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Influence Lines - Part 3

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**Live Loads for Bridges
**

In our previous discussions we mentioned that the primary live loads on bridge spans are due to traffic. The Th heaviest h i t loads l d are those th produced d d by b large l transport trucks. The American Association of State and Highway Transportation Officials (AASHTO) has a series of specifications for truck loadings.

**Live Loads for Bridges
**

For two-axial trucks AASHTO designates these vehicles as H series trucks. For example, a H15-44 is a 15–ton truck as reported t di in th the 1944 specifications. ifi ti Trucks that pull trailers are designated as HS, for example HS 20-44 (a 20–ton semi-trailer truck). In general, a truck loading depends on the type of bridge, its location, and the type of traffic anticipated.

**Live Loads for Bridges
**

The size of the “standard truck” and the distribution of its weight is reported in the AASHTO code. The “H” loading consists of two-axial truck The number following the H designation is the gross weight i ht in i tons t of f th the standard t d d truck t k

**Live Loads for Bridges
**

The “HS” loading consists of tractor truck with semitrailer The number following the HS designation is the gross weight in tons of the standard truck

14 feet 0.1 W 0.4 W

0.1 W

0.4 W

HS20-44 8 kips HS15-44 6 kips

32 kips 24 kips

32 kips 32 kips

H 20-44 8 kips H 15-44 6 kips

32 kips 24 kips

W = Total weight of truck and load

**Live Loads for Bridges
**

The AASHTO specifications also allow you to represent the truck as a single concentrated load and an uniform load. For H20-44 and HS20-44:

Concentrated load Uniform loading 18 kips for moment 26 kips for shear 640 lb/ft of load lane

**Live Loads for Bridges
**

The AASHTO specifications also allow you to represent the truck as a single concentrated load and an uniform load. For H15-44 and HS15-44:

Concentrated load Uniform loading 13.5 kips for moment 19.5 kips for shear 480 lb/ft of load lane

I = L + 125 50 ≤ 0.Part 3 <<1/4>> Live Loads for Bridges You can probably see that once the loading has been selected. above First we need the influence line for the shear at point C.3 where L is the length of the span in feet Live Loads for Bridges Impact loading is intended to transfer loads from the superstructure to the substructure Superstructures p including g legs g of rigid g frames Piers excluding footings and those portions below ground line Portions above ground line of concrete and steel piles that support the super structure Live Loads for Bridges Impact shall not be included in loads transferred to footings not to those parts of piles or columns that are below ground Abutments. Live Loads for Bridges In many cases. retaining g walls. vehicles may bounce or sway as they move over a bridge. (bridge) This is an excellent application for influence lines. piles p excepts p as specified f db before f Foundation pressures and footings Timber structures Sidewalk loads Culverts and structures having 3 feet or more of cover Live Loads for Bridges Example: Consider our standard AASHTO HS20–44 truck traveling over the span of some structure. AASHTO has develop an impact factor to increase the live load to account for the bounce and sway of vehicles.CIVL 3121 Influence Lines . B 50 ft A x 14 ft 30 ft A C 50 ft B . g .To examine how a series of concentrated loads effect the shear lets consider our “standard truck” and its effect on the shear at point C on the beam shown above. This motion produces an impact load on the bridge. 8k 32 k 32 k Live Loads for Bridges Shear . you have to determine the critical position of the truck on the structure (bridge).

2) + 32k (0.06) + 32k ( −0.5) + 32k (0. i one f for each h of the three wheel forces as they pass over the point C . one for each of the three wheel forces as they pass over the point C .5) = 9.5 0. There are three cases to examine. one for each of the three wheel forces as they pass over the point C .36) + 32k (0.5 50 ft x -0.CIVL 3121 Influence Lines .44k Live Loads for Bridges Let’s try to find the maximum positive shear at point C. In this case.5) + 32k (0. There Th are three th cases t to examine.5 50 ft (VC )Case 1 = 8k ( −0.5 50 ft 0.2 -0.2) = 19.5 0.36) + 32k (0. use the largest negative value from the influence line Live Loads for Bridges Let’s try to find the maximum negative shear at point C.36 -0. Case #3 8k 32 k 32 k A VC 50 ft 14 ft 30 ft B 0.5 50 ft x (VC )Case 2 = 8k (−0.06 x 0.06 x 0. one for each of the three wheel forces as they pass over the point C . There are three cases to examine.5 -0.52k Let’s rework the previous problem to find the maximum negative shear at point C.5 0.44k . Case #1 8k 32 k 32 k 50 ft A VC The change in shear is equal to 1 50 ft V B A VC 50 ft 14 ft 30 ft B 0.06) = 17.06) = 9.2 A VC 14 ft 30 ft B 0.52k (VC )Case 3 = 8k ( −0.5) + 32k (0. There are three cases to examine.36 -0. Case #1 8k 32 k 32 k A VC 50 ft 14 ft 30 ft B 0.Part 3 <<1/4>> Live Loads for Bridges Using the Muller-Breslau principle construct the influence line for the shear at point C V Live Loads for Bridges Let’s try to find the maximum positive shear at point C.12k Live Loads for Bridges The maximum positive shear at point C is 19. one for each of the three wheel forces as they pass over the point C . There are three cases to examine.36 -0.36) + 32k (0.5 x (VC )Case 1 = 8k (0.06 -0. Case #2 8k 32 k 32 k Live Loads for Bridges Let’s try to find the maximum positive shear at point C.5 50 ft -0.

Case #2 8k 32 k 32 k Live Loads for Bridges Let’s try to find the maximum negative shear at point C. There are three cases to examine.5 50 ft -0.2 -0. Case #3 8k 32 k 32 k A VC 50 ft 14 ft 30 ft B 0. 4k 9k 15 k 10 k A 14 ft 30 ft B A B 10 ft 10 ft 3 ft 6 ft 6 ft C End of Influence Lines – Part 3 Any questions? . l or Vmax = -22.Part 3 <<1/4>> Live Loads for Bridges Let’s try to find the maximum negative shear at point C.36) + 32k ( −0.2) = −12. one for each of the three wheel forces as they pass over the point C .CIVL 3121 Influence Lines .06) + 32k ( −0.5 50 ft x (VC )Case 2 = 8k ( −0.06 -0.2) + 32k ( −0. There are three cases to examine.2 A VC 14 ft 30 ft B 0.5 50 ft x -0.88k In this case.5 0.88k Live Loads for Bridges The maximum negative shear at C is –22.5) + 32k (0.88k 22 88k 8k 32 k 32 k Live Loads for Bridges Example: Determine the maximum moment created at point B in the beam below due to the wheel loads of a moving truck. The truck travels from right to left.5) = −22. one for each of the three wheel forces as they pass over the point C .36 -0. the largest shear at C is the l largest t negative ti value.48k (VC )Case 3 = 8k (−0.

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