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**• Half wave rectifier and equivalent circuit
**

with piece-wise linear model

Ideal V

c

R

f

v

i

v

i

v

i

= V

M

sin (et)

Half Wave Rectifier

• We initially consider the diode to be ideal,

such that V

C

=0 and R

f

=0

Half Wave Rectifier

• The (ideal) diode conducts for v

i

>0

and

since R

f

=0

v

0

~ v

i

• For v

i

< 0

the (ideal) diode is an open circuit

(it doesn’t conduct) and

v

0

~ 0.

Half Wave Rectifier

• In this simplified (ideal diode) case the

input and output waveforms are as shown

The diode must withstand a peak inverse voltage

of V

M

Half Wave Rectifier

• The average d.c. value of this half-wave-

rectified sine wave is

(

¸

(

¸

+ =

}

t

u u

t

0

0 sin

2

1

d V V M AV

| |

t

t

t

M M V V

= ÷ ÷ = 0 cos cos

2

Half Wave Rectifier

• So far this rectifier is not very useful.

• Even though the output does not change

polarity it has a lot of ripple, i.e. variations

in output voltage about a steady value.

• To generate an output voltage that more

closely resembles a true d.c. voltage we can

use a reservoir or smoothing capacitor in

parallel with the output (load) resistance.

Smoothed Half Wave Rectifier

Circuit with reservoir

capacitor

Output voltage

The capacitor charges over the period t

1

to t2 when the diode is on and

discharges from t2 to t3 when the diode is off.

Smoothed Half Wave Rectifier

• When the supply voltage exceeds the output

voltage the (ideal) diode conducts. During

the charging period (t

1

<

t< t

2

)

v

o

= V

M

sin (et)

(The resistance in the charging circuit is

strictly R

f

which we have assumed to be

zero. Even for a practical diode R

f

C will be

very small)

Smoothed Half Wave Rectifier

• When the supply voltage falls below the output

voltage the diode switches off and the capacitor

discharges through the load.

• During the discharge period (t

2

<

t< t

3

) and

v

o

= V

M

exp {- t

’

/RC}

where t’= t- t

2

• At time t

3

the supply voltage once again exceeds

the load voltage and the cycle repeats

Smoothed Half Wave Rectifier

• The resistance in the discharge phase is the

load resistance R.

• RC can be made large compared to the

wave period.

• The change in output voltage (or ripple) can

then be estimated using a linear

approximation to the exponential discharge.

Smoothed Half Wave Rectifier

• v

o

= V

M

exp {- t

’

/RC} ~ V

M

[ 1- (t

’

/RC)]

• The change in voltage AV is therefore

approximately given by V

M

t

’

/RC

• For a the half wave rectifier this discharge

occurs for a time (t

3

- t

2

) close to the period

T = 1/f, with f= frequency.

• Giving the required result:

RC

T V

ΔV

M

~

Smoothed Half Wave Rectifier

• We can define a ripple factor as

where V

d.c.

= (V

M

- AV/2)

The lower the ripple factor the better

d.c V

ΔV

factor Ripple =

Half Wave Rectifier

• If we don’t consider the diode to be ideal

then from the equivalent circuit we obtain,

for v

i

>V

c:

v

i

– V

c

– i R

f

- iR =0

i.e.

• Giving

) ( R R

V v

i

f

c i

÷

÷

=

c i c i

f

o V v V v

R R

R

iR v ÷ ~ ÷

+

= = ) (

) (

Non-Ideal Half Wave Rectifier

V

M

Non-Ideal Half Wave Rectifier

• A plot of v

0

against v

i

is known as the

transfer characteristic

V

C

v

i

R/(R + R

f

)

Non-Ideal Half Wave Rectifier

• We usually have R>> R

f

so that R

f

can be

neglected in comparison to R.

• Often V

M

>> V

c

so V

c

can also be

neglected.

The transfer characteristic then reduces to

v

0

~ v

i

Full-Wave (Bridge) Rectifier

• We initially consider the diodes to be ideal, such

that V

C

=0 and R

f

=0

• The four-diode bridge can be bought as a package

vi

Full-Wave (Bridge) Rectifier

• During positive half cycles v

i

is positive.

• Current is conducted through diodes D1, resistor R

and diode D2

• Meanwhile diodes D3 and D4 are reverse biased.

vi

Full-Wave (Bridge) Rectifier

• During negative half cycles v

i

is negative.

• Current is conducted through diodes D3, resistor R

and diode D4

• Meanwhile diodes D1 and D2 are reverse biased.

vi

Full-Wave (Bridge) Rectifier

• Current always flows the same way through the

load R.

• Show for yourself that the average d.c. value of

this full-wave-rectified sine wave is V

AV

= 2V

M

/t

(i.e. twice the half-wave value)

Full-Wave (Bridge) Rectifier

• Two diodes are in the conduction path.

• Thus in the case of non-ideal diodes v

o

will

be lower than

v

i

by 2V

C

.

• As for the half-wave rectifier a reservoir

capacitor can be used. In the full wave case

the discharge time is T/2 and

2RC

T V

ΔV

M

~

Diode Clipper Circuits

• These circuits clip off portions of signal

voltages above or below certain limits, i.e.

the circuits limit the range of the output

signal.

• Such a circuit may be used to protect the

input of a CMOS logic gate against static.

Diode Clipper Circuits

Diode Clipper Circuits

• When the diode is off the output of these

circuits resembles a voltage divider

i

S L

L

o v

R R

R

v

(

¸

(

¸

=

+

Diode Clipper Circuits

• If R

S

<< R

L

• The level at which the signal is clipped can

be adjusted by adding a d.c. bias voltage in

series with the diode.

v

0

~ v

i

For instance see example sheet 1,

Q11

Diode Clipper Circuits

• Let’s look at a few other examples of

clipper circuits.

Diode Clamper Circuits

• The following circuit acts as a d.c. restorer.

• see Q9, example sheet1.

Diode Clamper Circuits

• A bias voltage can be added to pin the

output to a level other than zero.

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