsherds or other artefacts. A preliminary conclusion, based on the stratigraphic evidence and partly the pottery typology, would suggest that the life of this small settlement is to be subdivided into two main periods. House 2 and the two or three pits associated with it (Pits 12, 13 and perhaps Pit 10) can be attributed to the earlier phase to which belong also three fragments of the same vessel with a fine, white paint on a burnished brownish slip. In my opinion this type of painted ware belongs to the early, white-painted Krs-Starevo Culture period (see above, and also MAKKAY, 1990: 113-122). The common monochrome ware of this phase (including the red monochrome sherds187) and its few fragments with white-on-red/brown paint resembles the Early Neolithic dark burnished wares of northwestern Turkey with its red monochrome pottery from Hoca esme 4 and white-on-red painted pottery from Aai Pinar 6 (ZDOAN, 2003: 348 and fig. 2c), while the vessel shapes are slightly different. I suggest that the monochrome ware, especially its red variant, corresponds to the dark (red and brown) burnished wares of NW Turkey188. The only problem of this chronology is that both House 2 and Pit 12 (and also Pit 5) yielded a number of forms of so-called metallic ware and other, similar sherds, which usually are not considered to be characteristic of the early pottery manufacture (the metallic shapes and their characteristic shiny finish usually are not considered to represent early pottery manufacture that looked like metal vessels, because they are far older than the beginning of the production of metal vessels). Vessel types (mostly carinated bowls) characteristic of the late Krs-Starevo Culture, known as Protovina phase (figs. 132, 1-10 and 135), sometimes occur also in earlier or Classic Krs-Starevo assemblages. Among the restored vessels, only two are from this site (fig. 95, 4; MAKKAY, 1992: Pl. 1, 1 and 5). Thus this small settlement began during the early, white-painted phase and, after a continuous development its existence ceased shortly before the latest Protovina phase189. Life continued at the neighbouring settlements Endrd 3/39 (pit in Trench XVIII) and especially Endrd 3/6 with its several late Krs-Protovina assemblages and also Protovina-Szatmr sub-periods until the end of the Krs times. This picture is partly contradicted by the occurrence of a typical ALP sherd in the undisturbed fill of the southern part of Trench 18 (MAKKAY, 1987: fig. 4, 4; see also the list of ALP sherds below, and figs. 141 and 142). This assemblage, which contains a few other artefacts, among which is a small fragmentary steatopygous figurine (MAKKAY, 1992: Pl. 28, 6 and 29, 9), might represent a short, late Krs occupation that followed the main settlement period. Otherwise the above-mentioned sherd can be attributed to a moment immediately preceding the Protovina phase. Alternate dark (organic sacrificial deposit) and yellow clay layers in the sacrificial pits have been interpreted as indicators of periodical sacrifices (SOUDSKY, 1961). Thus, the sequence of sacrificial shafts, assuming that they followed each other without long interruptions and that their layers indicate seasons or years, would represent the sites life span. Such an analysis so far has not been carried out, although the

According to a statistic made on the red monochrome (red-slipped) sherds, their number is surprisingly low (286 pieces), well below 1% of the total percentage: 7 are from Szarvas 8/56 (an extremely high percentage compared to the other sites), 27 from Szarvas 8/8, 36 from Endrd 3/39, 63 from Endrd 3/119 and 153 from Szarvas 8/23, especially Pit 1 in Trenches I-II/1974. 188. For my critics of the monochrome theory, see the chapter on Szarvas, 8/23, and also the general conclusions. 189. According to the recent analysis of the Krs-Starevo Culture Spondylus finds (DIMITRIJEVI and TRIPKOVI, 2002: 55), the chronology of a bracelet fragment from Endrd 119 (MAKKAY, 1990a: fig. 4, 3) is difficult to define since Pit 12 contained material from different Krs periods, among which are early phase white painted potsherds, and also typical Protovina forms. The assemblage from Pit 12 is to be considered the earliest of the site without any single Protovina type.


sequence of alternate layers would suggest a period not exceeding four generations and the 10 burials an even shorter occupation (Graves 1-4, 9-11, 13 and 15 and B). Only four were adult graves or isolated bones. The available data show the absence of any Krs graveyard. The deceased were buried in refuse pits inside the settlement or close to it. The Krs burials brought to light (Endrd 3/39 did not yielded any single grave) probably represent the real population size. To conclude, the number of graves is realistic. It excludes an occupation of several centuries or the repeated occupation of a settlement with only two houses, eight sacrificial pits, two underground ovens and ten major refuse pits. The continuity between the two houses cannot be demonstrated. Even though we suppose that they are not contemporaneous and followed each other diachronically (continuously or separated by a time interval), the site occupation cannot have been longer than twice two generations that is twice some fifty years. It would be hypothetical to suggest that it was abandoned after the first period (House 2) and the same, or another (?) group of people resettled it after a certain interval to build House 1. The material culture assemblages from the settlement and Houses 1 and 2 would exclude any gap in the site life. Their location does not show any stratigraphic relationship because House 1 lies east, and House 2 west of the site centre. It seems reasonable to suggest that House 2 and the pits associated with it belong to the earliest settlement period, House 1 and its related group of features to the later one. A small spot in Trench 18 indicates a later Protovina period. It is possible that the detailed analysis of the finds will slightly modify this chronology. The number of dwellings, refuse pits and other structures (fireplaces, ovens and sacrificial pits), indicate that the site was settled for a short period, as does the low number of burials. This contradicts the chronological sequence of the material culture assemblages, which spans from the Early Krs, throughout the Classic or Middle phase, to the appearance of Protovina elements, although these latter are poorly represented. These data do not support the available radiocarbon chronology, according to which the Krs Culture lasted some 800 years (WHITTLE et al., 2002). As I have already pointed out, this would imply that one pig was butchered every 15, 25 or 40 years. An almost fully excavated site, whose faunal assemblage is the largest sample ever collected and published from a Krs, or even from a SE European Early Neolithic settlement, represents the nutritional needs of two nuclear families for 13.7 years. This fact causes an irresolvable conflict with a supposed 500-year occupation of the site (BKNYI, 1992a). In my opinion the solution is, apart from what is suggested by the radiocarbon dates, to shorten the assumed life span of the culture to maximum some 3-4 centuries. The surprising homogeneity of the material culture remains, both in a territorial and a chronological sense of the culture would suggest a similar conclusion.
Short resettlement in the Protovina period Sporadic presence of Early ALP (Szatmr) incised ware during or before the Protovina period, without settlement features and Protovina types: Trench 18 Burning of House 1, Graves 1-4 near House 1, and the last use of O8 near Pit 14 Classic Krs House 1 above Pit 5, later deposits of Pit 13, Pit 11 with oven O5 Pit below House 1 and contemporaneous surface features (still unidentified) End of Pit 12 and the first phase of Pit 13 Early Krs (white painted) House 2 above Pit 12, contemporaneous deposits of Pit 12, Pit 10, sacrificial Pit A5 (Pit 14+O8?) The oldest part of Pit 12, shortly before the building of House 2

Table 13 - Internal chronology of Endrd 3/119.


8. ENDRD, SITE 3/45 (figs. 119-122)

A short trial excavation was carried out at this multi-period site (fig. 1, 18) by P. rkus between August 25th and September 2nd, 1975 (MAKKAY in MRT8, 1989: 148). Its scope was to discover Krs Culture features and define their stratigraphic relationships with the ALP settlement remains. Unfortunately, the excavation did not locate either Krs refuse pits or habitation layers. Six trenches were opened covering an area of 128 sq m. Five small refuse pits were discovered belonging to the Sarmatian and rpdian periods, with Krs pottery in a secondary position. The shallow Pit 3 could be attributed to the ALP Culture. It yielded red slipped fragments of a Krs bowl in a secondary position. Pit 2 contained undisturbed Krs finds, among which are potsherds and a broken bone spoon (MAKKAY, 1990a: Abb. 3, 5). The material is represented by Classic Krs vessels with characteristic barbotine, pinching, plastic and incised decorations (figs. 119; 120, 6; 121, 1-3 and 8-12 and 122). Among the other finds there is a fragmented Szarvas type net-weight (fig. 121, 5 and 6), numerous pieces of three and four-legged altars (fig. 120, 11-14), fragments of bulls and probably a red deer figurines (fig. 120, 2-4). Two specimens belong to human statuettes (fig. 120, 1 and 5), while a few fragments of large containers show both human and animal plastic representations (fig. 120, 6-9). Fragments of a bone ring and a small clay ball (fig. 120, 10) were also found. Protovina shapes are not present, although this might be due to the small amount of finds.

9. ENDRD, SITE 3/158 (figs. 123 and 124)

The site lies at a short distance from Endrd 3/6 (fig. 1, 4). Here the remains of a refuse pit with a typical, Krs Culture, greyish loose fill were found during our intensive survey, during which we collected characteristic potsherds of both the Krs and ALP Cultures. During the excavations at the neighbouring sites Endrd 3/6 and 3/119, a rescue operation brought to light the remains of a feature, which had been mostly destroyed by a canal. The Krs refuse pit had been cut by an early ALP pit (fig. 123, 1 and 2). Its characteristic dark fill contained Szatmr incised potsherds (fig. 141, 17 and 18) associated with a channelled sherd and other Protovina specimens (fig. 124, 2-4). A few bones of a crouched ALP grave, destroyed by the canal, were also excavated. Its grave goods consisted of a necklace of limestone and Spondylus beads around its neck (figs. 123, 2-4 and 124, 1; MAKKAY, 1992b: 320 and Pl. 15, 3).

Fig. 118 - Szarvas, site 8/56. Reconstructed, fine ware necked jar from Trench 1/1981 (drawings by E. Starnini).


Fig. 119 - Endrd, site 3/45. Sherds of the Krs Culture from different features. 1: Trench 1/2nd spit (Inv. no. 78.120.18). 2: Trench I/NW,2nd spit (Inv. no. 78.120.12). 3: Trench I/NNW, 2nd spit (Inv. no. 78.118.21). 4: Trench I/NNW, 2nd spit (Inv. no. 78.120.5). 5: Trench I/NW, 3rd spit (Inv. no. 78.120.13). 6: Trench IVA/2nd spit ( 78.118.19). 7: Trench I/NNW, 4th spit (Inv. no. 78.120.21). 8: Trench I/NNW, 2nd spit (Inv. no. 78.118.10). 9: Trench I/NNW, 2nd spit (Inv. no. 78.120.9). 10: Trench II/2nd spit (Inv. no. 78.118.4; P.90.182, P.90.184).


Fig. 120 - Endrd, site 3/45. Plastic decorated sherds (6-9), fragmented human (1 and 5) and animal clay figurines (25) clay altars (1-14) and a small ball (10) of the Krs Culture from different features and depths. 1: Trench II/West, 3rd spit (Inv. no. 78.35.1). 2: Trench IV/2nd spit (Inv. no. 78.35.3). 3: Trench I/South, 2nd spit (Inv. no. 78.35.4). 4: Trench I/North, 2nd spit (Inv. no. 78.35.2). 5: Trench IV/A, 2nd spit (Inv. no. 78.117.4). 6: Trench IV,1st spit (Inv. no. 78.35.12). 7: Trench VI/2nd spit. 8: Trench I/North, 2nd spit. 9: Trench II/West, 2nd spit. 10: Trench V/2nd spit. 11: Trench II/East, 2nd spit. 12: Trench II/West, 2nd spit. 13: Trench I/North, 2nd spit. 14: Trench III/SE, 2nd spit (P.85.027).


Fig. 121 - Endrd, site 3/45. Vessel fragments (1-4 and 7-12) and fragmented net-weight of Szarvas type (5-6) of the Krs Culture from different depths and features. 1: Trench VI/2nd spit (Inv. no. 78.118.19). 2: Trench IV/2nd spit (Inv. no. 78.120.1). 3: Trench I/NNW, 2nd spit (Inv. no. 78.118.13). 4: Trench I/Middle, 2nd spit (Inv. no. 78.117.13). 5: Trench IV/3rd spit (Inv. no. 78.117.13). 6: Trench VI/2nd spit (Inv. no. 78.117.12). 7: Trench I/NW, 2nd spit (Inv. no. 78.120.14). 8: Trench IV/2nd spit (Inv. no. 78.120.8). 9: Trench II/East, 2nd spit (Inv. no. 78.120.15). 10: Trench VI/2nd spit (Inv. no. 78.118.20). 11: Trench I/NW, 3rd spit (Inv. no. 78.118.17). 12: Trench I/Middle, 3rd spit (Inv. no. 78.118.14; P.90.182, P90.184).


Fig. 122 - Endrd, site 3/45 (1-4) and Gyoma, site 4/51. Finds of the Krs Culture. 1-2: Trench II/East, 3rd spit (Inv. no. 78.121.1). 3: Trench II/West, 2nd spit (Inv. no. 78.7.1). 4: Trench VI/, 2nd spit (Inv. no. 78.118.3). 5: Excavated during intensive field survey, coming from a refuse pit (Inv. no. 78.263.1; P.108.441).


Fig. 123 - Endrd, site 3/158. Features and finds of the 1985 rescue operations in the site of the Krs Culture and the Early ALP. 1: Reconstructed plan of ALP-pit in the body of the embankment with the position of Grave 1. Section A-B of the pit (D.22.644). 3: Grave 1 of the Early ALP (D.22.160). Necklace from the grave, made of Spondylus beads (D.22.168).


Fig. 124 - Endrd, site 3/158. Grave 1/1985 (1; P.127.920) and ceramic finds (2-5) of the Latest Krs-Earliest ALP=Szatmr phase from Pit 1 (P.140.273-P.163.640).


Fig. 125 - Stray finds of the Krs Culture from different sites of the Szarvas Topography area. 1: Animal figurine from Endrd, site 3/82 (Inv. no. 78.88.4). 2: Head of human clay figurine with eyes made of shell inlay (Inv. no. 78.88.3; D.12.116). 3: Grave of the Krs Culture from Endrd, site 3/82 (after MAKKAY in MRT8, 1989: 156). 4-5: Complete net weight of Szarvas type and small rounded vessel from Szarvas, site 8/105, Arany Jnos street 30-32 (P.87.032a-b; Inv. no. 78.10.1). 6: Head of a human figurine from Gyoma, site 4/65, surface finds during intesive field survey. 7: Rim fragment of an ALP bowl with face representation. Find made during intensive field survey on the site Endrd, 3/6 (Inv. no. 78.34.30; P.85.031). 8: Szarvas, site 8/8: fragment of a Szaklht face vessel, found in Trench V/West, 20-60 cm (P.85.031; after MAKKAY, 2001: back cover). Knob in the shape of a human head of an ALP-vessel, found on site Endrd, 3/50 during intensive field survey (Inv. no. 78187.1; P.85.031).


10. ENDRD, SITE 3/82 (fig. 125)

The site is located north of the Old Krs bed, along the southern bank of the southernmost Old Beretty River, a northern tributary of the Triple Krs (fig. 1, 8). A some 7 m high Pit-grave Culture kurgan190 was built above the Neolithic and Copper Age deposits of the Krs, ALP, Szaklht and Tiszapolgr Cultures. The famous Hungarian novelist and historian, Ferenc Mra, director of the Szeged Museum, carried out a trial excavation in 1929. He discovered mostly Krs Culture pottery and two or three crouched skeletons of the same period, one of which probably had a footed vessel as grave goods, while the skull of another grave was painted with red ochre (M AKKAY in MRT8, 1989: 156 and 157). The old river had already washed away the northern part of the settlement, and its work was completed by digo makers who excavated four large clay pits along the settlement slope, destroying hundreds of Neolithic, Copper Age and La Tne features. The site surface was literally covered with potsherds of the above-mentioned periods, amongst which was a broken animal figurine (fig. 125, 1), the head of a small human statuette the eyes of which once had a shell inlay. We recorded the remains of a child burial in the fill of a rubbish pit, and excavated the crouched skeleton lying on its left side (fig. 125, 3) (MAKKAY in MRT8, 1989: 156, fig. 12).

11. SZARVAS, SITE 8/56 (fig. 118)

This extremely important, never excavated site lies northeast of Szarvas, along the southern bank of the wide flooded area of the old bed of the Krs River (fig. 1, 3). Its rich surface remains were already known since the beginning of the prehistoric archaeology in Hungary, in the wake of the 1876 Prehistoric World Congress in Budapest (MAKKAY in MRT8, 1989: 422, notes 1 and 2). In the area of the Fishermens farm, obsidian flakes, a pierced stone mace head (STARNINI and SZAKMNY, 1998: figs. 8, 4 and 18, 2), a fragment of serpentine stone axe, nicely decorated vessel fragments and a few broken bone tools were collected before 1879. The local landlord, Gza Bolza, carried out a short excavation before 1921 and a few finds entered the collections of the HNM. Archduke Joseph Habsburg visited his excavations in 1926 and, as a result of his interest, E. Krecsmarik191 opened two trial-trenches in 1926 and again 1927, whose aim was to discover prehistoric burials. He managed to recover many interesting and outstanding antiquities, amongst them human skeletons, bone awls, a rubbing stone, decorated pottery fragments, yellow ochre and bones of domesticated animals (MAKKAY in MRT8, 1989: 422). 18 fragments belonged to a wide, nicely decorated, funnel-shaped bowl later restored. KRECSMARIKs (1915; 1915a) statements concerning the Krs crouched burials are contradictory. The finds from these early excavations were lost at the end of World War Two, and the few Krs Culture finds at present in the collections of the Szarvas Museum, are from the survey of J. Palov, the then museum director. It was my mistake not to recognise its richness and importance and never start an excavation at this site. During our intensive 1974-1978 surveys, especially in the autumn of 1978, we collected typical Krs Culture pottery, because the almost vertical walls of the large digo-pit excavated before 1974 were pulled down a few weeks before, and an incredibly large number of Krs artefacts were visible on the surface, among which were white-painted fragments. Pollen, soil and animal bone samples were collected in 1981 and again 1982, when two narrow trial trenches were opened at the edge of the digo pit. During the field surveys and the 1981-1982 excavations, we collected a complete Early Krs ceramic assemblage, which includes many fragments of red-slipped and black-on-red painted sherds, belonging to footed and pedestalled bowls, etc. An exquisite find was a reconstructed dark monochrome, high-necked, footed jar (fig. 118)192.

190. 191. 192.

The traditional name of the site is Lyukashalom, a mound with a central depression, excavated by treasure hunters to recover gold and other valuables. For his personality see the introduction to the descripiton of Szarvas 8/23 and 8/8. For its close parallel see fig. 58, 3 from Endrd 3/35. The similarity of the two vessels suggests their contemporaneity.


CULTURES PHASES Late Szaklht Early Tisza Culture Szarvas 1: unpublished finds Szarvas 21


Classic Szaklht Phase

Szarvas 8: excavated finds in Trenches I-III Szarvas 23: sporadic finds from the northern part of the site Szarvas 40: partly excavated house of the Szaklht Culture Bksszentandrs 86: ritual deposit Endrd 6: sporadic finds Endrd 35: layer above the Krs Pit in Trench III and Grave 1, with Late ALP, Esztr painted pottery and Zseliz imports Endrd 36: Early Szaklht layer with latest ALP and Esztr painted sherds and fine black-dark grey polished ware Bksszentandrs, Furugy 28: the lowest Szaklht deposits Endrd 6: sporadic finds before 1982 Endrd 35: ALP Pit in Trench III Endrd 42, with Esztr and Early Zseliz imports Bksszentandrs, Furugy 28: the lowest deposits Endrd 6: 1982 Black Pit, and the ALP Pit in Trench XXVIII Szarvas 8: surface finds Szarvas 23: stray finds in the northern part of the site Szarvas 102: mostly unpublished finds Gyoma 107: mostly unpublished finds Endrd 6: Pit 4c in Trench VIII, and the Eastern Pit in Trench XVIII Endrd 119: short re-settlement after the end of the Classic Krs times: sporadic presence of developed Early ALP (Szatmr) incised ware in Trench 18 Szarvas 23: Pit 4/2: developed Early ALP incised ware Endrd 6: the grey layer of 1982 below the mass grave and the upper part of the Western Pit in Trench XVIII; Grave A and Grave 1 Szarvas 23: Pit 1 in Trench VIII/1979 and Pit 4/2, 1988 Endrd 39: Pit in Trench XVIII Endrd 6: a few types of the grey layer of 1982 below the mass grave, and the lowest part of the Western Pit grave and the lower part of the Western Pit Szarvas 23: Sacrificial Pit 3/3: Krs and Protovina types without Szatmr (Early ALP) Endrd 35: Pit III in Trench III/1975 Endrd 39: most of the houses and pits, with earliest Szatmr like incised ware in the final subphases Endrd 119: House 1 above Pit 5, the latest deposits of Pit 13, Pit 11 with Oven O5, the burning of House 1 with Graves 1-4 near House 1, and the last days of O8 near Pit 14, end of Pit 12, Pit 13, Pit 5 and Sacrificial Pit A1 below House 1 Szarvas 8: main occupation phase Szarvas 23: other features of the site without Protovina types Endrd 119: deposits of House 12 above Pit 12, and Pits 10, 12, Sacrificial Pit A5 etc. Szarvas 23: occurrence of white and black paint in Pits I/1974 and VI/1975 Endrd 119: the oldest part of Pit 12 Szarvas 8: Pit 1in Trenches III-IV Szarvas 23: the lower part of Pit I/1974 Szarvas 56: sporadic white-painted sherds

Early Szaklht Phase

Late Classic ALP The Furugy Phase

Classic ALP

The Gyoma Phase of the ALP: with Szatmr and without Late Krs and Protovina types Latest Krs = Krs IIIb: short settlement phase of Krs + Protovina + Early ALP Late Krs = Krs IIIa: Krs + Protovina + Early ALP Classic Krs = Krs IIb: earliest Protovina ware without Szatmr (Early ALP)

Classic Krs = Krs IIa: appearance of Protovina shapes

Early Krs = Krs Ib: (the beginning of Classic Krs) Early Krs = Krs Ia: the white-painted phase

Table 14 - Comparative chronological chart of the analysed sites.


12. MHTELEK-NDAS (figs. 126-131)

This site lies in the area called Szatmr of co. Szabolcs-Szatmr-Bereg, in the easternmost part of present-day Hungary. It is located on a 2 m rise near the left bank of the River Tr, close to its dead arm called Ndas (reeds) or Nagyger, near the Szamos Valley (fig. 1, 11). A contemporaneous settlement was found at Homorodu de Sus (Felshomord) in western Transylvania, in the Homord Valley, one of the southern tributaries of the Szamos. It was excavated by T. BDER (1968) in the 1960s. The material from this site, except for a few clay figurines, is still unpublished and most of it has been discarded193. One of the most dangerous floods in the history of Hungary happened in 1970. When the Romanian authorities blew up the Szamos River embankment between Satu Mare and the Hungarian-Romanian border, the tide flooded the Tr Valley region wiping out village buildings in Mhtelek and its surroundings. A few months later, an embankment was planned and built across the Kraszna and Tr River valleys along the Hungarian-Romanian border. This earthwork was made as a dam but its alleged purpose was that of an embankment. In the area of Mhtelek, it crosses the site along the bank of the Ndas, some 200-300 m south of the village, and the clay for building the dam was dug out at this place. A man working with a heavy machine discovered pottery fragments and brought them to the Nyregyhza Museum. The surface collections and the rescue excavations carried out by J. Makkay, N. Kalicz and P. Raczky in 1972-1973, revealed part of an Early Neolithic settlement, whose rich ceramic assemblage was interpreted as a regional variant of the Krs Culture. Exceptional aspects of the Mhtelek materials consist of its rich chipped stone industry (CHAPMAN, 1986; STARNINI, 1993; 1994: fig. 131) and ceramic figurines, not only because they represent one of the largest Krs Culture collection, but also for the occurrence of hitherto unknown types among which are schematic, flat human representations (fig. 129). Only a few short preliminary reports have been written on this assemblage (KALICZ and MAKKAY, 1974; 1974a; 1977; MAKKAY, 2003), which was displayed in the Nyregyhza Museum in 1974, and in those of Constana and Cluj in 1995-1996 (MAKKAY and IERKOSAN, 1995). At present the entire collection is inventoried in the Jsa Andrs Museum, Nyregyhza. A large-scale surface survey was made by J. Makkay and N. Kalicz in 1972 over the whole supposed area of the site, on both sides of the embankment. The two excavations carried out in the late spring and September 1973 covered the southern parts of the site affected by the embankment construction works, since the ploughed soil and the uppermost part of the subsoil had been removed to reach the virgin clay. Five of the seven trenches were opened south and within the embankment in order to recover the surviving, mainly the middle and lower parts of the refuse pits (figs. 126 and 127), while Trenches III and 6 were excavated within the embankment. Two long trial trenches, north of the embankment, led to the discovery of one small refuse pit in Trench 7 (fig. 127, top). The northernmost long trench was opened in the northern, unsettled part of the site. A detailed description of the refuse pits and other structural remains, among which is a nest of burnt hazelnuts (FZES, 1990: 164 and 165) in the burnt layer of the pit in Trench III (fig. 127) was given in one of the preliminary reports (KALICZ and MAKKAY, 1977: 15-17). The pottery assemblage (fig. 130) and the clay figurines (fig. 129) will be published in two forthcoming volumes (MAKKAY and STARNINI, forthcoming 2; forthcoming 3). Mhtelek lies over 150 km northeast of the main Krs Culture distribution area. This is the reason why the site probably does not belong to the main Krs Culture core. Nevertheless the finds are not very different from those from the Krs assemblages from central Transylvania, first of all Gura Baciului near Cluj (LAZAROVICI and MAXIM, 1995194; MAXIM, 1999; LAZAROVICI and LAZAROVICI, 2003: figs. 1 and 4-14). The Krs Culture never spread to the north Alfld region and the Tisza Valley, despite the fact that many Krs sites occur in similar environments south of this distribution line (KALICZ et al., 1998). The explanation is that the North Alfld Plain Late Mesolithic bands (KERTSZ, 2003: 493 and 494)195 formed a barrier to the spread of the Krs Culture. I consider this population barrier more important than the CEB AEB model (Central European-Balkan Agroecological Barrier) (KERTSZ and SMEGI, 2003; SMEGI, 2003) for the further development of the Krs Culture and the origin of the ALP. My questions are: why did the spread stop at this line, and why no Krs site occurs in similar environments further north in the Tisza Valley? Also the soil

On the occasions of my repeated visits to the Satu Mare Museum in the early 1970s, I had the possibility to study the newly excavated material kept in a great number of large plastic bags by the courtesy of T. Bder. Nowadays the Satu Mare Museum keeps only a few fragments of the excavated finds. 194. This final report illustrates the painted pottery (coloured plates = PC I-X) and 68 unpainted potsherds in figs. 39-50. The painted sherds are very similar to those from Szarvas 8/23 both in technology and decoration (MAXIM, 1999: Pl. II-IV). Both white-on-red and dark-on-red painted sherds are present in phase IB (MAXIM, 1999: Pl. IV, 11) and very probably also before it (LAZAROVICI and MAXIM, 1995: PC IX: 1-6 and 9, etc.) 195. The excavations carried out by R. Kertsz (pers. comm. 2004) during the summer of 2003 led to the discovery of a Late Mesolithic site in the southernmost part of Co. Heves.


Fig. 126 - Mhtelek-Ndas. Plan of the 1973 excavations.

differences were not a determinant factor. In effect, although the Krs farmers preferred to settle good, loose and fertile soils for their agricultural activities, nevertheless they occupied the Tr Valley around Mhtelek with its very poor soils, while they did not spread farther north in the excellent loamy soils of the central Tisza Valley and its levees, which are ideal for farming. Furthermore the Krs group of Mhtelek, which played a significant role in down-the-line exchange of Tokaj obsidian towards the obsidian consuming areas of Transylvania and the Krs Valley196, did not cross the Tisza to occupy the sources near Tokaj which lies on the right bank of the river. In my opinion the explanation is that they did not settle although they traded lithics with the local Late Mesolithic hunter-gatherers. At the same time they crossed the river and moved eastwards to the flatlands of the right bank of the river in Krptalja, the present Carpathian Ukraine (POTUSHNIAK, 2004). The Tisza River Valley apparently was not an insurmountable natural obstacle, which would restrain the eastern movement of the Krs groups. The distribution line of the Krs Culture was a different boundary: a population barrier of native inhabitants. In my opinion the Neolithic way-of-life was adopted by the hunter-gatherers who lived north of the Krs Culture borderline under the influences of the Krs Culture only at a later date, after a delaying adaptation period. A new culture, the ALP, developed in the north Alfld Plain from a local population bases.

See the obsidians from Szarvas 8/23, Pits 4/2 and 3/3: figs. 31-34 and Appendix I.


Fig. 127 - Mhtelek-Ndas. Plans and sections of Trenches 1-7 (I-VII) with refuse pits.


Fig. 128 - Mhtelek-Ndas. 1: General view of the site with Pit 1-3/, from the south (P.71.165). 2: Pit II (2) from the east (P.75.407). 3: Part of Pit 5 from the south (P.75.410). 4: Part of Pit 5 from the west (P.75.412). 5: Pit III (3) with section taken from the south (P.74.164). 6: Pit 1-3/ from the south (P.71.201). 7: Pit 1-3/ from the south (P.71.710). 8: Pit 1-3/ from the SW (P.71.208).


Fig. 129 - Mhtelek-Ndas. Clay figurines from different features. 1: Reconstructed large figurine from Pit 4-5/ (Josa Andrs Museum, Nyregyhza, Inv. no. 94.176.86; P.75.273, P.75.275). 2: Upper part of a clay figurine from Trench II (Inv. no. 94.176.67; P.75.261). 3: Torso of a clay figurine from Pit 1 in Trench IV (Inv. no. 94.176.97; P.75.261). 4: Flat figurine from Trench 1/1972 (Inv. no. 94.176.54; P.71.514, P.23.924). 5: Flat figurine from Pit 1-3/ (Inv. no. 94.176.63; P.71.514, P.23.924). 6: Miniature flat figurine from Pit 4-5/ (Inv. no. 94.176.98; P.23.924). 7: Lower part of a flat figurine from Pit 6/ (Inv. no. 94.176.91; P.23.924). 8: Flat figurine from Pit 4-5/ (Inv. no. 94.176.81; P.23.924).


Fig. 130 - Mhtelek-Ndas. Vessels of the Krs Culture from different features. 1: Pit II/?, 2nd spit (P. 71.437). 2: Pit 1/, 2nd spit (Inv. no. 94.176.4; P.71.428). 3: Pit II/, 4th spit (Inv. no. 94.176.6; P.71.430). 4: Pit II/, 6th spit (Inv. no. 94.176.14.; P.71.424). 5: Pit II/, 3rd spit (Inv. no. 94.176.13, P. 71.426). 6: Pit 5/, North, 4th spit (Inv. no. 94.176.109; P.75.272).


Fig. 131 - Mhtelek-Ndas. Stone implements (1-4 and 9-10) (after STARNINI, 1994: figs. 3 and 4) and small finds (5-8) from different features. 1: Blade from Banat flint. - 2: Small obsidian core. 3: Large obsidian blade core. 4: Geometrics. 5: Animal head from pit in Trench III (Inv. no. 94.176.107; P.75.259). 6: Animal head from pit in Trench III (Inv. no. 94.176.105; P.75.259). 7: Clay ring from pit in Trench III (Inv. no. 94.176.126; P.75.259). 8: Clay ring from Pit 1-3/ (Inv. no. 94.176.127; P.75.259). 9: Polished edge tool in a reworking attempt. Stray find. 10: Small polished adze.


13. FURTA-CST (figs. 132-135)

The rescue excavations carried out at Furta, a small village south of Debrecen near the Beretty Valley, led to the recovery of a rich Krs Culture refuse pit on the northern terrace of an old riverbed of the Sebes Krs (fig. 1, 10). This discovery is of great interest because it produced a new evidence for the region between the central Great Hungarian Plain and Mhtelek territory. Apart from the sporadic finds from Berettyujfalu (KUTZIN, 1944: 33) and a single Krs feature excavated by the Hungarian-Soviet expedition between 1977 and 1982 (unpublished), Furta is the first Krs excavated site in Co. Hajd-Bihar. It is located in the narrow land parcel between the valley and the Szeged-Debrecen highway, where an embankment was built in 1967, and a clay pit was opened at Vereshalom (Red Mound, perhaps a kurgan built on the Neolithic site). A rescue excavation was carried out in September of the same year, after the corn harvest. It was conducted by Ibolya M. Nepper, who was so kind to put her field notes at my disposal, during her first year in the staff of the Debrecen Museum. The pottery is now in the Debrecen Museum, where I had the opportunity to study it four decades ago. The drawings and photographs were made in the same year, after some pottery restoration was finished. In March 1967 the bulldozer destroyed half of a ca. 5 m wide Krs Culture refuse pit. The rescue excavation was limited to its remaining part. It covered an area of some 70 sq m: 4 graves, 1 fireplace and the fired clay fragments of a surface Krs house were found (fig. 133, 4). The first Trench A, 8x4 m, was opened in a N-S direction. It was later extended on its eastern side (8x11 m), called Trench B (or occasionally new trench = extension U). The excavation was carried out in spits of 20-30 cm. The house remains, 2-3 cm thick, were found at a depth of some 50 cm, at the bottom of the second spit, consisting of burnt wattle-and-daub fragments. The potsherds were kept separated according to their position above and below the house. Later work revealed that the thin deposit of fired clay did not belong to a surface house but it was probably a clay deposition in the fill of the deep refuse pit. The 11th arbitrary layer reached its bottom at a depth of some 180 cm (fig. 133, 5). A some 5 cm thick layer of fish scales and shells was found here. Occasionally hearths, i.e. burnt surfaces, were found in the fill of the pit at different depths. Vessel fragments with many shells in their inner surfaces were collected close to T1 (Fireplace 1, not represented in the map). The human bones of four graves were also found. They are: Grave 1: crouched skeleton of an adult on its left side, whose finger bones were found in front of its face. It was NE-SW oriented. The skeleton, measured in situ, was 90 cm long (fig. 134, 2). Grave 2: very crouched skeleton of a 5-6 years old child. It was found in the southern part of Trench A, at a depth of 140 cm, at the edge of the refuse pit, on the top of the virgin clay soil (fig. 133, 3). Grave 3: crouched skeleton of a child of undefined age, lying on its left side, WSW-ENE oriented. It was found at a depth of 155 cm, near Grave 2. The length of the skeleton was 45 cm, measured in situ. The bones were found in a pit excavated into the yellow virgin clay. The photograph and the drawing of the skeleton are missing from the original field report. Grave 4 was found in Trench B near to the borderline between Trenches A and B. It is a very crouched skeleton 65 cm long of an adult, lying on its right side, oriented towards WSW. Its hands were drawn before the face (fig. 133, 1). Grave goods and ochre were not noticed. Graves 1-3 were grouped in the southernmost part of Trench A. The reconstructed vessels are represented by both Krs Culture classic shapes and decorative patterns, and Protovina carinated and pedestalled pots (figs. 132, 4-9; 134, 1-6 and 135, 1-4). Even though the fill was deposited in short, subsequent phases, the assemblage represents a single cultural period attributable to the transition between the Classic Krs and Protovina, although a few Late Protovina types were also collected.


Fig. 132 - Protovina (1-10) and ALP vessels from different sites. 1-3 and 10: Szarvas, site 8/23, Pit 1 in Trench VIII (D22.162, D22.164-166). 4-9: Furta-Cst. 4: Trench A/ 3rd spit and New Extension, spits 3-5 (Inv. no. 77.1.15; P.71.527). 5: New extension/1st spit (P.71.519). 6: From House 1 (Inv. no. 77.1.21; P.68.054, P.71.531). 7: Trench A/7th spit (Inv. no. 77.1.25; P.68.064-065). 8: Trench A/4th spit (Inv. no. 77.1.2.; P.68.049). 9: Trench A/8th spit (Inv. no. 77.1.4; P.68.064-065). 11: Endrd, site 3/6, the layer below the 1982 mass grave, 100-120 cm (D.22.162).


Fig. 133 - Furta-Cst. 1: Grave 4. 2: Grave 1. 3: Grave 2. 4-5: Trenches A and B and section A-B (courtesy of Mrs. I. Nepper).


Fig. 134 - Furta-Cst. 1: Reconstructed, fragmentary bird-shaped vessel from Trench A/2nd spit (Inv. no. 77.1.1; P.71.528). 2: Pedestalled round bowl from Trench A/5th spit (Inv. no. 77.1.3). 3: Large storage jar (P.71.526), height 40 cm. 4: Coarse ware bowl from Trench B/7th spit (Inv. no. 77.1.8; P.71.521). 5: Large bowl from Trench B/6th spit (P.60.352). 6: Pedestalled bowl from Trench A/5th spit (P.60.352).


Fig. 135 - Furta-Cst (1-4) and Tiszacsege-Homokbnya (6-16), vessel shapes. 1: 9th spit in Trench A and in extension B (P.71.529). 2: New extension/1th spit (P.71.520). 3: 7th spit (P.68.065). 4: New extension/8th spit (P.68.064). 5: Szentes-Szentlszl, pedestalled vessel with strongly carinated bowl part. Stray find in the Szentes Museum, Inv. no. 54.5.1. 6-16: Tiszacsege-Homokbnya. 6: P.75.268. 7: P.71.443. 8: P.75.169. 9: P.71.445. 10: P.75.271. 11: Height 40 cm, P.75.267. 12: P.75.268. 13: P.75.270. 14: P.75.268. 15: P.71.417-P.75.269.


14. TISZACSEGE-HOMOKBNYA (figs. 135-140)

The site was discovered by Fr. Kszegi in 1955 (fig. 1, 12). It was investigated by J. Makkay and N. Kalicz in 1969 (twice) and again with P. Raczky, in 1973. The undisturbed parts of a long, oval pit-house were excavated in the three seasons. The feature was partly destroyed in the profile of a sand pit. Although the original measures of the pit-house could not be ascertained, its shape was similar to that of other oval pit-houses of the Early and Classic ALP excavated at Gyoma 4/107 (MAKKAY in MRT8, 1989) and Szarvas 8/102 (MAKKAY, 1982a: fig. 1). A preliminary report on the pottery assemblage was published in 1977 (KALICZ and MAKKAY, 1977: 165, No.

Fig. 136 - Tiszacsege-Homokbnya. The painted pig-shaped vessel from the pit-house (after KALICZ and MAKKAY, 1979: Pl. 4, 8a-b).


301; Pls. 4-8, 167 and 168). The largely unpublished assemblage (figs. 135, 6-16, and 136-139) is represented by a very rich collection of painted vessels of Early ALP or Szatmr type (fig. 137) and characteristic Szatmr coarse ceramics resembling Krs types (fig. 139, 20-29) and typical shoulders (fig. 139, 1, 3 and 17), rims (fig. 139, 1-7), hemispherical bowls and large vessels (fig. 139, 20 and 22). The complete vessels are mainly represented by globular shapes, although pedestalled high bowls are also common (fig. 135, 6-16). Fragments decorated with linear, incised patterns partly belong to a large container (fig. 138), which, together with other sherds, shows a characteristic, developed ALP incision technique. The fragments of a pig-shaped vessel with characteristic Szatmr paint (fig. 136) were collected during three different seasons. The assemblage is characteristic of the Szatmr (Early ALP) classic phase.

Fig. 137 - Tiszacsege-Homokbnya. Fragments of painted vessels from the pit-house (P. 75.237).


Fig. 138 - Tiszacsege-Homokbnya. Linear decorated fragments of the Early ALP (Szatmr phase) from the pit-house (P.75.238, P.75.241).


Fig. 139 - Tiszacsege-Homokbnya. Fragments of shouldered bowls with low neck (1-5) and coarse vessels of different shapes and motifs (6-28) from the pit-house (P.75.236, P.75.239, P.75.240, P.75.243, P.75.247, P.75.249 and P.75.852).


Fig. 140 - Tiszacsege-Homokbnya. Bone implements from the pit-house (P.74.924).


A short trial excavation was carried out by J.J. Szab and J. Makkay in 1977 in the low-lying site (fig. 1, 13). Part of a rubbish pit, which contained coarse Krs potsherds was uncovered (SZAB, 1977; MAKKAY and STARNINI, forthcoming 2).


Only the ALP vessel fragments found in Krs features are listed in table 15 below. For this reason the ALP sherds from the black pit of Endrd 6 excavated in 1982 are not included.
Site Feature Pit 1 in Trench VIII, 40-80 Pit 3/8 in Silo 3 Pit 4/2 in Silo 4 Description and figure wall fragment, geometric motif (fig. 142, 7) wall fragment, wavy line (fig. 141, 4) pedestal, vertical lines (fig. 141, 2) bowl fragment, fine surface (fig. 141, 5) pedestal, archaic geometric motif (fig. 141, 9) bowl fragment, geometric motif (fig. 141, 10) neck fragment of a jar, archaic geometric motif (fig. 141, 11) bowl fragment, geometric motif (fig. 141, 12) jar neck fragment, archaic geometric motif (fig. 141, 16) pedestal, archaic geometric motif (fig. 141, 21) bowl fragment, wide incised geometric lines (fig. 141, 20) Pit 4/3 in Silo 4 fragment of a large bowl, wide geometric motif (fig. 141, 13) bowl fragment, characteristic arrowhead motif (fig. 141, 15) bowl fragment, wide geometric motif (fig. 141, 19) Pit 5/2 in Silo 5 bowl fragment, fine incised lines (fig. 141, 3) pedestal, parallel incised lines (fig. 141, 6) pedestal, wavy and parallel dotted lines (fig. 141, 14) Stray find large, wide pedestal (fig. 141, 7) pedestal, fine surface, wide lines (fig. 142, 10) wall fragment, channelling-like lines (fig. 142, 11) wall fragment, geometric lines, worn surface (fig. 142, 15) bowl fragment, classic type (fig. 141, 8) bowl fragment, classic type, worn (fig. 142, 13) wall fragment of a large jar, worn (fig. 142, 14) bowl fragment, characteristic geometric lines (fig, 142, 5) wall fragment, classic type (fig.142, 6) rim part of a high bowl, classic type, worn (fig. 141, 1) rim fragment of a pedestalled bowl, incised on the inside (fig. 142, 1) rim fragment of a pedestalled bowl, wide lines (fig. 142, 4) bowl fragment, shallow geometric lines (fig. 142, 3) fragment of a large bowl, classic geometric lines (fig. 142, 8) rim fragment of a small bowl, classic (fig. 142, 2) lower part of high bowl (MAKKAY, 1987: fig. 4, 4; 1992: 127, note 14) wall fragment, characteristic geometric motif (fig. 142, 12) ALP fragment, at present lost characteristic human head knob on wall (fig. 142, 9) bowl fragment, archaic lines (fig. 141, 17) bowl fragment, archaic lines (fig. 141, 18)

Szarvas 8/23

Szarvas 8/8

III/Pit 1, 60-90 III/a, 40-60 I/South, 60-85

Endrd 3/6

XVIII/W. Pit Pit VIII/4c

Endrd 3/39

I/1 IV/E, 20-70 V/West, 75-95 XVIII/Pit 1, S, 90 cm XIX/S, 60-90 XX/House, S, 60-90 XXIX/N, 60-90 Stray find

Endrd 3/119

Trench 18 22-23, Pit 10, 120 cm 26 and 28, Pit 11 52, 0-30, stray find

Endrd 3/158

Pit 1 Pit 1

Table 15 - ALP potsherds in the Krs Valley Krs Culture sites and features.



One criticisms regarding the Krs research deals with the poor published evidence compared with the large number of small, trial and rescue excavations carried out by four or five generations of Hungarian archaeologists who have amassed a tremendous amount of materials since the beginning of the last century197. This chapter discusses the chronology and origin of the Early Neolithic in the Carpathian Basin and provides some evidence from other sites and excavations. A short introductory remark regards a) the importance of the homogeneity or timelessness of the Krs pottery and b) the radiocarbon chronology. a) The territorial distribution and chronological homogeneity of this culture indicates that the Krs Culture pottery shapes and finish show an established background rather than new behaviours and ideas. Consequently the types lasted for long without changes. The vessel repertoire is represented by timeless shapes unaffected by minor technological, stylistic and fashion changes as, for instance, the slow appearance of the fine, black polishing to the emergence of the Protovina phase. The barbotine and pinching decoration, the plain or monochrome wares, many of the vessel shapes198, the bone implements and also the vessel manufacturing technique, as for instance the method of preparing specific bases (MAKKAY and STARNINI, forthcoming 2: figs. 18-20) are representative of these unchanging or slowly changing categories. Thus, in my opinion, it is unreasonable to build chronological sequences and subdivisions on the basis of pottery styles and types percentages from both features and settlements. The barbotine pottery statistics presented by O. TROGMAYER (1968) show that this decoration is not represented in the first Early Neolithic settlements of the Tisza-Maros corner, while it makes its appearance and shows a tendency to increase during the later phases. According to the above-mentioned author, the increasing percentage of barbotine decoration is an adequate criterion for the definition of the internal chronology of the Krs Culture. This method is unreliable because he grouped different barbotine categories (true, channelled, sparkling, etc.) in one single class (TROGMAYER, 1968: table in p. 9). In contrast, the barbotine pottery is present in every feature of my Krs sites, among which is Pit 1 in Trenches I-II, 1974-1975, of Szarvas 8/23 and also refuse Pits 12 and 13 at Endrd 3/119. In two cases it was associated with white-on-red/brown painted sherds199. b) The use of radiocarbon chronology. I have to explain why my views are different from those who support the reliability of radiocarbon dating. The low number of Early and Middle Copper Age cemeteries with their small number of graves in the Alfld, and the scarcity of graves and burials in Transdanubia, allow us to draw a few conclusions regarding the chronology of the Copper Age, which contradict the results of the radiocarbon chronology. Up to 1972, 231 Tiszapolgr Culture graves were found in 41 cemeteries in Hungary. Following the available data from the Bodrogkeresztr Culture, a single Tiszapolgr cemetery could contain maximum some 150 graves. Two Tiszapolgr cemeteries from eastern Slovakia (Velke Rakovce and Tibava) yielded 44 and 39 burials respectively. No single-phase cemetery has so far yielded 150 burials, although one can assume that there is no unexcavated Tiszapolgr cemetery with such a high number of graves. A single Tiszapolgr Culture cemetery might have been used during two to five generations (50-150 years). If we consider the highest number of graves (150 graves/cemetery), we calculate a community of no more than 75 people per generation. Nevertheless, given that all the cemeteries discovered to date yielded significantly less than 150 graves and were used for longer than two generations, the size of each single social group must have been much lower than 75. If we take into consideration a small group of farmers, each unit consists of at least two extended families, some 60 persons. Communities smaller than extended families never existed in both early and later prehistory. Consequently, the largest possible Tiszapolgr Culture cemetery (150 burials) contains the remains of three, or more likely two, generations. If we hypothesise that one community used a cemetery during two burial phases, although at present we do not have any proof, then we have to conclude that the longest possible lifespan of the Tiszapolgr Culture was maximum 150-200 years (MAKKAY, 1991: 326 and 327; 2004 and 2004a).


The first excavation carried out at a Krs site, which yielded identifiable remains of this culture, was that of Soma Sipos at Szarvas 8/23 in 1871-1872 (KUTZIN, 1944, I: 5 and Pl. I, 1). According to this author the first authentic Krs finds were brought to light at Svnyhza, co. Csongrd, in or before 1873: a fragment of a characteristic pitcher inventarised in the Hungarian National Museum. 198. See MAKKAY and STARNINI (forthcoming 2: figs. 1-9 [vessel shapes]; 10-17 [vessel bases]; 18-21 [manufacture of vessel bases]; 22-24 [painted fragments]; 25 and 26 [red-slipped ware] and 27-32 [technology of surface finish and decoration ]). 199. See MAKKAY and STARNINI (forthcoming 2: figs. 50, 3-7; 61, 1-5 and 63, 1-5 [Szarvas 8/23] and 290, 16; 291, 1-5 and 301, 1-6 [Endrd 3/119] etc).


Fig. 141 - Imported ALP fragments from the Krs features of Endrd 3/39 and Szarvas 8/23. 1: Endrd, site 3/39, Trench V/1976, west, 75-95 cm. 2, 5, 9-12, 16 and 20-21: Szarvas, site 8/23, Pit 2 in silo-Trench 4 (Pit 4/2). 3, 6 and 14: Szarvas, site 8/23, Pit 2 in silo-Trench 5 (Pit 5/2). 4: Szarvas, site 8/23, Pit 8 in silo-Trench 3 (Pit 3/8). 7: Szarvas, site 8/23, stray find. 13, 15 and 19: Szarvas, site 8/23, Pit 3 in silo-Trench 4 (Pit 4/3). 17-18: Endrd, site 3/158.


Fig. 142 - Imported ALP fragments from the Krs features from Endrd 3/6, 3/39, 3/119 and Szarvas 8/8 and 8/23. 1-6 and 8: Endrd, site 3/39. 1: Trench XVIII/90 cm, pit (Inv. no. 79.6.698). 2: Stray find (Inv. no. 76.283.4). 3: House 1 in Trench XX, the southern corner (Inv. no. 76.6.813). 4: Trench XIX/South, 6-90 cm. 5: House 1 in Trench I (Inv. no.79.6.208). 6: Trench IV/East, 20-70 cm (Inv. no. 78.84.80). 8: Trench XXIX/North, 60-90 cm. 7: Szarvas, site 8/23, Pit 1 in Trench VIII/40-80 cm (Inv. no. 79.5.77). 9 and 12: Endrd, site 3/119. 9: Trench 52/0-30 cm. 12: Pit 10 in Trenches 20-23/below 120 cm. 10-11 and 15: Szarvas, site 8/8. 10: Pit 1 in Trench III/60-90 cm. 11: Trench III/a, 40-60 cm. 15: Trench I/South, 60-85 cm. 13-14: Endrd, site 3/6, Trench VIII/Pit 4c.


Fig. 143 - Decorated vessel fragments of ALP and Szaklht type from Szarvas site 8/23 (4-10) and Endrd site 3/158 (1-3) features. 1-3: Endrd 3/158, ALP-pit. 4-10: Szarvas 8/23. 4 and 7: Pit 2 in silo Trench 4 (Pit 4/2). 5: Pit 3 in silo-Trench 5 (Pit 5/ 3). 6: Pit 6 in silo-Trench 5 (Pit 5/6). 8: Pit 3 in silo-Trench 3 (Pit 3/3). 9-10: Stray finds (drawings by E. Starnini).


Fig. 144 - Bksszentandrs-Furugy, site 1/28. 1: Trench II/30-60 cm. 2: Trench II/30-60 cm. 3: Trench III/North, 140-170 cm, outer wall was painted black between running spiral motif of Szaklht type, incised lines are executed in ALP technique; grey polished inner surface. 4: Trench III/North, 140-170 cm, bowl with incised motifs of ALP-Szaklht transitional type.

The analysis of the contemporary LN cemeteries in Germany yielded the same result. The 77 burials from the Rssen I cemetery belong to four different periods (22, 16, 10, 29 graves respectively). None of these periods lasted longer than two or three generations (50-75 years). The entire series thus lasted not longer than 200-250 years. I assume a similar time-span for the entire development of the Tiszapolgr and Bodrogkeresztr Cultures that is a maximum of four centuries (MAKKAY, 1991: 326 and 327). This time-span is in good accordance with the chronology of the Transdanubian Balaton-Lasinja Culture, which is contemporaneous with the Late Tiszapolgr

Fig. 145 - Bksszentandrs-Furugy, site 1/28. 1: Trench III: Late ALP shape. 2: Trench III/Southwest, 160-190 cm, characteristic pedestalled bowl of the ALP decorated with ALP incision technique and with red crusted paint (darker stripes in the drawing: 2b, lighter ones in the photograph: 20). 3: Reconstructed bowl of Szaklht type from Trenches II-III decorated with a dark polished, running, spiral pattern and accompanying red-painted, running spirals.

and Bodrogkeresztr Cultures, which fall in the two centuries between 4000 and 3800 Cal BC (RACZKY, 1995: 60; HORVTH et al., 2003: 265). These data contradict the radiocarbon chronology that suggests that the two cultures lasted 1000 years or more, with the radiocarbon dating of the beginning of the Tiszapolgr Culture set at 4910 Cal BC. Other Tiszapolgr Culture radiocarbon dates fall between 4795-3962 Cal BC at 1, representing a duration of 833 years, while those of the Bodrogkeresztur Culture between 4327-3757 Cal BC (570 years), 1403 years altogether. The following LCA Baden Culture is dated between ca 4000-3000 Cal BC (PARKINSON, 1999:


Fig. 146 - Bksszentandrs-Furugy, site 1/28. 1: Trench III/North, 70-100 cm+100-120 cm, rim fragments of the upper part of an ALP pedestalled bowl, outside (left) and inside (right) with ALP-pattern. 2: Trench III/North, 70-100 cm, rim fragments from the upper part of an ALP pedestalled bowl, outside (left) incised motif with dark painted stripes in alternating fields, inside (right) dark painted stripes. 3: Trench III/80-150 cm, fragments from the upper part of an ALP pedestalled bowl with characteristic menadric incised pattern of ALP style, with dark paint in alternating fields. 4: Trench III/North, 100-120 cm, the same vessel form, with alternating field between incised lines of ALP type, painted red and polished dark. 5: Trench III/South, 160-190 cm, ALP pit. ALP incised fragment (from the upper part of a pedestalled bowl) with incision and red crusted paint. 6: Trench III/North, 70-100 cm, painted rim fragment of an ALP pedestalled bowl: incised-painted pattern on the outer wall (left) and dark painted stripes on the inner wall (right). 7: Trench III/South, 140-170 cm, below the stamped floor, the lower part of an ALP bowl with incised arrowhead motif. 8-9: Trench III/North, 70-100cm, fragments of ALP vessels with incised motifs.


Fig. 147 - Bksszentandrs-Furugy, site 1/28. 1: Trench III/N, 110-140 cm, red painted spiral motif on a Szaklht sherd. 2: Trench III/N, 40-80 cm, dark painted ALP rim fragment of a pedestalled bowl. 3: Trench III/S, 140-170 cm, -110 cm below trampled floor surface, dark paint on the outer rim surface of a pedestalled bowl. 4: Trench III/S, 160-190 cm, ALP pit, incised sherd of the ALP with brown paint. 5: Trench III/N, 110-140 cm, ALP black paint between ALP incised lines. 6: Trench III/N, 100-120 cm, ALP sherd with red crusted paint. 7: Trench III/S, 140-160 cm, dark polished/red painted alternating fields between incised lines of ALP-character. 8: Trench III/S, 140-160 cm, rim fragment of an ALP pedestalled bowl with dark red painted stripe on the inner surface. 9: Trench III/S, 160-180 cm, ALP sherd with alternate dark-light fields between the incised lines. 10: Trench III/N, 110-140 cm, characteristic Szaklht fragment with alternate dark polished/crusted red-painted running spirals. 11: Trench III/S, 160-190 cm, red crust painted ALP sherd. 12: Trench III/S, 140-170 cm, -110 cm below the trampled floor, ALP pedestal fragment with dark (black) paint between the incised lines. 13: Trench II/31-60 cm, fragment decorated with a distorted ALP motif. 14: Trench III/North, 70-100 cm, lower part of an ALP bowl with incised ALP type lines on the outer surface, and alternate fields of dark polished/red crusted painted fields (outer surface), with polished inner surface. 15: Trench II/30-60 cm, fragment of an ALP pedestalled bowl with an incised arrowhead motif.


Fig. 148 - Bksszentandrs-Furugy, site 1/28. Painted and incised fragments of transitional type. 1: Trench III/S, 160-190 cm, ALP pit, necked bowl with Szaklht type incised lines, alternate black-polished and red crust painted bands. 2: Trench III/N, 70-100 cm, rim fragment of the upper part of an ALP pedestalled bowl. Inside (left) painted stripes, outside (right) ALP lines: the fields in between are polished or red crust painted. 3: Trench III/S, 120-140 cm, -110 cm below the trampled floor, ALP incised sherd, dark paint. 4: Trench III/SW, 120-140 cm, -110 cm below trampled floor, Szaklht incised line, polished/red crusted painted. 5: Trench III/S, 190 cm below trampled floor, Szaklht-type polished/painted decoration. 6: Trench III/20-50 cm, Szaklht-type polished-painted decoration. 7: Fragments of a rounded Szaklht-bowl from Trench III/80-150 cm, with alternate dark polished/red crusted painted bands on the outer surface accompanied by incised lines of Szaklht character. 8: Trench III/N, 40-80 cm, see no. 2. 9: Trench II/60-90 cm, black polished spiral on a Szaklht fragment.


Fig. 149 - Bksszentandrs-Furugy, site 1/28. 1: Trench III/house + Trench III/6a, handled necked bottle of Szaklht type with a polished/painted running spiral pattern on the belly. 2: Trench II/30-60 cm fragment of an unpainted Classic Szaklht large container.


Fig. 150 - Bksszentandrs-Furugy, site 1/28. 1-8: Szaklht sherds with incised geometric and spiral pattern from Trench II/60-90 cm (1, 5, 6-8), Trench III/SW, 120-140 cm, -110 cm below the trampled floor (2), Trench III/N, 140-171 cm (3), and Trench III/S, 140-160 cm (4).


139-157). The whole Copper Age of the Hungarian Plain would last 2403 or even 2960 years and the 1000-1500 hitherto excavated Tiszapolgr and Bodrogkeresztr graves would fall within a time-span of 1403 years. The end of the Baden Culture (LCA) marks the beginning of the EBA, which, in the Carpathian Basin, did not start before 2000 or 2200-2100 Cal BC200. The time-span of the Tiszapolgr and Bodrogkeresztr Cultures might not have lasted 1000-1403 years, and the Baden Culture 1500 years (from 3757 to 2200). In my view, the radiocarbon method201 leads to nonsense results if it is not associated with a detailed study of the archaeological finds. Since I do not believe in the radiocarbon chronology, I have decided to adopt only relative chronological comparisons for the Neolithic and Copper Ages of Hungary. The hope that radiocarbon dating will provide a reliable basis independent from the traditional relative dating methods is difficult to sustain for the Neolithic and the Copper Ages of the Carpathian Basin. Especially when calibrated the radiocarbon dates for the Copper Age are too high and long. I cannot accept the position of some scholars who utilise the radiocarbon dates for the third millennium and earlier, when available, and dates linked with the short or traditional chronology for the second millennium (DICKINSON, 1994: 17-21). My position is to disregard the radiocarbon dates of the third millennium and earlier. The recently discovered Baden Culture half life-sized clay mask from Balatonszd is unique in the prehistory of Europe. Its excavator dates the entire life span of the Baden Culture between 3500 and 3000 Cal BC 202 (HORVTH, 2002; 2002a) . Between 3000 Cal BC and the beginning of the local EBA, around 2200 or 2000 Cal BC, lies a whole millennium that becomes a black hole in the Carpathian Basin according to the radiocarbon chronology, apart from sporadic Kostolac Culture sites between the final Baden and the EBA, which can be referred to this period. These 800-1000 years can be called the Kostolac period of the Carpathian Basin. In my opinion, the chronology of the Krs Culture and the internal sequence of the sites of this period are to be based on stratigraphic evidence (if any) and pottery sequences, combining microstratigraphical evidence and stylistic analysis. This classification would lead to the definition of three major phases between the beginning and the end of the Krs Culture with subphases within each site (see the internal chronology of the sites and the comparative chronological chart). On this basis the white painted pottery is to be attributed to the earliest phase and marks the beginning of the Neolithic in the Great Hungarian Plain (TASI, 2003: 191). The Krs Culture represents the Early Neolithic of the Carpathian Basin with its contemporaneous aspects in Transylvania (Cri), Serbia and Transdanubia (Starevo). It spread to south Transdanubia (KALICZ, 1990; 1993; KALICZ et al., 1998; KALICZ and KALICZ-SCHREIBER, 2002), the southern half of the Alfld, Transylvania and the foothills of the north-eastern Carpathians (Carpathian Ukraine)203. Its cultural traits, development and chronology correspond with the Anatolian Chalcolithic (Hacilar IX-II) and Protosesklo in Thessaly. Its origin is unknown. In the territory where it is distributed (the Great Hungarian Plain and south Transdanubia) no Late Mesolithic site has been so far discovered. What is certain is that its material and spiritual culture spread intact from the southernmost Alfld (i.e. the Vojvodina) and the northern Balkans (MAKKAY, 1996). The spread of agriculture and other Neolithic innovations is always to be partly correlated with demic diffusion, which always proceeds hand in hand with the dispersal and arrival of cultural traits and habits. The opposite does not occur, because we have an abundant evidence for the transmission of new ideas without population movements: diffusion of ideas and inventions. Regarding the transmission of new technologies (pottery production, use of sickles, house building, textile manufacture especially weaving [MAKKAY, 2001], rod head and other figurines, stamp-seals, bone industry, etc.)204 its spread can be very rapid. This means that there is no significant chronological difference between the neolithisation of the northern Balkans and the early phase of the Krs Culture (BIAGI et al., 2005). The case of the clay stamps is representative from this point of view (MAKKAY, 1984; 2005). The Neolithic clay stamp-seals of SE Europe, mainly recovered from settlement features and very rarely from graves, represent a unique data-set (MAKKAY, 1984). Opposite to some other items, for instance the clay figurines, they are absent in other cultural aspects while they are abundant in their neighbouring contemporary cultures. The best evidence is the Linear Pottery Culture (LBK). Although several hundred LBK settlements are known over an area of more than one million square kilometres, between the Paris Basin and west-central
200. 201.

For more details concerning the high dating of the European Bronze Age and its archaeological background see MAKKAY (1997a; 1997b). For the exclusive use of this dating method see WHITTLE et al. (2002). 202. Similarly, a recent exhibition catalogue dates the whole Hungarian Copper Age between 4400 and 2700 Cal BC and the beginning of the Baden Culture around 3500 Cal BC (ENDRDI, 2004: 7-9). This contrasts between the supposed length of the cultures and the sporadic occurrence of their burials. 203. As for instance Zpszony/Zastavne-Kishegy in Carpathian Ukraine, a few km northwest of Beregovo (POTUSHNIAK, 1985; 2004). The site lies some 60 km northwest of Mhtelek on the right bank of the Tisza River. It is the northernmost Krs Culture site. Its environmental and geographical-agroeconomical conditions are very different from those of the other Krs sites in the Hungarian Plain or Cri sites in Central Transylvania and the Partium. Its material culture remains, by contrast, are typologically very similar to the Krs types from both Mhtelek and the Krs Valley. 204. There are 18-20 characteristic Krs Culture items (vessel shapes, decorations, other artefacts, as for instance clay stamp-seals), which find close parallels in the Aegean and Anatolia. See MAKKAY (1974; 2004a: 35 and 36).


Ukraine (BOGUCKI, 2003: fig. 13.3.), no stamp-seals has ever been recovered from any of them. Nevertheless relationships can be drawn between the material culture assemblages of the early LBK of Transdanubia and the Great Hungarian Plain and those of the southernmost Krs Culture (MAKKAY, 2004a: 35 and 36). On the other hand the Krs assemblages are very rich in clay stamp-seals in comparison with their southern contemporaries, i.e. the Starevo and partly Karanovo Cultures. This fact had already been defined in 1984: the general distribution of these EN seals is very instructive. They were found in those EN cultures of South-East Europe which formed an integral part of the Neolithic cultures on the northwestern periphery of the Near East and Anatolia, and developed a related, but secondary and peripheric (Greece) and marginal (the Krs culture) Neolithic civilization. In more remote (Central European) Early and Middle Neolithic cultures alien to this area of South-East Europe, not one single stamp seal has yet been found with the exception of two isolated stray finds. It would appear that evidence for the use of clay stamp seals in the Linear Pottery cultures will not be found at all (MAKKAY, 1984: 81 and 82). A recent review has not changed the geographical distribution of these items: the more extensively studied LBK area to the north and west did not yield any stamp-seals (MAKKAY, 2005: 7-10). The distribution of the Early and Middle Neolithic stamp-seals of the Carpathian Basin leads to the following conclusion: 1) the strong relationships with, and the partial origin of the Krs material culture assemblage from the south (the Balkans, East Aegean and West Asian) and 2) the stop of the Krs Culture elements at the northern distribution border of the Alfld and Transdanubia, while other Neolithic innovations (agriculture, pottery, new bone205 and stone tools) continued to spread farther north after a short stagnation period. Some authors believe that it was a (very) long period (some one thousand years: KERTSZ and SMEGI, 2001: 237 and 238), although the relative chronology of some Krs Valley sites shows a short interval between the arrival of the Krs innovations at its northernmost distribution line and their further spread amongst the northern natives and consequently the LBK inhabitants (MAKKAY, 2004a: 36 and 37). The material culture finds show that the stagnation period was short: the above-mentioned bone tools of the Early ALP were imitations of their Krs prototypes, since I cannot imagine their independent reinvention after centuries. This noticeable contrast between the northernmost spread of specific Krs artefacts and the continuous spread of the Neolithic inventions is of great importance from the point of view of the social and cultural relationships along the borderline. Nevertheless, there are some differences between the implements of the Great Hungarian Plain and those of the Northern Balkans. For instance, the Hungarian assemblages did not yield any labret. Donja Branjevina in the Vojvodina, yielded 25 labrets, 23 of which are from clay and 2 from stone (KARMANSKI, 2005: Pl. XXII). Their absence in Hungary is inexplicable (MAKKAY, 2004a: 36, note 31)206. The painted pottery is also very rare in the north. The few white-on-buff painted sherds from Szarvas 23 and Endrd 119 (MAKKAY, 1996: Pls. 9-11; MAKKAY and STARNINI, forthcoming 2: figs. 22-24) belong to the earliest Krs-Starevo Culture. The majority of the pottery shapes and other artefacts, however, are identical in both the Krs and Starevo Cultures, artificially separated, as some prehistorians believe, by the Trianon borderline of June 1920 (MAKKAY 1969; 1974). Furthermore, the Hungarian Krs Valley sites of this culture have yielded 40 sherds with textile imprints, either impressed into the fresh clay or negative impressions on the vessel calcium carbonate crust (MAKKAY, 2001c). These are the earliest Neolithic textile imprints of Europe, which find no parallels either in the Balkans or Greece (MAKKAY, 2000). It is known since decades that the Krs Culture was not only the first to bring and distribute Neolithic inventions/innovations and tool types in the Carpathian Basin, but that it also transmitted them to the native Late Mesolithic bands that lived north of the Krs boundary, both in the northern part of the Plain and Transdanubia. The influences of the Krs Culture led to the emergence of the Middle Neolithic cultures of the Carpathian Basin: the Alfld Linear Pottery (ALP)207 and the Early Transdanubian or Middle European Linear Pottery (TLP or MELP) in Transdanubia. The ALP remained isolated during its entire development in the same territory, without spreading to the north, northeast or east, and it never reached the Carpathians. It spread significantly towards the south, gradually occupying the former territories of the Late Krs Culture between the Krs and Maros Rivers during and after the Protovina phase (HORVTH, 1994). In contrast, the earliest TLP began to spread rapidly in the Danube Valley to the west, and to the edge of the Carpathians to the northwest. This culture is responsible for the neolithisation of the entire region between the

The bone tools are very important in this case since spatulae of Late Krs-Protovina types (fig. 140: 5-7) became common in the Early ALP assemblages but did not occur in more recent periods of the same culture (KALICZ and KOS 2000a: 67-68 and fig. 11: 4-15). 206. On the other hand, stone sceptres and small beads are represented in Krs assemblages. Stone sceptres were found at Endrd 3/39 and 3/119 (STARNINI and SZAKMNY, 1998: fig. 8: 4 and 18: 2). 207. The Szatmr pottery can be considered the early or earliest two phases of the ALP.


Rhine and the Vistula Rivers and the Pripet Marshes in NW Ukraine. However, it did not spread to the north German-Polish plain (GRYGIEL, 2004). In my opinion the Late Mesolithic groups of these regions were neolithised under the influence of the TLP or MELP. In this case we deal with a complicated phenomenon of gradual (demic?) diffusion distributing agriculture and new technologies to the Danube Valley, the west, northwest and north. A better understanding of these distribution processes and transformations largely depends on a detailed knowledge of the cultural geography of the Carpathian Basin, which is also of great importance for the income and spread of the Krs Culture.


The Carpathian Basin is the largest region of Europe, which is closed to the outside world by the mountain chain. This territory is very diversified because of its dimensions and internal dividing factors (river valleys, mountain chains among which are the Bakony Mts. in Transdanubia and the Central Transylvanian Mts.), which give shape to different regional variants: Transdanubia (a part of the Roman Pannonia provincia), the northern mountains and hills (partly in present Slovakia, and also the Mtra, Bkk and Tokaj Mts.), Transylvania and the largest, central area of the whole basin, the Great Hungarian Plain that covers more than 100,000 square kilometres. It is very important to point out that the Great Plain is connected with the Carpathian Range only in its northeast region, i.e. Carpathian Ukraine. It is well known that the Carpathian Basin is one of the unsafe regions of Eurasia from the point of view of its population geography. It has always been the scope of migrations, invasions and military campaigns, and very frequently unfriendly encounters of different peoples such as Iranians, Huns, Avars, Tartars Mongols, Kumanen, Ottomans and finally the Red Army around the middle of the XX Century and again in 1956. Most or all of these influencing and hindering factors derived from invasions from the east. Except for the Ottoman occupation around the mid XVI Century, the influences from the south were often positive for the cultural development of the area. The arrival of the EN Krs Culture can be considered the first of these influences. South of the Eurasian mountain belt, the Hungarian Plain was undoubtedly one of the best regions for human settlement. Unfortunately the absence of a sufficient rainfall in some regions (especially several parts of the Great Plain, as for instance north of the Triple Krs Valley) makes dry farming a hard work of uncertain yield, while irrigation agriculture can be practised only in a few areas. Similarly the northernmost expansion of the earliest food-producing populations, techniques and plants originating in the Near East and the Mediterranean, was partly hindered by cooler temperatures: grape and pistacia, and especially fig and olive could not be introduced, and more resistant plants were selected instead, among which are wheat and barley. As a result, although monoculture agronomy did not evolve, the wide scale of domesticated plants (the eight founder crops) was not present here in the Neolithic. Another important factor is that the Carpathian basin lies far from the sea, and as a result, people movements, trade and connections depended on land and river routes. An advantageous position was given by the Danube and the geomorphologic role that the Carpathian Basin played both in prehistoric and in historic times, very good natural gateways, among which are (MAKKAY, 2000a): a. The Danube and the Axios-Vardar-Morava Valley from the south leading to the Alfld of Hungary along the Tisza Valley and further west to the very fertile plains of SE Transdanubia across the Danube and Drava Rivers. This geographic factor determined the emergence and final distribution of the Krs Culture (both in the Plain and Southern Transdanubia) with its very strong southern connections (Bulgaria, Mainland Greece, Thrace and, in some cases, the early cultures of Anatolia). b. The east and south Carpathian routes. Passes and deep valleys favour rapid access across the mountain belt towards the inner part of Transylvania or the NE part of the Great Plain in its northeastern edge (MAKKAY, 2000a: note 1). c. Finally the Dvny Gate near Vienna (Porta Hungariae) into which the Danube flows from the west. It guaranteed the rapid distribution of the neolithisation with the arrival of the Early TLP north of the Alps as far as the Rhine Valley and further to the west in the Epilinear. The seemingly closed Carpathian Basin has green corridors which encouraged and favoured connections and trade: the Tisza Valley, and also the eastern periphery of the Alfld north of the Maros, called the Partium. The factors, which determined the further destiny of the Hungarian Plain in the millennia after the deglaciation period, are discussed in MAKKAY (2000a: 25-27). J. CHAPMAN (2003: 94 and 95), who compared the Early Neolithic environments of Hungary with those of the Aegean, found strong similarities and also important differences between several aspects of the two regions: the


Early Neolithic inhabitants preferred water-retentive soils with high ground water in Greece lying on levees, and well-drained soils on islands of low ground water in Hungary. Most probably, the first farmers of both these territories preferred the rich loose soils with sufficient water capacity, especially in the drier parts of Greece. These observations can be applied to the Krs Culture sites of the territory as already pointed out by MAKKAY (2000a: 27 and 28).


The distribution of the Krs Culture in the Carpathian Basin (i.e. the Plain, the Tisza Valley, Transdanubia and Transylvania) does not perfectly suit the macro-areas of the Basin itself. Its northernmost, wavy SW-NE line crosses the entire Basin (MAKKAY, 1982b: figs. 1 and 2; 2000a: 28). In Transdanubia it is distributed within the southeast half of the region and never spread north of Lake Balaton (KALICZ, 1990: Taf. 3, 2208). In the Tisza Valley it stopped a few km north of Szolnok near the small village Zagyvarkas, while the climatic and geographic conditions, together with the nature of the soils, continue to the north-northeast up to the piedmont of the Mtra and Bkk Mountains in Co. Heves and Borsod. Here the Krs Culture, the general distribution of which was largely conditioned by soil types and water holding capacity, was not affected by these environments, which continued uninterruptedly northwards along the Tisza Valley before reaching the northernmore, palaeoeconomically slightly different regions209. The same did not happen in the easternmost Mhtelek area of the Plain, where the environment significantly differs from that of the mid Tisza Valley. Regarding the Neolithic farming, the greatest difference between the Mhtelek area and the Krs distribution in the Krs and Tisza River Valleys lies in the quality of the soils: low-lying, frequently inundated small basins and old flooded areas and river beds in the Mhtelek area retain poor quality, acid, clayey soils which, according to the present-day farmers, are difficult to cultivate (MAKKAY, 2003a: 26 and 27)210. Due to the acidity, bones (with the only exception of a sickle haft: MAKKAY, 2003a: fig. at p. 26) are absent at Mhtelek, and the painted potsherds are rare (one or two pieces were found altogether [MAKKAY, 1996: 37, note 13])211. In the southern and central parts of the Plain, the Krs Culture farmers did not settle on these soils. The opposite suggests that this distribution factor did not work in the Mhtelek territory. In contrast it reached the northernmost distribution boundary in the Carpathian Basin here. Furthermore it includes a few northernmore sites in the neighbouring Carpathian-Ukraine, among which is Zpszony (POTUSHNIAK, 2004). It is possible to suggest that the Krs settlement patterns of the Mhtelek Carpathian-Ukrainian region developed independently from the usual topographical, hydrological and pedological factors. The occurrence of Krs sites is sporadic in the Mhtelek area. Only another site is known in the whole eastern half of Co. Szabolcs-Szatmr212. As already hypothesised by MAKKAY (2000a: 28) this NE penetration along the Tisza Valley was probably due to the interest in the stone resources of the Tokaj-Preov Mountains, especially obsidian (CHAPMAN, 1986; STARNINI, 1993). ` (2001: 18 and 19) statement, Regarding this point, I will re-examine the question in the light of C. P ERLES according to which there is a contrast between the quality of the soils and the availability of the stone resources: the light alluvial soils that extend over the entire basins were the best for cereal cultivation. However, they did not provide any raw material necessary for the manufacture of sickle blades and millstones for agricultural activities. The farmers of these areas exploited raw materials from high quality sources often located far from the settlements. Thus I consider that the first settlers of Mhtelek were advancing members of an industrial and trade outpost fulfilling the needs and interest of a larger population group. The people of the Mhtelek group tried to reach these sources and, in spite of the wide and partly marshy valley of the Tisza River, they reached the piedmont of the Tokaj Mountains on the right bank of the Tisza213.

According to his map, the ALP site Bezdd lies in the Krs distribution territory. See below and also KALICZ and VIRG (2001) and KALICZ et al. (1998: distribution map). 209. For the suggestions of L. DOMBORCZKI (2001; 2003; 2004: 304) based on his recent excavations at Tiszafred-Domahza puszta, see MAKKAY (2004a: 38 and 39). To summarise, characteristic Krs pottery was collected together with incised ALP material in a small refuse pit a few km north of the Krs distribution line. ALP incised sherds were found beneath the layer containig Krs potsherds. This is usual for the Szatmr (early ALP) pottery assemblages. For his identification of the Krs pottery, Domborczki relied on I. KUTZINs (1944-1947) monograph which does not report these Late Krs types. 210. According to the etymology, Mhtelek originally sounded Mly telek i.e. low lying allotment parcel (MAKKAY, 2003a: 6). 211. Bna apparently mixed the rare Krs painted wares with the rich assemblages of black painted MN Szamos vessels (MAKKAY, 2003b). 212. The disturbed remains of a Mhtelek feature was recorded by N. Kalicz and J. Makkay at Garbolz, close to Mhtelek, during the excavations (unpublished finds). The assemblages published as Early Neolithic by KOREK (1977) from the Tisza-Szamos area belong to the Middle Neolithic Painted Szamos Pottery, contemporaneous with the recently excavated finds from Vllaj (MAKKAY, 2003b). Both BNA (1986) and KOREK (1966-67) believed that the painted pottery of the Krs Culture and the Middle Neolithic Szamos one are very similar. 213. The only Early Neolithic site on the left bank and the nearest to the Tokaj sources is the disputed and never excavated Bezdd. Its pottery, however, probably belongs to the (second?) phase of the Szatmr (early ALP) period without Krs types (MAKKAY, 1996: 37 and 38 and note 13).


Zpszony, on the right bank of the Tisza, is perhaps another advanced Krs site to gain access to stone resources. The Krs Culture distribution shows that it did not spread as far as the great river bend of the Upper Tisza Valley. Consequently, the surface finds from Bezdd-Servpa do not represent the Szatmr I or Mhtelek Krs group in old terminology, but Szatmr II, i.e. the earliest ALP214. In my opinion the spread of the Mhtelek group further north in the river valley south of the Tisza was hindered by local Late Mesolithic bands, which occupied the area of the stone resources and were interested in trading stones to the southernmore groups with the Mhtelek Krs industry. Furthermore, I am still convinced that the northernmost expansion of the Krs Culture in the Middle Tisza Valley (i.e. north of Szolnok) was not stopped only by geographic or agroeconomic factors (SMEGI and KERTSZ, 2001), but by various groups who still led a Mesolithic way-of-life. The recent fieldwork and excavations a few km northwest of the maximum distribution line of the Krs Culture in the Jszsg have shown that when the first Krs farmers arrived around the turn of the sixth and fifth millennia Cal BC, residual Mesolithic groups perhaps practised hunting and fishing in the Jszsg itself (KERTSZ, 1996: 26; 2003: 493 and 494; MAKKAY 1996: 41), northwest of the Szolnok-Zagyvarkas area, i.e. west of the Middle course of the Tisza River on its right bank215. These currently eroded Pleistocene pebbled surfaces, badly drained and dry soils were totally different from the light and well drained soils preferred by the Neolithic farmers in the Great Plain. Therefore the geographic conditions in the southern Jszsg (first of all soil characteristics and the Late Mesolithic groups) might have hampered the Krs Culture distribution farther north. In the Tisza Valley, its northernmost spread was possibly stopped only by Late Mesolithic groups, since the soil conditions and other palaeoeconomic factors were identical on both the northern and southern sides of ` (2001: 18 and 19) conclusion on Greece may be applied to the Alfld: for the Krs distribution line. C. P ERLES these first farmers, the most attractive features were the flat, alluvial basins with their light soils. Considering both these factors, despite the present scarce archaeological evidence (KERTSZ and SMEGI 2001: 233), I suspect that the role of the native Late Mesolithic inhabitants was more essential here, in comparison with that of the Mhtelek area, since there the Krs Culture was distributed also on not very suitable and fertile soils, very probably because of the absence of a consistent native population216. The Neolithisation process did not stop at the temporary or final boundary of the Krs Culture, or only for a short interval. During the whole process the spread of agriculture from the SE to NW to and across the European continent, arrows or waves crossed a number of agroeconomic and other barriers although it never stopped its spread. Agroeconomic barriers and other physical obstacles (the Mediterranean Sea, rivers, mountains, marshes etc.) were crossed and agriculture continued to spread (MAKKAY, 2003: 37). As CHAPMAN (2003: 92) pointed out After all, the distances between the Levantine coast and Greece are much greater than between Thessaly and the Alfld Plain [a mere distance of 500 km the Vardar-Morava Valleys], yet Near Eastern PPNB communities are routinely compared with those of Early Neolithic Greece, . It was the material and also non-material culture of the newcomers, which did stop at the borders of large geographic areas and resulted in basic differences between, for instance, the earliest pottery assemblages of the Anatolian Chalcolithic, the Early Neolithic ceramics of Bulgaria, and the northernmost Starevo and Krs pottery repertoire. Innovations always spread further. Otherwise the material culture of the neolithised regions between Cappadocia or Iraqi Kurdistan and Szolnok would be similar or identical although they were not! Only one example: compared with its southern forerunners and parallels, and also its northern and northwestern successors and neighbours (i.e. both the ALP and TLP), the Krs pottery occupied an interesting transitional position. As already pointed out by J. MAKKAY (2000a: 33), the Anatolian and South Balkan Early Neolithic might be defined as the Early Painted World because of its traditional pottery decoration technique, whereas accordingly, the Early Neolithic of Central Europe represents the Linear World. In contrast, the Krs Culture decorative tradition might be called the Plastic World. On the other hand the suitable middle Tisza Valley north of Szolnok, the inhospitable Pleistocene landscapes of the southern Jszsg and the acidic soils around Mhtelek could stop the incoming groups if

From its discovery on October 2nd, 1962, I have attributed the small assemblage from this site to a very early phase of the ALP. The figurine, and a few dozen sherds, were found during the digging of a water pipe ditch. See my short paper The oldest female statuette from Co. Szabolcs: Neolithic finds from Tiszabezdd on the local daily Kelet-Magyarorszg, 19: 226, October 7th, 1962. The field collections of the late Andrs CZET (1996), a local teacher, in the whole area of the village did not change this situation (unpublished finds in the Jsa Andrs Mzeum, Nyregyhza). The question of Szatmr terminology was developed by P. Raczky (MAKKAY, 1996: 38 and 39, note 13). 215. In more recent years R. KERTSZ (pers. comm. 2004) discovered more Late Mesolithic settlements in the Jszsg area. Recent conclusions by P. SMEGI (2004; 2004a) are not considered a reliable approach to these questions and are disregarded. 216. In spite of much effort, the presence of further Early Neolithic sites could not be demonstrated over the whole area of Co. Szabolcs-Szatmr in Hungary. Another question is the occurrence of these sites in the Transylvanian part of the former Szatmr county, as for example Homorodul de Sus: BDER (1968) published only a few clay figurines.


indigenous native populations, where present. The peopling of an uninhabited region, as the Krs Valley probably was at the dawn of the Neolithic, was most probably due to the suitability of its soils and other conditions related with agricultural purposes. In order to apply the diffusionist model (AMMERMAN, 2003) versus the demic diffusion one (ZILHO, 2003) a few preconditions are necessary. They are: 1) the presence of a settled, indigenous Mesolithic population ready to accept farming, 2) balanced Late Mesolithic and the Early Neolithic population densities in a given region, and 3) continuous sequences of both the above-mentioned periods within the study area. The terms of the demic diffusion model are more complicated, because of the arrival of 1) a new, sometimes anthropologically different population, and 2) new habits, assemblages (for instance pottery and stone assemblages) and ideas (sacrificial and burial customs). We have to point out which of these conditions did exist (or have been recorded) in the Great Hungarian Plain and, in particular, the Krs-Tisza region. We cannot be sure that there was any indigenous Mesolithic population in the Krs territory of the Great Hungarian Plain. Nevertheless no (Late) Mesolithic site has so far been recorded from this area. However, the absence of finds does not necessarily imply that the territory was uninhabited when the first Krs Culture farmers arrived. The Late Mesolithic sites might be sealed under the thick Holocene sedimentary layers and only a few eroded surfaces are suitable for their discovery as for instance Jszsg. Nevertheless during the ten years Krs Valley survey, we did not discover any Mesolithic tool, or layer, at the base of often 5-6 m thick sandpit and loess deposits. A few colleagues and critics can speculate that the southern innovators found here a larger, if, ironically (!), currently almost invisible [Mesolithic] group in the Alfld Plain (CHAPMAN, 2003: 102), or, ` (2001: 3 and 4) the quasi-absence of data on the [Greek] Mesolithic, in particular in the according to C. P ERLES regions that will be most densely settled during the Early Neolithic, is a crucial element in the debate. It can always be claimed that future fieldwork will eventually reveal a rich Mesolithic However, I shall argue that the scarcity of Mesolithic sites must be taken at face value, that is, as a reflection of a sparse population. Thus an invisible, elusive, non- or quasi-existing Mesolithic in the Great Hungarian Plain does not seem to have played any role in the local Neolithisation process. Here, groups already familiar with farming, coming from the southernmost regions of the Danube Valley and the Balkans, implemented the agricultural know-how. The absence of Late Mesolithic traces of occupation, might be explained as follows (MAKKAY, 2001a): 1) the appearance of the Krs Culture can be attributed to a large-scale demic diffusion (in this case there was no Late Mesolithic indigenous population). The absence of (Late) Mesolithic groups cannot be demonstrated due to insufficient archaeological research, and/or 2) an indigenous Mesolithic population, which adopted farming, lived in the territories north of the Krs distribution line (for example between the Serbian Danube and the Maros, or between the Maros and Krs Rivers). In this case, there was no large-scale demic diffusion but only a simple cultural diffusion with a minimal demic diffusion. It is difficult to conceive the idea of a rapid advance of the Neolithic innovations (package) in the southern half of the Carpathian Basin without demic diffusion. In any case, the validity of point 1 cannot be stated, although intensive research might change this view in the future. The second condition (points 2 and 3) do not match, since dozens of excavated Krs Culture sites did not show any trace of cultural continuity from the Mesolithic onwards, and the 100 or even 200 skeletons from the Krs Culture graves so far excavated contrast with the absence of Mesolithic burials. This would imply that due to the almost absence of Late Mesolithic peopling (almost complete only because Late Mesolithic hunters of the Jszsg undoubtedly visited parts of the future Krs Culture territories during the good fishing and hunting seasons), the Neolithisation on the Krs territory is to be attributed to the arrival of a new population. The absence of Mesolithic traces might derive from geographic factors, which is strange because of the presence of the Mesolithic sites of the Jszsg region. It is more reasonable to admit that at present we known almost nothing of the Late Mesolithic of the central and southern regions of the Great Hungarian Plain. This demic diffusion model does not necessarily imply that the newcomers arrived from a great distance. While the presence of one white-on-red/brown painted fragment from Endrd 3/119 (MAKKAY, 1996: Pl. 9, 5-7 and 11, 5; MAKKAY and STARNINI, forthcoming 2: fig. 22, 11) shows technological relationships with very distant territories, other Early Krs potsherds with white-on-red painted dots point to the southern fringes of the Carpathian Basin and the northernmost Balkans, especially Donja Branjevina in southwestern Vojvodina (KARMANSKI, 2005: 47 and 48). These decorated vessels are so far unknown from the Krs Valley sites although this does not mean that they were imported from a distance of hundreds of kilometres. This is also true for other material culture items (vessels, face decorations of small clay stamps, small clay figurines, etc.; relieves


on large containers representing goat, red deer and human females however, rarely find comparison in the south). The number of these parallels, 20 all together (MAKKAY, 1974: 21-28; 1984; 2004a: 35 and 36), represents the beginning of the Neolithic in the Carpathian Basin. It is contemporaneous with the Anatolian Early Chalcolithic (Hacilar IX-VI) and the Protosesklo Culture of Greece, around the end of the 6th millennium Cal BC217, although the traditional chronology has a considerably lower date around the turn of the 5th and 4th millennia Cal BC. During the last decade, an alternative model has been proposed for the spread of the first farming communities into the Carpathian Basin and the western and northernmore territories of Central Europe. This model proposes three frontiers which farming communities would have needed to cross before the establishment of their settlements in Central and Eastern Europe (CHAPMAN, 2003: 91). The first is the Central European-Balkan agro-ecological barrier (CEB AEB), which would be responsible for the northern limit reached by the Balkan influences, and consequently marks the northern boundary of the Krs Culture (KERTSZ and SMEGI, 2001: 235-239). The neolithisation of the Carpathian Basin might have taken place in a way different from the CEB AEB theory218. For instance J. CHAPMAN (2003: 91 and 92) believes that its serious weakness is the extension of the alleged boundary to the North East Alfld, beyond the distribution of Balkan ecological influences, simply to take account of the distribution of the Mhtelek settlement[s] of the Krs group. While this alleged barrier in the middle of the Alfld Plain may have had some meaning in the Upper Pleistocene, there were no obvious barriers to the movement of Holocene animal species in this zone . In my opinion it is difficult to formulate theories and models and discuss processes without any knowledge of the archaeological procedures (MAKKAY, 2004a: 36, note 33). Instead of the CEB AEB theory I propose the population barrier or Jszsg border theory (MAKKAY, 2001: 14 and 15; 2001a: 72-78; 2003c: 47-53). The most recent researches (BNFFY, 2004) have produced little or no contribution to a better understanding of the Krs Culture problems. The work of the above-mentioned author contains several incorrect references and its conclusions are highly disputable. Most of the material illustrated in this volume is of little or no help as for instance the problem related to the Protovina pottery decorated with polished-incised lines (MAKKAY, 2004: 20-22; 2005). This contrasts with the results from my excavations that have greatly improved our knowledge for the Late Krs-Protovina pottery. For instance, BNFFY (2004: 244) wrote the footed vessels of the Krs culture usually rested on three feet, while our Krs assemblages produced quite different results: hundreds of (fragments of) footed vessels were found in the Krs Valley, with 4 to 13 feet, while not one single fragment of a 3-feet vessel has so far been discovered (MAKKAY and STARNINI, forthcoming 2).


The Jszsg border is located at Jszsg219, northwest of Szolnok. It was part of a much longer borderland between the northern periphery (the marginal zone) of the Anatolian-Balkan complex (i.e. the Krs Culture) and the southeastern area of the Middle European-Danubian Linear Pottery complex. During the period of the arrival/emergence of the Krs Culture, these Danubian peoples still lived in Late Mesolithic conditions and were subdivided into many technological complexes or cultures with characteristic chipped stone assemblages (KOZOWSKI, 2001). During the evolved Early Krs220 and under formative Krs influences, the entire Central European-Danubian territory was unified by new technological innovations (the Neolithisation), and consequently the Central European Linear Pottery formed first in Transdanubia, the so-called Early Neolithic Bicske group (MAKKAY, 1978; 1996c: 264 and 265). In the north Hungarian Plain and north of the Krs borderline, under similar conditions (Krs innovative influences), another aspect of the Linear Pottery Culture (ALP) developed. These two main Linear Pottery complexes (the Central European and the ALP) differ from the Krs Culture. They can be distinguished also from each other on the basis of their vessel shapes, decorations and also figurines. An empty zone, some 30-40 km wide, lies between the easternmost distribution of the Western (Central European) Linear Pottery, east of the Danube, in the Gdll foothills northeast of Budapest, and the ALP in the Tpi and Zagyva Rivers Valleys (MAKKAY, 1996: 40-42; 2001: 24; 2001a: 63).


Paste, painting and the finely burnished surface of the above-mentioned Endrd 119 vessel show very close parallels with the Hacilar IX-VI pottery (ZDOAN, pers. comm. 2003). 218. For my arguments and opposed view see MAKKAY (2001a). 219. Jszsg, the home of the Jsz people, an area settled be the Jszs, a group of Middle Iranian Jasy (Russian ), related to the Sarmatians and Alans, who reached to this part of the Carpathian Basin during the Migration Period, in the I-III Centuries AD. 220. Early, Classic and not Late Krs phase, since the internal chronologies of the excavated sites show the presence of evolved Szatmr (early ALP) associated with Late Krs-Protovina pottery (figs. 141 and 142).


For a better understanding of these processes it is necessary to refer again to the Balkans (MAKKAY, 1996). The intensive surveys carried out in Thessaly have shown that the Neolithic spread into Greece and the southern Balkans took place mainly in areas unsettled by indigenous Mesolithic hunter-gatherers, while farther west and north these communities were present (VAN ANDEL and RUNNELS, 1995: 494). A possible interpretation is that the Neolithic farmers preferred soils and geomorphologic conditions different from those with light sandy and silty loams and a good water supply. The Mesolithic hunter-gatherers preferred Pleistocene terraces and fan soils. This is of key importance for the understanding of the diffusionist versus indigenist model based on the presence and role of a local population. The relationships between the incoming southern farmers (i.e. Krs) and the natives might have been similar to those of Greece, although the soil condition of south Transdanubia at the beginning of the Neolithisation is almost unknown. Thus the Jszsg borderline lies between the newly arrived Krs and ALP groups, the latter of which is identifiable with the aboriginal population, who most probably spoke an early Indo-European dialect. Since the Central European Linear Pottery farmers can be regarded as the ancestor of the northwestern Indo-European dialect group (MAKKAY, 1987b; 1992c: 207-213), it seems reasonable to conclude that the Krs-Starevo farmers, which bordered it to the south and southeast, spoke an ancestor of the Balkan Indo-European dialects, which did not include the (already differentiated?) one spoken by the earliest ancestors of the Proto-Greeks. This model might give an answer to the above-mentioned question, namely whether or not there were close relationships between the predecessors of the Proto-Greeks and the Proto-Germans. The answer is positive since the very early ancestors of the Proto-Greeks lived in the Tisza Valley just to the southeast of the Jszsg borderline represented by cultural groups of ALP origin. The Krs Culture apparently withdrew from its northernmost distribution, north of the Krs Valley. Features with Szatmr (earliest ALP) materials associated with Late Krs and Protovina assemblages made their appearance in the Triple Krs Valley, especially at Endrd 3/6 and Szarvas 8/23 (figs. 22, 7; 25, 3; 26, 1-6; 27, 2 and 6; 30 [Szarvas 23] and figs. 42, 4-7; 45, 1-8; 46, 1, 3, 6 and 7; 48, 1-8). Shortly afterwards, the next phase is represented by the appearance of the fully developed ALP in the south at sites like Gyoma 107 (early subphase) and Szarvas 102 (later subphase). These sites indicate that the ALP shifted southwards (MAKKAY, 1982a: figs. 2 and 3; 1987: 17, chronological map). The explanation ranges from invasion to peaceful diffusion, although I am inclined to explain it as an invasion, rather than a demic diffusion due to the presence of mass graves at the Krs Valley Late Krs Culture sites221. The ALP groups did not expand further north, northeast or northwest. They occupied the former Krs territory in the Great Hungarian Plain, but not Transylvania. The related, although independent Transdanubian Linear Pottery groups are responsible of their further expansion to the northwest. One of the most important differences between the TLP and ALP is that the former rapidly expanded westwards along the Danube Valley to the Morava Plain soon after its emergence. It distributed to its west, north and northeast, reaching its early phase widest distribution within a short period (less than a generation?) in the Rhine Valley (Eitzum, near Hannover), Saxony (Eilsleben), Bohemia (Bilany) and the Pripet Marshes. It is indicated by the similarities between the distinctive vessel forms and their decorative patterns from Bicske in Hungary (MAKKAY, 1978a), which is the richest settlement of this early phase, and the assemblages from other, distant western sites (MAKKAY, 1978a; LENNEIS, 2004). In my opinion this Linear Pottery that spread swiftly on the loess areas between the Vistula and the Rhine as far as the boundary of the north German-Polish Plain can be identified with the early ancestors of the north-western Indo-European dialect group of A. Meillet (MAKKAY, 1987b; 2001a). The westward, southward and eastward spread of both the Linear Pottery Cultures continued after the Middle Neolithic. In the west, the Epilinear groups reached the Seine Valley, and some others migrated as far as Normandy. In Transdanubia some groups moved south, crossed the Drava and settled in Croatia during the Notenkopf phase (HORVTH and SIMON, 2003: 25-74), while, in the Great Hungarian Plain, subsequent ALP waves first occupied the region between the Krs and Maros Rivers. Later the Szaklht group crossed the Maros Valley, as far as the old bed of the Maros (today called Aranka). In the following Late Neolithic phase, the Tisza Culture expanded to the Timi territory, and during the Early Copper Age the Tiszapolgr Culture, which derived from the preceding one, is documented from sites along the left Danube bank. The Bodrogkeresztr Culture, its Middle Copper Age successor, crossed the Danube and occupied the Neolithic site of Vina, as demonstrated by the cemetery on the top of the tell, then moved some 100 km southwards in the Drina Valley as far as Viesava (MAKKAY, 1996a: 781 and notes 24-25).

See the description of these graves in the chapters regarding Endrd 3/6, Szarvas 8/23 and in Appendix III.


If these migrations are projected on a map, the most likely candidates for the Proto-Greek homeland are the Tisza Valley, in the Great Hungarian Plain, and the central regions of the northern Balkans. As I have suggested, the Bodrogkeresztr and related Slcua groups, which migrated southwards (MAKKAY, 1996a: 782, map 1) can be identified with the distribution of the early Proto-Greeks from the north to their historical appearance in the south Balkans. The Bodrogkeresztr grave finds in Viesava (Serbia), more than 100 km from the nearest Bodrogkeresztr site at Vina, demonstrate that the Bodrogkeresztr groups moved southwards from the Danube Valley in the middle third of the 3rd millennium Cal BC or towards the end of the same millennium. This demonstrates that the Bodrogkeresztr, together with the Late Slcua Culture, constitutes the early Proto-Greek speaking population (MAKKAY, 2001a; 2003c: 47-53). The archaeologists who are familiar with this problem might object that the derivation of the Bodrogkeresztr Culture from the Linear Pottery is unacceptable, and that the Proto-Greek does not belong to the northwestern dialect continuum. However, the Bodrogkeresztr Culture not only derives from the Linear Pottery, but it is also a genetic successor of the ALP (through the Szaklht-Tisza-Tiszapolgr cultural line distributed in the eastern and southern areas of the Great Hungarian Plain) representing a distinct Linear Pottery complex. Furthermore, the Bodrogkeresztr Culture did not evolve north of the Jszsg borderline (MAKKAY, 2001b) (i.e. in the territory of the northwestern dialect group) but in the Tisza Valley, although it later distributed in this western region. Thus the ancestors of the Proto-Greeks were transitional between what later became the Northwestern and Balkan dialects. The very early Northwestern dialect speakers were the Western Linear Pottery farmers descending from the TLP and Notenkopf, while the Balkan ones most likely from the Krs-StarevoKaranovo groups (MAKKAY, 2001a: 73 and 74)222. This model corresponds with the nature of the German-Hellenic isoglosses since they hardly contain any cultural or technical term relating to the society and its institutions, the environment or the implements utilised. They are mostly words indicating body movements, feelings or actions, and a few body parts. In other words, it is a basic vocabulary, presumably inherited from the common Indo-European stock, which remained independent in both languages (POLOM, 1986; GENDRE, 1997: 208-213). The explanation is that the speakers of these two proto-dialects, who inhabited adjacent territories, migrated to different directions (the Proto-German moved north and the Proto-Greek south) and their technical terms, institutions and environment of later habitats differed, as did the tools they employed since they came into contact, the first with the non Indo-European Mesolithic bands of the north, the second with the Early Semitic and other more civilised Mediterranean peoples. It is undoubted that the Pit Grave (Kurgan) Culture intrusion took place towards the end of the Bodrogkeresztr period. There are a few traces of contact between these two aspects, although it seems that the southern group of the Bodrogkeresztr population retreated in the face of the Pit Grave intrusion and partly migrated southwards. Bodrogkeresztr is the prehistoric culture of the Carpathian Basin distributed farthest to the south in the Balkans, down to the great curve of the Drina, some 100 km south of the Sava River, as shown by the finds and graves from this region (MAKKAY, 1996b: 781). This southern expansion can be linked with the southward migration of the Proto-Greeks. Its initial phase is marked by the similarities between the gold pendants of the Bodrogkeresztr Culture and those from Greece. The southwards migrating Bodrogkeresztr groups had some knowledge of what later became the Greek lands. This view is an updating (or resurrection) of the Dimini-Wanderung theory proposed by Matz and Schachermeyr between the two wars (TULOK and MAKKAY, 1999; MAKKAY, 1999c: 81-132) also discussed by G. DEVOTO (1962: 99, 101, 108, 11; MAKKAY, 1999c). The most important difference is that, instead of the Bkk and Tisza Cultures, both descendants from the ALP, their Copper Age Bodrogkeresztr successors represent the early Proto-Greek tribes migrating south from the southern fringes of the Carpathian Basin. It should be borne in mind that the archaeological cultures of the original Dimini-Wanderung theory, the Bkk and the Tisza, never migrated as far south as the Bodrogkeresztr one. At the same time this latter can be regarded as the genetic successor of the two above-mentioned cultures. This migration penetrated as far as the Balkans. The southwards following migration of the Greeks is an argument for linguists (MAKKAY, 2003c: 8-11, 42 and 43). I do not think that much more can be said about the origins of the Proto-Greeks. Apart from a few archaeological types, there are some other indications that might support my theory (MAKKAY, 2003c: 47-54). The later development of the Alpine-Danubian area of the Western Linear Pottery is quite a different story, which can be correlated with the southern movement of the ALP groups during the 3rd millennium Cal BC, i.e. the Indo-Europeisation of Italy (MAKKAY, 2001).

This model partly fits into the Balkan-Indoeuropean view of C. RENFREW (1999).


Appendix I


Pit 3/3 yielded 20 obsidian and 1 limnoquartzite artefacts. This group is represented by 18 retouched tools, 1 flake and 1 unretouched blade.


The assemblage from Pit 3/3 contained only two debitage pieces. They are: 1) A flake detached when the core platform was shaped, by removing the tip of an obsidian nodule. Prior to the detachment of this flake two cortical flakes, perpendicular to each other, had been detached. Thus, the flake in question is the third flake in turn that shaped the core platform and, apart from the scars from the two earlier flakes, it has some cortex on the dorsal side (fig. 31, 1), 2) A small fragment of the proximal part of an obsidian blade. The butt is prepared; the bulb type with distinct bulbar scars suggests the use of a soft hammer (fig. 31, 2). The other debitage products from Pit 3/3 were transformed mainly by transversal or lateral-transversal retouch. The proportions of these tools and the multiseriate character of the retouch show that the transformations considerably reduced the size of the original blanks. Among the modified debitage products, 10 are blades and 8 are flakes. In the group of flakes, which are all made from obsidian, the majority comes from rejuvenation or from the final phase of core reduction. The specimens from the rejuvenation of core flaking surfaces show a centripetal dorsal pattern (3 items) and perpendicular scars (3 specimens). The latter flakes may come from a change of orientation (90o cores). One specimen may come from the final phase of reduction of a blade core that was transformed into a flake core. The remaining flakes include: 1) A specimen from the extension of the flaking surface by detaching a partially cortical (lateral cortex) flake (fig. 31, 7), 2) A flake from an indeterminate phase of reduction, with bi-directional dorsal pattern perpendicular to the direction of the flake (fig. 32, 6), 3) A blade-like flake with unidirectional dorsal pattern (fig. 32, 3). Only five specimens have preserved butts, representing all butt types: cortical, linear, plain (2) and facetted. Regardless of the butt type a hard hammer was used to detach flakes, which is evidenced by the occurrence of percussion cones (in one case it is a double cone) and bulbar scars or even bulbar ridges. None of the blades (7 specimens) and bladelets (3 specimens) is complete, and for this reason their length cannot be determined. The blade width oscillates from 1.5 to 2.0 cm, whereas that of the bladelets is from 0.7 to 1.5 cm. The blade thickness is from 0.6 to 1.1 cm, that of the bladelets about 0.2 cm. Only three blades (and none of the bladelets) have preserved proximal parts; the percussion angles vary from 90o to 120o. The platforms are extensive; the type of bulbs with bulbar scars suggests the use of a punch. The dorsal pattern of the blades is characterized by 3 to 5 scars from previously detached blades, indicating fairly flat flaking surfaces, which is in agreement with the straight profile of these blades. The type of core reduction technique suggests that the users of feature 3/3 had a limited access to lithic raw materials, both obsidian and limnoquartzite. Obsidian was probably brought to the site as cortical concretions, which were then strongly reduced in order to produce blades, bladelets as well as flakes. The presence of the following products of this process are recorded: 1) Flake from platform preparation by detaching the tip of an obsidian nodule (fig. 31, 1), 2) Flake from flaking face extension onto the non-cortical surfaces. We can thus assume that in the early stage of core reduction flaking surfaces and sides of cores were without preparation (fig. 31, 7),


3) Flakes from flaking surface rejuvenation during the advanced phase of core reduction, and flakes from a change of orientation, also from the advanced phase of reduction (fig. 31, 9 and 10), 4) Flakes from the final phase or reduction when blade cores were transformed into flake cores (fig. 31, 11). All the debitage products, not only regular blades and bladelets, were used and strongly retouched.


The largest group of retouched tools is represented by end-scrapers (9 specimens), more than a half of all tools. They include: 1) 2 blade end-scrapers whose proximal parts are broken off. One has a slightly convex front, shaped by uniseriate retouch and unretouched sides (fig. 31, 3), while the other has a weakly convex, slightly oblique front, which is broken by striking the dorsal side; it has a fine, weakly denticulated retouch on the lateral side (fig. 31, 4), 2) 5 end-scrapers are short and include 2 blade and 3 flake specimens. A short blade end-scraper (fig. 31, 5) has a weakly convex front shaped by semi-steep, biseriate retouch, restricted along two sides by a partial, lateral retouch (biseriate right, very fine left). A short, flake end-scraper (on a partially cortical flake) with a slightly asymmetrical front shaped by uniseriate, fairly irregular retouch; the scars vary in size. The base of the flake is broken and shows a partially preserved proximal-lateral notch (fig. 31, 7). The remaining short end-scrapers have a lateral retouch. A blade specimen has a weakly convex front shaped by fairly large scars at an angle of 45o to the ventral side of the end-scraper; on the lateral side, it has discontinuous slightly denticulated retouch, the other lateral side has discontinuous, very fine retouch (fig. 31, 6). Two flake end-scrapers with unilateral retouch have more conspicuously convex fronts shaped by lamellar retouch or extensive flake scars at an angle of 45o-60o. The lateral sides of these two specimens are divergent which gives them a fan-shape. The flaking axis is at an angle of 30o-40o to the tool axis (fig. 31, 8 and 9). 3) One flake end-scraper, possibly a double specimen, which is transversally broken. The distal front is nosed-denticulated, while the proximal retouch, only partially preserved, could have shaped an undulating front (fig. 31, 10). 4) A double, flake end-scraper was bilaterally retouched. The distal front is straight and oblique shaped by steep retouch, which was formed by large scars, whereas the proximal front is convex, shaped by steep, biseriate retouch. The left lateral side is convex, densely retouched; the right lateral side has a biseriate, not very steep retouch: this specimen resembles a double side-scraper (fig. 31, 11). Undoubtedly, this is the effect of rejuvenation - both of the lateral as well as the transversal retouch, which resulted in a considerable reduction of the whole circumference of the specimen. There are two truncations, one of which is made on a distal part of a partially cortical blade with a slightly oblique, distal retouch. This specimen was fractured by a blow on its ventral side (fig. 32, 1). The second specimen has a blunted back, slightly concave, contiguous to the bilateral notch on the right lateral side, and concave, lateral retouch (also two-sided) on the left side (fig. 32, 2). The only specimen with a typical lateral retouch is a blade-like flake with a fairly steep retouch on the distal part of the right side (fig. 32, 3). A blade from grey limnoquartzite shows use-wear along the whole length of the right side. The high gloss on this side of the specimen occurs in a belt 0.3 cm broad, which indicates that it was mounted parallel to the axis of the sickle haft. The proximal part is broken off, also the very tip of the blade where a small, bifacially retouched notch was situated. The breaking of the proximal part is later than the gloss of the lateral edge (fig. 32, 4). Two flake specimens have a lateral notched retouch: the proximal part of a flake has a notched unilateral retouch on one side and a straight semi-steep retouch on the second side (fig. 32, 6); a flake has a retouched notch and a contiguous Clactonian notch on the left side, and a large Clactonian notch on the right one (fig. 32, 5). The assemblage includes, besides three geometric microliths, an intact, slightly asymmetrical trapeze with steep, bilateral retouch (fig. 32, 7) and two fragments of similar trapezes. One of these has an oblique blunted back and a fracture in the proximal edge of a bladelet (this was possibly a thin and fairly long trapeze: fig. 32, 8), whereas the second fragment has a slightly convex blunted back in the proximal part, while the distal part is missing (fig. 32, 9).

2. PIT 4/2
Pit 4/2 yielded a small series of obsidian artefacts (71). They were made from at least four types of obsidian differing for colour intensity (from grey to black) and degree of transparency. The structure of the assemblage is shown in table 1 below:


Number of specimens Cores Flakes Blades Tools Total

Table 1 - Pit 4/2: structure of the chipped stone assemblage.

% 2.8 42.2 38.0 16.9 99.9

2 30 27 12 71

The structure of the assemblage, with an almost identical percentage of blades and flakes, a relatively high percentage of tools and a low number of cores, is typical for the sites located at a considerable distance from the raw materials deposits. The Carpathian obsidian sources utilised at Szarvas are some 200 km from the site, as the crow flies. Thus, we can assume that the inhabitants of the settlements did not obtain the raw materials directly, by undertaking trips to the outcrops, but rather by mean of exchanges from other groups. Nevertheless we cannot exclude that the structure of the assemblage from Feature 4/2 reflects a specific system of raw material procurement within only one group. In such a case, the raw material nodules brought to the site underwent a preliminary treatment in specialised workshops, in a well-defined area of a settlement e.g. at its outskirts. Workshops like this might have been located also close to the raw material sources. Their function might have been merely the initial preparation of the nodules i.e. decortication and possibly the shaping of the platforms. Since obsidian is highly breakable and fissile, which made difficult the transport of blanks over larger distances; the workshops located close to the sources never dealt with blade production. The above hypothesis assumes that in a given group there were specialists who extracted and carried out the preliminary treatment of the obsidian lumps.

2.1. CORES
Pit 4/2 yielded two small, residual, double-platform cores with separate flaking surfaces. The preparation of one core is restricted to only one platform, while the second, linear platform is situated in the distal part of the original core. The second core has a broad, flat flaking face, the platforms are opposed and carefully prepared; on the back is a scar from a large blade-like flake detached perpendicularly to the core axis. The core reduction from the second platform is only initial (fig. 33, 1). The two cores are most probably an example of an attempt to change the orientation of the cores three times, in order to make a fuller use of the obsidian nodule rather than an example of the classical opposed platform reduction. In the final phase of the reduction, the second core shows that the technique of obtaining a blank had changed: on the original broad flaking surface, a pressure technique was used to detach blades, whereas the second flaking surface indicates the employment of a hammer. That the cores were well exhausted is also evidenced by the size of the flaking surfaces (up to 2-2.5 cm long). The length of scars on the cores is shorter than the length of the intact blades, which must have been longer than 3.0 cm, in the assemblage under examination. This further confirms the extremely economic exploitation of these cores, which had been reduced until blades and flakes could no longer be detached.

The assemblage from Pit 4/2 contained 30 flakes and fragments and 7 tools made from flakes. The flakes are small: the most frequent length interval is from 1.0 to 3.0 cm and the width from 1.0 to 2.0 cm. The dorsal pattern of the flakes is provided below (table 2):
Flake dorsal surface Corticated 50% corticated Partially corticated; unidirectional scars Unidirectional scars from blades and blade-like flakes Scars from core preparation Rejuvenation (centripetal or convergent scars) Change-of-orientation or rejuvenation (perpendicular or opposed scars) Indeterminate (flake fragments) Total
Table 2 - Dorsal pattern of the flakes from Pit 4/2.

Number 3 1 1 7 1 9 6 2 30


The table shows that, besides core reduction also the preparation and rejuvenation of obsidian concretions were carried out within the site, although to a small extent. In addition to the cores undergoing the full cycle at reduction on the site, small obsidian concretions had been at least partially worked off site. The preparation was usually restricted to the shaping of the platforms. The majority of the flakes do not come from preparation but from core reduction. The presence of flakes with blade scars on their dorsal face confirms the transformation of blade cores into the final phase of the reduction into flake cores. As blanks were being detached, the core angle was corrected by rejuvenating the platform. The operation that enabled a better use of raw material was a change of orientation of the cores into opposite or perpendicular to the original core axis. The above-mentioned procedures, and also the occurrence of flakes from the final stage of blade cores reduction, confirm the economic use of the raw materials or, perhaps, some difficulties in obtaining raw material. The frequency of particular types of flake butts is as follows (table 3):
Butt type Cortical butt Plain butt Prepared butt Linear butt Without butt Total
Table 3 - Flake butts from Pit 4/2.

Number 2 9 3 6 10 30

Just as at other Neolithic sites, specimens with a plain butt represent the most frequent type in the flake group. The next position belongs to cortical and rejuvenated specimens with linear butts. Although conclusions based on such a small assemblage may be risky, we have to assume that these flakes come from more advanced stages of core reduction and undoubtedly not from the decortication of raw material nodules. A soft hammer was used to detach these flakes. It is to be added that the flakes, notably the more slender ones with scars from blades on their dorsal face i.e. deriving from final stages of core reduction, were often transformed into tools.

The assemblage yielded 27 blades fragments included (fig. 33, 2-8, and fig. 34, 1-3) and 4 tools made on blades. The percentages of the complete specimens and fragments are listed below (table 4):
Characteristics Complete specimens Distal fragments Proximal fragments Mesial fragments Proximal+mesial fragments Total
Table 4 - Main characteristics of the blade fragments from Pit 4/2.

Number 4 5 11 6 1 27

% 14.8 18.5 40.7 22.2 3.7 99.9

The majority of the blades have been preserved as fragments, just as at other Neolithic assemblages (e.g. Zbudza, Gomolava: KACZANOWSKA and KOZOWSKI, 1986; 1990). Among the fragments, proximal parts predominate, which is also fairly typical of the Neolithic assemblages. This was caused by an attempt to remove the thickest part of a blade. The distal part was detached when it was thin and hinged, in order to obtain a straight blank profile. When the objective of an operation was to obtain a blank with parallel edges, a straight profile and uniform thickness, then both the distal and proximal parts had to be broken off. However, because the assemblage from Pit 4/2 is small, it was difficult to define why the blades were broken off. The analysis of the dorsal pattern suggests that the blades come from advanced stages of core reduction (table 5):


Dorsal pattern Unidirectional scars Unidirectional scars+cortical right side Unidirectional scars+cortical left side Opposite scars Total
Table 5 - Main characteristics of the dorsal patterns of the blades from Pit 4/2.

Number 22 3 1 1 27

% 81.5 11.1 3.7 3.7 100.0

A small number of blades comes from the flaking surface extension. The presence of cortex on lateral sides confirms that core preparation was restricted mainly to the platform. The four intact blades are between 3.6 and 4.3 cm long. The two specimens that are more slender and longer were detached by pressure technique; the other two are rather irregular and come from the flaking surface extension. The width of the blades is from 0.5 to 1.7 cm. The variability of the width of the blades obtained by pressure technique is smaller: from 1.1 to 1.2 cm. The specimens made by both pressure and hammering technique exhibit attempts at retaining parallel lateral edges (15 specimens). The dorsal sides usually have three scars and a trapezoidal cross-section (15 specimens). The specimens from the flaking surface extension (lateral cortex) usually show a triangular cross-section. The fact that the majority of the blades are trapezoidal in cross-section demonstrates that the cores with fairly broad flaking surfaces were used, and they became flat because consecutive series of blades were detached. The rejuvenation was aimed at re-obtaining convexity flaking surfaces. The frequency of blade butts is provided below (table 6):
Butt type Prepared butt Plain butt Dihedral butt Specimens without a butt
Table 6 - Butt types of the blades from Pit 4/2.

Number 11 4 1 11

The prepared butts clearly dominate over the other butt types. Probably, each phase of core reduction was preceded by the detachment of a series of fine flakes on the platform edge. In the final phase of reduction, when the blade-like flakes were being detached, this operation was discontinued. The collection of blades under examination contained five specimens with a characteristic bulb with a ridge around it, which indicates the employment of the pressure technique. This technique was probably also utilised for six other specimens preserved as fragments. This is evidenced by their regular sides and interscar ridges, the standardized width and thickness of the specimens. However, we cannot exclude the possibility that the punch technique was used (PELEGRIN, 1991).

2.4. TOOLS
12 retouched tools were recorded. All the blank types were modified by retouch. The tools were made on slender blades (2 specimens), on a large and fairly robust blade (this type is not represented among the analysed blanks: 1 specimen), on a fine and thin blade (1 specimen), on blade-like flakes with blade scars on the dorsal side (4 specimens), on a cortical flake (1 specimen), and on broad and flat flakes (3 specimens). The following major tool groups are represented:

2.4.1. End-scrapers
- One end-scraper with a weakly convex low front at the distal edge of a broad flake. The retouch is regular, semi-steep. Opposite to the front is a break from a deep notch (fig. 34, 4); - One end-scraper with a broad, semi-steep, fan-shaped front shaped by a regular, uniseriate retouch at the distal edge of a blade-like flake (fig. 34, 5),


2.4.2. Truncations
- One weakly oblique, slightly convex truncation shaped by semi-steep retouch at the distal edge of a broad blade or, better, a blade-like flake (fig. 34, 6), - One oblique, slightly concave truncation at the proximal edge of a slender blade (fig. 34, 7), - One oblique truncation with fine retouch, on the break at the distal edge (fig. 34, 10).

2.4.3. Perforators
- One specimen on a blade-like flake with flat, inverse retouch shaping a thick, weakly distinguished point. The tip of the point is blunt, shaped by a transversal, steep retouch (fig. 34, 8).

2.4.4. Retouched blades

- One slender blade with the tip broken off and fine, steep lateral notch (fig. 34, 9).

2.4.5. Retouched flakes

- One blade-like flake with the tip broken off and fine, steep lateral retouch (fig. 34, 11), - One robust flake with thick lateral retouch (fig. 34, 12), - One flake with distal retouch. The retouch is fine, ventral, extending onto a small section of the lateral edge (fig. 34, 13), - One cortical flake with obverse retouch covering the distal part. The retouch is semi-steep and fairly thick.


A comparison of the two assemblages has shown that, while the technology and typology of the obsidian processing is similar, considerable differences exist concerning the quantitative composition of the various major technological groups. The presence of 2 cores and 57 unretouched debitage products (altogether 83%) in Pit 4/2, in comparison to the domination of retouched tools in Pit 3/3 (about 80%), points to either distinct functional differences between the two features or to taphonomic causes of these dissimilarities. Since the dimensions and contents of Pit 3/3 are not indicative of any distinctive, domestic, activity area, the occurrence of almost exclusively retouched tools which are, moreover, well worn and repaired, seems to suggest that they were intentionally discarded in this particular place. Nevertheless Pit 3/3 does not have the characteristics of a dumping area either. Thus, two hypotheses are plausible: 1. That the tools were left there as a store of potential raw material or products which could, in the future, be used (in case of shortage or difficulties in obtaining raw materials), 2. As a specific discard associated with an offering or another manifestation of magic or cult rites. The assemblage from Pit 4/2 shows the approximate average structure of the chipped stone artefacts from the settlement sites situated at a great distance from the raw material sources. All these finds were discarded in a charcoal lens within the filling of the pit, probably indicating one of the utilisation phases of the pit itself.

A distinguishing feature of the Early Neolithic assemblages of the whole Balkan-Danubian zone, characterized by the presence of Painted and Barbotine pottery, is the small number of artefacts that are fairly evenly distributed at sites in particular living units. This is clearly shown in the list presented below comparing the assemblages of the Starevo-Krs sites distributed between the Hungarian Plain and northern Serbia (BCSKAY and SIMN, 1987; STARNINI and SZAKMNY, 1998; BIR, 2001).


Sites Lepenski Vir III (without core depots) Golokt Vrs Gellnhza (Starevo Culture features only) Endrd 39 (without flake depot of 101 pieces) house and pit Endrd 35 (one pit) Endrd 6 (one pit) Endrd 119 (23 features) Hdmezvsrhely-Bodzspart Hdmezvsrhely-Kotacpart Dvavnya Szolnok-Szanda

Cores and unretouched debitage products 321 27 82 79 6 3 9 38 7 8 30 17

Retouched tools 32 20 17 9 2 2 5 13 5 6 14 4

Table 7 - Number of cores and unretouched debitage products and retouched tools from the Starevo-Krs sites distributed between the Hungarian Plain and northern Serbia.

This situation derives from difficulties in lithic raw materials procurement (the sources were not easy to access) and the method of discard, which was the effect of a more developed curation of tools. The raw materials that were most often exploited in the Starevo Culture territory were: North Balkan flints and the so-called Banat flint in Serbia; in the north-western territories (also in the south of Transdanubia), radiolarites from the region of the Balaton and the Mecsek Mountains, Tevel type flint and obsidian. As regards the Krs Culture, the most important raw materials are: Carpathian obsidian, limnoquartzite from north-western Hungary and white opals. Flints from the Pre-Balkan Platform occur in smaller quantities. The exploitation of predominantly exogenous raw materials undoubtedly resulted in the economic use of these raw materials and the frequent curation of tools. Both unworked raw material nodules (e.g. obsidian) and cores with an advanced preparation were brought to the sites of the Krs-Starevo complex. This can be noticed in cores hoards, among which are two caches found at Lepenski Vir III in the Starevo Culture vessels (SREJOVI, 1969). It is, therefore, likely that during the Early Neolithic, the north Balkan flints came from workshops located close to the sources that, so far, have not been discovered. A similar suggestion could also apply to the Eastern Balkan sites with Painted Ware (GATSOV, 1993). This system of raw material supply seems to demonstrate that, during the Early Neolithic, the organization of extraction and distribution of the raw materials was, in this part of central and south-east Europe, more advanced than during the Middle Neolithic. What gives the method of lithic blanks production in the Starevo-Krs complex a separate character is, first of all, the core reduction technique. In the Starevo-Krs complex, instead of a complete reduction of a core in a single episode, we are dealing with a process of core reduction, which is spread over time and space. The various episodes were separated by rejuvenation of core preparation not only on platforms but also on sides and the core back. Instead of this operation, a change of orientation might also occur. As a result, only the cores in a well-advanced phase of reduction, mainly residual cores, were discarded. For this reason, cores are very rarely recorded and usually in the final phase of reduction. The process of core reduction, in several episodes separated by rejuvenation, has been confirmed by an extraordinary find at Endrd 39 (KACZANOWSKA et al., 1981) where 101 flakes originating from the rejuvenation of one core of North Balkan flint were found in a Krs vessel. The techniques of core preparation or blade detachment, or in the final phase also flakes, were each different. While core preparation was carried out using a hard hammer, blank detachment was made using either a soft hammer or even the pressure technique. The latter technique, however, occurs relatively rarely. It should be remembered that also J. Pelegrin noticed the occurrence of pressure technique in the earliest Neolithic of Greek mainland (at Franchthi: lecture, Coll` ege de France, 2001). To sum up: the raw material economy in the Starevo-Krs complex is characterized by thrift and maximum exploitation of cores, blanks and tools. Some of these characteristic features can also be seen in the materials from the two features from Szarvas 23. They are: 1) the economic exploitation of cores, discarding strongly worn tools and 2) the repeated rejuvenation


of core preparation enabling maximum reduction. These are undoubtedly the features that link Szarvas 23 to the Early Neolithic tradition in the sphere of chipped stone industry. Unfortunately, the small number of artefacts discarded at the site does not allow us to define whether the core reduction took place in several episodes in the same way as at the sites of the Starevo-Krs complex. The analysis of the retouched tools from the Starevo-Krs sites has shown that the dominant group were tools with lateral retouch, which is shown in the list below:
Anza I End-scrapers Truncations Perforators Retouched blades Notched/denticulated tools Retouched flakes Others Total 5 2 6 4 1 18 Anza II-III 39 8 71 41 17 176 Lepenski Vir III 7 3 1 13 3 4 31 Endrd 119 3 1 3 5 1 13 HdmezvsrhelyBodzspart 1 4 5 HdmezvsrhelyKotacpart 5 1 6 Dvavnya 3 1 11 1 1 17 Szolnok 1 3 4

Table 8 - Number of instruments from some of the most important Starevo-Krs sites of the study region.

The group of blades with lateral retouch is followed by the end-scrapers; the retouched flakes and perforators occupy a further position. The truncations belong to rare finds at the sites of the Starevo-Krs complex. The Early Neolithic assemblages with painted pottery from the Eastern Balkans exhibit the same tool structure characteristic features (GATSOV, 1993). A totally different structure is recorded at Szarvas 23, where the dominant groups are end-scrapers and truncations, while the proportion of blades with lateral retouch is small. At the sites of the Starevo-Krs complex, microliths, represented by trapezes, make their appearance occasionally. Although this is not the rule, it is recorded at only some sites (e.g. Cuina Turcului in Rumania [PUNESCU, 1987], and Biserna Obala in the Vojvodina). This suggests that the appearance of geometric microliths is the effect of a functional specialization (a greater role played by fishing and hunting) and not of the technological-morphological tradition. We can suggest, generally, that the two assemblages from Szarvas 23 represent a technological tradition, which is close to the Starevo-Krs complex, whereas the style of the retouched lithics is different from the average Starevo-Krs stone assemblages. If we look at the lithic tools from Szarvas 23 in terms of their function, we can say that they are linked more clearly with the Early Neolithic traditions. This is confirmed by: 1) The dominance of functions related to the working of hard materials and plants, 2) Abundant evidence of hafting, 3) The occurrence of use-wear not only on the retouched tools but also on numerous unretouched debitage products. However, The above observations are based on the use-wear macroscopic analysis. The microscopic study of these artefacts is still to be made.

As we demonstrated in a lecture delivered at the Smederevska Palanka conference (KACZANOWSKA and KOZOWSKI, 1990), the stone industry of the Vina Culture shows a fairly large variability both in its diachronic and synchronic aspects. Because of this reason, when we compare the assemblages under discussion and the early phase of the Vina Culture we have, first of all, to refer to the lower levels of the Vina site near Belgrade (RADOVANOVI et al., 1984). A general feature of the Vina chipped stone industries is a full cycle of processing and, consequently, large quantities of debitage and cores at the sites. This is also the effect of wasteful raw materials economy, which is


evidenced by the relatively weakly reduced cores. Such cores are recorded in workshops that occur at some sites (comp. Gomolava: KACZANOWSKA and KOZOWSKI, 1986), and also in the various household clusters where traces of a full cycle of processing occur most frequently. The lowermost layer (8.4 to 8.9 m) at Vina yielded, from a fairly small area where Vasi collected materials rather carelessly, 1,218 artefacts among which are (table 9):
Materials Obsidian artefacts Flint artefacts Total Flakes 167 156 323 Blades 669 200 869 Cores 7 19 26

Table 9 - Number of flakes, blades and cores from the lowermost layer of Vina.

The cores exhibit a relatively small degree of preparation, especially in the older phase of the Vina Culture, which were used to produce small blades: their average length is 3.0 to 3.5 cm, and width from 1.3 to 1.4 cm. In an extravagant raw material economy, one might expect that the Vina Culture would use primarily local raw materials. Nevertheless the range of the raw materials utilised by the population of this culture was very broad and comprised raw materials from western Serbia, the Banat and the Vojvodina (flints and radiolarites) and raw materials from outside the Vina Culture territory (e.g. Carpathian obsidian). The characteristic features of production systems and technology, supplemented by the hard hammer technique commonly used in the full cycle of processing, are quite unlike the systems that occur in the Starevo-Krs complex or from the assemblages from Szarvas 23 analysed in this chapter. In the Vina Culture tool morphology, the small number of blade tools with lateral retouch is striking, with, at the same time, the domination of tools with a transversal retouch, first of all end-scrapers and truncations. This is presented in the table 10 below, which shows the retouched tools structure from the lowest levels of the Vina site:
Instruments End-scrapers Truncations Blades with discontinuous, marginal retouch Perforators Retouched flakes
Table 10 - Number of instruments from the lowermost layer of Vina.

level > 9 m 17 1 4

level from 8.3 to 8.9 m 61 15 38 3

When we compare the blades with marginal retouch from Vina with similar blades from the Starevo-Krs complex, we can see that the retouch, in the Vina Culture, is discontinuous and fine, often even slightly denticulated in comparison with the more regular retouch in the Starevo-Krs complex. The appearance of inverse, semi-steep retouch is characteristic for the Vina Culture, while this retouch is not typical for the Early Neolithic Painted Pottery cultures in the Balkan-Danubian zone. In the Vina Culture tool assemblages, the quantity of microliths and perforators is variable. During the early phase of this culture, the proportion of microliths was very high in some regions, especially in the eastern part of the Vojvodina and Banat (e.g. at the site of Potporanj: KACZANOWSKA and KOZOWSKI, 1983). The proportion of perforators, often microlithic ones, oscillated on the intra-site scale, which is confirmed at the site of Gomolava (KACZANOWSKA and KOZOWSKI, 1986). The instability of the frequency of microliths, observable mainly on a regional scale, was also characteristic for the Starevo-Krs complex where it indicated functional determinants such as the specialization of some sites in a fishing-hunting economy (e.g. in the Iron Gate region and in the northern Vojvodina). On the basis of the above comparisons, we can conclude that the structure and morphology of the retouched tools of the assemblages from Szarvas 23 under consideration are much closer to the Vina Culture than to the Early Neolithic cultures of the Starevo-Krs complex. However, it should be added that the use of tools at Szarvas, determined by mainly functional structure, resembles more closely the Starevo-Krs complex because the Vina tools had predominantly functions

connected with the cutting of soft materials as demonstrated by the analyses by B. Voytek (RADOVANOVI et al., 1984); traces of hafting are rare, a considerable part of retouched tools does not exhibit use-wear unlike the well-worn and frequently repaired tools from the Starevo-Krs complex.

The analysis reported above has shown that, in respect to processing techniques and systems of lithic raw materials procurement, as well as methods of blank production and the use of tools, the assemblages from Pits 3/3 and 4/2 from Szarvas 23 resemble the Early Neolithic industries of the Starevo-Krs complex. On the other hand, in respect to the chipped stone tools morphology, Szarvas 23 differs from the Early Neolithic industries and shows similarities with the Vina Culture industry, notably its early phase. While the technological features seem to be, first of all, the expression of cultural tradition, as they are passed on from one generation to another and require consolidation in the long practice of individual knappers, the morphological features, on the other hand, have a stylistic nature and can more easily be imitated or adopted as a element of cultural diffusion. We may, tentatively, put forward the following hypothesis: the population that inhabited Szarvas 23 derived from local groups of the Krs or the Starevo Culture, but it remained under the influence of new stylistics associated with the Vina Culture diffusion that had reached the Szarvas region in the form of imitation stimulated by communication between groups rather than through direct ethnic migration. Our conclusions are congruous with those formulated by J. MAKKAY (1990) on the ceramic assemblage from Szarvas 23. This author ascribes some features of this site to the Proto-Vina phase, and Pit 2 from Trench 4 to the beginning of the Proto-Vina phase (MAKKAY, 1990: 120). It does not seem, however, that our conclusions should be an argument in support of the thesis proposed by Makkay that the emergence of the Vina pottery began simultaneously over the whole central and northern Starevo-Krs territory. To answer the question posed by Makkay about the genesis of the Vina impulse [one can equally assume extraneous innovations and the perfection of the Krs-Starevo (technology) ...or both] we are inclined to maintain that both these factors, local traditions and external impact, played a role especially in the Hungarian Plain and the Vojvodina.


Appendix II

The most recent papers on the Early Neolithic burials of Hungary were written by O. TROGMAYER (1968c; 1969). Although several cemeteries of this period were later discovered, apart from a few minor reports (RACZKY, 1988: 21-22; KALICZ, 1990: 45), no other summary paper has ever been published since then. The case is different for the anthropological aspects. With the publication of the burials of Dvavnya-Barci kishalom, an attempt was made to summarise the available evidence (ZOFFMANN, 1997). This situation is unique. Moving to Slavonia, a paper on this subject was written by MINICHREITER (1999), whilst extensive summaries have been compiled on the graves of more recent periods (ORAVECZ, 2000; ZALAI-GAL, 2002). A characteristic of the Early Neolithic of southeast Europe is the absence of cemeteries. The graves, which are randomly distributed within the settlements, show only a few traces of funerary rituals (RACZKY, 1988: 21). The Starevo Culture sites have so far yielded very few graves, which represent only a very small part of the Early Neolithic population (PALUCH, 2004).


Most of the graves were found during the excavation of refuse pits. The number of graves contained in one single burial pit is rather small. The relationships between burials, houses, and refuse pits have already been emphasised (BANNER, 1932: 45; 1937: 41-43; KUTZIN, 1944: 93-97; TROGMAYER, 1968c: 115-134; 1969: 13). The idea of burying inside pits has been accepted by the researchers since long, although from different points of view (CSALOG, 1968: 22). According to the available information (LOSITS, 1983: 11; ORAVECZ, 1997: 18; KALICZ et al., 2002: 17) the existence of burial pits is probable, although they are uncommon (ORAVECZ, 1997: 18). Most of the skeletons are crouched, while very few others were buried in other positions (TROGMAYER, 1964: 67; 1968: 120; LOSITS, 1983: 11; KALICZ, 1990: 45; ORAVECZ, 1997: 18). In many cases, the burials can be assumed only on the basis of the presence of the bones (BANNER, 1932: 7; TROGMAYER, 1968c: 116, 118, 120; MRT8, 1989: 385; MAKKAY, 1992: 133) (table 1).


According to the available data (fig. 152; ECSEDY, 1972; LOSITS, 1983: 11; ORAVECZ, 1997: 18; KALICZ et al., 2002: 17), the existence of burial pits in the entire territory of the Krs Culture cannot be demonstrated. Nevertheless given that a small number of graves comes from well-documented excavations, we might suggest that such pits were discovered also during researches carried out in the past.

For many graves (36: 27.9% of the total), we do not have any data concerning the position of the skeleton inside the pit. Regarding other graves, the position of the skeleton crouched on its left prevails (37: 28.7% of the total), while it is much lower on the right (19: 14.7%). Given the low number of anthropological data, it is impossible to verify the sex variability on the basis of the position. In some graves with crouched skeletons, the prone or supine positions are unique (BANNER, 1932: 20; TROGMAYER, 1964: 67; 1968: 120; KALICZ, 1990: 45). A supine female skeleton from Dvavnya-Barci kishalom is exceptional (LOSITS, 1983: 11; ORAVECZ, 1997: 18; ZOFFMANN, 1997: 27).


Fig. 151 - Starevo Culture burial from Vrs: photograph, drawing, plan and section (after KALICZ et al., 2002).


Fig. 152 - Krs Culture grave from Dvavnya, Katonafldek (after ECSEDY, 1972).



Number of graves 1 grave


Shape of grave pit grave pit

Rite orientation ? position ? other

Grave goods none




1. CsorvsOroshzi tfl

25-34 y.

male/ female?

GOLDMANN, 1979; ZOFFMANN, 1986; 1997 LIPTK, 1975; TROGMAYER, 1967; 1968c; 1969; ZOFFMANN, 1997 LOSITS, 1983; ORAVECZ, 1997; ZOFFMANN, 1997 ECSEDY, 1972 MRT8, 1989

2. Deszk, I. sz. olajkt

2 graves Grave 1 Grave 2

? ? grave pit


crouched left crouched right stretched

lying back lying face lying back

vessel none none

? ? 40-44 y.

male/ female? female female

3. DvavnyaBarci kishalom

1 grave

4. Dvavnya, Katonafldek 5. Endrd, site 6, Kpolnahalom

1 grave 2 graves Grave 1 skelet. 1 skelet. 2 skelet. 3 skelet. 4 Grave 2 1 grave 1 grave 3 graves Grave 1 Grave 2 Grave 3 10 graves Grave 1 Grave 2 Grave 3 Grave 4 Grave 5 Grave 6 Grave 7

grave pit


crouched left



pit S-N N-S E-W N-S S-N ? SE-NW crouched left ? crouched left crouched left crouched right crouched crouched left none none none none none none vessel? ? ? ? ? ? 6-7 y. ? adult adult adult child adult child child MRT8, 1989 MRT8, 1989 TROGMAYER, 1968c; 1969

pit pit pit

6. Endrd regszlk 7. EndrdLyukas-halom 8. EndrdVarnyai-puszta

pit pit pit pit pit pit pit pit pit pit

? ? ? E-W W-E W-E ? NNW-SSE NE-SW ?

? ? ? ? ? ventral ? crouched right crouched left ?


none vessel ? none none none ? none none ?

? ? ? 3-4 y. 5-6 y. ? ? ? 9-10 y. ?

? ? ? child child adult child female child adult + child male child child

9. Endrd, site 119

MAKKAY, 1987a; 1992


burnt male bones ochre

Grave 8 Grave 9 Grave 10 10. Furta-Cst 4 graves Grave 1 Grave 2 Grave 3 Grave 4 1 grave 9 graves Grave 1 Grave 2 Grave 3 Grave 4 Grave 5 Grave 6 Grave 7 Grave 8 Grave 9

pit pit pit ? ? ? ? ?


crouched right crouched right ? ? ? crouched left crouched right ?

none none ? none none none none ?

? ? ? ? 5-6 y. ? ? ?

Unpublished skull adult child child adult ? MRT8, 1989 BANNER, 1939; 1954; TROGMAYER, 1968c; 1969

11. GyomaPhalom 12. Hdmezvsrhely Bodzspart

? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?


crouched crouched crouched ? crouched left crouched left crouched right crouched right crouched right

none none none ? none none none none none

? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

? child ? ? ? ? ? ? ?


The graves are not numbered according to their original distribution. Only the Krs-Starevo burials have been taken into consideration in this paper.


13. Hdmezvsrhely, Gorzsa, Vermeshalom 14. Hdmezvsrhely, Kopncs, Kovcs-tanya 15. HdmezvsrhelyKopncs-Zsoldostanya

1 grave

uncertain chronology


TROGMAYER, 1968c; 1969

4 graves Grave 1 Grave 2 Grave 3 Grave 4 8 graves Grave 1 Grave 2 Grave 3 Grave 4 Grave 5 Grave 6 Grave 7 Grave 8

pit pit pit pit pit pit pit pit pit pit pit pit pit pit pit pit pit pit pit pit ? ?


? crouched left ?

disturbed disturbed disturbed

none none vessel none none ? Tridachna bracelet none none none none none none ? none ? none none none none none ?

? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

? ? child ? ? ? ? female male child child female ? ? ? child child ? ? ? male ?

BANNER, 1932; TROGMAYER, 1968c; 1969

crouched right skull crouched left disturbed crouched left crouched left double child grave crouched right crouched left ? crouched left ? crouched left crouched right crouched left crouched left crouched ?

BANNER, 1932; TROGMAYER, 1968c; 1969

16. HdmezvsrhelyKotacpart-Vatatanya

11 graves Grave 1 Grave 2 Grave 3 Grave 4 Grave 5 Grave 6 Grave 7 Grave 8 Graves 9-11

BANNER, 1935; TROGMAYER, 1968c; 1969; ZOFFMANN, 1997

disturbed disturbed

skull uncertain chronology lying face, triple grave

17. Hdmezvsrhely, Nagysziget 18. Lnycsk

1 grave

TROGMAYER, 1968c ; 1969 KALICZ, 1977; 1990; 1993 TROGMAYER, 1964; 1968; 1969; ZOFFMANN, 1997

1 grave skelet. 1 skelet. 2 5 graves Grave 1 Grave 2 Grave 3 Grave 4 Grave 5 2 graves Grave 1 Grave 2

pit NW-SE E-W pit pit pit pit pit ? ? ENE-WSW ENE-WSW ? ? ? ? ? crouched left crouched left ? lying back ? none none ? ? none none ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? female child ? ? female male male

19. MaroslelePana

lying back lying left, skull uncertain chronology

20. MezbernyBodzshalom

MRT10, 1998 2 vessels obsidian blade ? ? ? ? ? ? ? female NAGY, 2000 RACZKY, 1977; 1982; 1988 BOGNRKUTZIN, 1976; 1977; 1977a

? ? ? ?


crouched left crouched left ? crouched right ? buried inside house? traces of burning

21. SiklsCsukma-dl 22. SzajolFelsfld 23. SzakmrKisls

1 grave 1 grave

? grave goods

8 graves Grave 1 Graves 2-8

pit ?

W-E ?

? ?

vessel ?

? ?

child ?


24. SzarvasSzappanos

10 graves Grave 1 Grave 2 Grave 3 Grave 4 Grave 5 Grave 6 Grave 7 Grave 8 Grave 9 Grave 10 skelet. 1 skelet. 2 skelet. 3 skelet. 4 skelet. 5 skelet. 6 skelet. 7 14 graves Grave 1 Grave 2 Grave 3 Grave 4 Grave 5 Grave 6 Grave 7 Grave 8 Grave 9 Grave 10 Grave 11 Grave 12 Grave 13 Grave 14

pit ? ? ? ? pit pit ? pit pit

SE-NW ? ? ? ? E-W E-W ? E-W ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

crouched left ? ? ? ? crouched left crouched left ? crouched left ? ? ? ? ? ? ? crouched left crouched right crouched left crouched right crouched left crouched left crouched right crouched right crouched left crouched left crouched right crouched left ? crouched right ?

ochre ochre

ochre disturbed ochre mass grave skull, ochre skull, ochre skull

none ? ? ? ? none none none none none none none none none none none none vessel+2 axes none none none none none none none none none none ? none

? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 53-59 y. 10-12 y. ? 8-9 y. ? 23-40 y. 6-8 y. ? 17-18 y. ? ? 14-15 y. ? ? ? ? ? ? 4-5 y. ? ? ? ?

female ? ? ? ? ? ? ? female child adult child adult male female child female ? ? child male male female female male male child male child male ?

KRECSMARIK, 1915; 1915a; TROGMAYER, 1968c; 1969; MAKKAY, 1976; MRT8, 1989; ZOFFMANN, 1986; 1997


25. Szarvas, site 23, Egyhzfld

pit pit pit pit pit pit pit pit pit pit pit pit ? pit ?


MAKKAY, 1975a; 1980a; MRT8, 1989; ZOFFMANN, 1986; 1997

26. SzarvasPetfi utca

1 grave

3-4 arm bones+skull, Unio shells; uncertain chronology uncertain chronology

MRT8, 1989

27. SzarvasKrakk 28. SzegvrTncsics utca 2/A. 29. SzentesJaksorpart

1 grave 1 grave

? ?

? ?

? ?

? ?

? 44-48 y.

? male

MRT8, 1989. ZOFFMANN, 1986; 1997 TROGMAYER, 1968c; 1969; ZOFFMANN, 1997 KALICZ, 1979; ZOFFMANN, 1986; 1997

1 grave

30. SzentpterszegKrtvlyes

1 grave




5-6 y.


31. SzolnokSzanda

5 graves Grave 1 Graves 2-5

? ?

? ?

? ?

buried inside houses?

shell bracelet none

? ?

female 2 females, 2 males, 2 children male

KALICZ and RACZKY, 1978; 1978a; RACZKY, 1982; 1988; ZOFFMANN, 1997; 2001 KUTZIN, 1944; TROGMAYER, 1968c; 1969; ZOFFMANN, 1997

32. Vaskt

1 grave


crouched left


35-40 y.

33. Vrs, Mriaasszony-szi get

2 graves Grave 1 Grave 2

? grave pit

? S-N

crouched left crouched left

Unio shells

? vessel

? ?

? female

ARADI, 1992; KALICZ et al., 2002

Table 1 - List of the Early Neolithic burials in Hungary according to PALUCH (2004) and PAP (this volume, Appendix III). Main characteristics according to ORAVECZ (2000).


The orientations are two. The most common is with the head towards the north (25: 19.4% of the total), the other is east-west (19: 14.7% of the total). They might have different meanings, although they do not seem to be particularly significant.


The bodies were often painted in red in order to retain a living colour, as it is indicated by the use of ochre. A frequent deficiency of the publications is that, although the presence of ochre in the grave is reported, it is not mentioned whether it has been found on some part of the skeleton, or it was placed in the grave as lumps. Traces of ochre have been observed in eight cases (KRECSMARIK, 1915: 13; 1915a: 19; TROGMAYER, 1968: 115, 118; MAKKAY, 1992: 130). It is important to point out that six are from Szarvas-Szappanos.


Besides the above-mentioned characteristics of the burial rites, there are a few that do not allow the formulation of more complex hypotheses. Nevertheless they confirm that our knowledge of the Krs-Starevo burial customs is very limited. One is the occurrence of Unio shells within the pits and burial pits. According to the published data, they were found in two graves (MRT8, 1989: 429; KALICZ et al., 2002: 18). One is questionable, because in is uncertain that the site Szarvas-Petfi utca belongs to the Krs Culture. Therefore, it can be stated that the Vrs, Mriaasszony-sziget burial (fig. 151) is the only one where the presence of shells is connected with the burial rite. Furthermore it seems reasonable that the deposition of shells into the pit took place in the first phase of the funeral, because they were discovered beneath the skeletons (KALICZ et al., 2002: 18). Another rarely observed, disputed point, concerns cremation. Burnt human bones are known from pits excavated from several sites (RACZKY, 1988, 21; MAKKAY, 1992, 133). They raise the question whether they might indicate traces of cremation. Another problem is related with the occurrence of the so-called Venuses. Three complete anthropomorphic vessels, whose function is still undefined2, were discovered at three different Krs Culture sites in Hungary (Gorzsa, csd, Rkczijfalu) (KUTZIN, 1944: II/XII. 10; GAZDAPUSZTAI, 1957: 11; KALICZ, 1970: photos 2-4). Apart from these, there are three-foot fragments (clay figurines or pedestalled vessels?) from Hdmezvsrhely-Kotacpart-Vata-tanya (BANNER, 1935: 118, fig. 18, 19), Rkczijfalu-Cseber-r (RACZKY, 1980: 19, fig. 10, 7a-c), and Kistke-Karcsonytelke (FOGAS, 2003: 55, fig. 3, 2a-c). J. MAKKAY (1974: 150) has shown that the anthropomorphic vessels were in use throughout the entire Balkans and the Aegean during the Early Neolithic. These vessels must have played an important role during ceremonies: they do not occur very frequently, and their shape is limited to a few forms (RACZKY, 1980: 19). The Gorzsa Venus, in which the burnt fragments of a human skull were found, may explain the possible role of the three above-mentioned anthropomorphic vessels.

A unique characteristic of the Early Neolithic cemeteries of southeast Europe is that, opposite to those of later periods, they contain very few grave goods. The same can be said for the Krs-Starevo Culture. Regarding this period, there are altogether 11 cases out of 130 burials discovered in Hungary (table 2). These data coincide with those of the Krs-Starevo Culture in which they were found in only 15 of the 110 graves so far known (LEKOVI, 1985: 158; RACZKY, 1988: 22).
Total number of skeletons male 129 100% 9 7.1% female 16 12.4% Gender and age adult 15 11.6% child 22 17.0% unknown 67 51.9% present 11 8.5% Grave goods absent 88 68.2% no data 30 23.3%

Table 2 - Early Neolithic burials in Hungary according to gender, age and grave goods.


The bird-shaped vessel of Felgy is akin to these vessels, but the former one stands on a ring base, not on feet (CSALOG, 1957).


Although most of the excavated graves contained grave goods (6 cases), only one yielded one vessel, which indicate the care for the deceased after-life (BANNER, 1932: 11-12; TROGMAYER, 1968c: 118, 120: see fig. 154; KUTZIN, 1977: 16-17; MRT8, 1989: 395; KALICZ et al., 2002: 17). One of these vessels contained two stone axes (MRT8, 1989: 395; fig. 9: 3-4). Because of their rarity, and besides their function fulfilled in society, they might be related with the activity of the deceased. At present we know only one grave with fragments of two vessels (MRT10, 1998: 553), although the cultural attribution of the grave is uncertain. A bracelet, and a wristlet were found as grave good in two of the remaining graves (BANNER, 1932: 4; TROGMAYER, 1968c: 116; KALICZ and RACZKY 1978, 26; 1978a, 274). According to the excavator, in the case of burials inside houses at Szajol-Felsfld and Szolnok-Szanda the, personal belongings, ornaments and other cult objects of the houses were purposely left as funeral offerings to be buried inside the graves on purpose (RACZKY, 1988: 21). In one occasion, an obsidian blade was unearthed from a grave, although it is questionable whether it is a grave good or not; on the one hand the chronological position of the grave is uncertain (MRT10, 1998: 553). According to the limited number of graves with grave goods and burials in the refuse pits, doubts have arisen whether the skeletons belong to the local Krs peoples, or they represent enemies killed by the above-mentioned population. In the second case, the Krs Culture graves are to be sought somewhere around the sites (CSALOG, 1965: 19-25; RACZKY, 1988: 22). However, the graves so far excavated show the care taken for the deceased, which contrasts with the interpretation concerning supposed enemies. On the basis to the few graves containing grave goods, and the archaeological associations (table 3), we cannot formulate any suggestion about the composition of the Early Neolithic society. Furthermore, the number of skeletons with funeral offerings is not only small, but also, according to the estimated population number (RACZKY, 1988: 21), there are very few ordinary graves. In contrast, there were attempts to define two vertically separated segments of the Krs-Starevo society. The fact that mainly children and women graves predominate within the sites, and that adult men graves are very rare, supports the hypothesis that the graves located inside the settlements belong to ordinary members of the community, while the remains of the important members have been rarely discovered, or have not been detected at all (CHAPMAN, 1983: 10).
Age and gender Male Female Adult Child Gender and/or age determined Gender and/or age undetermined Total Number of skeletons 9 (7.0%) 16 (12.4%) 15 (11.6%) 22 (17.0%) 62 (48.0%) 67 (52.0%) 129 (100.0%) Disturbed 2 (1.5%) 2 (1.5%) 6 (4.5%) 9 (6.9%) 19 (14.6%) 14 (10.7%) 33 (25.3%) Without grave goods 7 (5.4%) 11 (8.5%) 9 (7.0%) 11 (8.5%) 37 (28.5%) 48 (37.2%) 85 (65.9%) With grave goods 0 (0.0%) 3 (2.3%) 0 (0.0%) 2 (1.5%) 5 (3.8%) 6 (4.6%) 11 (8.5%)

Table 3 - Main characteristics of Early Neolithic burials in Hungary according to gender, age and grave goods.

A reanalysis of the Krs-Starevo burials of Hungary shows their variable characteristics, although this is not the main problem. If we analyse the development of the southeast European Neolithic, we notice that this was the period during which the graves excavated inside the settlement sites were spreading. Furthermore the sites represent settled, productive units, which began to play an important role in the cult of the deceased (RACZKY, 1988: 26). Burying the dead within the settlement may be linked with the idea that within the duality between of taking care of the deceased, and being afraid of them, the former attitude was more important during that period. During the Neolithic, the notions of the world of beliefs reached a stage in which the settlements and the cemeteries necessarily separated (CHAPMAN, 1983: 10, 14-16; RACZKY, 1988: 26). Attempts were made to explain the roots of the diversified rituals due to the ethnic differences (JOVANOVI, 1975: 5-18), although it is more likely to consider the diversities concerning the cult of the dead, and the various after-life beliefs. The graves and cemeteries with more uniform rites made their appearance later within larger communities, which is demonstrated also by the burial customs.


Appendix III

This short Appendix is a list the Krs graves from the sites discussed in this volume and their anthropological characteristics. A more detailed analysis is given in Appendix II.
N. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 Szarvas 8/8 Site Szarvas 8/23 Grave no. 1/1974 11/1979 14/1979 2/1988 3/1988 10/1988 12/1988 14/1988 15/1988 16/1988 17/1988 18/1988 23/1988 26/1988 A/1911

Position left + + + + + + + + + + + + ? ? + right


Notes Female, (early) adult age group Bones not found Bones not found 14-15 years child, infantile II/juvenile Male (?), mature age group Male, juvenile age group Female, adult age group Female (?), adult age group Male, adult age group Male, adult/mature age group 4-5 years child (infantile I age group) Male, adult age group Juvenile age group Male, mature age group Crouched adult Crouched child Crouched (?) male, 20 years 170 cm female, 35-40 years Mature or senilis3 Child Mature or senilis 53-59 years female, ochre The mass grave: Child 10-12 years, ochre Adult, ochre Child, 8-9 years Juvenile/adult male Female, 23-40 years Child, 6-8 years Bones

B/1911 C/1912 D/1912


+ + + +

E-W or SE-NW E-W or SE-NW E-W or SE-NW E-W

E/1912 F/1912 K/1930 1/1975 2/1975 1: skull 2: skull 3: skull 4 5 6 7

1. 2.

Sources according to MRT8 (1989: 380-386). Graves D, E and F might also belong to the Pit-Grave Culture. This chronology is also suggested by the quantity of red ochre found around the skulls and also the fact that one of them (i.e. Grave D/1912) was found in a hard black layer in a frog-like position, which is also a characteristic of the pit-grave burials. 3. Grave E/1912 was a very crouched burial, with lumps of red ochre near the fragmented skull bones.


Endrd 3/6 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 Mhtelek-Ndas Endrd 6/82 Furta-Cst Endrd 3/35 Endrd 3/39 Endrd 3/119

1982 skeleton 1 skeleton 2 skeleton 3 skeleton 4 Grave A/1986 Grave 2 no graves found Grave 1 Grave 2 Grave 3 Grave 4 Grave 9 Grave 10 Grave 11 Grave 13 Grave B Grave 15 Grave 1 Grave 2 Grave 3 Grave 4 Grave 1 1929/A 1929/B 1929/C6 no graves found + + + WSW-ENE WSW-ENE SE-NW + ? + ? + NE-SW ? W-E NE-SW + + NNW-SSE NE-SW E-W W-E W-E + + + + S-N N-S E-W? N-S S-N

The mass grave: Crouched adult male Prone burial, adult male Adult male Infantile II, crouched Adult male 6-7 years child (infantile I/II) 3-4 years (infantile I) 5-6 years (infantile I) Adult, lying ventral Infantile I skull Crouched mature female 9-10 years (infantile II) Burnt adult bones (male mature age group) and 4-5 years child (infantile I) Crouched mature male adult 6 month child (infantile I)4 Crouched (?) infantile Crouched adult Skull, 5-6 years child Crouched child Crouched adult Child (fig. 125, 3)5

4. 5. 6.

Tiny bones from Grave B, a newborn baby, were found at Endrd 3/119 at a depth of 115 cm in Trench 29. It was listed as Grave 15 by MAKKAY (1992: 134). MAKKAY in MRT8 (1989: 156, and fig. 12). For further details see MAKKAY in MRT8 (1989: 155 and 156 and note 5). According to these contemporaneous sources one of the skulls was ochre-painted, and one footed vessel was found as a grave good.


Appendix IV

FEATURES Depth (cms) 165 200 HOUSE 225 250 Total PITS Pit a Pit D Total TOTAL


Cattle Sheep/Goat Pig Horse Dog Total


328 78 14 1 3 424

344 86 14 6 450

142 59 10 3 214

54 10 12 76

868 233 50 1 12 1164

210 100 17 3 330

45 17 3 4 69

255 117 20 4 3 399

1123 350 70 5 15 1563

Aurochs Red deer Roe deer Boar Total Birds Fish Total

4 1 5 1 435

3 3 453

2 3 5 3 222


6 4 3 13 3 1 1181

2 1 4 7 1 338


2 1 4 7 1 407

8 4 1 7 20 4 1 1588

Table 1 - Number of bones from the Endrd 3/6 Middle/Late Copper Age Pit House.

The structure of the bone remains most probably does not derive from herding, breeding or hunting horses for meat production, but it seems to result from animal husbandry with an unimportant role of hunting (1563 bones [98.5%] of domesticated and only 25 [1.5 %] of wild animals fish and bird bones included). We may conclude that the social and economic subsistence context necessary for the development of a horse husbandry did not exist at that time.


In my 1993 paper (MAKKAY, 1993a: 120 and fig. 1, 1)1 I made a short reference to a small potsherd discovered in 1976 in an early tell settlement in the Krs Valley. The site lies on the bank of the dead arm of the Krs River in the outskirts of Szarvas, which at present belong to the village of Bksszentandrs, called Furugy by the villagers (fig. 1, 2) (MAKKAY in MRT8, 1989: 76-78: site 1/28). Further details and a more thorough description are kept for a future publication. The purpose of this note is to publish the specimen and its discovery context. The reconnaissance works of the Intensive Field Survey of Hungary were made between 1974 and 1979 in the Szarvas district. The good results2 of the surface collection at site 1/28, suggested that it was necessary to open a trial excavation to evaluate the finds from this key site. The surface ceramic fragments showed invaluable typological relationships between the ALP and Szaklht Culture, which suggests that transitional types between the two phases might exist. The threat to the site caused by deep ploughing made this work very urgent. The Institute of Archaeology and the Bks County Museums jointly opened a trial excavation under the direction of the writer. Two short seasons were carried out in 1975-1976 during which Trenches II and III (6x3.5 and 3x3.5 m2 respectively, with a 30 cm wide baulk in between) were excavated in 20 cm spits down to the sterile soil some 1.6-1.9 m below the surface. The excavation was later extended to explore the remains of an oven. As mentioned above, the survey yielded both ALP and Szaklht assemblages. During the two seasons it was possible to clarify that Furugy was settled during two main periods, the Early Middle (ALP) and Late Middle (Szaklht) Neolithic, without any further occupation. There are differences between the two phases as revealed by both the vessel shapes and decorations. Globular/hemispheric bowls and large hemispheric bowls are common to both phases. One of the main differences is that a few ALP bowls have a quadrangular central body, while their bases and mouths are circular. These characteristics do not recur in the Szaklht vessels. Mid-sized, high-pedestalled bowls with a high and wide conical upper part are characteristic only of the ALP (figs. 145, 2; 146, 1-3 and 147, 12, etc.) and not the Szaklht specimens. Necked and high-necked bottles are common amongst the ALP shapes (figs. 144, 3 and 149, 1) while rarely occur in the Szaklht assemblages. The ALP linear decorative motifs are grooved, while the Szaklht ones are incised. The latter were made with a sharp, pointed bone or stone tool and the lines were not polished, while the AVK lines were obtained with a blunt tools; they were polished and the excess clay removed or smeared on the surface. The ALP linear decorative motifs often consist of four groups separated by vertical lines or panels between the parallel lines. This pattern is not characteristic of the Szaklht vessels3 (i.e. hemispherical bowls with lengthened upper parts), which often show a running spiral pattern (running dogs, S spirals): unpolished panels between these parallel lines, running around the body were painted in red, while the surfaces above and below were kept unpainted and finely polished (dark grey, even blackish in colour: figs. 145, 3; 148, 1, 2, 5, 7-9 and 149, 1). Very rarely the opposite can be observed: the running bands were polished and the surrounding surfaces painted. The paint of the Szaklht pottery was always red-crusted, applied after burning, while the ALP paint is dark (black?) on brown, with a red or yellowish slipped background before burning. The running spiral motif is an exclusive and exquisite characteristic of the Szaklht pottery manufacture together with the absence of medium and very high pedestals. These types are also not represented in the assemblages of the successor of the Szaklht group, the Tisza Culture. The opposite can be said for the incised meanders (fig. 150, 1-8). Although the analysis of the Furugy pottery assemblage is so far incomplete, my preliminary study has identified three phases of occupation within the Middle Neolithic period. The top spits, between 30 and 60 cms, are characterised by developed Szaklht pottery with a few ALP sherds, which may be considered secondary position stray finds. They often show somewhat distorted motifs as, for instance, the irregular arrowhead. The second layer of spits between 60 and 90 to 120 cms includes many ALP fragments and distinctive painted-polished Early and Classic Szaklht potsherds. Therefore it is a mixture of both ALP and Szaklht types. It can be argued that the two periods overlap, although the number of ALP sherds gradually decreases in the upper spits. In effect the upper phases of the Furugy site show an increase of typical Szaklht and a gradual decrease of ALP potsherds.
1. 2. 3.

The potsherd was described as belonging to the Vadastra Culture Characteristic ALP and Szaklht potsherds literally covered the site surface. It rarely occurs that small knobs are applied at the joins of the spirals. This reminds us the original subdivision of the motifs into four panels on the ALP vessels.


The lower deposits below 90/120 cms yielded a few ALP and sporadic Szaklht ceramic fragments. The incised technique of these rare sherds is of ALP character while the alternate crusted painted/dark polished bands within and outside the parallel lines are already represented (figs. 146, 2 and 4; 147, 2, 7, 9-12, and 14; 148, 2b). This decorative pattern makes its appearance also in Trench III where, below a 2-3 cms thick yellow deposit a heavily trampled black surface was recorded in most of the trench with a thin ash layer at its top. The pottery assemblage, below this undisturbed surface at 110 cms of depth (which sealed the debris between 110-170 cms), consists of characteristic ALP fragments, although in a few cases sharply (Szaklht like) incised lines are present on sherds decorated with an alternate painted-polished technique (figs. 146, 7; 147, 2-3, 12 and 148, 3-5). At the same time there are typical ALP sherds of ALP shapes with a red-crusted (i.e. Szaklht type) paint between meandering or parallel-incised lines (fig. 146, 1-4). Fragments of a ca. 35 cm high-pedestalled bowl4 (fig. 145, 2) also belong to this class. These two types demonstrate that the origin of the Szaklht pottery goes back to the ceramic technology of the middle or developed ALP. Both the introduction and use of the red-crusted paint and the finely polished dark surface treatment can be correlated with the similar and contemporaneous Vina A pottery technology. Its appearance and style might derive from the northern distribution of an invention of a hitherto unknown origin. The field notes ad photographs taken shortly after the excavations record the sporadic occurrence of different ceramic types, among which are fragments of red-slipped and finely polished Esztr type vessels. The Esztr pottery is contemporaneous with the Classic and Late ALP phases along the eastern periphery of the Great Hungarian Plain and was strongly related to its eastern neighbour and variant: the Lumea Noa painted ware in Central Transylvania. It applied a fine dark red, intentionally coloured slip, usually heavily polished or even burnished. Black strips were painted on the surface before burning, occasionally most probably also after burning. Finely polished and black-on-red painted Esztr sherds often occur in the ALP and also Early Szaklht contexts, while most of the Esztr assemblages include typically decorated ALP sherds. Characteristic Esztr fragments were found in Trench II at a depth of 60-90 cms in a context with Classic Szaklht and ALP potsherds. Other pieces with worn surfaces came to light in Trench III/North, 100-120 and 140-170 cms and III/South, 90-110 cms. A small fragment from Trench II (120-150 cms) is probably part of a Bkk type bowl as it is another fragment of a paint container with traces of red paint in its inner surface. The incised decoration on other fragments strongly resembles the Bkk Culture fine ware. Some painted or very fine polished black and dark grey coloured fragments resemble the pottery from a neighbouring Krs Valley site, Endrd 36, with its fine dark grey and black polished fragments belonging to high-necked flasks (fig. 149, 1). As the former analysis has demonstrated, incised and painted motifs would suggest contemporaneousness between this fine dark grey and black polished ware of Endrd 36 and the Classic ALP and Esztr types. Szaklht fragments were not collected from the hitherto excavated three features of Endrd 36 (MAKKAY, 1993a: fig. 1, 4-20). This means that Endrd 36 was a very short duration site. The study of all the sherds so far known might increase the number of painted and incised specimens. Nevertheless those described above are sufficient to point out that the Furugy layers represent the ALP-Szaklht transitional period. The position of the imported sherd precisely fits into this moment. The potsherd under discussion was found at a depth of 30-60 cms in Trench II (fig. 144, 1)5. Unfortunately the site supervisor did not record its recovery context although, according to the field notes of the present author, who arrived at the site in the company of. V.S. Titov attributed it to the Classic Szaklht and to the typical Boian or Vadastra decorated vessels. The find is important because, to my knowledge, it is the first of this type found in Hungary in a well-defined Neolithic pottery assemblage. It is undoubtedly imported from a region located south of the Carpathians. Since this type of decoration is totally unknown in this part of the Great Hungarian Plain, it can be excluded that the potsherd is intrusive from the uppermost, ploughed soil. The wall fragment of a large, coarse container is decorated with an incrusted bead motif: a row of small plastic lentil-shaped knobs (made as a low relief) is surrounded by a white inlay (fig. 144, 2). Also this type is unknown from the decorative repertoire of both the ALP and Szaklht pottery assemblages and therefore it can be considered exogenous. People from other regions may have produced this ceramic type locally or itinerant tradesmen might have brought it to the site from distant places. Our present knowledge cannot provide data useful for the identification of the area where these vessels were produced, although they seem to be allochtonous. The closest parallels (fig. 144, 1) can be extended to similarly decorated vessels of the Giuleti Phase of the Boian Culture (COMA, 1974: Pl. 8, 9 and 13). Undoubtedly my Romanian friends and colleagues will have the final say regarding this problem. The chronological relationships between the Classic Szaklht and the Giuleti Phase of the Boian Culture suggest that this contact was due to the systematic trade of raw stone material of north Balkan sources and/or worked and unworked Spondylus to the Carpathian Basin.
Reconstructed height. The highest pedestalled bowl of the ALP Culture. Unfortunately the specimen cannot be located in the collections of the Bkscsaba and Szarvas Museums. As I have already pointed out the material was moved from the Szarvas Museum a few days before May 15th, 1979 (MAKKAY, 1989a: 78, note 4).
4. 5.



1. SZARVAS, SITE 8/23 A0 = Trench I/0-20 cm + Trench I/ Pit 1, 110-200 cm. A1 = Trench I/Pit 1, 110-230 cm. A2 = Trench I-II/Pit 1, 110-220 cm + Trench I/50-110 cm (upper part of Pit 1) + Trench IV/30-60 cm + Trench VI/90-125 cm. A3 = Trench I-II/Pit 1, 90-110 cm + Trench I-II/Pit 1, 110-230 cm + Trench VI/30-125 cm. A4 = Trench I-II/Pit 1, 110-230 cm + Trench VI/90-125 cm + Trench I-II/Pit 1, 30-110 cm + Trench IV /30-60 cm, middle part of the Trench. A5 = Silo-Trench 5/Pit 4. A6 = Silo-Trench 5. A7 = Silo-Trench 1, ploughed soil. A8 = Trench I-II/Pit 1, 90-110cm + Trench VI/ 90-125 cm + Trench I/ 50-110 cm + Trench I-II/Pit 1, 110-220 cm + Trench VI/125-175 cm. A9 = Trench I-II/Pit 1, first layer + Trench I-II/Pit 1, lower part + Trench VI/90-bottom. A10 = Trench I-II/Pit 1, 110-230 cm. A11 = Trench I-II/Pit 1, first (upper) layer + Trench I-II/Pit 1, second (lower) layer + Trench I/50-110 cm (upper layer) + Trench VI/90-125 cm. A12 = Pit 1, first (upper) layer + Pit 1, second (lower) layer + VI/90-125 cm. A13 = Trench VI, pit + Trench I-II/Pit 1, second (lower) layer + Trench I-II/Pit 1, first (upper) layer + Trench VI/90-125 cm + Trench I-II/Pit 1, second (lower) layer, i.e. 110-220 cm. A14 = Trench I-II/Pit 1, 30-110 cm + Trench IV/1975, Nyugat = western part of the Trench, 30-60 cm + Trench I/1974/Pit 1, second (lower) layer, i.e. 110-220 cm + Trench VI/1975, 125-175 cm + Trench II/Pit 1, first (upper) layer, i.e. 70-90 cm. A15 = Trench I/Pit 1, second (lower) layer, i.e. 110-220 cm + Trench VI/1975, 90-175cm. A16 =Trench I/1974/Pit 1, first (upper) layer, i.e. 50-110 cm + Trench I-II/ Pit 1, second (lower) layer, i.e. 110-220 cm. A17 = Trench I/1974/Pit 1, first (upper) layer, i.e. 50- 110 cm + Trench I/Pit 1, second (lower) layer, i.e. 110-220 cm + Trench IV/1975 middle part of the Trench, 30-60 cm. A18 = Trench III/30-90 cm + Trench I/1974/Pit 1, first (upper) layer, i.e. 50-110 cm + Trench I/1974/ Pit 1, second (lower) layer, 110-220 cm. A19 = Trench VI/1975, 125-175cm + Trench I-II/Pit 1, first (upper) layer, 30-110 cm. A20 = Trench I-II/Pit 1, 0-110 cm (first, upper layer and above). A21 = Trench V/1975, 0- 30 cm. A22 = Trench I-II/Pit 1, second (lower) layer, i.e. 110-230 cm. A23 = Trench I-II/Pit 1, second (lower) layer, i.e. 110-220 cm. A24 = Trench IV/middle part of the Trench, 30-60 cm. A25 = Trench I-II/Pit 1, 0-110 cm (first, upper layer and above). A26 = Trench III/1975, 30-90 cm. A27 = Trench I/Pit 1, first (upper) layer, i.e. 40- 110 cm. A28 = Trench I-II/Pit 1, 0-110 cm (first, upper layer and above). A29 = Trench IV/1975, Nyugat = western part of the Trench, 60-90 cm. A30 = Trench I-II/Pit 1, the total depth from 0 to 220 cm. A31 = Trench III/1975, 30-90 cm. A32 = Trench III/1975, 30-90 cm. A33 = Trench I-II/Pit 1, 0-110 cm (first, upper layer and above). A34 = Trench I-II/Pit 1, 0-110 cm (first, upper layer and above). A35 = Trench I-II/Pit 1, 0-110 cm (first, upper layer and above). A36 = Trench I-II/Pit 1, the second (lower) layer, i.e. 110-230 cm. A37 = Trench I-II/Pit 1, 0-110 cm (first, upper layer and above). A38 = Trench I/Pit 1, the first (upper) layer, i.e. 40-110 cm. A39 = Trench VI/Pit 1, 60-90 cm. A40 = Trench I-II/Pit 1, 0-110 cm (first, upper layer and above).


A41 = Trench I-II/Pit 1, 0-110 cm (first, upper layer and above). A42= Trench VI/90-125 cm + Trench V/30-60 cm + Trench I-II/Pit 1, second (lower) layer, i.e. 110-230 cm + Trench I/Pit 1, first (upper) layer, i.e. 50-110 cm. A43 = Trench IV, the middle part of the Trench, 30- 60 cm. A44 = Trench I-II/Pit 1, second (lower) layer, i.e. 110-230 cm. A45 = Trench V/rok = trial Trench, 60-90 cm. A46 = Trench I-II/Pit 1, 0-110 cm (first, upper layer and above). A47 = Trench I-II/Pit 1, 0-110 cm (first, upper layer and above). A48 = Trench I-II/Pit 1, 0-110 cm (first, upper layer and above). A49 = Trench IV, the middle part of the Trench, 30-60 cm. A50 = Trench IV/Nyugat = western part of the Trench, 30-60 cm. A51 = Trench I-II/Pit 1, 0-110 cm (first, upper layer and above). A52 = Trench I-II/Pit 1, 0-110 cm (first, upper layer and above). A53 = Trench I-II/Pit 1, second (lower) part, i.e. 110-230 cm. A54 = Trench I-II/Pit 1, second (lower) part, i.e. 110-220 cm. A55 = Trench I-II/Pit 1, second (lower) part, i.e. 110-230 cm. A56 = Trench I-II/Pit 1, first (upper) part, i.e. 50-110 cm. A57 = Trench VI/1975, 125-175 cm (Trench VI/Pit 1) + Trench VI/1975, 30-90 cm. A58a+b+c+d+e = Trench I-II/Pit 1, 0-110 cm (first, upper layer and above). A59 = Trench I-II/Pit 1, 0-110 cm (first, upper layer and above). A60a+b = Trench I-II/Pit 1, 0-110 cm (first, upper layer and above). A61 = Trench I-II/Pit 1, 0-110 cm (first, upper layer and above). A62a+b = Trench I-II/Pit 1, 0-110 cm (first, upper layer and above). A63a+b+c = Trench I-II/Pit 1, second (lower) layer, i.e. 110-230 cm. A64a+b = Trench I-II/Pit 1, second (lower) layer, 110-230 cm. A65a+b = Trench I-II/Pit 1, second (lower) layer, 110-230 cm. A66 = Trench I-II/Pit 1, second (lower) layer, 110-230 cm. A67 = Trench I-II/Pit 1, second (lower) layer, 110-220 cm. A68 = Trench I-II/Pit 1, 0-110 cm (first, upper layer and above). A69 = Trench I-II/Pit 1, 0-110 cm (first, upper layer and above). A70 = Trench I-II/Pit 1, total depth from 0 to 220 cm. A71a+b = Trench I-II/Pit 1, second (lower) layer, i.e. 110 220 cm. A72 = Trench I-II/Pit 1, second (lower) layer, i.e. 110 230 cm. A73 = Trench I-II/Pit 1, second (lower) layer, i.e. 110 230 cm. A74 = Trench I-II/Pit 1, 0-110 cm (first, upper layer and above). A75 = Trench I-II/Pit 1, 0-110 cm (first, upper layer and above). A76 = Trench I-II/Pit 1, second (lower) layer, i.e. 170-230 cm + Trench II/1974, 150-170 cm (= Pit 1, second, lower layer). A77 = Trench III-IV, 0-30 cm. A78 = Trench I-II/Pit 1, second (lower) layer, i.e. 110 230 cm. A79 = Trench IV, 1975, around Grave 9. A80 = Trench IV, 1975, Nyugat = western part of the Trench, 90-120 cm. A81 = Trench IV, Nyugat = western part of the Trench, 90-120 cm. A82 = Trench IV, Kzp = middle part of the Trench, 30-60 cm. A83 = Trench IV, Kzp = middle part of the Trench, 30-60 cm. A84 = Trench V, 0-30 cm. A85a+b = Trench V, 30-60 cm. A86 = Trench VI, 90-125 cm. A87 = Trench VI, 90-125 cm. A88 = Trench VI/Pit 1, 125-175 cm. A89 = Trench VI/Pit 1, 125-175 cm. A90a+b = Trench VI, 30-60 cm. A91a+b+c = Trench VI, 60-95 cm. A92a+b+c+d = Trench VI/Pit 1, 90-125 cm. A93 = Silo-Trench 2/Pit 1. A94 = Silo-Trench 2, Pit north. A95 = Silo-Trench 3/Pit 1. A96 = Silo-Trench 3/Pit 2.


A97 = Silo-Trench 3/Pit 3. A98 = Silo-Trench 3/Pit 8. A99a+b+c+d+e = Silo-Trench 4/Pit 2 = Pit 4/2 A100 = Trench VIII, Pit 1. A101 = Trench IX, Pit 1, 105-180 cm. A102 = Silo-Trench 1/Pit 1 + Silo-Trench 1/Pit 3 + Silo-Trench 1/Pit 5c + Silo-Trench 1/Pit 7. A103 = Silo-Trench 2/Pit 1 + Silo-Trench 5/Pit 6 + Silo-Trench 3/Pit 1. A104 = Silo-Trench 2/Pit 2 + Silo-Trench 3/Pit 2. A105 = Silo-Trench 3/Pit 4. A106 = Silo-Trench 3/Pit 5 + Silo-Trench 3/Pit 8. A107 = Silo-Trench 4/Pit 1. A108 = Silo-Trench 4/Pit 8. A109 = Silo-Trench 5/Pit 2. A110 = Silo-Trench 5/Pit 1 + Silo-Trench 5/Pit 3. A111 = Silo-Trench 5/Pit 4 + Silo-Trench 5/Pit 6. A112 = Silo-Trench 2/Pit 2. A113 = Silo-Trench 3/Pit 3. A114 = Silo-Trench 5, at 50 m (reconstructed large storage jar).


D1a+b+c+d+e+f+g+h+i+j= Trench I/30-60 cm D2a+b+c= Trench I/north, 60-85 cm D3a+b+c= Trench I/south, 60-85 cm D4a+b+c+d+e+f= Trench II/ north, 20-70 cm D4g+h+i+j=Trench II/ north, 20-40 cm D5a+b+c+d+e= Trench II/30-60 cm D6a+b+c= Trench III/1975, 20-40 cm D7a+b+c+d+e=Trench III/1975, 40-60 cm D8 =Trench III/1971, north, 20- 40 cm D9a+b+c+d+e+f=Trench III/1975, north, 40-60 cm D10a+b+c+d=Trench III/1975, north, 60-80 cm D11a+b+c=Trench III/1975, above Grave 1 D12 = Grave 1 D13 =Trench III/Pit 1, 60-80 cm D14a+b=Trench IV/0-40 cm D15a+b+c+d+e+f+g=Trench IV/1975, 40-60 cm D16 =Trench IV/ 60-80 cm D17a+b+c+d= Trench V/1975, east, 20-60 cm D18= TrenchV/1975, west, 20-60 cm D19 =Trench V/1975, 60-80 cm D20a+b+c+d=Trench V/Pit 1, 80-120 cm D21a+b+c+d=Trench V/Pit 1, 120-170 cm.

3. ENDRD, SITE 3/6

C1 = Trench IV/1985, 30-60 cm + Trench VI/1985, Pit 4a. C2a+b+c+d+e+f+g+h = Trench VIII/1985, Pit 4c. C2i = Trench VIII/Pit 4c (= Trench XVIII/West, and Trench XXXI/40-85 cm, upper layer) C3a+b = Trench XVIII/Pit West, 100-130 cm + 130-200 cm. C3c = Trench XVIII/1986 + XXXI/Pit West, 40-85 cm + 85-135 cm. C3d = Trench XVIII/1986+ XXXI/Pit West, 85-135 cm. C4a+b+c = Trench XVIII/1986, Pit East, 70-140 cm. C5a+b = Trench I/1982, black pit. C6a+b = at the foot of the grave, 40-100 cm + the west corner of the pit = Trench I/1982, western end of the Krs pit. C7a+b = Trench I/1982. C8 = Trench I/1982. C9 = Trench I/70-100 cm. C10a+b+c+d+e = Trench I/1982, 100-120 cm.


C11a+b = Trench I/140 cm, below the skeletons of Grave 1. C12a+b = Trench VII/1985, 130-165 cm. C13 = Trench VII/1985, 140-160 cm, eastern part. C14 = Trench VII/1985, 225-250 cm, eastern part. C15a+b = Trench VII/1985, 165-200 cm. C16 = Trench VII/1985, pit 5, 190-200 cm. C17 = Trench VII-VIII/1985, old baulk, 0-100 cm + Trench VII/West, 140-160 cm + Trench VIII/old baulk, 80-120 cm. C18 = Trench XVII/1985, 50-80 cm. C19 = Trench XVII/1985, 90-115 cm. C20 = Trench XVIII/1986, 3, arbitrary layer. C21 = Trench XVIII/1986, east, 70-90 cm.

4. ENDRD, SITE 3/35

F1a+b+c = Trench III/1975, Pit 3. F2a+b+c+d+e+f+h = Trench III/1975, Pit 3. F3a+b = Trench III/1975, Pit 3. F4 = Trench III/1975, Pit 3, stray finds. F5 = Trench III/1975, 0-20 cm. F6 = Trench III/1975, west, 30-60 cm. F7 = Trench III/1975, west, 60-80 cm . F8a+b+c+d = Trench III/1975, west, Pit 3, 80-100 cm. F9a+b+c = Trench I-III/1975, west, 60-80 cm+60-85 cm. F10a+b = Trench I/1975, west. F11a+b+c = Trench I/1975, west, 30-60 cm. F12-F21 = inventorised pieces of the ALP, Esztr and Szaklht groups.

5. ENDRD, SITE 3/39

B1a+b+c+d+e+f = Trench I/1975, 20-40 cm. B1g = Trench I/1975, House 1, 30-60 cm. B2a+b = Trench I/1975, House 1. B3a+b=Trench I/1975, House 1. B4a+b = Trench I/1975, House 1. B5a+b = Trench I/1975, House 1. B6 = Trench I/1975, House 1. B7a+b = Trench I/1975, House 1. B8a+b+c+d = Trench I/1975, House 1. B9a+b+c = Trench I/1975, House 1. B10 = Trench I/1975, Pit 1. B11a+b = Trench I/1975, Pit 1. B12a+b = Trench I/1975, House 1. B13 = Trench I/1975, Pit 1. B14 = Trench I/1975, Pit 1. B15a+b = Trench I/1975, Pit 1. B16a = Trench I/1975, House 1. B16b = Trench I/l975, House 1, extension. B17a+b = Trench I/1975, Pit 1. B18 = Trench I/1975, Pit 1. B19 = Trench I/1975, Pit 1. B20 = Trench I/1975, Pit 1. B21 = Trench I/1975, Pit 1. B22a+b+c+d = Trench I/1975, Pit 1. B23a+b = Trench II/1976, 0-70 cm. B24a+b+c = Trench II/1976, west, above the house in Trenches II-III + Trench III/1976, above the house, 20-50 cm. B25a+b = Trench III/1976, east, 50-70 cm, fill of the house in Trenches II-III. B26 = Trench III/1976, west, 50-70 cm, fill of the house in Trenches II-III. B27 = extension of Trench III/1976, E-W, 0-90 cm. B28a+b = extension of house in Trench III, fill of the house in Trenches II-III.

B29 = Trench IV/1976, 0-10 cm. B30a+b+c+d+e+f+g = Trench IV/1976, 0-10 cm + 10-40 cm + east, 10-40 cm + extension 0-35 cm + west, 10-40 cm. B31 = Trench IV/1976, Pit 1, 40-130 cm. B32 = Trench IV/1976, Pit 1, 0-70 cm. B33a+b+c+d+e+f+g = Trench IV/1976, Pit 1, 70-150 cm. B34a+b = Trench IV/1976, house, the oven. B35 = Trench IV/1976, Pit 1, the northern inner pit + Trench IV/1976, Pit 2. B36 = Trench V/1976, arbitrary layers 1-2. B37a+b+c = Trench V/1976, western part + baulk, 75-95 cm. B38a+b = Trench V/1976, black soil in the east and middle part of the Trench. B39 = Trench V/1976, west, Western Pit, 95-120 cm. B40 = Trench V/1976, above Pit 1. B41a+b = Trench V/1976, Pit 1. B42 = Trench V/1976, Pit 2. B43a+b+c+d+e+f = Trench V/1976, Pit 3. B44 = Trench V/1976, Pit 4. B45 = Trench VI/1976. B46a+b+c = Trench VIII/1977, 20-60 cm. B47 = Trench VIII/1977, 60 cm virgin soil. B48a+b+c+d+e+f+g+h = Trench VIII/1977, Pit 1. B49 = Trench VIII/1977, Pit 2. B50 = Trench IX/1977, northern corner, 0-90 cm. B51 = Trench XIX/1978, Pit 2. B52a+b = Trench IX/1977, oven. B53a+b+c = Trench IX/1977, south, 70-90 cm (= uppermost part of fill of Pit 1 in Trench VIII/1977). B54a+b+c+d+e+f+g+h = Trench IX/1977, south, 90-110 cm (= Pit 1 in Trench VIII/1977). B55a+b+c+d+e = Trench IX/1977, house, 90-120 cm. B56a+b+c = Trench IX/1977, south, 130-145 + 130-150 cm (= Pit 1 in Trench VIII/1977). B57a+b = Trench IX/1977, 100-160 cm, black house, near wattle and daub pile. B58 = Trench XIX/1978, west + Trench X/1977, 150-190 cm. B59a+b = Trench IX/1977, Pit 1, 160-200 cm (= Pit 1 in Trench VIII/1977). B60 = Trench IX/1977, south, 110-120 cm (= Pit 1 in Trench VIII/1977). B61a+b = Trench IX/1977, extension, 60-100 cm (= Pit 1 in Trench VIII/1977). B62a = Trench X/1977, middle, 30-90 cm. B62b = Trench X/1977, middle, 100-130 cm. B63a+b+c+d = Trench X/1977, north, 60-90 cm + 100-130 cm. B64 = Trench X/1977, Pit 1, 120-140 cm (= Pit 1 in Trench VIII/1977). B65a+b = Trench X/1977, Pit 1, 140-160 cm (= Pit 1 in Trench VIII/1977). B66a+b = Trench X/1977, Pit 1, 150-180 cm (= Pit 1 in Trench VIII/1977). B67 = Trench X/1977, Pit 1, 180-210 cm + 210-230 cm (= Pit 1 in Trench VIII/1977). B68a+b = Trench X/1977, Pit 1, 230-bottom (= Pit 1 in Trench VIII/1977). B69 = Trench X/1977, Pit 1, extension, 85-105 cm. B70a+b+c+d+e = Trench X/1977, House 1 + extension. B71a+b+c = Trench XI/1977, 40-60 cm. B72a+b+c+d+e+f+g = Trench XI/1977, 60-120 cm. B73a+b+c+d+e+f = Trench XIV/1977, 40-60 cm. B74a+b+c+d+e = Trench XIV/1977, 60-80 cm. B75a+b+c+d+e = Trench XIV/1977, 80-100 cm. B76a+b+c+d = Trench XIV/1977, 60-80 cm. B77 = Trench X/1977, south, 60-90 cm. B78a = Trench XIX/1978, south, above the opening of the pit = Trench X/1977, Pit 1 (= Pit 1 in Trench VIII/1977). B78b+c+d+e+f = Trench XIX/1978, south, 60-90 cm = Trench X/1977, Pit 1 (= Pit 1 in Trench VIII/1977). B79a+b+c+d+e+f+g+h+i+j+k= Trench XIX/south, 90-120= Trench X/1977, Pit 1 (= Pit 1 in Trench VIII). B80a+b+c+d+e+f+g+h+i+l = Trenches V-VI/1976, 0-70 cm. B81 = Trench VI/1976. B82a+b+c+d = Trench VI/1976, 60-90 cm. B83a+b = Trench VI/1976, 90-140 cm. B84a+b+c+d = Trench VII/1976, 35-60-90 cm.


B85a+b = Trench VII/1976, 60-90-120 cm, west (= Pit 1 in Trench VIII/1977). B86a+b+c+d+e+f+g+h = Trench XIX/1978, 90-120 cm = Trench X/1977, Pit 1 (= Pit 1 in Trench VIII/1977). B87a+b+c+d+e+f+g+h+i = Trench XIX/1978, 90-150 cm = Trench X/1977, Pit 1 (= Pit 1 in Trench VIII/1977). B88a+b+c+d+e+f+g+h+i+l+m+n+o++j+k+p+r+s+t = Trench XIX/1978, 120-150 cm = Trench X/1977, Pit 1 (= Pit 1 in Trench VIII/1977). B89a+b+c+d+e+f = Trench XIX/1978, Pit 1, 150-180 + 150-190 cm (= Pit 1 in Trench VIII/1977). B90a+b = Trench XIX/1978, north, 60-90 cm. B91a+b+c+d = Trench XIX/1978, north, 90-120 cm. B92a+b+c+d = Trench XIX/1978, western and southern parts, 90-120 cm. B93a+b+c+d+e+f+g+h = Trench XIX/1978, west, (= Pit 1 in Trench VIII/1977). B94 = Trench XIX/1978, Pit 2. B95a+b+c+d = Trench XIX/1978, east, above pit 2, 90-120 cm. B96 = Trench XIII/1977, 0-80 cm. B97a+b+c = Trench XII/1977, 20-60 cm. B98 = Trench XII/1977. B99a+b = Trench XIII/1977, house. B100 = Trench XV/1978, west, 30-60 cm. B101a+b = Trench XII/1977, south, 45-80 cm. B102a+b+c = Trench XII/1977, 45-70 cm. B103 = Trench XII/1977, southern part, 80-120 cm. B104 = Trench XII/1977, north, 60-100 cm. B105a+b+c+d+e = Trench XII/1977, west, 30-60 cm. B106 = Trench XVI/1977, small pit near Grave 88. B107a+b+c+d+e+f+g+h+i = Trench XVI/1978, east, 30-60 cm. B108a+b+c+d = Trench XVI/1978, west, 30-60 cm, ashy layer. B109a+b+c = Trench XVI/1978, 60-90 cm. B110a+b+c+d+e+f = Trench XVII/1978, 30-60 cm. B111 = Trench XVII/1978, 60-90 cm. B112a+b+c+d+e+f+g+h = Trench XVIII/1978, Pit 1, 30-60 cm. B113a+b+c = Trench XVIII/1978, west, 30-120 cm. B114a+b+c+d+e = Trench XVIII/1978, east, 50-110 cm. B115 = Trench XVIII/1978, east, Pit 1, 110-150 cm. B116a+b+c+d+e+f = Trench XVIII/1978, west, 60-90 cm. B117a+b = Trench XVIII/1978, west, 90-120 cm. B118a+b = Trench XVIII/1978, west, Pit 1, 120-150 cm. B119 = Trench XVIII/1978, 60-90 cm. B120 = Trench XVIII/1978, west, Pit 1. B121 = Trench XVIII/1978, Pit 1. B122a+b+c+d+e+f+g+h = Trench XX/1978, house, west, 0-50 cm. B123a+b+c+d = Trench XX/1978, house, southeast, 0-50 cm. B124a+b+c+d+e = Trench XX/1978, house, southeastern part. B125a+b = Trench XX/1978, house, northeastern part. B126a+b = Trench XX/1978, house, north. B127a+b = Trench XX/1978, house, south. B128a+b = Trench XX/1978, house, extension. B129 = Trench XX/1978, house, find-spot 11 around loom weights. B130 = Trench XX/1978, house, find-spots 9-10. B131a+b+c = Trench XX/1978, house ruins. B132a+b = Trench XX/1978, house, inner pit. B132c = Trench XX/1978, house, the inner pit, northern part. B133 = Trench XX/1978, house, near the inner pit. B134a+b+c+d+e+f = Trench XXIII/1978, west, 0-50 cm. B135a+b+c = Trench XXIII/1978, east, 0-50 cm. B136a+b+c+d = Trench XXIII/1978, Pit 1. B137 = Trench XXIII/1978. B138 = Trench XXIV/1978, east, 30-60 cm. B139a+b+c+d+e+f = Trench XXV/1978. B140a+b+c+d = Trench XXVI/1978. B141a+b+c+d+e+f+g+h+i+j+k+l+m+n+o = Trench XXVII/1978. B142a+b+c = Trench XXVIII/1978.

B143a+b+c+d+e+f+g = Trench XXIX/1978, west. B144a+b+c+d+e = Trench XXIX/1978, east. B145a+b+c+d = Trench XXIX/1978, the northwestern part. B146a+b = Trench XXIX/1978, north. B147a+b+c = Trench XXIX/1978, the middle part. B148 = Trench XXIX/1978. B149 = Trench XXIX/1978, house cleaning. B150a+b = Trench XXIX/1978, quadrant A. B151 = Trench XXIX/1978, quadrant A. B152a+b+c+d+e = Trench XXIX/1978, quadrant C. B153 = Trench XXIX/1978, quadrant D. B154a+b+c+d = Trench XXIX/1978, quadrants A+B. B155a+b+c+d+e = Trench XXIX/1978, Pit in quadrant C1. B156a+b+c+d = Trench XXX/1978. B157a+b+c = Trench XXX/1978, quadrant A. B158a+b+c+d+e+f+g+h+i+j = Trench XXX/1978, Pit 1.

6. ENDRD, SITE 3/119

E1 = Trench 2/50-70 cm. E2 = Trenches 3-4/1986, 50-70 cm. E3a+b = Pit 4 in Trenches 3-4. E3c = Pit 4 in Trenches 3+17/130-190 cm. E4 = Trench 15/30-50 cm. E5a+b = Trenches 6+10/0-50 cm. E6 = Trenches 7+11, 0-40 cm. E7 = Trench 12/30-50 cm (House 1). E8 = Trench 11/40- 50 cm (House 1). E9a-e = Trenches 6+11/50-60+40-70+50-70 cm, above Pit 5. E10 = Trenches 6+7+11/70-90 cm (= Pit 5). E11 = Trenches 6+7+10+11/90-110 cm (= Pit 5). E12 = Trenches 6+7+10+11/50-130 cm (Pit 5). E13 = Trenches 7+11/130-150 cm (Pit 5). E14 = Pit 7 between 150-200 cm. E15 = Pit 7 between 150-200 cm. E16 = Trench 18. E16a = Trench 16/30-50 cm. E17 = Trench 19/0-45 cm, above Pit 9. E18 = Trench 19/Pit 9, 45-55 cm. E19 = Trench 19/Pit 9, 50-80 cm. E20 = Trench 19/Pit 9, 80-110 cm. E21a-c = Trench 19/Pit 9, 110-130 cm. E22a-b = Trench 19/Pit 9, 130-175 cm. E23a-c = Trenches 20-24/Pit 10, 30-60 cm. E24a-c = Trenches 20-24/Pit 10, 60/70-120 cm. E25 = Trench 26,/north + south, 60-90 cm. E26 = Trench 25/30-90 cm + Trench 26/30-90 cm + Trench 26/Pit 11 + Trench 26/Pit 2 + sherd scatter C + 90-160 cm + Trench 27/Pit 2. E27 = Trench 27/0-30 cm. E28 = Trench 27/north, 30-60 cm. E29 = Trench 27/middle, 30-60 cm. E30a-b = Trench 27/south, 30-60 cm. E31 = Trench 27/60-90 cm, below House 2. E32 = Trench 27/middle, 90-110 cm. E33 = Trenches 27 + 29, from the baulk. E34 = Trench 27/50-80 cm + Trench 27/Pit 1, below 70 cm, from the cleaning. E35a-b = Trench 27/90-110 cm, Pit 12. E35c = Trench 27/90-110 cm (=Pit 12) + Trench 29/40-70 cm + Trench 29/30-50 cm + Trench 29/30-40 cm (from the debris of House 2) + Trench 30/west, 30-40 cm + Trench 30/middle, 30-60 cm. E36 = Trench 29/central part, 0-30 cm.


E37 = Trench 28/30-60 cm, grey layer. E38 = Trench 29/northwest, 30-60 cm, outside House 2. E39 = Trench 29/House 2. E40a-c = Trench 29/central part, House 2, 30-60 cm. E41a-c = Trench 29/30-60 cm, area of House 2. E42 = Trench 29/35-60 cm, House 2. E42a = Trench 29/30-70 cm, House 2. E43 = Trench 29/35-60 cm, House 2, collapsed ruins. E44a-b = Trench 29/south, 40-70 cm, House 2. E45 = Trench 29/middle, 30-50 cm, fill found north of House 2, belonging to it. E46 = Trench 29/south, 60-95 cm. E47 = Trench 29/north, 60-95 cm. E48a-c = Trench 29/65-90 cm, Pit 12, below House 2. E49a-b = Trench 29/90-120 cm, Pit 12. E50 = Trench 29/110-160 cm, Pit 12. E51= Trench 29-31/baulk, finds can belong both to House 2 and Pit 12. E52 = Trench 30/60-90 cm + Trench 32/east, 30-60 cm = Pit 12, 30-90 cm. E53 = Trench 30/Pit 12. E54 = Trench 30/west, 30-40 cm. E55a-b = Trench 30/middle and east, 30-60 cm. E56a-f = Trench 30/south and west, 60-90 cm = Pit 12. E57a-d = Trench 30/100-120 cm = Pit 12. E58a-g = Trench 30/130-160 cm = Pit 12. E59 = Trench 30/Pit 12, lower part. E60 = Trench 31/south, 30-60 cm, outside House 2. E61 = Trench 31/south, 50-85 cm, outside House. E62 = Trench 31/north, 30-90 cm, Pit 15 of the Bronze Age. E63 = Trench 31/30-60 cm, House 2. E64 = Trench 31/south, 70-100 cm, House 2. E65a-b = Trenches 30+32/from the baulk between the two trenches. E66a-b = Trench 32/middle, 20-40 cm, from the debris of House 2. E67 = Trench 32/30, southwest, 30-70 cm, outside House 2. E68 = Trench 32/west, 30-50 cm. E69 = Trench 32/east, Pit 12. E70a-b = Trench 32/east, 50-80 cm, Pit 12. E71a-c = Trench 32/60-90 cm. E72 = Trench 32/80-110 cm, Pit 12. E73 = Trench 32/100-130 cm, Pit 12. E73a = Trench 33/30-60-80-110-160 cm + 105-200 cm = Pit 12. E74 = Trench 32/130-160 cm, Pit 12. E75a-f = Trench 35/middle and south, 60-90 cm, probably from Pit 13. E76 = Trench 35/85-110 cm, probably from Pit 13. E77 = Trench 35. E78a-c = Trench 37/north, 30-60 cm. E79 = Trench 37/south, 30-60 cm. E80 = Trench 37/30-60 cm. E81ai = Trenches 37-38/60-90 cm, Pit 13. E82a-p = Trenches 37+38/80-100-125 cm, Pit 13. E83ai = Trenches 37+38/100-125 cm, Pit 13. E84a-g = Trenches 37+38/125-150 cm, Pit 13. E85a-d = Trenches 37+38/150-200 cm, Pit 13. E86 = Trench 40/30-60 cm. E87 = Trench 41/southeastern corner, 30-50 cm. E88 = Trench 42/30-60 cm. E89 = Trench 42/Pit 14. E92 = Trench 46/30-60 cm. E95 = Trench 52/east, 30-60 cm.


Appendix VII

1. ENDRD, SITE 3/39 3: Trench XIV/1976, 60-80 cm. 119: mixed material: Trench X/South, 60-90 cm, Trench X/House 1, Trench XIII/House 1, fragments of a large container. 2. ENDRD, SITE 3/82 69: bones of Grave 1 (MRT8, 1989: 156 and fig. 12). 3. ENDRD, SITE 3/119 139: Trench 20/1987, 30-60 cm. 31: Trenches 20-21/1986, 0-30 cm. 81: Trenches 22-23/1987/22-23, east, 75 cm. 112: Trenches 22-23/1987, 80-120 cm. 88: Trenches 22-23/1987, Pit 10, eastern part, below 120 cm. 162: Trenches 22-23/1987, 30-60 cm. 73: Trench 24/1987, 30-60 cm. 131: Trench 24/1987, 60-90 cm. 99: Trench 25/1987, northwest, fragments of a large storage jar. 65: Trench 26/1987. 83: Trench 27/1987, middle, 30-60 cm. 87: Trench 27/1987, 60-90 cm, below house 2. 107: Trench 27/1987, House 2, vessel 2, and probably also vessel 8. 122: Trench 27/1987, middle, 90-110 cm. 124: Trench 27/1987, pit. 135: Trench 27/1987, 60-90 cm, House 2? 78: the baulk between Trenches 27+29/1987. 132: Trenches 27+29+30+32: fragments of a large storage jar. 149: Trenches 27-32/1987. 47: Trench 28/1987, south, 60-95 cm. 89: Trench 28/1987, 30-60 cm, grey and black layer. 39: Trench 29/1987, 30-50 cm. 41: Trench 29/1987, 30-40 cm. 52: Trench 29/1987, middle, 0-30 cm. 56: Trench 29/1987, middle, House 2, 30-50 cm. 84: Trench 29/1987, 90-110 cm. 105: Trench 29/1987, Pit 12, 60-90 cm. 117: Trench 29/1987, House 2. 74: two assemblages mixed: Trench 29/1987, 0-30 cm and Trench 30/1987, west, 0-30 cm. 75: two assemblages mixed: Trench 29/1987, 90-120 cm and Trench 32/1987, House 2: the fragments of a large container decorated with true barbotine. 110: Trench 29/1987, Pit 12, 110-130 cm. 120: Trench 29/1987, Pit 12, 90-120 cm. 134: Trench 29/1987, middle, 30-50 cm, House 2. 150: Trench 29/1987, 35-60 cm, house 2. 151: Trench 29/1987, middle, 65-90 cm, below House 2.

The large plastic bags containig these finds are numbered with Arabic numbers from 1 to 192. The missing numbers refer to finds from other sites (i.e. Szarvas 8/75, rmnykt 7/13, etc.). This list was made on April 16th, 2003.


147: Trench 29/1987, north, 60-90 cm. 111: Trenches 29+31/1987. 113: Trench 30/1987, Pit 12, 110-120 cm. 121: Trench 30/1987, west, 30-40 cm. 133: Trench 30/1987, east + middle, 30-60 cm. 37: Trench 30/1987, 60-90 cm. 67: Trench 30/1987, middle, 30-60 cm. 77: Trench 30/1987, Pit 12, 60-90 cm. 102: Trench 30/1987, 60-90 cm. 72: Trenches 30-31/1987, House 2, fragments of a large storage jar with barbotine decoration. 44: Trench 31/1987, Pit 2, 60-90 cm. 54: Trench 31/1987, south, 30-60 cm, fragments of a large pitcher. 57: Trench 31/1987, House 2, 30-60 cm. 64: Trench 31/1987, 0-30 cm. 68: Trench 31/1987, 0-30 cm. 70: Trench 31/1987, south, 70-90 cm, below House 2. 98: Trench 31/1987, House 2, 30-40 cm. 114: Trench 30-31/1987, north, 30-60 cm, Bronze Age Pit 15? 125: Trench 31/1987, Pit 3, 60-90 cm. 115: Trench 32/1987, middle, 30-40 cm, House 2. 116: Trench 32/1987, Pit 12,130-160 cm. 13: Trench 32/1987, Pit 12, 100-130 cm. 27: Trench 32/1987, 100-130 cm. 48: Trench 32/1987, 15-45 cm, House 2. 50: Trench 32/1987, House 2, 30-50 cm. 60: Trench 32/1987, 0-30 cm. 137: Trench 32/1987, Pit 12, 80-110 cm. 58: Trench 33/1988, 80-100 cm. 85: Trench 33/1988, 30-60 cm. 91: Trench 33/1988, lower part of Pit 12, 105-125 cm. 79: two assemblages mixed: Trench 33/1988, 0-30 cm (?), or pit 12, and Trench 34/1988, 0-30 cm. 106: Trench 34/1988, west, 30-60 cm. 159: Trench 34/1988, 50-80 cm. 160: Trench 35/1988, north, 30-60 cm. 144: Trench 35/1988, Pit 12, 60-90 cm. 148: Trench 35/1988, middle, 30-60 cm, above Pit 12, probably House 2. 42: Trench 35/1988, finds above Pit 12. 62: Trench 35/1988, 30-60 cm, above Pit 12. 66: Trench 35/1988, south, 60-90 cm. 82: Trench 35/1988, 30-60 cm, probably House 2. 101: Trench 35/1988, south, 85-110 cm, Pit 12. 140: Trench 35/1988, north, 0-30 cm. 153: Trench 36/1988, ashy layer (Pit 12). A package. 43: Trench 37/1988, 30-60 cm. 49: Trench 37/1988, Pit 2, 100-140 cm. 61: Trench 37/1988, Pit 12, 60-80 cm. 94: Trench 37/1988, middle, 30-60 cm, mixed with Trench 35/1987, extension, 30-90 cm. 95: Trench 37/1988, north, 30-60 cm. 103: Trench 37/1988, 0-30 cm. 138: Trench 37/1988, south, 30-60 cm. 142: Trench 37/1988, middle, 30-60 cm. 143: Trench 37/1988, north, 30-60 cm. 154: Trench 37/1988, south, 80-100 cm, Pit 13. 193: Trench 37/1988, 30-60 cm. 156: Trenches 37+38/1988, Pit 13, 100-125 cm. 157: Trench 38/1988, 0-30 cm. 96: Trenches 37-38/1988, Pit 13, 80-100 cm. 126: Trenches 37-38/1988, Pit 13, lowest part, 125-150 cm. 80: Trench 38/1988, Pit 13, 60-90 cm. 146: Trench 38/1988.

163: Trench 38/1988, south, 30-60 cm, probably the edge of House 2. 46: Trench 41/1989, southeast, 0-30 cm. 145: Trench 42/1989, 90-120 cm. 161: Trench 42/1989, Pit 1, 90-120 cm. 104: Trench 42/1989, Pit 1, 60-100 cm. 108: Trench 42/1989, Pit 1, at a depth of some 90 cm. 118: Trench 42/1989, Pit 1, 30-60 cm. 136: Trench 42/1989, southeast, 30-60 cm. 141: Trench 42/1989, Pit 1, 60-110 cm. 97: Trench 45/1989, west, 0-60 cm. 168: Trench 53/1989. 165: Trench 55/1989, Pit 18, 30-60 cm. 90: Trench 55/1989, Pit 18, 30-60 cm. 93: Trench 55/1989, Pit 18, 60-90 cm. 86: Trench 55/1989, Pit 18, 90-120 cm. 100: House 2: fragments of a large container with barbotine decoration. 40: unlabelled. 45: House 1 or 2, 30-60 cm. 55: without indication of trench number, 105-125 cm. Krs Culture.


192: 1988/silo-Trench 1, Pit 3 (Pit 1/3). 92: 1988/ silo-Trench 1, Pit 5 (Pit 1/5). 28: 1988/silo-Trench 1, Pit 7 (Pit 1/7). 152: 1988/silo-Trench 1, 0-20 cm. 169: 1988/silo-Trench 1. 158: 1988/silo-Trench 1, between 20-40 m. 130: finds found in the area of silo- Trench 1 in 1993. 123: stray finds collected in 1993 in the area of the silo-Trenches 1-5/1988, mostly silo-Trench 1. 170: 1988/silo-Trench 2, Pit 1 (Pit 2/1). 185: 1988/silo-Trench 2, Pit 1 Pit (2/1). 5: 1988/silo-Trench 2, Pit 1/a (Pit 2/1a). 174: 1988/silo-Trench 2, Pit 2 (Pit 2/2). 180: 1988/silo-Trench 2, Pit North. 18: 1988/silo-Trench 2, Pit 3 (Pit 2/3). 51: fine stone axe found on the northern part of 1988/silo-Trench 2 in 1993. 155: finds collected on the western part of 1988/silo-Trench 2 in 1993. 167: finds rescued in 1993 on the area of 1988/silo-Trench 2. 63: finds of rescue operations made in 1993 on the area between silo-Trenches 2 and 3/1988. 109: 1988/silo-Trenches 2 and 3, finds found in the vicinity of the large pit, and the smaller pit. 128. finds collected in 1993on the area of the 1988/silo-Trenches 2 and 3. 21: 1988/silo-Trench 3, Pit 1 (Pit 3/1). 11, 53, 184: 1988/silo-Trench 3, Pit 2 (Pit 3/2). 190: 1988/silo-Trench 3, Pit 4 (Pit 3/4). 187: 1988/silo-Trench 3, Pit 7 (Pit 3/7). 166: finds collected in 1993 on the area of silo-Trenches 3-4/1988. 188: 1988/silo-Trench 4, Pit 1 (Pit 4/1). 10, 173, 175-177, 189, 191: 1988/silo-Trench 4, Pit 2 (Pit 4/2). 171: 1988/silo-Trench 4, Pit 3 (Pit 4/3), animal bones. 182: 1988/silo-Trench 3, Pit 3 (Pit 4/3). 183: 1988/silo-Trench 4, Pit 7 (Pit 4/7). 179: 1988/silo-Trench 5, Pit 2 (Pit 5/2). 181: 1988/silo-Trench 5, Pit 3 (Pit 5/3). 186: 1988/silo-Trench 5, Pit 4 (Pit 5/4). 172: 1988/silo-Trench 5, Pit 5 (Pit 5/5). 178: 1988/silo-Trench 5, oven. 2: 1988/silo-Trench Pit 5, feature at 50 m: Krs pottery, mostly coarse ware (see also fig. 13, 3).



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MAKKAY, J. 1993 Eine prachtvolle Frauenfigur der KrsStarevo-Kultur. In NIKOLOV, V. (ed.) Prhistorische Funde und Forschungen, Festschrift zum Gedenken an Prof. Georgi I. Georgiev: 73-78. Bulgarische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Archologisches Institut mit Museum, Abteilung Vorgeschichte, Sofia. MAKKAY, J. 1993a Pottery links between Late Neolithic cultures of the NW Pontic and Anatolia, and the origins of the Hittites. Anatolica, 19: 117-128. MAKKAY, J. 1994 M. Gimbutas: The language of the Goddess. Unearthing the hidden symbols of Western Civilization. London, 1989. In: Discussio. Acta Archaeologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, 46: 419-425. Budapest. MAKKAY, J. 1995 Horses, nomads and invasions from the steppe from an Indo-European perspective. In GENITO, B. (ed.) The Archaeology of the Steppes. Methods and Strategies. Papers from the International Symposium held in Naples 9-12 November 1992. Istituto Universitario Orientale, Dipartimento di Studi Asiatici, Series Minor, XLIV(1994): 149-165. Napoli. MAKKAY, J. 1996 Theories about the origin, the distribution and the end of the Krs culture. In TLAS, L. (ed.) At the fringes of three worlds. Hunter-gatherers and farmers in the Middle Tisza Valley: 35-49. Szolnok. MAKKAY, J. 1996a Mycenaean burial sacrifices and the origins of the Protogreeks. In DE MIRO, E., GODART, L. and SACCONI, A. (eds.) Atti e Memorie del Secondo Congresso Internazionale di Micenologia, Roma-Napoli, 14-20 ottobre 1991. Incunabula Graeca, 98 (2), Storia: 775-784. Rome. MAKKAY, J. 1996b The formation of pastoral economy in the Carpathian Basin. In The Colloquia of the XIII. International Congress of Prehistoric and Protohistoric Sciences, Forl` i, Italia, 8-14 September 1996, vol. 16: The prehistory of Asia and Oceania: 121-131. ABACO, Forl` i. MAKKAY, J. 1997 Clay spindle whorls of the Krs culture and the technology of their perforation. In LAZI, M. (ed.) Antidron. Completis LXV annis Dragoslavo Srejovi ab amicis collegis discipulus oblatum. Centre for Archaeological research, University of Belgrade, Faculty of Philosophy: 115-122. Beograd. MAKKAY, J. 1997a Copper and gold in the Copper Age of the Carpathian Basin. In KOVCS, T. (ed.) Studien zur Metallindustrie im Karpatenbecken und den benachbarten Regionen. Festschrift fr Amlia Mozsolics zum 85. Geburtstag: 37-53. Hungarian National Museum, Budapest. MAKKAY, J. 1997b C-14 chronology: Eastern Europe. In RANDSBORG, K. (ed.) Absolute Chronology. Archaeological Europe 2500-500 BC. Acta Archaeologica, Supplementum, 1 (1996): 219-225. Munksgaard, Kbenhavn. MAKKAY, J. 1999 Culture neolitiche della Pannonia e relazioni con lItalia: una vecchia teoria in una nuova prospettiva. In La neolitizzazione tra oriente ed occidente. Pre-prints, Convegno di Studi, Udine, 23-24 aprile 1999: 26. MAKKAY, J. 1999a I primi agricoltori dellEuropa sud-orientale e il Neolitico del Bacino dei Carpazi. In PESSINA, A. and MUSCIO, G. (eds.) Settemila Anni fa: il primo pane. Ambienti e culture delle societ` a neolitiche: 35-54. Museo Friulano di Storia Naturale, Udine. MAKKAY, J. 1999b Kkori cignytelep a szocializmus virgkorban [A Stone-age gypsy settlement at the height of Socialism]. Tractata Minuscola, 21. Published by the author, Budapest. MAKKAY, J. 1999c Nhny strtneti krds Torma Zsfia s H. Schliemann levlvltsa kapcsn [Some prehistoric question as reflected by the correspondence of Zsfia Torma with Heinrich Schliemann]. The modified Dimini-Wanderung theory. In MAKKAY, J. (ed.) Holt lra patk. Tanulmnyok Torma Zsfia (1840-1899) emlkezetre: 81-133. Budapest. MAKKAY, J. 2000 Bisher unbeachtete Verzierungen der Feinkeramik der Krs-Kultur. In HILLER, S. and NIKOLOV, V. (eds.) Karanovo III. Beitrge zum Neolithikum in Sdosteuropa: 311-325. Phoibos Verlag, Wien. MAKKAY, J. 2000a Neolithic cultures in Pannonia and their relations with Italy. An old theory in a new perspective. In PESSINA, A. and MUSCIO, G. (eds.) La Neolitizzazione tra Oriente e Occidente: 23-50. Museo Friulano di Storia Naturale, Udine. MAKKAY, J. 2000b Egy si hbor. Az estergly horvti ks eolitikus tmegsr [An early war. The Late Neolithic mass grave from Eszterglyhorvti]. Tractata Minuscola, 19. Published by the author, Budapest. MAKKAY, J. 2001 Neolithic prelude to the Indo-Europeanization of Italy. An old theory in a new perspective. Tractata Minuscola, 26. Published by the author, Budapest. MAKKAY, J. 2001a A Jszsg-hatr s az indoeurpai strtnet: rgszeti tnyek s nyelvtrtneti vonatkozsaik [The Jszsg border and its role in the Indo-European prehistory: archaeological facts and their linguistic applications]. Tisicum, A Jsz-Nagykun-Szolnok Megyei Mzeumok vknyve, 12: 57-78. Damjanich Jnos Museum, Szolnok.


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Authors address

Magorzata Kaczanowska Jagellonian University Institute of Archaeology ul. Gobia 11 Pl-31007 Krakw Poland Janus Krzysztof Kozowski Jagellonian University Institute of Archaeology ul. Gobia 11 Pl-31007 Krakw Poland Jnos Makkay Archaeological Institute Hungarian Academy of Sciences ri utca 49 H-1014 Budapest Hungary Tibor Paluch Mra Ferenc Mzeum Pf. 474 H-6701 Szeged Hungary Ildik Pap Hungarian Natural History Museum, Embertani Tr Ludovika tr 2, VIII ker. H-1083 Budapest Hungary Istvn Vrs Magyar Nemzeti Mzeum Mzeum krt 14-16, VIII ker. H-1088 Budapest Hungary