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Connections must be designed at the strength limit state

**– Average of the factored force effect at the connection and the force effect
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in the member at the same point

– At least 75% of the force effect in the member

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End connections for diaphragms, cross-frames, lateral bracing for straight flexural members - designed for factored member loads

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Connections should be symmetrical about member axis

– At least two bolts or equivalent weld per connection – Members connected so that their gravity axes intersect at a point – Eccentric connections should be avoided

End connections for floorbeams and girders

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– Two angles with thickness > 0.375 in. – Made with high strength bolts – If welded account for bending moment in design

BOLTED CONNECTIONS

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Slip-critical and bearing type bolted connections. Connections should be designed to be slip-critical where:

– stress reversal, heavy impact loads, severe vibration – joint slippage would be detrimental to the serviceability of the structure

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Joints that must be designed to be slip-critical include

– Joints subject to fatigue loading or significant load reversal. – Joints with oversized holes or slotted holes – Joints where welds and bolts sharing in transmitting load – Joints in axial tension or combined axial tension and shear

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Bearing-type bolted connections can be designed for joints subjected to compression or joints for bracing members

**SLIP-CRITICAL BOLTED CONNECTION
**

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Slip-critical bolted connections can fail in two ways: (a) slip at the connection; (b) bearing failure of the connection Slip-critical connection must be designed to: (a) resist slip at load Service II; and (b) resist bearing / shear at strength limit states

SLIP-CRITICAL BOLTED CONNECTION • Slip-critical bolted connections can be installed with such a degree of tightness large tensile forces in the bolt clamp the connected plates together Applied Shear force resisted by friction P P • Tightened N =Tb N =Tb P N =Tb F=mN F=mN Tb N =Tb Tb P N = Tb N = Tb .

Pt = minimum required bolt tension specified in Table 1 Kh = hole factor specified in Table 1 Ks = surface condition factor specified in Table 3 . – If the applied shear force is less than the friction that develops between the two surfaces.SLIP-CRITICAL BOLTED CONNECTION • • Slip-critical connections can resist the shear force using friction. then no slip will occur between them Nominal slip resistance of a bolt in a slip-critical connection – Rn = Kh Ks Ns Pt – Where.

60 For Class A surface conditions 0.33 For Class B surface conditions 0.50 For Class C surface conditions 0.) 5/8 3/4 7/8 1 1-1/8 1-1/4 1-3/8 1-1/2 Required Tension (kips) A325 A490 19 24 28 35 39 49 51 64 56 80 71 102 85 121 103 148 1.70 0.33 • Faying surfaces – Unpainted clean mill scale.85 For long slotted holes with the slot Perpendicular to the force direction For long-slotted holes with the slot Parallel to the force direction Values of Ks 0. and blast-cleaned surfaces with Class A coating – Unpainted blast-cleaned surfaces with Class B coating – Hot-dip galvanized surfaces roughened by wire brushing – Class C .SLIP-CRITICAL BOLTED CONNECTION Values of Kh For standard holes Values of Pt Bolt diameter (in.0 For oversize and short-slotted holes 0.

SLIP-CRITICAL CONNECTION • • • Connection subjected to tensile force (Tu). . Slip-critical bolted connections are further designed as bearing-type bolted connection for the applicable factored strength limit state. which reduces clamping – Nominal slip resistance should be reduced by (1.Tu/Pt) Slip is not a catastrophic failure limit-state because slip-critical bolted connections behave as bearing type connections after slip.

BEARING CONNECTION • In a bearing-type connection. bolts are subjected to shear and the connecting / connected plates are subjected to bearing stresses : T T Bearing stresses in plate T Bolt in shear T Bearing stresses in plate .

.BEARING CONNECTION • Bearing type connection can fail in several failure modes a) Shear failure of the bolts b) Excessive bearing deformation at the bolt holes in the connected parts c) Edge tearing or fracture of the connected plate d) Tearing or fracture of the connected plate between two bolt holes e) Failure of member being connected due to fracture or block shear or ...

38 Ab Fub Ns Where. Ns = number of shear planes • • Resistance factor for bolts in shear = fs = 0.48 Ab Fub Ns Rn = 0.8 .80 Equations above . Fub = 105 ksi for A325 bolts with diameters 1. then the values from the equations have to be multiplied by 0. – If the length is greater than 50 in.0 in.0 in.5 in.BEARING CONNECTION • Nominal shear resistance of a bolt – Threads excluded: – Threads included: Rn = 0..125 through 1.5 through 1. Ab = area of the bolt corresponding to the nominal diameter Fub = 120 ksi for A325 bolts with diameters 0. Fub = 150 ksi for A490 bolts.valid for joints with length < less than 50.

BEARING CONNECTION • • Effective bearing area of a bolt = the bolt diameter multiplied by the thickness of the connected material on which it bears Bearing resistance for standard.80 . d = nominal bolt diameter Lc= clear distance between holes or between the hole and the end of the member in the direction of applied bearing force Fu = tensile strength of the connected material • The resistance factor fbb for material in bearing due to bolts = 0.0 d – Rn = 2.4 d t Fu For bolts spaced with clear distance between holes less than 3.0 d and for bolts with clear end distances less than 2.0 d Rn = 1.2 Lc t Fu Where. oversize. or short-slotted holes in any direction.0 d and for bolts with a clear end distance greater than or equal to 2. and long-slotted holes parallel to the bearing force: – For bolts spaced with clear distance between holes greater than or equal to 3.

0 t) ≤ 7.0 – Minimum edge distances Bolt diameter (in.BEARING CONNECTION • SPACING REQUIREMENTS – Minimum spacing between centers of bolts in standard holes shall not be less than three times the diameter of the bolt – For sealing against penetration of moisture in joints. the spacing on a single line adjacent to the free edge shall satisfy s ≤ (4.0 + 4.) 5/8 3/4 7/8 1 1-1/8 1-1/4 1-3/8 Sheared edge 1-1/8 1-1/4 1-1/2 1-3/4 2 2-1/4 2-3/8 Rolled or Gas Cut edge 7/8 1 1-1/8 1-1/4 1-1/2 1-5/8 1-3/4 .

BOLTED CONNECTION • Example 1 Design a slip-critical splice for a tension member. it must not slip) at service loads. • Step I. – Factored design load = 300 kips – Tension member is W8 x 28 section made from M270 Gr. 50 steel. The tension splice must be slip critical (i. the member is subjected to a tension load of 200 kips. For the strength limit state.50.e. – The tension member is a W8 x 28 section made from M270-Gr.. . Service and factored loads – Service Load = 200 kips. For the Service II load combination. the member is subjected to a maximum tension load of 300 kips. Use A325 bolts to design the slip-critical splice.

0 x 0. fRn = 1. number of ¾ in. Therefore Pt = 28 kips from Table 1 – Assume standard holes. Therefore.24 kips • • Therefore. Therefore Ks = 0. Therefore Kh = 1. diameter bolts required for splice to be slipcritical at service loads = 200 / 9.BOLTED CONNECTION Step II. Slip-critical splice connection • Slip resistance of one fully-tensioned slip-critical bolt = Rn = Kh Ks Ns Pt – f = 1.24 = 21. number of bolts required ≥ 22 .33 – Therefore.0 for slip-critical resistance evaluation – Assume bolt diameter = d = ¾ in.0 – Assume Class A surface condition.64.33 x 1 x 28 = 9.

from Table 4. need the number of bolts = multiple of 8.25 in.25 in.7 kips Minimum edge distance (Le) = 1 in.24 kips = 221. – – Slip-critical strength of the connection = 24 x 9.BOLTED CONNECTION Step III: Layout of flange-plate splice connection • • • • To be symmetric about centerline. A325 bolts with layout above. Therefore. Design edge distance Le = 1. Design spacing = 2. Minimum spacing = s = 3 x bolt diameter = 3 x ¾ = 2. – . choose 24 fully tensioned 3/4 in.5 in.

14 x 0.442 in2 – Fub = 120 ksi for A325 bolts with d < 1-1/8 in.80 x 0.1 kips/bolt x 24 = 386.38 x Ab x Fub Ns – Equation given earlier for threads included in shear plane. – Ns= 1 – Therefore.1 kips • The shear strength of 24 bolts = 16.BOLTED CONNECTION Step IV: Connection strength at factored loads • • The connection should be designed as a normal shear/bearing connection beyond this point for the factored load of 300 kips Shear strength of high strength bolt = f Rn = 0. – Ab = 3. fRn = 16.9 kips .752 / 4 = 0.

84375 x 65 kips x t = 52.5) – – fbb Rn = 0. thickness • Bearing strength of bolt holes in flanges of wide flange section W8 x 28 (t = 0.6 kips / in.BOLTED CONNECTION • Bearing strength of 3/4 in.65 x 0.80 x 1.5 – (3/4 + 1/16) = 1.2 Lc t Fu Because the clear edge distance = 1. > 2d fbb Rn = 0.4 x 0.) – 8 x 52.80 x 1.80 x 2.84375 in.2 x 0. < 2 d fbb Rn = 0.6875 in.465 = 892 kips .465 +16 x 93.25 in. thickness • Bearing strength of of 3/4 in.465 in. bolts at edge holes (Le = 1.80 x 2. bolts at non-edge holes (s = 2.65 kips / in.75 x 65 kips x t = 93.6 x 0.) – – fbb Rn = 0.4 d t Fu Because the clear distance between holes = 2.25 – (3/4 + 1/16)/2 = 0.

– Therefore ok .9 kips Bearing strength (plate) = 892 kips • Connection strength (fRn) > applied factored loads (gQ).7 kips Shear strength of bolts = 386.CONNECTION STRENGTH Connection Strength Slip-critical strength = 221.

– Submerged metal arc welding (SAW) used for shop welding – automatic or semi-automatic process – Quality control of welded connections is particularly difficult because of defects below the surface.WELDED CONNECTIONS • Introduction – The shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) process for field welding. and for critical work. or even minor flaws at the surface. . will escape visual detection. special inspection techniques such as radiography or ultrasonic testing must be used. – Welders must be properly certified.

. • Groove welds – deposited in a gap or groove between two parts to be connected e.g.WELDED CONNECTIONS • Two most common types of welds are the fillet and the groove weld. Fillet weld Fillet weld . tee. and corner joints with beveled (prepared) edges – Partial penetration groove welds can be made from one or both sides with or without edge preparation. – lap joint – fillet welds placed in the corner formed by two plates – Tee joint – fillet welds placed at the intersection of two plates. butt.

707 a Failure Plane – Shear stress in fillet weld of length L subjected to load P fv = P 0. increments – Fillet welds are usually fail in shear.707 a L w .WELDED CONNECTIONS • Design of fillet welded connections – Fillet welds are most common and used widely – Weld sizes are specified in 1/16 in. where the shear failure occurs along a plane through the throat of the weld L a a Throat = a x cos45o = 0.

60 Fexx x 0.65 ksi. E80XX. use E80XX electrode • E70XX is the most popular electrode used for SMAW fillet welds – For E70XX. 90. E70XX.60 Fexx – Where. The corresponding electrodes are specified using the nomenclature E60XX. use E70XX electrode – If yield stress (sy) of the base metal is 60 .707 a Lw Electrode strength should match the base metal strength – If yield stress (sy) of the base metal is 60 . fe2 = 0.2375 a Lw kips .60 x 70 x 0.707 a Lw = 0.65 ksi. the shear strength of the fillet weld connection – fRn = fe2 x 0. and so on. 70. 80. • • Therefore.80 – Fexx is the tensile strength of the weld electrode used in the welding process. fRn = 0. It can be 60. 110.FILLET WELDED CONNECTIONS • The shear strength of the fillet weld = fe2 0. or 120 ksi. 100.80 x 0.

FILLET WELDED CONNECTIONS • The shear strength of the base metal must be considered: – f Rn = fv x 0. fv = 1.0 x 0.0 Elevation Plan Strength of weld in shear = 0.60 x Fexx x 0.80 x 0.58 x Fy x t x Lw Smaller governs the strength of the weld .58 Ag Fy Fy is the yield strength of the base metal and Ag is the gross area in shear T where.707 x a x Lw Strength of base metal = 1.

5 in. – Minimum effective length of fillet weld = 4 x size of fillet weld – Effective length of fillet weld > 1. • Maximum size (amax) – Maximum size of fillet weld along edges of connected parts – for material with thickness < 0. amax = thickness of material .25 in.FILLET WELDED CONNECTIONS Limitations on weld dimensions • Minimum size (amin) – Weld size need not exceed the thickness of the thinner part joined.1/16 in. – If T is greater than ¾ in. – amin depends on the thickness of the thicker part joined – If the thickness of the thicker part joined (T) is less than or equal to ¾ in. amax = thickness of the material – for plates with thickness 0. • Minimum length (Lw) .. amin = 5/16 in..25 in. amin = ¼ in.

for a length equal to twice the weld size (2a) .FILLET WELDED CONNECTIONS • Weld terminations and end returns – End returns must not be provided around transverse stiffeners – Fillet welds that resist tensile forces not parallel to the weld axis or proportioned to withstand repeated stress shall not terminate at corners of parts or members – Where end returns can be made in the same plane. full size around the corner. they shall be returned continuously.

f Rn = 8. amax = 1/2 . amin = 1/4 in. Considering only the thickness of the angles.60 x FEXX x 0. § Shear strength of weld metal = f Rn = 0. Design the welded connection Considering only the thickness of the angles.1/16 in.44 Lw kips § Shear strength of weld metal governs.FILLET WELD DESIGN Example 1 Design the fillet welded connection system for a double angle tension member 2L 5 x 3½ x 1/2 made from A36 steel to carry a factored ultimate load of 250 kips.9 x Lw kips Strength of the base metal in shear = f Rn = 1. = 7/16 in. Step I. a = 3/8 in.58 x Fy x t x Lw = 10. = 0.0 x 0.375 in. Design.9 Lw kips .80 x 0.707 x a x Lw = 8.

L1 f L1 Tu f L2 L2 3.FILLET WELD DESIGN • Design strength f Rn > 250 kips – Therefore. Therefore.9 Lw > 250 kips – Therefore.4 in. the center or gravity of the welded connection must coincide with the center of gravity of the member. 8. E70XX fillet weld = 30. Shear strength of fillet weld = 267 kips Connection layout • • – Connection must be designed to minimize eccentricity of loading. (d) . • Design length of 3/8 in.1 in. Lw > 28.0 in.

(d) – Total length of weld required = 30 in. – The c.g. .4 in. of the welded connection must coincide with c.FILLET WELD DESIGN • Connection layout – Connection must be designed to minimize eccentricity of loading.g. – Two angles assume each angle will have weld length of 15 in. of the member L1 f L1 Tu f L2 L2 3.

L1 = 2. Design: L1 = 10. of the member.g. . fL1 + fL2 = Tu And fL2 x 3.taking moments about the member c.0 in. – Let.35 in. from the bottom (AISC manual).65 = 0 . from the top and 3.0 L2 But.65 in.0 in.g.35 .fL1 x 1.0 in. – Therefore.FILLET WELD DESIGN • The tension force Tu acts along the c. L1 + L2 = 15. which is 1. – Therefore. and L2 = 5. f be the strength of the fillet weld per unit length. L1 = 10 in. and L2 = 5 in. Therefore.

Design: L1 = 8.FILLET WELD DESIGN • Consider another layout L1 f L1 Tu f L2 5f (e) 3.0 in. and and L2 = 2.5 + 5f x 0.85 .4 in. Additionally. L2 = 3.6 in. L1 + L2 + 5 = 15.Moment about member c.0 in. .65 = 0 . fL1 + fL2 + 5f = Tu L2 fL2 x 3.0 in. Therefore.g.fL1 x 1. L1 = 7.4 in.

.Groove Welded Connections • • Connects structural members that are aligned in the same plane Basic Types: – – Complete joint penetration groove weld: transmits full load of the member they join and have the same strength as the base metal. Partial penetration groove weld: Welds do not extend completely through the thickness of the pieces being joined.

60 x 0.Groove Welds Complete penetration groove welded connections • Tension and compression loaded • – Factored resistance = factored resistance of base metal Shear loaded on effective area lesser of – Factored resistance of weld = 0.6 x 0.6 fe2 Fexx = 0.60 x 0.6 x fe1 x Fexx = 0.58 Fy .6 fe2 Fexx = 0.80 x Fexx – Factored resistance of the base metal Shear loaded lesser of – Factored resistance of the weld = 0.80 x Fexx – Factored resistance of base metal = 0.85 x Fexx – 60% of factored resistance of base metal in tension Tension or compression parallel to the weld axis and compression normal to effective area factored resistance of the base metal Partial penetration groove-welded connections • • • Tension normal to the effective area lesser of – Factored resistance of the weld = 0.

Groove Welds .

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