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Structure
1.1 1.2 1.3
I
Introduction
Objectives
System of Forces Coplanar Forces
1.3.1 Law of Parallelogram of Forces 1.3.2 Law of Polygon of Forces 1.3.3 Resolutionand Composition
1.4 1.5
Noncoplanar Forces Resultant of Concurrent Forces
1.5.1 Resultant of Coplanar Concurrent Forces 1.5.2 Resultant of Noncoplanar Concurrent Forces
1.6
Moment of a Force
1.6.1 Moment of Coplanar Force 1.6.2 Moment of Force about a Point and an Axis 1.6.3 Couples and then Properties
i
1.7
Resultant of Nonconcurrent Forces
1.7.'1 Resultant of Coplanar Nonconcurrent Forces 1.7.2 Resultant of Noncoplanar NonconcurrentForces
1.8 Summary 1.9 Key Words 1.10 Answers to SAQs
1.1 INTRODUCTION
This unit seeks to introduce to you the different systems of forces. The prerequisite for this is the concept of a force and the various forms of forces occurring in nature. In addition to this, you should have the basic knowledge of algebra, coordinate geometry, trigonometry and a little bit of calculus. The study of this unit will enable you to understand the effect of forces on different types of structures.
Objectives
After studying this unit, you should be able to identify the different systems of forces, add concurrent forces vectorially, resolve forces into components, add forces by components, find the moment of a force, and find the resultant of nonconcurrent forces.
1.2 SYSTEM OF FORCES
You will recall Newton's First Law of Mation which helps us to define a force as an external agency which tends to change the state of rest or of uniform motion of a body. Force tends to produce motion in a body, changes the motion of a body or checks the motion of a body. In simple words, the action of one body on any other body can be called a force. These actions niay be of various forms : pull or push on a body, gravitational force known as weight of a body, force exerted by an elastic spring, force :xerted by a locomotive on the train, resistance offered by the track.
To specify a force, you need to know its magnitude, direction and the point of application The magnitude is expressed in Newton in SI unit. Graphically a force is represented by &awing a line to scale, showing the magnitude and the arrowhead indicating direction. Such a straight line is called a vector. A combination of several forces acting on a body is called a system of forces or a force system.
Example 1.1
Consider a sphere of mass m suspended by means of a string resting against a smooth wall, as shown in Figure 1.1 (a). What are the forces acting on it ?
Solution
Let us identify the forces acting on the sphere. These are as follows : (1) Weight of the sphere W = mg acting vertically downwards from the centre of gravity of the sphere. Tension in the string (3) Reaction offered by the wall. Thus, the spheqe is subjected to a system of three forces as shown in Figure 1.1 (b). (2)
Figure 1.1 (a)
Figure 1.1 (b)
Example 1.2
Consider a dam retaining water as shown in Figure 1.2 (a). What are the forces acting on it ?
Solution
The forces acting on dam are as follows : (1) Weight of the nlasonry acting vertically downwards through the centroid of the crosssection, and The horizontal water pressure which goesonincreasing as the depth increases. Thus, the structure shown is subjected to a system of forces as indicated in Figure 1.2 (b).
(2)
Figure 1.2 (a)
Figure 1.2 (b)
T h t .s);Steniof forces can be classified according to the arrangement of the lines of action
ot
the
forces of the system.
and (3) parallel or nonparallel.3 (b) are concurrent forces as they are meeting at point 0 whereas forces d . Forces I. u r Noncoplanar Forces If the lines of action of forces do not lie in the same plane then the forces are called noncoplanar forces. In Figure 1. forces a and 6 are acting in vertical plane ABCD.3 (c) The forces may be classified as (1) coplanar or noncoplanar. If the forces point the same direction they are called like parallel forces and if they point in opposite directions. These forces may be concurrent .. e and fare called as nonconcurrent forces because all the three forces are not meeting at a point. c ~oblanar forces can also be classified as parallel forces and nonparallel forces.or parallel as shown in the Figures 1.4 (a) ' Figure 1. If the lines of action of forces are parallel then the forces are called parallel forces.3 (b) Figure 1. whereas and r or p and are unlike parallel forces as shown in Figure 1. 6 and 2 shown in . Forces and 2 are also called coplanar forces as they are acting in one plane. Forces s.4 (b) . they are called concurrent forces. o Figre 1..3 (a) Figure 1. (2) concurrent or nonconcurrent. n and are noneplanar concurrent forces and forces 2 5 and are noncoplanar parallel forces. But forces a and care not coplanar forces as they are acting in two different planes. They are called coplanar forces. But nonparallel forces may be concurrent or nonconcurrent. Forces a. If all the forces acting on a body meet at a point.4 (b) respectively. Concurrent forces are nonparallel forces. Forces p and are like parallel forces. i and are nonparallel forces. All these system of forces have been explained in subsequent paragraphs. m.Coplanar and Nonsoplanar Forces E'igure 1. Coplanar Forces Forces acting in the same plane are called coplanar forces. they are called unlike parallel forces.Figure 1.3 (a).4 (a) and 1.3 (c).
5 (d) 1.SAQ 1 Identify the system of forces in Figures 1. (b). the diagonal of the parallelogram passing through their point of intersection gives the resultant in magnitude and direction". The diagonal passing through 0 represents their resultant in magnitude and direction. Force being a vector quantity the resultant of the system of forces can bc found out by using vector algebra. 1. Consider two forces P and Q acting at point 0 in the body as shown in Figure 1. which states that. its total effect is usually expressed in terms of its resultant.g.3 COPLANAR FORCES If a system of coplanar forces is acting on a body.5 (c) Figure 1 . if the resultant of two forces is to be found out then the law of parallelogram of forces is used. Their combined effect can be found out by constructing a parallelogram using vector P and vector Q as two adjacent sides of the parallelogram as shown in Figure 1.5 (a) FSgum 1. 6 (a) Figure 1 . 6 (b) prove by :fie geometry of the figure that the magnitude R of the resultant and the angle it makes with P are given by . You can Figure 1 .3.1 Law of Parallelogram of Forces If the two coplanar forces meet at a point. "If two forces acting at a point are such that they can be represented in magnitude and direction by the two adjacent sides of parallelogram.5 (b) Figure 1.6 (b). Shing I Beam I Shing FSgure 1.6 (a). (c) & (d) and classify them. their resultant may be found by the law of parallelogram of forces.5 (a). e.
ETpn 1 . .QPsinm P + Qcosa + Pcosa where a is the angle between F and 0 m0= 0 is the angle betw'een R and P . then their resultant is represented in magnitude and direction by the closing side of the polygon but taken in the opposite order". their teedltMt m y be found by the law of polygon of forces. 6 (c) From the friangle of forces.Qsina. B. 7 (b) Solution Let us construct a polygon such that the forces A. C. each force being drawn from the end of earlier force then_ their resultant is represented by the line joining the starting point of the first force A to the end of the last force E. 3 . In the final form a polygon would be completed. 2 Law of Polygon of Forces If more than two forces are acting on a body.3 Consider five forces each of 80 N acting at 0in a body. by using trigonometric relations. if more than two coplanar forces meet at a point. sin$=R &a P 1 . Example 1. Draw forces of polygon and show the resultant of d l the forces. m t a n p = . . In other words. i ! Figure 1 . 7 (a) Efpre 1 . I ' p is the angle between ? i and Q . which states that. you can fmd thn( and sin~=fsina. The above two forces can dso be combined by using the law of triangle of forces which states that if the second force is drawn from the end of fhe flrst force then the line joining the starting point of fnrst force to the end of the second force represents their resultant. "If a number of fmwe acting at a point are such that they can be represented in magnitude and direction by the sides of open polygon taken in order. D and E represent the sides of a polygon taken in order.. You may start with any f W 0 forces and fmd their resultant ficst and then add vectorially to this resultant the remaining forces taking one at a time. then their resultant can be f d by repeated applications of the parallelogram law or the triangle law.
If 7 and . Figure 1.33 Resolutionand Composition In many engineering problems. A force making an angle 0 with respect to x axis as shown in Figure 1. 1. ?his process of splitting the force into components is called the resolution of a force whereas the process of finding the resultant of any number of forces is called the composition of forces.8 (a) Figure 1.9. and F.8 (a) and (b) using the parallelogram law and the triangle law. 'Ihe resolution of forces helps in determining the resultant of a number of forces acting on a body as it reduces vectorial addition to algebraic addition. it is desirable to resolve a force into rectangular components.10 can be resolved into two components F. Find the resultant in magnitude and direction by using polygon law. acting along x and y axes respectively.SAQ 2 Determine the resultant in nlagnitucle and direction of two forces shown in Figures 1.8 @) SAQ 3 Four forces are acting at 0 as shown in the Figure 1.
92N. FY=Fsin8=120sin300"=103. Refer Figure . Determine the horizontal and vertical components of the force. + x axis Solution As 0 is to be measured inanticlockwise direction from positive x axis. F .10. and Fyare determined as F . / 8 0 ~ . j are the unit vectors acting along x and y axes respectively then the force ji? can be expressed as & F=F.92 N ) j A force of 80 N is acting on a bolt as shown in Figure 1. Find the horizontal and vertical components of the force.4 A force of 120 N is exerted on a hook in the ceiling as shown in Figure 1. ///// .5 8 = (103.11. The vector components of force are F Ij. = (+ 60 N )? and Therefore F can be expressed as F=+607103.i+ F~T where F. and Fy are the magnitudes of the components along x and y axes.I. = Fcos0 F Y Fy = F sin 0 and tan 0 = Fx Note : 0 is measured in anticlockwise direction with respect to positive x axis. then 0 = 3 0 0 ' .92/' Example 1. The magnitude of the force can also be expressed as i t I b I Example 1. Fx=Fcos0=120cos 300"=+60N.12.
9 Rectangular Components Consider a force F acting at 0. To solve problems of statics in space of three dimensions. . If Z J and E are the unit vectors acting along x. then we get : F . y and z axes respectively.. 0 = 68" + 180" = 240" with respect to positive x axis measured in anticlockwise direction : . + F. : . and cos 8. k and the magnitude of F is given by .13 (b). The three angles 8. = F cos 0.Solution By principle of transmissibility of a force. as we have to draw three dimensional sketches on the familiar two dimensional plane of sheet of paper.. To determine the direction of the force. the force can be considered acting at any point on the line of action of the force.28 N. Vector notation will be useful in solving such problems by extending the .13 (a)..28 5 1. m and n respectively. e. defrne the direction of the force F and cos Ox. principles developed in two dimensions to three dimensional space. y and z axes as shown in Figure 1. a precast concrete wall section temporarily held by four cables or a tower guy wire anchored by means of bolts. Fy = FcosO. a lot of visualisation is needed. and 0.4 0 ~ 1 5+ (69. 8.13 (b) If 8. F. then force F can be expressed in vector form as under : F = F. are called the direction cosines of the forces which are also represented by I. = 407 .=Fcos 0=80cos240°=40N Fy = F sin 0 = 80 sin 240" = . : . let us construct a parallelepiped (say 'box') as shown in Figure 1.y and z with ' 0 ' as the origin.g.69. Assume a system of rectangular coordinates'n.28~). and F . F = ( . and 8.13 (a) Figurn 1. are the angles made by F with respect to x.cos 8. we come across situations where the fo&s acting on a body may not be in one plane.69. Figure 1. i + F. a crate supported by three cables in space.4 NONCOPLANAR FORCES In engineering practice.. = F cos Ox. 8.
the resultant will not necessarily be a single force but a force system comprising a force or a couple or a force and a couple. j and Example 1.00 N = 282.41 N is making an angle of 6 6 ' 53 ' 3 6 ' ' with x axis. = 400 cos 4 5 ' = 282.2 alongwitb their possible resultants are given in Table 1 . The types of force systems as classified in Section 1.we get Fx = F cos 8.6 A force of 400N forms angles of 4 5 ' . 1 . 6 5 ' and 1 2 0 ' respectively with the x.84 N Fy = F cos 8. Oy = 60' and 0.007 . Express the force in vector form.Example 1.7 k are the unit vectors along x. . = 400 cos 60' = 200.200. y and z axes. the fotce of 815.5 RESULTANT OF CONCU NT FORCES The resultant of a concurrent force system can be defined as the simplest single force which can replace the original system without changing its external effect on a rigid body. For the nonconcment force system. = 120°. 5 6 '3 0 '1 6 " with y axis and 1 3 7 ' 2 2 " with z axis. 1. Solution SubstitutingF = 400 N . yand z axes respectively. = 4 5 ' .00 k where ? . 8. Determine the magnitude and direction of the force F = (320N) 5 + (450N)7 .(600N) Solution The magnitude of the force F is given by Thus.847 + 200.
8 with respect to positive x axis. F3. where.7. 1.F . and Ryvectorially. couple and their praperties. .. we get the resultant E.Table 1. nmconcurrent Force Force or a couple Force or a couple Parallel.1 Resultant of Coplanar Concurrent Forces The technique of resolution of a force can be used to determine the resultant of coplanar ! . . Determine the resultant of the system of forces. Each set of 2n components acts in one direction only. Four forces act on a body as shown in Figure 1. noncoplanar a force and a couple noncmcurrent We will study the determination of resultant of nonconcurrent force systems in Section 1. Thus. If 'n' concurrent forces F body then each force can be resolved into two mutually perpendicular directions. Finally.14.5. Solution Resolving all faces along x axis. we can algebraically add all these components to get the components of the resultant. Therefore. are acting at a point in a concurrent forces. combining these components R. we get '2n' components. we get R x= C Fx + 50cos 315' + 30 ms 180° + 20 CQS 240' =F l ~ 8+ 1 F 2 ~ O+2F3c0s03 + F4cos04 = 4Ocos 300 . F2 . after knowing about moment.. noncoplanar noncmcurrent Force or a couple or Nonparallel.1 Type of Force System Pcwsible Resultant Concurrent Coplanar. 8 is the angle of inclination of the resultant Example 1.
Note :The angle made by 50 N force is measured in anticlockwise direction from positive x axis after making the force act away from 0 by principle of Coplsoar and Noaeoplnanr Fomes transmissibility of the force.2 Resultant of Noncoplanar Concurrent Forces In case of nonwplanar force system also.3 0 ~ 0 ~ 0 ~ . F2 & F3 are acting at a point 0 in a body. If three noncoplanar forces F.32 Ry = . Thus. giving the resultant of three forces F.T + F..5. If there are more forces in the system.and F2 can be determined by law of parallelogram of forces. i + R..= Z F y = F1 sin Q1 = + F2 sin Q2 + F3 sin 43 + F4sin 44 ' 40 sin 30' + 50 sin 315' + 30 sin 180°+ 20 sin 240' = 20. (1. the vector sum of a noncaplanar system of concurrent forces F..36 + 0. The force R. k = F.32.. we get.36 N and is acting in IVth quadrant making an angle of 312' 33' 6'' in anticlockwise direction from positivex axis. T h e resultant of concurrent force system can also be determined as the vector sum of the f m s of the system The vector sum of the forces can be obtained very easily if each force is resolved into rectangular components..35. note that the resultant of noncoplanar force system must pass through the point of concurrence.68 N Thus... the resultant R12of the two forces F. resolving all forces along y axis. k + F F3* i + ~ 3 + ~FJ~ 7k ~ + ? FZY7+ F~~ + .U ) ~ ~ 6 0 ~ 4 1 90' may be chosen in appropriate quadrant with proper signs as indicated above.32. F2 and F3 as R. j + R..32. ihe resultant in vector form may be expressed as j? = (30 N)? + (. 1. = 4 0 ~ 0 ~ 3 0 ' + 5 0 ~ ~ 4 5 ~ ..68)' The diction 4 can be worked out from The resultant has a magnitude of 44.1) R.68'~)j The magnitude of the resultant is given by R = J P X 1 ' + (4)2 = 4(3oI2 + (.00 .00 . Rx = 30N Similarly. the same process can be continued until all the forces have been covered.17. F2 and F3 is which can be written in rectangular component fbnn as R. R . can next be combined with F3 by means of the parallelogram.? + F1. . Here. the technique of resolution of forces can be used to determine the resultant.
= (C FYI R. (zF. vectorially. and 0 . + = (C Fz) R x = FIX+ Fz* Finally.. m the angles which the resultaut ~ ' h k e with s x. . Solve SAQ 3 by the method of resolution of forces. SAQ 4 (1) (2) A hoist trolley is subjected to three forces as shown in Figure 1. R.15 1. . but will t r y to rotate the body about 0 as shown in FiSd. Figure 1.. + F2. The measure of this property of a force by virtue of which it tends to rotate U I : f. + F3..)' ~ ) +~( ~ 3 ~ where 0. = F. and R = ~~7+ R. )+ j (C F. called the Qanslatory motion.le 1 15. y and z axes respectively.) k + Fb = (CFJ Ry = Fly + F2. and R. 0.a dy OR which it acts is called the mohen.)? + (C ~ .15.? + R. The rotation of the body may ' k \iae?&out a point or a line. it will not give the body a straight line triotiom.the centre of gravity of the M y .6 MOMENT OF A FORCE If a force F is acting on a body resting at 0 and the line of action of f a does not pass ahTough G.nliof a force. we get the resultant R . Determine i the magnitude and direction of the resultant. Thus. k IR I = d ( ~+ (R.= Therefore. combining these comnents R.
. This principle of moment may be extended to any force system 1. "the algebraic sum of the moments of a given system of forces about a point is equal to the moment of their resultant about the same point". Now by computation of moment of forces.16 Figam 1. then. In terms of vector algebra.17.18 (b). it means either the force itself is zero 01' the perpendicular distance between the line of action of the force and the point about which moment is to be calculated is zero i.e the force passes through that point. point 0 is known as moment centre or fulcrum and distane X is termed as moment arm. if F is the force (in N) acting on the body dong AB and x is the perpendimla distance (in m) of 0 from AB.1 Moment of Coplanar Forces Let FI. Varignon's theorem need not be restricted to the case of only two components but applies equally well to a system of forces and its resultant. e2and O3 be the angles which these forces make with positive x axis as shown in Figure 1. MomentoftheforceFaboutO = M = F x x = F x O C Here. Moment of force = Force x perpendicular distance between the line of action of the force and the point or the axis about which moment is required Moment is a vector quantity and the vector direction is along the axis about which the moment is taken. .  Now. This principle is also known as principle of moments.6.Figure 1.1.5.18 (a). the magnitude and direction of resultant R can be found out very easily by resolving all the forces horizontally and vertically as discussed in Section 1. : It states that the moment of a force about any point is equal to the sum of the moments of its components about the same point. 'We moment @ of a force F with respect to point o is the cross product to the point C ) at any p i n t P on the line of action of the force I?" If the moment of the force about a point is zero. the position of resultant force R can be ascertained. For this it can be slightly modified as.F2and F3be the three coplanar forces acting on a body and let . Varignon's Theorem . moment can be defined as. Let the resultant R makes an angle 0 with positiva axisAs shown in Figure 1.17 Referring the Figure 1.
18 (b). in the direction Figure 1.d is equal to C Mo. let the algebraic sum of the moments of the given forces about 0 is given by 2 Mo anticlockwise. 1.2 Moment of a Force about a Point and an Axis The moment of a force can be determined with respect to (about) a point and also with respect to a line or axis. The moment of a force'F with respect to a point A is defined as a vector with a magnitude equal to the product of the perpendicular distance from A to F and the magnitude of the force and with a direction perpendicular to the plane containing A and Fe The sense of the moment vector is given by the direction a righthand screw would advance if turned about A in the direction indicated by F as shown in Figure 1. For point 0 in Figure 1. and the direction of the moment due to R about moment centre 0 must be the same as C Mo due to given system of forces. Thus. the position of resultant R will be such that the moment of R about point 0 . The moment of the horizontal force F about point A has a magnitude of Fd. = Fl dl + F2d2 + F3d3 Now. Then. The distance d is computed from the above relation and R . the force parallel to an axis has no moment with respect to the axis. The moment of a force about various points and axes is illustrated in Figure 1.U) . by applying Varignon's theorem.18 (a). R.19. The moment of a force about a line or axis perpendicular to a plane containing the force is defined as a vector with a magnitude equal to the product of the magnitude of the force and the perpendicular distance from the line to the force and with a direction along the line. is now completely located. because it has no tendency to rotate the body about the axis.To determine the point of application of the resultant.6.20. Since the moment of a force about an axis is a measure of its tendency to turn or rotate a body about the axis. 2M . whosemagnitude and direction have already been detennined earlier. let it cut the horizontal axis XOX' at A at a perpendicular distance d from D as shown in Figure 1. it is the same as the moment of the force about the point of intersection of the plane and the moment axis.
BA. 4 .= 0. Four forces equal to 6 .. Example 1 . . The moment of force F about the line AB is the same as MA (as shown in Figure 1. = . Resultant moment M. their resultant is zero and hence a couple has no tendency to produce translatory motion but produces rotation in the body on which it acts.20 @)). MBc and MBDare the orthogonal components of M E . parallel forces acting in opposite direction.6 x2 . 6 and 5 N respectively from 0 and force of 8 N has zero moment about 0 as its line of action passes through this point. EF and FA respectively. 5 and 6 N are acting along the sides AB. Figure 1 .6.6 Here. 1. 3 . you can note that MAE. has a magnitude of Fd2 and is perpendicular to the plane determined by B and the force F. The resultant F2 is in a plane perpendicular to BC and its moment is F2d3in the direction shown. 5 . Find the algebraic sum of the moments about A .8 m. and x3 are the perpendicular distances of the forces of 4 . 9 The side of a square ABCD is 1. DC. = x3 = . Here. CB. DE.3 Couples ax! their Properties A couple is a force system consisting of two equal. 4 and 8 N act along the line CB. Forces l . xl = x. the moment about line BD is F. coplanar.the point of intersection of the diagonals of the square.60 m long.5.shown by MA (Figure 1.20 (a)). 2 = .6 Nm (clockwise) SAQ 5 The side of a regular hexagon ABCDEF is 0.20 (a)) or MAE(as shown in Figure 1.. x.the moment about point B.5 x3 + 4 x1 + 8x0 where x. M E . Since a couple constitutes two equal and parallel forces. it has no moment about BC.6 Nm or 5. Similarly. 2 1 Solution Taking moments about 0.The moment of force F about line BC can be obtained by resolving force F into components F1and F2.Since F1 is parallel to line BC. 1.6 m. 2 . Similarly.d3 as indicated. DA and DB respectively. Find the moment of these forces about 0.
24.23 shows two equal and opposite forces.where the axis of the couple is through 0 perpendicular to the plane of paper as shown inFigure 1. The couple can be balanced only by another couple of the same moment but. These two additional forces do not alter the system The new system is equivhlent to a force F acting at O. A couple is frequently indicated by a clockwise or counterclockwise arrow when coplanar force systems are involved instead of showing two separate forces. . of each of the couples. The algebraic sum of the moment. (3) (4) The algebraic sum of the forces constituting a couple is zero. Replacement of a Couple by two Forces Consider a couple of moment M. Properties of Couples The properties which distinguish one couple from every other couple are called its characteristics. i. each equal to P and acting at A and B along parallel lines. Moment of a Couple The moment of a couple about any point in the plane containing the forces is constant ansa is measured by the product of any one of the forces and the perpendicular distance between the lines of action of the forces.. plus a couple of moment M = F. of the forces forming a couple is the same about any point in their plane.Figure 1.of the opposite sense. The net effect of a number of coplanar couple is equivalent to the algebraic sum of the effect. (1) (2)  . A couple whether positive or negative.d. has the following properties/characteristics. Imagine two equal and opposite forces F parallel to given force acting at O2 as shown in Figure 1. The perpendicular distance AB is called the arm of the couple and is denoted by p.. thus constituting a couple. M = P x p .25. Replacement of a Force by a Force and Couple Cohsider a force F acting at point O1.e.
Algebraically. Now.26 (a). must equal to the sum of the moments of its components F2 and F3about the same point. gives the equation about the point 0. the force R may be applied at any point on its established line of action. in general. Thus. In Figure 1.26 may be combined by first adding any two forces such as F2 an$ F3. Goplauu nod Noncoplnnnr Forces 3 1 .7. and IS. Here. the x and y components of R are seen to be the algebraic sums of the respective components of the three forms. It follows that the moment of R about any point equals the sum of the moments of F. F2 and F3about this same point. Application of this principle of moments shown in Figure 1. moment and couple discussed in the preceding sections will now be used to determine the resultants of nonconcurrent force systems.27. is zero.. the resultant of a system of forces is the simplest force system which can replace the original forces without altering their external effect on a rigid body. 7 RESULTANT OF NONCONCURRENT FORCES  1 As stated earlier. the same result may be obtained by forming the rectangular components of the forces in any two convenient perpendicular directions. 9 Their sum R1is formed by the law of parallelogram of forces.1 Resultant of Coplanar Nonconcurrent Forces The resultant of a system of coplanar nonconcurrent forces may be obtained by adding two forces at a time and then combining their sums. F2and F3 shown in Figure 1.This couple is equivalent to any two parallel forces of magnitude F acting at a distance d apart such that F. The angle made by R with the xaxis is 8 = tan 1 m y  =F* ' The location of the line of action of R may be computed with the help of Varignon's theoremThemoment of R . Figure 1. the order of combination of the forces is immaterial as may be verified by combining them in a different sequence. . The moment of Rl. The equilibrium of a body is the condition wherein the resultant of all the forces. the rectangular components of the resultant R of a coplanar system of forces may be expressed as R.26 (b). = my where.d = M and the directions of the forces so chosen as to give the correct direction of M. and R1about the s a m e point. The force R1may then be combined with F1by the parallelogram law at their point of concurrency B to obtain the resultant R of the three given forces. = m. about some point must equal to the sum of the moments of its two components F. 1. The properties of force. They may be moved along their lines of action to their point of concurrency A by the principle of liransmissibility. however. The three forces Fl.
may now be completely located. . The value of the couple is equal to the moment sum about any pint. 1. The resultant of concurrent forces is obtained as the vector sum of the component forces. whose magnitude and direction have already been determined earlier.28. but in general it is a force and a couple. The resultant of any general force system can be obtained by resolving each force into a parallel force through some common mint and a couple in the manner described in Section 1. there are many engineering problems which require analysis of noncoplanar nonconcurrent system of forces which is three dimensional in nature. y and z axes respectively. The couples are combined vectorially to get a resultant couple M. Now. it is seen that the resultant of a nonconcurrent coplanar system of forces may be either a force or a couple. consider a force system such as shown in Figure 1.6. Now. CMy and CM. nonconcurrent force system can be a single force or a couple.2 Resultant of Noncoplanar Nonconcurrent Forces As mentioned earlier.For this system of forces where the clockwise direction has been taken as positive. Such analysis calls for representation of the system by a pictorial drawing or by means of two or more orthographic projections.5. the distance d is computed from this relation.7. noncoplanar. which are t h dgebraic ~ sums of the moments of the couples of the system about n. the magnitude of the resultant is the algebraic sum of the several forces.j2+ (CMYl2 + (ma2 and . the r m d of the resultant R is given by moment a where CMostands for the algebraic sum of the moments of the forces of the system about any point 0. When all the forces of the system are parallel. R = IFi . Direct combination by the law of parallelogram shows that for the case illustrated. the resultant will be a single force (parallel to the given forces) or a couple in the plane of the system or in parallel plane or the resultant may be zero. and R .3. then. The vector sum of the moment of the resultant of the set of the couples can be obtained if the moment of each of the couples is resolved into the rectangular components. The general system is thus reduced to a set of concurrent forces and a set of couples. The resultant of a nonparallel. the resultant is a couple of magnitude F3d. For a system of parallel forces.2. where the polygon of forces closes and consequently there is no resultant force R . and the position of its line of action may be obtained from the principle of moments. The resultant is a force when X F is different from zero and a couple when X F is equal to zero unless W0is also zero in which case the system is in equilibrium and the resultant is xro. as explained in Section 1. Thus. The three rectangular components of the resultant couple are C M . In general. the resultant couple is given by M = d(ZM.
1 3 SUMMARY In this unit. are the angles. you have learnt to identify the different systems of forces. Each force is resolved into two mutually perpendicular axes say x and y. 0. and p = angle between Q and The resultant of a system of forces is the simplest force system which can replace the original forces without altering their'external effect on a rigid body. where 8. y and z axes respectively. = m x . use of law of parallelogram of forces or triangle of forces or polygon law of forces. noncoplanar nonconcurrent NonParallel noncoplanar nonconcurrent Resultant of Concurrent Force System Force Force or a couple Force or a couple Force or a couple or a force and a couple The resolution of forces helps in determining the resultant of a number of forces acting on a body as it reduces vectorial addition to algebraic addition. .the direction of the resultant couple may be specified by its direction cosines. The important equations to remember are : sin a = PfQcosa tanp = where P sin a Q+Pcosa R is the resultant of P and a = angle between 8 = angle between F R and and 0. concurrent forces are acting on a body. we get. makes with x. the angles a. P . i.g. and a. Following table gives the possible resultant force system for the various system of forces : Type of Force System Possible Resultant Concurrent Coplanar. e. which are cos a. You have also learnt the various techniques of adding the forces to get the resultant of the system of forces. = m M Coplanar d Noncoplanar Forces and cos 4 =  m. nonconcurrent Parallel. Thus. the analytical method of fmding resultant is quicker. M . M cos a. All components along the respective axes are added algebraically to get the components of the resultant R along x and y axes. = angle which the resultant R makes with the x axis. the vector representing the couple M Here. If more than two coplanar..
= 0 and DO = 0 . C F. or (iii) zero. : F = 0. the given force is resolved into three mutually perpendicular axes system.e. R = 1F and is parallel to the line of action of forces. The magnitude and the direction of the resultant are found in the same way as that given for the concurrent forces. n.then the resultant is zem. For nonparallel forces. there may be parallel or nonparallel system of forces. The location of the line of action of R may be computed with the help of Varignon's theorem In case of noncoplanar forces. cos ez =  C R s y and z axes respectively. the resultant may be (i) a single force R (ii) a couple M. the resultant may consist of a couple of magnitude C M. where d = perpendicular distance from the moment centre to the resultadt R C M . Thus. 1Fy and Fz are the algebraic sums of the components of all the forces along Resultant of Nonconcurrent Force System The resultant of a system of coplanar forces may be obtained by adding two forces through law of parallelogram at a time and then combining their sums. 8. . and 0 . (ii) a couple in the plane of the system or in parallel plane. e. The measure of the property of a force by virtue of which it tends to rotate the body on which it acts is called the moment of a force. are the angles which the resultant R makes with s y and z axes respectively.d = CA3. Thus. Analytically. The resuitant of concurrent force system can . the same result may be obtained by forming the reclangular components of the forces at any two convenient perpendicular directions. T k t . The angles 8. A couple is a force system consisting of two equal. Generally.g. . = C . or (iii) a single force R and a couple M.. it is a combination of a force and a couple. then the position of the line of action of the forces can be found out by : . parallel forces acting in opposite direction. C F Z R cos e. = algebraic sum of the moments of all the forces with respect to the moment centre.In case of noncoplanar forces.alOant of any general force system cm he obtained by resolving each force into a pardlci farce through some common points and a couple. .. the resultant may be (i) a single force R parallel to the system of forces. R *0 R. i. FY FZ .:ei. coplanar. y and z axes. we get cos4 = where . In case of parallel forces. the systcm is reduced to a set of r ~ ~ ~ ~ uforces n e n and t a set of couples.
. Splitting a force into its components. o s ? = r: . The angles 8. y and z axes respectively. a Composition of Forces Resultant : Redangular. . and a. are the algebraic sums of the components of all the farces along x. cos a.= C FY . Thus.9 KEY WORDS Coplanar Forces Noncoplanar Forces Concurrent Forces Parallel Forces Resolution of a Force : : Forces acting in one plane Forces acting in different planes. = ~z R x where F. . = where C MX EM C MZ M .= C F X . x and y axes. a the vector representing the couple M makes with x. COS 8 . xM. y and z axis. For nonparallel forces also the position of the line of action 0f resultant can be determined by using R . y and z axes respectively. y and z axes tespectively. are the angles. Lines of action of forces pass through a commctn pobk Lines of action of forces are parallel to each other. Components of a force along x and y axes.are the angles which the resultant R makes with x. A couple consists of two forces equal in magnitude. In case of concurrent forces M = 0. Generally the force are risolved along two mutually perpendicular axes e. Fyand F. d = M. x. 0. system about x. y and z axes respectively. The angles a. A single force which has the same effect on the body as all the forces acting together are having. cos 8. parallel but oppositely directed. Couple . A resultant is equivalent to the system of forces. cos 8 . Any two axes which are perpendicular to each other may be termed as x and y axes. and 8. Myand 2 M.ace the algebraic sums of the moments of the couples of the . The magnitude of the resultant couple is given by x x c o s a x = ~ c . x 1.g. Addition of forces.be obtained by resolvirig the farces into three mutually perpendicular axes system. .Components : Moment of a force The moment M of a force with respect to a point 0 is the crossproduct to point 0 at any point P on the line of action of the force F. we get.
'Ihe diagonal parallelogram passing through the point of concurrence ' O D . and ( 5 ) Weight of the beam acting vertically downwards. 1. These three forces pass through the common point A. If the string at P is cut.10 ANSWERS TO SAOs SAQ 1 Consider forces acting at A. This is the system of concurrent forces. (3) Consider forces acting at C . (4) Tension in string at Q acting vertically upward. and (3) Compression in the jib member. there are three forces acting at A : (1) Weight of the body acting vertically downwards. The moment of a force about any point is equal to the algebraic sum of the moments of the components of the force about that point.. This is a system of nonconcurrent nonparallel forces. The gravity force acting on the mass of the body will cause stretching of the tie member and shortening of the jib member. This is the system of parallel forces. (1) Weight W acting vertically downwards. and (4) Compression in right leg. (1) Weight W l (1) (2) (3) Weight W2acting vertically downwards. (2) Tension in the tie. SAQ 2 (a) Parallelogram Law LetP= 60NandQ= 8 0 N Represent the forces P and Q in magnitude and direction by drawing lines OA and OB to scale and parallel to the lines of action of forces P and Q respectively. Thus. There are five forces acting on tbc. The system is of concurrent forces as all the forces pass through the common point C. The lines of action of these forces are parallel to each other. point P will move downwards. There are four forces acting at C. (2) Consider forces acting on the beam. (4) If forces acting on the roof truss are considered. Join OC which is the diagonal of the of P and Q. Tension in string at P acting vertically upward. the string at Q is also offering an upward force. the string is offering a force acting upwards to keep P in position shown. beam acting vertically downwards on the beam. It is the product of the magnitude of one of the forces forming couple and ann of the couple. (3) Compression in left leg. ' . Similarly. Neither the lines of action of all forces are parallel. Complete the parallelogram of forces. the lines of all forces do not pass through any common point. (2) Tension in the tie member.Moment of a Couple : Varignon's Theorem : The moment M of a couple with respect to any point 0 is the sum of the moments with respect to 0 of the two forces that constilute the couple. Therefore.
therefore. From point A. we get. Using trigonometric relations. sine = f sina . represents their resultant in magnitude and direction. Using t&onornetrical relations.go sin 105' 86. we get P = 6ON arid Q = 8 0 N where 1 and a = angle between P and 0  80 sin 1 0 5 ~ 60 + 80 cos 105" Also tan p = Psina Q+Pcosa  60 sin 105' 80+60cos 105' Flgurefor Answer to SAQ 2 (a) :P d e l o g l y n Law Triangle Law LetP= 60NandQ= 80N Represent the force P in magnitude arid direction by drawing line OA to scale and parallel tu the line of action of force P. The resultant can also be found by drawing @as the first vector and P as the second as shown in the adjoining diagram.OC. Then line OB joining the starting point to the end point B represents theu resultant ih magnitude and direction. represent force Q in magnitude and direction by drawing line AB to scale and parallel to the line of action of force Q. Measure angle COA and get the direction of the resultant with respect to force P. Measure the length OC and get the magnitude of the resultant.691 . Length OB gives the magnitude and angle BOA &tennines the direction of the resultant with respect to force P.
 loo sin 80" 12o+100<x>s8o0 .a sin 105" 86.'. OC represents their resultant in magnitude and direction. we get. force Q. As per the law of parallelogram of forces. R =J$+&+2~~cosa where and P=100N and Q=120N a = angle bewtween and a tan 0 = Q sin a P+Qcosa Also tan = P sin a Q+Pcosa 1.sin a P R . .691 Rmre for Amwer bSAQ 2 (a) :Triangle Law (b) Padlelogram Law LetP= l00N and Q = 120N Represent forces P and Q in magnitude and direction by drawing lines OA and OB to scale and parallel to the lines of action of forces P and Q respectively. 8 = 35.638" = 35" 35' 16" w.r.t. Measure the length to get the magnitude and angle COA to get the direction of the resultant with respect to F. Complete the parallelogram OABC and join OC.Also sin = . Using trigonometrical relations.
t B = a = 809 Ffpre for h m r to SAQ 2 (b) :Trlrrpdc JAW . Then line OR joining the starting point to the end point B represents their resultant in magnitude and direction as per triangle law of forces. Using trigonometric relations.120 sin 80" 169. I R = = 4 1 0 0 ' + 1202+2 x 100 x 120 cos 80" 169.019  = 0.r.F Figure for h w e r to SAQ 2 (b):Parallelogram Law I Triangle Law C t Represent the force P in magnitude and direction by drawing line OA to scale and parallel to the line of action of force P. force P Also sin B = P sin a R loo sin 8 0 " 169. Tbe resultant can also be found by drawing Q as the fmt vector and P as the second vector as shown in the above Figure for Answer to SAQ 2 (b). f3 = 35. From point A. : 8 = 44. force Q (Note: 0 .r.638" = 35"38' 1 6 " w.t.362" = 44" 2 1 ' 4 3 " w.019 . Length OB gives the magnitude and angle BOA determines the direction of the resultant with respect to P.5827 : . we get.019 N R sin 8 = sin a (sine Rule) .t. represent force Q in magnitude and direction by drawing line AB to scale and parallel to the line of action of force Q.
the direction of resultant 0 = 280" (measured in anticlockwise from positive x axis). the scale to construct the polygon has been taken as 1 cm = 30 N. we get.56. draw a coordinate system at point D.resolving all forces along y axis.57 N = F1 sin = 60 sin O0 =0 . the resultant is represented by the line joining the starting point of the first force i. To determine the direction of resultant.57 Thus.e. This line OD measures 3. each force being drawn from the end of earlier force as shown in Figure for Answer to SAQ 3 (b).e. Now. the resultant in vector form may be expressed as 101. We find that line OD makes 80" angle with positive x axis measured in clockwise direction whereas 0 is measured in anticlockwise direction from positive x axis.45 .101. So.35 c n Magnitude of resultant = ( linear measurement of OD) x (Scale of drawing) = 3. RY = C FY + F2 sin + F3 sin o3 + 90 sin 210' + 80 sin 315' = .50 N. we get.80 N. 0 to the end of the last force i. 40 N and 50 N represent the sides of a polygon taken in order. D.63 N)i + ( . Rx = C Fx cos 81 = Fl + F2 cos €4 + F3 COS O3 Similarly. Here. SAQ 4 (1) Resolving all the forces along x axis.SAQ 3 Fipm for Answer to SAQ 3 We construct a polygon such that the forces O N .57 N) j The magnitude of the resultant is given by R = (38.35 cm x 30 N/cm = 100.
DE and EF respectively.22 N) i + ( 99. DC.22 N + 80 cos 90' + 40 ws 150° + 50 ws 240° + 0 .34. Let xl . CB.64 .42 = .67 N and is acting in IVth quadrant making an angle of 290° 49' 24" in anticlockwise direction from positive x axis. SAQ 5 Plgure tor A m w u t o SAQ 5 In the hexagon ABCDEF shown in Figure for Answers to SAQ 5.3.4 and 5 N along the sides CB. we get. = 60 sin 45' L Thus.25 +' 80 sin 90' + 40 sin 1500 + 50 sin 240' Similarly.5 and 6 N are acting along the sides AB. the forces 1. DE. = 60 cos 45' = 42. 4.800 8 .The direction 0 can be worked out as CoplPaar and Noneoplmar Forces 0 = 290' 49' 24" (ahticlockwise) The resultant has a magnitude of 108.2. .17. x2 . DC. x3 and x4 be the respective distance of the f o m of 2. (2) Resolving all the forces along x axis. 4 (clockwise) ~ 0 = 379' 51' 20" (anticlockwise) The resultant has a magnitude of 100. we get. resolving all forces along y axis. EF and FA respectively.60 N and is acting in IVth quadrant making an angle of 279' 51' 20" in anticlockwise diction from positive x axis. the resultant in vector form may be expressed as R = (17.12 N) j The magnitude of the resultant is given by The diction 0 can be worked out as 0 = tan$) = tan' () = .3.
52) = .04) + (4 x 1.6 x (0. MA = .3 fi = 0.04 .6 = 2.(2 x 0.12 + 4.6~.16 + 2. . = x4 = AB sin 6 0 ' .6 Nm (anticlockwise) .1.04) + (5 x 0.2 x 0.6 x 0.52 m Considering the &C and using cosine formula .3% + 4x3 + 5x4 + 6 x 0 As the forces of 1 N and 6 N acting alopg AB and FA pass through A. = 1 x 0 .(3 x 1.6 6 2 = 0.0.2 5 . 1CI. B ~ c o s l ~ = 4 0 . their moment about this point is zero. Also x.52) .2 A B .04 m : .5) = 1.3.rz = x 3 = d& + B e .Taldng moment about A. 6 ~+ 0.
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