# HEAT TRANSFER SPREADSHEET CALCULATIONS CONDUCTION Heat travels three ways: * Conduction - by spreading through solids.

* Convection is heat transfer by the movement of heated gasses and liquids. * Radiation - is heat in the form of radiation and travels through space at the speed of light.
Heat always travels from an area of higher temperature to an area of lower temperature. Heat transfer (Q) is the flow rate of heat and is measured in Watts or Btu's per hour.

UNITS Symbol Units Multiply by 0.2931 3.93E-04 778.2 1.730 5.5956 16.0185 4187 3600 1.488 0.3048 25.4 0.0254 4.4482 1.3558 0.0929 Units Obtained
W hp ft-lbf W / m-C W / m^2-C kg / m^3 J/kg-C lbm / hr-ft kg / sec-m m mm m N N-m m^2 / s

Q Btu/hr Q Btu/hr w Btu K Btu/hr-ft-deg F h Btu/hr-ft^2-F ρ lbm/ft^2 Cp Btu/lbm-deg F μ lbm / sec-ft μ lbm / sec-ft L ft L in L in F lbf w ft-lbf ν ft^2 / sec Heat transfer is measured in feet and meter units. Use the above units table from left to right:
Input Data

Units = Multiply by = Units Obtained =

42 0.0254 Calculations 1.067

Use the above units table from right to left:
Input Data

Units Obtained = Divide by = Units = Temperature is the intensity of heat:

22 5.5956 Calculations 3.932
Input Data Input Data

T= T= T=

52 deg C + 273.2 325.2
Input Data

deg C deg K

T= 50 T = deg F + 460 T= 510
Input Data

deg F deg R

T= 62 T = 5*(deg F - 32)/9 T= 16.67

deg F deg C

T= 60 deg C T = (9*deg C/5) + 32 T= 140 deg F

Conduction Example

Heat source on t1 side, Q = High temperature, t1 = Thermal conductivity, K = Dimension in inches, L1 = Dimension in inches, L2 = Thickness in inches, X = Area, Answer: Heat transfer, Low temperature, Answer: A= A= Q= t2 = t2 =

Input Data 12 Watts 100 deg C 111 W / m-K 4.00 in 4.00 in 0.375 in Calculation (L1*L2)*0.0254^2 0.0103 m^2 K*A*(t1 - t2) / (X*0.0254) t1 - (Q*X) / (K*A) 99.90 deg C

CONDUCTIVITIES & DENSITIES MATERIAL Copper, pure Brass, 70 Cu, 30 Zn Silver, 99.9% pure Duralumin, 3-5%Cu, trace Mg Carbon Steel, 1.0%C Bronze, 75 Cu, 25 Sn Stainless Steel,18 Cr, 8 Ni Concrete, stone, 1-2-4 mix Glass, window Properties at 68 deg F ρ K lbm/ft^3 Btu/hr-ft-F 559 223 532 64 657 235 174 95 487 25 541 15 488 9.4 0.79 0.45 K W/m*C 386 111 407 164 43 26 16.3 1.37 0.78

Brick, common building Wood, fir Wood, white pine Glass Wool, 1.5 lb/ft^3

0.40 0.063 0.065 0.022

0.69 0.109 0.112 0.038

Heat Transmission Through Air Films and Solids
Conduction through wall and air films on each side of the wall. Find the heat transfer rate Q and the inner and outer wall surface temperatures. OVERALL HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT U

The heat flow rate, Q, is the same through each layer in the diagram above.

Thermal Resistances of Layers
Heat transfer per unit area, Q / A = (t1 - t2) / (Xa / Ka) Heat intensity = Thermal resistance for layer a, Ra = Thermal resistance for layer o, Ro = t1 -t2 Xa / Ka 1/ ho Equation 1

Overall heat transfer rate, Q / A = (t1 -t4) / (Ra + Rb + Rc) Overall temperature difference, ∆T= Overall heat transfer coefficient, U = Heat transfer per unit area, Q / A = t1 - t4 1 / (A * Σ Rn) U*(∆T)

Q = U*A*(∆T) Answer: Q = 1129 Btu/hr Answer: Q = 331 Watts Surface temperature is found from Equation-1 above: Heat transfer per unit area. A = A= ft^2 Thermal Resistances Ro = 1 / ho Ro = 0. Kb = Thermal conductivity.9 deg F Input Data 300.S.continued . h5 = Wall area.2232 R5 = 1 / h5 R5 = 0.00 48.00 2 70.8333 Rc = Xc / Kc Rc = 0.00 in in in Btu/hr-ft^2-F deg F deg F in in in Btu/hr-ft-F Btu/hr-ft-F Btu/hr-ft-F Btu/hr-ft^2-F Thermal Resistances of Layers .80 Calculation L*H / 144 100. X = Inside convective coefficient. H = Wall thickness. Q / A = (t1 .0 1.t2) / (Xa / Ka) t2 = t1 .00 7.400 0.065 0. L = Wall height.U.0110 Answer: U = 0.(Q/A)*(Xa / Ka) Answer: t2 = 49. Q / A = U*(∆T) Answer: Q / A = 11.00 0.500 Ra = Xa / Ka Ra = 1. Ka = Thermal conductivity. ho = to = t5 = Thickness.00 4.172 Overall heat transfer coefficient 1 / U = 1/ho + Xa / Ka + Xb / Kb + Xc / Kc + 1/h5 1 / U = Ro+R1+Ra+Rb+Rc+R5 1/U= 3.75 0.t1) / (1 / ho) t1 = to .2821 Rb = Xb / Kb Rb = 0.(Q/A)*(1 / ho) Answer: t1 = 64. Kc = Outside convective coefficient. Units Wall length.332 ∆T = to .29 Heat transfer. Q / A = (to .t5 Answer: ∆T = 34 deg F Heat transfer per unit area.280 5.4 deg F Internal temperature follows: Heat transfer per unit area.0 36. Xa = Xb = Xc = Thermal conductivity.

hc = Wall area.00 10. Q / A = t2 = Answer: t2 = (t1 . Q = A*∆T / ΣR Q= 20.50 X/K 1. R = ΣR = Overall temperature difference.86 Watts Internal temperatures are found from Equation-1 above: Heat transfer per unit area. ha = Outside convective coefficient.00 12.t2) / (Ra) t1 -(Q/A)*(Ra) 60.Wall length.10 Ra + Rb + Rc 2.00 Calculations L*H / 144 1.263 2.50 t1 .t4 50. The steady state energy balance on the interior nodal point N is: 0 = Q1-N + Q2-N + Q3-N + Q4-N L = Thickness into page.t4) / (Rc) t3 = t4 + (Q/A)*(Rc) Answer: t3 = 22. L = Wall height.0 in in ft deg F deg F Btu/hr-ft-F Btu/hr-ft^2-F Btu/hr-ft^2-F ft^2 deg F Heat transfer per unit area.00 deg F 2D HEAT TRANSFER EXCEL'S SOLVER > see MATH TOOLS tab below.00 Btu/hr Q= 5. Q / A = (t3 . Finite difference equations for each conductive flux: Q1-N = K*L*(∆Y)*(T1 .00 1 / ha 0. X = Inside temperature. A = A= Ra = Ra = Rb = Rb = Rc = Rc = Overall thermal resistance. ∆T = ∆T = Input Data 12.00 0.90 1 / hc 0. Q / A = ∆T / ΣR Q/A= 20.00 deg F Heat transfer per unit area. H = Wall thickness. K = Inside convective coefficient.TN) / (∆X) Q2-N = K*L*(∆X)*(T2 .TN) / (∆Y) .5 70 20 0.00 Btu / hr-ft^2 Heat transfer. t4 = Wall material conductivity. t1 = Outside temperature.

-500 = T4 + T2 . -700 = T1 + T3 .4*T2 Node 3.0 Constants -900 -700 -500 -700 Solution T1 = T2 = T3 = T4 = Column E 400 350 300 350 deg C deg C deg C deg C .4*T3 Node 4. 0 = 400 + T1 + T3 + 300 .0 -700.4*T3 Node 4.4*T1 Node 2.0 -500. 0 = T1 + 500 + 200 + T3 .4*T4 Node 1 Node 2 Node 3 Node 4 Equations -900.Q3-N = K*L*(∆Y)*(T3 . 0 = 400 + 500 + T2 + T4 .4*T1 Node 2. -700 = T1 + T3 . -900 = T2 + T4 . 0 = T4 + T2 + 200 + 300 .4*T2 Node 3.TN) / (∆Y) If ∆X equals ∆Y: 0 = T1 +T2 + T3 + T4 -4*TN Node 1.4*T4 Node 1.TN) / (∆X) Q4-N = K*L*(∆X)*(T4 .0 -700.

0 Constants -900 -700 -500 -700 Solution T1 = T2 = T3 = T4 = Column E deg C deg C deg C deg C .0 0.0 0.CLICK THE "MATH TOOLS" TAB BELOW FOR INFORMATION ABOUT "SOLVER" Node 1 Node 2 Node 3 Node 4 Equations 0.0 0.

4*T6 400 + T4 + T8 + 200 .7 166.1 128.0 -200. Node 3. Node 9.Node 1.4*T7 T7 + T5 + T9 .0 Constants -500 -100 -200 -400 0 -100 -600 -200 -300 Solution T1 = T2 = T3 = T4 = T5 = T6 = T7 = T8 = T9 = Column E 235.4*T4 T4 + T2 + T6 + T8 . Node 2.0 -200. Node 6. 0= 0= 0= 0= 0= 0= 0= 0= 0= 400 + 100 + T2 + T4 .0 -400. Node 8.4*T3 T1 + T5 + T7 .4*T3 400 + T1 + T5 + T7 . Node 4. Node 4.0 0. Node 7.0 -600.4*T2 T2 + T6 .6 276. 0 = -100 = -600 = -200 = -300 = T2 + T4 .0 148.4*T8 T8 + T6 + 100 + 200 . Node 8. Node Node 6.0 -100.4*T8 T8 + T6 .4*T7 T7 + T5 + T9 + 200 . Node 5. Node 2.2 271.4 208.4*T9 Equations -500.4*T2 T2 + 100 + 100 + T6 . Node 9.3 Node 1 Node 2 Node 3 Node 4 Node 5 Node 6 Node 7 Node 8 Node 9 deg C deg C deg C deg C deg C deg C deg C deg C deg C BOUNDARY CONDITIONS .4*T5 T5 + T3 + T9 . Node 3.0 -300.9 164.4*T9 Node 1.4*T5 T5 + T3 + 100 + T9 .4*T6 T4 + T8 .4*T4 T4 + T2 + T6 + T8 . Node 7.0 -100.8 200.4*T1 T1 + T3 + T5 .4*T1 T1 + 100 + T3 + T5 . -500 = -100 = -200 = -400 = 5.

5 0 = T1 + T4 + (T2 + T3)/ 2 + (h*∆X / k)*T∞ .(h*∆X / k + 1)*Tn Input Data Ambient temperature.2*Tn .0 Grid spacing.0 = (T1 + T2)/ 2 + (h*∆X / k)*T∞ . T∞ = 90. ∆X = ∆Y = 1. hc = 9. k = 2.1 Conductivity.0 Convective heat transfer coefficient.(h*∆X / k + 3)*Tn 0 = (T1 + T2)/ 2 + T3 .

α = Temperature Change.000012 Porcelain α = 0.000004 Length change.000012 100 Units in in/in deg F or mm mm/mm deg C Coefficients of Linear Expansion in the range 0 to 100C Aluminum α = 0. ΔL = Answer: ΔL = This is the end of this spread sheet. Calculations L * α * Δt 0. Δt = Input Data 120 0.0000175 Copper α = 0.(1/a + 1/b)*Tn Linear Thermal Expansion Length. L = Material Coefficient.0 = T1 / a*(a + 1) + T2 / (b + 1) + T3 / (a + 1) + T4 / b*(b + 1) .0000238 Bronze α = 0.0000165 Mild Steel α = 0.144 in or mm .

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A = L*H*0.0 deg F Internal temperature follows: Heat transfer per unit area.029 Overall heat transfer coefficient 1 / U = 1/ho + Xa / Ka + Xb / Kb + Xc / Kc + 1/h5 1 / U = Ro+R1+Ra+Rb+Rc+R5 1/U= 0.00 in 9.2540 Rb = Xb / Kb Rb = 0.1676 Rc = Xc / Kc Rc = 0. ho = to = t5 = Xa = Xb = Xc = Ka = Kb = Kc = Outside convective coefficient. Q / A = U*(∆T) Answer: Q / A = 39.38 Btu/hr-ft^2-F 22. h5 = Surface temperature is found from Equation-1 above: Heat transfer per unit area.52 Btu/hr-ft-F 34. Q = U*A*(∆T) Answer: Q = 370 Watts Wall length.0929 / 144 A= 9.10 Btu/hr-ft-F 0.t5 Answer: ∆T = 23.5820 Answer: U = 1.10 Btu/hr-ft^2-F Calculation Wall area.00 in 6.2 deg F -1.t1) / (1 / ho) t1 = to .(Q/A)*(1 / ho) Answer: t1 = 18. H = Wall thickness.2 deg C Heat transfer per unit area.50 in 0.86 Heat transfer. Q / A = (t1 .10 Btu/hr-ft-F 0.66 in 0. X = Inside convective coefficient. Q / A = (to .0244 R5 = 1 / h5 R5 = 0.00 in 48.Metric Units Input Data 300.00 in 0.8 deg F .(Q/A)*(Xa / Ka) Answer: t2 = 7.0 deg F 1. L = Wall height.t2) / (Xa / Ka) t2 = t1 .718 ∆T = to .29 m^2 Thermal Resistances: Ro = 1 / ho Ro = 0.107 Ra = Xa / Ka Ra = 0.

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4*T2 Node 3.4*T2 Node 3.4*T4 Node 1.0 0.4*T3 Node 4.4*T1 Node 2. 0 = T1 + 400 + 100 + T3 . 0 = 300 + T1 + T3 + 200 .0 0.4*T4 Node 1 Node 2 Node 3 Node 4 Equations 0. -700 = T2 + T4 .4*T1 Node 2. -300 = T4 + T2 .0 Constants -700 -500 -300 -500 Solution Column E T1 = T2 = T3 = T4 = deg C deg C deg C deg C . -500 = T1 + T3 .Node 1.0 0.4*T3 Node 4. 0 = 300 + 400 + T2 + T4 . -500 = T1 + T3 . 0 = T4 + T2 + 100 + 200 .

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250 0. 12 June 2011 Measuring Air Film Coefficient Heat source.59 10^9<10^12 0.200 0. Answer: h = 5.986 Btu/hr-ft^2*F Boundary layer thickness = Air flow velocity = X V mm m/s Convective Heat Transfer Coefficient Convective heat transfer coefficient.HEAT TRANSFER SPREADSHEET CALCULATIONS CONVECTION Convection is heat transfer by the movement of heated gasses and liquids.333 0.Pick Horizontal or Vertical Plate: Characteristic Length L height = Input Data-1 8. t1 = Inside surface temp.4 65.36 10^4<10^9 0.t2)) S. 4 PDH Copy write.250 2*π*r (S1 + S2) / 2 Convective Heat Transfer Coefficient Calculation .250 0.0 Watts sq m C C Calculations Heat convection.52 W/m^2*C h = (W/m^2*K)/5. h = k*C*(Gr*Pr)^n / L Description Vertical Plate or Vertical Cylinder Horizontal Plate hot surface facing up Horizontal Plate hot surface facing down Length L Gr C < 10^4 1. Answer: h = 0. t2 = Input Data 100 0.13 10^5<2*10^7 0. thermocouple. A = Inside air temp.00 in .27 n 0.I. Q = Surface area. © Heat Transfer Spreadsheet Calculations by John R Andrew.S. air layer.333 0.t2) Watts h = Q / (A*(t1 .3 20.14 3*10^5<3*10^10 0.54 2*10^7<3*10^10 0.596 U. Q = h * A * (t1 . thermocouple.

Air Film Coefficient. h = k*C*(Gr*Pr)^n / L S. g = 9.74E-03 1 / deg C Gravitational constant.15E-05 kg / sec*m Boundary layer volume coefficient of expansion.926E+06 Answer: Gr*Pr = 2.81 m/sec^2 Prandtl number.5956 Btu/hr-ft^2*F U.09 110 (Ts + Ta) / 2 91 in deg C deg C P1 in m deg C deg C deg C Input Data-2 Air conductivity.694 Grashof number. Gr = L^3*g*β*ρ^2*(Ts . L = Answer: Ts . μ = 2.702 W / m^2*C U. Pr = 0. L=(height x width) / (height + width) = L = Plate characteristic length.376 Btu/hr-ft^2*F . Ta = Length. k = 0.0 36. Th.53 n= 0.S. from table below: 6. ρ = 0. Answer: h = 7.725E+06 C and n below are found in the table above for the Gr*Pr value calculated here. β = 2.03115 W / m*C Air density.Ta) / μ^2 Answer: Gr = 3.25 Nusselt Equation. Ts = Ambient (room) temperature.00 146.0 Calculation 3.width = Exterior surface temperature.S.Ta = Th = Answer: Th = Air Properties at temperature.I.964 kg / m^3 Air dynamic viscosity. Answer: h = 1. Answer: h = (W/m^2*K)/5. Input Data-3 Gr*Pr = 10^3 < 10^9 C= 0.43 0.

T2 = 70 deg F Fin width. 25 Sn Steel. if h*A / P*k is greater than 1. common building Wood.4 0.37 0.78 0.125 in Fin material thermal conductivity.18 Cr. However. k = fin material conductivity coefficient. fir Wood.109 0. trace Mg Carbon Steel. 1-2-4 mix Glass. 8 Ni Concrete. 70 Cu. 75 Cu.00 the fins will insulate and prevent heat flow. h = 5. pure Brass. 99.7 W / m^2*C Fin length. P = perimeter of the fins. h = air film convective coefficient A = exposed surface area of the fins.3 1. 1. T1 = 200 deg F Room Temperature.065 0. L = 0. Q = (K*Ab*n*ΔT)*X1 / X2 Input Data Temperature at fin base.038 FINS Fins are used to increase heat transfer area and provide a cooling effect. w = 20 in Fin thickness.112 0. 30 Zn Silver. t = 0. finite length. white pine Glass Wool. Fin. 1.40 0. stone.P2 CONDUCTIVITIES & DENSITIES MATERIAL Copper. Case 1. Heat flow rate.45 0.022 K W/m*C 386 111 407 164 43 26 16.79 0.9% pure Duralumin. window Brick. 3-5%Cu.69 0.5 lb/ft^3 Properties at 68 deg F ρ K lbm/ft^3 Btu/hr-ft-F 559 223 532 64 657 235 174 95 487 25 541 15 488 9.750 in . K = 174 W/m*C Convective heat transfer coefficient.063 0.0%C Bronze. heat loss by convection at end.

ΔT = 20 deg C Fin material thermal conductivity.0020 m Fin base area. w = 30. t = 0. K = 4.T2 130 deg F 54. meters.5281 m n= n= h*P/(K*Ab) 47.44 deg C (2*h/K*t)^.Room Temperature. Ab = w*t m^2 Ab = 0.019 m 0.12 . Af = 2*L*w Af = 0.75 in Calculations Fin width.029032 m^2 Perimeter.087 1. finite length (L) insulated end.00 W / m^2*C Fin width. t = Fin base area.54 0.5 4.01905 m Two Fin face areas.Number of fins.087 0.00 W/ m*C Convective heat transfer coefficient. n = n= h / n*K = L= n*L = sinh(n*L) = cosh(n*L) = X1 = X1 = X2 = X2 = Q= Answer: Q = Case 2. Fin. N = Fin width. Q = N*(K*A*n*ΔT)*tanh(n*L) Answer: Q = 239.66 Watts 40 Calculations 0.0044 N*(K*A*n*ΔT)*(X1 / X2)) 1.001548 m^2 Fin length. t = 0. w = 0. L = 0. w = Fin thickness.0072 0. A = A= Temperature difference.0006 [(cosh(n*L) + (h / n*K)*sinh(n*L)] 1.08632 Heat flow rate. tanh(n*L) = 0. meters. L = 0.0032 m w*t m^2 0.762 m Fin thickness.734 Watts P3 Fin Efficiency Ideal heat transfer occurs when the entire fin is at its base temperature.001613 m^2 T1 . P = 2*(w + t) P= 1.004 [(sinh(n*L) + (h / n*K)*cosh(n*L)] 0. h = 9. Input Data Temperature at fin base .080 in Fin length.508 m 0. ΔT = ΔT = ΔT = For thin fin. meters.00 in Fin thickness.

5*ΔT*(tanh(n*L)) Qa = 4. η = Actual Q / Ideal Q Q = (h*P*K*Ab)^.5 = (K*A*n) Ideal heat transfer.226 Watts η= Qi / Qa Answer: η = 79.174 Watts Ideal heat transfer. Qa = (h*P*K*A)^.n*L = 0.5*(ΔT)*(tanh(n*L)) = (K*Ab*n)*(ΔT)*(tanh(n*L)) (h*P*K*A)^.8977 P4 Fin efficiency.9 % Counter & Parallel Flow Heat Exchanger Tube Length Calculation P5 . Qi = (h*Af*ΔT) Qi = 5.

Small temperature difference. determine the tube length required: The tube length required. Ai = Tube outside area.Td 20 deg C Logarithmic temperature difference. Uo = Answer: Uo = Cp = Answer: Cp = π*di*L π*do*L h *di / do 10510 Cp*1000 4183 W / m^2*K 1000*J/kJ J/kg*K Disregarding tube fouling. Qi = Uo*π*di*L*ΔTm Heat flow rate thru outside tube wall. ΔTm = (ΔTbc . ΔTad = Answer: ΔTad = Ta . Qo = Uo*π*do*L*ΔTm Uo = h *Ai / Ao Tube inside area.5 deg C Overall heat transfer coefficient = Uo Heat flow rate. Q = Uo*A*ΔTm Heat flow rate thru inside tube wall.ΔTad)/ln(Tbc/ΔTad) Answer: ΔTm = 33.37 m This is the end of this spread sheet. P7 . L = ρ*V*(di)^2*Cp*(Tout -Tin) / (4*Uo*do*ΔTm) Answer: L = 15. Ao = Overall heat transfer coefficient.