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Social Cognitive Learning

The role of observation, expectation, social experience and modeling on learning behaviors: Ultimate outcome Self-control

Social Cognitive Learning


Basic Assumptions People can learn by observing others. Learning is an internal process that may or may not result in a behavior change. Behavior is directed toward particular goals. Behavior eventually becomes self-regulated. Reinforcement and punishment have indirect effects on learning and behavior by those observing.

Social Cognitive Learning


Reinforcement & Punishment (331) 5 Cognitive Features that influence behavior Expectations of future consequences & responses based on the current situation/s Vicarious experiences of others consequences Expectations about future consequences affect how we cognitively process of new information Expectations affect decisions about how to behave Non-occurrence of expected consequences have effects

Social Cognitive Learning


Modeling & Models
Direct (Live) models Symbolic models Synthesized models

Banduras Research: Bobo Doll Experiments


Background on Bandura & the research: Bandura speaks
http://video.google.com/videosearch?q=%22Bobo+doll%22&hl=en
http://www.sp.uconn.edu/~aja05001/comps/documents/TheoristPaper_ARTINO_final.pdf http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=2953790276071699877&q=%22Bobo+doll%22&hl=en

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bobo_doll_experiment

Bobo adaptations
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZeE_Ymzc1rE http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Va__eTyh4a8

Social Cognitive Learning


Modeling & Models: How models affect behavior 4 features Observational Learning Effect Acquiring new behavior from model Response Facilitation Effect Increased frequency of learned behavior after the model is reinforced for same behavior Response Inhibition Effect Decreased frequency of learned behavior after observing the punished model Response Disinhibition Effect Return of inhibited response after observing model behave w/o adverse consequences

Social Cognitive Learning


4 Characteristics of Effective Models


Competence Prestige/Power/ Position of Authority Gender-appropriate behavior Situational relevance (model to learner) Identify an experience in your life in which you learned from a model: Which of these attributes fit your experience?

Social Cognitive Learning


4 aspects of helping students learn from models

Attention Retention Motor Reproduction Motivation Categorize the above features as:
Cognitive; Affective; Kinesthetic

Social Cognitive Learning


4 aspects of helping students learn from models Attention
Cognitive

Retention
Cognitive

Motor Reproduction
Kinesthetic

Motivation
Affective

Social Cognitive Learning


Self-Efficacy: The extent to which one believes they are

capable of doing something successfully .


Principle: People tend to engage in activities based on their sense of competence &/or past success Increased probability of choosing specific future behavior Affects Behavior & Cognition in 4 ways: Activity choice Goal setting Effort & persistence Learning & achievement

Social Cognitive Learning


Developing Self-Efficacy: 4 factors 1. Own past success/failure experiences 2. Messages from others Relationship to other Support &/or interfere Direct &/or implied 3. Observed past success/failure experiences of others 4. Group past success/failure experiences: Collective self-efficacy

Social Cognitive Learning


Promoting High Self-Efficacy: 4 factors
Competence promoting feedback Mastery on challenging tasks Success in terms of

improvement/accomplishment Errors occur within context of success

Social Cognitive Learning


Self-Regulation
Behavior Learning Problem solving

Social Cognitive Learning


Self-Regulation & Behavior 5 Features Self-determined goals & standards: Before the response Self-instruction: During the response Self-observation: During the response Self-assessment: After the response Self-imposed contingencies: After the response, i.e., self-reinforcement/punishment.

Social Cognitive Learning


Self-Regulation & Learning: Cognitive Processes
8 Features Goal-setting Planning Attention control Applications of learning strategies Self-motivational strategies Outside help when needed Self-monitoring Self-evaluation Co-regulated learning: Bridging other- and self-regulated learning Developmental process of supporting self-regulation

Social Cognitive Learning

Self-Regulation & Problem-solving Overt & intentional Problem-solving model


Must be taught, practiced, supported

Social Cognitive Learning


Reciprocal Causation of Behavior & Learning Interdependence of
Environment Behavior Person

T. 10.3 (358): Interrelationship examples

Social Cognitive Learning


Models in teaching
Describe a situation in which you are a model for a specific learning outcome, academic or otherwise, for a specific learner/learning group Consider the 4 characteristics of effective models Prestige; Competence; Situational Relevance; Gender Identify how you would address the 4 factors believed to contribute to the modeling effect Attention Retention Reproduction Motivation