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What are the methods of fabric formation? Weaving, knitting, non woven
What is the principle of manufacturing woven fabric? Weaving is the interlacing of two sets of (warp & weft) yarns at right angles in a prede-termined pattern.
What is warp yarn (ends)? Yarns that run lengths of the loom.
What is weft yarn (picks)? Yarns that are woven across the loom.
What is the objective of warp preparation process? To transfer yarns from cone packages to weaver’s beam
What does beam preparation process consist of? Creeling and warping
What is creeling in warp preparation process?
Ans. Putting required number of yarn packages in the creels, in desired order, in order to make warper’s beam. Figure shows a creel.
Fig. A Creel
Truck creel Q. Weaver’s beam: A roller on which large flanges are usually fixed so that a warp may be wound on it in readiness for weaving. Reversible creel Fig. Fig. Indirect or sectional warping. Ans. Duplicate creel Fig. reversible creel.Q. How many types of creeling are done in warp preparation process? Magazine creel. What are the types of warping systems? Direct or beam warping. duplicate creel and truck creel. Ans. Magazine creel Fig. . and Thread by thread warping Q. Ans. What are warper’s beam and weaver’s beam? Warper’s beam: A beam on which yarn is wound on the warping machine.
number of warp yarns = creel capacity = Number of warp beams = 3360 560 totoal number of warp yarns/creel capacity = 3360/560 = 6 Q. Fig. For example. Heald frames and healds . Reed dent is the opening in the reed. What is direct or beam warping system? Ans. Drop wire is a metal piece that falls and hits an electrode bar in case warp yarn breaks and stops the loom.Q. What is indirect or sectional warping system? Ans. either onto a weaver’s beam. heald eye and reed dent? Ans. Fig. This allows the movement of each warp yarn to be controlled during weaving. or on to a sectional beam. The winding of the total number of warp ends in full width in a single operation from creeled bobbins. Describe the drop wire. Reed beats the newly laid weft yarns into the body of the cloth. Drop wires Heald eye is a part of heald through which each warp yarn is threaded. In this warping system several sections are wound in sequence and parallel to each other on a drum. Q.
What are ancillary motions? 1. Like: The number of dents per inch The number of dents per 2 inch The number of groups of 20 dents per 36 inches The number of dents per 10 cm The recommended unit is dents/cm. Let-off Take-up Weft selection Q. 2. The number of dents per unit width of reed. Shedding Picking Beating-up Q. the warp yarn is “drawn in” through the eyes of the heald mounted on the required shafts (harnesses). Warp protectors are only necessary in looms which use a free flying media to insert the weft. 3. What is the reed count or reed number? Ans. After preparation. What are secondary motions? 1. such as a shuttle or a projectline. Warp stop motions Warp protectors Weft stop motions Weft relenishment Q. What are primary motions? Every loom requires three primary motions to produce woven fabric : 1. 3. 2. 4. Q. 3. What is drawing-in? Ans. They stop the loom before beat-up can occur if the media fails to be arrested in the correct position after it has traversed the loom. Ans. What are warp protectors? Ans. Q. Ans. Ans.Q. . 2.
What is shedding process? Ans. Fig. Q. The other threads are raised and lowered as in open shedding. Yarns that pass through the heald eyes in those harnesses are raised above that are not controlled by the raised harnesses. What are open shedding. between the insertion of one weft pick and the next. and a sheet of yarns is down. They are of two types i. semi open shedding and closed shedding methods? Ans. Open-shedding Semi open shedding: It is a method of forming a shed in which threads. or vice versa. are lowered a short distance and then raised again.. It is the mechanism that raises certain harnesses above the others.e. Ans. Fig. It is a primary motion in weaving that does separation of warp threads. to allow for weft insertion or picking prior to beating. The space between two yarn sheets is called “shed”. which are to remain in the top shed line for the next pick. The difference between them is that the terms ‘bottom’ and ‘centre’ indicate the position of the warp threads when at rest. bottom closed and centre closed sheddings. the only warp threads moved are those that are required to change position from the upper to the lower line of the shed.Q. Fig. a sheet of warp yarns is up. Bottom closed Fig. Open shedding: It is a method of forming a shed in which. Semi Open-shedding Closed shedding: It is a method of forming a shed in which all warp threads are brought to the same level after the insertion of each pick of weft. What are the four fundamental operations in weaving? • • • • Shedding Picking Beating up Take up and let off Q. Centre closed . according to pattern. In this way.
As soon as a weft yarn is inserted. . beating-up occurs when the reed pushes the newly inserted weft against the fell of the cloth (Refer fig. the length of weft is inserted through the shed. What is fell of the cloth? Ans. Fell of the cloth and other important functions Q. the reed pushes or beats-up the weft to the fell of the cloth. Fig. What is picking (weft insertion)? Ans. Picking is the second operation of the weaving process. The fell of the cloth is the edge which is nearest to the reed as the cloth is being woven. Ans. Beating-up is the third operation of the weaving cycle. This is the motion which delivers warp to the weaving area at the required rate and at a suitable constant tension by unwinding it from a flanged tube known as the weaver’s beam. After the shed has been formed. Q. reed. What is let -off (warpcontrol) motion? Ans.). Q.Q. What is temple? It is a device used in weaving to hold fabric at the fell as near as possible to the width of the warp in the Q. In other words. What is beating up? Ans.
Position of sensing roller in an automatic positive let off motion Q. Positive take-up motion . Positive let off motion: A mechanism controlling the rotation of the beam on a weaving or other fabric forming machine where the beam is driven mechanically. Positive take up motion: It is the motion in which the take up roller is gear driven. What are positive take up and negative take up motions? Ans. and then winds it onto the cloth roller. Fig. Negative let off motion: A mechanism controlling the rotation of the beam on a weaving or other fabric forming machine where the beam is pulled round by warp against a braking force applied to beam. a change wheel or variable-throw pawl and ratchet being provided to allow the required rate to be obtained. What is take up (cloth control) motion? Ans. Fig. Q. This is the motion that withdraws fabric from the weaving area at a constant rate. Negative let-off motion Fig.Q. What are positive and negative let -off (warp control) motions? Ans. It ensures that the required pick spacing is maintained. so determining the pick spacing.
What is leno weaving? Ans. by varying the relative positions of the fell and the reed. Negative take-up motion Q. Major systems of loom . It is the form of weaving in which two adjacent warp yarns cross each other between the picks. without positive assistance. Q. What is woven terry fabric? Ans. The take up rate is controlled by the size of the force applied by the weight or spring and/or the warp tension. Q. A high tension is applied to the ground warp and a very low tension to the pile warp. Show major systems of loom ? Fig. Fig.Negative take up motion: It is the motion in which the take up roller is rotated by means of a weight or spring. A warp pile fabric in which loops are created. this roller only rotates when the force applied by the weight or spring is greater than the warp lay tension in the fabric.
How many types of shedding motions are available? Ans. Fig. Fig. What is tappet shedding system? Ans. the repeat of the desired design require more than eight shafts.Ans. Tappet shedding with roller reversing . then a dobby loom has to be used. Q. Incase. Tappet. The tapping shedding system is a motion of tappets and cams that cause shafts to be raised to form the shed. dobby and jacquard Q. shows tappet shedding with roller reversing. The mechanical arrangement of this system occupies so much of space that it can accomodate maximum of eight shafts and that is why its eight shafts represent maximum size of its weave repeat. This limits to the weaving of plain weaves. simple twills and simple sateen and satin weaves.
Fig. This enables most intricate designs to be woven. A mechanism for controlling the heald shafts of a loom. It is required when the number of heald shafts or the number of picks in repeat of pattern or both are beyond the capacity of tappet shedding This is a shedding system capable of having upto 32 shafts.1 : Single lift jacquard shedding Fig.3 and 1. each warp can weave independently of all the others. 1.1. A harness consisting of as many cords as there are ends in the warp sheet connects each end individually to the Jacquard machine situated high above the loom. the greatest weave repeat is possible .1. Since each warp yarn can be controlled individually. double lift jacquard shedding formation and electronic jacquard respectively. Q. What is jacquard shedding system? Ans.2 :Double lift jacquard shedding . double lift jacquard shedding. Fig.2.1.4 show single lift jacquard shedding.1. 1. This shedding system has no shafts. What is dobby shedding system? Ans. a much greater weave repeat and complicated design is possible.Q. Being able to accomodate up to 32 shafts. Therefore.
1.Fig.1.4 : Electronic jacquard .3 : Double lift jacquard shedding formation Fig.
Water jet loom Q. What are the types of looms? Ans. Rapier loom 3. Projectile or gripper loom 2. Show the shuttle system of weft insertion ? Healds Shuttle Warp sheet Fig. Shuttle system of weft insertion .Q. Power loom Shuttleless loom: 1. Single shed loom: Shuttle loom: 1. Hand loom 2. Ans. Air jet loom 4.
It has a small hook like device that grips the end of the filling yarn. A rapier machine may have a single rapier to carry the weft across the full width or a single rapier operating bilaterally with a centrally located bilateral weft supply. Fig. this being positively driven. A weaving machine in which the weft thread is gripped by jaw(s) fitted in a projectile. Gripper shuttle (projectile) weaving Q. or two rapiers operatiing opposites sides of the machines. Describe the projectile or gripper loom ? Ans. which is then propelled through the shed. .Q. Machines in which the means of carrying the weft through the shed is fixed in the end of a rigid rod or in a flexible ribbon. Describe the rapier loom ? Ans.
one end of which takes the filling yarn half the width of the fabric to the centre of the shed where a second rapier picks up the yarn and takes it the remaining half of the fabric across the shed. Sometimes there is sysytem of single rapier that takes the filling yarn across the fabric and then empty rapier returns back leaving the new filling yarn in place. Different rapier systems are shown in figure. Fig. Different rapier systems .Fig. Double rapier system Rapier is a flexible steel tape.
. In air jet loom. Describe water jet loom? Ans. Fig. In water jet loom. Describe the multiphase loom ? Ans. thereby enabling insertion of number of filling yarns. Q. one behind the other. Describe the air jet loom ? Ans. that takes the filling yarn to the other side. The multiphase loom can form many different sheds at different places. a water jet is propelled across the shed with the force. Relay air-jet system Q. that takes the filling yarn to the other side. a jet of air is projected across the shed with the force.Q.
Usually the selvedge has an increased number of ends per inch. Tuck-in selvedge Double-pick interwoven selvedge Fused selvedge Helical selvedge Inserted selvedge Leno selvedge Traditional selvedge Q.Q. Tuck-in selvedge is formed by tucking-in protruding portions of each pick into the next warp shed. Fig. What types of selvedges can be formed? Ans. Selvedge is the woven edge portion of a fabric parallel to the warp edge. Tuck selvedge . Selvedges may contain special effects or brand names or fabric descriptions woven into them. Q. How is tuck in selvedge formed? Ans. What is selvedge? Ans. and beating them up together with it. alongside the new pick. It is a firmer construction than rest of the fabric that provides neat edge and a secure grip for fininshing machines.
How is fused selvedge formed? Fused selvedge is the thermoplastic warp and weft that are welded together by heat and pressure. Ans. highly tensioned ends which interwine continuously. How is leno selvedge obtained? Ans. How is helical selvedge formed? Ans. Helical selvedge is formed by nipping each pick between two strong. Fig. highly tensioned ends that interface with the weft on the leno principle. Helical selvedge . each end having a helical configuration. Leno selvedge is formed by one or more pairs of strong. Leno selvedge Q. Fig. Warp threads are crossed and interwoven into the edges of the fabric. Q.Q.
13 oz/yd2 Medium > 4 .e. Another new type can use four colours in the warp. What is the normal width range of woven fabric? Ans. full bobbin into the same shuttle.36” Very narrow = < 12” Q. Broadloom = 108” Medium or average = 45. How is double-pick interwoven selvedge formed? Ans.4 oz/yd2 Very light < 2 oz/yd2 Q. What is lappet weave? Ans. How inserted selvedge is formed? Ans.Q. zigzag stripes in white yarn on a coloured plain weave ground. i. Inserted selvedgeis formed by inserting additional short double picks of strong fine yarn by means of a reciprocating needle. Q. 54. How traditional selvedge is formed? Traditional selvedge is formed without making special provision on a shuttle loom weaving plain cloth. the weaver is restricted to one shuttle and one colour warp yarn ( called battery type). This is the type of weave in which floating threads are carried on the surface of the fabric and introduced at intervals to form the patterns. Ans. What is the normal weight range of woven fabric? Very heavy > 13 oz/yd2 Heavy > 6 . 72” Narrow = 27 . Ans. Double-pick interwoven selvedge is formed by interweaving a strong selvedge end with the legs of the protruding loops. This exchange is made without stopping the loom.6 oz/yd2 Light > 2 . Q. Q. In this case. using a small reciprocating shuttle. What is magazine loom? Ans. The floats are not long and the patterns are usually geometric. 60. . This is the type of automatic loom in which the loom takes the empty bobbin from the shuttle and automatically relpaces it with a new. Q.
A loom having two or more shuttles used for weaving fabrics containing weft yarns different as to size. satin and twill. This is the type of shuttleless weaving machine in which the weft is drawn from a stationary supply and introduced into the shed in the form of a double-pick by a weft inserter needle. What is tablet weaving ? Ans. . What is narrow fabric? Ans. What is needle loom? Ans. What is ribbon loom? This is the type of loom used for making narrow fabrics. What is swivel loom? Ans. The weft is retained at the opposite selvedge by the action of knittting or by the introduction of a locking thread from a separate supply. Q. K. S. e. are also used. Ans. hexagons. and other counries). Q. where warp is controlled by tablets made of thin. A. triangles. which are the essential feature. This is the type of any textile fabric made by interlacing fibres or yarns which does not exceed 45 cm ( in the U. Ans. What is novelty weave? Any weave which varies or combines the basic weaves. twist or colour. What is box loom ? Ans. Each tablet has a hole at each corner through the warp yarns are threaded.Q. Narrow fabrics are characterised by the edges.) and does not exceed 30 cm ( in the U. A fabric in which figure is achieved by the introduction of additional weft threads into base fabric to produce small clipped woven-in-spot effects. e. Q. Q. This is the type of loom meant for narrow fabric such as ribbons and tapes. etc. cardboard. Tablets are usually about 5 to 10 cm square. What is swivel weaving ? Ans. plastic. etc. The figuring yarn is fed from a series of shuttles mounted over the top of the weaving surface. plain.g. the picking being done by a special type of small shuttle controlled by a swivel. Q. stiff material. It is a method of making woven plain or patterned narrow fabrics. Q. Rotating the tablets controls the rise and fall of the warp yarns. although other shapes. Q. bone.g.
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