lit

HENLEY'S TWENTIETH CENTURY
BOOK OF

RECIPES,

FORMULAS

AND PROCESSES

HENLEY'S

-TWENTIETH CENTURY

FORMULAS. RECIPES

AND PROCESSES'
CONTAINING TEN THOUSAND SELECTED HOUSEHOLD AND WORKSHOP FORMULAS, RECIPES, PROCESSES AND MONEYSAVING METHODS FOR THE PRACTICAL USE

OF MANUFACTURERS, MECHANICS, HOUSEKEEPERS AND HOME WORKERS
EDITED BY

GARDNER

D.

HISCOX, M.E.

AUTHOR OF "MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS, POWERS AND DEVICES," "COMPRESSED AIR," "GAS, GASOLINE AND
OIL ENGINES," ETC., ETC.

1914

EDITION, REVISED

AND ENLARGED

NEW YORK
THE NORMAN W. HENLEY PUBLISHING COMPANY
132

NASSAU STREET
1914

(1

COPYRIGHT, 1914 AND 1913, BY

THE NORMAN W. HENLEY PUBLISHING COMPANY
COPYRIGHT, 1912 AND 1907, BY

THE NORMAN

W.

HENLEY PUBLISHING COMPANY

Also, Entered at Stationers' Hall Court, London, England

All rights reserved

THE TROW

PRESS,

NEW YORK

PREFACE
IN compiling this book of formulas, recipes and processes, the Editor has endeavored to meet the practical requirements of the home and workshop the mechanic, the manufacturer, the artisan, the housewife,
and the general home worker.
In addition to exercising the utmost care in selecting his materials sources, the Editor has also modified formulas which were obviously ill adapted for his needs, but were valuable if altered.

from competent

Processes of questionable merit he has discarded. By adhering to this plan the Editor trusts that he has succeeded in preparing a repository of useful knowledge representing the experience of experts in

every branch of practical achievement. Much of the matter has been specially translated for this work from foreign technological periodicals and books. In this way the Editor has embodied much practical

information otherwise inaccessible to most English-speaking people. Each recipe is to be regarded as a basis of experiment, to be modified to suit the

which

particular purpose in hand, or the peculiar conditions Chemicals are not always of unimay form relative purity and strength-, heat or cold may markedly influence
affect the experimenter.

the result obtained, and lack of

instruments

formula
visable

may may not always to give as many

the handling of utensils and sometimes cause failure. Inasmuch as a particular
skill in

be applicable, the Editor has thought it adrecipes as his space would allow under each
given which apparThis has been done on
is

heading.

In some instances a series of formulas

ently differ but slightly in their ingredients. the principle that one or more may be chosen for the purpose in hand. Recognizing the fact that works of a similar character are not un-

known, the Editor has endeavored to present in these pages the most modern methods and formulas. Naturally, old recipes and so-called
trade secrets which have proven their value by long use are also included, particularly where no noteworthy advance has been made;

but the primary aim has been to modernize and bring the entire work

up

to the present date.

284534

THE EDITOR.

JANUARY,

PARTIAL LIST OF AUTHORITIES CONSULTED
Apothecary, The. Berliner Drog. Zeitung. Brass World. British Journal of Photography..

Maler Zeitung.
Metallarbeiter.

Mining and

Scientific Press.

Chemical News. Chemiker Zeitung Repertorium. Chemisch Technische Fabrikant. Chemische Zeitung.
Chemist-Druggist. Comptes Rendus.
Cooley's Receipts.

Neueste Erfindungen und Erfahrungen. Nouvelles Scientifiques.
Oils, Colors,

and Drysalteries.

Papier-Zeitung. Parfumer, Der.

Cosmos. Dekorationsmaler, Der. Deutschq Drog. Zeitung. Deutsche Goldschmiede Zeitung. Deutsche Handwerk. Deutsche Maler Zeitung. Deutsche Topfer und Ziefler Zeitung.
Dingler's Polytechnic Journal. Drogisten Zeitung. Druggists' Circular.

Pharmaceutische Pharmaceutische Pharmaceutische Pharmaceutische Pharmaceutische Photo Times.

Zeitung. Centralhalle. Era. Journal.

Journal Formulary.

Polytech. Centralblatt. Polyt. Notizblatt. Popular Science News. Pottery Gazette. Practical Druggist.

English

Mechanic.
Zeitung.

Farben Zeitung.

Gummi

Revue Chronometrique. Revue de la Droguerie. Revue des Produits Chimiques. Revue Industrielle. Science, Arts and Nature.
Science Pratique. Seifensieder Zeitung, Der. Seifenfabrikant, Der.

Journal der Goldschmiedekunst. Journal of Applied Microscopy. Journal of the Franklin Institute. Journal Society of Chemical Industry. Journal Suisse d'Horlogerie. Keramische Rundschau. La Nature.

La Science en Famille. La Vie Scientifique. Lack und Farben Industrie.
Legierungen.

Le Genie Civil. Le Praticien.
Leipziger Farber tung.

und Zeugdrucker

Zei-

Spatula. Stein der Weisen, Der. Sudd. Apoth. Zeitung. Technisches Centralblatt. Technische Rundschau. Uhland's Technische Rundschau. Verzinnen Verzinken Vernickeln, Das. Werkmeister Zeitung. Wiener Drogisten Zeitung. Wiener Gewerbe Zeitung. Zeitschrift fur die Gesammte Kohlensaure Industrie.

HENLEY'S BOOK OF RECIPES
ABRASION REMEDY:
See Cosmetics and Ointments.
Aniline.
2.

12 parts

ABSINTHE:
See Wines and Liquors.

Hydrochloric acid .... 18 parts 100 parts Water, q. s Or:
Aniline hydrochlorate
15 parts

Acid-Proofing
An Acid-Proof Table Top.
1.

Water,

q. s

100 parts

part part 8 parts Water Boil until salts are dissolved.

Copper sulphate

1
1

Potassium chlorate..

..

2.

Aniline hydrochlorate.

3 parts

20 parts Water Or, if more readily procurable:
Aniline

Hydrochloric acid

Water

6 parts 9 parts 50 parts

By the use of a brush two coats of solution No. 1 are applied while hot; the second coat as soon as the first is dry. Then two coats of solution No. 2, and the wood allowed to dry thoroughly. Later, a coat of raw linseed oil is to be applied, using a cloth instead of a brush, in order to get a thinner coat of the oil. writer in the Journal of Applied Microscopy states that he has used this method upon some old laboratory tables which had been finished in the usual way,

Solution No. 2 has not been changed, except to arrange the parts per hundred. The method of application is the same, except that after solution No. 1 has dried, the excess of the solution which has dried upon the surface of the wood is thoroughly rubbed off before the application of solution No. 2. The black color does not appear at once, but usually requires a few hours before becoming ebony black. The linseed oil may be diluted with turpentine without disadvantage, and after a few applications the surface will take on a dull and not displeasThe table tops are easily ing polish. cleaned by washing with water or suds after a course of work is completed, and the application of another coat of oil puts them in excellent order for another course of work. Strong acids or alkalies

when

spilled,

if

soon wiped

off,

have

scarcely a perceptible effect. A slate or tile top is expensive not only in its original cost, but also as a destroyer

A

the wood having been filled oiled, and varnished. After scraping off the varnish down to the wood, the solutions were applied, and the result was very satisfactory.

Wood tops when painted, of glassware. oiled, or paraffined have objectionable features, the latter especially in warm Old table tops, after the paint weather. or oil is scraped off down to the wood, take the above finish nearly as well as
the

After some experimentations the formula was modified without materially affecting the cost, and apparently in-

new wood. To Make Wood Acid- and ChlorineTake 6 pounds of wood tar and Proof. 12 pounds rosin, and melt them together
in

creasing the resistance of the wood to the The action of strong acids and alkalies.

modified formula follows:
1.

an iron kettle, after which stir in 8 pounds finely powdered brick dust. The damaged parts must be cleaned perfectly and dried, whereupon they

Iron sulphate Copper sulphate

4 parts 4 parts
8 parts

may be painted over with the warm preparation or filled up and drawn off, leaving the film on the inside.

Potassium
nate

permanga100 parts

Water,

q. s

A Protecting Cement Against Acid. paint to protect cement against acid is obtained by mixing pure asbestos, very finely powdered, with a thick solution of

10

;

ADHESIVES
.

sodium/ silicate', Tlte" sodium silicate must be as alkaline as possible. ']The
asbestos

rubbed with a small quantity of the silicate, until a cake is obtained and then kept in well-closed For use this cake is simply vessels.
is

first

thinned with a solution of the silicate, which furnishes a paint two or three applications of which protect the walls of reservoirs, etc., against any acid solid or liquid. This mass may also be employed for making a coating of sandstone.

Adhesives
GLUES
:

To
fully.

Make Corks Impermeable and
Then plunge them
Choose your corks care-

Acid-Proof.

surplus moisture. They are now tight, retaining at the same time the greater portion of their elasticity and suppleness. To render them acidproof, they should be treated with a

into a solution of gelatin or common glue, 15 parts, in 24 parts of glycerine and 500 parts of water, heated to 44 or 48 C. (112-120 F.), and keep them there for several hours. removing the corks, which should be weighted down in the solution, dry them in the shade until they are free

Manufacture of Glue. I. The usual process of removing the phosphate of lime from bones for glue-making purposes by means of dilute hydrochloric acid has the disadvantage that the acid cannot be regenerated. Attempts to use sulphurous acid instead have so far proved unsuccessful, as, even with the large quantities used, the process is very slow. According to a German invention this difficulty with sulphurous acid can
be avoided by using
tion under pressure.
it

On

in

from

all

perfectly

solution of the lime goes on very rapidly, it is claimed, and no troublesome precipitation of calcium sulphite takes place. Both phosphate of lime and sulphurous acid are regenerated from the lyes by

The

aqueous solu-

simple
II.

distillation.

mixture of vaseline, 2 parts, and paraffine This 7 parts, heated to about 105 F. second operation may be avoided by adding to the gelatin solution a little ammonium dichromate and afterwards exposing the corks to the light.
Lining for Acid Receptacles. Plates are formed of 1 part of brown slate, 2 of powdered glass, and 1 of Portland cement, the whole worked up with silicate of soda, molded and dried. Make

Bones may be treated with succombined sulphurous acid and water, from which the heat of combination has been previously dissipated, the solution being removed after each treatment, before the bone salts dissolved therein precipitate, and before the temperature rises above 74 F.
cessive quantities of

a cement composed of ground slate and silicate of soda and smear the surface for the lining; then, while it is still plastic, apply the plates prepared as above described. Instead of these plates, slabs of glass or porcelain or similar substances may be employed with the same cement.

783,784. patent relating to the process for treating animal sinews, preparatory for the glue factory, has been granted to
III.

U.

S. Pat.

A

ACACIA, MUCILAGE OF

:

See Adhesives under Mucilages.

Florsheim, Chicago, and consists in immersing animal sinews successively in petroleum or benzine to remove the outer fleshy animal skin; in a hardening or preserving bath, as boric acid, or alum or copper sulphate; and in an alkaline bath to remove fatty matter from the fibrous part of the sinews. The sinews are afterwards tanned and disintegrated.

ACID-PROOF GLASS:
See Glass.

ACID-RESISTING PAINT:
See Paint.

ACIDS, SOLDERING:
See Solders.

ACID STAINS FROM THE SKIN, TO

REMOVE
ods.

:

See Cleaning Preparations and Meth-

The more water the Test for Glue. glue takes up, swelling it, the better it is. Four ounces of the glue to be examined are soaked for about 12 hours in a If cool place in 4 pounds of cold water. the glue has dissolved after this time, it is of bad quality and of little value; but if it is coherent, gelatinous, and weighing double, it is good; if it weighs up to 16 ounces, it is very good; if as much as 20 ounces, it may be called excellent.
To Prevent Glue from Cracking. To prevent glue from cracking, which frequently occurs when glued articles are

ACID TEST FOR VINEGAR:
See Vinegar.

ADHESIVES
exposed to the heat of a stove, a little chloride of potassium is added. This prevents the glue from becoming dry enough to crack. Glue thus treated will adhere to glass, metals, etc., and may also be used for pasting on labels.
Preventing the Putrefaction of Strong The fatty matter always existing Glues. in small quantity in sheets of ordinary glue affects the adhesive properties and facilitates the development of bacteria, and consequently putrefaction and deThese inconveniences are composition. remedied by adding a small quantity of The caustic soda to the dissolved glue.

II

V. Soak 1 pound of good glue in a quart of water for a few hours, then melt the glue by heating it, together with the unabsorbed water, then stir in J pound dry white lead, and when that is well mixed pour in 4 fluidounces of alcohol and continue the boiling 5 minutes longer. VI. Soak 1 pound of good glue in 1 \ pints of cold water for 5 hours, then add 3 ounces of zinc sulphate and 2 fluidounces of hydrochloric acid, and keep the mixture heated for 10 or 12 hours at 175 to 190 F. The glue remains liquid and may be used for sticking a variety of
materials.

soda prevents decomposition absolutely; with the fatty matter it forms a hard soap

which renders
I.

it

harmless.

Liquid Glues.

Glue
Gelatin Acetic acid

Water

3 3 4 2

ounces ounces ounces ounces

A very inexpensive liquid glue prepared by first soaking and then dissolving gelatin in twice its own weight of water at a very gentle heat; then add glacial acetic acid in weight equal to the weight of the dry gelatin. It should be remembered, however, that all acid glues are not generally applicaVII.

may be

ble.

30 grains Heat together for 6 hours, skim, and add: 1 fluidounce II. Alcohol

Alum

VIII.

200 parts 400 parts Dissolve by the aid of heat and add:
Dilute acetic acid.
.

Glue

Brown glue, No. 2. Sodium carbonate
Water
Oil of clove

.

.

.

2 pounds 11 ounces 3 pints

Alcohol

Alum
IX.

25 parts
5 parts 5 parts
.

160 minims

Glue Calcium chloride. Water
Sugar
of lead

1 1 1i
1 i

Dissolve the soda in the water, pour the solution over the dry glue, let stand over night or till thoroughly soaked and swelled, then heat carefully on a water bath until dissolved. When nearly cold stir in the oil of cloves. By using white glue, a finer article, fit for fancy work, may be made. III. Dissolve by heating 60 parts of borax in 420 parts of water, add 480 parts dextrin (pale yellow) and 50 parts of glucose and heat carefully with continued stirring, to complete solution; replace the evaporated water and pour

part part

X.

Alum

Gum

arabic
flour
q.
s.

2
1

"

drachms drachms drachms
av. Ib.

Wheat
Water,

Dissolve the gum in 2 quarts of warm water; when cold mix in the flour, and add the sugar of lead and alum dissolved in w ater; heat the whole over a slow fire
r

until

it

through

flannel.

glue made in this way remains clear quite a long time, and possesses great adhesive power; it also dries very quickly, but upon careless and extended heating above 90 C. (194 F.), it is apt to turn brown and brittle. IV. Pour 50 parts of warm (not hot) water over 50 parts of Cologne glue and allow to soak over night. Next day the swelled glue is dissolved with moderate heat, and if still too thick, a little more water is added. When this is done, add from 2 to 3 parts of crude nitric acid, stir well, and fill the liquid glue in wellcorked bottles. This is a good liquid

The

proper consistence. Dilute 1 part of official phosXI. phoric acid with 2 parts of water and neutralize the solution with carbonate of ammonium. Add to the liquid an equal quantity of water, warm it on a water bath, and dissolve in it sufficient glue to form a thick syrupy liquid. Keep in well-stoppered bottles. Dissolve 3 parts of glue in small XII. pieces in 12 to 15 of saccharate of lime. By heating, the glue dissolves rapidly and remains liquid, when cold, without loss of adhesive power. Any desirable consistence can be secured by varying the amount of saccharate of lime. Thick glue retains its muddy color, while a thin
solution becomes clear on standing.

cool, and it to the

shows signs of ebullition. Let it add enough gum water to bring

steam glue.

The

saccharate of lime

is

prepared by

ADHESIVES
dissolving 1 part of sugar in 3 parts of water, and after adding part of the weight of the sugar of slaked lime, heating the whole from 149 to 185 F., allowing it to macerate for several days, shaking

The solution, which has frequently. the properties of mucilage, is then decanted from the sediment. XIII. In a solution of borax in water soak a good quantity of glue until it has thoroughly imbibed the liquid. Pour off the surplus solution and then put on the water bath and melt the glue. Cool down until the glue begins to set, then add, drop by drop, with agitation, enough acetic acid to check the tendency
it

and water 15 parts. Heat for 48 hours on the water bath to 80 C. (176 Thus a syrupy liquid is obtained, F.). which is allowed to settle and is then decanted. This glue has no unpleasant odor, and does not mold. JQX. A glue possessing the adhesive qualities of ordinary joiners' glue, but constituting a pale yellow liquid which is ready for use without requiring heating
parts,

and possesses great resistance to dampness, is produced by treating dry casein
with a diluted borax solution or with enough ammonia solution to cause a The preparafaintly alkaline reaction. tion may be employed alone or mixed with liquid starch in any proportion.

to

solidification.

quite cold, there

after If, is still a tendency

becoming
to

solidification, add a few drops more of The liquid should be of the the acid.

consistence of ordinary mucilage at all times.

XIV.

Gelatin

Cabinetmakers' glue. Alcohol

Alum
Acetic acid, 20 per cent

100 parts 100 parts 25 parts
2 parts

Glue for Celluloid. I. parts shellac, 3 parts spirits of camphor, and 4 in a warm alcohol dissolved parts strong place, give an excellent gluing agent to fix wood, tin, and other bodies to celluloid.
glue must be kept well corked up. A collodion solution may be used, or an alcoholic solution of fine celluloid
II.

Two

The

shavings.

800 parts

Glue to
I.

Form Paper

Pads.

Soak the gelatin and glue with the acetic acid and heat on a water bath until fluid; then add the alum and alcohol. 10 parts XV. Glue 15 parts Water 1 part Sodium salicylate. ... XVI. Soak 5 parts of Cologne glue in an aqueous calcium chloride solution (1 4) and heat on the water bath until
:

Glue

3^ ounces

8 ounces Glycerine Water, a sufficient quantity. Pour upon the glue more than enough water to cover it and let stand for several hours, then decant the greater portion of the water; apply heat until the glue is If the dissolved, and add the glycerin. mixture is too thick, add more water.
II.

dissolved, replacing the evaporating water; or slack 100 parts of lime with 150 parts of hot water, dissolve 60 parts of sugar in 180 parts of water, and add 15 parts of the slacked lime to the solution, heating the whole to 75 C. (167 F.). Place aside for a few days, shaking from time to time. In the clear sugar-lime solution collected by decanting soak 60 parts of glue and assist the solution by

Glue

6

ounces
grains

Alum
Acetic acid

30
11

ounce
6

Alcohol

Water

ounces ounces

Mix
to cool
III.

all

water bath

till

but the alcohol, digest on a the glue is dissolved, allow

moderate heating.
in

Molasses, 100 parts, dissolved 300 parts of water, 25 parts of quicklime (slaked to powder), being then stirred in arid the mixture heated to 167 F. on a water bath, with frequent stirAfter settling for a few days a rings. large portion of the lime will have disclear, white, thick soludecanted, behaves like rubber solution and makes a highly adherent

XVII.

and add the alcohol. 5 ounces Glue 1 ounce Water 1 ounce Calcium chloride.
.

Dissolve the calcium chloride in the water, add the glue, macerate until it is thoroughly softened, and then heat until completely dissolved. IV. Glue 20 ounces 5 ounces Glycerine
1 ounce 50 grains Cover the glue with cold water, and let stand over night. In the morning pour off superfluous water, throw the glue on muslin, and manipulate so as to get rid

solved,
tion,

and the

when

Syrupy glucose. Tannin

.

.

coating.

XVIII. Dissolve bone glue, 250 by heating in 1,000 parts of water, and add to the solution barium peroxparts,

ide 10 parts, sulphuric acid (66

B.) 5

of as much moisture as possible, then put in a water bath and melt. Add the glyc-

through a cloth while hot. One part Para caoutchouc is dissolved in 12 parts benzol. then decant the greater portion of the water. Water-proof glue may also be produced by the simple addition of bichromate of potassium to the liquid glue solution.ADHESIVES erine and syrup. The glue is put in water till it is soft. a sufficient quantity. Use warm. which can still be filtered through a cloth. 4 ounces. macerate until it is thoroughly softened. I. tannin. Soak 1. mixture remain liquid. \ ounce of nitric acid should be added to every pound of This will also prevent the glue glue. uct consisting of Marine glue is a prodshellac and caoutchouc. The solution is little turpentine. and subsequent exposure to the air. This must be used hot. to dry and set on the pads. till but the alcohol. differently according to which is mixed the use for which it is required. stirring constantly and heatPour the finished glue. and the mixture is carefully heated. thinning. Stronger glue is obtained by dissolving 10 parts good crude caoutchouc in 120 parts benzine or naphtha which solution is poured slowly and in a fine stream into 20 parts asphaltum melted in a kettle. boiled in a kettle over the fire. V. and then add linseed oil in the proportion of 1 part oil If it is desired that the to 8 parts glue. Marine Glue. glucose syrup. and heat the whole. if necessary. allow alcohol. add the glue. mixture is too thick. Next. into flat molds. III. solvent has almost evaporated and the . dissolve the tannin in the smallest quantity of water possible and add. Water-Proof Glues. A connection effected with this glue is not dissolved by cold water and even resists hot water for a long time. This mixture must be used hot. Cut caoutchouc into small pieces and dissolve in coal naphtha by heat and 8 ounces Glycerine Water. then slowly add the hot glue solution till a thin paste forms. III. heating the solution until it commences to boil. Glue 15 ounces 5 ounces Glycerine Linseed oil 2 ounces 1 ounce Sugar mass has become quite uniform. digest on a the glue is dissolved. from souring. Glue for Tablets. after the ing. . II. and Glue 6 ounces grains add a Alum Acetic acid 30 ounce if ounces G| ounces Alcohol Water Mix to cool III. The quantity of benzol used as solvent governs the hardness or softness of the glue. 5 ounces 1 . apply heat until the glue is If the dissolved. For use. Mix glue as usual. and an equal quantity of a strong hot solution of Water Calcium chloride. This glue is affected neither by water nor by vapors.000 parts of Cologne glue Vl. these glue tablets are first soaked in boiling water and then heated over a free flame until the marine glue has be- Soak the glue as before. 1 ounce ounce Dissolve the calcium chloride in the water. 2 tablespoonfuls.- Then filter glue and isinglass is added. dissolve 60 parts of sandarac and as much mastic whereupon add 60 parts of white oil of turpentine. Glue. Glue 3^ ounces Add to this solution powagitation. add the sugar and glycerine. in which it solidifies into very hard tablets of dark brown or black color. and subsequently melted in linseed oil at moderate heat. IV. add more water.000 parts of rectified alcohol V. IV. and applied with a brush.. and finally add the oil gradually under constant stirring. Pour upon the glue more than enough water to cover it and let stand for several hours. melt. When used it must be heated to 248 F. Heat the solution before use and employ like ordinary glue. I. II. continuing the heat. II. Next add 100 with some hot water. This can be colored with any aniline dye. 1 pound. come thinly liquid. and add the glycerine. The pieces to be glued are also warmed and a very durable union is obtained. glycerine. 20 parts powdered shellac are added to the solution. Dissolve a small quantity of sandarac and mastic in a little alcohol. in cold water for 12 hours and in another vessel for the same length of time 150 parts of isinglass in a mixture of lamp Then dissolve both spirit and water. and stir well in. Finally. I. masses together on the water bath in a suitable vessel. and then apply heat until completely dissolved. constantly stirring until combination takes place. and give an hour -^o ounce. prepare a rather strong glue solution and add about the like quantity of isinglass. then pour it on metal plates to form sheets. and add the . all water bath Glue. dered shellac. . In 1.

place the softened glue without admixture of water into a clean copper or enamel receptacle. A little borax will tion of tannin. whereby the connecting places are often destroyed. etc. of bichromate of potassium. This glue becomes very hard and resisting. The mixture is kept in a hot place for 48 hours. Soak 3 parts of glue in 8 parts add A part hydrochloric acid and zinc vitriol and let this mixture f part boil several hours. less Although elastic glue is durable than rubber. and their manufacture was very difficult. good glue is The water swells with glycerine and a little salicylic acid cast into molds. The use of glycerine has remedied this. Press the linoleum down uniformly and firmly and weight it for some time. and is not. The strips pasted down ammoniac and must be weighted with boards and brick on top until the adhesive agent has hardened. yet it is cheaper than rubber. and then there are added in the form of a screened powder. then add until soaked for 24 hours is poured off. and give very sharp casts. Coat the floor and II. Ordinary glue is kept in water up without losing its shape. For en trowel or spatula.ADHESIVES parts of linseed oil varnish and filter hot through VII. marine glue. it is painted with plaster outside and with boiled oil inside. During the dissolution the mass must be continually stirred with a wood- Glue for Attaching Gloss to Precious Sandarac varnish. 5 parts. Glue for Paper and Metal. 2 parts of sal 1 part of sulphur flowers. isinglass. 55 parts. and hardens quickly. VIII. but not with water. diluted with water if there is occasion. it qualities and to guard against moisture. A glue will keep well and adhere tightly is obtained by diluting 1. In order to increase the binding thick. Glue for Attaching Cloth Strips to Iron. mass for them once consisted solely of glue and vinegar. Use a mixture of glue. of this take 9 parts. Printing rollers require The greater firmness and elasticity. A mass consisting of glue and glycerine is poured When the mold over the model in a box. Thus softened it is placed in an iron crucible without adding water. is fused with glycerine and cast Similar mixtures are into oil molds. ratus). in the morning pour off the water. used for casting plaster ornaments. and will not stand much heat. which has been superficially dried. which is put on a moderate low fire (charcoal or steam appa- of turpentine. and has removed the liability of moldiness. When the latter has been stirred up well. Melt together equal parts of good pitch and gutta-percha. Bichromate of potassium 40 parts (by weight). Hence it is largely used for printing rollers and stamps. and dextrin which. water. and can then be used many times for making reproductions of the model. Dissolve the glue in a alum. which has been previously cut .200 parts by weight of water and adding 50 parts by weight of pure nitric acid. The mixture may be diluted with a little benzine or oil of turpentine. Swollen glue. in soft water. Spanish white. is well still to add about 50 parts of isinglass. little water and add the bichromate of potassium and the alum. Place this over the fire and stir it till all the ingredients are intimately mixed. consists in that it neither absorbs water nor allows it to pass through. is removed. subsequently removing the glue from the fire. This preparation permits an absolutely permanent gluing of pieces of cardboard. or. white lead. and must be warm when used. like rubber affected by oil colors. is given an admixture Glue to It is afterwards care to stir frequently. 5 parts. boiled to a thick and transparent consistency. The durability is increased by painting the mass with a solu- and linseed oil according to the quantity of the glue and leave this mixture to boil over a slow fire until a gelatinous mass results. better. dissolved in water and heated. about 50 parts of linseed oil varnish (boiled oil) is added to the mass with constant stirring. 5 parts. and the swollen glue is melted and mixed stamps. I. Its chief advantage. If the glue is too it is thinned with diluted spirit.000 parts by weight of potato starch in 1. even when they are moistened by water. 15 parts. IX. however. it linen. drying oil. gelatin glue. taking which Fasten Linoleum on Iron Stairs. the back of the linoleum with this. 5 parts.. As soon as the glue has reached the boiling point. prevent putrefaction. Soak 500 parts of Cologne glue in the evening with clean cold water in a clean vessel. and gives great elasticity without adhesiveness. 5 parts. Such glue unites materials in a It adheres firmly very durable manner. turpentine. and add to it 3 parts of boiled linseed oil and 1 A parts of litharge. Metals. Triturate all to form a rather homogeneous paste. Elastic Glue. add 50 parts of powdered colophony and shake it into the mass with stirring. 5 parts.

and 5 parts. etc. into which enough spirit of wine has been poured to cover all. and heat on the water bath. it is understood waterproof. powdered turpentine 5 parts. Dissolve the glue with the acetic acid. that the exposure to sunlight is to be made after the glue is thoroughly dry. by weight. which are juxtaposed by being made to touch at all parts. Dissolve (a) after soaking. soak 12 hours in 12 fluidounces of cold water. II. giving it a vigorous stirIn ring several times during the day. exceedingly strong. whitish bladder of greasy filled constant stirring. By substituting chrome alum in place of the bichromate. The strips are pressed down with a stiff brush or a wad of cloth. by weight. I.ADHESIVES into narrow strips and placed. and all Articles of a Metallic or Mineral Character. This mixture has the property of becoming insoluble by water through the action of sunlight under partial reduction of the chromic acid. allowing them to dry thvs for 24 hours before the belts are used. of glycerine. in a vessel. and if the article cemented be exposed to strong sunlight for 1 hour. If this substance extracted from the bladder is applied on the fragments of porcelain or any body whatever. to separate them by a blow. stir in (c). and the united parts are subjected to strong pressure. well beaten. add the alum. and gum arabic in a porcelain container. of turpentine. Glue for Uniting Metals with Fabrics. weight. than the cemented seam.named mass is added to the boiling glue with 15 The large shell Glass. so as to permit it to acquire the highest degree of strength and tenacity. For Wood. Then add. white Gum arabic 2 parts 30 parts Boiling water Mix the chloral. about 2 per cent of boracic acid should be added instead of the wood ashes. Belt Glue. Use hot and press the pieces well together during the drying. an olive color is obtained. by weight. Paper. snails which are found in vineyards have at the extremity of their body a small. then the hydrated lime. and add (6). Two (c) ounces bichromate of potassium dis- solved in 8 fluidounces boiling water. With good stirring add. with a substance and gelatinous aspect. homogeneous mass results. of linseed oil varnish and thin with water as required. the last . Cardboard. then the hot glue is applied. (b) Onequarter pound gelatin. then 10 parts. Glass. The one objectionable feature of this cement is its color. This glue is dissolved. and One-half pound strong Use like any other glue. Triturate all well until it forms a homogeneous paste and keep in well-closed flasks. The adhesive agent is now ready for use and is employed hot. which is a yellow- and brown. the glue becomes perfectly Of course. pour off the excess of water. Apply glue only to a surface equivalent to a single strip at a time. they acquire such adhesion that if one strives Glue for Leather or Cardboard. and boiled down to the consistency of that used by cabinetmakers. pour the boiling water over the mixture and let stand for 1 day. gelatin. Use a moderately strong gelatin solution (containing 5 to 10 per cent of dry gelatin). To attach leather to cardboard dissolve good glue (softened by swelling in water) with a little turpentine and enough water in an ordinary glue pot. with constant stirring. Cologne glue of good quality is soaked glue (any glue if color is immaterial. cold weather this is apt to get hard and stiff. by Chromium Glue Cloth. added . and then having made a thick paste with starch in the proportion of 2 parts by weight. but this may be obviated by standing the container in warm water for a few minutes. Take boiled linseed oil 20 parts. hydrated lime 15 parts. When dissolved. they are more liable to break at another place It is necessary to give this glue sufficient time to dry perfectly. This paste adheres to any surface whatever. 5 parts. in a glue pot. The ends of the belts to be glued are cut off obliquely and warmed. it being advisable to warm the iron also. (a) for Wood. soak 2 hours in 12 fluidounces cold water. After (a) and (fc) are mixed Glue Boxes. of dry glue. Flemish glue 20 parts. or Paste for Making Paper Chloral hydrate 5 parts 8 parts Gelatin. of starch powder for every 1 part. alum 5 parts acetic acid 5 parts. mix the compounds and allow the mixture to become cold before application to the cardboard. For tinfoil. white fish glue otherwise). A glue for belts can be prepared as follows: Soak 50 parts of gelatin in water. first. to which about 1 part of acid chromate of potassium in solution is to every 5 parts of gelatin. and finally the turpentine and the boiled linseed oil. sifted wood ashes until a moderately thick. Crystal Natural Glue for Cementing Porcelain.

will be found under Cements. Smear on each face of the parts to be joined. Besides. qualifying it for all sorts of repairing and only presenting the disadvantage of having to be freshly prepared each time. and then melt it by gently heating the oil. fill the handle while hot. . this process has the advantage of great cleanliness. incorporate thoroughly with it one-fifth its Make weight of very fine silver sand. out of the sun's For use. V. notwithstanding any subseheating. qualities that Rosin Sulphur Iron filings 600 150 250 ) } Parts by weight. The whole marble slab is thoroughly warmed laid face down upon a neatly cleaned make it particularly desirable in mendIn using. and insert the instru- Rosin. IX. 12. brickdust Pitch Wood ashes 5 1 1 In mending colored marbles the cement may be given the hue of the marble by adding the color to the borax solution. Tallow III. It is made into a moderately thick paste with water run into the hole in the head of the pestle. pour in a little of the mixture. mix. 15 parts. keeping it under pressure for three or four days. An excellent cement for broken marble consists of 4 parts of gypsum and 1 part of finely powdered gum arabic. and fasten the bits of marble together. Boil together 1 part of caustic soda. hot. likewise warmed. glue quickly plaster of Paris on the glue in a thin even layer. ADHESIVES Raw linseed oil Glue or gelatin Quicklime Soak the glue or gelatin in the oil for 10 to 12 hours. very hard and holds very tenaciously. 8 parts 1 part 2 parts Pour the mixture. 3 parts of rosin. 5 parts. Before this has time to harden tip the respective piece of furniture on the slab. so that a uniform glue-plaster coating is formed on the warm slab. which naturally must have been previously well cleaned. pot in the ordinary way of melting glue. Rosin Beeswax Plaster II. then force the handle well home. VIII. and IV. may be made as follows: n a metal vessel or iron spoon melt 4 to ?uent 5 parts of rosin (or preferably mastic) and 1 part of beeswax. Plaster of Paris is ordinarily used for fastening loose handles. the handle inserted and held in Some add place till the cement hardens.16 Fireproof Glue. sand to the paste. The paste sets in half an hour and is but little affected by water. 3. 10 parts. III. when they are ready for use. into the opening of the heated handle and shove in the knife likewise heated. and set aside for a day before using. IV. Cutlers' I. Melt sufficient black rosin. Putties. the pestle hot. kaolin. the articles to be cemented should be warmed to about the melting point of the mixture and retained in proper position until cool. Make a smooth. and CEMENTS. chalk. Mix intimately. reheat the glue in a glue rays. II. the into the stirring plaster rapidly applied glue by means of a strong spatula. and when perfectly fluid stir in the quicklime until the whole mass is homogeneous. This mixture must be applied rapidly it being of advantage slightly to heat tne surfaces to be united. iron filings. moderately soft paste with litharge and glycerine. then spread out in layers to dry gradually. Next apply to the slab very weak and sift hot hot. Slaked lime. ment. VII. This is best done in an iron capsule placed on a sandbath and heated over a gas furnace or on the top of a stove. and claim to get better results. ) planing bench upon which a woolen cloth is spread so as not to injure the polish of the slab. and firmly press the handle in place. and 5 parts of water till homogeneous and add 4 parts of plaster of Paris. Cement on Marble Slabs. etc. In the course of a few days the cement becomes Cements for Stone. such as dental cements. A cement which dries instantaneously. 'Equal quantities of gutta percha and shellac are melted together and well stirred. 4 pounds 1 Then with a cold solution of borax make into a mortarlike mass. Melt together. Cements used primarily as fillers. will adhere very firmly to the slab after two days. fill the hole in the pestle with the cement. I. pound pound pounds pound pound of Paris or 1 The object mended should not be touched for several days. 5. Cements for Fixing Knife Blades into Handles. sulphur flowers. The combination possesses both hardness and toughness. and immediately before use stir with a corresponding amount of potash water glass. VI. The frame. Under this heading will be found only cements for causing one substance to adhere to another. ing mortars and pestles.

the 1 Rosin Yellow wax Venetian red 5 ounces 1 and 3 parts litharge and 2 parts ground The latter ingredients glass stirred in. During the to a powder. be poured. white lead. or between the joints of which the putty is to Portland cement 2 ounces 1 ounce Prepared chalk Fine sand 1 ounce Solution of sodium silicate enough to form a semiliquid paste. The edges are then stuck together. . Cements Glass. and mixing with 2 parts brickdust. zinc white. Uniting Glass with Horn. viz. To Cement Glass I. must be perfectly dry. 1 part. must be perfectly dry. as well as to cold. tin. It resists water and a moderate degree of follows: preparation it should be stirred All the ingredients used stantly. A recipe for another cement useful for joining small pieces of marble or alabaster is as pint of vinegar to J pint milk. If. not attacked by water. and left to dry for at least 24 hours. 2 The above part. Rosin 1 part Yellow wax 2 parts Melt together. take 20 parts very fine iron filings and 1 part of the To Fasten Brass upon gether above powder. 4 parts. mix the curd with the whites of 5 eggs. (1) A solution of 2 parts of gelatin in 20 parts water is evaporated up to one-sixth of its volume and J mastic dissolved in ^ spirit added and some zinc white stirred in. con- must Add skimmed heat. 1 monia. and snow in winter. If firmness is desired in putting III. Boil 1 part of caustic soda and 3 parts of colophony in 5 parts of water and mix with the like Dissolve and add equal quantity (by weight) of shellac to this solution. alcohol. alcohol. Experience has shown that in these instances the abovementioned cements give better satisfaction than the other brands of cement. be in a finely powdered state. 16 parts. rain. hence i't must be applied quickly.: A compound of 2 parts shellac. Litharge White lead To mend brokCelluloid Cements. For fastening iron to marble or stone a good cement is made as follows: Thirty parts plaster of Paris. and 4 parts strong N quantity of plaster of Paris. 2 parts 1 part Work into a pasty condition by using 3 parts boiled linseed oil. substances must be reduced or slaked lime is used. Glass. hydrocnlorate of amparts. and have been well pulverized and mixed previously. the melted masses are mixed Cement -for sulphur and 1 ounce ounce Melt the wax and rosin on a water bath and add. II. etc. it dries easily and can be kept a long time. When the cement is to be employed. and 5 parts of water. heat. the cement hardens more slowly.. and petroleum. Venetian red previously well dried. Cement for Iron and Marble. 1 part copal varnish. Boil to1 part of caustic soda. Camphor. use 3 parts alcohol and 4 for Attaching Objects to parts ether mixed together and applied to the fracture with a brush until the edges become warm. 3 parts of 3 of rosin. en draughting triangles and other celluloid articles. and sufficient powdered quicklime sifted in with constant stirring so as to form a paste. to Iron. is and the surfaces to which the putty to adhere painted with oil varnish once or twice. One part part rosin are melted separately. The putty is applied warm. parts gypsum. in place of the plaster of Paris. so as to prevent the Venetian red from settling to the bottom.ADHESIVES V. under constant stirring. 3 parts spirit of camphor. (2) Mix gold size with the equal volume of water glass. and which probably can be used to advantage: Flour of sul- 17 is This cement phur. The stones to be cemented. III. 10 parts iron filings. the following gluing agent is recommended. Stir until nearly cool. iron filings. and securely preserved in closely stoppered vessels. To Attach Copper to Glass. A part sal ammoniac mixed with vinegar to a fluid paste fresh for use. they should be warmed a little. The above two formulae are of especial value in case the stones are very much exposed to the heat of the sun in summer. mix them together with enough water to form a manageable This paste solidifies in 20 days paste. and becomes as hard as iron. Sandstones. The cement made in this way hardens in about half an hour. Equally good cement melting together 1 is obtained by part pitch and iV part wax. II. If practicable. VI. well beaten. I. The following is a recipe used by marble worKers. celluloid on wood.

the broken surfaces are painted over with the alcohol until the surfaces soften: then press together and bind and allow to dry for at least 24 hours. forming a uniform paste. The glass must be entirely clean and polished. 1 Linseed oil 3 parts Melt together to a homogeneous mass.18 IV. 2 av. III. Apply hot. Coat the back of the label. In a dark place or a dark room mix with the above a small amount of concentrated solution of potassium dichromate. VI. and use the cement immediately. 2 parts Carpenters' glue. through a piece of old linen. 3 parts Oil of turpentine 2 parts 5 parts Liquefied glue Melt all together on a water bath until well mixed. When this is dissolved a quart of rectified spirof wine is added. Hardrubber articles are never mended to form solution. dry the superfluous gold is washed off . upon Glass. It will dry quickly and become very hard. and when celluloid articles are to be mended. The surfaces to be cemented must first be moistened with water so that the cement will readily adhere. 2 ounces 90 6 to 8 ounces Alcohol. label against the bottle and keep the two in close contact by tying with twine or otherwise. II. Now trace the letters or the design on a piece of paper. and the broken surfaces pressed together and held in place while cooling. Lime White of egg Plaster of Paris av. which must be clean. when it will be perfectly dry. using a clean brush. Mix 100 parts finely powdered white litharge with 50 parts dry white lead. . II. Dilute with water. 2 ounces camphor. corked. Melt together equal parts of The gutta percha and real asphaltum. it a well-corked bottle. lead . 1 av. II. this causes the cement to be insoluble even in hot water. knead together 3 parts linseed oil varnish and 1 part copal varnish into a firm dough. and then add 10 parts slaked boiled oil or turpentine. out with an oily gold mass. and leave the plate in this position for 24 hours. The cement is applied warm and the parts united must not be disturbed until the cement is hard. After 5 minutes hold the glass slightly slanting so that the superfluous mass can run off. upcwi the surface of the glass. Celluloid articles can be mended by making a mixture comof 3 posed parts of alcohol and 4 parts of ether. 5| fl.. Make a moderately strong glue or V.. I. and the medium is prepared in the following manner: One ounce fish glue or isinglass is dissolved in water so that the latter covers the glue. a strong joint. rapidly incorporate the plaster of Paris. When all is lime. and enough water is poured in to make up one-quarter the Cementing Celluloid and Hard-Rubber I. etc... and the accurate design will remain upon The outlines are now filled the gold. To Fix Gold Letters. Seize the gold leaf with a pointed object and place it smoothly upon the prepared mass. ADHESIVES Shellac Spirits of . the letters should be heated to at least the temperature of the cement. III. White lead 1 part to a fine powder. oz. mak ng the holes -^ inch Then place the perforated paper apart. it Water Reduce the lime oz. To make a thorough and reliable job. and it will be attracted by the glass at once. dissolve an equal weight of shellac in such strong camphor This mixture should be kept in whole. Strongly press the . mixed with a little chrome orange and diluted with : ? quart distilled water. Coat the side to be attached with this.. dissolved in water . I. Mastic gum 1 part 2 parts Litharge. Sign-Letter Cements. The paper pattern is then carefully removed. Then add and filter The glass is laid upon a perfectly level table and is covered with this substance to the thickness of J inch. 15 parts Copal varnish Linseed-oil varnish 5 parts Raw turpentine 3 parts Oil of turpentine. and perforate the lines with a thick needle. The pieces must be firmly pressed together and kept in t>his position for about 12 hours. 15 parts Copal varnish 5 parts Drying oil Turpentine (spirits). mix with the white of egg by trituration. solution of gelatin. removing the superfluous cement. The substance must be kept well i Take quart of the best rum ounce fish glue. cement is applied hot. which is dissolved in the former at a moderate degree of I and and ether mixture heat. . and stamp the tracery on with powdered chalk. per cent. Dissolve 1 part of gum camphor in 4 parts of alcohol. oz. oz. Expose to sunlight for some hours. . with a thin layer of the mixture. Articles. 5 parts 10 parts Precipitated chalk IV.

keenly sharpened on one edge. crack is covered with a little glass. powerfully adhesive varnish is obtained. when the pieces are put together they should be pressed warmly. same way off in will usually slick the letters a trice. It takes the cement 2 days to set completely. frequently recommended for cement-ing glass. the employment of water glass is efficacious. sistency with good copal varnish. allowing it to soak down and through the cement. plus cement. a brilliant. or by a piece of parchment or bladder if a widemouthed vessel is under treatment. does not. II. and it will then hold any liquid. When contact with different. close to the under side or bottom of the letters. While boiling. While still hot. observing especial care in getting the mixture well and uniformly laid around In atthe inside edges of the letter. Melt 50 parts of caoutchouc and 50 parts of linseed-oil varnish together. and let cool. in fact. the outside of the and to do this. solution is dry the paper cannot be de- . <rlass I. is to take off the cover and leave the Subvessel to warm for a few hours. and is best applied to surfaces that have been gently warmed. acids and alkaline fluids alone excepted. With a putty knife. By thinning the mixture down with oil of turpentine. Oxalic acid applied in the of moisture The seepage followed by clean water. water glass is. be conCalcium chloride must riot " founded with the so-called chloride of " which is a mixture of calcium hylime pochlorite and other bodies. support the letters while drying by pressing tiny beads of sealing wax against the glass. and then to apply the paper dry." The stone is first brushed with the water glass and afterwards with a solution of calcium chlorThe conditions here are of course ide. firm pressure against the glass around all edges to securely guard against the disruptive attacks of moisture. either by a cork in the case of bottles. The back of the glass is then painted with a suitable color. as is often asserted. Then with a piece of soap sketch the outMake the proper lines of the design. ring. To repair cracked glasses or bottles through which water will leak. first clean the surface of the glass perfectly. under constant stirPass the mixture. but merely form a thick paste. the application being effected in the following easy manner: The vessel is warmed to induce rarefaction of the internal air. Cement for Porcelain Letters. after which the mouth is closed. Good 30 B. . beneath the surface of the letters is the main cause of their early detachment from the glass. W ater 7 (sodium of potassium silicate). little by little. 2 parts. and. Slake 15 parts of fresh quicklime in 20 parts of water. The removal of the letters from the glass may be effected by applying turpentine to the top of the characters. pour the liquid o>n the slaked lime. taching ^he letters to the glass make sure to expel the air from beneath the characters. through muslin. work them up and down and sidewise. ing together process indicated has long been used in the preservation of stone which has become "weathered. and then heated strongly.Glass Cements. sequently rinse it out with lime water. is 19 To Attaching Enamel Letters to Glass. If the weather be at all warm. Care should be taken to spread this product on the glass and not on the paper. and bring the mixture to a boil. some of the commercial varieties will not even dry. to remove any possible lumps. division of the guide lines. Then to the back of the letters apply a cement made as follows: White lead ground in oil. form a vitreous connection between the joined surfaces. makes a Water . a calcium silicate is at once formed which It seems is insoluble in water. leaving no grease or sticky substance of any kind adhering to the surface. to expel any superfluous cement. next remove all the surGive the letters a hard. possible that this reaction may be used in bindThe etc. With a small knife or spatula apply the cement to the back of the letters. water glasses may be used. and the vessel set aside to cool. whereupon the difference between the pressure of the external and internal air will force the cement into the fissure and close it All that is then necessary completely. while still hot. affix enamel letters to glass. dry white Mix to a soft putty conlead. which When the should be done immediately. which has a strong affinity for moisture. and strike off accurately the position each letter is to occupy. of masses sand. 3 parts. suitable for mending articles that are exposed to heat. which To To Fasten Paper Tickets to Glass attach paper tickets to glass. but when dry joint that will resist a great deal of strain.ADHESIVES with water by means of a common rag. it water glass is brought into calcium chloride. however.

Jewelers and goldsmiths require. It adheres best between glass or between precious stones. of alcohol. heat the watch lid and put it on. use it suffices to soften it on the water bath. adding some strong spirit of wine.. the lids are exceedingly thin the enwill always press through. which is allowed to cool and is kept for use. of gum ammoniac. I. be colorless. II. precious " facing diamonds. so called formerly used by Turkish and Oriental jewelers " for setting generally. Dissolve the isinglass in very little water. Finally put on the water bath. evaporate down to 175 parts. as well as for the placing of colored folio under certain stones. Armenian Cement. The hardest cement for fixing on watch lids is shellac. is Dissolve on Jewelers' Glue Cement. JEWELERS' CEMENTS. On Alcohol absolute Alcohol. In this respect however. on the water bath. dissolve. Before use. Now dissolve the ammoniacum in the residue of the dilute alcohol.. Water 60 parts 35 parts 100 parts Casein Cements. Gum 10 parts 20 parts 5 parts by weight. oughly by agitation the whole keeping at a moderate heat. zinc white. and add 10 parts of the dilute alcohol. which must. The celebrated Armenian " cement. After the engraving has been done. and first the solution to the second. solutions of isinglass and mastic are intimately ground together in a porcelain dish. The a good cement for enameled dials. is gum ammoniac spirit of composed as follows: 1 part. mastic varnish 5 parts.. Dissolve the borax in water and incorporate enough casein to produce a mass of the proper consistency. (dry) the shellac on the stick. Next melt mastic and dissolving it in the smallest The two possible quantity of liquid. If this does not remove it completely lay the lid in alcohol. Before cementing it on the inside of the lid." rubies. All that remains to be done now is to wash out the watch lid. etc. The mastic varnish is prepared by pouring a mixture of highly rectified spirit of wine and benzine over finely powdered 10 parts. the other hand. Heat the parts to be cemented. the spirit of wine is driven off and a molten mass remains. and is prepared from: Isinglass galbanum 1 part. . by weight. 50 per cent.ADHES1VES tached. dissolve 2 parts. simply force the lid off and 'remove the remaining shellac from the latter by light tapping. or other pieces: Grind into a fine powder 2A parts of dammar rosin parts of copal. remove the yellow tinge of the cement add a trifle of Berlin blue to the zinc white. If graving which is first allowed to dry. Isinglass (fish glue) ammoniac . sufficient quantity. very adhesive gluing agents. these are distinguished chiefly by the so-called diamond cement and the regular mix thorand then add the solution of gum ammoniac and stir well in. Soak the isinglass Watch-Lid Cement. of mastic in 10 parts. for the cementing of genuine and colored gems. but may also be employed with advantage for laying colored fluxes of The diamond glass on white glass. by weight. The casein is made feebly alkaline by means of soda or potash lye and . as follows: stones. Jewelers' cement is used for similar purposes as is the diamond cement. Cement following is for Enameled Dials. in order not to injure the polish. parts. The mass now has the To consistency of prepared oil paint. in water with admixture of a little spirit of wine and add the solution of the gums in the remainder of the spirit of wine. Add Casein. heat the diamond cement a little so as to soften it. leaving it therein until all the shellac has dissolved. a water bath 50 parts of fish glue in a little 95-per-cent alcohol adding 4 made Mastic gum . It Isinglass 8 parts. using colorless Next add 2 parts pieces if possible. it is coated with chalk dissolved in alcohol. by the aid of gentle heat. cement is of such a nature as to be able to remain for some time in contact with water without becoming soft. the isinglass in the water. Diamond much esteemed by jewelers cefor cementing precious stones and corals. silicate should be someIt is spread on the glass with a rag or a small sponge.. Mix these two solutions and For preserve in a well-corked flask. of Venetian turpentine and enough spirit of wine so that the whole forms a thick To this grind 3 parts of the finest paste. wine 4 parts. the whole is heated until and 2i jewelers' is ment cement. Finally. plates. Borax Water 5 parts 95 parts Dissolve the mastic in the absolute alcohol. The what diluted.

1 For Iron and Marble to Stand in In 3 pounds of water dissolve pound water glass and then 1 of and dried. but this may be obviated by standing the container in warm water for a few minutes. Melt together With the solution borax. 6 For Metals. first. The cement resists the action equal parts of of water. Pasteboard and Paper Cement. and it takes hot water even a long time to affect it. Make a paste with boiled oil. and This should melting on the water bath. Make a paste of casein and II. The following paper boxes: Chloral hydrate Gelatin. produce a volume of glue nearly equal The to that of the solution of gums. VI. put on the water bath and melt. and 50 ounces of white of egg. II. and then mixed with the hot glue solution. plaster III. II. white is recommended 5 parts Gum arabic Boiling water the chloral. Mix pound make 2 as wanted. 6 pounds. and 20 ounces of sand. brickdust 2 pounds. IV. 1 pound. in the meantime. and Metal. pouring and pressing off the residue. nic admixtures to the partially disintegrated casein. heat is kept up until. submitted to the action of formaldehyde pounds. Waterproof Cements for Glass. In cold weather this is apt to get hard and stiff. The cement is waterproof. 1 pound. have been cautiously raised to the boiling point on the water bath. together dry of : Mix pounds. 20 ounces slaked lime. Make a paste of filings. pour and press off the excess. water glass. Alcohol Sandarac Mastic Turpentine oil 1. dry slaked lime. says that experience with pasting or cementto show seems ing parchment paper that about the best agent is casein cement. to accomplish a quicker resinification. lac in 10 times The mixgredients has taken place. by soaking 125 parts of in cold water until it becomes saturated. giving it a vigorous stirring several times during the day. with constant stirring. Paper or other material cemented with this is then immediately. pounds of clay and 1 pound of barytes. Make a paste of 40 ounces of dry slaked lime 10 ounces of alum. first mixed dry. and gum arabic in a porcelain container. Make a paste of boiled oil. litharge. VII. The National Druggist Dissolve shelweight of ammonia. and Whiting. and then stir in 62 i pounds of flour.ADHESIVES then subjected for about 24 hours to a Next follow temperature of 140 F. Dissolve separately in water 55 pounds of glue and a mixture of 40 pounds of bichromate and 5 pounds of alum. before the cement dries. copal. Dissolve 93 ounces of alum and V. sand. 93 ounces of sugar of lead in water to Dissolve separately 152 concentration. Make to a paste with rosin. the customary admixture. This paste adheres to any surface whatever. Dissolve casein in a concentrated solution of borax. Now prepare a solution of equal parts of glue and each isinglass.000 parts 60 parts 60 parts 60 parts for IV. Heat. pour the boiling water over the mixture and let stand for 1 day. in water. 3 pounds. It is said that articles united with this substance will stand the strain of cold water for an unlimited time. but take care not to boil the mass. good pitch and gutta percha. (Chinese Glue). ture is diluted with a little benzine or of turpentine and applied while still warm. cutch. VIII. 1 pound. . Glue to Resist Boiling Water. gelatin. 8 parts 2 parts 30 parts Mix Dissolve the gums in the alcohol and add the oil and stir in. Let pure glue swell in cold water. slight quantities about 1 per cent of gallic acid. I. IX. III. latter should. 6 Paris. Make a paste with 16 ounces casein. 3 pounds. ounces of gum arabic in 25 gallons of water. to a paste. sulphur. white lead. an intimate union of all the inoil even hot. made by dissolving casein in a saturated aqueous solution of borax. To 9 parts of this mass add 3 parts of boiled The linseed oil and ^ part litharge. and finally. I. I. substances For tancontaining tannin are added. 3 pounds. Stoneware. its X. iron boiled oil. Then heat to a uniform paste with the metallic salts. or The quercitannic acid are employed. such as lime and water glass. litharge. copal varnish. For Glass. 3 pounds. feebly alkaline casein cement containing cannic acid is used in the well-known manner for the gluing together of wood. sal ammoniac. 2 pounds.

enough sifted wood ashes until a homogeneous. and add with constant stirring. VIII. This cement will withstand water and dilute mineral acids. V. . Oil of turpentine. Make the following solutions sepX. (86 F. Gutta percha white. kept pressed together until the cement 1. moderately thick mass results. powder in fine Melt the gutta percha very carefully C. stand in a very tightly corked or sealed jar for 14 days. the two liquids rubber has been completely dissolved. applied The hard-rubber goods must be hot. Fasten Rubber to Wood. I. may be mixed. and add 35 parts of oil of turpentine. and add: 15 grains India rubber softens . The shellac clings to the iron and thus forms a firm bond between the iron and the rubber. To LEATHER AND RUBBER CEMENTS. and stir until homogeneous. . Use while still hot. III. or a sufficient time to become dissolved. and dissolve Amalgamate by heat: 100 ounces Gutta percha. When the 30 add the pumice stone. 80 ounces 8 ounces Shellac 2 ounces India rubber 10 ounces Liquid storax IX. which should be warm but not This hot. Further. Amalgamate by heat. This of course must be kept tightly corked. Gutta percha 6 parts 1 part 3 parts it in 140 parts of carbon bisulphide. melt 10 parts of rubber with 15 of colophony. in 9i ounces of strong ammonia. I a cement by macerating virgin rubber. Use a melted mixture of gutta and genuine asphalt. but it quickly evaporates. Venice turpentine. Burgundy pitch .'. apply to both a diluted solution of gutta percha in carbon bisulphide and let this Then solution soak into the material. II. 1 strong water of ammonia. the vessel being placed on a water bath of Pumice stone. filter. India rubber mastic 5 ounces 1 ounce Chloroform Gutta percha India rubber Pitch Shellac 3 ounces 16 ounces 4 ounces 4 ounces 1 1 Linseed oil ounce ounce Dissolve. Dissolve. A cement which is effective for II. with a sharp glass edge. Roughen both surfaces. press upon each surface a skin of gutta percha fa of an inch in thickness between rolls. The two surfaces are now united in a press. Soak good Cologne glue and boil down it so as to give glue. Dissolve pulverized gum shellac. III. Mix 1 ounce of VII. in just enough percha has cooled. Cement for Metal on Hard Rubber. or as pure rubber as can be cut in small pieces. method should answer in all cases in which it is applicable. Cut 30 parts of rubber into small pieces. Gum VI. Then arately (a) and mix: India rubber 5 ounces (b) Chloroform India rubber Rosin Venice turpentine. cementing rubber to iron and which is especially valuable for fastening ber bands to bandsaw wheels is Let it it. leaving the rubber in the same condition as before. By that time the mixture will ent mass become a and applied to rubber the ammonia it. The resulting cement must be kept well corked. to Unite Rubber and Leather. How II. 8 ounces IV. It will not be as clastic as the first preparation.). The other prescription covers cases in which a press cannot be used. 10 ounces Shellac dissolve in bisulphide of carbon. 1 drachm 1 ounce Carbon disulphide. . 140 ounces 5 ounces 2 ounces 1 ounce 20 ounces . ounce. and lastly the pitch. Powdered shellac. When perfectly liquid transparis then ready for use. Make gum ad. as follows: Put' the shellac in the ammonia water and set it away in a tightly closed jar for 3 or 4 weeks. Use warm and fit the pieces well together while drying. the consistency of joiners' oil of turpentine with 10 ounces of bisulphide of carbon in which as much gutta percha as possible has been dissolved. Amalgamate by heat: 100 ounces India rubber 15 ounces Rosin . Fuse together shellac and gutta percha in equal weights.ADHESiVES JQ. India rubber 4 ounces Gutta percha 2 ounces Isinglass Bisulphide of carbon 32 ounces 1 rub- made part. shaking the mixture naphtha or gasoline to cover daily. 10 parts. the leather and the rubber.

The user must not overlook the great inflammability and exceedingly volatile nature of the carbon bisulphide. This cement should be used warm and the jointed leather pressed tightly together for 12 hours. gum lac. Caoutchouc. Sometimes a small quantity each of sulphur and red lead is added (about 1 part of each to 20 parts of cement). cut it up in small bits. the sulphur and red lead.. etc. The II. Glue Starch paste 1 1 ounce 2 ounces India rubber Turpentine 15 grams 2 ounces ^ drachm Chloroform Mastic ounce the india rubber and chloroform together. let macerate a few days. but will unite rubber to almost any substance. If the preparation is thinner than this let it stand. and 75 to 85 parts of mastic to 100 . 32 parts Dissolve the caoutchouc in the carbon disulphide.'ue in sufficient water with heat. is prepared by dissolving gutta percha. benzoin. . open. then mash with a palette knife to a smooth paste. a sufficient quantity. Oil of turpentine . IV. powdered Carbon disulphide . in some convenient solvent like carbon disulphide.. ether. at a gentle heat equal parts of gutta percha and asphalt. the former solution are mixed with 1 . Cements for Leather. or until the asphalt is dissolved. finely Mix and 100 parts 15 parts 10 parts dissolve. 16 ounces lish patent and is recommended for patching cycle and motor tires. I. chloroform. then oil add: chopped Rosin Shellac. s.ADHESIVES Cement for Patching Rubber Boots and Shoes. The castor Carbon q. however. is dissolved in the carbon disulphide and To the solution add the turpentine oil. tions. The most favorable proportions are as follows: Gutta percha.. . Raw gutta percha. . . for a few Articles to be patched should days. add the turpentine. Soak for one day 1 pound of . and 1 pound of isinglass in ale droppings. add to it 15 parts of rosin and 10 parts of gum lac. india rubber. insulatj Eau de Cologne. Then mix together and heat gently until At this paint add a little boiling. the mastic is added in powder. A cement used to fasten bicycle may be made by melting together prevents the cement tires I. III. Apply hot. The best solvent.Water. etc. . I. It is then allowed to stand a week or two before using. The vessel in which the solution is made in both instances above must be kept tightly closed. not only unite leather to leather. 10 parts gutta percha. add the rubber. III. Tire Cements. caoutchouc. mix the starch paste with water. Castor ounce oil . II. then add. etc.. A waterproof cement for leather caoutchouc. 2 ounces This cement is the subject of an Eng. and should have frequent agitawill This . ( i The formula rec- ommended by Edel is as follows: From 5 to 8 parts of parts of ether. from becoming hard and brittle. IV. add water. disulphide. . tannin and keep boiling for an our. in the case of gutta percha. 72 ounces ing electric wires. . Use while hot.. asphalt and set away for several days. Carbon bisulphide. and finally mix with the glue while hot. . or alcohol. II. finely cut 4 parts India rubber. III.. 200 to 300 parts to 100 parts of the solvent. with constant stirring. and dissolve it in sufficient carbon bisulphide. to dissolve. and when dissolved. A good thick shellac varnish with which a small amount of castor oil has been mixed will be found a very excellent bicycle rim cement. The cement should have the consistency of honey. or balata. 20 parts 50 parts Take 100 parts of crude rubber or caoutchouc. is carbon disulphide and ether for mastic. shredded fine.. The following is recommended as very good for cementing pneumatic tires to bicycle wheels: Shellac 1 1 Mix Gutta percha Sulphur ounce ounce Red lead 45 grains 45 grains Melt together the shellac and gutta percha. first be washed with benzine. finely cut 1 part Carbon disulphide . Dissolve the g. If the glue and isinglass when Eure mixed are too thick. mastic. Gutta percha 20 parts Syrian asphalt.. Shellac 1 ] Alcohol pound pint India rubber.common glue in enough water to cover.

2 ounces weigh t. Make a paste of litharge and glycV. Melt together first the caoutchouc and rosin. 2 parts. Gutta percha. Caoutchouc Chloroform 10 ( p rts Lime 180 ounces 45 ounces 8 ounces 280 I XIL 140 ounces 20 ounces 25 ounces Sand 3 ounces Sal ammoniac. a make a Mix equal weights of zinc XIII. glue de nerfs (of sinews). ether. Mix by sifting and keep as a dry powder in a closed tin box. It is to be applied warm. V. of powdered! iron. shellac. the cement is then applied as thickly as required. Copal varnish. and is used in socalled art work with leather. Mix: Iron filings Hydraulic lime . add of turpentine to preserve is enough it of oil second solution ing together: prepared liquid. CEMENTS FOR METALS AND FOR ATTACHING VARIOUS SUBSTANCES TO METALS: Cements for Iron. chloroform. linseed oil.ADHESIVES part of the latter. by dissolv- A XL Borax Black oxide manganese Mix: Iron Salt filings 1 ounce ounce of . 3 parts. or similar gum. 10 parts of glue. Either of these last two mixtures is made into a paste with strong vinegar . 1 part. 160 ounces 80 ounces 16 ounces 8 ounces Alum 2 ounces Sal ammoniac. The IX. and powdered borax. This cement Graphite Whiting Litharge will harden in 5 50 pounds days. pitch. . make into a thin paste with strong sulphuric acid and press together immedi- rubber. cement 15 pounds 15 pounds Make to a paste with a boiled oil. solids to small pieces. Make iron filings to a paste with VII. This also does for stone. chloroform. Dissolve and add gum mastic (powder) 1 part. just before use. 15 parts. II. and with leather articles which are made of several pieces. pipe clay. oxide and black oxide of manganese into a paste with water glass. . or boil very cautiously on the water bath. 16 parts. The fol- lowing formulas have been recommended: I. Make a paste of white lead and asbestos. erine. 2 parts. Oil turpentine. melt together with the oil and mix well. ately. 10 parts of rye flour. IV. and III. gutta percha india thick paste. and black oxide of manganese. Make a solution of 200 to 300 parts of caoutchouc. 2 parts. or in a vessel fitted with a water jacket. Wash the hole in the rubber shoe over with the cement. equal parts of white lead. Iron X. Sal ammoniac.. Rubber Cement for Cloth. and the mixture is then boiled on the water bath.. II. Caoutchouc. ber. Use hot water as the boiling agent. 5 parts. sal ammoniac. Forty parts of aluminum acetate. mark applies to both the following dry recipes: following cement for mending rubber shoes and tires will answer similar purposes: Caoutchouc in shavings . benzoin. 60 parts. This is an excellent for leather. and the flour stirred into the solution. good cement for iron on To make iron. 10 B. For use these two solutions are mixed. or else the glue is to be dissolved in the aluminum acetate. dry white lead 6 parts. of equal volume and boil together. then a piece of linen dipped in it is placed over it. 1 part. Red lead may be added. 6 parts. 2 ounces Sulphur 32 ounces Iron filings Make as much as is to be used at once This reto a paste with a little water. with water.. Use while fresh. 5 parts. in 1. water glass. then add the gum turpentine. To use. VI. .. or alcohol.000 parts of carbon disulphide. and sulphur flowers. 10 ounces Clay 4 ounces Iron filings filings Lime Red lead Salt 1 when all is liquefied. Make a paste of boiled oil of VI. These materials are either to be simultaneously mixed and boiled. fat drying oil s 5 parts. and of this add 5 to 8 parts to a solution of mastic (75 to 125 parts) in ether 100 parts. hydrated lime.. 4 ounces VIII.. Sulphur flowers. XIV. III. I. 10 } p arts Rosin 4V by 'Gum turpentine 40 ) weight... . 10 parts. as soon as the linen adheres to the sole. india rub4 parts. 1 Reduce the part. enough.

and weight. When thoroughly it out of the water and put it into 5 drachms of spirits of wine. cement when water in a bottle closely stoppered. and moisten the mixture with a compound of equal parts of water and alcohol of 95 per cent until a paste results. surfaces are sufficiently large. Take a piece of gum ammoniacum the size of drachms soaked take a large pea little it and grind it up spirits of wine and finely with a isinglass until Cement for Leather and Iron. cardadhere to metals. 2 parts. flour. if a cement for cast iron. pulverized and sifted are incorporated with linseed oil in the proportion of half a kilo of oil to 3 kilos of The Romain or the mingled powder. 2. with sulphuric acid of a specific gravity of 1. and 1 ounce sulphur. 3 parts. 2 parts. 250 parts. then be placed on the pulley and dried common pound of fish glue and % pound of glue. found most convenient to place the vessel on a hot-water bath. Although its adhesive qualities are unquestioned. clay.. glass. essence of turpentine. Keep this melted in a mixture of The leather should alcohol and water. and is to be used. and PorceA soft alloy is prepared by mixing lain. When ready to use well and keep dry. gum arabic. . powdered fish glue. de nerjs on the water bath. is excellent to etc. it Cements for Fastening Porcelain to Mix equal parts of alcohol Metal. 3 parts. but when heated to 2 parts 2 parts 1 part 1 part These dust. even for very large iron vessels. and make a paste by incorporating the liquid with 300 parts of finely pulverized chalk and 250 parts of starch. put all on the fire. for Metal. 2 ounces Mix sal ammoniac. 500 parts by weight. and will fix them firmly together on cooling.000 parts by weight. A cement for iron which is said to be perfectly waterproof and fireproof is made by working up a mixture of equal weights of red lead and litharge with glycerine till the mass is perfectly homogeneous and has the consistency This cement is of a glazier's putty. glue is used cold. make wood. water. for instance. powdered turpentine. I.85 in a cast-iron or porcelain mortar and incorporating by stirring with 75 parts of mercury. the acid being afterwards removed by washing with water. XV. with powdered starch. it can be kneaded like wax. place it in hot until dissolved. Litharge Boiled linseed White lead oil Copal Heat together until of a uniform consistence and apply warm. iron filings. and triturate intimately. essence of Dissolve the glue turpentine. take 1 part of this powder to 20 parts of XVI. 46 parts by alum. from 30 to 36 parts of copper precipitated in the form of a fine brown powder. Dissolve 1 drachm of gum mastic in 3 drachms of spirits of wine. IV. In a separate vessel containing water soak 3 Acetate of lead. take 16 ounces cast-iron borings. 46 parts by weight. adding a little water. 15 parts. To make a cast-iron borings and mix thoroughly into stiff paste. 76 parts by weight. dissolved. To face a cast-iron pulley with leather apply acetic acid to the face of the pulley with a brush.ADHESIVES powdered turpentine. on the other hand dissolve the gum arabic in water by pouring. Dissolve the acetate of lead and the alum in a little water. there are undoubtedly American cements equally as good. add all the other substances. 3 parts. which can be recommended consists in mingling equal weights of chalk. board. 10 parts. XVII. the 2 liters of boiling water on the gum arabic When the gum has reduced to powder. Cement or plaster can be used II. In from 10 to 14 hours the amalgam becomes harder than tin. (95 per cent) and water. under pressure. and Romain cement. III. 3 parts. is the better article when the object may be exposed to moisture or A process subjected to much pressure. ocher. In this condition it is applied to the surface to be cemented. Mix finely powdered burned lime. 300 parts. and then when dry apply a cement made of 1 has dissolved. of isinglass. Cement 692 F. agitate well so as to prevent any lumps from forming. and to be unsurpassable for stopping up cracks in large iron pans of steam pipes. brick- the cement Romanic cement is so designated from the district in France where the calcareous stone from which it is prepared is found in considerable quantity. said to answer well. Then mix the whole It will be together with sufficient heat. which will roughen it by rusting. retire from This the fire before allowing to boil. materials. Glass. then add the solution of acetate of lead and the alum. add the flower. XVIII. does not peel off. Copal varnish. and stir well with a piece of wood.

III. etc. plaster of Paris. 2 pounds.. Moisten the pieces to be joined with caustic potash and press them toThe union is so gether when warm. To solder to- Acid-Proof Cement for Wood.. Mix.. IX. them intimately by tying IV. VIII. china clay. Spread a white cloth over the mending table and supply it with plenty of clean linen rags. I. tion of the rosin over the amber. 2 parts Ground baryta 1 part Sodium water-glass solution quickly. II. but very slightly. and plaster of Paris. and narrow white tape. Mix silicate soda to a paste with ground glass. 2 parts nitric acid the Dissolve in a closed bottle 75 parts of cut-up caoutchouc in 60 parts of chloroform. well with the glue. or pressing. 4 pounds. 2 pounds. the following mixture will be found to possess . glass. gether I. pipe clay. 2 pounds. Mix boiled oil to a paste with III.ADHESIVES Amber Cements. not to name casts. Mix boiled oil to a paste with V. tallow. IV. If the cement is wanted to set to set. use silicate of potassium. every 2 pounds. add half a pint of gin. slip will on rubber bands length. Mix with the aid of heat: Rosin. Unite the fractures and press them together firmly until the mixture is dry. red ocher. strong rubber bands. Fuse 100 pounds of india rubber with 7 pounds of tallow. require each a different cement in fact. several different cements. X. especially along the break. and before using strain VII. Broken glass. boiled oil. pipe clay. still more resistant powers: In 30 parts by weight of copal dissolve 30 parts by weight of alumina by means of a water bath.. Put 2 ounces of isinglass in a clean. Glass may be beautifully mended to look at. using a camel's-hair Fit the break to a nicety. Coat both fractures. then bring the two pieces together two Powdered asbestos . If hot acids are dealt with. II. and set in the sun until dissolved. Silicate of sodium (50 Baume) 2 parts 1 part Fine sand 1 part Asbestos Both these cements take a few hours Acid -Proof Cements for Stoneware and Glass. 24 pounds. quicklime. Mix coal tar to a paste with IV. is also employed for this purAnother medium is a solution pose. II. soluble in alcohol. squeezing very gently. Mix with the aid of heat: Rosin. Shake well every day. Then make to a paste with dry slaked lime and finally add 20 pounds of red lead. Wash the broken glass very clean. be instantly effective and possesses the same power of resistance as the other. instead This mixture will of silicate of sodium. Add 15 parts of mastic and let the mixture stand in the cold until all has dissolved. bric-a-brac. at once. also a basin of tepid water and a clean soft towel. Asbestos Sulphate of barium. If . 2 parts By mixing these ingredients a cement strong enough to resist the strongest nitric acid will be obtained. 100 pounds. with this solution and endeavor to combine Sand Asbestos Mix. Bric-a-Brac. slightly heat the parts to be united and moisten them with a solution of caustic soda. . For clear glass the best cement is isinglass dissolved in gin. Directions for Repairing Broken Glass. and picture frames. rosin. Mix with of the aid of heat equal weights of pitch. pieces of yellow amber. phur. I. 2 parts 1 part 1 part 2 parts 3 parts Silicate of sodium . To withstand hot is following used: water-glass so- Sodium lution III. then pencil. Metals. 2 pounds. widemouthed bottle. Porcelain. sulphur. Bathe the surface to be cemented with this gelatinous liquid. Thicken with ground rosin. china.. 4 pounds. they not hold true as upon a stemmed way they will hold.and cross- wise. brickdust. Mix with the aid of heat: SulVI. but seldom so as to be safely used. Thicken with 12 pounds of through double lawn. but take care not to Wet both broken edges chip it further. Mix with the aid of heat 2 of india rubber and 4 pounds of pounds boiled oil. 8 pounds. of hard and very finely powdered copal in pure sulphuric ether. perfect that no trace of the juncture is A concentrated alcoholic soluvisible. previously well cleaned.

dust well with the plaster. Sift the plaster three times and tie a generous and saucers. remove the melted rosin with a cloth dipped in alcohol. tie pinch of it loosely in mosquito netting. With several lamps to mend wet enough plaster for one at a It takes less time. A cup broken. can have the tape passed around it. For luting vessels made of glass. and the broken bit can Meerschaum. pressed firmly together. and excellent cement for joining broken crockery and similar small articles can be made by melting 4 or 5 parts of rosin (or. Leave in After a week the suthe box 24 hours. by winding a twine tightly around them. use a very soft towel. using rubber bands if possible. the parts firmly together. so as to press in place the upper part of a broken thing to which the tapes have been fastened. tie. runweights. a box of handy size with 8 inches of clean. and pat the vessel dry with due regard to its infirmities. cover both with the beaten egg. and tie the tape about neck or base before be slapped on. taking care that the break lies so that the sand will hold it together. fit together at once. rings ning from an ounce to a quarter pound. if the pressure has been great enough to force out the tiny bubbles. But it will not bear to have any sort of liquid left standing in it. as is so common with cups. until the cement has hardened. to prop and stay topheavy articles and balance them so they shall not get out of kilter. III. Since breakables have so unhappy a General Formulas for Cements for Repairing Porcelain. Then beat the egg until it will stick to the plaster. perfluous plaster may be gently scraped away. Given time enough to harden (some 3 months). Glassware. ery. r may set in place. a vase or jug or scent bottle. thus with all their strength the bands The bands can the break together. may be used to hold dry things as rose leaves. if In glass mending the greater the pressure the only it stops short of the breakProperly made the isinglass cement is as clear as water. tion to it is that it always shows in a A better cement for staring white line. plates fine It is the same with beginning the gluing. Have everything ready before wetting up the plaster. gum mastic) with 1 part of beeswax in an iron spoon or similar vessel. tapes are tied to the rings. Have the broken egg very clean.ADHESIVES thing. An and stoneware is obtained by mixing 20 parts of fish glue with an equal weight of crystallizable acetic acid and evaporate the mixture carefully to a syrupy consistency so that it forms a gelatinous mass on cooling. in fact. and the pair of weights swung outside the edges of the box. lay the stick of solder above the break. nor to be washed beyond a quick In w iping always rinsing in tepid water. But very where an invisible seam is pieces wanted should be held firm until partly of these set. Mend a lamp loose in the collar with sifted plaster of Paris mixed to a very soft paste with beaten white of egg. Two of each weight are needed. ground in linseed oil. fine china is white of egg and plaster. one needs a sand box. then have the pair of heaviest weights accurately balanced across the broken The weights are also very useful piece. then be set firmly in the sand. None hold anything mendable. Metal work apart from the glass needs the soldering iron. and work quickly so it better ing point. face down. better still. Crock- knack of fracturing themselves in such fashion they cannot possibly stand upIt is only right. It will not stand great heat. The sand will hold them firm. I. it makes a seam The objecpractically indestructible. After the parts are joined slip another tape through the same bands and tie it above the fracture. and bury head and ears in the sand box. violet powder. coarse sand in the bottom. string half a dozen bands of the same size and strength upon a bit of tape. which otherwise refract the light and make the line of cleavage Mended glass distressingly apparent. sachets. Along with it there should be some small leaden in with cast them. crossing inside the handle. Set broken platters on edge in the sand box with the break up. An excellent cement for porcelain II. and be held by the hanging weights pulling one against the other. and fetch the iron down on it lightly but firmly. Dust the break well with powdered rosin. Eull e used thus on casts of china to commonly requires weighting. Apply while hot. The most dependable cement for china is pure white lead. set. even candies and fruits. When the solder cools. Plaster. In use. wrap loosely in very soft tissue paper. When the pieces fit true one on the other the break should be hardly visible. so thick it will barely spread smoothly with a knife. . For use the cement thus obtained is made liquid again by heating and applied to the fracture with The pieces should now be a brush. than 5 minutes to and is utterly worthless if one tries working it over.

and an indifferent powder (permanent white. the strengtn of the cement. many purposes it ought to be welcome to have such a mass at hand. continuing the heat and While still hot strain the stirring well. . etc. It cannot be kept ready for use.) is recommended. isinglass in cold water over night. q. however. without slagging in the least. Bind the parts securely together. however. without detracting from the plasticity. etc. with very strong mineral acids. Canada balsam is employed. . To begin with. Take 1 ounce of Russian isinVI. silicate of potash is excelplates. 20 parts. 4. Stir well together or mix by agitation. 20 parts. the hardened mass becomes soft again and falls apart. and bruise well. and let remain without loosening or attempting to use the article for 2 or 3 days or longer. to be tested afterwards. Next dissolve ^ ounce of mastic in 4 ounces of alcohol. 2. if potash water glass is used.ADHESIVES which are to be used to hold strong acids. IV. 50 parts 4 parts 2 parts 10 parts Alcohol. 95 per cent . the mass can be made less fat.). or until it has become swollen and soft throughout. is one that requires the application of heat before use. Later on. as this injures its adhesive properties (the same may be said in regard to glues and gelatins of all kinds). etc. be kept glowing in a Bunsen gas flame for about half a day after treatment with For acid. By an addition of fine writing sand of the same weight as the asbestos used. Cement for Glass. fluid. a mixture of asbestos powder. 100 . and leave it in a warm place for from 24 to 48 hours. the objects to be united should also be heated to a point at least as high as the melting point of the cement. The mass is also highly fireOne of the molded bodies can proof. water glass. etc. Brought into contact. glue. which clogs up the pores entirely and contributes to the lutation. For optical glasses. centrated nitric acid was kept in such small vessels without the mass being visibly attacked or anything penetrating The action of the acid manifestly it. Both surfaces to be joined must be absolutely clean. s. lent. as it hardens a few hours after being prepared. in a great measure. this induration takes place still more quickly. but is not very well suited for working. so as to obviate shrinking. free from dust. porcelain. other glass articles which require only simple treatment. Evaporate the resulting solution to about 3 ounces. The thinner the layer lasting joint. the mass cannot be dissolved by pure water any more. asbestos powder is made into a pulp with three or four times the quantity (weight) of a solution of soda water glass (of 30 The same is exceedingly fat and B. Put in water. and add the mastic solution to the isinglass in small quantities at a time. glass acetic acid. using too much of the binding material. and hang it up in such a way that any free residual water will drain away. Isinglass (fish glue) Gum ammoniac Gum mastic Water. place it in the water bath and heat carefully until it becomes punctures will form. . has the effect that silicic acid is set free from the water glass in excess. Small vessels were molded from it and dried in the air. of cement the stronger the joint. VIII. the two pieces being firmAfter a while. glass. etc. A liquid cement ac- quires its full strength only after evaporation of the fluids used as solvents. plastic. manner the thinnest possible layer is secured. Otherwise. cut in small pieces. and this can occur only from the infinitesimal line of exposed surface. The following precautions must be observed: 1. Cover both surfaces to be united. cially by humidity. Where the cement dirt. Upon doing this thoroughly depends. sand. Liquid Porcelain Cement. ly pressed together. Dissolve in 150 Glass Cement. espe- morning throw and throw the isinglass on a clean towel or other coarse cloth. being careful not to let it come to a boil. VII. and letting it cool down to about 160 F. therefore. as it shrinks too much and cracks when drying. then add 6 ounces of warm water. heat together until the mass gelatinizes on cooling. Dissolve the gums in the alcohol and add the solution to the gelatin after removing the same from the water bath. such as knobs of covers. and the glass is separated by a mist of varying reflexes. the cement on application is chilled and consequently fails to make a 3.. instead of the soda 'iomposition. and press In this together as closely as possible. When the gelatin has become thoroughly drained put it into a flask or other container. Fish V. parts of acetic acid of 96 per cent. avoid. coapt them exactly. grease. while in certain climates For all the heat will melt the balsam. In the off any superfluous fluid Soak the liquid through muslin. it becomes even firmer and Conwithstands the liquid perfectly. Porcelain..

3 parts 1 part Copal varnish . This cement must be preserved it in absolutely tight bottles. and the mixture is then kept in the dark. 67 ounces of chloroform. and 40 ounces of mastic. Some preparations resist the ac- tion of heat and moisture a short time. to yield an excellent cement. DisX. and when thoroughly mixed is XIII. insoluble in water. being reliquefied by gentle heat. sufficient. celain is of india rubber. mix in the proportions indicated (150 parts of the powder to 4 parts of the liquid) and knead well together. must be b. To make a transparent cement for glass. 5 parts. By this exposure the cement becomes insoluble. To Mend Wedgwood Mortars. is made thus: Ten parts of caoutchouc or india rubber are dissolved in 120 parts of benzine or petroleum naphtha. and add ammonium bichromate. and then to pour off the remainder. The pieces are then firmly pressed together and left undisturbed for several The less cement is used the better da. powdered and elutriated 20 parts 60 parts Silicate of soda XVII. with Reduce the first two ingredients to a very fine powder and mix them well. The following cement for glass has proven most resistant to liquids and heat: Silver litharge . which holds the finest The mixture particles in suspension. easy enough to mend mortars so that they may be used for making emulsions and other light work which does But not tax their strength too much. with water allowing the coarser particles to deposit. and use the pasty deposit which remains for smearing the edges dries rapidly and is It of the articles. 200 parts of powdered rosin. the fractured pieces being tightly clamped together. which is best done by shaking each in fine powder. Glass flour elutriated... Apply to the edges of the glass. cut into small pieces. digest together for a week in the cold 1 ounce of india rubber. to this add 15 parts green mastic.000 parts 50 parts Boiled linseed oil. become thoroughly dis- XV. XII. will the articles hold together. joint very strong. the bichromate in the remainder. A good cement for mending mortars is the following: a. in a quarter of an hour decant. Let the bottle stand in the cold until the transparent cement for porprepared by dissolving 75 parts A ingredients have solved. This at once applied. XVI. and the liquids mixed. bind the broken parts together. solve 100 parts of fish glue in 150 parts of 90 per cent alcohol and add.. Neither changes of temperature nor moisture affect the cement. each applying the cement to one portion.. moisten the two surfaces to be united with a small quantity of white of egg to make them adhesive. as very quickly. This glue must be kept away from the light. solidifies XI To unite objects of crystal dissolve 8 parts of caoutchouc and 100 parts of gum mastic in 600 parts of chloroform. is then exposed to a strong light for some time. To reunite plaster articles dissolve small pieces of celluloid in ether. This is waterproof cement for glass. 10 parts Fluorspar.. part White of egg. IX. XIV. A mixture of traumaticin. two persons should do this. said Freshly burnt plaster of Paris 5 parts 1 Freshly burnt lime .. White glue Potassium bichromate 10 parts 2 parts Water 100 parts The glue is dissolved in a portion of the water by the aid of heat. It is applied in feeble light. It is Both glass and fluorspar must be in the finest possible condition.. needed for use. the mixing being done in a feebly lighted place. White lead . and preserve separately..ys. but generally yield very quickly. but it is transparent.ADHESIVES parts of gelatin by the use of heat. colored cement. must be made very rapidly by quick stirring. Diamond Glass Cement. Set aside. 1. Mix the lead and litharge thoroughly. then apply with a brush. they are large. a mended mortar will hardly be able to stand the force required for powdering hard substances. This . If there is no objection to darkc. a solution of caoutchouc in chloroform. the very best that can be used is probably marine glue. cold.. and a concentrated solution of water glass make a capital cement for unitNot only is the ing articles of glass. hermetically closed. and the oil and copal in the same manWhen ner. for 8 days. with constant stirring. and let stand for from 24 to 48 hours. in a bottle containing 60 parts chloroform. then mix the powder very rapidly with the white of egg and apply If the mixture to the broken surfaces. and the glass.

For composition. II. This should be poured off. into the mass. obtained by levigation. under constant stirThe edges of ring. strength. and to prevent it from being burnt it is best to heat a capsule containing a piece of it first on a water bath until the cake softens and begins to be liquid.ADHESIVES When the sothe aid of a gentle heat. washed and cleaned casein 12| parts of boiled linseed oil and the same amount Boil. As is well known the mixture of this powder with the liquid into a soft uni- The induration to diately before use. use potassium silicate instead of sodium silicate. By subsequent treatment with a solution of calcium chloride the mass may be made insoluble. if possiF. Bring the parts as closely together somewhat. as. as possible and fasten in this position. oils. The pure makes a joint that will stand any ordi- nary treatment. of borax in a very small of hot water and mix this with of a highly concentrated zinc part.. It forms dark brown or black cakes. This cement requires considerable heat to melt it. to which . thinner the cement is applied the better it instantly same effective. A cheap and excellent cement. according to the shade desired. very hard when dry and of very considerable tensile petroleum. This mixture will be then carefully wiped dry and heated over a naked flame. or other vessels intended to hold corrosive acids. porcelain.5 to 1. may be made into a cement which will stand a high degree of heat by simply mixing it with a solution of sodium silicate. properly done. add a small amount of a saturated aqueous solution of alum. Meerschaum Cements. Mix 1 part of finely ground glass powder. the following mixture will I. is composed of casein and some tannic-acid compound. which sometimes laquires from 10 to 14 days. for instance. Have ready some boiling fresh milk. place the article in it and continue the Remove and boiling for 30 minutes. 20 parts of asphalt are melted in an iron vessel and the caoutchouc solution is poured in very slowly in a fine stream and under continued heating. Asbestos Barium sulphate be found to possess powers : still more resistant II. this white color of the powder may be tinted with ocher. Rub this paste over each surface to be united and join quickfresher the chloride solution of 1. powdered magnecement looking fluid will separate and rise. etc. Ground asbestos Asbestos Cement. a stonelike mass takes place within a few minutes. and possesses the power of resistance as the other. etc. insoluble after drying in water. lution is complete. silicate of calcium being formed. Mix ings with sia albumen very fine meerschaum shayor dissolve casein in stir finely water glass. up to about 300 F. carbon disulphide. A cement said to stand a high degree of heat and to be suitable for cementing glass. by quantity 50 parts two of garlic (the better) by removing all the outside hull of skin. Parisian Cement.).. rubbed to a thick cream with egg albumen. at once. If let cool slowly. etc. until the mass has become homogeneous and nearly all the It is then solvent has been driven off. the article to be mended should. ble. which are very hard to break. Stir actively and of castor oil. If the cement is wanted to set at once. If the ma- genuine (natural) meerschaum a lasting joint can be made between the parts by proceeding as follows: Clean a clove or prepare a solution of 1 weight. terial is I. throw into a little mortar and mash to a paste. To the residue add 120 parts of rock candy syrup and 6 parts of dextrin. are dealt with. Pour over wellStrong Cement. Sodium silicate 2 parts 1 part Fine sand 1 part Asbestos powder Both these cements take a few hours to set. use a cement made of quicklime. sides Be- binds.. and is nearly invisible. manganese. calcium tannate. with 3 parts of finely powdered zinc oxide rendered perfectly free from carbonic acid by calcination. and use the This hardens quickly.6 specific gravity. or by extraction from vegetable sources (as barks from certain trees. and is prepared as follows: First. remove from the After a while a milky fire and set aside. is this one: A Cheap and Excellent Cement. the admixture of borax retarding the solidification form paste is accomplished only imme- ly. It is 2 parts 3 parts Sodium silicate 2 parts By mixing these ingredients a cement strong enough to resist the strongest If hot acids nitric acid will be obtained. a tannin solution is prepared either by dissolving a tannin salt. also be heated to at least 212 so as to permit the cement to be apThe plied at leisure and with care. poured out and cast into greased tin molds.

). the consistency of the preparation depending upon the use to which finest it is rated from its precipitate.6 F. of fish glue with equal parts of whey and Substitute for Cement on Grinder Disks. is milled into the consistency of the : : der Linseed oil. of garlic in paste form and boil the whole on the water bath. white sugar. by weight. If 1 part of thymol be mixed with 2 parts of ipdoform we obtain a substance that retains its fluidC. in its liquid condition. Dissolve the gum arabic in a little water. This powder has now only to be mixed with water to be ready for use. finally. 3 parts 8 parts 7 parts Simply mix equal parts of white and red lead with a little kettle-boiled linseed oil. tained which can be readily applied with a brush and possesses extraordinary Cement for Chemical Apparatus. 20 grains Rosin. Cement Barium sulphate. Powdered graphite. If the ity down to 72 temperature be carried down to 60 C. and 30 parts of shellac. add sufficient linseed oil to make a homogeneous paste. in fine powder 3 pounds 1 1 1 ounce ounce ounce ammonium chloride. Finally. 50 liquids. on coating. and iron and mix thoroughly with boiled linseed oil. 100 parts. by To the whole add. it forms a cement that can be molded or kneaded into any shape. Rosin. at the temperature of the body (98 F. by weight. to be put. by weight... . Cement for General Use. The lime tannate obtained thus is then mixed with casein in proportions running from 1 1 up to 1 10. Boil on the water bath until a paste is formed which. The best size to use on Portland cement molding for wall paper would ordinarily be glue and alum size put on thin and warm.. filtering Litharge Fine white sand . by weight.. either by decantation or otherwise. Then add 50 parts. Drier. (161. ounce Mix the first three ingredients. 100 parts. I. enough. III. of gelatin in the same quantity of whey. . Mix 50 parts. . this is done by passing a stream of atmospheric air through the same. a fact that suggests many useful purposes to which the mixture may be put. Plaster of Paris. In operating with large quantities of the substance. 10 parts of yellow wax. that. At the same time make a solution of 100 parts. add enough white lead to form a thin paste. Melt together 20 parts of gutta percha. starch.. equal parts of gutta percha and ordinary The pieces to be united have to for Eitch. Knpckenplombe. also dissolve the starch in a little water. 21 parts. gether. Linseed varnish oil. A good substitute in place of glue or various kinds of cement for fastening emery cloth to the disks of grinders of the Gardner type is to heat or warm the disk and apply a thin coating of beeswax. 6 parts sulphur. starch.. ^This should stand a few hours before it is used. Plaster of Paris . It is said that glass joined to iron with this cement will break before it will come loose. by weight.ADHESIVES clear lime water (obtained by milk of lime. then put the emery cloth in place and allow to set and cool under pressure. acetic acid. Take gum arable. and the precipitate is dried. 4 parts. 75 . this Size Over Portland Cement. of 90-per-cent alcohol and. The liquid is now sepais added Aquarium Cements. II. filings. and then add a small quantity of drier. . made in proportion of ^ pound of glue and same weight of alum dissolved in separate pails. Take equal parts of flowers of Slaked lime Melt together Ivory. thoroughly dried. becomes as hard as stone. IV. a cement is obbinding qualities. enough.. Litharge Fine white sand. enough. in fine pow- 3 ounces 3 ounces 3 ounces 1 powder. e warmed. Manganese borate. oil. by weight. (140 F. Universal Cement.. after filtration. camphor. and mix both weight. parts. then poured to- substance be mixed intimately with an equal quantity of calcined bone.) it suddenly becomes solid and hard. If. Mix and add the sugar and camphor. Cement for Belts. and red litmus paper plunged in the fluid is turned blue. or by letting the milk stand until the lime subsides) until no further precipitation occurs.. Take gum arabic. will thicken. 75 parts. by weight.). and the mixture. by weight. Linseed varnish V.

heat to 70 or 80 C. remove from the fire and set Cement. (c) Applying the lute with water or a volatile solvent. iresh. (e~) Syndeticon. by weight. cause it will thicken on cooling. Clay. Cologne glue in 60 parts of a 20-per-cent aqueous calcium-chloride solution. In most cases one part of the fitting should overlap the other. Soak isinglass (fish bladder) in V. effective while in place and easily removed. be core compounds. "Shio Liao. consists of the following parts weight): parts. and stoneware can be cemented. (158 to 176 F. depending upon the lute to do what the pipes or other parts of the apparatus should do. (the menstruum of the lute itself). 1. add the sugar and the camphor and put Boil until a paste is in a water bath. in a liquid state it is well (10) ride cements. dissolve 60 parts of lump sugar in 160 parts of water. (6) Heating the surfaces. formed. Linseed oil. by weight. be- come as hard as wood. After standing a while a milkylooking fluid will separate at the bottom and rise to the top. Pour over wellStrong washed and cleaned casein 12 A parts of boiled linseed oil and the same amount of castor oil. which is allowed to vola- tilize. adding a little water during the process. Miscellaneous. A solution of 10 parts gum arabic and 30 parts of sugar in 100 parts of soda water glass. dextrine.). (/) Setting by hydration.. This should be poured off and to the residue add 120 parts of rock-candy syrup and 6 parts of The brief: it conditions of application are. etc. Cardboard covers. The Chinese paint their houses with "shio liao" and glaze their barrels with it.fitting. Asphalt and pitch. in which they transport oil and other greasy substances. Very moderate amounts of the lute should be used. Slaked powdered powdered alum. which must be rather thin. marble. often used alone as a paste. employed for painting all sorts of articles wnich are to be rendered waterproof and durable. Joints should not be ill . 21 parts. etc. Hydraulic cement. It A lows: classification (1) (2) (3) may be given as fol- Plaster of Paris. ((/) Setting by oxidation. dissolve the starch When this is done also in some water. porcelain. as large amounts are likely to develop cracks. and they must not be attacked by the gases and liquids coming in contact with them. Plaster of Paris of course. oil. 54 (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) Lime. which are coated with it two or three times. These materials are stirred thoroughly until an intimately bound mass of the consistency of a more or less stiff salve is obtained. LUTES. Rosin. acetic acid of 70 per cent until it swells up." Under this name the Chinese manufacture an excellent cement which takes the place of glue. These principles will be found to cover nearly all cases. next. (d) Moistening the surfaces with water. A hot solution of 50 parts of III. IV. 4 parts. Dissolve the gum arable in a little water. Silicates of soda and oxychloFlour and starch. but rather one quickly applied. Casein and albumen. Rubber. stone. including is. white sugar. so as to make a small amount of the lute effective and to keep the parts of the apparatus rigid. stir actively and add a small amount of a saturated aqueous solution of alum. and set aside shaking frequently. and with which gypsum. be rubbed off.ADHESIVES parts by weight. put on the fire and bring to a boil. and - (by lime. Lutes always consist of a menstruum and dissolved or suspended solids. aside. Finally dissolve 50 to 60 parts of genuine Cologne glue in 250 parts of the clear solution. as a luted joint is not supposed to be a particularly strong one. strained blood. 40 parts. 6 parts. in (a) Heating the composition to make plastic until firmly fixed in place. which quickly . then rub it up. (11) (12) I. camphor. On the other hand. In paste form this mass is used as cement. add to the solution 15 parts of the slaked lime. II. In some cases the constituents of the lute react to form a more strongly adhering mass. Applying the lute in workable con- dition and the setting taking place by chemical reactions. A solution of 50 parts of Cologne glue in 60 parts of acetic acid. Slake 100 parts of burnt lime with 50 parts of water> pour off the supernatant water.

the Thus. using fire clay. 4 parts 1 part 10 parts 2 parts Pitch for luting pipes carrying chlorine.. the used with some it Formulas: (1) (2) fibrous material to give greater strength. and suitable for steam. for gas retorts. (3) for oil vapors. Frequently the lime is replaced by chalk and china clay. plush trimmings. pitch makes the Tar is sometimes used. as the only one that is cheaper would be a petroleum naphtha. concrete. straw. melted asphalt alone is much used. frequently. but when a little paraffine is added. as it gives body to a liquid. etc. Toluol is less volatile than benzol and about as cheap. Asphalt '. etc. When used with substances such as rosin or sulphur. it improves its waterproofing qualities. III. and various mineral substances are used as fillers. caustic.. and other uses. Cement and sand. which are very strong and useful. 2. because of the light oils and. (2) (3) Cement neat. Formulas: Refined lake asphalt. in part at least. it is not so good as either of the others.. glass. and the proportions of these two ingredients are determined by the consistency desired. is (2) for Rosin Sulphur Stone powder 1 part These compositions are used to unite slate slabs and stoneware for domestic. while broken stone. sulphur acting chemically and stone powder mechanically . These lutes are suitable for nitric acid. Lime used in the old lute known and chemical purposes.ADHESIVES soliames. Asphalt and Pitch. a stiff paste of clay and molasses has been suggested by Theo. Cement and asbestos. etc. is however. but even then the very finely divided condition of certain grades renders it valuable. These substances are used in lutes somewhat interchangeably. Lime is also used in silicate rious rosin and pitch mixtures are used for these purposes. as will mass. Same. water contained. Koller in Die Surrogate. Examples of so-called "stone cement" are: 4. asbestos. hair. Also microscopical. These lutes seem to be particularly suitable for oil vapors and hydrocarbon material of these. II. and wood distillation similar places where quickness of setting is requisite. are used as binders. V. Plaster (wet) and straw. but the lime should be. and hair. would be pervious to a gas. Rosin Wax Plaster 5. As a rule. the straw-colored grades being about 24 cents per gallon. but.. and in particular cases boiled oil is also added to advantage. which does not dissolve all the constituents of the asphalt. concrete. but it soon gives way. but they do not add anything to the strength. boiled oil to stiff mass. Asbestos most commonly used it etc. for coating wood. Sulphur and stone powder are added to prevent the formation of cracks.. Va- as putty. and broken stone. temperature. For waterproofing wood.. Asphalt dissolved in benzol is very useful for uniting glass for photographic. Clay and molasses. Formulas: (1) Clay and linseed (2) (3) (1) Is chlorine. ters into the Paraffine Boiled oil 1 part Any of these may be thinned with hot benzol or toluol. engineering. Formulas: (1) Paraffine 3. 8 parts 6 parts 1 part \ to * part 8 parts 7 parts 2 parts IV. more often. Pitch oil. but will be described elsewhere. stronger lutes. Plaster (wet) and asbestos. which. cement is probably employed because it is in such a fine state of division and used as a filler and not because of any powers of setting by hydration. Clay. Asphalt 1. unless stiffened. Lime and Clay. if not cheaper. etc. This most frequently encomposition of lutes as a filler. Cement is used either alone or with sand. etc. clay in all cases being neutral. Plaster (wet) (6) Plaster (wet) (5) etc. so as to form a certain amount of lime soap. brick. such as linseed oil. etc. It is and and casein compositions. boiled oil to stiff stand a high not so important. (4) Plaster (wet) and plush trim(1) (2) (3) mings. which consists of caustic lime and linseed oil. When that is Formulas: Plaster and water. where the melted asphalt would be too thick to cover well. Hydraulic Cement. Benzol is the cheapest solvent that is satisfactory for this purpose.

and is used in acid thin layers. Albumen. 1.).. Formulas: 1. forming the well-known Sulphur Fire clay 2 parts gives great hardness permanency to rosin lutes. They must be tough and elastic. not getting as hard as those containing lead. These. When used for calking on a vessel they must expand and contract with the temperature and not crack or come loose. 1 part These are used by melting over a burner. 1. clay. 3 parts 2 parts 1 part 1 1 Pitch Shellac part part Plain Rubber Cement. but gasoline is probably most extensively used because of its cheapness. Good waterproof Rosin lutes of this 1 Wax Powdered stone 4. Because of its Rubbed up with part A cate of soda 3 parts strong lute for general purposes. and Wax. Cut the crude rubber in small pieces and then add the solvent. Casein : powder 1 sili- VII. is: 1. These mixtures become very strong when set and are best diluted with powdered glass. v. Linseed putty. There are almost an endless number of lutes A using metallic oxides and linseed oil. For nitric and hydrochloric 1 part 1 part ous vapors.) VIII. part part 8 to 10 parts 1 1 IX. Linseed Oil. To pervious to steam and water. tough and tenacious. for metals (other than copper or alloys of same). Linseed oil of general utility for aque- Rubber substitute . Wax is a otherwise it is about the best.. A class of lutes under this general grouping that are much used are socalled "marine glues" (q. without body. very good one. they ate heat and oil vapors. and resistance to alterative is a rubber useful coninfluences. vapors. (See Section IX.. part part 4 parts 20 parts 1 1 1 To 2. useful ingredient to keep the composition from getting brittle with age.. Rosin Wax Turpentine It 8 parts 1 part 1 part has little or no body. A very strong cement which stands moderate heat is the following in very fine 2. make corks and wood im4. porcelain. become very stand moderbut not acid Wax Vaseline Finely powdered casein . Rosin putty. benzol good and much cheaper.. is: 4. etc For a soft air-tight paste for groundglass surfaces: 5. very 50 parts Slaked lime (fresh). Fine sand. stand acid vapors: Rubber Linseed oil Fire clay 3. Shellac part part 2 parts 5 parts 1 Red or white lead and linseed oil. its price makes its Leather Cement. somewhat brittle. use glue composition. part 3 parts 3 parts Pitch Shellac Pure crude rubber 7. 2.ADHESIVES Where the lute would come in contact with acid or vapors of the same. . 6. Carbon disulphide is the best. if it is desired to protect them from oil vapors. if absorbed by a porous substance that is inert. 1 1 part part 12 parts . 50 parts Water to thick mush. 3. toughness. . and Glue. Casein. stituent in lutes. Asphalt Rosin Gutta percha Carbon disulphide. Formulas: 6. but use very limited. A VI. soak them in a rubber solution as above. Oxide of iron and linseed oil. limestone should not be the powder used. if properly made. . . . . Rubber.. but this Sulphur is and comclass position are: 3.. strong cement. This is one of the most generally useful substances we have for luting purposes. Turpentine Chalk.. used as a stone cement. A strong cement. Shellac. Lime forming oil the well - known vapors: 2. elasticity. Rosin. China clay of general utility for aqueous vapors. and glass is made by letting 1 part of finely powdered shellac stand with 10 parts of ammonia water until solution is effected. or graphite. Wax.

1 part singly or mixed Very hard and extra strong compositions: 5. Sadtler before the Franklin Institute. Silicate of Oxy chloride Cements. bright and It has extraor- Litharge. The well-known flaxseed poultice but does not stand water or condensed steam. to render them impervious to oil vapors.. the paste is apt to become brown and to be very brittle on drying. sets very tough. 1. from time to time renewing the water lost by evaporation with hot water. in Alumina Sand Slaked lime 1 4 1 Water 6 parts Borax Water part parts part part sufficient. Oil of wintergreen. Flour and Starch Compositions. powdered. dissolve the borax in the water and add the dextrine and Continue the heat. light yellow. Silicate of soda Oxides of metal.. Glycerine. etc. It does not seem to be a gasket or a core compound: V. Stiff paste of flour and strong zincchloride solution forms a more impervious lute. Finally. Flour and molasses.. where it would not be in contact with nitric-acid vapors or condensing steam. wood. re- 10 parts Sand. For oil vapors. Magnesium chloride. torts. iron or brass. 4. Flour.000 parts) by the addition of hot water. keep from class of mixtures that fied only according to their A can be classiintended use 1 spoiling. I.ADHESIVES which must be used promptly when made: 3. Not so strong. about part Gaskets for superheated steam. as the follow- Rosin.. 60 parts Borax. standing the highest heat: 1. etc. part some purposes. . Silicate of soda 50 parts 15 parts 10 parts 1 4 parts Asbestos Slaked lime (These proportions are approximate and the amount of sand can be increased for Metal Cement: 4. XI. furnaces. as core makes a good composition. Dextrine. Oats (or wheat) ground 25 parts 6 parts Glue. This is good for most pur- poses. Powdered anthracite coal. dinary adhesive properties and dries very rapidly. packing.) Glue. mainly used compound. Silicate of soda and powdered glass.. sets and becomes very hard and strong. etc. and is more permanent as a cement. is: Gelatine or good glue 2 parts A to 1 part Glycerine Mixed to form a stiff paste. Water to make a paste. and stir constantly until a homogeneous solution is obtained. III. but do not glucose. 480 parts Glucose 50 parts . 2 parts 1 part 2 parts 1 part PASTES: Dextrine Pastes. This is an excellent lute to have at hand at all times for emergency use.. about With enough water to form a paste. arge. made by making a stiff composition of the two. powdered Sal ammoniac 1 part Paper read by Samuel S. 3. I. partly saponified by soda lye . A stiff paste of silicate of soda and asbestos. then By strain through flannel.. Dextrine.: 2. however. . Water 6. A composition for soaking corks. such as zinc IV. are core compounds.. and is very useful for inserting glass tubes. Magnesium oxide . White of egg made into a paste with slaked lime. XII. A mixture of dextrine and fine sand Water 420 parts the aid of heat. 2. Prepared in this manner the paste remains clear for a long time.. powdered Flour Sand (with water) 1 part 4 parts sufficient oxide. bring up to full weight (1. If care is not taken to keep the cooking temperature below the boiling point of water. Sand (with water) 1 part 2 parts sufficient ing: 3. X. Zinc oxide Zinc chloride to make a paste. 6 parts For some purposes the following mixture is used. dry the mixture and heat. let the mixture boil. etc. For a high heat: 2. II. lithiron oxide. Miscellaneous. at ordinary temperature. to etc. with molasses to form a stiff paste. 1.

and then add 30 parts of dilute acetic acid. and liquid.). Sheets of paper sufficient size and warm until it becomes liquid and if necessary or advisable thin with water. but moisten the leather before applying the paste. Pour over 1. and a drop or two of clove oil. set it over a slow fire and stir continuously until the paste When is uniform and free from lumps. heating cannot be accomplished by means of a spirit lamp the label should be ironed down under a protective cloth or paper in the same manner as woolen goods are This method is also very usepressed. IV. 20 parts glucose. A same latter size as the label and piece of gutta percha of the is laid under the If the the whole is heated.) in the water bath until the whole mass becomes clear held in the flame until it burns. Dissolve by the aid of heat 100 parts ot builders' glue in 200 parts of water add 2 parts of bleached shellac dissolved previously in 50 parts of alcohol. Use the same paste for leather as for oilcloth or other goods. Do not allow to come fire to a move from add the and set in a Rebucket of cold water to cool off. whole to 90 C. or. phor To Paste Paper Signs on Metal or Cloth. a good sealing wax containing shellac will be found to serve the purpose nicely. and as soon as the wax begins to melt the cork is pressed firmly on the metallic surface bearing the wax. When needed cut off a piece of VII. Soften 175 parts of thick dextrine with cold water and 250 parts of Boil for 5 minutes boiling water added. 2 parts of dextrine. the label will adhere to glass. Oilcloth. and mix the two parts solutions by stirring the second slowly into the first. 5 parts of water. etc. Stir 400 parts of dextrine with water and thin the mass with 200 parts more water. and heat. The surface of the metal is heated with a spirit until the sealing flame entirely free from soot. strong adhesive paste that will keep a long time unchanged. with lively stirring for 5 minutes. 1 part of alcohol together. is painted with the melted sealing wax. put the mixture over the fire. Dissolve 5 parts of dextrine in water and add 1 part of alum. When cold to every 1. V. 3 to 4 parts of alcohol and spirit of camphor is well adapted. tin. over a light fire. (195 F. 30 parts glycerine. preferably. in which 1 part of (90) cam- is dissolved without heating in 7 parts of spirit of wine of 0. or until it forms a light milklike liquid. on a water bath.ADHESIVES II. the mass has become so stout that the wooden spoon or stick will stand in it gum . Dissolve in hot water a sufficient quantity of dextrine to bring it to the This forms a consistency of honey.000 parts of dextrine the mixture for 10 minutes. blade. ful for attaching paper labels to minerals. Powder coarsely 400 parts dextrine and dissolve in 600 parts of water. if the water is not allowed to evaporate. 1 part of spirit of camphor. Stir up 10 parts of dextrine with sufficient water to make a thick broth. it To Paste Celluloid on Wood. III. VI. a mixture of 1 part of shellac. X. Dissolve by the aid of heat 50 parts of dextrine in 50 of water.000 parts of the solution 51 parts glycerine and as much salicylic acid as will stand on the tip of a knife If the solution is too thick. Fastening Cork to Metal. Warm Paste for Fastening Leather. Dp not add any more glycerine or the solution will never set. Tin. on the surface of which little bubbles begin to form and the liquid stir is 450 parts of soft water and these are lacquered. or Similar Stuff to Table or Desk Tops. VIII. and it is then applied to the hot surface of the metal. In fastening cork to iron and brass. be prepared for extempore labels by coating one side with the paste and allowing it to dry. The cork surface painted with sealing wax is now held in the flame. IX. wax melts when pressed metallic surface. adding 2 parts of water. After the dextrine has absorbed the water. and 10 Heat the parts aluminum sulphate. by slightly wetting the gummed side. thin with water that has been boiled and cooled off again. To attach celluloid to wood. (195 F. or leather. boil. or Leather. Strain the mixture through a cloth into a shallow dish and let it harden. This paste is very useful in the may Then. upon the The wax is apparently beginning it to boil. even when office or laboratory. Add 20 parts glycerine and 10 parts glucose and heat to 90 C. with occasional stirring until a complete solution is attained. heat and add 25 parts of sodium water glass. Wax prepared with The cork surface rosin is not suitable. 1 part of acetic acid.832 specific gravity. Prepare the paste as pounds bic of good of wheat follows: flour Mix 2J with 2 ara- tablespoonfuls or pulverized powdered rosin and 2 tablespoonfuls of pulverized alum in a clean dish with water enough to make a uniformly thick batter.

This paste will keep for a long time. Paste for Parchment Paper. by weight. by weight. so that a thin. Solutions in benzine mav be used like those of caout- Four parts Strongly Adhesive Paste. When cold. when solutions far more concentrated than has hitherto been possible can be prepared. but form no lumps and are readily reliquefied by heating. it leaves a firmly holding mass which is insoluble in cold water. The agar agar is broken up small. etc. Medical Paste. Albumen. stirring constantly. by weight. will not loosen even when bottles are put into water and left there for some time. it is taken from the fire and placed in another dish and covered so that no skin will form on top. is covered with a thin coat of the paste. The boiling glue solution is poured into this while stirring constantly. When the paste is cool add 1 drachm oil of lavender. recommends the viscous substance contained in the white mistletoe. labels It is said that labels put on with this substance. The best agent is made by dissolving casein in a saturated aqueous solution of borax. Paste That Will Not Mold. The spot upon which it is desired to attach the paper must first be rubbed with a bit of fine emery paper. To smooth out the leather after pasting. of gelatine in 150 parts. On cooling. the table or desk top. and 50 ized alum. acid. while stirring. hol. Among the uses to which the preparation can be applied are the dressing of textile fabrics and paper sizing. in Paste for Affixing Cloth to Metal. About an hour of this bleaches the agar agar and makes it freely soluble in boiling water. by weight. In a little water dissolve 50 parts of lead acetate and 5 parts of alum. is Agar Agar Paste. milky liquid without lumps results. the cloth. 50 by weight. by weight. of glucose.ADHESIVES upright. To Paste Paper on Smooth Iron. As to cost. Over a water bath dissolve 200 parts. the solutions assume a milky appearance. as of course happens when the adhesive is allowed to dry after use. while stirring add 50 parts. and exposed in an earthenware vessel to the action of ozone pumped under pressure into the vessel from the ozonizing apparatus. then add boiling water. To Fix Paper upon Polished Metal. Mingle the solution first prepared with It the second solution. It is largely present in the berries and the bark of the plant. Dissolve 400 parts. and heat almost to boiling. then warm gradually until the liquid thickens.until a perfectly smooth liquid results entirely free from lumps. dissolved in a little hot water.. owing is to the lead acetate. glue are soaked a few hours in 15 parts cold water. carefully laid on and smoothed from the center toward the edges with a rolling pin. Into this gum-arabic solution pour 500 of flour. when 65 parts boiling water are added. stirring all the time until thoroughly cooked. Mix good white flour with cold water into a thick Be sure to stir out all the lumps. this preparation poisonous. The trimming of edges is accomplished when the paste has dried. and well dried at the time. medium-sized labels. is almost proof against mold or ferments. of water. wetted with water. Paste for Tissue Paper. a woolen cloth is of the best service. and moderately heated till the solution becomes perfectly clear. as well as the ordinary uses of an adhesive. by weight. and the production of photographic papers. mind should be kept that. of dextrine in 600 parts. Pasting Wood and Cardboard on of acetic parts. Pulverized gum arabic White sugar Boiling water 2 ounces 4 drachms 3 fluidounces . Fresh egg albumen recommended as a paste for affixing on bottles. and Krts at gradually to the boiling point. of water. etc. In another vessel 30 parts boiled starch are previously stirred together with 20 parts cold water.. In another receptacle dissolve 75 parts of gum arabic in 2. it is but little if any higher than gum arabic. If the solution is com- Albumen Paste. To 6 quarts of this add \ pound light brown sugar and \ ounce corrosive sublimate. As an adhesive agent for medicinal purposes Professor Reihl. and can be produced at one-tenth the price of caoutchouc. it is called viscin. parts alcoof pulver- Metal. of Leipsic. and the whole is kept boiling another 10 minutes.000 parts of water. paste. (a) chouc without causing any irritation if applied mixed with medicinal remedies to the skin. the white of one egg being sufficient to attach at least 100 pletely evaporated. add to this 10 parts. Starch 20 parts 10 parts Sugar Zinc chloride 1 part Water 100 parts Mix the ingredients and stir . dry.

a sufficient parts parts Preservatives for Paste. when nearly cold add the oil of cloves. for many purposes. though these proportions may be varied somewhat. White loaf sugar. Linseed oil may be added if desired. Sulphuric acid . oil of cloves. It costs more. 15 parts parts % part Cuprammonium lution II. but should before use. in which carbolic acid has been mixed. much flour as will make it of the usual consistency. It dries instantly. and boil it over a gentle fire This paste is quite until it thickens. Pale glue 3 ounces Carbolic acid \ ounce water 32 ounces Boiling Cut up the glue and steep it in i pint boiling water. Rice Paste. by mixing 10 parts (weight) starch into a paste with water and adding 10 parts (weight) glue soaked in water to the hot solution. when softened melt in a saucepan. oil of sassafras. This size will stick to grease spots. without fear of derangement. and they are then pressed together. and solution of formaldehyde are among service. White dextrine Pure glycerine 4 2 1 ounces ounces ounce \ Board -Sizing. A fair knotting varnish free from surplus oil is by far the best adhesive for fixing labels. Wheat flour Water. III. A cheap sizing for rough. to which all water pastes are subject. 1 Various an- part Water 7 parts Dissolve sufficient isinglass in the mixture of acetic acid and water to make a thin mucilage. 2 . so- 30 4 Fine white paper . cold Nitric acid Boric acid Oil of cloves white and becomes transparent on dryand of great use 1 1 pound quart 4 fluidrachms 40 grains 20 minims j Mix the flour. A duced by water used in making it. add sugar. insuring a speedy job and immediate packing. Chromic acid Stronger ammonia.ADHESIVES (6) Common starch laundry 1^ ounces 3 fluidounces Cold water Make into a batter and pour into 32 fluidounces Boiling water Mix (a) with (6). . mucilage. II.. weather-beaten boards made by may be dissolving shellac in sal soda pound and adding some heavy-bodied pigment. boric acid. is precipitated with limewater.-V part (weight) of borax to the solution will cause it to keep for weeks. borax has also demonstrated its preThe solution is made serving qualities. add remainder of water. Casein Paste.. add fbe A solution of tannin. the lime being added until the solution just turns red litmus paper blue. and boil until it thickens. This paste will have a pleasant smell. A paste from 10 parts (weight) starch to 100 parts (weight) water with 1 per cent borax will those which have given best durable starch paste is proadding some borax to the keep many weeks. It is very adherent ing.. . will not attract flies. but is actually repellent of moisture. the addition of -. especially on metal surfaces. bottle. Powdered starch. In the case of a gluing material prepared from starch paste and joiners' glue. Limewater and linseed oil make a good heavy sizing. and can be thinned by the addition of cold water as needed. and dextrine. and lastly the glycerine. One of the solutions is applied to the surface of one sheet of paper and the other to the other sheet. and keep in a wide- acid. then boil it until thick as mush. Thin with warm water for use. Pour into jars or bottles. and is not only absolutely damp-proof itself. It is equal to the best out this glue. then stir into it i ounce powdered rosin. They are usually used half and half. Waterproof and Acidproof Pastes... etc. starch. . if needful. apply heat with constant stirring until the mixture thickens. Mix the rice flour with cold water. but hard to spread. next add a little water in which a dozen cloves have been steeped. while withaddition it will sour after six days. but the additional expense is often infinitesimal compared with the pleasure of a satisfactory result. Isinglass. It has great tenacity. Dissolve 4 ounces alum in 4 When cool add as quarts hot water. mouthed I. and water* nitric then strain the mixture.. The supernatant liquid is then decanted. I. prepared from a bark or from commercial tannin. Boric and salicylic acids.. added be warmed and stirred Balkan Paste. Permanent Paste. quantity Acetic acid tiseptics are employed for the preservation of flour paste. stirring from the bottom all the time.

and finally add the glue solution. has been beaten into small fragments. petroleum. (a) stir in solution (6). after batter free Stir briskly. of rye flour. then add the glycerine. are added. Make up (c) into a (d~) Stir until it becomes (a) into solution (6) translucent. after the boiling. by weight. is used for paper. (a) (6) (c) Flour Paste. ingly strong. I. The above makes a very fine paste for wall paper. Let this cool before using. after which V. VII. adhering to it firmly in spite of dampness. and thin with cold water. VI. after which pour . For hanging fine wall paper this paste is less commendable. of turpentine to every 500 parts. thin with a little hot water. Use a cheap grade of rye or wheat mix thoroughly with cold water to 3 fluidounces glycerine 64 fluidounces (^ gallon) about the consistency of dough. stir in a tablespoonful of powdered alum to a quart of flour.ADHESIVES precipitate is dried without artiThe resulting calcium tanheat. Paste for Wall Paper. The paste is now ready for use. as it forms a white color. and while hot stir in the pulverized rosin a little at a time. m Elastic or Pliable Paste. II. Soak 18 it pounds of bolus (bole) in water. Dissolve the borax in the boiling water. is prepared. This paste will not crack. of good linseedoil varnish and 8J parts. leather. oils. and will stick heavy wall paper or thin leather. mix it well with the softened bolus and 2 will adhere to a painted surface. continue boiling until the paste thickens into a semitransparent mucilage. water Beat to a batter the ingredients of (a). IV. and it owing III. dissolve on a water bath (glue pot). Thin the mass with water to the consistency of a thin paste. then pour in boiling water. cloth. and while hot stir in the Venice turpentine. nate is then mixed. with which the paper might easily become soiled if great care is not exercised in applying If the fine wall paper is mounted on it. Labels separate from tin because the paste becomes too dry. The adhesive compound is soluble in water. and especially such as have been repeatedly coated over the old coatings which were not thoroughly removed. (a) 4 (6) strong paste. to the Venice turpentine in its Strong Adhesive Paste. flour. It is very strong. pounds rye | gallon cold flour water 1| gallons boiling water ounces pulverized rosin (c) 2 Make (a) into a batter free from lumps. Dissolve the alum as designated in (6). but has the advantage over them of adhering better to whitewashed walls. it can be recommended for pasting the ground paper on 'the wall. 4 ounces white or fish glue 8 fluidounces cold water 2 fluidounces Venice turpentine 1 pound rye flour 16 fluidounces (1 pint) cold water 64 fluidounces (| gallon) boiling water Soak the 4 ounces of glue in the cold water for 4 hours. however. pounds plaster of Paris and strain composition. A paste with which wall paper can be attached to wood or masonry. ficial 39 and the Now stir in (a) and (c) and. if necessary. being very pliable. (a) (6) (c) Venetian Paste. by weight. and is applied the form of a paste with water. being careful to remove all lumps. and other material where flexibility is required. and carbon bisulphide.. It is not only much cheaper than other varieties. however. Boil 10 ounces of glue into glue water. ground paper. This paste is exceed. stirring rapidly until the flour is thoroughly cooked. and pour off the supernatant water. This makes a very from lumps and pour into (d). with from 1 to 10 times its weight of dry casein by grinding in a mill. pounds wheat (1 flour 32 fluidounces quart) cold water ounce alum boiling LABEL PASTES : 4 fluidounces hot water 96 fluidounces ($ gallon) water Work the wheat flour into a batter free from lumps with the cold water. never thin paste with cold water. then pour into (6) Boil if necessary. 8J parts. If the paste be too thick. according to the purpose for which the adhesive is intended. and. 4 ounces common starch 2 ounces white dextrine 10 fluidounces cold water 1 (6) ounce borax boiling PASTES FOR PAPERHANGERS. 2 1 through a sieve by means of a brush. but more is required to cause continued adhesion in the case of tin than where the container is of . Pastes to Affix Labels to Tin. Some moisture is presumably always present. or a little thinner. by weight. to which. as usual.

30 parts. but it keeps badly. III. Dextrine commercial acetic acid. or of glycerine. and add the glycerine. There will be no cause to complain of to glue (glue or gelatine dissolved in water) make a stiff paste. Then unfold each label and place it on the can in the Another variety is made by dissolving' a cheap Ghatti gum in limewater. . which is ready after standing for about 3 days. glycer- ine. previously dissolved in a little water. but a single shake mixes it sufficiently for use. X.. ting and smeared with vaseline or melted paraffine. Good glue is said to be obtained 2 pints Dissolve the gums in 1 pint of water. 50 parts. V. 2 parts. their coming the bottle. sufficient to 4 ounces 14 grains 4 ounces water into a mass to which are added. then straining it through a fine-hair sieve. acid and brush the labels over with it. placed upon the cans the latter must be . and throw to one side until this process has been gone through with the whole lot. the proportion being about 2 ounces to the pint of paste. The paste ought not regular manner. Add tartaric acid to thick flour The paste is to be boiled until paste. Boil rye flour and strong glue VIII. Gum arabic. 20 parts of diluted acetic acid. and set aside in a warm place until completely When cold it should form a dissolved. liq. for 1. The following formulas for pastes of the type indicated were proposed by Leo glass. water over 100 parts of gum arabic in a wide-necked bottle and dissolve by frequent shaking. This mixture furnishes a gluing agent which. This separates on standing. then add the dextrine and glucose. Tragacanth Acacia 1 ounce Thymol Glycerine Water. 95 per cent Dissolve the dextrine and acetic acid in water by heating together in the water bath. a sufficient quantity Rub up the flour with the turpentine and then add sufficient freshly prepared cellars. . 1 ounce 2 ounces Oil of cloves 40 drops Rub the rye flour and acacia to a smooth paste with 8 ounces of cold water. Take a wide- mouthed about two-thirds with 2 parts 1 part Acetic acid 5 parts Water 1 part Alcohol. fill off. VII. How to Paste Labels on Tin. soak glue in this solution and dissolve the glue by boiling. strain through cheese cloth.000 parts.. . which is strongly hygroscopic. Pour 140 parts of distilled cold IX. add 10 parts of glycerine. This paste dries slowly. and does not soak through the label sufAfter the labels have been ficiently. To the solution. VI. even renders the labels proof against being loosened by moisture. XI. IV. strain. and continue the heat until as thick as desired. and finally 6 parts of aluminum sulphate. Dextrine Borax Glucose Water 3 pounds 2 ounces 5 drachms 3 pints 2 ounces Dissolve the borax in the water by warming. Brush over the entire back of the label with a flour paste. Carefully drop as much acetic acid into the solution as will allow it to remain thin on cooling. and pour into 1 pint of boiling water. Eliel: I. 10 parts. fold the label loosely by sticking both ends together without creasing the center.. nor of striking through paper. good linseed-oil varnish 30 parts and oil of turpentine 30 parts. is added. and continue to heat gently until dissolved. glue for bottle labels is prepared by dissolving borax in water. If the paste is too thick it dries quickly. Stibii chlorat. Labels affixed with this agent adhere firmly and do not become moldy in damp A 1 part Venice turpentine. The cork should be well-fitwater. Dissolve some isinglass in acetic XII. make Rye flour Powdered Glycerine 8 ounces acacia. quite thick. of this consistency it soaks through the label and makes it pliable and in a condition to be easily rubbed into position. and to the solution add the alcohol. in which the thymol is suspended. it is claimed. II.ADHESIVES Paste may be kept moist by the addition of calcium chloride. and the acid. To use it place the bottle in hot jelly. and put in as much isinglass as the liquid will hold. When to be thicker than maple syrup. shake well and add sufficient water to make 2 pints.. nearly cold add the glycerine and cloves. later. Liquid glue. water. When oil of Rye flour 5 parts by dissolving 1 part of powdered sugar in 4 parts of soda water glass.

etc. which take a long time properly dissolve in water several weeks. wood.e. to Gum arabic. Only cold water must be used. a mountant that exhibits acidity or alkalinity is injurious with most varieties of paper. stiff paste for fastening cardboard mounts to frames. follow the method of placing the dry labels over one another. when carefully made. The time of solution can be considerably shortened (to a few hours) by acidifying the water in which the gum is placed with a little sulphuric or oxalic acid. s. kept apart until dry. Photographic Mountants (see also Photography). Druggists' Label Paste. When both Gum 2 pints and then solids are dissolved. is an admirable one for label use.. not 4 ounces 12 ounces 1 Bassora gum) Boiling water Glycerine. To make a mucilage rom gum dragon a very large volume of water is required. and when that has completely dissolved stir in the starch paste. and then boil the mixture until the starch is properly cooked. The following adhesive com- also one that is free from chemical reactions. either leaf or powder. For example. This gum (also called gum tragacanth) (i. Dissolve the gum in just sufficient water to completely dissolve it. Melt together 1 part of rosin and 2 parts of yellow wax. 1 ounce of the gum. so that the fingers may easily grasp the label after the pasting has been done. and boil- . and in photography the following formulas for pastes.. watching very carefully and re- used for mounting photographs. but as the resultant mucilage would contain traces of their presence. and allow al] debris from the gum to deposit before using. The following paste will be found a useful mountant: mucilage made with gum dragon. genuine 1 ounce Rice starch 1 ounce White sugar 4 ounces Water. The proportions of the several ingredients are these: moving the instant it stiffens. and before using the mucilage. then add the sugar. stir in the glycerine. Owing to the nature of the different papers used for printing photographs. and although glycerine is hygroscopic by itself. and then stir in the glycerine. such acids are not permissible when the gum-dragon mucilage is to be lumps (which are particles of undissolved gum) should be picked out or else the Wheat flour Nitric acid Boric acid Oil of cloves Carbolic acid Stir flour 4 1 ounces drachm grains 10 5 | drops drachm and water together. back sides up. and is suited for photo- pound is graphic purposes: Water dragon. and then adding 1 ounce of Venice turpentine per pound of paste. will swell up and convert 1 gallon of water into a thickish mucilage in the course of 2 or 3 weeks. have therefore been selected with regard to their absolute immunity from setting up decomposition in the print or changing its tone in any way. consequently an ideal fluid mucilage is produced. and a very little will go a long way: mucilage strained. The latter is boiled to a thick jelly. powdered 1 ounce Gum arabic. with the edge of each just protruding over the edge of the one beneath it. To Attach Glass Labels to Bottles. genuine 4 ounces 4 ounces Glycerine Mix the gum arabic with half the water. mixing thoroughly.ADHESIVES In putting the paste upon the labels in the first place. For example. it is a matter of extreme importance to use a mountant that shall not set up decomposition in the coating of the print. heat it. A very strong. and the strained mass used as an agglutinant for attaching photoThere is graphic prints to the mounts. q. Glycerine and gum arabic make a very good adhesive of a fluid nature suited to mounting photographs. and add the other ingredients. After the stuff is well mixed. in fact but during the past few years there has been put on the market a powdered gum dragon which does not occupy so many days in dissolving. all whitish This paste. such tendency to absorb moisture is checked by the reverse nature of the gum arabic. genuine (gum acacia. neither is there in a Gum arabic. One of the usual mountants is rice starch or else rice water. mix them together. pure ounce First dissolve the gum in the water. strained. is leaf usually in the form of curls gum). and other materials is prepared by making a bowl of starch paste in the usual way. nothing of an injurious nature whatever in this mountant. and in the remainder of the water dissolve the gum dragon. and use while warm. mucilages.

boil up the mixture for a few minutes until it "blows. remelt by heat. besides being very adhesive to any materials. and prevent the agglutinant from decomposing Dissolve 4 ounces of photographic gelatine in 16 ounces of water (first soaking the gelatine therein for an hour or two until it is completely softened). add the arrowroot paste. adding a few drops of oil of cloves. is obtained by mixing equal bulks of gum-arabic and gum-dragon mucilages of the same consistence. strawboard. 20 parts of water (common alum should not be used. use 1 ounce of the glycerine). and a is The and Other made by simply pouring over the gum enough water to a little more than cover it. prepared by dissolving 1 part of the sulphate in As an agglutinant studio. absolute. and put it into the bottle. leatherette. and put it into a bottle and pour alcohol over it. use only \ ounce. The mixture of these mucilages will be considerably thinner than either of them when alone. only sufficient alcohol is used to serve as an antiseptic. then melt the gelatine by standing the bottle in a vessel of hot water. Tragacanth Acacia 1 ounce 4 ounces Thymol Glycerine Water. if the gelatine is hard. and in the remainder of the water soak the gelatine for a few hours. until For Affixing Labels to Glass The mucilage is \ pint (10 fluidounces) of alcohol." being careful to keep it well stirred so as not to burn. if the gelatine is hard. and usually contaminated with iron salts). and shake up very well. because common alum is a mixture of sulphates. 10 ounces 1 ounce Gelatine.. alcohol prevents the print from stretching or cockling up under the influence of the gelatine. good Glycerine Soak the gelatine \ to 1 ounce in water for an hour then allow to cool. as they are apt to. for general use in the the following is recommended: Dissolve 2 ounces of gum arabic in 5 ounces of water. The addition of the sulphate solution to the gum mucilage renders the latter less hygroscopic. 10 ounces of arrowroot. then remove the gelatine from the water. use 1 ounce of the glycerine). then melt the gelatine by standing the bottle in a vessel of hot water. and then. and proceed to combine them as follows: Make arrowroot into a thick cream with a little of the water. but owing to the resinous nature of the Venice turpentine. and allow it to drain. add the glycerine (if the gelatine is soft. as the gum swells. allow it to drain. adding more water from time to time in small portions. 1 ounce of gelatine. Perhaps one or the most useful compounds for photographic purposes is that prepared as follows: Soak 4 ounces of hard gelatine in 15 ounces of water for a few hours. The oughly. The are following suitable prints: compounds mountants to use with silver Alcohol. stir in 65 fluidounces of cold water so that it is free from lumps.ADHESIVES until the ing and stirring the mixture thick turpentine has become well incorVenice turpentine stirred into porated. . and bring the mixture to the boil and allow to boil for 4 or 5 minutes. then melt the gelatine by heating it in a glue pot until the solution is quite clear and free from lumps. The alcohol prevents the prints from stretching or cockling. II. In the following compound. and skiver leather to wood or metal. the mucilage is brought to such consistency that it may be easily spread with The mucilage keeps fairly the brush. and put in the glycerine (if the gelatine is soft.. For use. A useful photographic mucilage. and for every 250 parts of the mucilage add 20 of a soluparts tion of sulphate of aluminum. and mix in the alcohol. and if the starch is not completely cooked. well without the addition of any antiseptic. and pour in the boiling-hot solution of gelatine and continue stirring. such pastes are not suitable for mounting photographic half-dozen prints. that following paste agglutinant is one very permanent and useful for all purposes required in a photographic studio: Take 5 pints of water. I. only the pure aluminum sulphate. take the gelatine out of the water. under the influence of the gelatine. sufficient to 14 grains 4 ounces 2 pints make . and practically waterproof. however. when cold add a few drops of carbolic acid or some essential oil as an antiseptic to prevent the compound from decomposing or becoming sour. : very liquid. and pour the alcohol over it. use only \ ounce. which is or two until it is completely softened. : MUCILAGES Objects. remelt by heat. particularly those exhibiting a smooth surface. flour paste and boiled will also be found a very adhesive cement for fastening cardboard. and shake up well and mix thorFor use. after which melt the gelatine in the water by heating it.

powdered. remains permanently fluid. porcelain. and lay limewater. 8 ounces III. is added to the solvent water in order to prevent the action of free acid. should also be observed in decantation The gum arabic is first dissolved in some water. When a little cool add the alcohol and alum water. in so doing. and pour into 1 pint of boiling water and continue When the heat until as thick as desired. and can be used in place of the present mucilage. without shaking. To proceed. by weight. lage add 20 parts of water and 2 parts of sulphate of alumina and heat until dissolved.. Envelope Gum. Dissolve 50 parts. and add \ as much alcohol and \ ounce alum dissolved in a little water. and add 40 drops carbolic acid. shake well and add sufficient water to make 2 pints. glucose for the sugar. 4 to 8 minims to each ounce of mixture is sufficient to suspend any of the insoluble substances usually given in mixtures. pasteboard on pasteboard. the formation This precaution of foam or bubbles. VI. then strain through a thin cloth previously wet with distilled water. of alum in a little Make a separate solution of 75 water. and keep it up until the gum is completely dissolved (which will not be until the fourth day probably). by weight. after which the mixture is boiled for a few minutes in order to dissolve the starch. One part. Put the gum. by weight. Pour off the cold water. should first have added to it about 10 per cent of Now cork the flask. of the percolate into smaller bottles proThe small vided with paraffine corks. sulphate in the proportion of 2 dissolved in 20 parts of water to 250 parts of concentrated gum solution (75 parts of gum in 175 parts of water). gum solution (2 parts of gum in 5 parts of water) 2 parts of crystallized aluminum sulphate dissolved in 20 parts of This mixture glues even unsized paper. 1 ounce 2 ounces Glycerine 40 drops Oil of cloves Water. e. the United States The gum used by Government on postage Mucilage of Acacia. amount of lime water. of lead acetate together with 5 parts. Dissolve \ pound gum tragacanth. I. wood on wood. cold water to the desired consistency. the sugar added. sufficient part part 4 parts 1 1 to give the desired consistency. then give it a half turn to the right without disturbing its horizontal position. of tragacanth. To Render hesive. Use pale vinegar. Mucilage to Make Wood and Pasteboard Adhere to Metals. then melt the glue to a thick paste in hot water. Dissolve \ pound white glue in equal parts water and strong vinegar. but a single shake mixes it sufficiently for use. in 2. Add the requisite quantity of distilled water slowly. Cheaper envelope gums can be made by substituting dextrine for the gum arabic. as the latter drain away as much possible before proceeding further. Add to 250 parts of concentrated II.ADHESIVES strain in 1 pint of water. glycerine. Repeat this operation three or four times during the day. Now tare. Rub the rye flour smooth paste with and the acacia to a 8 ounces of cold water. forms a liquid in which a portion of the tragacanth is dis- Commercial Mucilage. nearly cold add the glycerine and oil of cloves. J pound gum arabic. Its composition is said to be the following: Gum arabic Starch Sugar Water. To 250 parts of gum-arabic muciV. and wash the gum with distilled water. after which it is thinned down to the desired consistency. avoiding. glass. letting stamps is probably one of the best that could be used not only for envelopes but It will stick to almost for labels as well. by weight. horizontally in a cool place and let it remain quietly for about 3 hours. and add the vinegar hot. in which the thymol is suspended. by weight. the product should fill it about four -fifths full). Rye flour Powdered acacia.000 parts. first get good glue and soak in cold water until it swells and softens. powdered. Gum Arabic Add crystallized More Adaluminum solved and the this remainder suspended. which. strain through cheese cloth. it. IV. when mixed with 95-per-cent alcohol to form 4 fluidounces. Dissolve the gums and add the This separates on standing. then the starch. and adding boric acid to preserve and help stiffen it. however. any surface. as will be understood. of gum arabic in this 500 parts. of water. in a flask the size of which should be large enough to contain the mucilage with about onefifth of its space to spare (i. water. stir . never deteriorates. and other substances on which labels frequently do not adhere well. which should be of the best kind. a sufficient quantity.

Ozonatine is a fragrant air-purifying preparation consisting of dextrogyrate turpentine oil scented with slight quantities of fragrant oils. FROM SOLU- TIONS: See Photography. them well together. phate. and 2 parts of potash. Congress passed the bill which has since become a law. finely is ALBUMEN OF. AGING OF SILK: AGING. the cork is grooved lengthwise along the periphery. one-tenth its volume of the ammonium-citrate solution made as above is added.ADHESIVES parts. The gum maintains its adhesiveness to the last drop. whereby burst off or a bell jar tubulated above. To the acid (or acidulated) urine. Let it cool somewhat. AIR BUBBLES IN GELATINE: See Gelatine. The substance to be dried is placed in a glass or porcelain dish. Zeit. of flour. For the production of the drying apparatus take a flask with the bottom Alcohol After the manuscript of this book was ready for the press. ground. and the whole heated in the usual manner. See Silk. ammonia AGATE (IMITATION): See Gems. intimately mingled with a small quantity of kaolin and pressed in molds which yield buttonshaped masses. the Editor was compelled to relegate to a later page a monograph which should properly have appeared The reader will find the matter here. upon drying or heating substances. and heat slowly to boiling. by weight. AIR. EXCLUSION OF. DETECTION Patein (Pharm. AGAR AGAR PASTE: See Adhesives. ADUROL DEVELOPER: See Photography. SILVER See Plating. stirring the while. so that it can be heated by means of a burner placed underneath. AGATE. then 50 grams of alcohol.) recommends the following test for albumen in urine: Dissolve 250 grams of citric acid in a sufficient quantity of water. which is put under the bell jar. This is placed either upon a sand bath or upon asbestos paper. and mix with it the solution containing the lead acetate and alum. are given a transparent glaze by any of the well-known processes. Camphor vapors are generated which kill all the bacterial germs that have entered the bottle. The appearance of the faintest turbidity is said to indicate with positive certainty the presence of albumen. AIR BATH. BUTTONS OF ARTIFICIAL. The sand bath or the sheet iron is put on a tripod. after having been fired. AIR-PURIFYING. JESCO -QUININE : See Horse Chestnut. This air ALBUMEN PASTE: See Adhesives. which has been reduced by heat to the fusing point. ADULTERANTS IN FOODS: See Foods. AND GOLD: ALBUMEN PAPER: See Photography. small piece of camphor in the mucilage bottle. on alcohol referred to under the heading . IN URINE. stirring through whose aperture the thermometer is thrust. Put a Preservation of Gum Solution. add enough to neutralize. previously laid upon a piece of sheet iron. So important is this legislative measure that the Editor has deemed it wise to insert an article on the sources of alcohol and the manufacture of alcohol from farm prodBecause the first portion of the ucts. acid vapors arise because the walls of the bath are not attacked by them. For regulating the temperature the tubulure of the jar is closed with a pierced cork. and finally enough water to make 1 liter. In order to permit the vapors to escape. the prohibitive tax on industrial or denatured alcohol is removed. and if desired the drying dish may be hung on the tripod. These masses. ALABASTER CLEANING: See Cleaning Preparations and Methods. Prepare a mixture or frit of 33 parts of quartz sand. is bath employed in cases in which. Artificial. book was in type when this step was decided upon. ALBATA METAL: See Alloys. 65 parts calcium phosThe frit.

general classes or degrees Amyl acetate . to 99.0 parts.ALCOHOL "Spirit". even on standing for some time. of alcohol. After the admixture of 5 drops of silver-nitrate solution. add the alcohol and shake well. likewise methods of denaturing and a list of denaturants.4 99. then add the spirit of nitrous ether. 10 cubic centimeters of absolute alcohol should not become turbid or colored even on heating. Solid Alcohol. On lighting the solid spirit the soap remains behind. and then mix with 28 to 30 parts of well-dried.7 contain parts. should not form a rosecolored zone at the surface of contact. Alcohol Deodorizer. with a stratum of 5 cubic centimeters of absolute alcohol. not safe to go. yet a ginger beer brewed with | pound per gallon of sugar would be a very wishy-washy compound. The Dissolve the oils in the spirit and add the amyl acetate. 300 150 Powdered alum Spirit of nitrous ether 1 drachms the lime and alum intimately by 'trituration.000 parts of spirit. that substance will remain behind.000 parts the "complete" and the "incom- Spirit (95 per cent) plete. which will make anything but a "temperance" drink.. If gelatine be suspended in ordinary alcohol it will absorb the water. After repeated shaking. readily Absolute alcohol has a peculiar odor. or about 1 per cent of absolute alcohol. II. The admixture of gum lac effects a better preservation and also prevents the evaporation of the alcohol.. I. is Absolute. Absolute alcohol should not be dyed by hydrogen sulphide water or by aqueous ammonia.. colorless. non-alcoholic. closing them up at once and allowing the mixture to cool therein. The mixture serves for destroying the bad odor of denaturized spirit in distilling. Perfumed Denaturized Alcohol. ALCOHOL. The red color of a mixture of 10 cubic centimeters of absolute alcohol and 1 cubic centimeter of potassium -permanganate solution should not pass into yellow before 20 minutes.797. It consists of alcohol cotton. Beyond if this amount it is sulphuric acid. vol- imflammable liquid which burns with a faintly luminous flame. or 1J pounds per gallon is used up to the better the drink will be and the H more customers will relish it. Heat 1. and there is little doubt that a much larger quantity The more sugar that is generally used. and thus nearly absolute alcohol will be obtained without distillation. viz.2 cubic centimeter of potash lye evaporated down to 1 cubic centimeter should not exhibit an odor of fusel oil after supersaturation with dilute and gun green. Smaragdine is a trade name for solidified alcohol. a burning taste. 0. etc. Absolute alcohol should have no for- eign smell and should mix with water without cloudiness. 78. Any maker who is using as much as even pound of sugar per gallon is bound to get more spirit than the law allows. Five cubic centimeters of absolute alcohol should not leave behind a weighable residue after evaporation on water bath. Mix Denaturized Alcohol." according to purpose for . a clear. in a test tube. East India lemon oil 1. DILUTION OF: See Tables. Experience has shown that \ pound of sugar to 1 gallon of water yields about 2 per cent of proof spirit.50. 500 parts 7.6 to 99. by weight. Five cubic centimeters of sulphuric acid. rasped Venetian soap and 2 parts of gum lac.000 parts of denaturized alcohol (90 per cent) in a flask of double the capacity on the water bath to about 140 F. set aside for 7 days and filter through animal charcoal. but it will be as "strong" as lager and contain perit haps 5 per cent of alcohol.795 to 0. paper. by volparts ume. Alcohol 160 ounces grains grains Powdered quicklime. colored with malachite It appears in the market in the form of small cubes.000 parts 50 parts Cassia oil 75 parts Clove oil 100 parts Lemon oil the legal limit is to be observed. The solution is put. into metallic vessels. and does not affect litmus Specific Boiling point. carefully covered. while still warm. Use 50 parts of the perfume per 1. Meanwhile it is scarcely accurate to term ginger beers. Tests for committee for the compilation of the German Arzneibuch established the following tests for the determination of absolute alcohol: Absolute alcohol atile. Absolute Alcohol. but as it is insoluble in alcohol. complete dissolution will take place.250 parts Mirbane oil 1. There are two the of denaturizing. or 99. Alcohol. A mixture of 10 cubic centimeters of absolute alcohol and 0. One hundred gravity. Alcohol in Fermented Beers.

025 part of animal oil. white lead. White ale is said to be very nutritious. or \ part oil of turpentine. rosemary. mild ale.ALCOHOL which the alcohol so denaturized is to be ultimately used. together with some undecomposed saccharine. is either closely bunged up for draft or is at once put into strong stoneware bottles. sufficient to prevent alcohol from being drunk. bromo-silver gelatines. must greatly depend on the intended quality and description of the brewing and the period that will be allowed for its maturation. with the addition of 50 grams to each liter of oil of lavender or (6) One and one-fourth liters of the above "standard" and 2 liters of benzol nutritious. and 7 pounds to 10 pounds for "keeping" ales. the boiling is conductedwith more than the usual precautions. liters of alcohol. or even one-fourth of amber malt may be advantageously emFrom 4i to 6 pounds of hops is ployed. They though are. are less accentuated by lengthened fermentation. and very small and variable quantities of mineral and saline matter. however. For ordinary ale. made of 4 parts of alcohol. on the contrary. and abound in saccharine ature. gummy more matter. until the whole of the soluble matter of ALE. 41 to 6 per cent. and other like ales. produce 1 barrel. is slowly boiled with about 3 handfuls of hops. (e) By the addition of 1 kilogram of camphor or 2 liters oil of turpentine or \ liter benzol to each 100 liters of spirits. 1 to 1* per cent (each by volume). liquor. when a slight color is not objectionable. aniline chemistry. Thus. to 2 parts alcohol Alcohol for the of 90-per-cent purity. photographic papers and plates. the quantity commonly used to the onefourth of malt. though apt to prove laxative to those un- . East India. manufacture of celluloid and pegamoid 1 part gum is denaturized. having undergone a thorough ufactured in several varieties. which are then well corked the latter and wired. The resulting is extracted. pale malt and the best hops of the current season's growth are always employed. e." the further to promote their preservation tity ard* wood oil "wo and one-half liters of the "stand'leiiaturizer. if the liquor be brewed for keeping. The stronger varieties of ale usually contain from 6 to 8 per cent of "absolute alcohol". and 12 to 14 pounds of crushed groats. some acetic acid formed by the oxidation of the alcohol. intended for immediate use. collodion. Complete denaturization by the German system is accomplished by the addition to every 100 liters (equal to 26 gallon* > of spirits: (a) fermentation. thereless intox- or coal tar). contain only a small quanof undecomposed sugar and gum. possessing is Ten gummy. J. genous base obtained by distilling bone and fore. and for the production of soda soaps by the addition of 1 kilogram of castor oil. is denaturized by the addition of (/) little color. Some of these are highly "hopped" or "bittered. but. one-fifth. the bitter liters sulphuric ether. and the fermentation is carried on at a somewhat lower temperature than that commonly allowed for other varieties of beer. The ale of the modern brewer is man- which are determined by the wants of the consumer and the particular market for which it is intended. the malt may be all pale. and. very great attenWith the paid to their selection. 3 to 4 percent. For the manufacture of varnishes and and narcotic principles of the hop. 1 part of pyridiiie (a nitro'1 during transit and change of temperMild or sweet ales. aldehyde. the finer kinds of Burton. Ordinary ale-wort (preferably pale). (d~) Twenty liters of containing solution of shellac. the quantity and nature of each substance given being the prescribed dose for each 100 liters (26* gallons) of spirits: (c) tion Five liters of wood alcohol or | liter of pyridiiie. than those previously referred to. or 0. as soon as the fermentation is at its height. and table ale. and a great number of other purposes. varying from 1 to 5 per cent. Alcohol for the production of lanolin is prepared by adding 5 liters of benzine to each hectoliter of spirits. sufficient to inks alcohol is denaturized by the addi- tion of oil of turpentine or animal oil. salicylic acid and salts. ordinary strong ale. and extractive matter. and in warm weather. In brewing the finer kinds of ales. or 1 part of benzol. Bavarian.. same object. for which the wholly denaturized spirits would be unavailable is accomplished by several methods as follows. agaricin. after being run through a coarse strainer and become lukewarm. Alcohol to be used in the manufacture of ethers. and when it is desired to produce a liquor icating. electrode plates. The proportions. with every 100 II. but not to disqualify it from use for various special purposes. for ordinary ales. Incomplete denaturization i. is fermented with 2 or 3 pints of yeast.

ALKALOIDS. ANTIDOTES TO: See Atropine. Thus.). and gold-copper (84 percent of copper) scarcely undergo any permanent change in form when subjected to tension by the same weight. The action of the air on alloys is generally less than on their simple metals.4% copper) Silver (8. and by the phenomena accompanying the cooling of several alloys from the state of fusion. gold. or some material that will promote liquefaction and prevent volatilization No they become nearly straightened when stretched by a moderate weight. until the whole is consumed. and continues to burn for some time like a piece of bad In like manner. goes far to prove that such is the case (RudThe subject is. powdered charcoal is used for the same purpose. or platinum. ductility. a mixture of tin turf. when strongly heated. either in the melted state or in small portions at a time. when removed irom the mouth. It is drunk in a state of effervescence or lively fermentation. GINGER: See Beverages. Alloys general rules can be given for alloying metals. Thus. The same chemist gives the following approximate results upon the tenacity of certain metals and wires hard-drawn through the same gauge (No. in melting lead and tin in together for solder. and even two ductile metals sometimes unite to form gold and silver. the air. generally so. to the other melted or heated to the lowest possible temperature at which a perfect union will take place between them. rosin or tallow is thrown upon the surface is rubbed with sal ammoniac. hardness. Copper-tin (12% tin) . the glass or cup containing it being kept in constant motion. forming AMALGAMS.4% copper) 45-50 Platinum (8. Mercury or quicksilver combines with many metals in the cold. change having taken place. however. and unnecessary exposure to Thus.ALLOYS to its use. HOW TO DETECT: See Soaps. or easily fusible alloys (q. considerable difficulty. Pounds Copper. and zinc. breaking strain Tin. and combining some metals. The alloy formed of two brittle metals is always brittle. v. They also usually possess more tenacity and hardness than the mean of their constituents. Matthiessen found that when weights are suspended to spirals of hard-drawn wire made of copper. the malleability. alloys ALFENIDE METAL: See Alloys. Whether the metals tend to unite in atomic proportions or in any definite ratio is still undetermined. 23) : generally melt at lower temperatures than their separate metals. Alloys differing greatly in fusibility are commonly made by adding the more fusible ones. 3 parts of lead is scarcely acted on at common temperatures. The alloys formed of metals having different fusing points are usually malleable while cold and brittle while hot. decomposes both moist air and steam with rapidity. and color from either of its constituents. in order that the thicker portion may not subside to the bottom. that of a brittle and a ductile metal. The evidence afforded by the natural alloys of about 80-90 20-25 70-75 Gold-copper (8. but wires of equal dimensions composed of copper-tin (12 per cent of tin). ALKALI.about 7 7 7 7 Gold (12% tin) . but at a red heat it readily takes fire. 47 accustomed shown by the homogeneity and superior quality of many alloys in which the constituent metals are in atomic proportion. The mixture is usually effected under a flux. unless the former are A mixture of 1 part of tin and heated. Alloys generally possess characteristics unshared by their component metals. The variation of the specific gravity and melting points of alloys from the mean of those of their component metals also affords strong evidence of a chemical ALE.4% copper) 45-50 75-80 Silver-platinum (30% platinum) Lead. The specific gravity of alloys is rarely . On the other hand. one of berg). as metals and metallic compounds are generally soluble in each other. breaking strain 25-30 under under about . silverplatinum (36 per cent of platinum). and power of resisting oxygen of alloys is generally diminished. breaking strain Tin-lead (20% lead) Tin-copper (12% copper). and unite by simple fusion and contact. but exercise a species of elective affinity not dissimilar to other bodies. which has a different density. That they do not combine indifferently with each other. is clearly a brittle compound. copper and zinc form brass.

Tin and palladium. Tin and antimony. and nickel. volatile first. which is balls and lighted with a wire. alloys conaluminum. Copper and tin. boron. the proportion of old alloy to the new should be increased. strong affinity between two metals. For igniting. To obtain metals and metallic alloys Mean of their Constituents: from and copper. from time to time.. First. add a small portion of old alloy to the new. silicic acid. it will be impossible to do so by putting proportions of the metals in a crucible and exposing the whole to heat. Zinc and antimony. Lead and antimony. The zinc Lead. the density of their alloy is generally greater than the calculated mean. as some of lost it mean of that of their constituents. magnetism. Gold and antimony. and vice versa. 5. Much of the zinc would fly off in vapor before the copper was melted. Copper and palladium. are obtained. one may also employ with advantage a special priming cartridge consisting of which a little and peroxide shaped into pulverized aluminum to magnesium may be mixed. chlorides. Less than the 3. iron. especially when metals employed vary greatly in The following fusibility and volatility. copper. Iron and bismuth. If possible. The mixture is set afire by means of a soldering pipe or a burning magnesium wire. Silver and lead. and iron. charcoal for zinc. such as oxides. Silver and antimony. If the alloy is required to make sharp castings and strength is not a very great oVject. chromium. taining workman: 1. H. necessary to insure success pulverized mixture. oxidizable. Palladium and bismuth. Silver and tin. copper. In all cases a new or thoroughly well-cleansed crucible should be used. Copper and zinc. magnesium to the of magnesia. copper and arsenic. M.. this is much better for the purpose than an iron rod. Iron and antimony. terial (e. with a whitewood stick. Tin and lead. the are rules supplied Considerable Alloys. Gold and bismuth. . may be formed by exposing heated plates of the least fusible metal to the vapor of the other. a process lately patented makes use of the reducing qualities of aluminum or its alloys with magnesium. Some alloys. if it is desired to make an alloy of exactly 1 part of copper and 3 of zinc. manganese. if possible. Iron and lead. Silver and zinc. In making brass in the large way. when casting. and the following constitutes a brief summary of his observations: and Melt the least fusible. which has been melted in another crucible. Stir the metal before casting and ^4. rosin for lead and tin. Gold and cobalt. and silver. Silver and bismuth. by an experienced ALUMINUM ALLOYS. and the desired reaction takes place. as commonly taught. and lead. as it were. etc. and in many cases considerable condensation When there is a or expansion occurs. and between them an alloy contain- ing from 90 to 97 per cent of aluminum. of their Constit- Copper and bismuth. the metals separate on lead. g. etc. By suitable additions Compounding experience in is compounding alloys. The finely powdered ma- chromic oxide) is placed in a crucible mixed with aluminum oxide. When aluminum is is melted and lead added in proportion greater than 10 per cent. Pecheux has contributed to the Comptes Rendus.48 the arithmetical ALLOYS should be in excess. Thus. as tallow for very fusible ones. and then add the others heated to their point of fusion or near it. and iridium. Nickel and arsenic.. melt the copper and add the zinc. anyway. Gold and zinc. as may be seen in the following table: will be ALLOYS HAVING A DENSITY Greater than the Mean uents: 2. sulphides. Gold Gold Gold Gold Gold Gold their compounds. etc. alumicooling into three layers num. Silver and copper. The surface of all oxidizable metals should be covered with some protecting agent. in melted zinc until the proper proportions have been obtained. thin plates of copper are dissolved. the results of his investigations into the alloys of aluminum with soft metals. as copper and zinc. Gold and tin.

good polish. while bubbles of oxygen are given off. The oxygen of the decomposed water unites with the aluminum. . ZnAl 2 ZnAl 3 ZnAl 4 ZnAl 6 ZnAl 10 ZnAl 12 Their melting points and densities all lie between those of zinc and aluminum. ZnAl R ZnAl 10 and ZnAl 12 are only slightly affected by . and melting points near that of aluminum. ed more hydrogen than the tin alloy. through a tendency to liquation. action of water on these alloys just referred to has been recently demonstrated on a larger scale. and densities 2. silver-white. alloyed only filing lays bare an almost infinitely numerous series of junctions of the two metals. like gold heavily alloyed with copper. Aluminum is a metal whose properties are very materially influenced by a proportionately small addition of copper. The Zn 3 Al. and when slowly cooled form a gray. They are without action on distilled water. with zinc and lead do not decompose pure water. decompose hydrogen peroxide. potassium-hydroxide solution. . They are attacked violently by acids and by Zn 3 Al.600 respectively. They do not oxidize in air at the ordinary temperatures. Tin. All are malleable. 2. The Tin. . viscous when melted. in faintly acid solution of cop- muth alloy. The filed alloys still behave like those of tin. 85. with 5 per cent of aluminum they are reddish yellow. containing from 5 to 10 percent of aluminum and from 90 to 95 per cent of copper. 95. They are attacked in the cold by hydrochloric and by strong sulphuric acid. and 2. with densities 2. grained. They are brittle. 5 to 6 cubic centimeters of hydrogen having been obtained in 20 minutes from 2 cubic centimeters of the . with large granular fracture. and have a granular fracture. 88.674.745. corresponding to the formulas . heated by the filing. but are readily attacked by acids. perature of casting. nor at their melting points. Magnesium. softer than aluminum. which. They are all dissolved by cold hydrochloric acid and by hot dilute nitric acid. but do decompose the water of copper-sulphate solution. Bismuth. 2.47. Their color is like that of aluminum. These were obtained with 66. Well-defined alloys were obtained. and Magnesium. and cold dilute acid the first five. The filed rod of alloy.24. of either aluminum or tin. is without action. potassium zincate and aluminate probably being formed. They were and and with silver-white.78. Bismuth.47. . becomes covered with a deposit of copper or zinc. 68. brittle. but nearer that of aluminum. Larger quantities of hydrogen are obtained from copper-sulphate solution. 2. The 10-per-cent alloys are of a pure golden-yellow color. and 98 per cent have densities of 2. melting points between those of their constituents. and 85 per cent of aluminum. and these mixtures. 2. They do not oxidize in moist air. are the genuine aluminum bronzes. Cold concentrated nitric acid attacks the first three. The bismuth cold potassium-hydroxide solution. apart from the decomposition of this solution by precipitation of copper at the expense of the metal alloyed with the aluminum.37.74 respectively.32. Alloys of 99 per cent aluminum and 1 per cent of copper are hard.86. 95 per cent of aluminum and 5 per cent of copper give an alloy which can be hammered. M. that of zinc-sulphate solution. but 2. though the unfiled rod of alloy will act on boiling water. or a filed rod portions. Zn 2 Al. and the magnesium alloy more than the bis- alloy yield- The alloys of aluminum per or zinc sulphate. spongy mass which cannot be remelted. file take a well. concentrated or dilute. Zinc. but burn readily at a bright-red heat. ZnAl. more slowly. with evolution of hydrogen. brittle. and 2. act as thermocouples. and. whether cold or hot. 2. On remelting they become somewhat richer in lead. and have melting points near that of aluminum. and 94 per cent of aluminum. and a 2-per-cent admixture is 01 an almost pure copper red . bismuth alloys were obtained containing 75. composed of hydrogen and oxygen in explosive proAn unfiled rod. They are not oxidized in air at the temhomogeneous. easily cut. filed tin alloy. and by potassium-hydroxide solution. strong solution of potassium hydroxide also attacks them. more markedly. By the method used for lead.79. and slowly decompose water even in the cold. they are difBeing ficult to cast. but with 10 per cent of copper the metal can no longer be worked. 2. but they are less lustrous. the others are strongly attacked. . and those containing most zinc are the hardest. A filed rod of tin-aluminum alloy plunged in cold water gives off for some minutes bubbles of gas. and bluish in color.ALLOYS The albys with 93. 77. 73. finely sonorous. Pecheux believes that the metals are truly at the and that surface. and by strong nitric acid when hot. With 80 per cent and upward of copper are obtained alloys of a beautiful yellow color.

It resembles palladium and is very strong. the color best consisting of 10 of aluminum. 3 per cent. II. plastic clay being previously applied. and shaped as desired by beating or pressure. Anti-Friction Bearing or Babbitt MetThese alloys are usually supported by bearings of brass. which show such markably increased tensile strength as compared with good commercial aluminum. cent. bicycles.Silver. During three years' exposure to the atmosphere. worked color. I. 3 per cent: aluminum. 8. the brittleness is diminished. ganese-copper aluminum alloys suffered comparatively little diminution in total conductivity. and one of them retained comparatively high tensile strength. colored alloy is obtained. cipally aluminum with a small percentof and nickel. then adding the nickel. or other working piece. with palladium a copper-colored one. when allowed to of solidify at Under a magnification Aluminum-Zinc. stretched out into thin sheets between rollers. : See Fusible Alloys. and has a greater resistance. aluminum metal Aluminum -Tungsten. call it partinium. of attrib- Colored Alloys of Aluminum. almost as light. As the proportion of copper increases. in the usual manner. AMALGAMS als. A new alloy consisting of aluminum and tungsten is used of late in France in the (4mstruction of conveyances. Aluminum. minum alloy has 1. and harder than aluminum. and the metal is very hard. white. the composition of the new alloy varies according to the purposes for which it is used. Alloys with a still greater proportion of copper approach this metal more and more nearly in their character. Considering the remarkable crystalline structure exhibited by ordinary commercial aluminum near the surface of an ingot.33. Very ductile. by mixing the aluminum and copper. Aluminum . in powerful stamping presses.6 times the tensile strength of ordinary commercial aluminum. named is harder than the first. etc. osmium. appear in abnormal tones of color through such alloyages. The strength is stated at 32 to 37 kilograms per square millimeter. and heated and put together with an exact model of the axle. The inference is that the great difference which exists between their tensile strengths and other qualities is not due to variation in structure. for instance. as a lute or outer mold. copper-aluminum alloys in one test gradually diminished in conductivity in proportion to the amount of some aluminum that is easily into various articles contains about one-fourth silver and three-fourths of aluminum. the 90 per cent of copper and The hardness of this alloy approaches that of the general It can be bronzes. 40. and is much used for bearings. Aluminum -Brass. Soft gun metal is also excellent. into which it is poured after they have been tinned.. 3 per cent. and its peculiar greenish-gold color resembles that of gold alloyed with copper and silver together. considerably cheaper than aluminum. and alloys containing 10 per cent and less of aluminum can be used for industrial purposes. 65.35 tensile strength. worked under the hammer. . specific gravity. Easily fusible metals of the color of aluminum Metal difficult of give white alloys. 97 per Silver. composed and tin. 97 per cent. titanium. such as iridium. Aluminum. especially (Carriages. 1 per cent. and also very malleable. of an alloy. a nickel-copper aluties. and with cobalt and nickel one of a yellow color. can be distinguished from pure gold only by direct comparison. fusion.50 ALLOYS by an alloyage of 78 parts of gold and 22 \\ith platinum a goldparts aluminum. the manductivity. the want structure in these alloys must be uted to the process of drawing down. They all become less heated in working than the an ordinary rate. Zinc. 8. On account of its hardness it takes a fine polish. 800 diameters practically no structure could be discovered. whence its name. aluminum. It is alloyed age copper 95 per cent of copper and 5 per cent of aluminum. specific gravThe last ity. hand- A Electrical Conductivity of Aluminum Alloys. it Bourbon metal is aluminum alloys. It is The French microphotography might throw some on the great difference which exists between some of their physical properFor instance. It was thought that an examination of the structure of these alloys by aid of light of equal parts of solders readily. tensile strength. considerably diminished in total conOn the other hand. ple scintillating composition is A pur- produced . composed of Minikin is prinAluminum-Copper. and motor vehicles. The nickel-copper re- Aluminum -Tin. silver A copper they contained.

In both cases the wrought iron is cut up in small pieces. IX. the tin. lead. and antimony are added. etc. An anti-friction metal of excellent I. and bells. then add the antimony. a magnolia flower. very small bells. In fracture. 2 parts. 1 A parts. 68 parts. According to Klaproth. quality and one that has been used with success is made as follows 17 parts zinc. Used VI. these are previously melted in separate crucibles. 20 parts. and less grease or oil is consequently required when they are used. prepared in the following way: Melt the copper in a small crucible. and has a fine compact grain. 1 part. 80 parts. wrought iron. (Ordinary. li parts antimony. antimony. and when mingled the whole mass is again stirred thoroughly. 80 parts. of copper and 1 of tin is commonly Brittle. 75 parts. tin. 4J parts. tin. and then blended with copper. Copper. Copper.. for in this state it oxidizes proportions may be varied without materially affecting the results. lead. Used in China and India for the larger gongs. This is composad of 40 parts of lead. 68 parts. antimony. 24 parts. When run into the molds the surface should be tin. . tin. 12 parts. 2 parts. Slightly paler III. 40 parts. 6 parts. under this title. 150 parts. pounds tin. Used for the bearings of locomotives. antimony. J of bismuth. to be employed when needed. Copper. For certain purposes the composition is modified as follows: Copper. Tin. fused together and cast. cast iron. 80 parts. X. Tin. Copper.) pewter. 75 (= 3) parts. 8-J pounds antimony. 23 8J pounds copper. and J of graphite. Lead. tin. and inferior to No. 2i of tin. V. the finest-toned Indian gongs have this composition. IV. 2 parts. tin. conchoidal and ashBest proportions for house bells. 2 parts. with or without a small portion of antimony or copper.) zinc. Used where there is much friction or high velocity. copper. well skimmed. and in this state it will melt readily in fused copper and cast iron. rapidly. like the last. 1 part copper. VI. X. with some (Fenton's. I. 1 part. 70 parts. for which. Used. English bell metal. 6 parts. Copper.) Copper. antimony. Magnolia Metal. antimony. according to Thomson. zinc. Lead. Burning can be prevented by allowing the copper and antimony to cool slightly before addThis metal is preferably ing the zinc. It is easily fusible. 72 parts. to the injury of the uniformity of the alloy. 30 parts. It machines nicely and takes a fine polish on bearing surfaces. lead. 4 parts. 26 parts.ALLOYS harder metals. semivitreous and bluish-red. 1 part. It has the appearance of aluminum when finished. Without the last it is apt to spread out under the weight of heavy machinery. 1 part. Copper. VII. II. 26* parts. 5 parts. 32 parts. VIII. 2 parts. V. 120 parts. 1 part. 78 to 80 parts. and a vitreous conchoidal and yellowish-red fracture. for the bells of small clocks. 26 parts. III. BELL METAL. Zinc. tin. cast iron. 20 parts. tam-tams. ARGENTAN See : German Silver. however.. 5 1 parts. Copper. 16 parts. 'etc. 10| parts. The product may then be run into ingots. lead. tin. The most sonorous of all the alloys of copper and tin. II. 72 parts. 10 pounds 83A- The antimony. IX. copUsed when the metal is per. parts.) Copper. fused together. antimony. After the mixture has been well stirred. (Standard. 1 part. Inferior to the last. Copper. care being taken not to burn the zinc. 1 part. 10 pounds copper. It is used as an anti-friction metal. 78 parts. tin. tin. 7* parts of antimony. as may be seen below: I. The composition of bell metal raries considerably. The Copper. wrought iron. for zinc. tin. 2 gray. (Founder's Standard. tin. From tin. and lastly the zinc. Used when the metal is exposed to heat. its and takes its name from manufacturer's mark. tin. VIL fracture substituted by the founders. lead. VIII. cast into the shape desired and is not used as a lining metal because it requires too great a heat to pour. 48 to 50 parts. exposed to violent shocks. and a little copper. etc. tin. J of aluminum. 16 to 20 parts. tam-tams. hard or Tin. : 51 for following two compositions are motor and dynamo shafts: 100 pounds tin. 22 to 20 parts. the lead being apt to form isolated drops. tin. 22 parts. zinc. Very deep-toned and sonorous. Somewhat brittle. 77 parts. Use a lubricating oil made from any good grade of machine oil to which 3 parts of kerosene have been added. 21 parts. copper. 1 part. IV. etc. Usual composition of Chinese cymbals. 25 (=1) part. for church and other large bells. Used by the Paris houses iron.

bismuth. tones is the chief object sought after. causes them to give out their tones sharper. pressure by skillful hammering. iron. 1 part. however. 100 parts. lead. and of very refrigeration increases the sonorousness of all these utility. the deeper and graver the tone of the bells formed of it. lead. 0. and it can be rolled out. Used for the bells of repeat- XI. tin. For Cementing Glass. LIPOWITZ'S BISMUTH ALLOY See : Cadmium Alloys. zinc. 72 parts. tin 2. or at least softened. 9. and for taking impressions from dies. and is therefore very useful for cementing lamps made of are to be again heated and allowed to cool This is the method slowly in the air. 66 parts. well. parts. hammered The interfering circumstances. 25 parts.5 part. or. addition of cent) great- . requisite degree of sonorousness. Copper. and then plunged immediately into cold water in order to impart to it the seldom uniform through its whole substance. The addition of tin. XII. medals. it is found necessary to take about one-tenth more metal than the weight of the intended bell. 64. it should be made redhot. chemical combination is complete. and after having been suddenly plunged into cold water.5 A small Brass -Aluminum. ing watches. 78 parts. In general. This is superior to the former.. solved. etc. For tam-tams and gongs. Castings in bell metal are all more or less brittle. 1 part. zinc. Copper.. however. 1. in order to allow for waste and scorification during the operations of fusing and casting. Bismuth and lead are also often used to modify the tone. bismuth 2. lead. Melt together copper. various bismuth alloys are in use. 2 parts.5 parts.. when recent. melting at 212 F. it wears VI.5 parts. in which it turns of introduced in many alloys to reduce or check shrinkage in the mold. zinc. tin. III. and antimony. XIV. After being cast into the required object. Copper. For filling 3. etc. and as it possesses a considerable degree of hardness.ALLOYS zinc. by petroAn alloy of lead 3 parts. This alloy com- posed of tin. Melt together copper. of a very little lead or any similar metal greatly lessens the sonorousness of this alloy. aluminum to brass (1. have a color varying from a dark ash-gray to grayish-white. Most of the cements in ordinary use are dis- leum. The or larger the proportion copper in the alloy. D'Arcet recommends that the "pieces" be heated to a cherryred after they are cast. 20 parts. the more durable and finertoned will be the bell. as the following: I. that they be submitted to well-regulated vantageously used. For delicate castings. All these conditions are. adopted by the Chinese with their gongs. nearer this uniformity is approached. The specific gravity of a large bell is tin. When cold it has to be tin. Melt together copper. 22 parts. doubtful Rapid antimony lead bismuth 1 can be ad- alloys. or bells. necessarily the case with all very Where the quality of their large bells. 80 parts. of Bismuth possesses the unusual quality expanding in cooling. but a little lead or tin is sometimes advantageous. out with frequent annealing. I 6 II 5 III 2 1 1 is IV 8 3 5 3 13 2 3 Cliche Metal. 48 parts. prejudicial to the sonorousness of bells. VII. 32. In general brass is composed of twothirds copper and one-third zinc. many BISMUTH ALLOYS. whose composition corresponds to the following figures: somewhat on the yellowish-red bluish-red. an alloy of 8. XIII. Hence M. 26 to 56 parts. BRASS. and. It is especially well adapted to dabbing rollers for printing cotton goods. It is. in other words. lead. or zinc. there- fore. until they assume their proper form after which they . bells are metal and glass combined. formed and completed by simple This is casting. which each metal affects differently.5 to 8 per 33. in making the bells of ornamental French clocks. 10. a casing of sheet iron being employed by them to support and protect the pieces during the exposure to heat. while that of silver increases it. 66 parts. Used tin. 32 parts. is not affected by petroleum. out defective places in metallic castings. 1 part. tin. The presence mercially pure copper. In a general way. nor can the specific gravity from any given portion of its constituent metals be exactly calculated owing to the For cymbals and gongs.5. 34 parts. iron -fy part.5. which is darkest in the more cuprous varieties. Bismuth Tin Lead V. the greatest care should be taken to use com- Red copper. part. II. The addition of antimony and bismuth is frequently made by the founder to give a more crystalline grain to the alloy.5.

95 . in many cases^ genuine bronze. Besides its remarkable strength.2.4 to 3 II. and price. in hammering not to overheat the metal. 41. Following are the compositions of a few mixtures of metals most frequently used by French manufacturers: Tin Zinc Lead Copper 1 amount II HI IV. IV. iron.2 32. a variety of brass with an admixture of iron. at a certain pressure.7 24.6. for exclusively used.05 22.70 64. per cent. and is. however. Sterro metal may properly be considered in connection with Aich's metal. this alloy is its hardness. zinc. larger percentage of aluminum makes the brass brittle.2. bronze.25 2.44 24. therefore. ferent manufacturers. ity are the Two varieties of excellent qual- product of the Rosthorn fac- A tory. This is (Aich's Metal). With a sterro metal cylinder. The great value of this alloy lies in its strength. zinc. that is. 38. zinc. the following proportions: I II III Copper Zinc 75. the interior pressure is so a wrought-iron pipe broke with a pressure of 267 atmospheres. Sterro metal is especially suitable for all the purposes for which the so-called red metal has been in the past almost exAxle bearings.50 0. English sterro metal (Gedge's alloy for ship sheathing). 4. zinc. so called. If in heat. hardening effect must be attributed.5. iron. 1. made in France. in addition. expensive phosphorous bronze. a valuable property for articles exposed to the action of air and water. The principal difference between the two metals is that sterro metal contains a much larger of iron. for any Brass containing 8 per cent of purpose. which gives it a considerable degree of tenacity.8 39. the pressure can be considerably increased without any moisture being perceptible on the outside of the cylinder. The best variety of Aich's metal consists of copper. would seem to make it in many cases an advantageous substitute for the brass decreases very materially in volume in casting. ample. 60.66. but fine cast brass.8. I. particularly suitable for purposes which require the combination of these two qualities. 38. in Lower Austria copper. it possesses a high degree this. at required for special effected rather by mechanical manipulation than by any change in the chemical composition. It is to be noted that and this alloy is also easily worked III. made of sterro metal have such excellent qualities that many machine factories are now using this material entirely for the purpose. is rolled or hammered and it increased.125. statuettes.05 2. combined with its excellent qualities.ALLOYS ly increases its 53 hardness and elasticity. Bristol Brass (Prince's Metal). 1. As an illustration of low This which possesses properties similar to those of French brass. to which the adapted for require a hard and.33 Also parts.80. its strength acquires. and is said not to oxidize easily. since its constituents are the same and its properties very similar.2 ing. clock cases. 63. may vary within wide limits without materially modifying the tenacity which is the essential characteristic of this alloy.75 2. 1. which is equaled only by that of the best steel. copper.25 2. 55. cylinders. The predominating quality of iron. It is especially Brass -Iron great that the water permeates through the pores of the steel. an exceedingly high degree of tenacity.45 70. etc. as in this case it would become brittle and might crack under the hammer. Copper. are not. but if this is purposes which the same time.3 67. The composition of this alloy varies considerably with dif- The various articles of Cast Brass. . It has a beautiful golden-yellow color. Sterro metal can be made even more hard and dense. its It is an alloy easily made. The permissible variations iron.55 32. where this industry has attained great perfection and extensive proportions.00 1.8 60.. begin to sweat.90 72. Special care must be taken.. and the casts must be copied slowly or they will be parts. tenacious metal. is prepared in alloy. 60 parts. aluminum has the valuable property of being but slightly affected by acids or gases. Even the amount of iron. purposes. Analyses of the various kinds of this metal show considerable variation in the proportions. and for this purpose it is customary to put only half of it into the first melting. mass is liquefied. in the content of iron are from 0. while a similar pipe of sterro metal withstood the enormous pressure of 763 atmospheres without cracking.2 parts. 60 aluminum brittle. and to add the remainder when the first Particular care is required to prevent the zinc from evaporating during the fus- of elasticity. 38. such as the construction of hydraulic It is well known that these cylinders.43 33. which is claimed to be not inferior to that of certain kinds of steel.87 0.86 3.

67 cold. this being continued until the desired result is and a reddish-yellow color. but 4 ounces is If the usually sufficient. Tin or lead may be added without affecting the property of casting A mixture of 7 pounds of copper. uniform a grain as possible. This metal is affected less by sea water than pure copper. more This alloy is also called It gold. and easily gilded.75 to 84.ALLOYS Their special advantage is that they can be readily cast. directed toward obtaining as fine a grain as possible. yellow brass sand castings are desired. and heating the fused mass as strongly as possible. a fresh sample is taken and tested. per cent of zinc are malleable. or imitation gold leaf. and one which will cut free and is If a stronger alloy be desired. 60 to 62 and 40 38 to It is zinc. a second group of such alloys. The alloy. sometimes called yellow metal. Its color is pale or zinc-. There is. and is prepared with certain precautions. Sheet Brass (For Sheet and Wire). in addition. reduce the proportion of tin. and for making nails and rivets which were to come in contact with sea water. and an alloy strong. intimate mixture of the constituents is effected. small samples taken from the fused mass are cooled If quickly and examined as to fracture. ductile brass may be seen from the great difference in the composition of the various kinds. The mass poured into molds and rolled Malleable brass can be worked warm. or Miintz metal (called after its inventor). In the preparation of brass for the manufacture of wire. bright yellow or greenish. with 61. and 3 ounces of lead makes a good casting clean. and acquire by this treatment a very high degree of ductility. being ductile in heat. parts. tney do not show the desired uniform grain. After it has permeated the whole mass.5 to 22. The mass becomes thinly fluid. experience having shown that only a fine-grained alloy of uniform density can resist the action of the sea water evenly. the brass should not contain over 30 per This will assure an alloy of cent of zinc. and was formerly much used for ship sheathing. 4 ounces of tin. but contain widely varying The folquantities of copper and zinc. an especially pure quality of copper must be used. and is best accomplished by melting the metals together in the usual manner. alloy be too hard. The preparation of these alloys requires considerable experience.5 parts. clean. some zinc is added to the mass. Experiments with malleable brass show that all alloys containing up to 58. It is remark that considerable experience is finally scarcely necessary to is required to tell the correct composition of the alloy from the fracture. since all the It is larger ships are made of steel. To Cast Yellow Brass. according to the proportions of the metals. worked with file and chisel. 3 pounds of spelter. At the present day it has lost much of its importance.54 per cent of copper and 38. It has an unusual degree of ductility. Small pieces of the same alloy are thrown into the liquid mass until it no longer shows a reflecting surface. Leaf Brass.46 per cent of zinc. usually composed of copper.33 per cent of copper and up to 41. If good. without this. The ingots are plunged into water while still Dutch red-hot. A metal of uneven denTo obtain as sity will wear in holes.25. lowing table shows the composition of all efforts to brass will be in vain. a valuable quality. parts. which are also malleable in heat. . for some excellent qualities of brass making sheet and wire: suitable reached. It must be covered with a layer of charcoal dust to prevent oxidation of the zinc. when it is cast into ingots in iron molds. properly Malleable Brass. good color and one which will run free and clean. 77. like iron. fracture prepared. tin may be added. is made of copper. has a fibrous produce a suitable quality of That pure copper is indispensable to the manufacture of good. 15. all of which answer their purpose.

A Very readily fusible and very dense. a harder alloy is required. Recently. Zinc is as follows: I Copper 46. The composition hardened with antimony. III. -actory compound. part. It is important. and the mixture stirred constantly for some time to make it thoroughly num lead. the reErepared. brittle that it manufacture of buttons. sometimes lead. the other metals. the rest of the tin is added. tin. 1 part. as it fills out the molds well. moderated. to ascertain the specific weights of the metals. remaining unaffected by tolerably long exposure to the atmosUnfortunately this alloy is so can rarely be shaped exIt is used only in the cept by casting. and also no interruption to the flow of metal. 55 Gilders' Sheet Brass. and by vigorous stirring. 10 parts. without injury to its tenacity. In forming the alloy. but would still soon give way under usage. can the complete blending of the two metals be In adding the zinc. and occasionally. The alloy is poured into molds giving rather sharp impressions and allowing the design on the button (letters or coat of arms) to stand out prominently with careful stamping. is an alloy consisting principally of tin and antimony. Many varieties contain only these two metals. the metal is indeed much harder than tin. previously heated. -fa part. tin. while others contain. in addition. so that there may be no loss of zinc. In the proportions given above. Zinc. The process of forming the alloy must be effected quickly. almost silverwhite color. for which there are two formulas. Ninety per cent of tin and 10 per cent of antimony gives a composition which is the best for many purposes. . being then added. as the melting point of the new alloy is much lower than that of copper. giving the com- made from position of some of the varieties of Britannia metal and their special names. great care secured. alloys containing a somewhat larger quantity of zinc have been used. for the heavier metal will naturally tend to sink to the bottom and the lighter to collect at the top. 80 parts. copper. is first melted separately. therefore. In some cases. certain quantities of copper. iron. The composition of this alloy. tin. where articles it are to be subjected to constant wear. and its hardness makes it capable of taking a high polish. zinc. Finally. lead. of bronze must be effected immediately before the casting. 1 part. An alloy which bears a resemblance to Britannia metal is Ashberry metal. it having been found that the toughness and ductility of the brass are increased thereAlby. loys containing up to 37 per cent of zinc possess a high degree of ductility in the cold. Birmingham platina is an alloy of a pure white. the whole is then stirred and the casting carried out without loss of time. Copper. phere. then adding a part of the tin and the whole of the anThe heat can then be quickly timony. or lead through oxidation.. and may be considered simply as tin Britannia metal 2 BRONZES.5 53. for bronze cannot be kept in store ready bismuth. as metal added after an interval of time will not combine perfectly with the metal already poured in. the percentage of zinc in the different kinds of brass lies between 27 and 34. Britannia metal is always of a silvery-white color. A table is appended. and are well adapted for wire and sheet. though rarely on account of its cost. copper. and is readily fusible. etc. zinc. Only in this way.5 II 4 16 homogeneous. with a bluish tinge. White Brass. Antimony Zinc Nickel 2 8 14 1 II 3 79 15 2 1 BRITANNIA METAL. also known by the name of plati- Britannia metal is prepared by melting the copper alone first.ALLOYS As the above figures show. Copper Tin. 10 parts. especially for casting. which is not lost through exposure to the air.

containing 3 to III. copper is cooled thereby to the thickly fluid point. especially in a hot condition. It may be remarked that. otherwise a considerable portion will be volatilized When the before reaching the copper. only the very purest copper must be used. drawing. metal. possesses an extraordinary hardness and firmness. 7. such as rolling. that is to say. door knobs. phosphorus to 0. A gold bronze. reand slowly cooled. magnesium to 1.: forged works of art for decorative purAn alloy of 95 parts aluminum poses. The alloy of copper and tin has the peculiar property that. is worked like iron on the anvil. Aluminum and nickel change in the opposite Copper. alu- The alloy may be hammered without splitting or breaking. and is therefore especially adapted for locomotive fireboxes and IV.5 per cent at most. This is prepared by melting the finest copper in a cruciThe ble. specific gravity.5 per cent. forging. no permanent change of form must ensue. phosphorus should always be added in the form of phosphorous copper or phosphor aluminum of exactly determined It is percentage. but at the moment of the combination of the two metals. and then plunged in cold water.5 per cent. A steel bronze containing on an average 8. The alloy is heated to a dark-red heat. Aluminum bronze thus prepared is usually brittle. etc. and finally the magnesium. the metal can be toned in manifold ways by treatment with acid. then the first and acquires its best qualities only after having been remelted several times. they must be cooled nents of bronze have a tendency to form separate alloys of various composition. castings are made. If the articles are not forged in one piece and the putting together of the separate parts becomes necessary. 8. only that the temperature to be maintained in forging lies between dark and light cherry red. This is much more likely to occur with a slow than with a sudden cooling of the mass. The white hot and thinly fluid.56 ALLOYS alloys with tin It etc. which keeps well in the air. with large demands upon tension and pressure. or. hence its use is excluded where. spindles. and castings iron. viz. gongs. when cooled suddenly. hammered. viz. etc. A good formula is 90 to 95 per cent of aluminum and 5 to 10 per cent of copper. and attains a high degree of polish. in order to obtain a bronze of the best quality. I. to the melting point of lead. the last named at the moment of liquidity. thus producing the so-called tin spots. which is not surprising con- mixture. The technical working of bronze is not mateThe rially different from that of iron. are plunged into cold red-hot. for the and zinc (bronze. when they become soft and sonorous. This process is particularly employed in the preparation of alloys used in the manufacture of cymbals.. minum and nickel. with hammer and chisel. 1 to 2 per cent. specific gravity. brass. This alloy oxidizes less on heating than copper and iron. through cooling. whereas steel becomes hard and turned.7. with an inferior quality of copper. etc. 1 to 1. bells. as quickly as possible. copper. it is malleable and forgeable.5 per cent aluminum (including 1 per cent silicium). but slightly elastic. best ratio is aluminum. After finishing the pieces. in the case of thin articles. without soon becoming dull and changing color like pure copper and its added to the aluminum and the nickel. are admixed. it are almost as hard as steely resistance to bending or sagging is great.15. so much heat is released that the alloy becomes way. filed well must be taken that the latter sinks at once to the level of the copper. This is changed by workEsing. etc. preparing the alloy a deoxidizing agent is added. made from its . including clock cases. Very ductile and tough. and acquires the properties essential to the purpose for which water it is The instruments while heated. can be cast can be compo- Annealing Bronze. excellently. in increasing the percentage of nickel the amount of aluminum is decreased by the equal quanIt should be borne in mind that the tity. and 5 parts copper is used here. this sidering the high percentage of copper. 9. becomes noticeably soft and more malleable. In nickel. all labor is wasted.37 to 8. riveting or Besides soldering has to be resorted to. of golden color. Aluminum bronze wire is almost as strong as good steel wire. aluminum bronze is well suited for embossing. Aluminum bronze is not affected by exposure to the air. II. and its beautiful color makes it very suitable for manufacturing various ornamental articles.5 per cent. Aluminum Bronze. Handsome golden color. and adding the aluminum. 5 per cent aluminum. The alloy more is naturally brittle. On the latter quality are founded applications which were formerly never thought of. intended only after casting. 89 to 98 per cent.).

can be prepared in such a manner that they will . tin. with too much zinc. This contains 8.) Copper. zinc. 4 parts. zinc. per cent aluminum. which has advantages for this purpose. containing 10 VI.ALLOYS pecially useful where infrangibility is desired. It has been remarked that slight variations in composition quickly change Genuine bronze. The best proportions seem to be from 10 to 18 per cent of zinc and from 2 to 4 per cent of tin. much de- silicium. zinc.3. and it is evident that. Copper. or they are difficult to chisel. fill the molds out sharply. 5 parts. being harder and tougher than the latter. and not hard enough for the required fine chiseling or chasing of the finished object. or to improper treatment of lead. 84 parts. zinc. fine patina. This is due to the large proportion of zinc. and the bronze does not acquire a ficult to chisel. Very This can be varied from pale yellow to orange yellow by slightly varying the content of tin or zinc. 90 parts. etc. In point of hardness. in addition to copper. Diamond bronze. lead. V. there is a consid3 per cent at the erable loss in melting very least. and partly in the purpose for which the metal is to be used. The best proportions for bronze are very definitely known at the present day. III. tique statues were made of genuine bronze. and. Brass alone is also too thickly fluid. The reason for the use of such mixtures lies partly in the comparative cheapness of their production as compared with genuine bronze. They are either defective in color. 23 parts. etc. IV. 10 parts. yet it sometimes happens that large castings have not the right statuary Many of the anStatuary Bronze. lead. ordnance. 6 parts. tin. Since statuary bronze is used principally for artistic purposes. 3 parts. Copper. A thoroughly good statuary bronze must become thinly fluid in fusing. 7. of course. even in the cast state. on the other hand. 5 parts. tin. besides copper and tin the a quantity constituents of real bronze of zinc. and it is also difficult to obtain homogeneous castings from it. 90 parts. containing VII. the nature of the alloy will be different from what might be expected from the quantities of metals used in its an intermediate product between bronze and brass. suitable for statuary bronze: manufacture. 85 parts. VI. 10 per cent aluminum and 2 per cent minum and is use thinly fluid. 7. and must take on the beautiful green coating called patina. (See also Aluminum Bronzes and Japanese Bronzes under I. 72 parts. but brittle. tin. 30 parts. or they dc not take on a fine patina. 2 parts. table gives a series of alloys of different colors.65. At high temperature this bronze loses its elasticity again. does not become thin enough to fill out the molds well. An acid bronze. Copper. tin. II. hard. which must. Specific gravity. careful work possible. and to retain it after being worked in red heat. of great firmness. 11 parts. The following the color of the alloy. zinc. Its advisable in cases where the metal is to possess a good elasticity. the warm tone of color is lost. Copper. 3 parts. 2 parts. 2 parts. 2 parts. These phenomena may be due to the use of impure metals containing oxides. sometimes as. as in machinery. still be kept between the limits given above. 1 part. after being exposed to the really air for a short time. statuary bronze holds an intermediate position between genuine bronze and brass. zinc. this title. tin. but has been superseded in modern times by mixtures of metals containing. lead. Especially serviceable to resist oxidation and the action of acids. iron. Copper. 5 parts. fine castings become very but not so much so as the former. 65 parts. 57 V. specific gravity. in consequence of it. allow of being easily worked with the file. however strongly heated. much as 10.5 per cent alu- 1 A to 2 per cent silicium. lead. the alloy thus formed being character. Too pends upon the color. Alloys containing zinc and tin. With the most the alloy in melting. and will give which can easily be worked with the file and chisel. much tin makes the alloy brittle and dif- Art Bronzes.

silicon. Copper. is weighed. 1 part. For imitation Japanese bronze. 5. 11 per cent. bismuth. 5 For metallic parts. 1. Of course the phosphorus immediately retort.53 per cent. the metal contains. 2. II.62 per cent. 3.88 per cent. When phosphorus is to be added to metal. zinc. On the netting is blotting paper. ^ As melts and also Tbegins to volatilize. etc. cent of copper. tin. Gun under Bronze. Perhaps the most satisfactory bronze metal is the alloy used in France for more It contains 91.42 per cent. ductile metal. 17. The formulas given below contain a large percentage of lead. 6 per cent. it combines with it. ^ is a soft. 88. and such a composition would be represented more nearly by this formula: IV. containing about 2 inches of water. 89 per cent. 6 per cent of phosphorus. with its Molat about F.70 per cent of tin. which holds about 200 pounds of metal when full. and letting it thus absorb some oxygen. I.58 ALLOYS A bronze is sometimes made with an extra high percentage of phosphorus. tin. One man holds the retort on the rim of the crucible in a horizontal position. 11. Copper. zinc.60 per than a century. lead. 0. aluminum. by analysis. antimony. and phosphorus in sticks about 4 inches long is added till the scales balance The phosphorus is left in this again. solution half an hour or longer. which is laid loose on ledges or supports along the inner sides of the pan. half full of dilute solution of blue vitriol. Then the weights are increased 7 pounds. 10. 81.34 per cent. 4. Bronze containing simply copper and tin is very liable to be defective from the presence of oxygen. the phosphorus comes in contact with the metal. lead. eral sorts of and the ratio of their parts for sevmodern Japanese bronze follow: Copper. sulphur. 76. The oxygen can then be removed by adding one of the abovementioned deoxidizers. zinc. III. When finished. see Plating under Bronzing. Sulphur and occluded gases cause porosity. Machine Bronze. Copper. Sometimes a little antimony is added just before casting. to remove oxygen and also indirectly to destroy occluded gas and sulphur. The phosphorus is now ready for introduction into the metal. 30 parts. namely. which greatly improves the patina. or occluded gases. this title. lamp reflectors. The pan also has a lid which can be put down in case of ignition of the phosphorus. 16 per cent.. phur and occluded gases can be eliminated by melting the metal. and on this the phosphorus is laid to dry when taken out of the blue-vitriol solution. 4. This is done by means of a cup-shaped instrument called a retort or phosphorizer. Over the water is a wire netting. 70 crucible. II.33 per cent of zinc. mirrors. exposing it to the air. 5. 80 per cent. is " A The first man then immediately plunges the mouth of the retort below the surface of the metal before the phosphorus has a chance to fall or flow out. and 1. 2. tin. The metal is so hard that a greater thickness would make it difficult to break it up. and the process of manufacture is as follows: Ninety pounds of copper are melted under charcoal in a No. tin.000 melting point Copper . and phosphorus. Copper. 12 parts. Oxygen gets into the metal by absorption from the air.06 per cent. zinc. Oxvgen causes the metal to be spongy and weak. so that it may be dried and exposed to Have ready the air without igniting. antimony. Bismuth Bronze.60 per cent. Such deoxidizers are zinc. nickel. The ingredients I.88 per cent.47 per cent. 11 pounds of tin are added and the metal is allowed to become hot. 6. 52 parts. See Phosphor Bronze Japanese Bronzes. 4. therePhosphor Bronze. lead. Copper.20 per cent. lead. The metal is then poured into slabs about 3 inches by 4 inches by 1 inch thick.38 per cent. This alloy is made so as to have phosphorus in convenient form for use. This process is continued till all the 7 pounds of phosphorus has been put into the metal. lead.21 per cent. Somewhat more zinc is taken for articles to be gilded. a little of this hardener is employed. tin. from a few hundredths of 1 per cent to 1 or 2 per cent.25 per cent. the phosphorus being given a coating of copper.72 per cent. second man takes about three pieces of phosphorus and throws them into the fore. a pan about 30 inches square and 6 inches deep. Phosphor bronze bronze containing varying amounts of phosphorus. which then burns the sulphur and gas.37 per cent of lead. It can be eliminated by adding to the metal something which combines with the oxygen and then fluxes off. Copper. tin. manSulganese. 8.61 per cent.55 per cent. The crucible is then removed from the furnace and 7 pounds of phosphorus are introduced in the following manner: A 3-gallon stone jar. 68. The important use of phosphorus in bronze is.

Phosphorus deoxidizes copper. Gun bronze contains copper and tin in the proportion of 9 or 10 parts of copper to 1 of tin.3 per cent. it keeps its own physical identity and simply exists in the copper in a state of solution. white metal. which remain entangled in the ice. and the oxide formed goes to the surface as a scum. In bearing bronze the forming sulphur dioxide. Toward gases it acts something like copper. so that a casting made from such metal shows a clean fracture throughout. but it also decreases their tensile strength. which will make them work very much better. such silicon.7 per cent. A casting made from such metal would be very spongy. Bearing metal now generally contains about 10 per cent of lead. just at the time of changing from the liquid to the solid state. etc. When oxygen is absorbed by copper. Hydrogen acts in exactly the same manner as carbonic oxide. The bad effect of oxygen is intended to be overcome by adding zinc to the extent of 1 per cent or more. Copper and tin mix in all proportions. they should contain about 3 per cent of lead. sometimes. the dissolved gas separates and forms air bubbles. which dissolves in the copper and mixes homogeneously with it. contain When such air in solution or occlusion. but copper and lead mix only to a very limited extent. river water. All of these metals. although a metal having properties similar to tin. such as lake water. and the oxide formed leaves the metal in the form of a gas.ALLOYS ten copper has the marked property of absorbing various gases. But the carbonic oxide thus absorbed is in a different condition from the oxygen absorbed. add 17i pounds of tin to 17i pounds of lead. should contain something to flux or deoxidize them. All natural waters. With bronze about 15 per cent to 20 per cent of lead can be mixed. antimony. Jt is for this reason that it is so difficult to make sound Molten copper castings of clear copper. A harder bronze is copper and tin in the ratio of 6 to 1. Or. the copper and the coppertin alloy tend to crystallize by themselves. acts entirely different toward copper. the metal is left in a sound condition. in remelting a bearing bronze casting the lead may be seen to drop out while the metal is warming up. and as the product formed separates and goes to the surface. spring water. About 3 per cent of lead can be mixed with copper. When either of these metals is to be turned in the machine shop. but copper and lead show no attraction at all for each other. the oxygen combines chemically with the copper and loses its own identity as a gas. but not in so marked a degree. melting at 440 F. combines readily with the oxygen of the air. and this in turn combines with the sulphur present. Melt 140 pounds of copper in a No. Lead. covering with charcoal. lead keeps its own physical properties. When a casting is made from such metal. and allow the metal to become sufficiently warm. When copper is all melted. The carbonic oxide which is dissolved or occluded in copper acts in exactly the same way. but : as . vet when mixed they make a harder metal. or phosphorus. and also the fracture will be more homogeneous in appearance. It sometimes happens when a bearing runs warm that the lead actually sweats out and forms pimples on the metal. so that the constituent lead melts long before the metal attains a red heat. When molten copper or bronze containing sulphur comes in contact with air it absorbs some oxygen. Sulphur also has a bad effect upon copper and bronze. manThe action of ganese. tin. But when coal gas is absorbed by the copper. Sulphur combines with copper and other metals. however. and phosphorus. 10 per cent. zinc. as a fractured surface will show. This is often used as a bearing metal. instead of freeing itself from the casting perfectly. forming oxide of copper. 70 pot. Tin is a soft. The large percentage of lead is put in that the metal may wear away slower. This result can be much more effectively attained by the use of aluminum. these substances is to combine with the oxygen. forming sulphide of copper. Although^copper and tin are both soft. the oxide or scum. or phosphorus. water is cooled and frozen. although the metal is not so dense as when aluminum Copper or manganese is used. When bronze cools from the molten state. etc. with copper and tin in varying ratios. which is a gas which remains occluded in the metal. sorbing or occluding carbon monoxide. Copper and tin have a good deal of affinity fo? each other. also has the property of ab- The quicker the cooling occurs the less separation will there be. 0. aluminum. This is the metal used when an ordinary bronze casting is wanted. manganese. lead. 10 percent. 79. Aluminum and manganese deoxidize copper and bronze very effectively. The phosphor bronze bearing metal in vogue has the following composition Copper. generally remains in the top part of the casting mixed with the metal..

It may be suggested to those who wish to make phosphor bronze. The phosphorus causes the tin to crystallize. and The molds for this kind of work pour. the . and put it into a crucible. They must be specially prepared for this purpose. In using phosphorus it is only necessary to use enough to thoroughly deoxidize the metal. skim off the charcoal. The ordinary bronzes consist of mixtures in which the copper is really the only crystallized constituent. and most of them. The melted copper phosphide. in trying to free itself. Press the tin tightly into the crucible. There are several firms that make phosphor-bronze bearings with a composition similar to the above one. so that its presence can be detected in the finished bronze.. and phosphor tin containing 2 to 7 per cent of phosphorus. separates on the bottom of the crucible. in the form of a coarsely crystalline mass. stir well again. lect it. as shown by the concave surface of the upper side.60 ALLOYS known for more than fifty years. Then add 10 pounds of "hardener" (made as previously described) and stir well. Remove from furnace. it is only of late that the mode for preparing phosphor bronze has been perfected. Besides its action in reducing the oxides dissolved in the alloy. of finely pulverized coal in a crucible at a any sounder. simply a -deoxidized bronze. and that it should make a casting in a sand mold without rising in the gate after being poured. The phosphorus is added to the bronze in the form of copper phosphide or phosphide of tin. viz. and thus causes hard spots in the metal. 2 parts of granulated copper. The strength and tenacity of the bronze are not lessened by a larger amount of phosphorus. the phosphorus exerts another very material influence upon the properties of the bronze. produced under treatment with phosphorus compounds. Although the effect of phosphorus in improving the quality of bronze has been Tin phosphide is prepared as follows: Place a bar of zinc in an aqueous solution of tin chloride. and expose to a gentle Continue the heating until flames heat. are faced with plumbago. in fact.7 to 1 per cent. and 1 part temperature not too high. and such a But casting will be found to be porous. but do not want to handle phosphorus itself. containing 14 per cent of phosphorus. The tin will be separated Colin the form of a sponge-like mass. It is now manufactured in many localities. the two being sometimes phosphorus itself. say 0. To prepare the phosphor bronze. As a consequence of this dissimilarity in the nature of the two metals. the latter may be con- not any hotter than is needed. But some metal from all brands contains occluded gas. Phosphor bronze is not a special kind of alloy. and its hardness is considerably increased.3 per cent. will be found on the bottom of the crucible. This practical point should be heeded. and there is great risk from fire with it. the alloy is not so solid as it would be if both were crystallized. and the best methods will be here given. cool the metal with gates to as low a temperature as is consistent with getting a good casting. make it by melting the metals and then charging with phosphorus to the extent of 0. In bearing metal. shoves the very hard copper-tin compound (which has a low melting point and remains liquid after the copper has begun to set) into spots. occluded gas is very objectionable. and the bronze then contains. If the content of phosphor is still more increased. upon of the bottom of which sticks phosphorus have been placed. it is. So that after such metal is cast (in about two minutes or so) the metal will ooze or sweat out through the gate. so that many would not care to handle sidered an alloy of crystallized phosphor with copper. but not the used together. But phosphor copper containing 5 per cent of phosphorus. and several other such alloys can be obtained in the market. If enough phosphorus is added. because the gas. compounds of crystallized copper phosphide with phosphide of tin. since the tin crystallizes with great difficulty. Copper phosphide is prepared by heating a mixture of 4 parts of superphosphate of lime. Phosphorus is very dangerous to handle. to make it by using the proper amounts of one of these high phosphorus alloys. and some even surpass it in general properties. or perhaps all. More than this will make the metal harder. of burning phosphorus are no longer observed on the crucible. not one such experience with metal made as described above has yet been found. tin-white in color. a part of the copper combines with the phosphorus. but any bronze can be made into phosphor bronze. Most phos- phor bronzes are equal in this respect to the best steel. The pure tin phosphide. that pig phosphor bronze should be brought to the specifications that the metal should have shrunk in the ingot mold in cooling. besides tin copper and tin. and the result is a more homogeneous mixture of the two metals.

and are very strong. This alloy is composed of bismuth. the silicon is used in the form of siliis cide. The most valuable properties of phosphor bronze are its extraordinary teIt can be rolled. It is principally used in cases where great strength and power of resistance to outward influences are required.05 The alloy called sun bronze contains 10 parts of aluminum.23 12. hammered. and 40 to 60 The mixture known by parts of cobalt.07 as follows: 97. similarly to phosphorus. Sun Bronze.67 3.32 1. in general. The com- Tin Iron Lead Silver 61. of preparation is to heat the metals. according to the purpose of the bronze. VIII for piston rods in hydraulic presses.25 to 2. and its strength is nearly double that of the best ordinary bronze. Phosphor bronze. in a crucible. Lipowitz's Alloy. IV especially without first becoming thickly fluid. stirring constantly. in objects which are to be exposed to the action of sea water. to 80 per cent and the bronzes produced under its influence are very ductile and elastic. In a melted state it retains a perfectly bright surface. 10 of iron. manganese (containing 70 manganese). The process of manufacture is similar to that of phosphor bronze. soon becomes covered with a beautiful. These alloys melt at a point approaching the melting point of copper. properly prepared. nacity and strength.io 0. Seven to 10 per cent of tin gives the greatest hardness.90 0. 40. and very hard. Violet-colored bronze is 50 parts copper and 50 parts antimony. The simplest . cogwheels.359 59.07 Phosphorus ) 0. and stretched cold. cylinders for steam fire engines. Silicon. if exposed to the air. for instance. 3 parts. 30 of copper.180 0. acts as a deoxidizing agent. has nearly the same melting point as that of ordinary bronze. there is not any loss of tin.5 per cent. and lead. If phosphor bronze is kept for a long time at the melting point. zinc.14 0. and. in small pieces. closely adhering patina. and small pieces of the copper phos- I for and III for for valves of locomotives. On account of these qualities silicon bronze Silicon Bronze. it can be used.906 0. are tenacious. 61 axle bearings. With not more than 5 per cent of tin.27 0. ferro60. II III IV Copper. . VII for connecting rods. as. however. 15.14 0.440 0.20 37. Steel Bronze.203 27. 15.00 38. and such bronze is especially suited to the manufacture of axle bearings. but the amount of phosphorus is slightly diminished.12 1. 30 to 50 parts of copper. Some good Copper Tin Zinc Silicon silicon I copper bronzes are II 97. Zinc . amount adapted to purposes of art. 8.10 2. and is therefore well much used for telegraph and telephone wires. CADMIUM ALLOYS: See also Fusible Alloys.40 0.31 61.16 0.35 82. it has the peculiarity of passing directly from the liquid to the solid state.ALLOYS phide and tin phosphide are added. In cooling. This alloy is nearly similar in composition and properties to Delta metal. Phosphor bronze. harder and softer axle bearings. The of phosphorus added varies Tobin Bronze. Copper. tin. ductile. I.18 0. IV to VIII for railroad purposes. as soon as fusion method cadmium. for firearms. 4. the name of metalline has 25 per cent of aluminum. do not rust.37 1. II alloy to be treated is melted in the usual way. while ordinary bronze in this condition is always covered with a thin film of oxide. Phosphor bronze containing about 4 per cent of tin is excellently well adapted for sheet bronze. from 0.14 l. and 35 of cobalt. forged.11 0. for parts of machines where great strength and hardness are required.005 $ The alloy marked IV is sometimes called deoxidized bronze. V and VI axle bearings for wagons.40 2.

pipes.78 " . The color melts completely at 158 P. 167 F. 750 parts. 8. II. 8 X. metals. 125 parts. but on account of the of cadmium and bismuth which it contains. melting point about 86 degrees below that of lead and I. 2. the alloy must be re-fused once more with an addition of cadmium. Malleable and ductile alloy of yellowish-green hue. This alloy is most excellent for soldering tin. with a 2. 1 part. of reproducing all details.): III. and therefore limited considerable amount in use. Cadmium. parts. 170 P. 203 P. ETC. insects. and turned. Next. and cadmium. ALLOYS FOR CASTING COINS. 16. Gold. 5 to 8. 11. Gold.. 2^ IV V VI Cadmium Tin Bismuth VII. Wood's alloy melts between 140 and 161. the alloy has to be remelted in a graphite crucible with charcoal (or rosin powder) and borax. therefore. If. tin. cadmium. This alloy is characterized by its power. with a stick of hard wood. the animal is removed and the mold filled up with The mold is placed Lipowitz's metal. 4. 2 parts. lizards. from being deposited in The alloy softens at 140 F. in spite thereof. 179. cobalt.. Casts of small animals. 2 parts. be carefully melted together from its ingredients in a covered crucible lined with coal dust. bismuth. VIII. and layers. and capable. each must mold. 125 parts.91 " 0. 84 parts. color and the low melting point are not of the first importance. Plaster of Paris is poured over the animal to be cast. 4 or 15. Copper. iron. 3 parts. and is therefore especially very fusible alloy. tin. which are to come in contact with acid fluids. Cadmium alloy (melting point. is composed of tin. lead. and nickel. copper. bismuth. engravings. But here again its costliness prevents its general use.): Cadmium. 300 F. hammered. lead.61 " 16. cadmium. 2 or 3. with a luster like polished silver. and ductile alloy of green color. III.ALLOYS The begins. lead. tin. 6 f Antimony 6. and after sharp drying. nickel. 1 part. These properties would make it valuable for many purposes where a beautiful appearance is of stirring parts. Tin Lead Bismuth 3 13 6 II 6 parts " 8 14 " Cadmium alloy (melting point. 1 or 2 parts. melting at 150 F. MEDALLIONS. tin. This is an excellent soft solder. 4 parts. tin. is important. it is rather expensive. 3. A soft alloy suitable to take impressions of woodcuts. Alloys which fulfill the requirements of the medalist.5 Cadmium F. etc. lead. zinc.75 parts " 0. Likewise a malleable and ductile alloy of a peculiar green shade. have been prepared from which were equal in sharpness to the best galvanoplastic work. or in a graphite crucible. silver. is silvery white.): Cadmiiim. and which must melt at a low degree of heat. Cadmium alloys (melting point. lead. etc. and cadmium. lead. parts and worn-out type.5 F. li parts. silver.): Cadmium. tin. in a vessel of water. lead. ^ All these alloys are suitable for plating. 8. 1 to 2. It is composed of lead. are the following: I II. 750 parts.35 " 0. 1 or 2. It is composed of copper. cadmium. 166 A malleable parts. bismuth. is made out of bismuth. bismuth. bismuth. and special importance. silver. As regards their production. 746 parts. and cheaper alloys possessing the same properties have been In cases where the silver-white sought. the alloys given below may very well be used in the place of it. Silver. 10 parts. it. and is malleable to a certain extent. like the preceding. 43 parts. of resisting the action of acids. a considerable portion of the cadmium should have evaporated. can be used for soldering in hot water. etc. This. 3.43 24 " ' alloy (melting point. in the following proportions: Copper Zinc Lead Tin Iron Nickel Cobalt ) IX. 7. III.. and antimony. A adapted to making cocks. and the metal can be bent. tin alone. 114 parts. Cadmium Alloys with Gold. lead. in order to prevent the metals.. and by heating to the boiling point the metal is melted and deposited in the finest impressions of the Gold.): 74. coins. Cadmium alloy (melting point. Britannia metal. being especially adapted to the last two metals on account of its silver-white color. 35 231" 1 1 1 2 " Acid-proof Alloy. 97 parts. whose specific gravity varies considerably. In color it resembles platinum.

It takes a ^ high polish. and also for artistic purposes. 66 parts. Copper. zinc. The alloys of copper little used in the industries of the present day. zinc. and 25 of has a dark golden-yellow color. and is very popular owing to the fine white color it possesses. This is composed of 72 parts of copper. ing analysis of Delta metal (from the factory at Diisseldorf) will show its usual composition: cover of glass. and besemThis is erizing the resultant matter. traces of iron. of New York. and nickel. iron. These alloys acquire.the same time very hard. On account of this. properties which make it especially suitable for fine castings. 40 parts. position. and IV ally. Red. 67 to 70 parts. 55 parts. qualities. 30. 82 parts. and adding ferromanganese or "spiegeleisen. 34. calcined in order to obtain the nickel and copper in the form of oxides. 45 parts* at . and have considerable strength and With an increase in the quantity of "the iron the hardness increases. Copper. CASTING COPPER zinc. Copper Arsenic. 16. or the like. man silver was known. consists of 33 parts of copper This alloy metal is by smelting ore containing sulphide of nickel and copper. Alfenide Metal. J per cent of aluminum may be added. A copper and iron alloy of considerable strength. These alloys. and are therefore not adapted for articles of art. Copper. Bath Metal." producing an alloy of 95 per cent zinc and 5 per cent of iron. a permanent silver luster. nickel. boiler tubes. Arsenic imparts to copper a very fine white color.8 of cobalt. Alloys of copper and arsenic are best prepared by pressing firmly into a crucible a mixture of 70 parts of copper and 30 of arsenic (the copper to be used in the form of fine shavings) and fusing this mixture in a furnace with a good draught. but it would seem that in earlier times they were frequently prepared for the purpose of giving a considerable degree of hardness to copper. This" alloy is used especially in England for the manufacture of teapots.). metal is produced by heating zinc very strongly in crucibles (to about 1600 F. making hardened with iron. they soon lose their whiteness and take on a brownish shade. nickel. upon only being rubbed with a white cloth. an ugly color inclining toward black. they are very little used at the present time. The process of making the for ships. but the solidity is lessened.6 of nickel. some manufacturers add small quantities of tin and lead.ALLOYS Albata Metal. III rolled. II. 18 parts. III. 60 parts. Morrell. Copper Iron. hardness. which leads to the supposition that they were added intention- and iron are I is cast. we regularly find large quantities of iron. these alloys were sometimes used for the manufacture of such cast articles as were not to come in contact with iron. and makes Before Gervery hard and brittle. zinc. It : Macht's Yellow Metal. 33 to 30 parts. The followalso. 1. has obtained a patent on a nickelcopper alloy which he claims is valuable on account of its noncorrosive Baudoin Metal. therefore and 1 part of copper. 8 parts. Yellow. 32 parts. 10. II hammered. forged at a red heat. 63 Copper. in some cases. I. is the so-called Delta metal. so as to produce an alloy which preferably contains 2 parts of nickel making it desirable and other uses where the metal comes much in contact with water. as well as the poisonous character of tne arsenic. consisting principally of copper. A. and can be great tenacity. This is a variety of brass Delta Metal. Delta hot-stamped metal. when of a certain com- . The composition of Bath metal is copper. under a it An alloy widely used for parts of machinery. for in antique casts. 1 of zinc. When exposed to the air. The latter are reduced in reverberating furnace with carbon. Copper and brass and a very small amount of copper phosphate are also added. made Copper Nickel. zinc. and articles made from this alloy acquire in the course of time. is of copper. on exposure to air. zinc.

cadmium. Melting point. lead. they melt as soon Folas the current becomes too strong. Other easily fusible alloys IX VII VIII cellently V. 1 1 1 2 2 1 3 3 1 which gives the name is composed of copper. might equally well be employed. 2 parts. IV.00 8. Wood's Metal. This alloy contains Tissier's Metal. arsenic. and aluminum. Minargent and Minofor are sometimes used in England for purposes in which the ordinary Britannia metal. and are to be preferred on account of the absence of arsenic.82 of lead.) I.6 62 20 10 8 Lead . gongs. 1 to 2.26 67. Many copper-tin al- loys are employed for the making of files which. which is always dangerous.. lead. 258 F. VogePs Composition Files. : Lead Tin Bismuth Melting Point. is composed of 15 parts of copper. 200 F. 1 part. 149 to 160 F.0 8. F. 5. 283 311 for Electric Installaalloys are employed in installations as current interServing as conductors on a rupters. Fusible tions. but the peculiar alloy 2 parts 4 parts 5 to 8 parts This silvery. 2 of lead. harder. arsenic. zinc. is of a beautiful tombac red Its composition color.ALLOYS Gong Metal. A sonorous metal for cymbals. lowing is the composition of some of Alloys These these alloys. 66 20 9 1 lead. 4. Such are designated composition files. Retz Alloy. -fo part of mercury is added. is The so-called Minofor metal I composed of copper. Bismuth. These proportions may. VI. 7 to 8 parts.0 7.and fused under a cover of borax. varies a great deal. 5 of lead. 6 parts. copper. the fusing III. It may be considered a brass with a very high percentage of copper. fine-grained alloy fuses between 151 and 162 F.94 II 4 (See also Solders.5 78. It is sometimes used for axle bearings. 8.0 7. 2. This alloy consists of copper. 30 of nickel. short length of circuit. and 1 of antimony. 50 of copper. in distinction from the steel files. and 3 of tin.. Tin Lead Bismuth adapted to soldering. 2. 97 parts. FILE ALLOYS. which resists the corrosive action of alkalies and acids. electric . 25. for which porcelain and ebonite are usually employed. Melting point.. parts of silver. I II 64. This alloy. and hardened by the addition of arsenic. files is Another alloy for composition 350. zinc. Minofor. tin.0 19. 1.0 Lead VI. 1 or 2. 2. cadmium.4 18. but they are..0 10. This is composed of II.0 28. It can be utilized in the manufacture of receivers. 1 part. To impart greater F. 500 parts. on the other hand. and very hard.5 31. (These have a fusing point usually below 300 F. The metal obtained possesses a handsome white color and greatly resembles silver. 2 parts tin and 1 part antimony. Ignite the piece after it is cast and plunge it into cold water immediately. nickel.5 V 73. 7 parts. tin. tin. tin. This comprises 20 Ruoltz Metal.0 IV 61. Melting point. 1 part.) Rose's Alloy. zinc. tungsten. 180 F. alloys have the following compositions: Geneva Composition Copper Tin Zinc Files. and is ex- and 3 of tin. 2 parts. Bismuth. 8 parts.0 . Darcet Alloy.34 of tin. l. . the latter surpasses both of them in beauty of color. Copper Tin Zinc III 57.0 8. and tam-tams consists of 100 parts of copper with 25 parts tin. however. 1 EASILY FUSIBLE OR PLASTIC ALLOYS. and iron in the following proportions: Copper Tin Antimony Zinc Iron 3. is then lowered to 149 and is Newton composed alloy melt3 at 212 F. 8 parts of bismuth. Bismuth. but other alloys are equally suitable for this purpose. It melts at 176 fusibility. of 5 parts of bismuth.53 17.. Production of Minargent. lead. vary. antimony.

the mercury while stirring. 8 parts. . since the alloy fills out the finest depressions of the mold with the greatest sharpness. Of the copper powder obtained in this manner. so in sides F. while still in fusion. since these metals fuse at temperatures ranging from 850 tin). which are hollow and can be readily gilt or bronzed by electro-deposition. The amalgam has a silver. Plastic Metal Composition. When used as a cement. to proceed in this manner. lead. It is absolutely necessary third. (for Fusible Boilers. 20. alcohol.white color and a fine gloss.ALLOYS These alloys are prepared by melting the lead in a stearine bath and adding successively. When the mold has cooled off it is taken apart and the seams removed by means of a sharp knife. the amalgam has a still lower fusing point. and it forms a most effective cement for fine erties metal articles which cannot be soldered in fire. these latter will unite so firmly that in about 10 or 12 hours the metal may be subjected to any mechanical process. The easily mass in the dish. 4 parts. and the mold moved rapidly to and that the alloy is thrown against the for Plaster. and fuses perfectly at 158. 1 part. It is impervious to the action of dilute acids. The prop- busts. and in 12 hours after it has become cold the composition will be so hard that it can be polished. in point of sharpness. bismuth. has been thoroughly amalgamated with the mercury. 15 parts. oxide Copper hydrogen or copper sulphate by boiling a solution of the same in water with some zinc filings in order to obtain entirely pure copper. the sulphuric acid is washed out again with boiling water. The amalgamation Lipowitz Metal. rub up the amalgam with a little white of egg and brush like a varnish on the plaster articles. tin. the bismuth. The production of small statues is successfully carried out by making a hollow gypsum mold of the articles to be cast and heating the mold evenly to and of this composition render it very useful for various purposes. While Lipowitz alloy softens already at 140 F. III. Bismuth. Alloy 3. and when the two metals are in fusion add Amalgam 1 bismuth. If the operation is carried on correctly. This amalgam has also been used with good success for the making of small statuettes and boil- ing water. Melt part. d'Homburg. by weight. II. according to the degree of hardness desired for This amalgam is preMelt in a dish. second. A corresponding quanthe molten amalgam is then poured fro. Safety Alloys for Steam all over. 30. the whole being conWhen all the copper stantly stirred. ether. 1. of mercury are then added to this paste. or 36 parts. the bismuth and the tin together. it can It at in any time be rendered soft and plastic If applied the following manner: while hot and plastic to the deoxidized surfaces of two pieces of metal. is reduced by means of I. direct impressions of leaves. the cadmium. the tin. a chasing of the cast mass becomes unnecessary.5 parts. first. parts. is stirred until the contents solidify. and lead.5. mercury. The shaking should be continued until it is certain that the amalgam has solidified. For use. Bismuth. pared as follows: liquid and smoothly. and other delicate parts of plants having been made with its aid which. the composition (the greater the quantity of copper used the harder will the composition become). (for lead). This amalgam is excellently adapted for the production of impressions of various objects of nature. which lies around 143| F. to 551 F. 5. are thoroughly moistened in a cast-iron or porcelain mortar with sulphuric acid of 1. It is perfectly constant to atmospheric influences. 70 parts. alike in the soft or the hard condition. contains the same specific gravity. Tin. 1 part. and during the cooling. cad3 mium. which should be taken from the fire immediately upon proceeds the introduction of the mercury.85 specific gravity. are equal to the best plaster casts and have a very pleasing appearance. 65 tity of about 140 F. by weight. by weight. adding to the alloy. 2 parts of quicksilver previously heated to about 212 F. tin.

and VIII bright yellow. VIII. 4 parts. it is now dipped into nitric acid into which a little XVI exhibits a bluish tint. it is customary to coyer the perfectly cleansed and shining a article with thin coat of mercury. Next it is dipped in a 36 nitric-acid bath. If it be too smooth the gold will not take hold easily. VII. for washing drying in unsoiled GOLD ALLOYS: Colored Gold Alloys. 2 This alloy fuses parts. It is employed for reproductions of medals. those of gold with silver are whiter..33. 3. lead. Bismuth.: VI. lead. tin. in 3 parts. tin.33.water (in reality a solution of mercurous nitrate). 3 parts. 4 parts. Nos. V. 2 parts. VI. II. XI and XII bright red. Below are given some of these alloys. This quick. etc. 5 parts. 2 parts. lead. XIII. The finished gold ware. 2 parts. it must be well annealed by placing it in a bed of glowing coal. one piece being frequently composed of several pieces of varying color. First. 2 parts. lead. XIV. proportions are to be observed. into it. which operation is conducted especially with alloys of low degree of fineness. After it has been well rinsed in clean water. from falling Nos. X. 3 parts. before being put upon the market. No. distinguished Manufacturers IX. 2 to 3 parts. Bismuth. Bismuth. tin. gether tone. lead. at 199 F.66 ALLOYS lampblack thrown. viz. The alloys of gold with copper have a reddish tinge. tin. That the amalgam easily take hold of bronze objects there. and reproducing cuts. and brushed off with a long brush. The presence of silver considerably modifies the color of gold. Bismuth. and XV gray. and if it be too dull it will require too much gold to cover it. add 540 parts of This solution must be kept in water. lead. is subjected to a special treatment. etc. medals. the amalgam may be evenly and without difficulty applied with the scratch brush. Nos. the object to be gilded consists mainly in cleansing it from every trace of oxidation. Alloy Valentine Rose. The preparatory work on When cooled. and is of a silvery white. Bismuth. IX and X pale red. This alloy is fusible at 251 F. 2 parts. and IV are green gold.: . this piece is plunged into a highly diluted sulphuric-acid bath in order to dissolve in a measure the oxide. Alloy Rose pere. 3 parts. closed flasks or bottles to prevent impurities. is made in the simplest manner by taking 10 parts of mercury and pouring over it 11 parts of nitric acid of a specific gravity equal to 1. lead. use of these different colors. such as dust. Nos. VII. an alloy of gold. 2 parts. 2 parts. It is of the greatest importance that the surface to be gilded should appear of a pale yellow tint all over. while stirring vigorously. 2. 2 parts. Bismuth. tin. 1 part. tin. which thereupon presents the appearance of being plated with silver. with their colors: make and copper toby a greenish of ware gold Quick -Water. Bismuth. III.. consisting either in the simple pickling or in the so-called coloring. I. tin. The remainder are plastic alloys for clean water and sawdust. then. 3. In the form of minute globules the mercury immediately separates itself from the solution and clings to the bronze object. while No. lead. of a specific gravity equal to 1. now let it stand until every part of the mercury is dissolved. care being exercised that the heating be uniform. is silver. the object being to give the layers a superficial layer of pure gold. which is usually accomplished by dipping it into and remain may a so-called quick-water bath. 4 to 6 parts. 2 parts. and the jeweler makes use of this property to obtain The following alloys of various shades. coins. Vis pale yellow. Nos. This alloy fuses at 212 to 250 F. tin. 2. and table salt have been It is now ready IV.

the stir- kept . of a highly deux used by the goldbeater is alloyed according to the variety of color required. copper. Pale iron.. 75. crystalline base. Fine gold. grs. are very brittle and cannot be worked.. . also adheres by contact of one leaf with another. | of sal ammoniac. and cream of tartar. Pale yellow VIII. are composed of 3.. or 1 part of gold respectively. dwts. 84 parts. 12 24 IX. English yellow. of 8 18 Fine gold 6 1 Fine silver 10 Fine copper No borax must be used in the melting of this alloy. thus causing spoiled material and wasted labor. iron. Enameling III. the coloring matter is usually an oxide of gold. handsome colorings have not yet been capable of being utilized. el.. per 1. 16 parts. 456-460 464 Pale red.. Deep V. The gold solders. ozs.. as it is more durable and does not tarnish or change color. for which reason their prepared by beaters with the proportion of alloy they contain: Gold grs. Gray. Pink 125 125 V. The whole mass is Fed Enamel.000 . II. I. 25.. 750 80 750 170 VII.. 75 parts. rose copper. 75. this color The enamel which forms being of a higher fusing stirred for a half hour. The above figures are understood to be by weight. although its use for ordinary purposes is undeIt sirable on account of its greater cost. 20-24 16 12 12 10 IV. sal ammoniac. Gold. a red or copper alloy does not do for green enamel. XII. ... composed of 22 parts of aluminum for 88 parts of gold. Red gold. X. Transparent. The alloy of gold for transparent green should be pale.. Fine gold is commonly supposed to be incapable of being reduced to thin leaves.. 8 parts. This alloy should possess the property of transmitting rays of light so as to give the highest possible effect to the enamel. Red Other colored gold alloys are the fol- Green . point. the zinc or tin being dropped in piece by piece. 92 parts. in order to prevent any mishap. the copper has a tendency to darken the color and thus take away a part of its brilliancy. the gold to be enameled on should be what is called a 22carat red. however. fine silver. .ALLOYS Gold Color of Gold I. 191. dwts. which should in color.. lowing: Fine gold. 94. as near as possible. III. or tin. Copper grs. 12A. copper. and au (9 carai). the gold will melt first.. 250 750 IX.000 . and cream of tartar in powder are added separately copper is first and gradually. Lemon. 14 of zinc copper of the purest quality. grs. it being of a more fusible nature than the ordinary alloy. Fine gold Fine silver Fine copper Gold-leaf Alloys. 6. per 1. . One hundred parts. with 1 part of an alloy consisting of two-thirds silver and Gold also forms with one-third copper. White 30 72 96 120 168 240 . II. XI. copper. Sea green 50 750 200 IV. and this so raises the temperature at which it melts that. Dead leaves. 444 440 408 384 360 312 240 . III.. The following is a list of the principal classes of leaf recognized and ordinarily Silver grs. known in France under the names of soudures au quart (13 i carat). Dark Gray.. The following alloy for transparent green possesses about the nearest print.. possessing a pretty purple shade. This... XIII. But all these alloys. that is. 456 Extra deep.. Fine gold. II. leaf is 18 1 8 10 6 All gold more or less alloyed. Green or pale X. GOO 400 . Yellow VII. Gold. and will not take so high a heat in enameling. English white. 9. the color and brilliancy of the emerald that can be arrived at: I. 12^. I. to the enamel represent. 2. . Blue. 6 of magnesia. Whiter 60 750 190 VIII. and the work become In the preparation of red enamruined. then the magnesia.. The melted. 750 150 100 VI. IMITATION GOLD. weight. Gold-Plate Alloys. Less white .. it should contain a preponderance of copper in the alloying mixture so as to raise the fusing point of the gold. 67 Silver Copper per 1. . the most curious of them.. by limestone. but for work exposed to the weather it is much preferable.. is not the case. limestone. II. aluminum a series of alloys of greatly varying coloration. au tiers (12 carat). iron.. Cassel Yellow. if proper care be not taken. The formula is: ozs. Citron VI. made into The gold Fine gold. Alloys. 25 parts. Gold.000 750 250 700 300 .

Chrysochalk is similar in composition to Mannheim gold: Articles made no gilding.6 Tin then ready for use. does not oxidize or lose its gold color. The composition is usually 90 parts of cop2. and is excellent for this purpose.9 1. used for mak- Mosaic Gold.21 31. Later alloys. III. IV. in proportions about as follows: The directions for preparing this alloy vary greatly. It parts has a beautiful color. . Have ready the other half of the zinc. covers a metallic alloy.8 of Stir again lime. Oreiide or Oroide ing cheap gold ware. It is frequently used for the manufacture of spoons. and does not change in the air. When the antimony has likewise melted and entered into intimate union with the copper. and 9 of crude tartar. however. 3. This is an alloy composed with slight deviations of 100 of copper and 50 to 55 of zinc.7 9. some charcoal ashes. and (French Gold). cut into small pieces and heated almost to melting.48 0. to take the place of gold. stirring constantly to effect as intimate a mixture of the metals as possible. Melt 100 parts of copper and add. zinc.24 A special receipt for orei'de is the fol- lowing: j IV. be kept bright for a long time by a coating of colorless varnish. and is produced by adding to molten copper. so contains 1. Cheap watch chains and jewelry are manufactured from it. and it has fallen somewhat into disuse. it also takes a high polish. An invention.5 of aluminum. The molds. etc. rendering it injurious to health. so that it can easily be stamped into any desired shape. magnesium. of Nuremberg gold need retain their color under the hardest usage. It can be rolled and worked Tike gold and has the appearance of genuine gold without containing the slightest admixture of that metal. and does not easily oxidize.5 7. variety of Mannheim gold. forks. per. which excludes the air and prevents oxidation. The best method of obtaining a thoroughly homogeneous mixture of the two metals is first to put into the crucible one-half of the zinc to be used. and tin. consists of 950 parts copper. even the fracture of this alloy shows the pure gold color. even if exposed for some time to the action of ammoniacal and acid vapors. takes a high polish. which makes it especially suitable for the manufacture of castings which are afterwards to be gilded. Mannheim Gold or Similor. alloy consists of copper and antimony in the approximate ratio of 100 to 6. nally the crucible is covered and the mass is kept in fusion 35 minutes and. but is unsuitable for this purpose on account of the large amount of copper contained in it.6 58. so closely resembles genuine gold in color that it can scarcely be distinguished from so-called it. The products of some Paris factories show the following composition: I Copper Zinc 90 10 II 80.68 ALLOYS Copper Zinc I 83. it has the valuable properties of being very ductile and tenacious. the same being removed.8 9. and was formerly much used in making buttons and pressed articles resembling gold. The French gold. One called. when polished. as its color is exactly that of pure gold. It can. the metal is poured into II 89.68 40.52 0. and when the contents of the crucible are liquid throw it in. as soon as it has reached a certain degree of heat.3 7. is called This alloy.5 Tin Iron III 86. Mannheim gold is composed of copper.5 of gold.0 Firing being kept up till they melt.6 of sal ammoniac. but quickly loses its beauty if exposed to the air. 6 parts of magnesia. Imitation gold. gold. a small portion at a time. V. and is alloy thus made It has a fine yellow color. and is distinguished by a very fine grain. and it is widely used by the manufacturers of imitation bronze ornaments. and 7. the said percentage of antimony.40 parts of brass (composition 3 Cu 2 1 Zn) to 10 of copper and 0. and lime spar are added to the mass when the latter is still in the crucible. 45 aluminum. surpass it in color. patented in GerII. capable of being worked and drawn into wire. and 2 to 5 of silver.22 1. I II Copper Zinc 90. however. malleable.5 14. and fuse the mixture under a cover of borax at as low a temperature as possible. Aluminum Nuremberg Gold. many. closely resembling that of gold. The is said to be fine-grained.1 of zinc. which.9 0.. place the cover upon it. 1. with constant stirring. In color it resembles gold.90 Lead Besides its beautiful color. Chrysochalk is used for most of the ordinary imitations of gold. on account of the oxidation of the copper.

even though it may be thin. The fine varieties of talmi gold are manufactured from brass. from tiful chains. tin 10 parts. covered with a thin plate of gold. is composed of copper 10 parts. or tombac.3 They are sometimes (although rarely) used for the bearings for the axles of the wheels of fine watches. articles were introduced under the price. 6. and gui-shi-bu-ichi and The pierced holes are. many articles of talmi gold have been introduced whose gold coating is copper. The copper is first fused. Pinchbeck. combined with the base by rolling. earrings. under strong pressure. until they acquire a bluish-black color. The finest Japanese brass consists of 10 parts copper and 8 parts zinc. II. and verdigris. and thus fulfills all the requirements for making The gold of electroplating is very soft.6 11. a low Later. for the rea- . copper. GERMAN SILVER OR ARGENTAN. 1.1 0. produced by electroplating. firmly hammering together the plates. The alloys I. but from the adjoined figures an average may be found. The pure cheap jewelry.ALLOYS thoroughly. as they invite little The friction and do not rust in the air. such as their color. The name of talmi gold was first applied to articles of jewelry. after pierced. brought Paris. which Copper Zinc is its principal use. and the durability of the alloy will. and also because alloyed gold is always used.3 Alloys of gold. and is The bell metal kara kane called siachu. and palladium Talmi Gold. about 30 gold foils (genuine) are welded together with shadke.7 1. 0. the coating.3 0. Of late. and which retained their beautiful gold color only as long as they were not used. to which the gold does not adhere firmly: Tin Iron son that the two metals are actually welded by the rolling.28 0. then tne remaining metals are added in rotation. alum.1 1. this alloy are laid in a pickle of blue vitriol. In genuine talmi gold. composition of some varieties of talmi It will be seen that gold are here given. ductility. The composition of this alloy varies considerably.5 parts. Its dark gold color is the best imitation of gold alloyed with Being very ductile. but adheres so closely to the base that the metal will keep its beautiful appearance for years.9 0.8 93. copper 13 parts. whicn will represent.5 0. iron 0. fully remove the scum and pour off the alloy. It possesses a peculiar gray shade. approximately. bracelets. 88. it can easily copper. composition used in the Swiss and English Japanese Alloys.2 6. are the base. silver 11. of course. which the composition is as follows: Shadke consists of copper with from 1 to Articles made from 10 per cent of gold. correspond to this. V. and zinc 1. and add 17 parts of granulated zinc. the content of gold varies greatly. and distinguished by beau- Gui-shi-bu-ichi is an alloy of copper containing 30 to 50 per cent of silver. tions. This was first manufactured in England.4 2.7 0.0 Gold Or Copper Zinc Brass Palladium. silver. fusibility. and the coating not only acquires considerable density. silver. great durability. which can be given any desired shape by stamping. III are genuine Paris talmi gold. adis in many heres very closely to the base. be rolled out into thin plates. and when this al- consists of several composiThus.05 1. not durable. Gold. and cases so thin that hard rubbing will bring through the color of Such articles. IV. It does not readily oxidize. Mokume same name. of course. etc. loy had acquired a considerable reputation. The plates are then rolled out by passing through rollers.9 0. and after mixing it with the copper by vigorous stirring keep the Then carealloy liquid for one hour. and VI are electroplated imitations. In Japan some specialties in metallic alloys are in use of watch factories consists usually of gold 18 parts. but which were really made of other metals. and palladium have a brownish-red color and are nearly as hard as iron. filled up with the above-named pickle. workmanship. which is much harder than pure gold. cop- per.5 part. the normal composition: 50 to 66 parts Copper 19 to 31 parts Zinc 13 to 18 parts Nickel The properties of the different kinds.. and VII is an alloy of a wrong composition.

parts for the purpose of changing the properties of the alloy or cheapening the cost of production. table will snow how the character of the alloy changes with the varying percentage of the metals composing it: its tendency toward brittleness increased. to 50 parts Manganese Argentan.544 " " " " the alloy. It will be sufficient to note these materials briefly. and 25 of nickel... but no one of them has yet become an article of general commerce. upon the general character of and especially lessen its power Silver white. The following analyses give further particulars in regard to different kinds of Nickel Bronze. for parts of ships. Aluminum I is hard and very lustrous. but it beis German floor.0 1. ALLOYS of resistance to the action of dilute acids. cups. almost ductile. and does not tarnish easily. 52 Copper Nickel Zinc Manganese . . of its most valuable properties.5 1.0 21. German silver are Copper Arguzoid. added and very frequently Copper Zinc Nickel 55 78 . Iron Nickel Tungsten 66 parts 23 " 4 5 ** In some kinds of ganese.0 21. For making spoons. with 15 per 3 to 5 cent phosphorus Readily cast for objects of art. tin.5 per cent) with copper. resonant. arid zinc. the most suitable proportions are 50 parts of copper.. 25 of This metal has zinc. Lead makes it more fusible. This is prepared by fusing together very highly purified nickel (99.0 24. etc. SUBSTITUTES FOR GERMAN VER. With iron or man- vary with the proportions of the single metals. etc.0 30. But all these metals have a detrimental rather than a beneficial effect Tin Lead artistic 23. this. pipes. 17 to 15 5 to 10 1 to 5 " " " ** Copper. indicates But the following faulty composition. one ganese the alloy is whiter.198 13.0 III 69. light-colored and very hard. SIL- There are many formulas for alloys which claim to be substitutes for German silver. giving the composition of the most important. forks. tin acts somewhat as in bronze.0 20.0 32.9 0. and piano IV strings.035 3. A bronze is produced containing 20 per cent of nickel. I II Copper Nickel Antimony Bismuth Tin Zinc 25. suited for purposes.0 45. tele- graph wires. and enabling it to take a higher polish. II is hard. and not affected by sea water.. German silver: Bismuth Bronze.1 1.0 16.0 50.0 1. making it denser and more resonant. tin.0 . a beautiful blue-white color.0 IV 47.0 10. spoons. manlead.5 15. of course. found varying quantities of iron. III and are for cups.406 4.70 etc. if allowed to fall upon the break. will silver is sometimes so brittle comes a-nd at the same time more refractory that a spoon. Aphtite. candlesticks. suitable for lamp reflectors and axle bearings.0 1.

iron. but the behavior Prolonged heating to 230 very different. 4C. copper. 23. 87 parts. or about 2 to 1). produces a great increase in its capaafter 544 bility of magnetization. IX. antimony. manAlloy I. Gold. hence it ought to be highly suitable for rheostats. XII. 53 parts. and cannot be wrought. principally lead. Lead. Alloy II could be worked without difthat it ficulty. 20.2 kiloges. These magnetic alloys were studied by Hensler. 50. 45. immediately cast into thin plates. copper. 1. steel. XI. 2. 28. tin. aluminum. Manganese. hours' heating. 81 parts. For that reason it is well adapted for lining tea chests and for the production The of tobacco and chocolate wrappers. Alloys which can be magnetized most strongly are composed of copper. 9. the quantities of manganese and aluminum being proportional to their atomic weights (55. Copper. and MAGNETIC ALLOYS. Copper. Copper. 1. 16 parts. 40 parts. with traces of iron and silicon. aluminum. gold. 8. Platinum. LEAD ALLOYS. The following Instrument Alloys. 0.5 per cent. Platinum. highest practicable proportion of manganese at present is 24 per cent. etc. tin. but. tin. parts. lead.0 to The maximum 27. and aluminum. with traces of iron The two alloys examined were composed as follows: Copper. IV. 26. 85. without Such a material is invalidating them.5 The electric resistance of silper cent. 52. 5 parts. A bar 7 inches long and I inch thick was obtained by II. V. 10. silver. III. manganese.5 per cent. but alloys containing much manganese are exceedingly brittle Copper. 80. 60.5 part white color. Platinum.5 " . arsenic. 14 parts. evidently unsuited to practical uses. Copper. steel. XVII. 62 parts. 15 parts. 61. tin. 79. which can then be passed through rolls. VI. 1. Lead.1. III. antimony. zinc. ver bronze is greater than that of Ger- man silver. copper and zinc are used in the form The alloy should be of fine shavings. 18 per cent. and 38 to 40 of lead. 50. 45 parts. 73 parts.0 5. Sheet Metal Alloy. which. rhodium. lead. iron. Lead. copper.2 per cent.ALLOYS Ferro . 50.5. 45.7 per cent. VI. I. Platinum. arsenic. chanloy I is indifferent to temperature which scarcely affect its magnetic of alloy II is properties. Steel.2 per cent. 1 part. Tin. 43 parts. antimony. Copper. 55. Tin. 86 parts. aluminum.9 to 3. following alloys. 4 parts. 10. with very remarkable and interesting results. 33 parts. lead. Platinum. Metallic Coffins. lead. 10 parts. 10. tin. are used for various purposes: The Bibra Alloy. 35 parts 250 parts 2. This contains 8 parts of bismuth. 15. 15 per and silicon. fortunately. 40. 10. and Starck. 13 per cent. 17 parts. II. silver. 90'. antimony. 12. 5 per cent. lead. Platinum.Argentan. 48. VIII. rises from 1. 10. V. antimony. tin. zinc. Alloy Lead. antimony. 16 parts. Copper. 84 parts. magnetization increases rapidly with increase of manganese. silicium. Lead. 33. Steel. This alloy has a fine can be readily rolled into thin sheets. Platinum. 5 parts. 67. ganese.5. 20. 55. tin. F. 71 is Hard lead 70 parts 20. telescopes. 9 of tin. VII. metallic mirrors. XIV. made of lead. antimony. cent. 62. 89.5 " 4. The XIII. The behavior of magnetic alloys at Alhigh temperatures is very peculiar. Cadmium Resembles silver. 12 parts. 10. Haupt. 88. IV. 66. copper. and Gumlich has recently examined them at the Physikalisch technische Reichsanstalt. are suitable for physical and optical instruments. 64. antimony. XVI. . 11 lead. 67. zinc. but alloy I was so brittle broke under the hammer. 1. . Copper Nickel Zinc antimony.1 per cent. worked like German Tin Lead Copper Zinc Silver Bronze. XV. nickel.5 per cent. Plates for Engraving. zinc. X.: I. manganese.5 parts 0. iridium. 2. grinding. 84 14 This broke in two during the measurements.7 per cent. copper. II. parts. Copper. 30. lead.

I. These copper grains are mixed with the dry oxide of manganese. do not attain their full magnetization for several minIn some of the experiments a utes. 1 part. 30 parts. Alloy I is nearly equal in magnetic properties to nickel. while the highest magnetization obtained with alloy II was only 1. 100 parts. great hardness and tenacity. the lid is removed and the contents of the crucible stirred with an iron rod. 6. more readily fusible than ordinary bronze. Zinc 75 25 60 25 15 65 20 5 bronze to the amount of 0. For curved mirrors. When a bar of iron is magnetized by an electric current. By re- peated remelting of the cupromanganese a considerable quantity of the manganese is reconverted into oxide. considerable ductility. for its maximum magnetization is about one-tenth that of good wrought iron (18 to 20 kilogauss). tougher than copper. 8 parts. III. cured by prolonged heating. therefore. on the contrary.5. it is. For glass balls. MANGANESE ALLOYS Manganese : bronze is a bronze deprived of its oxide by an admixture of The manganese is used as manganese. its approaching the strength of alloy when alloy II is heated to 329 capability of magnetization fails again and the material suffers permanent injury. of the 1. Alloy I showed oxide formed during the reduction. zinc. but not wholly. which contained smaller proportions of manganese and aluminum. bismuth. lead. it is advisable to cover the crucible with a lid which has an aperture in the center for the escape of the carbonic Another singular phenomenon was exhibited by both of these alloys. and the mixture put into a crucible holding about 66 pounds. it is impervious to the effects of the weather. mercury. without the formation of blowholes. Another reason for avoiding re- magnetic strengths up to 4. 50 parts. 1 part. Mirror metal. II. wind furnace and subjected to a strong The oxide of manganese is white heat. cent manganese and added to the Copper Manganese. MIRROR ALLOYS Amalgams : for Mirrors. are hard. mercury. it takes a very high polish. as the manganese oxidizes easily. Tin.5 kilogauss. hardness of this alloy. V. In preparing the alloy. arsenic. The alloys of copper with manganese have a beauti- Tin Nickel This is 10 10 10 ful silvery color. mercury. 20 parts. it acquires its full magnetic strength almost instantaneously on the closure of the circuit. in order to make the alloy as homogeneous as possible. as far as possible. the copper is used in the form of fine grains. antimony. Manganese Copper. tin. and manganese for electric resistances. Copper. which can be partly. . and is therefore remark- lead. and resembles in appearance good German silver.) Copper. copper manganese containing 10 to 30 per melting is that the crucible is strongly attacked by the cupromanganese. F. and 'are an alloy of copper. The crucible is placed in a well-drawing Tin. 35 parts. When the reduction is complete and the metals fused. which can be magnetized up to about 5 kilogauss. They have a beautiful white color. strongly magnetic. 30 parts. Tin. the access of air to the fusing mass. nickel. Reflector (Cooper's. and can be used but a few times. and can be worked under the hammer or with rolls. Manganin. Metals. or one-sixth that of cast iron (10 to 12 kilogauss). 70 parts.. The magnetic alloys. Some varieties of cupromanganese which are especially valuable for technical purposes are given below: I II III IV 60 20 . Chinese copper. obtained by pouring melted copper into cold water. mercury.ALLOYS fauss. gradual increase was observed even after the current had been flowing five minutes. 16. completely reduced to manganese.5 to 2 per cent. In order to prevent. The best kinds of cupromanganese contain between 10 and 30 per cent of manganese. 80 parts. I part. the alloy rapidly solidifies. account On tin. IV. 1 part. In magnetic strength alloy I proved far superior to alloy II. 70 Cupromanganese is suitable for many purposes for which nothing else but bronze can advantageously be used. A special characteristic is that they exactly fill out the molds. parts. advisable to make the casts directly from the crucible.9 kiloBut even alloy II may be called gauss. 2. Copper. Enough space must be left in the crucible to allow a thick cover of charcoal. When poured out. 9 parts.. But . I. and the cost of its production is no greater than that of genuine bronze. 1 part. which at once combines with the copper to form an alloy. platinum. Metallic cement. and present no difficulties in casting.

II.ALLOYS ably well adapted to the manufacture of mirrors for fine optical instruments.44 parts.22 parts.1 Nickel 80. I. Metal. of copper. An alloy of palladium 24 parts.22 parts.7. antimony.3 Sollit's al- ments Compounds Chinese speculum metal. This alloy extremely hard. like the other alloys of palladium. Copper Tin Zinc nic ver Standard Otto's alloy alloy 68. Copper. lead. Attempts have frequently been made to increase the hardness of speculum metal by additions of nickel. tin.5 30. and copper 13. tin. An alloy of this nature is some- having it does not oxidize. tin 31.21 68. 20 parts.. gives a reddishbrown. are little used on V. 66.7 31.18 parts. 2 parts silver to 1 of platinum being taken to form the favorite object has been to produce an alloy having a white appearance." Elatinum nown: A mixture I. any considerable quantity of arsenic in particular Speculum of 2 account of their rarity and costliness. 2. 2. In addition to this alloy the following are well of 7 parts platinum with This gives to platinum 3 parts iridium. and very fine-grained alloy. PALLADIUM ALLOYS. palladium 8. but this has not the pure white color which distinguishes the speculum metal containing 31. silver 11. 8. 0. With the exception of nickel. III.5 per cent of tin. which can be still further increased by taking 4 parts of iridium.5 31. It is dangerous to increase the tin too much. is white. The alloy of iridium with osmium has great hardness and resistance and is recommended for pivots. antimony. and at the same time has a low melting point. IV. The alloys of most of the other platinum metals. ArseSil- silver 44. Iridium and rhodium give great hardness to steel. An alloy of 9 parts platinum and II. III. gold 72. requirements must contain at least 35 to 36 per cent of copper. arsenic. and is used instead of copper 92. II.. causing the socalled tin spots. Copper. is used almost exclusively for dental purposes. 9. but the commercial rhodium steel. tin. zinc.29 mony Lead steel. and points of ship compasses.. which can be polished. Alloys consisting parts of copper and 1 of tin can be very brilliantly polished. 4 parts. The standard alloy is undoubtedly the best. 82. . Copper. Palladium 6 parts.3 4. manufacture of artificial teeth. hard as steel. 33. 1. gold 80.67 part. times separated from ordnance bronze by incorrect treatment. 32 parts. and can. these substances have the effect of causing the metal to lose its high luster easily.21 per cent. arsenic.83 . so called. This alloy. 1 part iridium is used by the French in the manufacture of measuring instruof great resisting power. VI. suitable for the bearings of pivots in clock works. and iridium Palladium Silver. and gold 6. arsenic. (Little's. posed of palladium 24 parts. 64 parts.6 31. By increasing the percentage of copper the color gradually shades into yellow. and will serve for mirrors. .60 parts.39 19.5 Anti- OldRoman 63. Platinum has usually been alloyed with silver in goldsmith's work. It is comjewel bearings in watches. hard. with a larger amount of tin into blue. 69.) Copper.11 parts.01 parts. composed of 9 parts of palladium and 1 of silver. 80 parts. An alloy even more frequently used than this consists of platinum 10 parts. and arsenic.7 2. PLATINUM ALLOYS. so called. real speculum metal seems to be a combination of the formula Cu 4 Sn. should be white and very hard.) ver. Good speculum metal should have a very fine-grained fracture. fine instruments. For this purpose a compound of . and it becomes too brittle to be worked. gold 18. loy 64. 30. as this changes the other properties of the alloy. Richardson's alloy 65. unchangeable in the air. Below is a table showing different compositions of speculum metal. 8. composed of copper 68. nickel.0 0.05 17. the highest degree of polish depending upon these A composition to meet these qualities. as The is Palladium Bearing Metal. cadmium.83 parts. the hardness of steel. the latter acquire considerable hardness without becoming magnetic or rusting like The "platinum silver. frequently contains not a trace of either. Zinc. sil(Duppler's.82 parts. and tungsten are also used in the construction of parts of watches. and is well suited to the this effect. be used for dental purposes.

for instance. while a golden-yellow color can be produced by further adding from 1 to 2 per cent (in The all 5 to 6 per cent) of platinum. it is always safer to fuse them with the oxyhydrogen flame. 3 parts.25 parts cadmium. Imitation Platinum. however. IX. 10 parts gold. or 7 parts platinum. but their excellent The a inum and gold have somewhat alloys of platlim- qualities repay the extra expense. and would certainly have superseded steel if it were possible to produce it more cheaply than is the case. IV.. to silver makes it harder. Platinum inum more An addition of platSilver. VII. The compositions most frequently used for pen metal are copper iridium. The price of such pens.ALLOYS 62. Alloys with a smaller percentage of platinum can be prepared in furnaces. I. iron. lead. and they have also proved serviceable for jewelry. but also An and changes the white color alloy which contains only brittle. then in the spongy form. III. . and 5 parts copper. zinc. Those which contain to 10 per cent of platinum are used for sheet and wire in the manufacture of artificial teeth. 1. 4 parts. and 3 parts silver. They are almost exclusively used for dental purposes. 35 this is parts. With a small gold in many respects. and the alloys are extremely elastic. each of a different alloy. 65 parts. utensils a favorite alloy part platinum. A mixture of 30 parts platinum. silver. parts platinum. 5 parts. especially well adapted to the manufacture of pens. suited to the special purpose of the part. For enameled articles: num. alloys containing more than 20 per cent of platinum. 18 parts copper. elasticity. and ductility. and can be used constantly for years without showing any signs of wear. joined to the body pen by melting in the flame of the oxyhydrogen blowpipe. 60 parts parts brass. and the point is made either of minute cut rubies or of an extremely hard alloy of This alloy is Cooper's Pen Metal. almost entirely lose their elasticity. Fqr table 1 a very small percentage of platinum is noticeably darker in color than pure silver. or 2 parts platinum. tin. to gray. VIII. and silver 3. and alloys containing 70 per cent of platinum can be fused only in the flame of oxyhydrogen gas. add the platinum A good solder for parts. nickel. finish. 1 part. antimony. li parts. 100 alloys have for some time been used in dental work. 2 parts gold. parts.. 4 parts. They are not in the least affected by any kind of ink. 75 parts. consisting of several sections. I to color. 1 part. PlatiFirst fuse the silver. The great hardness and resistance to the atmosphere of Cooper's alloys make them very suitable for manufacturing. containing between 17 and 35 per cent of platinum. platinum and 13 parts copper. platinum 80 copper 20 parts. consisting of 3 parts Platinum-Gold Alloys for Dental Purposes. Platinum Gold.. e. these latter alloys acquire a rose-red color. If 4 per cent of platinum is taken. VI. 2 parts brass. Copper. In order to avoid the chance of an imperfect alloy from too low a temperature. 100 parts Articles made parts tin. the so- ited application. 1 part. last-named alloy is extensively used for ornaments. is composed of nickel. made of expensive materials and at the cost of great labor. copper. and 220 ^?en color. II. this also gives a golden-yellow V. 65 parts. 1 part. the upper part is of an alloy of silver and platinum. nickel. Pens have been manufactured. and 10 Brass.75 parts platinum. the sides of the pen are made of the elastic composition just described. zinc. silver. are most durable. copper 21.. on account of its great hardness. 120 parts. zinc. but require the strongest white heat. 1 part nickel and silver respectively. g. and power of resistance to atmospheric influences. like platinum itself. and 18 parts nickel is much recommended. and 3 parts silver. Small quantities of platinum change the characteristics of 1 part. 1 part. Thus. and silver 36. which is almost equal to 18-carat gold in regard Platinum Gold Silver 246 6 1 II 14 III 10 6 8 Palladium . The melting point of the platinum-gold alloy is high. For pens: Platinum. is of course of the osmium and exceedingly high. percentage the color is noticeably lighter than that of pure gold. from 5 Cooper gold. likewise alloy V. Brass. of the latter alloy are impervious to atmospheric action and keep their polish Pure white platinum for a long time. platinum 4. platinum 50. Such alloys are prepared under the name of platine au titre. alloys called Very ductile platinum -copper have also been made. or.

it contains an is liable to prove poisonous. Copper Nickel Zinc. since the cost of the labor in their manufacture so far exceeds this. toys. it can also be it PEWTER. for any other utensils exposed to contact with food or beverages. This alloy is prepared chiefly in Paris. and take a very high polish. Its advantages over silver consist in its lower price and greater hardness. lead. fused toUsed to make plates. As indicated by its name (one-third silver). indeed. syringes.764. One hundred and sixty-nine parts of aluminum and 5 of silver make an elastic alloy. 65. will run before showing any irregularities due to wear. VII.. alloys vary considerably according to the percentage of aluminum. In the construction of such instruments. From tin. They are composed usually of 49 parts of silver. recommended for watch springs and dessert knives. They are not.52 per cent. and An alloy of 100 parts of aluminum 5 parts of silver is very similar to China pure aluminum. have a beautiful white color. such as the spacing lever of a typewriter. of This alloy when used on typewriting machines is nickel-plated for the sake of the first appearance. Tiers -Argent. commission. giving sharp. and. its and its cost is not greater color is silver white. teapots. 19. per cent. and ver. etc. known in trade: From tin. When silver is alloyed with copper only one proportion is known which will give a uniform casting. Silver.00 . 2. IV. properly called pewter. 20 per cent. Also aluminum. III (Ley Pewter). as the last.00 3. proximately determined from the specific by an assay cannot be bent to any extent without breaking. however. than brass. and of retaining their white color. V. tin. pewter containing more than 18 parts of lead to 82 parts of tin is unsafe for measures for wine and similar liquors. Used for measures. The proportion is 72 per cent silver to 28 per cent copper. 80 per cent. 79 Pewter). if it be excess of lead. and 2 of arsenic. consists of 33. antimony. true to pattern. suitable for this purpose. fine polish. gether. With more silver than 72 per cent the center of a cast bar will be . The properties of aluminum and silver silver SILVER ALLOYS Aluminum Silver. III. . lead. bismuth and copper. II. 6 per cent. 7 per cent. The proportions of these metals may be ap- gravity 7. for instance. hardness makes it susceptible to its Aluminum and form beautiful white alloys which are considerably harder than pure aluminum." The proportions are given as follows: articles.24 per cent. the liquid metal completely fills the mold. The metal now generally used for this purpose by Takes a II the various typewriter companies is "aluminum silver. The alloy is stiff and strong and The legal is specific pewter in France and greater. inkstands. and used for the manufacture of various utensils. especially if the percentage of aluminum is increased to 3. VI.05 per cent. with antimony and copper. but so far as corrosion is concerned. This is a hard alloy which has been found very useful for the operating levers of certain machines. silver. Used for msxior etc. I. stamped and engraved more easily than the alloys of copper and silver. be calculated how long a chronometer. nickel. 1 part. and were formerly used in England in the manufacture of tableware. They have the advantage over copper alloys of being unchanged by exposure to the air. it casts free from pinholes and blow holes.33 parts of silver and 66. 3 parts. Arsenic. is first varieties are I (Plate per cent.66 parts of aluminum. clean castings. From tin. 79 (Triple Pewter). etc. Copper -Silver.ALLOYS mathematical instruments where great It can scarcely precision is required. whose wheels are constructed of this alloy. but is harder and takes a finer polish. 49 of copper." or "silver metal. An and aluminum alloy of equal parts of silver is as hard as bronze. antimony. Alloys which contain small quantities of arsenic are very ductile. Copper. Five parts of aluminum part of silver make an alloy that ily and is 1 eassil- worked. According to the report of a P^rench Aluminum 57 00 20 00 20. of each 2 per cent. : a high polish. 15 per cent.5 per cent. on account of the poisonous character of the arsenic. nickeling is unnecessary. 13. the price of the material is not to be taken into account. This is or of tin The Three an alloy of tin and lead only.00 per cent. gravity. but correctly only for the purpose.

which also contains sometimes certain quantities of zinc. is prepared by placing thin plates of gold.000 parts of liquid.Ruolz. and at once poured out into molds. sections of the thin plates obtained in this way show the colors of the different metals.6 16. and the alloy poured immediately into the molds. Copper. 33 37-42 25-30 40 30-40 20-30 20 45-55 25-35 Copper Nickel. must be wrapped in paper. and is quite ductile. eties are given below. II III Copper. silThis alloy is yellowish with a reddish tinge.000 parts of distilled water and leave therein for some time. from the metals con- tained in them. and the alloy just described over each other and stretchThe cross ing them under the hammer. Nickel. as in the older coins of Switzerland. and Cadmium Alloys. 27. The following alloys can be ver. The so-called "mokum. 3. which chills while with a less percentage than 72 per cent the center of the bar will be poorer and the outside richer than the This characteristic of silveraverage. Cool in a mixture of 20 parts.57. The required quantity of zinc.3 41. and add the cadmium. which give them a peculiar Mokum is prinstriped appearance. the mass is thoroughly stirred with an iron rod. cipally used for decorations upon gold 18 20 25 50 50 and silver articles. After putting it in. zinc.. and alloys of these two metals are therefore easily made. rolled into sheet or Silver drawn 33.ALLOYS than the outside. In preparing the alloy. . Copper. An alloy is prepared in Japan which consists of equal parts of copper and silver. nickel..06. Nickel . Silver. These alloys. It ranks next after Argent.. It is customary to prepare first the alloy of silver and copper. Silver Copper Nickel Zinc. An alloy consisting of 2 parts of zinc and 1 Silver-Zinc." also a Japanese alloy. which is a great drawback to their use in coinage. by weight.56. The composition of the Swiss fractional coins is as follows: wearing 20 centimes 10 centimes 5 centimes positions: I Silver Silver 15 10 5 . to which copper sulphate and verdigris are added. tiful well. In place of the sulphuric acid. like poor brass. may be characterized as argentan or German silver with a cer- Silver and zinc have great affinity for each other.0 44. Mousset's Alloy. as the following French comricher first.3 into wire: II III Copper. percentage of silver.8 8. and in this case may be classed together with the alloy just described. The silver contained in them can be regained only by a laborious process.. With a larger proportion of zinc the alloy becomes brittle. 34 42 8 16 40.6 10. copper alloys is known to metallurgists as "segregation. . these properties are valuable in the manufacture of The prosilver-plated ware and wire. silver. This is the surest way to prevent the volatilization of the cadmium. case of the alloys of silver and zinc. 9. Repeat the process if necessary. they have the advantage of tain of silver closely resembles silver in color. without affecting the white color.8 1 II 82 180 309 V VI 284 450 VII In preparing these alloys. wrapped in paper. copper. Being quite hard. Alloys of silver and zinc can be obtained which are both ductile and flexible. which." When nickel is added to the silver and copper. They have been used for making small coins. as in the III IV 980 950 900 860 666 667 500 Copper Cadmium 15 5 15 35 Japanese (Gray) Silver. the mass is quickly stirred. but white on the fractured surface. Silver. and which is given a beautiful gray color by boiling in a solution of alum. but soon lose their beauwhite color and take on a disagreeable shade of yellow. . portions of the metals vary in these alSome of the most important variloys.6 4. the great volatility of cadmium must be taken into account. and Zinc Alloys. a somewhat larger quantity of zinc must be taken than the . 59. several good alloys may be formed.42. is thrown into the melted and strongly heated silver. Zinc 50 25 10 55 25 10 60 25 10 The whitening is of alloys of silver and best accomplished by annealcopper ing the alloy until it turns black on the surface. of concentrated sulphuric acid to 1. 40 parts of potassium bisulphate may be used per 1. Cadmium added to silver alloys gives great flexibility and ductility.

and therefore as as 50 per cent of lead is used. and 60 per cent scrap. Tin-Lead. Tin is one of those metals which is not at all susceptible to the action of acids. Cadmium of Zinc.. nickel. Tin. small amount always There are a number of alloys. VIII. It is hard. nickel. 55.5. Alloys containing from 10 to 15 per cent of lead have a beautiful white color. zinc. Silveroid V. The following mixtures are cheaper: > Lead . 19 parts Tin . trace. over which it has the advantage of 24 per cent greatSilier strength. antimony.. Trabuk metal contains Alloy. It is well adapted for the making of artificial gems for It is customary in carrying stage use. Tin.. 0. 70 parts. bismuth 7.. zinc. and finishing better than the ordinary cast-iron mixture.. From this it is stated a good solid metal can be obtained..198.. STEEL ALLOYS: See also Steel. Copper. if sharp iron or brass molds are used. used for cooking utensils. Argasoid. antimony 1. I. anti- white.. 1 part. 1 part. much Toys can STEREOTYPE METAL. which is even cheaper than the alloys of tin and lead.780. 1 part. and may be briefly mentioned here. III. 20 per cent No.. It is poured into molds faceted in the same way as diamonds.406. employed These must fill the molds well. springs.65. by weight... on the other hand. I. been known in which the so-called tin contained a third part. metal. cadmium. antimony. Lead . recommended. IV. the castings being free from honeycombing. Tourun-Leonard's metal is composed of 500 parts of tin and 64 of bell nickel 5.. copper. copper. bismuth 5.544. In such alloys. and should properly not exceed 10 or 15 per cent.ALLOYS finished alloy is 77 intended to contain. is an alloy and lead. etc. which resemble silver. The alloys of tin and lead give very good castings. while lead.. 5 parts. not very ductile. 29 parts This alloy is very bright and possesses a permanent sheen. and are used for stage jewelry and mirrors for reflectAn especially ing the light of lamps. difficult mony. Very hard.33. antimony 5.. consequently. 8 Tonca's metal contains coppei 5 nickel 4... zinc. Nickel. tin parts. and much cheaper. and must also be cheap.. aluminum. tin. Its constituents are: con..5 TIN ALLOYS: Alloys for Dentists' Molds and Dies. manganese. and liants. Tungsten steel is crucible steel with 5 to 12 per cent tungsten. 1. tungsten.62.. Minargent. phosphorus. of lead. 3. also be made from type metal. Tin.45.. II. 65 parts. out the process to start with two parts of Tin is added tin and one part of lead. sulphur. fine-grained. 23 parts. graphite. 1 part.51.. The alloy is rather costly because of the amount of bismuth which it contains. Tin. Many alloys of tin and lead are very lustrous." consists of 29 parts of tin and 19 of lead. For Locomotive Cylinders. 1 part.. 1 to fuse. until a sample drop which is allowed to an iron plate forms a mirror. lead. 2 parts 3 parts 5 parts The melting point of this alloy is 196 F. but quite II. 2 parts. Very hard. 1 part. of copper. 5 parts. combined carbon.. zinc 1. Nickel steel is composed of nickel 36 per cent. tungsten.. steel 64 per cent. 1. 2 coke iron..5. zinc.. 12 parts. composed of different metals. III. 16 parts... 10 parts.. copper.. 1 part.. lead 1. but cases have SOLDERS : See Solders. etc. VII. and cobalt 3. 0.. antimony.. Other alloys of tin and lead are in the manufacture of toys. 0. 4. 0. the amount of lead must be limited. but has the disadvantage of readily breaking if the articles are sharply bent.. about the Hardness Tin. part.. iron 1. VI. This mixture consists of 20 per cent steel castings. 4 parts. 2.. and when seen by artificial light. as a volatilizes. is very easily attacked by them. 13. 5 parts. are considerably harder than pure tin. Softer than the former. brilliant alloy is called "Fahlun brilIt is used for stage jewelry..035. iron. parts. the effect is that of diamonds. aluminum. old steel. Bismuth ____ Antimony 131 283 I 1 II III 5 IV 2 2 5 1 1..068. Imitation Silver Alloys. Warne's metal is composed of tin It 10 parts... and cannot be tin 87. is Tin . 23. iron.. difficult to fuse. nickel. fall Lead Tin Bismuth The upon artificial gems are produced by .. 100 parts..

590 39 7.884 9. III. Type Metal.423 33 7.) In the technology of mechanics an accurate distinction is made between the different kinds of metals for bearings. Outwardly these artificial gems appear rough and gray.268 8.584 8. and specific gravity.336 8.105 8.978 70 8. Another easily fusible alloy but some- II III IV 82 14.290 28 7. 85. If the reflective surfaces be coated with red. 20 8 X 6 90 .505 36 7.885 49 7. Tin Tin Copper metal as follows: 69.736 10. but an alloy of antimony and lead answers the purpose best. Other Tin-Lead Alloys. .. and the manufacture of the types is consequently more difficult than with an alloy of lead and antimony alone.562 38 7. as shown by the ' following analyses: English Types Drench I II III Lead Antimony.648 41 7. Tin...009 80 8. 1 .5 9. WHITE METALS.041 90 8.299 9. .. It is difficult to satisfy all these requirements. fill out the molds sharply.735 44 7. 10 20 20 15 .5 per cent.Bisper .0 22.533 37 7. muth Zmc . Quen's Metal. WATCHMAKERS' ALLOYS: See Watchmakers' Formulas. parts.2 55.767 11. antimony. 1 S. 3 2 to of copper. 9 parts. 1 part.947 60 7.854 48 7.658 8. what harder. or to give it greater power of resistance.732 8..202 8.G.. 8.440 8.. Ashberry metal is composed of 78 to 82 parts of tin..O.396 32 7.916 50 7.846 8.824 47 7.78 ALLOYS IV.. 90 is .5 part Antimony Miscellaneous Tin Alloys.1 1. of lead Percentage S.- Nickel 10 IV 10 V 70 VI 60 VII 55 VIII 55 IX 100 II III 3 5 1 2 18 .379 8. red brass and white metal. .. and they may be classed in two groups. . 10 suitable as a protector. I.. the latter being of especial importance for types that are subjected to constant use. Tm rr..450 34 7.405 8..169 8. antimony.8 20.225 10. or green aniline.. P.7 22. but the fusibility of the alloys is greatly impaired by these. antimony..477 35 7.2 19.137 8.621 8.619 40 7.794 46 7.073 100 etc.808 8. An alloy which is to serve for type metal must be readily cast. and be as hard as possible. 14. .7 61. lead.548 8. Tin.. Tin 75 23 22 60 25 15 80 20 . is the following: II.302 8. This alloy II.677 42 7.1 55 30 15 of type Ledebur gives the composition I Lead ly This is a very soft solder which sharpreproduces all details.706 43 7.8 3.. bismuth. Alger parts.512 8. I.O. coating of metal which adheres to the glass cools rapidly and adheres tenaciously.770 8. The so-called white metals are employed almost exclusively for bearings. Buttons. 8 4 2 . G.370 4 parts 3 parts lead and antimony are used. as in the case of additions of bismuth. In the following table some alloys suitable for casting type are given: T_ O J AntiLead I Cop.. 16 to 20 of antimony.764 45 7.369 31 7.3 18. Tin Statuettes. The red- Metal. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 7. At the present day there are a great many formulas for type metal in which other metals besides 1 part.316 29 7.. a certain The French and English types contain amount of tin. P. ..476 8.. mony 1 1 y. Argentine Metal. (See Anti-friction Metals under Alloys.342 30 7. Copper and iron have been recommended for this purpose.695 8. 1 part.235 8. dipping into the molten alloy pieces of The tin glass cut to the proper shape. blue. . Tin. stead of fragile glass the gems may be produced by means of well-polished pieces of steel or bronze.. either to make the alloy more readily fusible.5 per cent. various when seen Incolored effects can be obtained. 8 parts Tin Lead 6 parts 0. 2 20 25 30 30 . but inwardly they are highly reflective and quite deceptive in artificial light.2 Lead Antimony.

arsenic. 60 parts. 10 parts. 2 parts. 24 parts. Tin. antimony. copper.feWWtf>>00 iliifiss o . XXIV. In recent years many machinists have found it advantageous to substitute for the soft alloys generally in use for bearings a metal almost as hard as the axle itself. ?*ning gently and uniformly. the latter being usually made of some rather easily fusible alloy of lead and tin. 4 parts. Phosphor bronze (q. IX. copper. 80 parts. Other white bearing metals are: Tin. nickel. if the axle is not too heavily loaded. bearings of red brass are preferable to white metal. 70 parts. 21 parts. 63 parts. bearings made of quite hard metals are chosen. arsenic. II. nickel. or platinum. 1 part. that lead and zinc have properties of great use in these alloys. 10. indeed. 2 parts. 72.5 parts. copper.5. Copper. Platinum. 90 parts. XI. 81. 42 parts. 30 parts. 3 parts. IX. cop- per. 65 parts. 25 parts. VII. J888 i8 i 888 500 >O*O o i> cO pi 10 <o co 10 c<i O500i-Hl>t>-i-( 000000t>- 8888885S$. w hite-metal bearings are preferred. they are fusible at red heat. 16 parts. XXI. Platinum. though more expensive. 12. III. 92 parts. White Metals Based on Platinum. : : : :8 XII. of large and heavy flywheels. zinc. 20 parts. 8 parts. 2 parts. VI. Some object to white metal 10 parts. V. 53 parts. iron. 8 parts. 3 parts. III. zinc. 65 parts. or platinum.5. revolving at great speed. For axles which have a high rate of revolution. unaffected by the temperature of boiling water. zinc. II. I.5 parts.3 o o Miscellaneous White-Metal Alloys. antimony. 97. parts. 30 parts. zinc. Copper. and do excellent work. zinc. 1* parts. copper. copper. Copper. 67 parts. must be given to bearthey will last for a ings of any material long time without needing repair. found. 8 parts. 5 parts. 2.-H o <N c<i I-H O < i I. copper. 30 parts. nickel. 8. 26. v. 20 parts. antimony. 98 parts. copper. Copper. and arsenic. tin. and XI are suitable for tableware. 24 parts. 4 parts. For small machines. copper. however. zinc. . nickel. and are principally used for bearings of heavily loaded and rapidly revolving axles. 25 parts. cop- For the axles XXIII. Copper.5 parts. Copper. VIII. White Metals Based on Copper. 5 parts. Illllll OoOHKW^&. XXII. and arsenic. Platinum. zinc. as it can easily be made as hard as wrought In this case the metal is or cast steel. 5 parts. 57 parts. 90 parts. Such bearings are very durable. IV. 50 Copper. XII and XIII are bright gray. tin. 10 parts. X. Nickel. copper. Copper. to fill out the small interstices caused by wear on the axle and bearing. Tin. antimony. as it were. 10 parts. III. 30 parts. 7 parts. It has been containing lead or zinc. 55 parts. Tin. 42. per. 4 parts. 4 parts. Copper. For lining cross-head slides: Lead.gS8 o o i 888888 oi 06 1> t^ CO . and with proper care which. nickel. 16. 7 parts. 3 parts.) is frequently employed for this purpose. Tin. antimony. 85 parts. XIII. Tin. 55 parts. but expensive. X. Platinum. machines. tin. IV. II.e. and can only be used for large r Copper. steel. used in a thin layer. 3 parts. nickel.ALLOYS brass bearings are characterized by great 79 hardness and power of resistance. 64 parts. V. 7i parts. IV and V are for gun metal. Nickel. Platinum. 13 parts. 50 parts. lead. 6. steel. Copper. zinc. 25 parts. I. and serves only. antimony. nickel. antimony. zinc. tin. 55 parts. 7 parts.

Cooley. and antimony 20 parts.O. See Wines and Liquors. 43 parts. it does not oxidize in air or moisture. iron. where it was prepared for the first time industrially for the manufacture of different utensils. insure timony and bismuth each 15 parts. 90 parts. and then commence to form blisters. Alloy for Pattern Letters and Figures.5 93. and copper added lead. the gage rods must be steel tipped. tin is first melted. It takes its name from the town of Bider. 89 to 93 9 to 2 to 2 to 6 4 4 Tin Lead Copper ALMOND LIQUEURS: ALTARS. and melt in an Hold the steel piece to be iron ladle. Lead without any to a steel alloy will draw steel dark blue. and 2 parts of lead. Alloy for Caliper and Gage -Rod CastA mixture of 30 parts zinc to 70 parts aluminum gives a light and durable alloy for gage rods and caliper legs. darker yellow use 9 parts of lead to 4 For parts of tin. The above apply to only since iron requires a somewhat greater neat and is more or less uncertain in handling. nevertheless.. Other compositions of Indian Bidery metal (frequently imitated in England) are about as follows: Bidery P. A good alloy for casting pattern letters and figures and similar small parts of brass. and the salt has lost 47 per cent of its weight.3 1. II.80 ZINC ALLOYS: ALUMINUM AND ITS TREATMENT This is sometimes Metal. of tin. till aqueous vapor ceases to be disengaged. is made of lead 80 parts. composed of 31 parts of zinc. P. 57 parts. 2. Tin Lead. Tp CLEAN: ods. or 75 parts of zinc and 25 parts of tin. and preserve it in a well-stoppered Heat ordinary alum (alumina alum) with constant stirring in an iron pan in which it will first melt quietly. To draw to a straw color use 2 parts of lead and 1 part of tin. the melting temperature being 482 F.O. Zinc. This metal is very resistive. better alloy will be lead 70 parts. Erhardt recommends the following as being both ductile and hard: Zinc ALMOND COLD CREAM: See Cosmetics. Reduce the residue to powder. an- Aluminum and its Treatment HOW is TO COLOR ALUMINUM: the objects of aluminum quickly enough without being Blanching of Aluminum. Alloys of various composition are successfully used for drawing colors on steel. A tarnish . Copper. liquefies. For at a temperature of about 437 F. Alloys for Small Casting Molds. use 3 parts of lead to 1 part the heat. then raise and continue UNCLASSIFIED ALLOYS : Alloys for Drawing Colors on Steel. . use 9 parts of lead to 2 parts of tin.4 16 112 2 4 Tin. 10 parts. Aluminum one of the metals most inalterable by air. Platine for Dress Buttons.O.4 3. porcelain it dish I. and lead. for gage points. not allowing it to exceed 400. which is powdered and kept in well-closed glasses. or 60 parts of lead and 40 parts of bismuth. for the alloy is soft and wears away too rapidly ings. Continue heating until a dry white mass of a loose character remains. nickel.9 ALLOYS FOR METAL FOIL: See Metal Foil. P. ALUM BATH: See Photography. successively. 2 parts of copper. bottle. and the Zinc -Nickel. purple. Zinc . or 30 parts of tin and 70 parts of lead. drawn in the alloy as it melts and it will This mixture melts turn to straw color.4 84. To perfect work the molds should be quite hot by placing them over a Bunsen burner. 75 parts. See Cleaning Preparations and Meth- The zinc. ALUM till : Burnt Alum. 22 parts. near Hyderabad (India). For violet. Used in powder form for painting and cloth printing purposes. 3. the whole is melted on a layer of rosin or wax to avoid oxidation. zinc.1 11. which melts at 494 F. or plaster molds. which melts at 458 F. Heat the alum in a or other suitable vessel Copper.

which should . may be done on alu- aluminum well to be blackened should be cleaned with fine emery powder and washed before immersing in the When the deposit blackening solution. dried in warmed air for a few minutes. with a woolen rag or soft leather. with a few drops of ammonia added. and 20 parts of purified and finally elutriated graphIn this bath. The sur- face of the sheet to be colored is polished with very fine emery powder or finest emery cloth. which is heated to ite. next plunge them quickly into nitric acid. Both in the sand and the making of the molds there are some small differences caustic soda lye. Into this liquid dip the aluminum arti- which make considerable variation in the results. It must be underrinse and let dry. 100 parts of shellac. After they are somewhat cooled off.. been attained. 1. Gray or unsightly aluminum may be restored to its white color by washing with a mixture of 30 parts of borax dissolved in 1. rinsing them off clean and then dryThe corroded articles ing them well. After polishing pour a thin layer of olive oil over the surface and heat slowly over an alcohol flame.50 parts of antimony. so that cooking vessels coated with this varnish on the outside can be placed on the fire without If the articles are injury to the coating. and 100 parts of nigrosine (black aniline Then the articles are quickly color). to Mat Aluminum. cles. in order to obtain absolute uniformity of the coating. in an enameled vessel. better still. the objects are left until fumes develop around them. or. 86-95 F. action of the weather. of course. stood that this method is applicable only boiling to pieces entirely of aluminum. according to the degrees of When the desired coloration has heat. and graphite. Large sheets must. 1 ounce Sulphate of iron .000 parts of alcohol (90 per cent). This metallic layer renders them capable of receiving a lacquer which is best prepared from 1. The method adopted in preparing molds and cores for aluminum work is necessarily somewhat the same as for brass. then rinsed with water and well dried. A process for decorating aluminum. In order to impart aluminum the appearance of mat plunge the of silver. prescribes that the objects be first corroded. manganese..ALUMINUM AND They may be restored to their mat whiteness in the following manner: Immerse the aluminum articles in a Altered. then wash and brush. engraved. but thoroughly rinsed off. and heat Under the action the plate once more. and the temperature at which the metal is poured is a consideration of some importance. pour on oil again. of the heat the plate turns first brown. the plate is polished over again. Finally they are rubbed with a cotton rag saturated with thin linseed-oil varnish. ITS TREATMENT 81 bath of caustic potash. are now placed in a bath consisting of 1. . which is usually done with Making Castings in Aluminum. Leave it in the bath for 15 to 20 seconds. the aluminum appears almost black layer at the glossy white under the engraved places. When paintings. 12 ounces Hydrochloric acid 12 ounces Water . composed To Blacken Aluminum. colored lacquer may also be In this manner applied with the brush. of black is deep enough dry off with fine minum. When the pieces have been provided with the gray metallic coating..000 parts of water. while not possible on unprepared aluminum surfaces. by a new method which consists in heating 3 parts of sulphuric acid with 1 part of water to 140 to 158 F. sawdust and lacquer. they are laid into cold water and worked with a brush. etc. Decolorized Aluminum. I. which will not retain them. The covering withstands all like velvet. The pieces are now provided with a gray metallic coating. the arsenic and iron are disThe solved by the acid add the water. 50 parts of sandarac. which takes Now they are place in a few seconds. then black. 100 parts of manganous nitrate. after cooling. 1 ounce White arsenic II. consisting mainly of antimony. wash anew and dry in sawdust.000 parts of alcohol (90 per cent). but there are particular points which need attention to insure successful work. In selecting the sand. put over a coal fire or similar arrangement until the alcohol is burned up and there is no more smoke. patented in Germany... article into a hot bath a 10-per-cent solution of caustic soda saturated with kitchen salt. Decorating Aluminum. and the objects thus treated now appear dull black. and baked in ovens or over a moderate coal fire until they do not smoke any more and no more gloss can be seen. be heated After a short while in the drying oven.. 250 parts of chemically pure hydrochloric acid. put back into the bath for half a minute.

afterwards again passing through the sieve to insure This sand should then regular mixing. that of a should be chosen. because the core or inclosed sand will not give somewhat with the contraction of the metal. a few ounces according to the bulk of metal to be treated is put into the molten metal before it is taken from the furnace. With aluminum it is. In fact. but if casting a square frame. hence the desirability of a steady heat. Patterns for aluminum should be kept smooth and well varnished. but by using the vent wire freely through the body of the mold itself. and should be avoided. rubbing on a board being a good way to get it tough. the method of doing this being known to most molders. and as soon as the reaction apparently ceases the pot is lifted and the metal at once skimmed and poured. with the minimum of moisture. but need careful making to prevent their drawing where they enter the casting. this being an important Besides this. careful melting. torn or fractured castings will be the result.ALUMINUM AND not have been previously used. Both for outside and inside molds. but with some others. or it will not permit of the free escape of gases and air. be damped as required. but there is no objection to alloying with zinc. necessary to get the air off as rapidly as possible. the sand must be matter. while it shrinks on to the central part or core. in fact. fluxes are not required. and to each bushel of the fine sand rub in about 4 quarts of meal. as this tends to draw rather than to feed the casting. for brass the venting would be considered num. too rapid a heating is not advisable. With brass. the sand should be compressed as little as possible. including alumitears readily. Clay or silica crucibles are not good for this metal. and in good condition. The molds must be very freely vented. and with cores used with aluminum. away from it is of great importance. particularly where the metal surrounds the sand. but ground cryolite a fluoride of sodium and aluminum is sometimes used to increase the fluidity of the metal. If it is considered desirable to use a specially made-up facing sand for the molds where the metal is of some thickness. and having only moderate compression fine grain ITS TREATMENT in to ramming. however. the use of the brush even should be avoided. however. and well stirred in. as it is not desirable to overheat the crucible or metal. Aluminum also casts very well in molds of plaster of Paris and crushed bath brick when such molds are perfectly dry With properly prepared molds. the use of a little pea or bean meal that all parts are equally moist. In melting the metal it is necessary to use a plumbago crucible which is clean and wnich has not been used for other metals. dry as much sand as may be required and pass through a 20-mesh sieve. this is not of much importance. however. but they shrink on to cores or portions of the mold partly inclosed by metal. and when cast up there should not be a large head of metal left on top of the runner. To use this. for not only is waste caused. because the metal should be used as soon as it is ready. and be all that is necessary. The metal should be poured rapidly. and the same remark applies to tin. smoothing with a camel's-hair brush. Thus. and unless it runs up quickly it runs faint at the edges. and as the metal should be poured when of a claret color under the film of oxide which forms on the surface. In using this. it shrinks away from the outside only. when the metal thus produced is sold as an alloy. in cases in which a very smooth face is required on the castings. or iron. sary. it is rather a disadvantage to leave a large head. if excessive. The molds should not be sleeked with tools. especially silica. being careful will first . but the metal loses condition if kept in a molten state for long periods. The ingates should be wide and of fair area. The use of sodium in any form with aluminum is very undesirable. if casting a plate or bar of metal. used as dry as possible consistent with its holding against the flow of the metal. The molding should always be well in advance of the pouring. and hard ramming must in every case be avoided. and not only at the joint of the mold. or such metals. on account of the metal absorbing silicon and becoming hard under some condiA steady fire is necestions of melting. In making the molds it is necessary aluminum has a large contraction in cooling. Preferably. but it should not have any excess of aluminous matter. but they may be dusted over with plumbago or steatite. but steadily. it will shrink away from the mold in all directions. and also that' at certain temperatures it is very weak and remember that while all metals shrink the mold when this is wholly outside the casting. and the fuel should reach only about halfway up the crucible. The metal absorbs heat for some time and then fuses with some rapidity. because the metal soon gets sluggish in the mold.

when a manufacturer desires to make up an article. still again. But the different grades of aluminum sheet which are on the market are so numerous for different classes of work that it might be advisable to consider them for a moment before passing to the method of themselves and not cause a clogging around the point of the tool a similar tool. these should be well brushed out with steatite or plumbago. either pure or alloyed. to the same metal hard rolled. so as to give the chips of the metal a good chance to free up faint. whereby the density. smoothness being secured by brushing over with dry steatite ITS TREATMENT or plumbago. which in this case is a cheap grade of vaseline. when finished. an article which is now manu- and will. of course. which. For the purpose of improving aluminum. and at the same time to produce a finished article which. to the pure aluminum hard rolled. when starting with the soft." If. Too much stress cannot be laid on the fact of starting with the proper grade of metal. to all intents and purposes. this can be readily accomplished by heating it in an ordinary muffle. can be purchased of all degrees of hardness. the only precaution necessary in this instance being to use a proper lubricant. Then comes a harder grade of alloys. either on the lathe or on automatic screw machines. To start with lathe work on aluminum. for instance. ceptible working them. this should be made as what is known as a "shearing tool. probably more difficulty nere. consists in the proper lubricant and the shape of the tool. tenacity. he will procure the pure metal in order to make his samples. running from "dead soft" metal. is as stiff as an article made of sheet brass." that is. To start with wanting. and with either of these lubricants and a tool properly made. such as would be used in turning brass. from the annealed. however. and made fairly hot before pouring. will probably be as stiff as brass. in working aluminum. for either through ignorance or by not observing this point is the foundation of the majority of the complaints that aluminum "has been tried and found stated before. to what would be used for turning wood. requiring. and plenty of it. it is generally possible to perform these three operations without annealing the metal at all. stance. With aluminum. being careful that the temperature shall not be too high about 650 or 700 F. and especially the toughness are said to be enhanced. it should be found necessary to anneal aluminum. if the proper grade is used. however. the same tools here would be used in drawing up shapes of aluminum as are used for drawing up brass or other metals. to begin with. Another great disadvantage in the proper working of the metal is that. instead of a short. The pure metal. or what is known as the "dead soft" stock. and in some cases more readily. would probably have to be annealed after every operation. perhaps. These latter alloys are finding a large sale for replacing brass used in all classes of manufactured articles. which will draw up hard. are a little harder still when hard rolled. however.ALUMINUM AND and well vented. with- castings run aluminum out increasing is its specific gravity. there should be no difficulty whatsoever in the rapid working of aluminum. WORKING OF SHEET ALUMINUM: The great secret. the mixed with 4 to 7 per cent of phosphorus. The latter is almost as good as coal oil if enough of it is used. It requires but one-third or one-fourth of as much anFor in-nealing as brass or copper. The best lubricant to be used would be coal oil or water. commercial metals. To Increase the Toughness. "dead has been found working pure metal. say. Density. and more complaints are heard from As this source than from any other. the point should be lengthened out and a lot of clearance provided on the inside of the tool. and. is harder to work than the alloy. To go from the lathe to the drawing press. as automatic screw machines are now made so that they can be operated when working aluminum just as readily as when they are working brass. When casting in molds. three or four operations before the article is finished. if the proper tools and the proper lubricants are used. these difficulties can all be readily overcome. another set of alloys which." spin up into a utensil which. or in some cases lard oil. and Tenacity of Aluminum. as in cold molds the metal curdles and becomes sluggish. especially in factured in brass. with the result that the metal the question of the tool. The best test as to when the metal has reached the proper temperature is to take a soft pine stick and draw it across the . stubby point. but in the majority of instances better results will be secured by the use of Aluminum is probably susof deeper drawing with less occasion to anneal than any of the other vaseline. if there is any.

If it chars the stick and leaves a black mark on the metal. are paying their men by the piece the same amount that they formerly paid on brass and tin work. Another very pretty frosted effect is procured by first sand blasting and then treated as hereinafter described by "dipping" and "frosting. and will not appear as bright and as handsome as it otherwise would. if. and by careful manipulation. the articles should be plunged in a strong solution of caustic soda or caustic potash. and then into a solution of concentrated nitric and sulphuric acid. this can either be done by scratch brushing or sand blasting. for articles from 5 to 8 inches in diameter is about 2. either by cutting down with tripoli and polishing. gage. & S. and frosting. the next The best process is the finishing of it. will probably give This work of scratch brushing can be somewhat lessened. so that the skin and the irregularities on the surface are removed. or that which is known as "White Diamond Rouge. and then putting the article on a buffing wheel before attempting to scratch brush it. in this way the brush seems to take hold quicker and better. success again depends particularly on starting with the proper The most satisfactory speed metal. with three or four rows of bristhe best results. run at a high rate of speed on a lathe. necessary to observe carefully is that both the tripoli and the rouge should be procured ground as fine as it is possible to grind them. sand blasting. finish can also be varied somewhat by making the solution of caustic soda of varying degrees of strength. however. Aluminum is a very easy metal to spin and no difficulty should be found at all in spinning the proper grades of sheets. and left there a sufficient length of time until the aluminum starts to turn black. and it is stated that the men working on this basis make anywhere from 10 to 20 per cent more wages by working alu- minum. A brass wire scratch brush. This method. and then polish it with rouge as already debefore putting on the scratch brush. and for larger or smaller diameters the speed should be so regulated as to give tne same velocity at the circumference. quite regular forms of a mottled appearance can be obtained. scratch brushing. or a solution composed of 2 tablespoonfuls of ground borax dissolved in about a quart of hot water. and by combinations of those treatments. placing the sand between the surface of the aluminum and the wheel. dipped in water again. with a few . a good finish is obtained with very much less labor than by scratch brushing alone. If it is desired to put on a frosted appearance. 32 to No. and by first sand blasting and then scratch brushing the sheets.84 ALUMINUM AND ITS TREATMENT metal. it is sufficiently annealed and is in a proper condition to proceed with further operation. made of crimped wire of No. is probably more advantageous in is the treating of aluminum castings than In burnishing the metal use a bloodIn burnishstone or a steel burnisher. and then finish it with a dry red rouge which comes in the lump form. After being removed. After they have been taken out of the water and well shaken." however. the article is first cut down by the use of a porpoise-hide wheel and fine Connecticut sand. Several factories that are using large quantities of aluminum now.600 revolutions a minute. First remove all grease and dirt from the article by dipping in benzine. for. An effect similar to the scratch-brush finish can be got by sand blasting. for articles manufactured out of the sheet metal. the article should be washed thoroughly in water and dried This in hot sawdust in the usual way. if this is not done. dipping. composed of 24 parts of nitric acid to 1 part of sulphuric acid. then dip into water in order that the benzine adhering to the article may be removed. as in the majority of cases it is to cut simply necessary before scratch brushing down the article with tripoli. After aluminum has been manufactured into the shape of an article. solution." and many variations in the finish of aluminum can be got by varying the treatment. and to produce a more uniform polish. that it One point. ing use a mixture of melted vaseline and coal oil. so as not to affect the strength of the solution into which it is next dipped. the metal will have little fine scratches all over it. A very pretty mottled effect is secured on aluminum by first polishing and then scratch brushing and then holding the aluminum against a soft pine wheel. however. 36 B. tles. polish can be obtained by first cutting down the metal with an ordinary rag buff on which use tripoli. both for spinning and stamping. before applying the scratch brush to the surface of the aluminum. or by adding a small amount of common salt to the scribed. The dipping and frosting of aluminum sheet is probably the cheapest way of producing a nice finish. Next taking up the question of spinning aluminum. Then they should be removed.

terminating with an orifice almost capillary. directly. ALUMINUM PAPER: See Paper. sodium. and is in drop forging the metal. however. nickel. The naphtha. These same refractory metals are also amalgamated superficially when immersed in the amalgam of sodium or of ammonium in presence of water. The According as the fusing heat of a metal less or greater than its combination term comes to us from the alchemists. There is. Mercury forms amalgams with most metals. copper.AMALGAMS ing. and a metallic structure which renders them brittle. and their congeners. This can be accomplished probably more readily with aluminum than with other metals. as much skill required in using and making a tool in order to give a bright. their concentrated solutions. but more difficultly. as the other lubricants are very apt to do. picture made Preparation of Amalgams. cobalt. dissolved in an excess of quicksilver. In engravwhich adds materially to the appearance of finished castings. See Cleaning Preparations and Meth- ALUMINUM. when the excess is separated by compression in a chamois skin. lead. uranium. is for the reason that it with all the. with aluminum. Thus potas- . is naphtha or coal oil. frames. and gold. ALUMINUM BRONZE: See Alloys under Bronzes. cadmium. but readily fusible. like aluminum and antimony. or by filtration in a glass funnel of slender ALUMINUM POLISHES: See Polishes. TO CLEAN: ods. or by electrolysis of saline solutions. either by electrolysis of their saline solutions. combine only when heated in presence of quicksilver. probably the best lubricant to use on an engraver's tool in order to obtain a clean cut. however. certain metals. solid. It unites directly hot. should be made somewhat on the same plan as the lathe tools already outlined. consequently. Quicksilver has no direct action on metals of high fusing points: manganese. antimony. book covdrops of of mercury dissolves a large metals. and similar articles of sheet. sium or sodium). bismuth. ALUMINUM PLATING: See Plating. because an excess heat with quicksilver. zinc. in silver as the negative electrode. ALUMINUM ALLOYS: See Alloys. tin. That is. stem. It signifies softening. and readily. and This combination takes palladium. or a mixture of coal oil and vaseline. They have a metallic luster. apply a fortiori to metals capable of combining directly with the quickThe latter of these methods is silver. which is bright. Still. the amalgamation of this metal produces an elevation or a lowering of temperature. platinum. Some very superior bicycle parts have been manufactured by drop forging. strontium. so as to give plenty of clearance. especially utilized for the preparation of alkaline earthy metals by electrolytic decomposition of the solutions of their salts or hydrated oxides with quicksilver as a cathode. They even form crystallized metallic combinations of constant proportions. place oftenest at the ordinary temperature. they can be worked and handled more rapidly. Processes for preparing amalgams by double decomposition between an alkaline amalgam and a metallic salt. owing to the fact that it does not destroy the satin finish in the neighborhood of the cut. magnesium. The tool ers. is preferred. silver. or by the action of an alkaline amalgam (potas- which there are great possibilities. iron. class of There has been one work in employing quick- aluminum that lately and only that has been developed to a certain extent. Amalgams See also Easily Fusible Alloys under Alloys. however. alloys to not necessary work them hot. is The name amalgam is given to al- loys of metals containing mercury. they should be brought to a sharp point and be "cut back" rather far. with employment of mercury as the negative electrode. either cold or with potassium. barium. 85 number of ammonia added. on and neutral saline ALUMINUM CASTINGS: See Casting. clean cut as there is in the choice of the lubricant to be used. when the alloyed metal pre- General Amalgams dominates. are liquid when the quicksilver is in great excess. calcium. amalgams of these metals can be obtained of butyrous consistency. Properties of Amalgams.

a consequence of their action on water. of tin. An amalgam of 2 or 3 per cent of sodium is employed in the processes of It extraction of gold by amalgamation. They serve for amalgamating superficially the metals of high fusing point. Applications of Strontium Amalgams. Water is decomposed by the amal- gams of potassium and sodium.86 AMALGAMS potassium amalgams. hydrogen. the cadmium will be the negative pole. These amalgams. by um. and cadmium. in case of zinc and amalgamated zinc. although considerable. destroy its activity. while zinc. washed and dried 1 I of the processes for pre- stances. Applications of Barium Amalgams. silver more brilliant. They can serve for the prepara- tion of the amalgams of the metals. -without running the risk of a partial destruction of these compounds by too intense action. and vaporizing the quicksilver of the amalgam formed by heating this in a current of dry II. Applications of Potassium Amalgams. by keeping it separated from the particles of gold. the zinc will be the positive pole. I. called "refractory. lowers the temperature of the mixture 79 F." such as iron and platinum. the alkaline amalgams are changed by moist air. tion of heat are electro-negative with reference to the metals combined with the quicksilver. employments are the following: I. with formation of a salt of potash and of the amalgam of the metal corresponding to the original salt. with formation of a salt of soda and of the amalgam of the metal corresponding to the original salt. The alkaline amalgams may. in a battery of elements of pure cadmium and amalgamated cadmium. when a well-cleaned plate of these metals is immersed in sodium amalgam in presence of water. lead. in alloy with quicksilver. which. V. on the pellicle surface in presence of certain ores. and is cheaper. consequently. but the sodium amalgams are employed almost exclusively. Applications of Sodium Amalgams. because the heat of formation of these amalgams. bismuth. These can. rapidly immediately after their preparaand then heated to a nascent red . Amalgams formed with disengagement of heat are electro-negative with reference to the metals alloyed with the The products with absorpquicksilver. therefore. or of zinc. and often more advantageous. III. because sodium is easier to handle than potassium. more energetic. Sodium amalgam of 3 per cent is utilized with success for the amalgamated plates employed in crushers and other appaIf a ratus for treating the ores of gold. II. antimony. on decomposing water. ployment of sodium amalgam for hydroAs genizing a large number of bodies. These are nearly the same as those of the tion. They furnish a process for preparing potassium by the decomposition of potash by the electric current. tin. Amalgams of from 2 to 8 per cent of sodium serve frequently in laboratories for reducing or hydrogenizing organic combinations. or zinc is immediately formed. particularly alkaline earthy metals and metals of high fusing points. when thus obtained. sodium. disengage heat. has the property of rendering quick- Heat decomposes all amalgams. by decomposing the salts of these metals. employing quicksilver as the cathode. Sodium amalgam ess for the preparation of soda is sodium when decomposed by means of the furnishes a proc- electric current. other than those of the alkaline group. Amalgams of sodium serve for the preparation of amalgams of the other metals. furnish bari- III. giving rise to an action less energetic. It is one distillation. is even less than the heat disengaged by potassium and sodium. almost always retains a little sodium. and silver combine with mercury with abThe amalgamation of sorption of heat. vaporizing the mercury and leaving the metal alloys as a residue. 162 parts of quicksilver with 21 parts of lead. 12 parts of tin or of antimony. a brilliant coating and consequently by acting as a deoxidant of oxide formed on its of an amalgam of tin. as may occur by employing free sodium instead of its amalgam. copper. which. serve as a source of nascent hydrogen in presence of water. with production of free alkali or alkaline carbonate. They can be employed as a source of nascent hydrogen in presence of water for hydrogenizing many sub- paring this metal. than that of the alkaline metals Thus is caused the frequent emalone. These sium. by employing quicksilver as the cathode.5 parts of bismuth. few drops of this amalgam are spread on a plate of copper. by decomposing the salts of these metals. and 28. IV. and afterwards vaporizing the quicksilver of the amalgam formed by heating this in a current of dry hy- drogen.

1 part of cadmium. have much power of cohesion and are quite malleable. weights are placed on the In a few days. cadmium. 5 or 6 millimeters in thickness. IV. I. Copper amalgam. The manganese remains in the form of a grayish powder. These may serve for the preparation pure Lydrogen. removed. and gold is em(See also Cements. fused mass of strontium. III.) II. and 1 cadmium. For this purpose sufficient to distill in a current of it is crushers are furnished with amalga- mated gold. after the zinc has been cleaned with water sharpened with sulphuric acid. Applications of Copper Amalgams. the broken surfaces are heated to 662 F. an cadmium amalgam employed for plugamalgam of 2 parts of quicksilver. the giving to ordinary zinc the properties of pure zinc. . Applications of Tin Amalgams. An amalgam consisting of 2 parts of zinc and 1 part tin may be used for covering the cushions of frictional elecr the zinc non-attackable by the exciting liquid of the battery with open circuit. by compression in the soft state. silver. The amalgam of 30 per cent of copper. In the metallurgy of gold the V. after hardening of the amalgam. plates of copper for retaining the The preparation of these plates. For amalgamating a zinc plate it is plunged for a few seconds into water in which there is one-sixteenth in volume of sulphuric acid. The zinc of a battery may be amalgamated by putting at the bottom of the compartment containing each element. rendered plastic by and heating grinding. The action of the mercury is to prevent the zinc from forming a large number of small voltaic elements when foreign bodies are mingled with the metal. Lechanche. obtained with an amalgam of 45 per cent of copper. Applications of Manganese Amalgams. w hen the two surfaces are covered without interposition of air. which may. The amalgamation is effected under the influence of the current. a sheet of tin of the dimensions of the glass is spread out and covered with a layer of quicksilver. be reproduced. 87 yield a Cadmium Amalgams. designated by the name of "metallic mastic. the case is the same with an amalgam formed of 1 part of cadmium and 2 parts of quicksilver. Applications of Zinc principal is Amalgams. the quicksilver is volatilized gradually. having been covered with an adhering pellicle of amalgam of 4 parts of tin and 1 part of quicksilver.. previously heated to the consistency of melted wax. is heated progressively to redness in an atmosphere of hydrogen. This operation is accomplished in the following manner : of manganese. then rubbing with a copper-wire brush which has been dipped in the quicksilver. in molds of gutta percha. and a little of the amalgam. They Applications of of Amalgams are used as dental cements for plugging teeth. is applied.AMALGAMS in a current of dry hydrogen. For the same purpose an of tin. either in wax or by galvanic process. and the particles of copper come together without fusion in such a way as to produce a faithful reproduction. when a medal. it is moistened with a solution of corrosive sublimate. of 30 to 45 per cent of copper. Tinning of glass. for the same purpose an amalgam of 2 parts of quicksilver. For this employment. III. the glass may be glass. II. This use has been abandoned on account of the inconvenience occasioned by the great changeableness of the product. This amalgam is prepared by first melting the zinc and tin in a crucible and adding the quicksilver previously heated. formed exclusively of metallic copper. An amalgam of 30 per cent of copper has been employed for filling teeth. but this process applies only on condition that the zinc alone touches the bottom of the vessel containing the quicksilver. and 2 parts of tin may be used. may serve for obtaining with slight compression copies of delicate objects. formed of equal weights of cadmium and quicksilver.) part of amalgam I. is designed to render machines. iels. According to Debray. The mercury takes more readily on the zinc when. Dental. of the original medal. (See also Mirrors. which is reduced and furnishes a first very thin coat of amalgam. The employment of zinc amalgams their use as a cathode or negative electrode in the batteries of Munson. 2 parts of tin. quite horizontal. and consequently of causing a great saving in expense." is an excellent cement for repairing objects and utensils of porcelain. a little quicksilver in such a way that the zinc touches the liquid. in a word. Danand This combination On a cast-iron table. The glass is made to slide on the sheet of tin in such a way as to drive off the excess of quicksilver. on which the quicksilver is immediately fixed by simple immersion without rubbing. Mention has been made of the tric ging teeth. ployed.

contains 2 parts of bismuth. Another method giving better results consists in silvering copper slabs by electroplating and covering them with a layer Then it is only necessary to of silver. II. and when the temperature is sufficiently lowered this amalgam is slbwly poured into the vessels to be tinned. For this operation it is poured into a dry hot receiver. an amalgam composed of 9 parts of Darcet alloy and 1 part of quicksilver fusible at 127J F. the surface will be covered with a thin. amalgam applied.. liberated in a state of fine division. and melts at 199^ F. better. or if more rapid action is desired. This last amal- gam may also be used for filling carious teeth. 1 part of lead. with a cloth dipped in dilute nitric acid. 1 part of bismuth. brilliant layer. an amalgam obtained by dissolving hot 2 parts of bismuth and 1 part of lead in a solution of 1 part of tin in 10 parts of quicksilver.88 which are at ness. in the meantime they occasion loss of time and of gold. it solidifies on cooling. which is prepared by dissolving gold in quicksilver. which hardens quite rapidly. M. They are freed from greasy matter by rubbing with ashes. the price of which is high. which is readily poured and more economical.128 inches in thickdelicate. which is quite poisonous. . 50 parts of bismuth. with a little sand and caustic soda. M. is AMALGAMS least 0. clean. as known. Potassium cyanide removes fatty matter. so that they are ready for use almost immediately. or. is made use of. fusible at 77. The metallurgy of silver also takes advantage of the property of this silver. they are washed with water. apply a little quicksilver. dry. ties floating on the surface are removed. previously melted in the crucible. which precipitates the quicksilver and regulates the amalgamation. The Darcet alloy. in order that the heat should cause the volatilization of the quicksilver. and when the mixture of the three metals becomes fluid. and are quite active at the outset. For the injection of anatomical pieces an amalgam formed of 10 parts of quic csilver. 31 parts of lead. until the surface is completely amalgamated. and slightly heated. as a very strong adherent to the glass. Sometimes the amalgam of gold is replaced by an amalgam of silver. is added to the tin and lead. 1 part of lead.5 and solidifiable at 60 C. It employed with advantage in the tinning of glass globes. the purpose of economizing the bismuth. But the plates thus treated are useful for only a few days when they are sufficiently covered with a layer of gold amalgam. then with a solution of potassium cyanide. silver adhering strongly to the glass. which have been previously well cleaned and slightly heated. or. which adheres quite rapidly. a layer of lead is It is afterwards along the line of junction a soldering iron heated to redness. These meet with an interesting employment for the autogenous soldering of lead. again. and sal ammoniac the oxides of the low metals. which has almost universally replaced tinning. broken into small fragments. and that the lead. Applications of Silver Amalgams. Applications of Lead Amalgams. and finally brushed with a mixture of sal ammoniac and a little quicksilver. sufficient to pass In the silvering of mirrors by the Petitjean method. the property of silver in readily amalgamating is taken of. To facilitate the operation and utilize all the The amalgam formed bismuth and is Applications of Bismuth Amalgams. of 1 per cent of 4 parts of quicksilver will nide. the preceding amalgam is replaced by another composed of 2 parts of quicksilver. by substituting the glass after silvering to the action of a dilute solution of double cyanide of mercury advantage and potassium in such a manner as to form an amalgam of white and brilliant while economizing the double cyathe following: Sprinkle the glass at the time when it is covered with the mercurial solution with very fine zinc powder. The only precaution necessary is to avoid breathing the mercurial vapor. while The impuristirring with an iron rod. I. So it is preferable to cover them artificially with a little gold amalgam. The bismuth. By causing a quantity of this amalgam to move around the inside of a receiver. and 18 parts of tin. These amalgamation slabs ought to be cleaned before each operation. and 1 part of tin. After the surfaces to be soldered have been well cleaned. and pasty at a still lower temperature. should be melted and cause the adherence of the two surfaces. and then passed over the whole surface of For the glass. Lenoir has recommended cause the strong adherence of glass. and 1 part of tin. requiring about two weeks. Ditte recommends for the same employment. The addition of 1 part of quicksilver lowers the fusing point to 104 F. They are finally made to absorb as much quicksilver as possible. the quicksilver is poured in..

It suffices to dip tion is made warm. supported by a tripod at the bottom of a tank filled with water. communicating with a bent-iron tube. The gold remains in the compressed retort. furnished with an exit tube immersed in the water for condensing the mercurial vapors. collected and filtered under strong pressure. 89 The amalgam in a mains. with about their weight of quicksilver. or. is now but little used. readily with quicksilver property of gold of combining is also used in many kinds of amalgamating apparatus for extraction and in the metallurgy of gold. small spangles of gold scattered in goldbearing sands is based on the ready dissolution of gold in quicksilver. gilded by this method. The gold is dissolved and the sand re- gold into thin plates. and the gold In various operations it is essential keep the quicksilver active by preservFor this purpose ing its limpidity. like silver. cupric sulphate. and forms an extremely solid layer of deadened gold. surface is well cleaned. and brass. is shaken with disks of iron. thus obtained is and with mercury and water. ammonium potassium cyanide and chloride are especially employed. In the Saxon or Freiburg process for treating silver ores. which can be The volatilization afterwards polished. In both cases an amalgam of solid gold remains. with almost capillary termination. . this for the treatment of poor silver ores. This solu5 parts of hydrochloric acid. add of aqua regia. is applied. nitrate of potash. superficially alloyed with the metal.). yet again. and lime. It is then ready for use. making it red hot. so The gold as to volatilize the mercury. of which the extremity. the latter for precipitating the soluble sul- phates proceeding from the decomposition of pyrites. which consists in treating auriferous or auro-argentiferous ores. collected in the cavities of sluices and mixed with a small quantity of sand. first ground with sea salt. which is itself surrounded with ignited charcoal. carbonate of soda. Zinc Amalgam for Electric Batteries. Iron can also be bronze. and then putting it into the mercury while the latter is also heated to ebullition. The amalgam. after grinding. chamois skin. should be effected under a chimney having strong draught. It is distilled either cylindrical retorts of cast iron. amalgam. Gold Amalgam. and on the formation of an amalgam of solid gold by compression and filtering through a chamois skin. and covered with an iron receiver. which is submitted to the action of heat in a crucible or cast-iron retort. with iron and mercury bichloride. so as to separate the excess of mercury which passes through the pores of the skin. the zinc to be amalgamated into this liquid only for a few seconds. Applications of Gold Amalgams. contains from 30 to 33 per cent of in silver. prepared as mentioned before. hyposulphite of soda. The amalgamation of gold is favored by a temperature of 38 to 45 C. (100 to 113 F. after which the mixture may be turned into water to cool. much employed formerly. surrounded with a cloth immersed in water. It can be applied only to metals slightly fusible and capable of amalgamation. The gold immediately disappears in combination with the mercury. and still more by the employment of quicksilver in the nascent This last property is the base of the Designol process. copper. remains. is arranged above a receiver lialf full of water. or on plates of iron. The piece is afterwards heated to about the red. sometimes wood ashes.AMALGAMS metal in combining cold with quicksilver. in revolving cylinders of cast iron. it is filtered through a glass funnel having a very slender stem. sea salt. in which the ore. of gilding. to The It should be remarked that the last por- tions of quicksilver in a silver amalgam submitted to distillation are voiaiiiized only under the action of a high and pro- longed temperature. recourse is had to quicksilver in the case of amalgam in amalgamating casks. Eight parts of gold 1 of mercury are formed into an amalgam for plating by rendering the and The amalgamation of gold finds principal applications in the treatment The extraction of of auriferous ores. in a state more or less The spangles of gold are shaken liquid. arranged over each other along a vertical iron stem. in such a way that the mercury precipitated collects the gold and eventually the silver more effica state. I. 1 Dissolve 2 parts of mercury in part This accomplished. provided it is previously covered with a coating of To perform this gilding the copper. This process Gilding with quicksilver. in order to avoid the poisonous action of the mercurial vapors. II. consisting of 2 parts of gold and 1 part of quicksilver. its ciously. The quicksilver is vaporized and condensed in the water.

application of that for cementing amalgam All that is necessary for this metals. (482 acquires such hardness on solidifying that it can be polished like gold. 20 parts. Silver amalgam can easily be made with the help of finely Amalgam for Cementing Glass.). it kled on The powder is then sprinand mixed with it by stirring. while still moist. (176-194 F.). whose diameter is about 0. is vessel heated for several minutes and then allowed to cool. Melt carefully together pine rosin. Amalgam for Silvering Glass Balls. pulverulent in the beginning. . and attains such pliancy that it can be employed for modeling the most delicate objects. cryswith the greatest readiness and powdered to 572 silver. 2. treated in a mortar with a solution of mercury nitrate. zinc. rather malleable mass. the amalgam is rolled out hot into a thin plate and pressed firmly onto the likewise heated plaster cast. Lead. diluting with distilled water. very special property of copper amalgam consists in that it becomes very soft when laid in water. all in glass or porcelain vessels. When the two materials are in fusion add a little mercury. See Gilding under Plating. The Amalgam Machines. 25 parts. lacca in tabulis. PorTake tin 2 parts. After the amalgam has hardened the thin plate of it may be reinforced by pouring on molten type metal. parts. if a few drops of hydrochloric acid are added to a sample of the fluid in a test tube. tin. it can also be stamped. or. Copper Amalgam. agitating the mass with a pestle. bismuth.90 AMALGAMS AMBER longer the kneading is continued the more uniform will be the mass. C. Silver amalgam can also easily be made by dissolving silver in nitric acid. which must be bright. Fuse in an iron spoon or some vessel of the same material.16 to 0. important is Copper amalgam may be prepared in the following manner: Place strips of zinc in a solution of blue vitriol and agitate the solution thorThe copper thus obtained in oughly. bismuth. The amalgam may also be worked under the hammer or between rollers. precipitates the silver in a metallic state.2 inches. but consists of a solution of mercury nitrate mixed with whatever copper was contained in the dissolved silver in the form of copper nitrate. with a length of a few inches. Etc. as well as for It hardens in a short while. As soon as the amalgam has acquired the suitable character for its production 3 parts of copper and 7 parts of mercury are used the water is poured off and the amalgam still soft is given the shape in which it is to be kept. mercury. 20 parts. shows that all the silver has been eliminated from the solution and is present in the form of amalgam. purpose is to heat the metals. for the Rubber of Electric Mercury. copper The mercury originally used. Tnis amalgam reduced to powder and incorporated with grease can be applied to the rubber of electric machines. The copper powder thereby amalgamates more readily with the quicksilver. or so-called Viennese metal cement. This amalgam is soft and can be kneaded between the It may be employed for luting fingers. 25 parts. evaporating the solution till the excess of free acid is eliminated. however. white colophony. 1. it. AMALGAM GOLD PLATING: AMBER : Imitation Amber. Place an iron crucible and boil. 100 parts. Knead with the pestle of the mortar until the copper. In order to produce with this amalgam impressions of castings. Next. previously heated. the amalgam is rolled out into small cylinders. 40 parts. tallizes Copper amalgam. the mortar is kept hot. Melt the lead and the tin. to apply the amalgam and to press the metal pieces together. In air containing hydrogen sulphide. For cementing purposes. 25 parts. Silver Amalgam. 15 parts. (See also Mirror-Silvering). They will cohere as firmly as though soldered together. mercury. stirring the composition vigorously. 20 parts. The absence of a white precipitate. tin. which are made after woodcuts. then add the bismuth. mium 1 part. An ^ and immediately forms an amalgam with the fluid standing above after a time contains no more silver. After a few hours the amalgam congeals again into a very fine-grained. to 80-90 C. of mercury to 1 of the silver A quickly tarnishes and turns black. the excess of mercury being removed from the granulated crystalline amalgam by pressing in a leather bag. 50 50 parts. skim several times and add the mercury. filling teeth. and cadcelain. the form of a very fine powder is washed and. hot water is poured over the copper. has united with the mercury into a very plastic mass. The mercury need to 300 only be heated to 250 F. and the mercury added. tin. 25 parts. silver it. and adding mercury to the fluid in the proportion of 4 parts. lead. by weight. and retains its metallic luster for a long time in the air.

make up to a pint with water. ... (IMITATION) Artificial. add the potassium nitrate and dissolve. by weight. when cold the lavender water and ammonia. skim off any suds or bubbles. A purpleblue color may be given to ammonia water by adding an aqueous solution of litmus. and to the colate add 1. The best quality: Alcohol. enough to 16 1 ounces II.. Cut the soap in shavings. make Dissolve the ounces of boiling water.) Household ammonia is simply diluted ammonia water to which borax and soap have been added. Yellow soap Borax Lavender water. Cool. The following are Liquor Ainmonii Anisatus. will probably meet all views as a to violet color. It should be a clear. 20 minims 6 ounces Stronger ammonia water Water. water. by weight 1 part 24 parts Alcohol. drachms drachms Dissolve the oils in the alcohol and add to the water. cool. Oil of anise. Ammonia Water. TO REMOVE: See Cleaning Preparations and Methods. or 3 ounces of white 'curd... by weight Water of ammonia.. To make it cloudy add potassium nitrate or methylated spirit. yellowish liquid. 5 parts Dissolve the oil in the alcohol and add the water of ammonia. 20 ounces soap and borax in 5 add and make 12 ounces Rub up the soap and borax with water until dissolved. varied to suit the price. and for general household purposes add one tablespoonful to one oil ANILINE IN PIGMENTS. monia. according to the strength desired. mix thoroughly. strain and add the other The perfumes may be ingredients. . and bottle. add the amand bottle at once. 4 4 4 3 ounces gallons AMIDOL DEVELOPER: See Photography. Soft water . Ammonia water .. when pale enough. Yellow soap Potassium nitrate. mix. Distilled water 5 pints 5 pints 100 grains 5 drachms ANILINE : See Dyes. 94 per cent Soft water Oil of rosemary Oil of citronella . enough Methylated spirit. 16 parts 64 parts Violet Color for Ammonia. sufficient to make 200 parts Shave up the soap and dissolve it in the water by heating. 91 AMBER VARNISH: See Varnishes. Perfumed I. or soft soap. 1 part Soft water. AMBROSIA POWDER: See Salts (Effervescent). boil with the and water. 2. To the mixture add 4 ounces of talc (or fuller's earth will answer). 10 grains 1 drachm Soft soap .. The following are typical formulas: Stronger water of am- monia Lavender water Soft soap 6 1 ounces ounce grains 10 Water. . strain. make II.AMBER CEMENT ANILINE STAINS AMBER CEMENT: See Adhesives under Cements. enough to Borax Cologne water Stronger water of 2 | ounce drachms ounce ounces am5 to monia Water. strain through canvas. AMETHYST See Gems. good formulas: I. 2. III. or 3 gallons of ammonia water. in which has been dissolved 1. : : AMMON-CARBONITE See Explosives. add the ammonia For use in laundries. Ammonia Household Ammonia. Ammonia Soap Olive oil water. Stronger water ammonia 1 ANGOSTURA BITTERS: See Wines and Liquors. (See also Household Formulas. The shade. : ANILINE STAINS. TESTS FOR See Pigments. 1 1 gallon gallon gallon AMMONIA FOR FIXING PRINTS: See Photography. V. IV. gallon of water. baths.

black ones. Symptoms: Intense violent purging. irregular pulse. and their antidotes: a person has taken poison the first thing to do is to compel the patient to vomit. and stomach. or oleaginous drinks. death. DOTES.ANTIDOTES FOR POISONS ANISE CORDIAL: See Wines and Liquors. If the mustard is not at hand. give freely of equal parts of calcined magnesia. When it is known what particular kind of poison has been swallowed. generally preceding death. and which is prompt When and For but safe in its action. and sesquioxide of iron. as a tablespoonful or two of castor oil. or melted butter or lard. mucilaginous. or 20 to 30 grains of ipecac. wheat flour. pulverized charcoal. and it has the advantage of being almost always at hand. if necessary. as is often the case. are antidotes for the most common and active poisons. burning pain of mouth. excessive thirst. or other mild drinks. WIRE. Oxalic acid is frequently taken in . burning taste in the moutn. gruel. then the proper antidote for that poison should be given. and pain or other evi- Antidotes for Poisons POISON. and when the poison is got rid of. with 1 or 2 grains of tartar emetic. lips or shriveled. yellow. as the ingredients. Nitric Acid (Aqua Fortis). so that the vomiting will continue until the poisonous substances have been thoroughly evacuated. ANNEALING OF STEEL. and the repeated application of hot poultices. acid causes yellow stains. mustard from the mustard pot. Citric. Common soap chalk. AND SPRINGS: See Steel. The inflammation which always follows needs good treatment to save the pa- (hard or tient's life. cold sweats. unless After free vomiting is sooner produced. frequent but vain efforts to urinate. in a sufficient This is a very harmquantity of water. milk. The following are the names of the substances that may give rise to poisoning. most commonly used. and for that purpose give any emetic that can be most readily and quickly obtained. starch. Subsequently ANT DESTROYERS: See Insecticides. Acetic. flaxseed or slipperyelm tea. or even mortar from the wall mixed in water may be given. give two or three teaspoonfuls of powdered alum in syrup or molasses. Symptoms: Acid. Muriatic Acid (Spirits of Salts). altered countenance. fomentations. though very vomiting. the stomach should be soothed and protected by the free administration of demulcent. until magnesia can be obPromote vomiting by tickling tained. flaxseed tea. while drink increases the pain and rarely remains in the stomach. whiting. generally excoriated. the bowels should be moved by some gentle laxative. If the dry mustard is not to be had use mixed energetic. TOOLS. throat. soft). the throat. and then suitable antiIf vomiting candotes should be given. stupor. mucilage of gum ANKARA: See Butter. and mustard plasters. linseed or olive oil. hiccough. or slippery-elm bark. In case this mixture cannot be obtained. sulphuric Mix Treatment: acid. and give freely of warm water to drink. more or less bloody. Vegetable Acids alic. frequent mouth and white if it can be swallowed. vomiting has taken place large draughts of warm water should be given. such as the whites of eggs. acute pain in the throat. vomiting blood which is highly acid. and give freely to drink a glassful every couple of minutes. ANODYNES: See Pain Killers. difficult breathing. convulNitric sions. or arrowroot mixed in water. but when this cannot be ascertained. with great tenderness in the abdomen. this purpose there is. in a large cup of warm water. and bowels. stomach. Mineral Acids Sulphuric Acid (Oil of Vitriol). nothing better than a large teaspoonful of ground mustard in a tumblerful of warm water. collapse. perhaps. bloody. Its operation may generally be facilitated by the addition of a like quantity of common table salt. copious stools. Ox- Tartaric. and repeat every ten minutes until three or four doses are given. arabic. or give 10 to 20 grains of sulphate of zinc (white vitriol). simple. dence of inflammation must be relieved by the administration of a few drops of SYMPTOMS AND ANTI- laudanum. not be produced the stomach pump should be used. less mixture and is likely to be of great benefit. calcined magnesia in milk or water to the consistence of cream. or a teaspoonful of calcined magnesia.

repeated every few minutes. to which in shops it often bears a strong resemblance. dimness. Bitter Almond Oil. or brown. or large draughts of limewater. in doses of from 1 to 4 Weak solution fluidrachms. and afterwards in other portions of the body. and great prostration of strength. until the symptoms are ameliorated. and the vapor of it Cold affusion.. Symptoms: Dryness throat. difficulty of swallowing. act as antidotes. spirits of ammonia in half -teaspoonful doses in like symptoms of nervous derangement. and are sometimes bloody. confusion or loss of vision. Wolfsbane. and intestines. should it continue. in the form of chlorine water. cold sweats. with a burning dryness of the throat and great thirst. Cyanide of on the breath. etc. such as of gall. when not immediately fatal. or very To strong green tea should be given. or Deadly Nightshade. Treatment: The common vegetable acids. dimness of vision. generally noticeable Treatment: Aconite Monkshood. In the absence of this. as morphia. largely diluted. soon followed by vomiting. which sometimes takes place withhours after arsenic has been taken. and then sprinkle on one-eighth to onefourth of a grain of morphia. loss of sensibility. etc. great prostration. Laurel Potassium. until the infusion is prepared. Caustic Pot- and raw eggs. limewater and oil. dizziness. often terminating in death. always 5> however. scrape the wall or ceiling. cramps. almond. purging of bloody stools.ANTIDOTES FOR POISONS mistake for Epsom salts. may be given. They should be given in large quantity. severe diarrhea. or causing vomiting by tickling the throat with a The inflammation of the feather. or spasmodic twitch- Treatment: There is no known antiGive a prompt emetic and then dote. or even if nothing else is at hand. etc. acrid taste. laudanum. stomach. being always at hand. Symptoms: Generally within an hour pain and heat are felt in the stomach. chloroform in half to teaspoonful doses in glycerine or mucilage. water of ammonia (spirits of hartshorn). Symptoms: In large doses almost invariably instantaneously fatal. and should be given promptPowdered yellow bark may be used ly. Fowler's Solution. Common vinegar. Treatment Give a prompt emetic. difficulty in vomiting may occur. Arsenic and Its Preparations Ratsbane. of the mouth and great thirst. hot fomentations. sudden loss of sense and control of the voluntary muscles. Peruvian bark. Diarrhea or dysentery ensues. hiccough. is most frequently used. as castor. with sore throat. The fixed oils. mucilaginous drinks. of chloride lime of soda. Treatment: If vomiting has not been produced. vomiting of bloody matter. Kerme's : Mineral. Etc. flour and water. TarIts Preparations Antimonial Wine. while cramps. magnesia in a large quantity of water. delirium. Belladonna. and then hydrate of peroxide of iron (recently prepared) in tablespoonful doses every 10 or 15 minutes until the urgent symptoms are relieved. or while it is being prein five or six : ings. constriction and burning sensation in the throat. reliance must be placed on continual stimulation with brandy. are thought by some to . Artificial respiration. Wood-ash Lye. warmth to the extrem- ities. and olive oils form soaps with the alkalis and thus also destroy their caustic effect. every half hour . and administering copious draughts of warm water. Symptoms: Caustic. pared. Breathing much oppressed. and give the scrapings mixed with water. in ice water. Antimony and tar Emetic. etc. stop the vomiting. stomach which follows must be treated by blisters. An emetic and Treatment: then brandy in tablespoonful doses. melted butter. dizziness. and cautiously inhaled. The odor of the poison Prussic or Hydrocyanic Acid Water. whisky. Faintness and Symptoms nausea. If these are not at hand. oak bark. nausea. Symptoms: Numbness and tingling in the mouth and throat. giving an emetic the first thing. Hartshorn. ash. diluted. with manner. the matters vomited are generally colored either green yellow. excessive heat in the throat. convulsions. Treatment: Give chalk or magnesia in a large quantity of water. while the pulse becomes small and rapid. Etc. flaxseed. Chlorine.. it should be effected by tickling the fauces. and coma. blister over the stomach by applying a cloth wet with strong spirits of hartshorn. yet irregular. pain over the stomach. and to necessary artificial respiration. the cold douche over the head and chest. give large draughts of new milk Alkalis and Their Salts Concentrated Lye. and the like. great enlargement of the pupils. Ammonia. and vomiting. or even paralysis often precede death. soon followed by painful and continued vomiting. and delirium. Opium and its preparations. Astringent infusions.

stools. give brandy and ammonia in frequently repeated doses. camphor. Symptoms: Burning pain in throat. SympViolent vomiting and purging. Etc. Symptoms : SympHenbane. great pain in the stomach. or. sinking of the pulse. and death. difficulty of swallowing. Cupping from nape of neck. nausea and vomiting and stucold perspiration. and emetics. feeble. or Hyoscyamus. Corrosive Sublimate. peroxide of iron. acids. frequently repeated. Internal use of chloroform. Treatment: Empty the stomach and give brandy in tablespoonful doses. movement which ing. Symp- toms: Sickening odor of the breath. giddiness. or Digitalis. inability to articulate plainly. as the whites of eggs. Camphorated oil or camphorated spirits should be rubbed over the bowels. and convulsions. acrid. Symptoms: Great drowsiness. Gases anogen. and cramps and convulsions generally Treatment death. Symptoms: Dry- Copper Pickles or sels. sour taste. Caustic Potash. or warm milk. as also strong black coffee and green tea. and coma. Symptoms: Loss of strength. dilated pupils. fruitless effort to vomit. and opium. pupils dilated. tremors.ANTIDOTES FOR POISONS counteract the effect of belladonna. Creosote thirst. Blue Vitriol. oily purgatives. excessive tenTreatment: derness of the epigastrium. copious bloody stools. See Alkalis under this toms: bloody Cobalt. excessive thirst. Carbolic Acid. diarTreatment: An emetic. dimness of vision and stupor. Muscular twitching. cold sweats. with burning heat in the throat. ment: An emetic and the free administration of albumen. title. and sometimes convulsions. or slippery-elm tea. or See CopBlistering Cantharides Fly) (Spanish and Modern Potato Bug. of the extremities. apply warmth to the extremities. sugar and water. small convulsive intermittent pulse. faintness. or Indian Poke. give oily and mucilaginous drinks. purging. Treatment: Excite speedy vomiting by large of warm water. Treatment: Artificial respiration. por sighing. eggs. prostration. violent colic. lacerating pain in the stomach. wheat flour and water. later. powerless or paralyzed. milk. or flour and water. Chlorine. Vitriol. some respiration. Verdigris or Food Cooked in Copper VesGeneral inflammaSymptoms: tion of the alimentary canal. Treatvomiting. and may be given in small and repeated doses. with half teaspoonful of spirits ammonia. folrhea. Symptoms: Heat and pain in the throat and stomach. hurried and difficult breathing. See Belladonna Blue per. fainting. . see. under this title. delirium. often bloody. pungent taste. friction with stimulating substances to the surface of the body. stomach. vertigo. face blue as in strangulation. precede Large doses of simple syrup as warm as can be swallowed. stomach. irregular breathing. or Blue Stone. vomiting and purging. anxiety. until the stomach rejects the amount it contains. etc. insensibility and convulsions sometimes precede death. dizziness. cold and clammy skin. difficult Treatment: Excite vomiting by drinking plentifully of sweet oil or other wholeoils. a disagreeable metallic taste. lowed by the free administration of milk. vomiting. suppression of urine. milk. tickling the throat with the finger or a feather. molasses and draughts water. The whites of eggs and large quantities of milk. pulse rapid and feeble. give injections of castor The inoil and starch. etc. small and feeble pulse. cold douche. Hemlock (Conium). and muci- Hellebore. and thighs. See Mercury Iodine. Foxglove. ness of the throat. laginous drinks. and clysters. under this title. and limbs faintness. and if necessary resort to artificial respiration. CyHydrosulphuric Acid. and bowels. Carbonic Acid. Hydrated : tremors. in the absence of these. Treatment: After . faintness. sense of tightness of the throat. flammatory symptoms which generally follow must be treated by a physician. strong coffee. and if much pain and vomiting. features swollen. fluttering pulse. or Fly Powder. Deadly Nightshade. vomiting. give bromide of ammonium in 5-grain doses of every half hour. Artificial respiration may be toms: required. violent retching and vomiting. hiccough. Treatment: Similar to opium poison- Burning pain. frequent vomiting. with burning sensation in the bladder and difficulty to urinate followed with terrible convulsions. Inhalation of steam containing preparations of ammonia. great anxiety.

Lobelia Symptoms Excessive vomiting and purging. vomitings. and afterwards flaxseed or slippery-elmbark tea. quick and irregular. called painters' colic. pulse quick. obstinate constipation. difficult breathing. emetics must be given immediately white of eggs in continuous large doses. delirium. beaten up in water. fects of opium and its preparations. cold sweats. Litharge. Etc. Treatment: Empty the stomach immediately with an emetic or with the stomach pump. if pand. and use freely as a gargle. the surface is covered with cold. and purging of blood. Symptoms: Acrid. faint sensations.induced as soon as possible. Acetate of Lead. small. in poisonous doses. sickness. sweet milk. See Belladonna. mixtures of flour and pump should be applied. Symptoms: Intense pain and vomiting. obstinate. drowsiness. water in successive cupfuls. Use warmth and friction. a sweet but astringent metallic taste exists. Symptoms: Giddiness. : Indian Poke. of which one-third should stomach . and breathing hurried. or Vinegar Sweetened by Lead. a teaspoonful to a quart of If a large quantity of sugar of water. pain in the region of the stomach. counteract the poison give alum in water li ounce to a quart. Cooley advises as follows: Vomiting must be . small but long-continued doses it produces colic. Mercury Corrosive Sublimate (bug poisons frequently contain this poison). and shreds of mucous membranes. great debility. giving one-fourth to commence. or. an ounce of either in a quart of water. and death. Paregoric. which decomposes the poison. and the extremities become cold. treme paralytic symptoms. castor oil should be given to clear the bowels and injections of oil and If the body starch freely administered. Wine. lead has been recently taken. put mustard plasters on the wrists and ankles. and swallow a tablespoonful every hour or two. Meadow Saffron. pains in the bowels. or arrowroot.ANTIDOTES FOR POISONS Free emesis.. prompt administration of starch. and and tearing pains in both stomach and bowels. When taken in spasms. by means of a strong emetic and tickling the If this does not succeed. and respiration slow and noisy. until some effect is observed in causing the pupils to expossible prevent sleep for some hours. douche the head and chest with cold water. for which purpose the patient should be walked about between two persons. wheat flour. and insensibility. and later. with constriction in the throat. Red Lead. coma. and repeating cases Opium and All Its Compounds Morphine. painful. Sugar of Lead. and convulsions. clammy perspiraThe eftion. the pupils are contracted and the eyes and face congested. freely of a solution of common salt in water. and in ex- 95 Lead Dry White Lead. and if these stand Treatment: Give they become dark. with a blue line along Treatment: To the edge of the gums. The emetic may consist of a half drachm of sulphate of zinc dissolved in a half pint of warm water. and to check excessive salivation put a half ounce of chlorate of potash in a tumbler of water. Belladonna is thought by many to counteract the poisonous effects of opium. and vomiting of various-colored fluids. and after a while a dose of Morphine. or Pickles. Treatment: Mustard over the stomach. cramps. pulse usually. mucus. metallic taste in the mouth. Chinese or English Vermilion. as death approaches. as a last resort. and convulsions. with difficulty and pain in urinating. syncope. give brandy. Epsom salts or Glauber's salts. every 20 minutes. and the sphincters relax. Laudanum. and may be brandy and ammonia. and hard. Treatment: If vomiting does not already exist. Electricity should also be tried. with anxiety given in doses of half to a teaspoonful of the tincture. See Opium. (Lunar Caustic). better still. great pain. smaller doses until free vomiting is produced. especially wrist-drop. and infusion of catechu afterwards. Nitrate of Silver castor oil. Finally. increasing to stupor. and afterwards pulse slow and feeble. contraction of the pupils. or whisky and ammonia. or dilute sulphuric acid. Red Precipitate. immediate constriction and burning in the throat. at first. See Opium. Laudanum. the fauces. use artificial respiration. persistence in which will sometimes be rewarded with success in apparently hopeless cases.rt oi water). and frequently bloody convulsions or hiccough. Symptoms: When taken in large doses. or 2 grains of the extract. Then give very strong coffee without milk. empty the stomach by an emetic of sulphate of zinc (1 drachm in a qur. and if the patient is cold and sinking. is cold use the warm bath. appear in from a half to two hours from its administration. and sometimes bloody and profuse diarrhea.

Cure for. rough friction should be applied to the skin. Bleeding may be subsequently necessary in plethoric habits. with MusTreatment: great prostration. of gV grain of atropine antidote. and if to. vomiting and purging. given. Thorn Apple. purging. rapid pulse. feeble pulse.96 ANTIDOTES FOR POISONS water. or bathe the parts freely with Anointing with oil will spirits of niter. headache. with tearing pains in stomach and bowels. dilated pupil and Treatstupor. or Jamestown Weed. To allow the sufferthis is ineffectual cold When er to sleep tion. lent Contact Ivy. Poisonous Mushrooms. is . or oak bark should be freely administered before the emetic. The smallest fatal dose of opium in the case of an adult within our recollection was 4 grains. tard and hot fomentations over the Oxalic Acid. Give saline laxatives. followed by frequent doses of Glauber's or of Epsom salts. tenderness and tension Treatment: An emetic of the abdomen. and the remainder at the rate of a wineglassful every 5 or 10 minutes. which ammonia was freely administered. spirit and water or strong coffee may be To keep the sufferer awake. until vomiting commences. and After the large stimulating clysters. or one of the formulas for emetic draughts may be taken instead. Treatment: Treat as is directed for arsenic. and hence the dose of it for them must be diminished considerably below that indicated by the common method of calculation depending on the age. Prussic Acids. burning. acteristic symptom ence exerted upon The charthe special influthe nervous system. bowels relaxed. or in threatened congestion. and these symptoms approA hypodermic injection priately treated. toms: SympSaltpeter (Nitrate of Potash). belladonna. of Snake Bites. Savine. See Acids. Only poisonous in large quantities. The costiveness that accompanies convalescence may be best met by aromatic aperients. especially of the face and hands. Symptoms: Vertigo. be taken at once. Symptoms: and with many persons the near approach an upright posture preserved. and all secretions Treatment: Same as for augmented. of Police in the Bengal ports that of 939 cases in The Inspector re- Government Strychnine or Nux Vomica. muGeneral treatment cilaginous drinks. attended with itching. Symptoms: Sharp pains in the bowels. for there is no antidote known. cold feet and hands. Stramonium. violent vomiting and sometimes purging. But if inflammatory symptoms manifest themselves such stimuli should be avoided. and the general tone of the habit restored by stimulating tonics and the shower bath. cinchona. diarrhea. and in the cured instances the remedy was not administered till about 3i hours after the attack. See Poison with. is to be promptly given. Infusion of galls. and then causes nausea. When there is much drowsiness or stupor 1 or 2 fluidrachms of tincture of capsicum will be found a useful addition. See Alkali. on the average the fatal cases the corresponding duration of time was 44 hours. If prostration comes on. pulse small and frequent. is to abandon him to destruc- Treatment: with watery blisters. faintness. vomiting. cold sweats and death. Children are much more susceptible to the action of opium 'than of other medicines. and emptying the stomach and bowels with mild drinks must be relied on. or Hydrocyanic Acid. the vine gives rise to vioerysipelatous inflammation. and spine. either may be given of with small quantities brandy and stomach and bowels and ice allowed stomach only until the inflammation ceases. hot skin. Symptoms: Nausea. pain in tha stomach and bowels. slight delirium. poison is evacuated. water may be dashed over the chest. Symptoms: Symptoms of irritant poisoning. necessary. or mild shocks of electricity may be had recourse to. heat and pains in the stomach and bowels. or limewater and sweet oil. disposition to sleep. ing. sense of suffocation. painful vomiting. 207 victims have recovered. food and stimulants must be given by in the injection. perversion of vision. convulsions. thirst. and faintings. for inflammatory symptoms. and water soured with vinegar and lemon juice. copious draughts containing magnesia in suspension. convulsions. head. Found in Lucifer Phosphorus Matches and Some Rat Poisons. ment: The stomach and bowels are to be cleared by an emetic of ground mustard or sulphate of zinc. is the latest discovered Potash. and swell- walking exercise enforced. redness. and apply weak sugar of lead and laudanum. after the stomach has been well To rouse the system cleared out. prevent poisoning from it.

pale countenance. vomiting. anxiety. See Sulphite (not sulphate) of potassa. we ought immediately to cauterize the part. tremors. Treat- Tobacco. Tin Chloride of Tin. delirium. and warmth of the extremities if necessary. at intervals. nausea. or Putty Powder. Milk and albumen will also act as antidotes. new black-mustard seed (ground in a pepper mill). and grind them to powder in a pepDose. White Vitriol. II. assisted by venesection. and afterwards brandy and stimulants. the poison has been applied externally. with brandy and other stimulants. and pack so as to exclude air and moisture perDose (of either). Antidote: The stomach should be immediately cleared by means of an To emetic. in combination with a saline aperient. to the extremities. into the vomica. Gunther the greatest reliance may be placed on full doses of opium. mix. burning pain in the stomach. mix. III. in consequence Death seldom of the emetic Treatment: The vomiting may be relieved by copious draughts of warm water. when excessive. or even threatening to do so. or when The first formula it has been renewed. which in most cases produce a salutary effect. the breathing becomes easy. and try artificial respiration. frequent pulse. so as to exclude the air. Vertigo. ^ Sulphate of Zinc Zinc. and give it internally.ANTIDOTES FOR POISONS which is manifested by a general contraction of all the muscles of the body. cloves and capsicum. of each. Treatment: Suck the wound immediately. effect. tickling the fauces. etc. fluttering pulse. mix. during which the respiration is suspended. These symptoms then cease. The following are tried and useful formulas: I. 1 teaspoonful doses. longer than the first. if obtainounce or more of bone charcoal mixed with water. f to ^ pound per hogsper mill. which is followed by a new tetanic seizure. Lastly. Recoveries have followed the free and prompt administration of oils or melted butter or lard. with rigidity of the spinal column. every few minutes while the spasms last. fainting. up mag- Tartar Emetic. soon allays fermentation. instantly produces the tetanic spasm. and there is stupor. jections of chlorine and decoction of tannin are of value. and give strong coffee. with One phenomenon which is found warmth Zinc Zinc. until death ensues. advantageously used for wine and beer. sudden nervous debility. or chalk. 14 pounds. administered in solution. and at times fatal prostration. followed by another contraction.. swallowed for some time we shouH give a purgative clyster. Another treatment is to give. and apply a ligature tightly above the wound. and give whites of eggs in water. astringent taste. 1 part. is a tendency to is preferred when there The second and third may be acidity. head. artificial should be etc. A profound calm soon succeeds. will decompose the sulphate of zinc. milk in large quantities. cold extremities. and pack tight. then to give chloroform in able. Treatment: Empty the stomach. and speedy death. Symptoms: Vomiting. with increasing violence. Mustard seed. dull Oxide of White Symptoms: Vitriol. counteract the asphyxia from tetanus. If the poison has been Zinc. respiration "If practiced with diligence and care. etc. in fine powder. 1| pounds. Sulphate of Acetate of Zinc. 1 part. or the like. Sulphite (not sulphate) of lime. | ounce to 1^ fectly. or cut it out and tie a cord around the limb between the wound and the heart. Oxide of Tin. marble dust. ounces per hogshead. restlessness. Symptoms: When taken stomach it is inert. frothing at the mouth. pains in the stomach. as . drug in the form of solution or mixture. General principles to be observed in the subsequent treatment." According to Ch. with or flour beaten nesia or chalk. in flour and water or glycerine. and administer draughts containing sulphuric ether or oil of turpentine. Symptoms: ment: After the stomach is empty apply mustard to the abdomen and to the extremities. in- only in poisonings by substances containing strychnine is that touching any part of the body. ground oyster shells. See Antimony. 97 in water. 7 parts. ensues. and follow with an active emetic. 7 parts. cold sweat. Carbonate of soda. eyes. Violent vomiting. in cases of poisoning by strychnia or nux Woorara. Solution of Tin (used by dyers). Apply iodine. In all cases empty the stomach if possible. In fatal cases general these attacks are renewed. His plan is to administer this ANTIFERMENTS. stupor. or iodide of potassium. when absorbed through a wound it causes sudden stupor and insensibility. A portion of added any one of these compounds to cider.

The best process for the preservation of antique metallic articles consists in a retransformation of the metallic oxides into metal by the electrolytic method. drops Carmine to give a pink tint. TO PRESERVE. It is equivalent to about 8 per It is a yellowishcent of active oxygen. and either ANTIRUST COMPOSITIONS: See Rust Preventives.. Anchovies. . Water Vinegar Flour ounce ounce stir until Mix.. and the pulped anchovies. powdered Carbolic acid. greatly improves the flavor and the apparent strength of the liquor. a coarse sieve. and strain. is a new dusting powder a mixture of zinc hydroxide and dioxide. 15 4 Anchovy Water Salt Paste. . To the strained liquor add 2 ounces of salt and 2* ounces of flour. : ANTIFRICTION METAL : See Alloys. Flour pound pound J Capsicum Grated lemon ounce ounces III. and when the mixture has cooled a little add 4 ounces of The product (nearly strong vinegar. or IV. Antiseptics Antiseptic Powders. next. II. under Phosphor Bronze and Antifriction Metals. Anchovies 7 9 1 1 pounds pints Alum. since paraffine is not perfectly impermeable to water in the shape of steam. For this purpose a zinc strip is wound around the article and the latter is laid in a soda-lye solution of 5 per cent. : ANTIFREEZING SOLUTION See Freezing Preventives. in which operation fragile or easily destroyed articles may be protected by winding with gauze. and also improves its keeping qualities. 4 Sodium biborate. powdered Borax. and Then rub through Essence of Anchovies. I. thoroughly. boned and 1 part beaten to a paste 2 parts Butter enough Spice Thymic Mix wash of acid 1 ounce ounce drachm. 1 Thymol Boracic acid catsup. place over the the mixture thickens. Oil of gaultheria .ter. Anchovy Preparations Extemporaneous Anchovy Sauce. and finally protected from further destruction by immersion in melted paraffiiie. Remove the bones from 1 pound of anchovies. or suspended as the negative pole of a small battery in a potassium cyanide solution of 2 per cent. The third compound well as for cider. and the corks tied over with bladder. .. . crystals Oil of eucalyptus Oil of wintergreen - . 3 pounds) may be then bottled. . . then with moderate heat. remove from the fire. insoluble in water. 5 5 5 5 V<< '' J | Mushroom Anchovy peel. chopped small Butter 3 or 4 3 ounces 2 ounces 1 1 fire. A dry place is required for storing the articles. . Let the whole simmer over the fire for three or four minutes. white odorless and tasteless powder. which Ektogan . It is used externally in wounds and in skin diseases as a moist dressing mixed with citric. dissolve warm is For an antiseptic or 2 drachms in a quart ANTIFOULING COMPOSITIONS See Paints.. Anchovies. wa. Boil the bones and other portions which will not pass through the sieve in 1 pint of water for 15 minutes. they should be carefully dried. 10 ounces 4 ounces 1 1 1 Butter. Menthol . and pass through a clean hair or brass sieve. 5(H ^ 50 3 | . tartaric. Alum Zinc sulphocarbolate . reduce the remaining portions of the fish to a pulp in a Wedgewood mortar.98 ANTISEPTICS ANTIQUES. . first in the air. Borax Dried alum 3 3 ounces ounces grains Thymol Eucalyptol 22 20 1 Menthol Phenol drops grains grains waxed or capsuled. Where this method does not seem practicable it is advisable to edulcorate the objects in running water.

Allow to stand a few days. 99 thoroughly. distilled water. labels on skelbriskly. collodion.. cent. gram c. Pencils for stopping bleeding are often prepared by mixing: Purified alum 480 24 2i 1 . s 3 parts Ether. 2 ounces <) Pulverized alum. c. Sodium borate 32. etc. The paste is applied to the wound. c..0 60. move the paper. grains): benzoic acid. eucalypMix the tol. and forming mixture into pencils or cones. Difficulty into tepid water and apply. tincture of eucalyptus. roll a piece of oil paper around the tube. essence of peppermint. This paste is very poisonous. Socin. roll in pure silver leaf. II. remove the glass tube. and to remain in place five or six days. mix etons. cent.0 32. previously dried by means of a brush or spatula. formed on one end and stand it on end or in a bottle.ANTISEPTICS tannic acid. and pour the melted solution in it and leave until cool.. It is stated to be strongly antiiodine. shave away a portion of the covering.0 8. . meanwhile stir in (r) -and (6) 1. enough to cent. Stir and pour in the dry corrosive sublimate. Borax Oxide zinc Thymol 8 Formalin 4 Melting carefully in a water bath. Tannin.. c. It may then be removed and a fresh application made. c..2 grams grams grams Thymol .. Antiseptic Paste (Poison) for Organic Specimens. Then coat with length and thickness. such as the A paste lips after operation for harelip. c. adding some perfume. and finally coat with the following solution of gelatine and set aside to dry: latter milky. 5 parts. septic. and lastly enough water to make 1. and a plaster. 15 grams (4 A Mouth 25 centigrams (3 drachms) alcohol. A pencils where no mold need be made is to take a small glass tube. and oils in the alcohol. This is from the Formulary of the Bournemouth Pharmaceutical Association. then filter. Dissolve in boil4 fluidounces ing water 2 ounces (d) Acetate of lead . Tincture of cudbear 15. 12 grams (3 drachms). centimeters Dissolve the salts in 650 cubic centimeters of water. See also Dentifrices for Mouth is Washes. thymol. it is used in the form of a powder. cent.. Tannin 1 part Alcohol. II. alcohol. .0 Glycerine Water. s Make into a mass. s. using as an excipient the alcohol and ether previously Roll into pencils of the desired mixed. alcoholic solution with the glycerine and add the aqueous liquid. 0. 100 grams Ten drops in a half-glassful (3 ounces). 8 grams (2 drachms). then re- . bicarPotassium bonate Sodium benzoate . 6 grams (90 minims).2 Oil of peppermint.0 c.4 Oil of wintergreen. 3 grams (45 grains). 75 centigrams (10 minims).000. menthol. then add (d). which causes the liberation With iodides it liberates of oxygen. Pulverized gum arabic 2 ounces Dissolve in boil4 fluidounces ing water. Antiseptics. zinc chloride. q. to get a brilliant filtrate. I. oxide. cent. q. crimp the paper tube thus very convenient way to form into experienced in applying an antiseptic dressing to moist surfaces.0 0. 1 gram (15 grains).0 Eucalyptol 0. 100 grams (3 ounces). then the tincture of cudbear. a gauze. 50 parts.0 Alcohol 250. Put sufficient in a glass of water to render . necessary. cent. Antiseptic Paste. I... as reported in the Canadian Pharmaceutical Association: . tincture benzoin. Gelatine 1 1 drachm pint Dissolve by the aid of a gentle heat.000 cubic centimeters. (a) flour 16 ounces Beat to a batter with 16 fluidounces cold water Then pour into boil32 fluidounces ing water Wheat 2. Thymic acid. allowed to dry on. and t>he thymol. When wanted for use. 50 parts. It is used for anatomical work and for pasting organic tissue.. Dissolve in boil4 fluidounces ing water (e) Corrosive sublimate 10 grains Mix (a) and (6) while hot and continue to simmer. for this purpose is described by its origiThe composition is: Zinc nator. q. adding a little if make magnesium carbonate to the filter. dip the pencil Water of tepid water. Antiseptic Pencils.

solutions do not stand boiling. third. in handling instruments. . will seal these surfaces with an insoluble. Sodium bicarbonate. The safest coloring substance for use in a preparation intended either for internal administration or for application to the skin is the coloring matter of tincture of spinleaves. tion in acetone also meets most of the requirements. them. and will not admit secretions. the operations be many. The surface is then swabbed over thoroughly with the benzine or acetone solution. second.. A 7-to 8-per-cent emulsion is equal to a 1-per-cent solution of corrosive sublimate and is certainly far more agreeable to use. blood. 6-. when the hands are thoroughly dried. impervious.100 ANTISEPTICS phy has found that a 4-. care being taken to fill in around and beneath the nails. when used upon the hands. 20 grains 6 grains 4 minims 4 minims 2 minims 1 minim 3 ounces Mix solutions A and B. and practically imperceptible coating a coating that will not allow the secretions of the skin to escape. when applied to the hands of the surgeon or the skin of the patient. Murphy's routine method of hand preparation is as follows: First. At the same time it does not impair the sense of touch nor A similar soluthe pliability of the skin. as this impairs the adhesiveness and elasticity of the coating. washed in bichloride or any of the antiseptic solutions without interfering with If the coating or affecting the skin. five to seven minutes' scrubbing with spirits of green soap and running hot water.. 100 grains 200 grains Sodium biborate 80 grains Sodium benzoate Sodium salicylate . A Benzoic acid Boric acid Distilled water Dissolve. The hands must be kept exposed to the air with the fingers separated until thoroughly dry. For the remaining portion of the hands one application is sufficient for a whole morning's Alkaline Glycerine of Thymol. the coating wears away from the tips of the fingers. ach or of grass made by macerating 2 ounces of the freshly cut leaves in a pint of alcohol for five days will be found to If the pure coloring give good results. The gutta-percha solution is prepared by dissolving the pure gutta-percha chips These in sterile benzine or acetone. or 8-per-cent solution of gutta-percha in benzine. cinnamon in a 9-per-cent emulsion. 40 grains Menthol 2 grains Pumilio pine oil 4 minims . Bromine 1 ounce Sodium chloride 8 ounces Water 8 pints Dissolve the sodium chloride in the water and add the bromine. but is easily removed by washThe hands can be ing in benzine.. . Green Coloring for Antiseptic Solu- of rubber wears tips of the fingers. The coating is very thin and can be recognized only by its It will resist soap glazed appearance. and tissues The 4-per-cent solution on the better A than the acetone solution. three minutes' washing with alcohol. Bromine Solution. substance is wanted the solvent should be evaporated off. firm coating. while the benzine solution takes from three to four and a half minutes to make a dry. and it dries in three to four seconds after its application. sponges. and filter. For the abdomen the acetone solution has the advantage. The preparation of the patient's skin consists in five minutes' scrubbing with spirits of green soap. sterilizes Cinnamon as an Antiseptic. ANTISEPTICS FOR CAGED BIRDS: Rubber Gloves. make up to 20 fluidounces with distilled water. followed by alcohol. but is easily renewed. or pus into the crevices of the skin.. . . This soluAntiseptic tion is to be diluted. Substitute for Mur- See Veterinary Formulas. 1 part with 15 parts of water. the gutta-percha solution is poured over the hands and forearms. when applied to broken skin surfaces. Oil of thyme in an 11-per-cent solution is equal to a 7-percent solution of cinnamon oil. Oil of thyme Alcohol (90 per cent) Dissolve. washing with ether. Oil of peppermint. chlorophyll. or prolonged. and water.. 64 grains 64 grains 128 grains 6 ounces B Thymol Menthol Eucalyptol Oil of wintergreen.. completely Oil of Oil of work. tions. Wintergreen oil Thymol Eucalyptol 2 minims 4 grains 12 minims Compound Borax Solution of Thymol..

deary's Asthma Fumigating Fowder. 72. stramonium. Four or five inhalations are generally sufficient as a dose. Potassium nitrate. olibanum. ASTHMA CUKES. (Water. 120. q. powdered belladonna leaves. (All the herbal ingredients in coarse powder. powdered lobelia. Then soak up the whole mixture with donna leaves. AQUA FORTIS FOR THE TOUCHSTONE : See Gold. Belladonna Asthma Cigarettes. 8 grains. Dry. . powdered lobelia. 2 parts. ASSAYING: See Gold. powdered lobelia. potaspowdered tea. 1. bella- parts. 1. boilparts. 5 parts. Sodium arseniate. distilled water. Asthma Papers. 5. 5. 2. AQUA FORTIS FOR BRIGHT LUSTER: See Castings.) . powdered opium. ASPHALT IN PAINTING: See Paint. rolled up in a piece of cigarette paper. powdered aniseed. 1. OIL FOR See Lubricants. 5 parts. 15. ATOMIC WEIGHTS: See Weights and Measures. 6. potassium nitrate. cut into pieces about 2f by 4 inches. Fischer's Asthma Powder. : See Ointments. 5 parts. Powdered stramonium. 25. and roll into cigarettes. 60. I. I. Powdered stramonium leaves. 10. moisten with the water in which the potassium nitrate has been previously dissolved. paper (Swedish filter paper will anAt swer) and let remain for 24 hours. powdered tragacanth. sugar. 5 parts. 8 grains. 15. arnica flowers. sium nitrate. 3. monium leaves. ASBESTOS FABRIC See Fireproofing. monium. II. Impregnate bibulous paper with the following: Extract of stramonium. and dry. ASTHMA IN CANARIES: Powdered stra- See Veterinary Formulas. Neumeyer's Asthma Powder. I. 40 parts.) PotasSchiffmann's Asthma Powder. . powdered eucalyptus leaves. naphthol. 15.100 parts. AQUARIUM PUTTY: See Putty. 4 parts. potassium nitrate. 15. 4. Extract the ing water. phellandrium fruits. 150. leaves with the boiling writer. 120. AQUARIUM CEMENTS: See Adhesives. II. powdered sugar. 5. 5. potassium nitrate. and dry. Asthma Fumigating Powders. nitrate. 15. Powdered stramonium. : ARMENIAN CEMENT: See Adhesives ments. extract of Dissolve the arstramonium. 20. filter. s. 2. Stramonium Candle. tract of belladonna. potassium nitrate. lobelia. 10. sage leaves. 80. powdered digitalis leaves. 10. which is dried and Each part is cut into 24 equal parts. ARGENTAN See Alloys. 45 sium nitrate. roll into suitable shapes ASTRINGENT FOR HORSES: See Veterinary Formulas. and rub it with the two extracts. ARMS. powdered Indian hemp. 17. potassium Blotting or gray filter paper. 80. 3. 200 parts. myrrh. powdered bella- fine blotting paper.ANTISEPTICS APOLLINARIS See Waters. under Jewelers' Ce: donna leaves. the end of this time remove. powdered aniseed. seniate of sodium in a small quantity of water. 1. exII. 75 tincture of benzoin. 15. sugar. StraVorlaender's Asthma Powder. 30. ARSENIC ALLOYS: ASBESTOS CEMENT: See Adhesives. stramonium leaves. and Imin the filtrate dissolve the salts. 70. 5. : ASPHALT AS AN INGREDIENT OF INDIA RUBBER: See Rubber. merse in the fluid sheets of bibulous ASPHALT VARNISHES: See Varnishes. stramonium.000 parts. 2. digitalis leaves. 5 parts potassium nitrate. 5. potassium nitrate. to mass. 4. 5 parts. ARNICA SALVE See Alloys. dry. 1. : 101 APPLE SYRUP: See Essences and Extracts. warm water. potassium nitrate. 1 powdered Achillea millefolium leaves. Stramonium. 3 grains. potassium iodide. leaves. powdered stramonium leaves. 5 parts. Peruvian balsam. 30. 6 parts.

This is not a cheap powder. yielded The is available carbon dioxide 7J per cent or 8 per cent. is: upon the animal body and that neutralized poisonous doses. lean cake. Alum Baking Powder. and 15 parts for BALL BLUE: See Laundry Preparations. 3 parts. salvise Fruct. and then passed repeatedly through a sieve. Baking Powders Tartaric acid. but starch is preferable. tity varies is Aqua regia consists in principle of 2 parts of hydrochloric acid and 1 part of nitric acid. III. alum. or phine or eserine. lavandulae Fol. as to healthfulness. mixture of the chemicals bitartrate. II. because it interferes with the action of the acid on the alkali. Potassium . pip Fol. placed upon a stomach siphon and plenty of water to wash out the contents The best antidote ever of the stomach. AQUA REGIA. mixing at once. fceniculi Spiritus Aqua 3 parts 5 parts 5 parts 5 parts 10 parts 3 parts 70 parts 300 parts 2 parts 1 part 1 part Cornstarch The addition of the starch serves the double purpose of a " filler" to increase the weight of the powder and as a preservative.102 ATRjOPINE. Menth. q. ANTIFREEZING SOLUTION FOR: See Freezing Preventives. free from excessive humidity. alone does not keep well. s. Instead of starch. AQUA AROMATIC A. and hyoscyamus are morStrong tea. Amanita muscaria. Cort. flour may be used. pared the mixing is done by machine. Sodium bicarbonate AUTOMOBILES. and sometimes the proportion is brought to 4 parts of hydrochloric acid to 1 of nitric acid. reported was that of muscarine extracted by alcohol from the mushroom. But this quan- Sodium acid phosphate 20 parts according to the shop where it Calcium acid phosphate used for gilding or jewelry. chinens. Mix. . coffee.. A Macerate the drugs in the mixed alcohol and water for 24 hours and distill 200 parts. The stability of the preparation is increased by drying each ingredient separately by exposure to a gentle heat. Starch Caution as to drying the ingredients and keeping them dry muse be observed. the starch is mixed with the sodium bicarbonate before the acid is When large quantities are preadded. sodium bicarbonate. Of this baking powder the required I. rosmarini Fol.. Sodium bicarbonate. 0. but it is the best that can be made. BALDNESS : See Hair Preparations. 15 parts AXLE GREASE: See Lubricants. to make 100 parts. so that no coarse pieces are present. starch. and immediately placing in bottles or cans and excluding access of air and consequently of moisture. but the difficulty of securing the same has caused it to be overlooked The A formula proposed by Cramp- and almost forgotten. Even the mixing should be done in a 20 parts 25 parts 35 parts room IV. amount for 500 parts of flour is about 20 parts for rich cake. stramonium. Flor. as the result of an investigation of the leading baking powders of the market. substances employed must be dry. usual physiological antidotes to the mydriatic alkaloids from belladonna. BALANCE SPRING: See Watchmakers' Formulas. cinnam. smaller quantities are best mixed together in a spacious mortar. Ammonium anhydrous BABBITT METAL: See Alloys. BAKING POWDERS by itself. each having been previously sifted The BALSAMS : See also Ointments. 1 part.75 part. of the United States Department of Agriculture. brandy are usually administered as stimChief reliance has usually been ulants. Experiments alits with this antidote showed it to be an most perfect opposite of atropine in effects it ton. Sodium bicarbonate 18 parts Cornstarch. . .

30 minims few spoonfuls of this. For an ordinary quality the following will suffice: Oil of lavender Oil of rosemary. if necessary. of eucalyptus and cinnamon can be omitted and such quantities of tincture of tolu and tincture of myrrh incorporated as may be desired.. Tartaric acid Sodium bicarbonate. BANANA TRICK.. pouring back the first portion of percolate until it comes through In the percolate dissolve ounce clear. desirable may be had by adding a mixture of the oils from which Cologne water is made. THE BURNING: See Pyrotechnics. Wild-cherry bark. Licorice root . drachm 4 ounces enough to make This formula can. moistening. ... which pious is A drachm 30 minims 1 Menthol crystals. A fluidrachm or more of either of these mixtures may be used to the pound. EFFERVESCENT. with alcohol.. Finally BATH. adding simple syrup to make 16 fluidounces. menstruum alcohol. s. Oil of neroli Oil of rosemary. TO REMOVE For the be taken: first quality the following 6 3 3 7 7 may BANANA BRONZING SOLUTION: See Plating. Parts by Alcohol Birch juice Glycerine weight 30.. . orifice. and consisting of 25 per cent after six or eight hours pack in a percolator. Tincture of benzoin. BATH TABLETS. See Ointments. cannot be used in making them. BATH POWDER: See Cosmetics. Oil of bergamot. Oilofcedrat Oil of orange peel fluidrachms fluidrachms fluidrachms fluidrachms fluidrachms BANANA SYRUP: See Essences and Extracts. causes a coliberation of carbon dioxide. BATH METAL: See Alloys.000 90 10 perfume may be obtained by mixing 1 part of oil of rose geranium with 6 parts A perfume still more of oil of lavender. as its presence causes the decomposition Perfume may be added to referred to. add 1 fluidrachm of chloroform. : BAR POLISHES See Polishes. be modiThe oils fied to suit your requirements. q. Solution. Water. Then percolate to 10 fluidounces. 4 fluidrachms 4 fluidrachms 1 Bergamot oil ... and pour on menstruum Then cork the until percolation begins. A better but more expensive Birch Balsam. cover the percolator. . 4 fluidrachms cubeb Moisten the ground drugs with the fluid extract and tincture and enough BAROMETERS (PAPER): See Hygrometers and Hygroscopes. of course. 2 fluidounces Geranium Water oil 50 14. and allow to macerate for 24 hours. able addition.. as in the case of lavender. See Cleaning Preparations and Meth- STAINS. . This mixture can be made refreshing. when stirred into a bathtubful of water.. in the proportion of a fluidrachm or more to the pound of powder. into tablets by compression. fluidounce Vanillin. Rice flour . AIR: See Air Bath. of ammonium chloride and A pound of sugar by cold percolation. BARBERS'-ITCH CURE: Compound of tincture 1 opium extract of Fluid BARBERS' POWDER: See Cosmetics.000 3. 103 BANJO SOUR: 1 1 1 Ipecac Bloodroot Sassafras 1 1 ounce ounce ounce drachm drachm fluidounce See Beverages under Lemonade. Oil of lemon Oil of clove . .. . These mixtures may also be used in the preparation of a bath powder (non-effer- . . Oil of eucalyptus Oil of cinnamon .BALSAMS Wild-Cherry Balsam. of course. . this powder. essential oils being a good Oil of lavender would be a suitform.000 1.000 : 30 minims BALSAM ods. Oil of bergamot. 1 Fluid extract of balmof-Gilead buds . 10 parts 9 parts 6 parts Balsam Spray Oil of Scotch pine.

104 vescent) BATTERY FILLERS Solutions for Batteries. I. 3 ounces 1 1 1 Calcium hydrate Arsenic acid BEAR FAT: See Fats. the two being generally separated The Oil of bay 1 drachm Alcohol Water 18 ounces 18 ounces septum. very difficultly soluble. yellow. ounce ounce ounce Manganese Glucose dioxide. BEARING LUBRICANT: See Lubricants. A ounce Magnesium carbonate. . previously mixed. become covered with a fine. and Phosphor Bronze. rectification will be necessary. sulphate. IRON. earlier "dry" batteries is that of Gassner. owing to their ready solubility. or zinc As ordinarily constructed. This made by mixing equal parts of powdered soap and powdered borax. which forms the positive element. glasses. having very little disadvantageous effect upon the action of the batteries and being easy to remove. The almost exclusively employed solution of sal ammoniac (ammonium chloride) presents the drawback that the zinc rods. For a battery of ordinary size about 20 to 25 grams of sugar. become attached only to the zinc rod in a few places.. 512 grains chloride. The apparatus consists of a containing vessel of zinc. moisture is necessary to cause These pastes are generthe reaction.. BEARING METAL: See Babbitt Metal. ounce Intimately mix. whereby the generation of the electric current is impaired.. AND WINE. In the so-called dry batteries the I. 30 parts granulated Ammonium sulphate 15 parts Zinc sulphate 25 parts Calcium Detannated sherry wine Alcohol Citrate of iron 26 ounces 4 ounces and 256 grains 12 ounces ammonia Simple sirup . and filter. and are sealed up hermetically in glass or hard-rubber receptacles. however. after a short use. mixed with . ^ ounce Jamaica rum 2 pints Bay-leaf otto filter The exciting fluid metallic electrode. or soda. disevil carbon. which. One of the ally secret preparations. The following formula is said to yield a serviceable filling for dry batteries: Charcoal Graphite 3 ounces 1 Alcohol Water 3 3 pints pints Triturate the otto with the magnesium carbonate. the recipe for which is is: solved in warm water. electrode chloride. and finally arrested altogether. III. : BATH-TUB ENAMEL See Varnishes. dextrine or starch . basic zinc salt. BATH-TUB PAINTS: See Paint. a quantity of silver melted and generally poured into molds surrounding the cast This is through magnesia. gradually adding the other ingredients. usual form of chloride-of-silyer battery consists of a sealed cell containing a zinc electrode. under Alloys. BATTERY FILLERS AND SOLUTIONS. BEDBUG DESTROYERS: See Insecticides. and the space between with a paste. Oxide of zinc Sal ammoniac Plaster Chloride of zinc Water part part 3 parts 1 part 2 parts 1 1 BAUDOIN METAL: See Alloys.. If the rum employed contains sufficient sugar or mucilaginous matter to cause any stickiness to be felt on the skin. etc. II. caustic potassa. by some form of porous Around the platinum or silver is Mix and II. BEEF. BAY RUM.. the negative one is a cylinder of filled may be remedied by an admixture of cane sugar. 30 parts crystallized Calcium chloride. is sufficient per 50 to 60 grams of sal ammoniac/ After prolonged use only large crystals (of a zinc saccharate) form. Extract of beef . Bearing Metal. work up the mass. and well acid. exciting substance is a paste instead of a fluid. is either a solution of ammonium chloride. these cells contain a paste of the electrolyte. and then work into a paste of proper consistency with a saturated solution of sodium and ammonium chlorides containing one-tenth of its volume of a mercury-bichloride solution and an equal volume of hydrochloric Add the fluid gradually.

50 20 20 10 parts parts parts parts well-closed (caution!) and mix until II.8 part of colophony. while the caps are sunken or irregularly punctured. with constant stirring. Frequently the disease is said to be accompanied by a peculiar offensive odor. well with 200 parts of After further melting add BEES. their transfer to clean and thoroughly disinfected hives. and feeding on antiseptically treated honey or syrup are the means taken for the prevention and cure of the disease. stringy. II.BELT PASTES Tincture of orange Tincture of cardamom co . SCOTCH. cut in small pieces.. enough to make 4 pints Let stand 24 hours. GINGER. Prompt removal of diseased col- onies. with 1 part by weight of rectified turpentine. Melt in 750 parts of heated train oil. RESTORATION OF SPOILED. The antiseptics used are salicylic acid. BELLADONNA. I. the first mixture when the latter is still warm. Spraying the brood with any one of these remedies in a solution and feeding with a honey or syrup medicated with them will usually be all that is required by way of treatment. BELL METAL: See Alloys. BEEF PRESERVATIVES: See Foods. Dark. 250 parts of tallow. Directions for Use.) 1 part by weight of caoutchouc. and elastic masses are found in the bottom of the cells. When the caoutchouc is dissolved add 0. and after the cement has 40 parts Gutta-percha Rosin 10 parts 15 parts Asphalt Petroleum 60 parts Heat in a glass vessel on the water bath for a few hours. Tallow. III. carbolic acid. Let cool and add 15 parts of carbon disulphide and allow the mixture to stand. or formic acid. If the beer is not completely spoiled it may be restored by the addition of coarsely powdered charcoal. This grease is intended for cotton belts. BELT PASTES FOR INCREASING ADHESION.. Melt 250 parts of gum elastic with 250 parts of oil of turpentine in an iron. im- ounce Citric acid Water. Too much potash must not be added. The leather belts to be cemented should first be roughened at the joints. stir until this is dissolved. of suitable size pour 3 parts of fish oil. It is caused by bacteria and its presence may be known by the bees becoming languid. Powdered chalk is poured into the cask and allowed to remain in the beer I. Fish oil . AND SPRUCE : See Beverages. and heat the mixture until the tallow is melted. III. ANTIDOTES TO: See Antidotes and Atropine. Castor oil. and let cool slowly with stirring. crucible at 122 F. otherwise the stomach will suffer. completely precipitated. and to this add. ered iron vessel heat at a temperature of 50 C. agitate frequently. BEEF TEA: See Beverages. V. (152 F. shaking it frequently. If the addition of any of the abovementioned substances should affect the taste of the beer.1 Into another vessel part of yellow wax. Syrup or molasses may also be employed. whereupon they will adhere toto gether with much tenacity. HOP-BITTER. 10 grains BEETLE POWDER: See Insecticides. to FOUL BROOD IN. a little powdered zingiber may be used to advantage. "Foul brood" is a contagious disease which bees are subject. ALCOHOL IN See Alcohol. been applied they should be subjected a strong pressure between warm rollers. colophony. with the result that the sour taste of the beer is disguised. BEERS. : BEER. crude. and filter. conan operation to be constantly stirring tinued until the matter is cooled and This grease is to be rubbed congealed. Beer thus restored will not keep long. then pour on the contents of the first vessel. IV. . until a uniform solution is obtained. BEEF PEPTONOIDS: See Peptonoids. and add to the mixture 0. See that the orange is fresh. 200 parts of yellow wax and stir carefully. BEER. add 1 part of tallow. It is In a well-covPreservation of Belts. Colophony Melt on a moderate fire and stir until the mass cools. 105 is 2 ounces 1 also said that access to salt water portant for the health of bees. The liquor of boiled raisins may be poured into the beer. A small quantity of a solution of potash will remove the sour taste of beer.

tannin is added and all is mixed well. tetrachloride A and of the Inflammability mixture of 9 volumes 1 volume of benzine is practicably inflammable. parts of sulphuric acid. then add the oil of lavender. about a quarter of 1 per cent of tannin is incorporated by shaking. Water fluidounce 20 fluidounces 1 Dissolve the dichromate in the water. A sufficient quantity of caustic potassa solution. while the milky liquid separates into two layers. a salty. 20 ounces 1 1 fluidrachm Benzine Color Green. stand until the benzine separates. Add this solution to 4. viz. which dissolves. Purification of Benzine. or other fats may be used. Potassium dichro. Deodorizing Benzine. and the whole allowed to stand.000 parts of water. and another applied. during the day. To Make a Belt Pull. or even lime milk. Ill-smelling benzine. is added until the fatty acids are saponified. soon extinguished by itself. decant the benzine. but gives an excellent. nically pure tech- running.. This benzine. Let tate the substances well together. Amyl acetate BELT CEMENT: See Adhesives. filtered. 10 10 10 70 1 parts parts parts parts BELT GLUE: See Adhesives. I. and agidraw IV. ounce . the simplest and cheapest as well as the best method of coloring benzine green is to mate Sulphuric acid. Acetone Ammonia water 1 BELT LUBRICANT: See Lubricants. of its Enough potash or soda lye. and set aside for 24 Now decant the benzine and to add a solution of 7* parts of potassium 15 parts of sodium permanganate and hydrate in 1. stir well together. Benzine Oil of lavender. especially the butyric acid. olive oil. to dissolve in it sufficient oil soluble aniline green of the desired tint to give the re- add the acid and.106 BENZINE Substitute for Benzine as a Cleansing on the inside of the belts from time to The belts time. but it should first be agitated with a rVper-cent soda solution to get rid of the bad-smelling fatty acids. Fatty acid from tallow. may be employed for many technical purposes. or milk of lime. the benzine.500 parts Mix.500 parts of benzine. mud-sediment and clear. The benzine rises to the top of the watery quired shade. First add to the benzine 1 to 2 per II. Probably Benzine. pure product upon a second distillation. run easily and do not slip. tar soap is Agent. . then let settle and draw off the Rinse the latter by agitating benzine. shaking repeatedly. allow to stand all night. Then cent of oleic acid. will disOne-fourth per cent of solve therein. Chloroform Ether Alcohol 75 parts 75 parts 600 parts Decoction of quillaya bark 22. Mix. For this purpose the grease should be rubbed on both sides in a warm place. Alcohol dilute Mix. soapy. and when it has cooled down add 30 parts of potassium fluid. To 1.750 parts of water add 250 III. to combine with the acids is then well shaken into the mixture. I. sufficiently permanganate and hours. . mixed with about 1 to 2 per cent weight of free fatty acid. more correctly oleic acid elaine or olein of the candle factories may likewise be employed. then Dissolve 3 parts of litharge and 18 parts of sodium hydrate in 40 parts of Add this to 200-250 parts of water. when the solution is Shake every hour cold. benzine and agitate well together for two minutes. Acetic on the inside of the belt while ether. but care should be taken that they have as slight an odor The so-called of rancid fat as possible. The flame is . The Prevention of Benzine. A first layer is allowed to soak in. 1 part part part BENEDICTINE: See Wines and Liquors. while they are in use. oft'. it let dissolve. and almost odorless benzine above. Hold a piece of it II. The grease may also serve for improving old belts. Ammonia water Alcohol dilute III. and the tannic acid is neuAfter a tralized. colorless. wash with a pint of water and again decant. deodorized and decolorized for practical purposes.

. rub with magnesia or talcum. plain or in combination with other easily dissolved medicinals. pound enough Boil the ginger in 3 gallons of water for half an hour. Citric acid 2 drachms Put up in a package.. and direct that it be shaken in 1J gallons of boiling water. the oily preparation of BENZOPARAL: A neutral. The extract may be fortified by adding 4 Mix make avoirdupois ounces of powdered grains of paradise to the ginger. Add the bonate or purified talcum ounce ginger. Paraffine. . 4 ounces i Mace.. filter. if necessary. water. Magnesium car1 av. juice of sufficient lemons to suit the taste. II. powder. When the mixture has cooled to lukewarmness. and water. CLEANING WITH: See Cleaning Preparations and Methods. sound Sugar large and 6 3 6 J 60 grains 1 fluidrachm 12 fluidounces 4 fluidounces Ginger. liquid after three or four days. add the yeast.. bruised Sugar BENZOIC ACID IN FOOD: See Food. . etc. Ginger. fermented with 1 ounce of yeast.. bruised ginger. Honey gives the beverGinger Beer.BEVERAGES it 107 This quantity will draw with plenty of clear water. add the quarter of the white of an egg and a teaLet the spoonful of essence of lemon. Strain and. ounce Canada snakeroot. bland. and bottled. . Diluted alcohol. only coarse powder. the bottles would break before the corks would fly out. when cold. of the above before extraction with alcohol and water. and honey. then strain through a cloth. I. lemons (bruised and sliced). Boil the ginger in 3 quarts of the water for half an hour. Ginger Beer without Yeast. concentrate the filtrate on a hot water bath to the consistency of a thin extract. Beverages GINGER ALE AND GINGER BEER: Old-Fashioned Ginger Beer. and filter. useful for applying various antiseptics by the aid of an atomizer. Lemons Honey Water li " pounds 20 pounds 1 1 dozen BENZOIN SOAP: See Soap. the first four ingredients. Cover the vessel with a piece of cheese cloth. is the less Inviolent in its action when opened.Ale Extract. Ginger. coarse powder. under Miscellaneous Methods. with the remainder of the water. or vaporizer. At the end of that time strain and bottle Cork securely. Can be used nebulizer. bruised ounce 24 ounces 16 ounces 1 ounce Digest on a sand bath for a half hour Gum benzoin and filter. and filter. | pound. and 17 gallons of water. by percolation. . 4 A gallons. Boiling water ounces cups cake gallons Alcohol Water. repeat the operation. age a peculiar softness and. I pound. occasionally replacing the water lost by evaporation. gredients: White sugar. and let the beer stand 24 hours. compressed . but not so tightly that it. 4 Water Slice the ware vessel. Oil of lemon Lemons.. let settle. off the benzine. . add the remaining ingredients. coarse powder Water Essence of ginger. . Bounces 6 pints the ginger. first diffused in a little water. add the sugar. then add Capsicum. add gradually with constant trituration the tincture. from not having fermented with yeast. and 16 fluidounces of tincture with the alcohol and water. the honey. and. bruised Yeast. benzoin. strained when cooled. make a hun- dred bottles. honey. enough lemons into a large earthenremoving the seed. and keep in a cool place. bottle. sugar. 2 fluidounces Oil of lemon 20 drops 1 fluidounce Caramel Boil the capsicum with water for three hours. whole stand for four days before bot- 8 fluidounces 7 fluidounces Vanilla extract. Jamaica ginger. Cream Sugar of tartar 3 ounces 1 Ginger. 5 ounces.. tling. Dissolve the oil of lemon in a small quantity of alcohol. lemon juice. Package Pop. BENZINE.

. vinous odor.. ounce ounce . flavor in ginger ale. This should develop an excellent flavor. Let it ferment. and has the additional advantage of being free from resinous tile extractive. Set the mixture aside for 24 hours. This part of the operation is most important. Then take 1 J (Enanthic Ether as a Flavoring for Ginger Ale. and delicacy of flavor. one-fourth of the same quantity of volaoil of ginger instead. since the oil is approximately sixteen times as strong as the oleoresin. Place the percolate in a bottle of the capacity of 16 pints.-ounce-to-the-gallon extract. in 24 hours It is ready for bottling. ounce be noted that in these formulas oleoresin of ginger is used in addition to Those who do not the powdered root. and add 4 pounds of sugar. shaking briskly meanwhile. Boiling water 1 1 1 1 1 following are the formulas: in the proportion of 4 ounces of extract to 1 gallon of syrup. 2 ounces add the sugar and cream of tartar. and when milkwarm. strain. Infuse the ginger in the boiling water. agitating it strongly every hour or so during that period. 1 Water ofeach [ - sufficient This ether throws a rich. This latter is a most satisfactory extract and has been sold with most creditable results. pungent. tle. Cream of tartar . set the mixture aside for 24 hours. and to be bottled. in a cylindrical percolator and percolate with alcohol until 10 pints of percolate have resulted. shaking vigorously from time to time. Lemon Beer." the ether (previously dissolved in eight times its bulk of Cologne spirit) to the ginger-ale syrup just before bottling. mind the additional expense might use It will Bruised ginger root. . Yeast Sugar Let ready it sliced Ginger. when lukewarm strain. strain the liquor. the second is a "cheap" extract for the bottlers who want a one. Brown sugar Boiling water 2 pounds 2 gallons 1 . add 2^ pounds of finely powdered pumice stone. fresh. presence of cenanthic ether or brandy 3 2 fluidrachms fluidrachms . and again filter.108 III. A fruity. add: 5 quarts 4 ounces and boil a little longer. 1 pint of yeast. vinous bouquet Oil of lemon Oil of rose (or ge- fluidounces and delightful flavor are produced by the ranium) Oil of bergamot . Beer. bruised ounce teacupful Jamaica ginger.) I. and agitate thoroughly at intervals of one-half hour for 12 Then add 14 pints of water in hours.. cum by Soluble Extract of Ginger Ale. Let it stand all night. Pack Hop Water Hops Water Bruised ginger 5 quarts 6 ounces Boil 3 hours. then botone lemon and the white of an egg may be added to fine it. It is a favorite with "brandy Add a few drops of sophisticators. then add half pint good yeast. shake. Of the following three formulas the first is intended for soda-fountain use. BEVERAGES Jamaica ginger. powder Calcined magnesia * '. and gives a smoothness very agreeable to any liquor or beverage of which it forms a part. and pass through the filter enough of a mixture of 2 volumes of alcohol and 1 of water to make In the filtrate measure 32 fluidounces. quantities of 1 pint at each addition. the latter macerate the lemon peel for 7 days. The (To be used gallon Lemon. in fine pow6 ounces der Alcohol. 12 ounces 2 ounces 1 cut fine Capsicum. and add to it 2 fluidrachms of oleoresin of ginger. and set the powders intimately. and the third is a bottlers' extract to be used in the proportion of three ounces to a gallon of syrup. a sufficient quantity. pound it is Mix stand 12 to 20 hours. Lemon ground peel. both as to clearness of the finished ginger ale Ginger Beer. in fine powder 8 pounds Capsicum. then filter. moisten sufficient quantity of alcoaside for 4 hours. them with a hol. off Extract the mixed ginger and capsipercolation so as to obtain 16 fluidounces of water.

tartaric acid. 3 fluidrachms fluidounces Ginger. in moderately fine Magnesium carbon3 powder powder s. large bottle. pounds Alcohol. .. Take oleoresin ginger 5 fluid ounces and add to Percolate No. 100. then percolate with alcohol until 10 pints of To this add oleoextract are obtained. filter. add gradually Percolate No. 15. adding through the filter the mixture of oils and magnesia. 65. strawberry syrup. Oil of cinnamon . or 3 gallons. sugar. 2. 200. and shake as diThen add 14 rected for formula No. a precipitate occipitate. resin of ginger 3 drachms. ad lib. and place in Add 2$ pounds of powa large bottle.. Mix. 300 parts. and set aside in a suitable Then pack the powvessel for 4 hours. Oil of lemon Oil of cinnamon. If the operator should desire an extract of more or less pungency. tincture of vanilla.. gum arabic. claret. later 10 pints of water. shaking vigorously Let the mixture after each solution. tartaric acid.BEVERAGES Oil of ate 109 cinnamon . lozenges can be made with it. shaking at intervals. If these formulas are properly manipulated the extracts should keep for a reasonable length of time without a preIf. 3. sugar. rinsing out the mortar with the Pass the ginger mixture ginger mixture. 1. 125. or 3 gallons. Set the becomes smooth. LEMONADES: I. ounce (To be used in the proportion of 1 to 1 gallon of syrup. it should be refiltered. in moderately 6 pounds fine powder Capsicum. in quantities of 1 pint at a time. he may obtain his desired effect by increasing or decreasing the quantity of powdered capsicum in the Rub the oils with the magnesia in a large mortar and add 9 ounces of the clear portion of the ginger mixture to which have been previously added 2 ounces of alcohol. and sufficient diluted spirit of wine so that 30 and then pass it through a double Finally add enough water through the filter to make the product measure vals. der firmly in a cylindrical percolator.. Set the mixture aside for 24 hours.. 1 in a aside. 2. and set Then place Percolate No. 12 drops. moisten with alcohol. being completed. 1. 25 drops. shaking vigorously after each addition. Lemonade juice: Sugar syrup. lemon oil. 6 drops. cherry syrup. III. (To be used in proportion of 3 ounces to 1 gallon of syrup. q. moisten the powder with 3 pints of alcohol. water. Prepare a it double filter. aromatic tincture. label Percolate No. 24 pints. or 3 until resultant tincture aside. Finally add enough water through the filter to make the final product measure 24 pints. and filter the ginger mixture. 100 parts. lemon oil. in fine pow2 \ pounds der Alcohol. Lemonade Powder: Sodium bi- add 3J pounds of finely powdered pumice stone.) The followfor Diabetics. Then take: \\ fluidounces \ fluidounce 3 fluidrachms Magnesia carbonate 3 ounces Rub these in a mortar with the magnesia. and percolate until 6 pints of extract are Set this mixture aside and obtained. . 0. 450 parts. and continue trituration. 1. and set aside as in the preceding formula. add the mixture of oils. 1 1^ fluidounces fluidounce \ fluidounce Lemonade Preparations for the Sick. cur after the extract has stood for a week.) Ginger. and add 9 ounces of the clear portion of the ginger mixture mixed with 2 ounces of alcohol. 450 parts. and continue the percolation with \\ pints of alcohol mixed with 1^ pints of water. in moderately fine through a double filter and add through filter the mixture of oils and magnesia. sugar. distilled water. the formula. . finally pass enough water through the filter to make the resulting product measure 24 pints. and label Percolate No. and shake at interThis vals of half an hour for six hours. tincture of vanilla. lemon oil. IV. shaking it at inter- and carbonate. Oil of geranium ate . 6 drops. II. in quantities of \ a pint at a time. Strawberry Lemonade: Citric acid. stand for 24 hours. III. Then take: gallons. 6 Magnesium carbon- 8 ounces parts. a sufficient quantity. 30. dereH pumice stone. II. ing is said to be useful for assuaging the thirst of diabetics: Lemonade . Mix. powdered starch. 10. 2... 60. rubbing the mixture Oil of lemon Oil of geranium . 8 pounds 2 Capsicum. 600 parts. Triturate the oils with the magnesia. however. pints of water. Lemonade Lozenges: Tartaric acid.5.

sufficient. Plain Lemonade. an ounce of sloe gin. American Lemonade. 1 dash acidange syrup. shake. s. lemon syrup. 3 or 4 dashes of abricotine.Sour Drinks for Soda-Water Fountains. Juice of 1 lemon. Benedictine cordial. 1 pound. suffi- shaved ice. use bottled lime juice. with sliced orange and cherries. Glass half full of Claret Lemonade. according A pint of boiling water is now to taste. effective in producing perspiration. sufficient. Roll them until soft. Where fresh limes are not obtainable. Take 2 large. Juice of 1 lemon. lemon. garnish with slice of orange and pineapple. 1 Juice of Pineapple Lemonade. juice of 1 lemon. sugar. juice of \ lemon. pulverized sugar. Orange syrup. and adding a piece of lemon peel. pulverized sugar. soda Dress with fruit. cut it in two. water. Fill pulverized sugar. 2 II. \ ounce . 1 ounce. Dress with sliced lemon. sliced pineapple. simple syrup. and serve with fill straw. fresh lemons. filtered water. 1 ounce. strain into a goblet or fizz glass. and should be drunk while hot. One ounce or1 ounce lemon syrup. then divide each into halves. do not shake. Dress with sliced lemon or pineapple. shaved teaspoonfuls $ ounce raspberry water. 2 ounces. add the syrup and cordial. cient. and use a lemon-squeezer or reamer to express the juice into a small pitcher. Serve with straws. Juice of 1 orange. tablespoonful powdered sugar. Seltzer Lemonade. pul2 teaspoonfuls. shaved ice. Banjo Sour. \ ounce orange syrup. plain water. by substituting ice water for the hot water. in sufficient Dress with cher- Hot Lemonade. claret wine. orange syrup. shaved ice. pour into a glass containing fine ice. drachms. Juice of 1 lime. then add Serve the fruits. Lemon and . and run two straws through it. 2 ounces. 1 ounce. in a silver sherbet cup. a weaker lemonade may be made by using more water. Juice of 1 lemon. water for with coarse stream. grape syrup. The same as seltzer. verized sugar. sufficient. 12 ounces. sufficient. unfermented. water. into with straws. and freeze very hard. 3 teaspoonfuls. pulverized sugar. Juice of 1 lemon. The beverage is very Claret Punch. sugar. and fill balance with soda. 1 Grape juice. 2 dashes lemon syrup. Juice of 1 lemon. quart. 1 tablespoonful raspberry juice. sufficient. add a large tablespoonful of sugar. decorate with a slice of pineapple and cherry. sufficient. 12 Orgeat Punch. I. Old -Fashioned Lemonade. The same formula may be used for making cold lemonade. ice. on. and serve with straws. Orange Frapp!. Put in a freezer and freeze almost hard. \ pint. pineapple syrup. Serve in a small 12-ounce narrow lemonade glass and with solid stream. about one Glycerine Cognac Distilled water 50 parts 50 parts 500 parts inch of being claret to ries fill Pour and the glass. Dress with sliced Serve in small glass. Juice of 1 lemon. port wine (Cali- fornia). 2 teaspoonfuls. 1 teaspoonful powdered sugar. 4 ounces. soda water. Mix and shake well. Remove all the seeds from tne juice. If desired. Raspberry Lemonade. serve from a punch bowl. added. shake well. shake. and the mixture stirred until the sugar is dissolved. Lemonades. Limeade. Bright red cherries and plums make attractive garnishings. Serve with straws. with seltzer. Make lemonade. Fill Apollinaris Lemonade. Juice of 1 lemon. syrup. dash prepared raspberry. and fruit in season. q. glass. with ladle. but stir with a spoon. and wash them clean with cold water.110 Citric acid 1 BEVERAGES part shaved ice until the glass lacks full. Add slice of orange. then thoroughly muddle it. Seltzer seltzer. Garnish with fruit. pulverized powdered sugar. lemon. to which add 4 or more tablespoonfuls of white sugar. brandy. add the white of an egg. Orgeat syrup. Pare a lemon. \ glass shaved ice. water. Dress with sliced pineapple. and serve with both spoon and straws. 3 teaspoonfuls. phosphate solution. shaved ice. 2 teaspoonfuls. 2 ounces. Orangeade. 3 teaspoonfuls powdered sugar. substituting apollinaris seltzer. Dress Serve pineapple syrup. Juice of 1 lemHuyler's Lemonade. sufficient. 4 ounces. In mixing. Granola. and Lemon. shaved ice. 2 teaspoonfuls. Dissolve sugar in grape juice and put in wine. sufficient. 2 ounces. "Ping Pong" Frappe.

Mocha fine) fine) coffee (ground 4 ounces Java coffee (ground 4 ounces 6 pounds q. until 2 quarts of the Add to this 3 infusion are obtained. pound Make an extract by macof the best Mocha and to the glass. duce the cocoa to a smooth paste with a warm water. and serve with a spoon. fee. III. then sweeten. and mix with the stream from the draught pounds tube. HOT SODA-WATER DRINKS: Chocolate. shake thoroughly. Fill 1H with soda and and I. Add to this 2 quarts of milk. II. to I ounce will sufof vanilla. fire and add 1 ounce of cold water. from the powdered cocoa or from a syrup. syrup and strain. add the sugar and water. a froth. Lemon essence. first of sugar. and a little shaved ice. fresh egg into a soda tymbler. 5 pints Reof water. fice for a cup of chocolate. 1| ounces chocolate syrup. stirring with a thin-bladed When melted remove from the spatula. 1 teaspoonful sweet cream. Pack ^ pound of pulverized cofII. add 1 cup hot soda. Coffee syrup may be made by adding boiling water from the apparatus to 1 pound of coffee. if necessary. s. fill mug with hot soda and V. little When the water becomes hot add the 4 paste. and tablespoonful whipped cream. To prepare the cocoa for use. stir well.BEVERAGES acid-phosphate solution. and then allow to boil for 3 or minutes. Egg Lemonade. IV. Coffee. also express the lemon. mixAdd gradually 1 gallon of hot ing well. 1 ounce 4 ounces Hot milk Stir well. and add carbonated water fill Java with 8 ounces of water for 20 minthen add hot water enough to perOne or 2 drachms of this colate 1 pint. letting it run through twice. Alcohol Solution of acid citric 1 1 fluidounce Break a add 1 ounces chocolate syrup and 1 ounce cream. draw 2t fluidounces of the syrup into an 8-ounce mug.. flavor to 1 ounce to a mug. off with whipped cream. when cold add 3 In dispensing. a drachm of lemon juice. top off with drachms Granulated sugar Hot water whipped cream.. I. Break 1 egg into a soda glass.-^Hot Chocolate and Milk. and let customer sweeten to taste. Baker's fountain chocolate 1 1 pound gallon Syrup Extract vanilla enough Percolate the coffee with hot water unthe percolate measures 72 ounces. mix the two. Percolate with 2 fee in a percolator. erating 1 utes. keep hot in an urn and draw as a Add a lump of sugar finished drink. the latter first beaten to Serve like the preceding. shake. Hot Egg Chocolate. Put on the fire. I. Lemon. strain carefully into mug. juice . II. macerate with the alcohol for a day. til Dissolve the sugar in the percolate by agitation without heat and strain. Hot Egg Orangeade. Chocolate syrup . top off with whipped cream and serve. Hot Lemonades. remove from fire and add the sugar. Solution of citric acid Syrup. One egg. and add the solution of citric acid and the white of egg. fill with hot water. add the coffee. dry mix with an equal quantity of pulverized sugar and use a heaping To prepare a teaspoonful to a mug. to prevent scorching.. and top III. take 12 ounces of cocoa. express. and 4 pounds of sugar. strain. add hot soda slowly into the shaker. I. stirring meanwhile. then draw carbonated water to II. 4 fluidrachms 1 Shave the chocolate into a gallon porcelained evaporating dish and melt with a gentle heat. This may be prepared in two ways. 1 One egg. stir carefully while heating. . add 1| ounces lemon syrup. ounces Sugar 20 fluidounces Water 1 egg White of Grate the peel of the lemon. enough to Use fluidounce make 32 fluidounces In serving. dissolve by agitation. fill the glass. syrup. serve. quarts of boiling water. suit. stirring well. Hot Egg Chocolate. Shaved ice J tumblerful Powdered sugar 4 tablespoonfuls 1 lemon Juice of 1 Yolk of egg Shake well. IV. 2 fluidrachms 20 av. strain into a mineral glass serve. extract will make a delicious cup of cofServe either with or without cream. put sufficient cream in the cup. placed in a suitable filter or coffeepot.

s. Lime juice. then add the sugar and dissolve.. Cherry-phosphate syrup is made as follows: Cherry juice. hot . Put a teaspoonful of whipped cream on top and serve with flakes. 8 ounces. Top off with whipped cream. and sence. A small piece of fresh lemon peel twisted over the cup lends an added flavor. \ ounce beef extract. quantity sufficient to make 8 ounces. for instance. Two ounces concentrated chicken. and seasoning together. extract. Orange syrup of 1 fluidounce late. Hot Orange Phosphate. One-half ounce water. sugar. cient to 2 1 Lemon juice Lemon syrup Aromatic bitters. hot water to make 8 ounces. Mix. 1 ounce. by stirring. I. 1 ounce. . 1 pint. enough to fill an 8-ounce mug. Plain. hot water to make 8 ounces. light. egg. while filling. 2 ounces. Horlick's malted milk. 1 ounce. lemon juice. 2 drachms. Ginger. acid 1 fluidrachm Hot water. and when cool add the acid phosphate. Best beef extract. add water. ounce of clam juice. One teaspoonful of liquid pepsin. Use 1 mug Chicken Bouillon. tablespoonfuls. water. Bring to a boil. Lemon juice. soluble. 2 teaspoonfuls. Claret Punch. season with salt and pepper. beef extract. 4 ounces Granulated sugar. 2 fluidrachms 1 fluidounce 1 fluidrachm Hot water. essence of celery. hot water to fill 8-ounce mug. drachms. juice or coffee. Hot Malted Milk Coffee It is prepared more acceptably by mixing the juice of half an orange with acid phosphate. \\ ounces. Lime Juice. etc. hot water to make 8 ounces. chocoof the fruit syrups (or Chocolate). 5 drops. 2 Celery Clam Punch. lemon Strain. quantity sufficient to make 8 ounces. then stir in a tablespoonful of rich cream. suit. 1 ounce. 1 egg. juice of \ lemon. 1 drachm. hot water. coffee (or chocolate) syrup. ounces 40 ounces Sugar 2 pints Water. . 1 ounce. Claret wine. Clam juice. Cocoa Syrup.BEVERAGES of \ sugar. One . 1 ounce. hot water. sugar.quarter Hot Celery Punch. to Take 10 ounces of the sugar and mix with the fluid extract of ginger. orange. strain. 2 dashes. 2 teaspoonfuls. serve with nutmeg. Filter and add the balance of the water and the Dissolve by agitation. as. 2 teaspoonfuls powdered Shake. Lemonade... 1 ounce of lemon syrup. powdered sugar. acid phosphate. still stirring. 2 pounds 1 quart Boiling hot water 1 ounce Extract vanilla Dissolve the cocoa in the hot water. drachms. and when cold add the vanilla 1 ounce Cream Turn on the hot water stream and Cocoa syrup 2 ounces stir Eberle remarks that lime juice enters into many combinations. and many coffee. sugar. lemon syrup. Malted milk. Hot Beef Tea. of liquid beef extract in a Cream Beef Tea. water. flavoring to Malted Milk. Extract of ginger. Essence of Solution mug. add 1 cup of hot Stir. I. serve with spices. Pepsin Phosphate. teaspoonful of hot water. 2 dashes of acid phosphate. chocolate and Mix. hot water to make 8 ounces. extract. ounce. Hot Egg Bouillon. Stir while adding hot water. to make 8 ounces. 2iy Fresh lemon Juice. Juice of 1 lemon. sugar. hot water. 1 ounce of cream. hot water to make 8 ounces. Hot Malt. 1 cup hot liquid extract beef. In plain soda it may be combined with ginger and other flavors. suffiMix. II. f drachm. sugar. enough to fill an 8-ounce phosphate go well with malted milk. 1 tablespoonfui. salt and pepStir per. hot water to make 8 ounces. water and shake till dissolved. \ ounce sweet cream and spice. Cocoa. heat on the water bath until the alcohol is evapThen mix with 20 ounces of orated. Hot Soda Toddy. make of malt. Cherry-phosphate syrup. hot water. 2 drachms.. 3 teaspoonfuls. q. strain and serve. 4 dashes of celery esStir while adding hot water. Fluid extract of ginger 2 Cherry Phosphate. 4 ounces. and hot water. 6 pounds. Extract cherry syrup. lemon syrup. sweet cream. Sprinkle with nutmeg or cinnamon. cream. Ginger.. 3 pints.

and slowly draw full of hot water. 1 cupII. Hot Egg Nogg. Hot Egg Drinks. One egg. heated previously. pour Coffee Cream Soda. Draw 1 mug. 1 teaspoonextract aromatic soup herbs (see Condiments). season with Mix nutmeg. juice of 1 lemon. Hot soda . Clam juice may be served with Addhot water. to make Pepper. VIII. tion of acid phosphate. Plain syrup. etc. Mix the tea extract. and dissolve. 113 Hot Egg Chocolate. 10 drops. and prepared milk. salt. and mix by pouring back and forth several times. from shaker to 1 dessertsp'f ul 1 cupful soluin a glass. and beat well. One egg. q. use about 2 ounces of cream. If there are no facilities for keeping hot milk. Mix. hot soda. ounce fill an Mix. VI. Loaf sugar Extract of Oolong tea. ounce. hot water to fill an 8-ounce mug. 1 egg. ing the water.. strain. 3 teaspoonf uls powdered Beat the egg with lemon juice sugar. The amount of lemon juice and sugar may be varied to suit different cinnamon. then strain. One-half to 1 ounce liquid extract of beef. Into the shaker draw 8 ounces of carbonated water. salt and pepper added. Or shake the egg and extract in a shaker. tomato catsup. Draw cupful of hot water. etc. Mix. add the hot water. ing butter makes this bouillon a broth. sprinkle a touch of cinnamon. tity sufficient. Mix while addServe grated nutmeg and V. 12 drachms 2 ounces s. 1 egg. ful. Hot Tea. salt. Clam juice Cream Hot water. mix all quickly with the spoon. etc Hot Egg Coffee. s. s. Hot Egg Phosphate. ounce cream. shake as in making cold drinks. into the glass sufficient to fill it to within . 1 ounce syrup. stirring constantly. 1 egg. add the syrup and cream. ounces lemon syrup. cupful 4 cubes 1 1 whipped cream and nutmeg. Hot Egg Phosphate. Mix the syrup. to get well mixed. to make 8 ounces 2 ounces 2 drachms 5 drops 5 drops 1 IV. q. Extract beef bouillon. Tea syrup Hot water. Put in shaker bitters. Hot oyster juice may be served in the III. salt and pepper to season. It may also be served with milk or cream. fresh egg into shaker and add i ounce ounce orange syrup. and add hot water. pouring back and from shaker to mug. FANCY SODA DRINKS: Serve in a 12ounces of syrup and 1 ounce of cream.BEVERAGES water. VII. Beef extract 1 ounce Or. 1 Two teaspoon- cupful fuls sugar. Prepare as in hot egg chocolate. Angostura | ounce. III. same way. add the water. 1 dash phosphate. and sprinkle with nutmeg. II. brandy. Extract clam bouillon Prepared milk Extract of aromatic soup herbs Extract white pepper. 3 drops. and add 1 cupful hot water and top with whipped cream. and mix all by forth several times. Mix. and fill with hot milk. salt. I. 1 egg. about . and fill mug with hot water. and serve with wafers. I. 1 egg. s. and shake together thoroughly. top with whipped cream. tastes. lemon juice. and seasoning together with a spoon. ful. and sugar thoroughly. and cream together in an egg-shaker. sugar. Hot Bouillon. Hot soda 1 tablespoonful Whipped cream. Shake well. finish with to make II. and strain. and celery salt. cream. ounces chocolate syrup. Cne to 1 Mix. Hot Egg Lemonade. Stir the extract. into bouillon cup. add the water. prepare by beating the egg with a spoon. pour into another glass. Hot water. 1 teaspoonful Extract of beef Hot water q. Strain in 10-ounce mug. ounce glass. pepper. and serve. ^ ounce Two about dessertsp'f ul Prepared milk. pineapple syrup. sufficient q. Top off with whipped cream. I. Clam Bouillon. without ice. III. stirring briskly meanwhile. s. Pepper. 1 teaspoonful sweet cream. dessertspoonful extract of coffee. 7 ounces. Break and pour Shake. Mix. Hot Egg Milk. egg. 1 8 ounces q. . hot water sufficient to 8-ounce mug. quan- II. pour on water. egg. hot milk to fill an 8-ounce mug.

within one-half inch of top with carbonated water. into the glass with the yolk add 1 ounce Chocolate and Milk. straws. fill state. and draw carbonated water nearly to fill Mint Julep. ounce pineapple juice. Coffee Frappe. One-half tumbler shaved teaspoonful powdered sugar. Serve 1 in a 10-ounce glass. malted milk coffee. cherry syrup and some cracked ice. pour from glass to shaker and back. ful. Prepare same as. shaved Grape Glace". and 1 pound more of powdered sugar. add soda yolk of 1 egg. and beat with bar spoons until well whipped. stick slice of Port wine Brandy add soda. on top and serve with straws. tumblerGoldenade. as quickly as possible that the drink may be nice and light. Shake well. 1 pint water. Serve glass. This drink consists of 3 parts black coffee and 1 part of brandy. and add soda from and float on top of the one containing Serve with two the yolk and sherry. and then strain into a clean Serve at once. and top off with a little nutmeg." fill glass. white glass. Put strawberry or cherry on top. strain into a small glass. Serve in a 12-ounce two-thirds full of cracked ice. of 1 egg. ounces of pure. stirring. Coffee Nogg. Shaved Fill Egg Chocolate. several times. 2 or 3 sprigs of fresh mint. creamy appearance. 1 teaspoonful raspberry Put spoon in glass. add small quantity soda. to mix thoroughly. it desired.114 BEVERAGES top. and decorate with fruits of Serve in a 12-ounce the season. raspberry syrup. 1^ ounces. rich. and make it cream suffi- and pour syrups may in chocolate syrup. Coffee syrup 1 1 ounce ounce One egg. fill with shaved ice nearly to the Cream White of one egg. to get the flavor. Coffee syrup. Royal Frappe. with the exception of adding the egg before shaking. Chocolate Frappe. Stir well until sugar is dissolved. add \ else it will settle. Take two mixing Shake. using the fine stream only. Other ciently to fill the glass. Shaved ice. add shaved ice. and lose its lightness and richness. then add 1 pint grape juice. and strain through julep strainer into a 12-ounce tumbler. be used. coffee light lunch. the white into the other. Iced glass. Draw ounce into nearly full with ice-cold milk. and add milk until the glass Shake well. heaping full. and served while in a semifrozen ice. 2 ounces 4 ounces ice. Chocolate syrup a glass half full of frozen whipped cream. and Into the strain into a 12-ounce glass. water from large stream. add it syrup. \ ounce. sufficient. Frozen whipped cream. shake. shake thoroughly to beat the white of the egg light. fine stream only. Insert bunch of mint and fill glass. sufficient. leaving the contents in the Now fill the shaker two-thirds shaker. powdered sugar. then transfer Put whipped cream without straining. juice of 1 lemon. and without glass. 1| ounces. Serve with spoon and straws. a glass half full of shaved ice. and fill to vinegar. 1 inch of the top. break an egg. Draw full. once or twice. Coffee Cocktail. and Mace on top. with straws. with ladle. glasses. 2 drachms Lunar Blend. orange down side of glass. Coffee syrup Brandy Cream 2 ounces 4 drachms 2 ounces One egg. turn from tumbler to shaker. Chocolate syrup 2 ounces Sweet milk. Fill sufficient. putting the yolk in one glass. and then remove the glass. put in the syrup. Crush the mint against side of the glass Then add claret syrup. \ ounce lemon into the shaker. and "Golf Goblet. Coffee. a small portion of fine ice. give the drink a rich. and serve is almost full. frozen in a cooler. This should be drunk at once. and serve from a pitcher or glass dish. other mixing glass add 1 ounce plain sweet cream. Beat thoroughly the whites of 4 eggs and stir in 1 pound of powdered sugar. if deThis drink is sometimes called sired. Now pour into glass and back. 1 teaspoonful lemon juice. and mix by Egg Malted Milk Coffee. 1 to 1 sweet cream. . straws. leaving full of shaved ice. and vice versa. dash lemon juice.

egg. Cocoa Mint. One egg. 4 drachms Egg Sherbet. Peach syrup Grape syrup Cream Brandy 1 1 ounce ounce 3 ounces 2 drachms One egg.. 12 drachms 4 ounces egg. 8 dashes egg. Violet syrup One egg. One egg. Claret syrup Holland gin Lemon juice 2 | ounces ounce 8 dashes Yolk 12 drachms 4 ounces of one egg. Egg Lemonade. Rose syrup Cream White of one Violet 12 drachms 4 ounces egg. using plenty of ice. 12 drachms 3 ounces Egg Orgeat syrup Cream One egg. Coffee syrup Nadjy. of one egg. Banana Cream. Juice of one lemon. 2 ounces Cream is The peppermint syrup lows: Oil of peppermint. Orange syrup Pineapple syrup 1 1 ounce ounce Simple syrup 12 drachms fill One Shake. 1 ounce White of one egg. Orange syrup 1 1 Catawba syrup Cream 2 ounce ounce ounces One egg. 1 ounce Peppermint syrup. Coffee Nogg. One egg. Chocolate syrup. 2 ounces 3 ounces Cream.". Juice of one lemon... q. ice. Silver Fizz. . s. serve in a small glass. 2 ounces 3 ounces Cream 1 ounce One Quince egg. Flip. made Rose syrup Mint syrup Cream White of one 6 drachms 6 drachms 3 ounces egg. . Red-currant syrup . Royal Mist. Raspberry juice Pineapple syrup 1 1 ounce ounce Brandy Cream 2 ounces 4 drachms 2 ounces One Egg egg. Rose Cream. Claret syrup Cream 2 ounces 3 ounces Catawba syrup Holland gin 2 ounces 2 drachms One Lemon juice White Golden Fizz. on top. Coffee syrup Cream . strain. and with soda. Banana syrup Cream One egg. Pulverized sugar 3 teasp'f uls Quince syrup Cream 2 ounces 3 ounces One Shake egg.. One and egg. Mint syrup Cream White of one Whisky 12 drachms 3 ounces egg. ice. . Water. Cream. Egg Claret. 2 ounces Sour. 115 Orgeat. Mace Cream 2 ounces . Cream Siberian Flip. Shaved Cream White of one Rose Mint.BEVERAGES Egg CrSme de Menthe. Shaved well. Egg Coffee. as fol- 30 minims 1 Syrup simplex Soda foam gallon Currant Cream. . Sherry syrup Pineapple syrup Raspberry syrup 4 drachms 4 drachms 4 drachms Normona.

sprinkle mace on top. then strain into the other portion. and should the bottle be weak it might explode. .. One egg. Dissolve the milk sugar in the water. Serve without mixing. If a drink is desired strong in carbonic acid. the bottles. and casein. produces a winescented fluid. KOUMISS. put into cup. and he states that it is "therefore far more easy of digestion. add tne syrup and the balance of the water. the bottles must be daily opened and at least twice each day brought nearly to a horizontal position. so that the fluid will become well charged with carbon-dioxide gas . 5 quarts Water 1 quart Syrup Maraschino cherries. Beaten whites of two eggs. It has been asserted that the ferment used in Russia differs from ordinary yeast. It is well to take the precaution of rolling a cloth around the bottle during the shaking process. contributed by D. is the Russian. Milk sugar . and in about 3 days the work is completed. and add hot Serve with whipped cream. Many failures have resulted because the corks did not fit properly. Fruit Frappe.. . Water Brown sugar Compressed yeast. Prairie Oyster. .. . the bottles should be of strong glass. the fermenting milk must be industriously shaken by the operator at least 3 times a day. of . 4 ounces Sliced orange . Granulated gelatin . pagne Dissolve the gelatin in 1 quart boiling hot water. made from cow's milk. and to be sure that the article is properly finished the operator should gently shake the bottles each day for about 10 minutes to prevent the clotting of the casein. 2 2 $ ounces teaspoonfuls ounce Shake water. 12 ounces 4 ounces 150 grains 24 grains 3 drachms Raspberry Sour. Davies to the Pharmaceutical Journal and Transactions. Cider vinegar 2 ounces One it egg. etc. while that pro- duced in this country and other parts of Europe is usually. . the result being that the carbon dioxide escaped as formed and left a worthless preparation. and then the cork put in firmly." He thinks that cow's milk yields a better preparation when diluted with water to reduce the percentage of casein. according to all investigations yet made. and break into Season with salt and pepper. chambottles being frequently used. which. In an article on this subject. Put vinegar into glass. it is almost necessary to use a bottling machine for the purpose. in order to allow the carbon dioxide to escape and air to enter. carbon dioxide. Raspberry syrup. It is further necessary to keep the preparation at a moderate temperature. add to the milk. Yama. Cream Sugar Jamaica rum. probably always. Lemon Sour. toward the end of fermentation. \ 12 drachms One egg. . according to the author.. . . This. . the egg. H. but this has not been established. rub the yeast and brown sugar down in a mortar with a little of the mixture. rich in alcohol. and well. Strong bottles are very essential. The original koumiss made from mare's milk. lactic acid. The followis identical with koumiss. 1 ounce Juice of six lemons. in a short time lively fermentation sets in. He proposes the following formula: Kogelman says that if 1 volume of buttermilk be mixed with 1 or 2 volumes of sweet milk. about 60 being the most favorable. simply add $ of either actively ferits volume menting or freshly fermented milk. Juice of one lemon. In order to ferment a fresh quantity of milk. One egg. Lemon syrup Juice of one lemon. 8 ounces 4 ounces Sliced peach 4 ounces Sliced pineapple 4 ounces Whole strawberries. should be placed with the necks down. as the amount of gas generated is great.. in fact. For this reason there is a difference in the preparation which may or may not be of consequence. it is pointed out that mare's milk contains less casein and fatty matter than cow's milk. add the whites of the eggs and lemon juice.116 BEVERAGES Fresh milk 12 drachms . The temperature should be from 50 to 60 F. and once the cork is properly fixed it should be wired down. ing practical hints are given for the production of a good article: The sweet milk used should not be entirely freed from cream. otherwise fermentation rapidly ceases. and the corks should fit tightly.

This pulp is sifted. and pour from jug to jug till milk is that the cream separates permanently. and after an hour the braga is ready for The taste is a little sweetish at first. on ice. The liquor is ready for drinking in from 2 to 3 days. in a cool cellar. and bring to a boil. A viscous mass remains in the kettle. cover termilk. As soon as bubbles of carbonic gas are detected on the surface of the liquid. fill. prepared as follows: In a big kettle put from 13 to 15 quarts of water. is a popular drink the Russian population of Kunzews. and while still tepid add of very sour (but otherwise good) butPut it into a wide jug. on account of its effervescent properties. let cool down. which at once. After it is perfectly cool. which should be Kwass. and when in active ebullition pour in 500 grams of malt. "still" and lay them them. when very frothy and quired. after dissolving the same in a little water over a hot fire. the juice Thoroughly . liquid is now put into a clean keg or barrel. It is koumiss. in about 3 days. draw- smooth and creamy. resembling cafe au lait in color. but becomes more and more sourish in Fermentation begins only in the time. together. In each of the bottles. and leave for anThen beat thoroughly other 24 hours. possessing a pleasant flavor. and is said to be most palatable. and in the coolest place available best. it is as well to keep a bottle or two to start with in some warmer it place. and strain off. the bottle. and finally in the ice box over Handle wrapped in a towel as night. with a clean cloth. it is stirred with water in a wooden trough and left to ferment for 8 hours. which substance is spread upon large tables to cool. Be sure that the milk is pure. do not blespoonfuls of white sugar. About 35 parts of crushed millet. are On this about placed in a large kettle. for if there is much cream it only forms little lumps of butter. mixed with a little water. and be sure not to drink it at all if there is any curdle or thickening part resembling cheese. Its sparkles and a little gas escapes. It will then keep for 6 or 8 weeks. put it into champagne or soda-water bottles. after which it will be found advisable to Mare's milk is begin again as at first. and hold it inverted well into the tumbler before turning the tap. to which a little wheat flour is added. : beat the pounds yolks of 12 fresh eggs with 2 finely powdered. as this indicates that the fermentation has been prolonged beyond the proper time. the best for koumiss. and forming a considerable preWhen shaken it cipitate if left alone. that the bottle is sound. which are apt to clog the tap. then ass's milk. sale. and from time to With this treat- should. remove from the The fire. is more or less acid. should be placed on the side. add also a quarter of a 2-cent cake of compressed yeast.) for 24 hours. Dilute the milk with II. and let stand in a warmish place (about 75 F. to open the mixture in the morning with great care. put one big raisin. stir up well. is generally preferred. and shake the mixture well. refined sugar. that the yeast is fresh. Then tie the cork in the bottle securely. though quite fill Braga. protection if the bottle should burst. and the cask is put in a warm place to ferment. Having made one lot of koumiss as above you can use some of that instead of buttermilk as a ferment for a second lot. 117 But perhaps the chief to Here are some miscellaneous formulas: Fill a quart champagne bottle up the neck with pure milk. Kwass among now perfectly strong and clean. After settling for 1 hour the lost water is renewed and the boiling continued for another 10 hours. The mixture is stirred well and boiled for 3 hours. and wire down. and so on 5 or 6 times in succession.BEVERAGES I. acid it is more pleasant' to drink if a sufficiently ment come sweetened water (or milk and waShake first put into the glass. secure the corks well. whereas that of mare's milk will remix. ture some for drinking quickly. 400 parts of water are poured. for 6 hours. add 2 ta- menting. or are left behind in the bottle. The bottles cork. which must be used for drawing it off as reLater on. and may be drunk To make it sparkling. Let boil for 20 minutes. Cow's milk may be made more like them by adding a little sugar of milk (or even loaf sugar) with the hot water before ferlittle ter) is trough. beeffervescent to spurt freely through a champagne tap. " taste To mait becomes increasingly acid. Hence use partially back to cow's skimmed milk. place it in a room of the temperature of 50 to 95 F. part of hot water. time shake vigorously. 30 grams (about an ounce) of best compressed yeast added along with about 600 grams (20 ounces) of sugar. WINTER BEVERAGES Campchello." Braga is a liquid of milky turbidity. it is a signal that the latter is ready for bottling.

mezereon root- .. and at a proper temperature add yeast. let stand a short time. To 100 parts of water add from 10 to 15 parts of sugar. J cup Shake or stir well before drinking. I. fermenting. and afterwards sweet cider. 1 gallon. best fourth-proof brandy. and bottle when ready. until boiling. bitartrate of potassa. 2 ounces. and color with caramel. and when cold. 48 pounds. Sarsaparilla (sliced). put in a warm place and let When fermentation has proferment. Summer Drink. ice . Mix. opens so briskly that even good judges have mistaken it for genuine champagne. aniseed (sliced). J ounce. and simmer for 15 minutes. add of .. . tincture of lemon peel. American Champagne. Hop Bitter Beer. \\ ounces. 1 ounce A German dissolve Drink. \ pound. white tartar. gressed to a certain point the liquid is cleared. 14 or 15 ounces. and 3 bottles of Graves or other white wine. Use 2 ounces to each bottle. 4 ounce. tablespoonful of vanilla ice cream is A a good pale or East India ale. boric acid. 60 ounces. 6 pounds. sugar. and when cold add refined limejuice. 5 ounces of sugar. Beat up the yolks of 8 eggs in 1 quart of good milk over the fire. 1 pound. guaiacum bark (bruised small). Limejuice time may be made as follows: Sugar. Filter before BEER: Scotch Beer. 1 \ ounces hot water. Egg Wine. 1 Honey Orange 1 pound ounce strain peel 2 ounces 1 Bruised ginger Boil for half an hour. 4 ounces. citric acid. this will be very pale. and slowly it. Chocolate syrup 2 Whipped cream . 1 quart. then add -fa quart of Jamaica rum. Sarsaparilla Beer. and then strain. Limejuice dial that will Cordial. 30 ounces Caramel 2J ounces . and the yolks of 8 eggs. 3 gallons. f cup of well. bruised wild cherries. corked. orris powder. milk.. until rising. water to make up to 2 gallons. and add to the syrup thus formed an aqueous extract of 0. over the fire. made by combining milk. 3 tablespoonfuls tablespoonfuls tablespoonfuls Milk $ cup Carbonated water. hogshead. Plain syrup. mix. 7 pints. Bavaroise au Caf6.. 20 pounds. guaiacum wood (rasped) and licorice root of each.. 7 gallons. 5 gallons. 56 pounds. when properly bottled and labeled. 45 gallons. then strain and put into the liquor 4 ounces hops and 3 pounds of sugar.. and let it stand one fortnight. II. Good cider Bavaroise au Cognac. by the aid of a gentle heat. Champagne 1 Cider. water (warm). then and ferment in the usual way. then fine with skimmed milk. 4 pints. 1 pint. until boiling. A plainer drink is the syrup.. brown sugar (pale). Add 1 peck malt to 4 gallons of boiling water and let it mash for 8 hours. dissolve. and a similar article. next add 2 quarts of white wine and beat over a moderate fire until rising. Heat 1 pint of strong coffee and 1 pint of milk. mix. add fine 5 ounces of sugar and quart of cognac. 5 ounces Carbonate of magnesia 1 ounce 2 ounces Liquid saffron Citric-acid solution. 1 gallon. beat bottle of Jamaica rum with and shaking Vigorously beat 4 whole eggs and the yolks of 4 with pound of fine sugar. 5 pints. 1 quart. British Champagne.8 of green or black tea. genuine champagne wine. and the corks tied down. Compound extract of sarsaparilla. and in the strained liquor boil: 4 ounces Hops Coriander seeds .118 BEVERAGES desirable addition. Carbonated Pineapple Champagne. Loaf sugar. water. Dissolve ounces. 42 10 gallons Essence of pineapple 8 drachms Tincture of lemon. then add sufficient yeast. and the ice. then quickly (crab-apple cider is the best). pale spirits. 1 Remove. keep good for any corlength of Coriander seeds Orange peel 2 ounces 4 ounces 1 Ginger Gentian root \ ounce ounce Boil in 5 gallons of water for half an hour. and then bottled. Good pale cider. (bruised). 2 ounces. bottle while An excellent imitation. adding the citric-acid solution and limejuice. Add fresh parts beer or brewers' yeast. of 3 lemons and 2 oranges.. | gallon. spirits. 4 ounces. The drink is said to be very pleasant. Bottle while fermenting. Chopped 2 .

hops. BICYCLE-TIRE CEMENT: See Adhesives. r BICYCLE VARNISHES: See Varnishes. Weiss Beer. which must be of a special kind. It will then keep good for a twelvemonth. II.. and when nearly cold and the wineglassf ul next day bottle like ginger beer. turmeric. and in 2 or 3 days bottled or tapped on draught. keep it in a moderately warm room (shaking it twice or thrice daily) until active fermentation sets in. shaking The tincture occasionally. Here are some for- mix well. 1 pint. hot water (not boiling). % ounce. which must be strained into the barrel. ounce. and then add Allow the mixture to stand the saffron. Ground wood hol fustic 1| ounces alco- Deodorized Distilled water . with a second 8 gallons of water. hol Distilled water . tumblerful 3 or 4 times a day. pint. Mix alcohol and water. An inferior sort is made by using less sugar or more water. Hops. when with moist sugar or treacle. III. 1 pound. quercitron. essence of spruce. etc. essences. particularly in old affections. This is said to be superior to the other preparations of sarsaparilla as an alterative or purifier of the blood. after which it may be put into the cellar. 11 gallons. a tablespoonful.. as it possesses a very spicy taste. gallons. 8 gallons.. and. corianders. then let it repose for about a week. the products of the above formulas may be kept for 1 or even 2 years. pimento and ginger (bruised).. boil for 10 or 15 minutes. No remain for 24 hours in a moderately warm place. of Sugar. but in either case it will not keep well. and filter. in a warm place for several days. then add of moist sugar. then throw back the hops. it is called White Spruce Beer.BEVERAGES bark. stir in pint of good fresh yeast. This Differs from the ordinary lager beer in that it contains wheat malt. warm water. water. ing to the desired strength) hops. bottle it.. pound. after the liquid has fermented for about 24 hours. 4 fluidounces 4 fluidounces This is diuretic and antiscorbutic. The proportions are wheat to $ barley malt. I. mix in a and clean stone jar. and strain the liquor through a coarse sieve into a barrel con. let it The nonpoisonous aniline dyes recommended for coloring confectionery. 1 119 ounce . Saffron. and the various aniline dyes. and when diluted or used in small quantities gives a beautiful yellow tint to syrups. under Rubber Cements. 12 pounds (or good molasses. 1 I. good deal depends on the yeast. into the copper and reboil them. etc. dilute Macerate for several days. liquors. From treacle or moto 2 pounds per gallon (accordlasses. Spruce Beer. This is a wholesome drink. Brown Spruce Beer. 1 pounds. Essence of spruce. yellow are those known as acid yellow R and 000 (orange I). for 10 minutes. tropseolin beverages. or each. II. or oftener. The coloring agents employed are fustic. II. q. when it will be ready for use. the best grades being imported from Germany. 36 pounds. 2 ounces 16 ounces Alcohol.. with proper caution. water. taining treacle. water. . saffron. etc. In a week it will be fit to drink. then filter. gallon. 1 ounce. and often found useful during long sea When made with lump sugar voyages. whereas. 1 ounce Deodorized alco. 14 pounds). boiling water. yeast. or even half a hundredweight of molasses may be used. lastly. For a stronger beer. as before. erages the addition of this tincture is not to be recommended. Yellow Coloring for Beverages. 9 quarts. when only lukewarm.. add of cold water 21 gallons (sufficient to make the whole measure 37 lions). 5 3 ounces. Treacle'Beer. again after mixing. s. That usually made has generally only J of the above quanof for which molasses is often tity 'sugar. J to f ounce. A Dose: A small yeast must be used. substituted. mix well. manner as and is Turmeric powder. agitating For some bevfrequently. boil the whole for 10 minutes. treated as below. . and. . J ounce. 1 pound hops being used with a peck of the combined malt to each 20 gallons of water. It is regarded as an agreeable summer drink. add yeast mulas: I. coloring for many purposes. 28 pounds. cloves (cut small). moist sugar. 4 4 fluidounces fluidounces in the This color may be made same a fine the liquid saffron. further add of yeast. but apt to prove laxative when taken in large quantities. next "rummage" the whole well with a stout stick. 3 pounds. capsicum pods (cut small).. thus prepared has a deep orange color.

next soak it in the bleaching liquor.. are then generally well bleached. Mix together 4 pounds of oxalic acid. BIDERY METAL: See Alloys. are laid in this mixture for 1 hour. BLACKING.120 BLEACHING BLACKING FOR SHOES: See Shoedressings. Canary seed BLASTING POWDER: 6 parts 2 parts 1 part 2 parts 2 8 16 2 2 8 2 See Explosives. Straw is bleached by simply ex- BISCHOFF See : See Wines and Liquors. a closed chamber to the fumes of burning sulphur. Mix a lye of 1 pound of soda to 1 gallon of boiling water. and the barrel containing the goods to be bleached turned over it. BLACKBOARD PAINT AND VARNISH See Paint and Varnish. let it settle. BIRCH BALSAM: See Balsam. and incorporate the oil. and boil it half an hour. BLANKET WASHING: See Household Formulas. (Cxyerenated muriate of The straw is lime is much cheaper. BIRD FOODS: See also Veterinary Formulas. 4 pounds of The goods table salt. saturated with potash. water 50 gallons.. best to soak the goods in caustic soda. Sunflower seed Hemp seed Canary seed Wheat Rice 8 16 10 8 ounces ounces ounces ounces 6 ounces the tub wherein the articles are soaking. DOG: Dog Biscuit. An old flour barrel is the apparatus most used for the purpose by milliners. PURIFICATION OF: See Gold. Cayenne pepper . it linen or muslin may be restored by putting a portion of bleaching liquor into Then make Food for Redbirds. Cracker Lard oil the solids. Mixed Birdseed. BITTER WATER: See Waters. in which soak the linen for 12 hours. : BIRD DISEASES AND THEIR REMEDIES: See Veterinary Formulas. BILLIARD BALLS: See Ivory and Casein. II. of Mix and grind BIRD LIME: See Lime. Bleaching ounces ounces ounces ounces ounces ounces ounces Linen. or Straw. Silk. the sulphur ignited thereon. grinding to a coarse powder. Mix common bleaching powder in the proportion of 1 pound to a gallon of water.) thus rendered very white. BISCUIT. Dip the straw in a solution oxygenated muriatic acid. BLACKBERRY CORDIAL AND BLACKBERRY MIXTURE AS A CHOLERA REMEDY: See Cholera Remedy. and its flexi- Straw. The goods should be previously washed in pure water. Wool. BIRCH WATER: See Hair Preparations. and afterwards to make use of chloride The excess of of lime or Javelle water. STOVE: See Stove Blackings and Polishes. bility is increased. For bleaching straw it is BLACKING FOR HARNESS: See Leather. BIRD PASTE: See Canary-Bird Paste. BLACKHEAD REMEDIES: See Cosmetics. BITTERS : See Wines and Liquors.. wash Discolored in the usual manner. and lastly. I. posing it in BISMUTH ALLOYS: See Alloys. they and only require to be thoroughly rinsed and worked. stir it occasionally for 3 days. . BISMUTH. to coarse powder. Maw Rape seed seed Millet seed Mocking-Bird Food. a flat stone being laid on the ground. made as above. Rape seed Corn meal Rice Hemp seed and pour it off clear.

in water. the amount of powdered soda held on a small coin dissolved in a bottle of water gives good results. distinguish blue from green at night. . cautiously. TO MAKE CHANGES AND CORRECTIONS ON : Use a solution and water. precipitate keeps forming. and tannic-acid BLOCK FOR SOLDERING: See Soldering. I. HOLLOW CONCRETE BUILDING : See Stone. with a sodium carbonate little red ink mixed in. remove a greenish hue induced by this solution. It smarts a little at first. Take a piece of BLEACHING SOLUTION FOR PHOTOGRAPHS: See Photography. FOR HORSES: Boiler There are See Veterinary Formulas. is The amount of sodium very noticeable. use either the light of a magnesium wire for this purpose or take a number To Swedish (parlor) matches. observe the 2 colors. soda ash. LOCAL: See Styptics. quickly pour upon it some chloroform. alum) as long as a BLUING OF STEEL: See Steel. last being derived from sumac. the BLOTTING PAPER: See Paper. Compounds BLOCK. 3 to 4 hours in a tepid dilute solution of bichromate of potassa. at the same time. of BLIGHT REMEDIES. some nitric acid has been To added (a small quantity only). whereby the feathers become perfectly white and bleached. under Toning. catechu.BOILER COMPOUNDS chlorine is afterwards removed by hypo- BLUE FROM GREEN AT NIGHT. rub some vaseline upon one side of it. boil (no matter how indurated) softens and opens. Aluminum hypo- BLUING: See Laundry Preparations. 40 parts 50 parts 20 parts 1. and directed to change the cloth In from 2 hours to 1 day the often. Soft soap Amyl alcohol Methylated spirit. By mutual decomposition aluminum chloride results. gaskets. cool sensation. BOIL REMEDY.000 parts BLEACHING SOLUTIONS FOR THE LAUNDRY: See Laundry Preparations. BLUE PRINTS. BLUE (BALL) : See Dyes. Water Soft soap BLUE PRINTS. Bleaching Solution. caustic soda. valves. chloride. BLISTER CURE: See Turpentine. which remains in solution. place them in a dilute solution of sulphuric acid. Place the feathers from Feathers. is produced by adding to a clear solution of lime chloride a solution of aluminum sulphate (alumina. and the exhausted bark liquor from tanneries. Sulphureted ash Amyl III. carbonate used depends upon the surface of the blue-print paper. as soon as they flash up. However. as some coarse-grained papers will look better if less Water II. light them. BLEEDING. TO TURN BROWN: See Photography. and lime sulphate (gypsum). Caustic soda in large excess is inju- rious to boiler fittings. Soft soap 30 parts pot2 parts soda is used and vice versa. alcohol 32 parts 1. to which. when the difference can be easily of and told. which separates out in the form of an insoluble salt. or Wilson's bleaching liquid.000 parts 15 parts pot- BLUE-PRINT PAPER MAKING: See Photography. soft linen or borated gauze. Sulphureted ash Water 29 parts 1. three chemicals which are These are to attack boiler scale. but this is soon succeeded by a pleasing. compounds. known Artificial. TO DISTINGUISH : sulphite of soda. The patient is given a bottle of the remedy.000 parts This gives a very pleasing pink color to the changes which. BLISTERS. and place a bandage over all. apply it to the unopened boil or carbuncle.

a.000 gallons of feed water. lime. or magnesium sulphates or carbonates. and that use. For a 5-horsc-power boiler. as tannic acid corrodes an iron surface rapidly. For plants of from 75 to 150 horse power two 24-hour settling tanks will answer Each the purpose of a softening system. have been used for many years and are not patentable. useful for small isolated plants. compound guild consign each sample of water to the sewer and send the regular Others have a stock analysis goods. The honest boiler compounds are. alum. in the shape of a light mud.nd with sludge valves. several companies have secured patents. having been found to be chemically pure. and with calcium and magnesium carbonates. By the two slight admixture of chromates. authority free from injurious materials. in reference to a particular water. Sodium triphosphate and sodium pound used be pronounced by competent scale-forming salts present. to the boiler tubes themselves is Foaming and priming yet to be proved. Protecting Boiler Plates from Scale. Such a system has an advantage over a continuous system. capable of holding a day's supply. dex1 trine.000 gallons is for the privilege of using a ready-made softener. That it removes scale is an assured fact. Compounds of vegetable origin are widely advertised. Kerosene must be dangerous. There are two materials the use of which in boilers is not prohibited through action upon the metal itself or on account of price. as it is very volatile and must soon leave the boiler and pass over and through the engine. as is well known by etc. If prescribed as per analysis. . take catechu. but their cost is several hundred per cent greater than soda ash. a large scale. 2 pounds. J pound. cane sugar. which is sent to customers of a given locality. it be adapted to the water in Boiler compounds should contain only will such ingredients as neutralize the every practical engineer. pound. so many gallons per 1. These are soda ash and caustic soda. It may fluoride have both been used with success. there should be no injurious results through the use of caustic soda and soda ash. Starch substances generally should be avoided. the injection water. save on special water. but they often contain dextrine and gum. on the contrary. provided with a soda tank in common. An excess of chromates or chromic acid does not exercise any deleterious action upon the metal. in slight excess. pound. as they coat the tubes with a compact scale. potash. should not be used in the boiler. containing enough of each to soften the average water of a given district. Large plants are operated on this principle. The lime contained in the feed water. The fundamental principles. They should be used only by prescription. in that the exact amount of chemical solutions required for softening the particular water can be applied. 2 pounds. not permitting the water Molasses is acid and to reach the iron. whether it contains iron. While under ordinary atmospheric pressure calcium chromate in solution is precipitated by soda or Glauber's salt as calcium carbonate or as calcium sulthe latter is separated under Ehate.BOILER COMPOUNDS That it is injurious. It would be practicable to manufacture an intimate mixture of caustic soda and carbonate of soda. is Tannic acid to salts is be condemned and the use of its not to be recommended. present in the form of albuminoids. pound. because of the simplicity of their action. in reasonable excess. for it would mean a score or more of tanks with men to make up the The less honest of the boilermixtures. nowever. I. gum arabic. fed with water which contains calcic sulphate. Every superintendent in charge of a plant should insist that the com- unite with the organic matter. crystallized soda. pound. either as bicarbonate or as is precipitated sulphate. For some variations of such a system. however. boilers horse of thousand serving many power. both of which are dangerous. no injurious ingredients are carried in by the wet steam. has paddles for stirring the contents. Prevention of Boiler Scale. nor upon the materials used for packing. pounds are sufficient for a small boiler for weeks. igher pressure by chromates as calcium chromate. A properly proportioned mixture of soda ought to answer the demands of all plants depending upon that method of softening water in limestone and shale regions. but the walls of the boiler remain perfectly bright without being attacked in any manner. vertise to prepare a special compound for This is expensive. of these. may be caused through excess of caustic soda or soda ash. There is a great deal of fraud in connection with boiler compounds generThe better class of venders adally. Any expense for softening water in excess of 3 cents per 1. that it removes iron with the scale is also assured.

and patented in Germany. of Paris. pound. alum. dextrine. Whether it be due to the formation of hydrogen of glycerine for every bubbles between the heating surfaces incipient scale. To this mixture is added 40 pounds of graphite and 10 pounds of soot made together into a paste with 1 For a boiler of the same size. 2 pound. J. to the presence in the water of the zinc salts resulting from the dissolution of the zinc. Feed in at least 1 quart of kerosene oil every day through a sight-feed oil cup attached to the feed near the boiler i. fed with water which contains iron: Gamboge. 1 pound. alum. tests go to show that for light loads and high pressure a throttling engine may do better than an auto- matic cut-off. and the throttling pressure has a slight superheating effect. with sea water: Catechu. recommends the use of glycerine as a preventive. but can be done by throttling before the steam reaches the cylinder of the engine it would be an advantage.. As a matter of fact. pound. horse power 1 bucketful of washing soda. Glauber's salt. For a boiler of the same size. M. Armstrong. from scale. fed with water which contains lime: Tur- dium bicarbonate. after which the lead becomes positive. sugar. molasses. between the Eipe so that the oil is eater and the boiler not entrapped within the heater. and in ordinary cases charge the boiler every month. pound 300 pounds or 400 pounds of coal burnt. The gelatinous substances thus formed are not carried with the steam into the cylinder of the M. allow the variable cut-off to come into play. in the interstices of which Hence if organic matter is embedded. gum arabic. is composed of 10 pounds each of train oil. in making the engine run more : BONE BLACK ivory is Bone or Ivory Black. potash. it has long been the practice of marine engineers to suspend slabs of zinc in their boilers. because this retains the heat units due to the higher if it in the steam. 2 pounds. pound. In order to prevent the eating away of the sheets and tubes by electrolytic action. fed IV. e. The zinc. It hardly pays to reduce pressure on boilers. When the quantity of lime becomes so great that it can no longer be dissolved. and binds the graphite and the soot. For a boiler of the same size. E. it appears to be a general conclusion among those who have used it that and the zinc helps the scale. dextrine. and of finely ground zinc white. The scale which forms on this application said. Nobody has ever claimed for it that it prevented the attachment of scale altogether. pound. charge every two weeks. is eaten away. III.BOILER COMPOUNDS II. 2 pounds. All bones (and bone in a sense) consist of a framework of crystallized matter or bone earth. but if the incrustation is very bad. soda. It increases the solubility of combinations of lime. but the consensus of opinion is that it "helps some. as well as the corrosion. . is The ideal arrangement gallons of water." BOILER PRESSURE. pound. and this has the effect of throttling the steam for the earlier loads and addition to quietly. put in 2 gallons of kerosene oil (after closing the blow-off cock). alum. and about a pound of carbolic acid. and especially of the sulphate. The use of zinc in this way has been found also to reduce the trouble from boiler scale. without in- juring the paint. it is deposited in a gelatinous sub- ranges the shaft governor so that there is negative lead up to nearly one-quarter cut-off. If it is inconvenient to open the boiler. V pound. which never adheres to the surface of the iron plates. undoubtedly gives better economy. A pound. and fill the boiler with water. potash. 2 pounds. Asselin. 1 pound. It forms with these combinations soluble compounds. Prevention of Electrolysis. can be detached. then dissolve the washing soda in hot water and feed it in with the pump or through a tallow cock (attached between the ejector and the valve in the suction pipe) when the ejector is working. The 1 light loads. Place within the boiler of 100 V. or to whatever cause. meric. which adheres strongly to the plates. ment of 1 When these preparations are used add quart of water. 2 pounds. in which he ar- to throttle the steam for paraffine prevents the water from penetrating the coats. gum arabic. so2 pounds. for heavier loads. being more susceptible to the electrolytic action than the iron. horse fat. dextrine. paraffine. nor form soluble combinations. while the iron remains unimpaired. The horse fat and the zinc oxide make a soap difficult to fuse. 2 pounds. E. it is with a wooden mallet. pounds. A paint for protecting boiler plates VI. VII. except in very extreme cases. | stance. Asselin advises the employengine. pound. This practice has been carried into effect by tne design of Mr.

and small quantities of hydrofluoric acid are also and with a hole in it give gas during the charring. which is then just covered with a mixture of equal volumes of commercial hydrochloric acid and water. UNITING GLASS WITH: BOOKS. Very little power is required for this purpose. and there When the latter is vibrated. As the mineral matter also contains carbonates. coal which Leather or blood gives a charhardly requires treatment with hydrochloric acid. If leather scraps or dried blood are to be worked up. Chemical trades require such large quantities of bone charcoal that its production is a large industry in itself. in the form of dust and small grains which cannot be used for bleaching purposes. addition of hydrochloric acid should be done in the open air. it is as well to grind the washed carbon in an ordinary color mill. ebur ustum. BONES. iron tubes are employed. in the vast industry of beetsugar manufacture the solutions first made are very dark in color. when it has fully settled to the bottom.BONE BLACK bones are heated red-hot in a closed vessel. BONE FERTILIZERS: See Fertilizers. off large volumes of combustible it is a good plan to lead the vapors from the hole by a bent tube so that they can be burnt and help to supply the heat required and so save fuel. finely ground bone black purified from mineral matter. OF. IN MANU- As for pigment-making purposes it is essential that the carbon should be as finely divided as possible. so that less it is much largely used for bleaching such liquids. comparison should be made with the same bone on the other side of the body. See Adhesives. This rinsing with clear water is repeated till all the hydrochloric acid is washed away and only pure carbon remains in the vat. with the above-mentioned waste. as when once the bone is removed the carbon particles have little cohesion. well-fitting lid with a small As these bodies at the other. is BONE BLEACHES: See Ivory. This test shows the difference in the power of conducting sound possessed by bone and soft tissue. The mineral basis of bones consists mainly of the phosphates of lime and magnesia. This bone black or animal charcoal is a substance which has great power of absorbing coloring matter from liquids. tral weight than at first. BONES. When dry. and a tuning fork on the other. Place a stethoscope on one side of the supposed fracture. no breakage. neuAll these consist of black. closed at one end. the sound will be heard distinctly through bone and Should any doubt exist. TREATMENT FACTURING GLUE: See Adhesives. is BONE FAT. As in breaking up the charred bones a considerable amount of waste is produced. lodged in the bony framework. PURIFICATION BLEACHING OF: See Soap. (2) a small black insect. the purified bone black is of a pure black and makes a most excellent pigment. . The properly ground mass forms a deep-black mud. a lively effervescence at once ensues. stethoscope. Hence the very injurious to the lungs. This is done by dissolving out the mineral with hydrochloric acid. leaving carbon. but after filtration through animal charcoal will give colorless crystals on evaporation. salts soluble in not too dilute A vat is half filled hydrochloric acid. AND BONE POLISHES: See Polishes. formed from the decomposition of calcium fluoride in the bones. deteriorate unless carefully guarded. For example. Frankfort black. as air containing even traces of it BONE FAT: See Fats. which can be left to dry or be dried by BONE. and then rinsing and drying the carbon. such as ivory black. in a finely divided state. Now hydrofluoric acid is a very dangerous substance. the organic matter is destroyed. for the amount of mineral salts present is so small that its removal appears superfluous. A TEST FOR BROKEN. It is then stirred up with water and again drained. but is quite black and of artificial heat. THEIR HANDLING PRESERVATION : AND earth The Preservation of Books in Hot Books in hot climates quickly Climates. If the heat is applied gradually the bone retains its shape. this waste should be worked up into a pigment. There are three destructive agencies: (1) damp. Bone black is put upon the market under all sorts of names. (3) cockroaches. etc. A plug is then pulled out at the bottom and the carbon is thoroughly drained. and the vat should be left by itself until the evolution of fumes ceases.

be completely obliterated. lowed plenty of time for its ravages it months to BOOKS. some naphthalene balls or camphor should be always present with them. (3) The appearance of a fine binding may be destroyed in a single night by The lettering of the bindcockroaches. Open the volume violently or carelessly in any one place and you will probably break the back or cause a start in the leaves. constituting the sprinkling borax. BOOT DRESSINGS: See Shoe Dressings. I. In dry weather the doors of closed bookcases should be left open occasionally. The following varnishes have been found to prevent effectually the ravages of cockroaches and of all insects that feed make so many holej that bindings originally strong can be easily torn to All damage may be prevented pieces. ounces ounces 1 ounce $ ounce 20 fl. the front board down. The borax Where it is is either dusted on in powder form from a sprinkling box or stirred with water before use into a thin paste. Never force the Hold the book with . When varnish described under (3). alternately open- black insect. otherwise it volatilizes more quickly than is necessary. 1 the potash. airy. well-lighted When there has been a proshelves. after a few (2) A small an inch long and a sixteenth BOOK DISINFECTANT: See Disinfectants.BOOKS (1) Books which are kept in a damp atmosphere deteriorate on account of molds and fungi that grow rapidly when Books the conditions are favorable. Damp also causes the bindings and leaves of some books to sepits 125 let arate. longed spell of moist weather their covers should be wiped. BOOKWORMS : See Insecticides. WATERPROOFING: See Waterproofing. still atmosphere is most favorable for deterioration. TO REMOVE FINGER-MARKS FROM: See Cleaning Preparations and Methods. BORAX AND BORIC ACID See Food. ing back and front. by coating the covers of books with the will BOOKBINDERS' VARNISH: See Varnishes. is very destructive. 1 ounce. holding the leaves in one hand while you open a few leaves at the back. Glass-gall is the froth floating on the melted glass. BOOT LUBRICANT: See Lubricant. but for a several months. 3 parts. If camphor be used it is best to wrap it in paper. which can be necessary to keep books or paper of any description in boxes. in two or three days. or closed bookcases. is upon books: I. Corrosive sublimate. skimmed off. The borax is heated in a metal vessel until it has lost its water of crystallization and mixed with calcined cooking salt and potash borax. then the other. BOROTONIC : See Dentifrices. somewhat resembling a beetle. back on a smooth or covered table. Dammar Mastic Creosote Spirit of resin Canada balsam wine Macerate with occasional shaking for a few days if wanted at once. potash. then a few at the front. 8 parts. carbolic acid. ounces 2 2 longer time when possible. spirit. BORAX FOR SPRINKLING. quart. Do this two or three times and you will obtain the best results. methylated or rum II. are best kept on open. 1 ounce. but also dissolves less in soldering than pure borax. one-eighth of of an inch broad. and books will be found. gently pressing open the sections till you reach the center of the volume. cupboards. Sprinkling borax is not only cheaper. books are found to Contain the insects they should be well wrapped and placed in the sun before varnishing. have numerous holes in the If this insect be alcovers and leaves. IN FOOD : BORDEAUX MIXTURE: See Insecticides. and they should be placed in the sun or before a fire for a few hours. BOOTS. as a damp. salt. and so on. 3 parts. if left untouched. ing may. cooking Next i. is pounded in a mortar into a fine powder. How to Open a Book. as a better varnish will result after a maceration of Another kind of sprinkling borax prepared by substituting glass-gall for II. back of the book.

noting and remembering into which lasses the several solutions are placed. effervescing champagne: pared No. Package G: Pulverized potassium carbonate. No. and to guarantee that it is pure show that your wine bot- Having poured two teaspoonfuls A tle from the BRAGA: See Beverages. into No. and various tints can be obtained by the use of aniline colors. 6 glass place a few grains of Package G. drachm i. ammonium bi- drachm drachm i. sets very quickly. Also mix the starch intimately with the remainder of the water. Thus No. No. No. heat the mixture to boiling. Bottle-Capping Mixtures. Request some one to bring you some cold drinking water. Place 2 parts of the solution in a small porcelain dish. and stir this mixture into the hot gelatin mixture until a uniform product results. you may obtain any of these by pouring a little of the water from the bottle into the pre- sawdust in bran use a solution of 1 part of phloroglucin in 15 parts of alcohol. milk or ink. into No. rials consist of an ordinary dark-colored pint wine bottle. 5 glass pour a few drops of Solution E. add a knifepointful of the bran and heat moderately. Mix the gelatin. . carafe. and boric acid with 14 fluidounces of cold water. port-wine color. BOTTLE WAX: See Photography. remove the scum. ? nto No. 6. 3 one or two drops of Solution D. leave No. drachms ii. drachm i. gum arabic. stir occasionally until the gum is dissolved. Solution E: Concentrated solution of lead acetate. Fill it up (practically) empty. claret.126 BOTTLES Solution F: Solution of sulphide. treat the wine glasses with the different solutions. BOTTLE VARNISH: See Varnishes. Gelatin. sawdust will be readily recognized. is easily explained. under Miscellaneous Methods. hydrochloric acid. water. Solution C: Strong solution of ferric chloride. 4 is left empty to prove that the solution in the bottle is colorless. BOWLS OF FIRE TRICK: See Pyrotechnics.. and having asked the audience whether you shall produce wine is BRAN. etc. it must be softable dye." 10 ounces of glycerine and 60 ounces of water. and strain. and heat over a water bath until dissolved.. Solution B: Saturated solution of ammonium sulphocyanide. The resulting jars. into No. Pigments may be used. ened by the application of heat. drachms vi. II. Soak 7 pounds of good gelatin in Bottles Magic tle. I. Bottles. sherry. BOURBON METALS: See Alloys. 1 glass gives a glass. ink. of or water.. BOX GLUE: See Adhesives. and add any desired color. 5 produces milk. 1 wine glass pour one or two drops of solution B. BOTTLE-CAP LACQUER: See Lacquer. BOUILLON : See Beverages. BOTTLE STOPPERS: See Stoppers. into No. SAWDUST For the detection IN. 4 glass empty. drachm i. Solution D: A weak solution of ammonium sulphocyanide. 2 gives a sherry color. No. solution iss. By a microscopic examination of the reddish parts. seven wine glasses of different patterns. 2 glass pour one or two drops of solution C. and 10 parts of syrupy phosphoric acid. 7. Sawdust is dyed red while bran parts only seldom acquire a faint red color. 15 parts of water. into No. cession port wine. No. 7 glass pour a little of solution F. or ink. of the be stored in To compound should apply liquefy the of it The mystery "wonderful botfrom which can be poured in suc- mass and dip the cork and portion the neck of the bottle into the liquid. the composition may be tinted with any suitBefore using. and the chemicals Gum arabic Boric acid Starch 1 1 1 ounce ounce ounce 20 grains 16 fluidounces Water described below: Solution A: A mixture of tincture of ferric chloride. or pyrogallic acid. of into the wine bottle. As noted above. champagne. 3 gives a claret color. at the will of the op- The mateerator. BOTTLE CLEANERS: See Cleaning Preparations and Methods.

1 part Mix and dissolve. by weight. Green. codliver oil. place by force of gravity. by weight. hydrochloric acid. Crimson. to 450 parts. glyctinted with caramel.000 parts. T ith a solution composed of W VI. . 60 parts. The brass are put into boiling solutions composed of different salts. by weight. Blue. 40-per-cent alcohol. During use the mixture must be agitated frequently. so that the strata of layers are clearly defined and do not mingle by diffusion. by weight. erine. For at least a half day the jug will radiate its heat. Pour a little of it with some lukewarm water into the receptacle. of ammonia. by weight. Hydrochlorate of am30 grains monia 1 quart Water With the greenish shades are obtained. 480 parts. Copper sulphate. 3 ounces Venice turpentine 14 ounces Boric acid 72 grains Powdered talcum. 7. acetic acid. repeat the process. pink for mustard seed is successfully employed. and let re- 2 ounces 2 ounces 3 gallons Water.500 parts. to 4. Mix sodium Warming acetate and sodium II. and to the solution BRANDY AND BRANDY BITTERS See Wines and Liquors. and need only be well shaken from time to time to renew its heat-giving energy. Potassium iodide. Potassium dichromate. weight. by weight. and add the talcum. IX. color with a spirit-soluble dye. to Sulphuric acid Water. Bottle The The III. distilled. . distilled water. IV If distilled to IX should be water be used these solutions should keep for five to ten years. tained: . VII. to 4. and with the mixture fill an earthenware bottle about three-quarters full. add: Strongest water . and the intensity of the shade obtained is dependent upon the duration of the immersion. and alternate with fluids which are not miscible. c. Dissolve the shellac. Close the vessel well with a cork and place it either in hot water or in the oven. slightly fourth. by weight. 150 parts.500 parts. by weight. containing 1 per cent of oil of The liquids are held in turpentine. Liquid ferric chloride. 450 parts.BRASS III. 60 parts. by weight. by weight. Brass Formulas for the making of Brass found under Alloys. by weight: co: centrated ammonium-acetate solution. or reduce the quantity of water by 10 per cent. 30 per cent. 7. If necessary. distilled water. distilled water.500 parts. by weight. Place in a cylindrical bottle the following liquids in the order named: First. V. rinsing it afterwards with water. by weight. by weight. hydrochloric acid. distilled water. officinal. 225 parts. 30 parts. q. Show Bottles. to 9. A Cheap and Excellent Bottle. distilled water. iodine. by weight. either add 10 per cent of alcohol. chloroform. and boric acid in the mixed alcohol and ether. main until the salts within melt. color is Deodorizer. .. 3 ounces 6 fluidrams Ether Alcohol 12^ fluidounces '127 Shellac . second. Red. make enough magenta. by by Colors for Polished Brass. ate. Powdered black ' following makes a fine show carboys: Cobalt oxide Nitric acid. to 4. Chromic acid Commercial "muriatic" acid Nitric acid to 1 drachm hyposulphate in the proportion of 1 part of the former to 9 parts of the latter. Copper sulphate. In order to prevent them from freezing. be cool place for at least a month before putting in the window. by weight. All the solutions filtered. Yellowish Brown. VIII. sodium bicarbon- 120 grains Sulphate of copper. acid. Potassium dichromate. slightly tinted with aniline green. third. sulphuric weight. turpentine. 6 parts 1 part s. colored with alkanet root. 120 parts. following solution all the shades of brown from orange brown to cinnamon are ob. nitric acid. castor oil. 300 parts.. 30 parts. tinted blue with indigo. 60 parts. IV. sulphuric acid. to 4. 120 parts. I. distilled water.5 parts. by weight. sixth. fifth. by weight. objects will make This should be left 400 parts standing in a dark.. Yellow.5 parts. 2 parts 1 part p Hydrochloric acid.500 parts.

etc. and a blue one by a treatment with strong hyposulphite of soda. which passes to blue. and then a remarkable red: fire Chlorate of potash . . photographic apparatus. and finally to a pretty Silver. plates.. Hyposulphite of soda 225 grains 5 ounces Water Upon leaving the brass objects immersed in the following mixture contained in corked vessels they at length acquire a very beautiful blue color: Hepar of sulphur . ammoniac. 75 grains Cream of tartar 75 grains Sulphate of copper. sulphur separates and the brass becomes covered with iridescent crystallizations: I. BRASS . then wash and dry in sawdust. . Upon polarrosy.. then bluish shades. dark-brown Chlorate of potash Salt of nickel . the grease For use clean and remove from the article by pickling and dip is it into the bath until the coating The bath operates strong enough. or sulphuric acid. acid. . . the oxidation be a failure it should be removed by dipping into the brass brown shade. becomes very beautifully colored. . yellowish. and The strength of the solutions dried. . . and coating hot with a lacquer composed of 1 part varnish. the various shades desired being obtained according to the length of time of the immersion. under the same circumgray. pint Upon adding to the last solution Ammoniacal sulphate 300 grains of iron Hyposulphite of soda 300 grains there are obtained. A steel-blue coloring is obtained by means of a dilute boiling solution of chloride of arsenic. in the first place a red. The following gives a yellow brown: 75 grains Salt of nickel 75 grains Sulphate of copper. Brown in all varieties of shades is obtained by immersing the metal in solutions of nitrates or ferric chloride after it has been corroded with dilute nitric A The tiful.000 parts of sal and and part alum in 10 parts of articles therein. screws. polishing with galena. Olive green is produced by blackening the surface with a solution of iron in hydrochloric acid. Hyposulphite of soda 300 grains 150 grains Cream of tartar . acetic acid. Dip for a few minutes into the liquor. 1 1 435 grains Sulphate of copper. cleaned with sand and water. following solution gives a beaucolor: . 75 30 Carbonate of nickel 75 Salt of nickel 16 Water . and drying. stances. 10 ounces Water II. and add 30 Dip the parts of pure hydrochloric acid. 75 grains Chlorate of potash 10 ounces Water . The first following solution gives the brass a rosy tint and then colors it violet and blue: Yellow to bright red: Dissolve 2 parts native copper carbonate with 1 part caustic soda in 10 parts water. handsome effect is obtained on . 15 grains Ammonia 75 grains 4 ounces Water .. Water 75 grains 150 grains 10 ounces . governs the deepness of the resulting color. Chocolate color results if red ferric oxide is strewn on and burned off..128 Chlorate of potash Sulphate of copper. Orpiment. 4 parts cincuma.. part blue Water 1 vitriol. Should better and quicker if heated. and 1 part gamboge. grains grains grains ounces pickle. Black is much used for optical brass articles and is produced by coating with a solution of platinum or auric chloride mixed with nitrate of tin. After a long ebullition in the following solution we obtain a yellow- boil the water Black: For optical articles. On mixing the following solutions. orange. Water 150 grains 150 grains 1 quart Miscellaneous Coloring of Brass. Another formula for bluing brass is: Dissolve 10 parts of antimony chloride in 200 parts of water. The following gives. izing the ebullition the blue tint gives way to yellow. and finally to white: 75 grains Crystallized sal sodae 150 grains 10 ounces Water ammonium Violet is caused by immersing the thoroughly cleaned objects in a solution of chloride. then to pale lilac. article until it is well blued. rings. according to the duration of the immersion. . Green: Dissolve 1 part copper acetate (verdigris). followed by polishing with a small quantity of galena. verdigris color on brass is produced by treating the articles with dilute acids.. color of A yellow Coloring Unpolished Brass. dissolve 45 parts of malachite (native copper carbonate) in 1.

rinse with water and dry in sawdust. The brass is rinsed and dried in A great variety of effects may sawdust. and tenacious. Yellow brass is colored black by the solution. be produced by first finishing the brass before blackening. deep-blue liquid is produced. After removing the object from the liquid. Copper also gives excellent results. since a white precipitate of antimony oxychloride is immediately formed upon admixture of For dilution. Plastic carbonate of copper may be . Dissolve the salt in water and dip the metal in the solution obtained. 33 parts. A handfinish may be put on brass by the following process: Dissolve in 1. The best results in the use of this solution are obtained by the use of the socalled red metals i. Where the best results are desired on yellow brass a very light electroplate of copper before the oxidizing Black Color on Brass. A satisfactory finish is produced rendering the surface of the brass matt. until the precipitate resulting in the beginning has almost enThe immersion and tirely dissolved. but it is well to use some metal having a reddish tint. which has previously been heated to The solution of ammoto a saturated coppersulphate solution. This gives the required strength of solution. The intensity of the color will be proportional to the time of immersion. of brass may be accomplished by immersing it in the following solution and then heating over a Bunsen burner or a spirit flame: The blacking brass which it is desired to blacken is first boiled in a strong potash solution to remove grease and oil. Caustic Coloring Fluid for Brass. work works well and gives an excellent black. heating are repeated until the brass turns dark. With the usual articles made of yellow brass this is rarely done. rated cooking-salt solution is employed. some black Black Finish for Brass. I. examining the article from time to time to ascertain if the color is deep enough. heated too hot. is The work is immersed and al- lowed to remain observed.BRASS unpolished brass by means of antimonychloride solution. Ordinary sheet brass consists of about 2 parts of copper and 1 part of zinc. hydraled carbonate of copper. which must not be diluted with water.5 parts. but a strong solution is better than a weak one. produced by the copper solution is dead one of the most pleasing effects of an oxidized surface. using for 1 part of antimony chloride 2 ing it The brass is left in the solution until the The color required tint is produced. and the clear liquid is poured off.mixed as follows: Make a solution of blue vitriol (sulphate of copper) in hot water. This operation is repeated six or eight times to remove the impurities. if to 175 F. . those in which the copper predominates. but the oxidation carried out directly. liquid ammonia is added until everything is dissolved and a If clear. indicating the presence of a The varieties large amount of copper. and nothing is left but an emulsion of the thick plastic carbonate in a small quantity of water. After letting it stand a short time gradually warm the mixture. 24 parts. commercial plastic carbonate of copper Rinse and II. A black or oxidized surface on brass is produced by a solution of carbonate of copper in ammonia. as it is then much more easily dissolved. water. This is produced by finely 129 powdering gray antimony and with boil- With hydrochloric acid. let dry. then well rinsed and dipped in the copper solution. after first having carefully and thoroughly cleaned the same. gives off all the ammonia. After the water has been removed during the last pouring. produced is uniform. soda. either by scratch-brush or similar methods. until the required tint The carbonate of copper is best used in a plastic condition. as the black finish thus by first parts of salt solution. and add a strong solution of common washing soda to it as long as any precipitate forms. the following directions may be followed: Dissolve 1 pound of the plastic carbonate of copper in 2 gallons of strong ammonia. formation of hydrogen sulphide a solution of antimony results. water may be added. 5. then it is brushed and dipped in negative varnish or dull varnish. as the oxidizing process does not injure the texture of the metal. The reason for this is obvious. and the mass stirred and again allowed to settle. black. Hot water is added. of sheet brass known as gilding or bronze well. Add a saturated nium carbonate from 150 This solution. and in the solution put the object to be blackened. e. so that the large quantity of the latter somewhat hinders the production of a deep-black surface.. The precipitate is allowed to settle. completely satuwater. Various effects may also be produced by coloring the entire article and then buffing the exposed portions.000 parts of ammonia water 45 parts of too strong. If it is desired to make the solution from natural malachite.

30 grains of mercuric nitrate. Steel Blue and Old Silver on Brass. whereupon the cleaned articles are dipped into the liquid by means of a brass wire. then add 1. For the former dissolve 100 parts of car- To Give a Brown Color to Brass. 10. and turUse a soft brush and dry well. I. and cooking salt. and. and then painted with a dilute ammoniacal solution of arsenic sulphide. The object of this is to neutralize any acid which may be present. and is ally. For door plates. ammonia carbonate. until the required depth of color is attained. To determine how effectively this has been done the varnish may be chemically tested. If one swabbing does not produce a sufficient depth of color. and finally allowing the suspended matter to settle and decanting the clear liquid. Unsatisfactory coloring is removed with potassium-cyanide solution. and acquires luster when polished with a cloth. pulverized hematite. solution diluted with water. If the results are not satisfactory the painting can be repeated after washing over with ammonia. Oxidized silver is obtained by dipping the silvered goods into a heated solution of liver of sulphur. Place it over a charcoal fire and heat unparts of water. III. water. It is advisable to lay the articles in A very handsome brown may be II. when the desired shade is reached.wherein they acquire a blue to a deep-black shade. produced on brass castings by immersing the thoroughly cleaned and dried articles in a warm solution of 15 parts of sodium hydrate and 5 parts of cupric carbonate in 100 parts of water. 10 parts. and water. 1 part. which looks well. knobs. oughly washed and placed in a solution of 10 quarts of water. posed tor obviating this is to mix the varnish with about five times its volume of spirit of turpentine. and dried. which forms an amalgam with the copper. which consists of powder. painted over the surface with a brush or swabbed on with a rag.500 Drowned from its attachment to the fixtures and make the surface perfectly bright and smooth and free from grease. Tombac Color on Brass. add to the mixture dried sJaked lime in the proportion of Graining of Brass. 30 This layer will parts.130 BRASS about 40 grains to the pint.000 parts oi rain or distilled water dissolve 5 parts each of verdigris (copper Let acetate) and ammonium chloride. Prolonged immersion in the second solution produces a grayish-green film. and 60 grains of sulphuric acid. Brass parts of timepieces are frequently provided with a dead grained surface. caustic soda. repeat the heating and the application of the liquid until a fine durable brown is produced. tures Gas fix- which have become dirty or tarnished from use may be improved in appearance by painting with bronze paint and then. while the zinc After the articles passes into solution. tartar. if a still better finish is required. 6 parts. not vigorous scouring with sand. have again been washed they are treated with graining powder. 10 parts. 5 parts. Only substantially silvered objects are suited for oxidation. Remove the brass to be when touched with the dampened finger. Paint the cleaned and dried surface uniformly with a dilute solution of hydrogen sulphide-ammonia ammonium sulphide. dark brown. as a weak silvering is taken cff by this solution. When this coat- ing is dry. then brush off the powder. pentine. dry. For this purpose they are fastened with flat-headed pins on cork disks and brushed with a paste of water and finest powdered Next they are thorpumice stone. This is produced by immersion in a mixture of copper carbonate. In this amalgamating solution the objects become at once covered with a layer of mercury. According . and finally easily applied. is taken out of the bath. These substances must be pure. with a greenish shimmer. and ornamental fixtures gener- bonic carbonate in 750 parts of ammonia dilute this solution with distilled water. If the bronze paint is made up with ordinary varnish it is liable to become discolored from acid which may be presOne method proent in the varnish. The mixing is done with moderate heat. this is produced as follows: The articles are first silvered and next painted with a thin paste consisting of graphite. it is rubbed over. and silver very finely pulverized. light brown. 000 parts. Refinishing Gas Fixtures. The solution is then til it "sizzes" . the solution stand 4 hours. rinsed. repeating the agitation several times. Old silver on brass is and one of the handsomest as well as the most durable surfaces. only endure wiping with a cloth. agitate well. varnishing after the paint is thoroughly dry with some light-colored varnish that will give a hard and brilliant coating. The metal turns dark yellow. After two to three minutes take them out. In 1. and dry in sawdust. rinse in clean water. 200 parts.

900 This powder is moistened with water and applied to the object. 1 gallon. The bright dip gives a smooth. and. . or Matt. In dissolving the zinc in the aqua fortis it is necessary to be sure that none remains undissolved in the bottom. The mixture should be stirred with a wooden paddle while the oil of vitriol is being added. If all is added at once it will boil ^When the acid will dissolve no more zinc it will be found that some of the acid has evaporated by the heat. lumps. granulated. but it is impossible to pulverize such material to a fineness that will do the desired work. which can be learned only by experience. and finally the whole has the consistency of This is caused by the sulthick cream.) and place over.). The method of making the sulphate of zinc directly in the fore solution is as follows: The precipitated silver filter out on a paper ate heat. immediately settle to he bottc m. The articles to be matted are polished and cleaned. but the dead dip is the most pleasing of any dip finish. If they are finely pulverized the dip is slightly improved. formed by the reaction. The dead or matt dip is used hot. The Dead. with employment of a decoction of saponaria. therefore. dip is a mixture of oil of The most modern method of making As the sulphuric acid is being added the solution begins to grow milky. 6 ounces. the dead dip is to produce the sulphate of zinc directly in the solution and in the precipitated form. 1 gallon. The method generally practiced is to add the sulphate of zinc to the mixed acids (sulphuric and nitric). The cold water is to keep the heat. Dip The dead or crystalline finish to the surface. . Without it the dead or matt surface cannot be obtained.BRASS co whether a coarser or finer grain is desired.. Dip the work in the solution and allow it to remain until This is a point the matt is obtained. move the article and rinse and immediThis ately dip into the usual bright dip. more the dish and brush are turned. These crystals readily settle to the bottom of the vessel and do not do the work of matting properly.. metallic zinc. but Rein a few seconds this slows down. If one desires to use known quantities of acid and zinc the following amounts may be taken: Oil of vitriol. etc. Thereit chould be so that precipitated when it is mixed with the acids it will not settle immediately. The dead vitriol (sulphuric acid) and aqua fortis (nitric acid) in which there is enough sulphate of zinc (white vitriol) to saturate the solution. It is found that the sulphate of zinc occurs in small crystals having the appearance of very coarse granulated sugar. and treat the object with a scratch brush. The brushes must be moved around in a circle in brushing with the pumice stone. 370 900 parts Cooking salt. The zinc may be in any convenient form sheet clippings. leaves much to be desired. from evaporating the acid. and the dip thoroughly stirred with a wooden paddle. Thus the very divided precipitate of sulphate of finely^ zinc is formed. and it will be necessary to add enough fresh acid to make up to the original gallon. The required silver powder is produced by precipitating a diluted solution of silver nitrate with some strips of sheet copper. The ordinary proportions are: Silver powder. It is in the presence of the sulphate of zinc tnat the essential difference between the bright and the dead dip exists. so that some remains undissolved in the bottom of the vessel. dip is used to impart a satiny oil of vitriol. aqua fortis (38 F. Add metallic zinc in small pieces until the acid will dissolve no more. Place the article with the cork support in a flat dish and rub on the paste with a stiff brush while Graduturning the !ish incessantly. The use of sulphate of zinc. is kept in a stone crock surrounded with hot water. more cooking salt or more tartar 131 must be contained in the powder. phuric acid (oil of vitriol) precipitating out the sulphate of zinc. When the right grain is attained. v did so that it will not terials are precipitation.. as well as in rubbing on the graining powder and in using the scratch brush. then. When this is done add 1 gallon of strong little. that may be added little by 1 Take (38 F. ally fresh portions of graining powder are put on until the desired grain is obThese turn out the rounder the tained. and can be used as a base for many secondary finishes. gallon of yellow aqua fortis in a stone crock which is surrounded with cold water. shiny. It is well known that the most finely divided ma- up those which are produced by and ?n the dead dip it is very important ha* h? sulphate of zinc shall be finely d . so as to bring up the sulphate of zinc which has settled. 28 28 28 parts 283 110-140 85 parts Tartar. When the brass article is first introduced there is a rapid action on the surface. rinse off with water. powder is washed and dried at moderfor Brass. and perfectly even surface.

sulphuric acid. Stir 10 parts (by weight) of shining soot or snuff. and treating the deadened parts. shining lampblack. and it Pickling Brass to Look Like Gold. and aqua fortis When should be thrown away. The smoothing powder consists luster. work. the handsomer will be Genuine bronze. and this may be introduced as desired. form care. and the addition of a little water The water must be will often start it. to prevent oxidation. and only when Water. such as the hour wheels. but these may be altered More oil of vitriol gives to suit the case.132 is BRASS tice necessary for the reason that the dead dip produces a dark coating upon the surface. levigated in water. For obtaining a handsome matt gold color ^j part of zinc vitriol (zinc sulphate) is still added to the pickle. upon yellow brass high in zinc. minute wheels. pickle brass so as to make it resemble gold allow a mixture of 6 parts of chemically pure nitric acid and 1 part of English sulphuric acid to act for some hours upon the surface of the brass. Next they are yellowed in a mixture of nitric acid. then wash with a warm solution. for instance. only on alloys which conThe best results are obtained tain zinc. then rinsed and polished and. After a while it may be necessary to add a little more aqua fortis. the dead dip is to match a given article. needed in working the dead dip. If hammered too can be tempered and made . however. with a sensitive surface which readily takes spots. the kind and alloy of the metal should be the guidance. would not show the real effect or the color of the The bright dip. a celluloid varnish being best for this purpose. Clock parts matted with oilstone and oil. To To imPickle for Dipping Brass. the color. moves this and exposes the true dead surface. 250 parts of English sulphuric acid. brittle brass Jewelers' red alone may Tempering Brass. To Improve Deadened Brass Parts. In order to acquires a golden shade. give brass the appearance of handsome gilding it is often coated with gold varnish by applying same thinly with a brush or sponge and immediately heating the metal over a coal fire. 20 parts of tartar in 50 parts of water. Much care is requires constant watching and experiThe chief difficulty in working ence. the solution becomes loaded with copper salts. the dip becomes old it is unnecessary to add more zinc. This imparts to the articles a handsome. rubbing a little of it on a buff stick. in other words. tombac. a finer matt. and rub off Then coat neatly with dry sawdust. of 2 parts of jewelers' red and 8 parts of lime carbonate. however. 1 to 10. as a little goes into the solution each time anything is dipped. and 10 parts of red tartar with 250 parts of nitric acid. used sparingly. while a larger quantity of The is dip will give a coarser matt. 2 parts. which. etc. obtain. next in a mixture of 10 parts of red tartar. Pickle for Brass.. coated with a colorless spirit varnish. they are usually For this purpose they are first dipped. especially in the treatment because rays are liable to from the teeth toward the center. necessary." and add aqua fortis or oil of vitriol as the case requires. however. when it will be found to be in a better working condition in the mornA new dip will frequently refuse to ing. A new dip does not work well. 100 parts. as a usual thing. It is usual to allow it to remain over night. The dead or matt dip can be obtained only upon brass or German silver. and of wheels. After a while. spoils a dead dip. but this requires some pracwell dried. The better the alloy and the less the percentage of zinc or lead. as well as 250 parts of aqua fortis (only for a moment). usual rule for making up the dead to use equal parts of oil of vitriol and aqua fortis. and be employed. by mere grinding. proportion. permanent. 10 parts of cooking salt. which have been cleansed with benzine. and copper goods. somewhat This may be improved by preparing the following powder. by rubbing with slight pressure on cork. or else mix 7 parts of aqua fortis (nitric acid) with 10 parts of English For the mixing ratio of sulphuric acid. a dull appearance. and will not give good results when used at once. the acid. were it left on. and must be avoided. if bronzed they are dipped in a highly dilute solution of sulphuric acid and rinsed in clean water. and it is best found out by practical trials. the article with the proper varnish. The brass articles are first freed from adhering dirt by the use of hot soda lye. cooking salt. 1 part. immersed in diluted oil of vitriol (brown sulphuric acid). remetal. and afterwards add 250 parts of sulphuric acid. The only way that it can be done is to "cut and try. 10 parts of cooking salt. rinsing off well in water and drying in sawdust. prove the appearance of brass. 75 parts. metallic matt Restoration of Brass Articles.

therefore when a brass object requires to be tempered the material must be prepared before the article is shaped. thin with turpenIf tine. Hydrogen peroxide 25 parts 100 parts Distilled water. III. Temper may be drawn from Mix. . or to a diseased mouth. Peppermint water 500 parts Cherry-laurel water BRASS. using a little japan as a drier. BREATH PERFUMES: See also Dentifrices. 15 parts brass by heating it to a cherry red and then simit into water. BRICK STAIN. BREAD. VI. is almost soft again. Brass rendered hard by hammering or roll- the with this mixture. first I. 1 part 10 parts Mix and dissolve. using a brick flat add black .000 parts Tincture of white canella 30 parts Oil of pepper1 part mint Mix. . SAND HOLES IN: See Castings. mouth wash. Use as a dentifrice. BRASS. Potassium permanganate Distilled water. Drawing Temper from Brass.. e. new. if time is an object. ground in oil is used.. 60 parts 25 parts BRASS PpLISHES: See Polishes. IV. also the removal of all residual food of dental caries. VII. it may be cooled by plunging into water.. any Oil of peppermint Oil of cloves BRASS CLEANERS: See Cleaning Preparations and Methods. glass of water. 2 parts ate Distilled water. Thymol ria Use as gargle and 3 parts BRASS SOLDERS: See Solders. BRASSING : See Plating. To stain brick stone. 70 parts Spirit of cochlearia 30 parts Mix a half-teaspoonful in a wineWash mouth two or glassful of water. Mix. 5 parts Salol Alcohol 1. Gargle and wash mouth well BRASS PLATINIZING: See Plating. Mix. FASTENING PORCELAIN TO See Adhesives. Use as a gargle and mouth wash. Add from 5 to 8 drops of this solution to a glass of water and with it gargle the mouth.BRICK more even hardness throughout by warming it. three times daily. Rinse mouth frequently Decoction of chamomile 30 parts 80 parts Glycerine Chlorinated water. DOG: See Dog Biscuit. with 10 drops in a glass of water. Labarraque's solution 30 parts is ing. Fetid breath may be due to the expelled air (i. necessary to get the desired shade add yellow ocher to the mixture of red and If the work is part old and part black. 1 . : Borax Mix and dissolve. the color of brownto Venetian red until If color the desired shade is obtained. V. Sodium bicarbon- Breath. . antisepsis principally arid the neutralization of the saliva.. the same as ply plunging though steel were to be tempered. of a II. to gases thrown off from the digestive In the tract. but the heat must not be nearly so great. rub the wall down. with the last. as in tempering steel. Spirit of cochlea- 300 parts 100 parts 15 parts 10 parts Tincture of rhat- BRASS BRONZING: See Plating. heat it nearly to a dull red and allow it to cool. to disease of the respirational tract). . 183 Infusion of sal via 250 parts 30 parts Glycerine Tincture of myrrh 12 parts Tincture of lavender 12 parts Brass. Gargle the mouth twice daily with 2 tablespoonfuls of the mixture in a Mix. heated to the blue heat of steel. for Remedies Fetid two cases medication must be directed to the causative diseases. VIII. To soften brass. or.

Bronze Substitutes. 0. Claimed to be an effective remedy in the treatment of whooping cough. Emulsion of Bromoform. Simple Coloring of Bronze Powder. BRICK WATERPROOFING: See Waterproofing. RENOVATION OF: See Cleaning Compounds.8 parts. BRONZE. emulsify this mixture in the usual manner with 2 parts of powdered tragacanth. uniform surface to paint on. Bronze Powders. In order to impart different colors to . BRONZE. BRONZE POLISHES: See Polishes. 1. finally. Bromoform. Bromoform cohol.134 BRONZING Some Syrup other formulas are: of Bromofcrm. so that an even color can be obtained with one coat of stain. sufficient to make 120 parts. using for the completed emulsion a total of 120 parts of water. TO CLEAN: See Cleaning Preparations and Methods. and add. syrup. Tinge the wash with a little dry VeneThis will help tian red and lampblack. white of egg. but glycerine. or varnish is used. alcohol (95 per cent). BRITANNIA METAL. parts of oxide of tin and sulphur. Bromoform. TO CLEAN: See Cleaning Preparations and Methods and Household Formulas.2 BRICK POLISHES: See Polishes. SILVERPLATING See Plating. made by stirring Portland cement into water until the water looks This operathe color of the cement. BRONZES: See Alloys. BRICKS OF SAND-LIME: See Stone. 800 parts. until the surface is uniform. Liquid Bronzes. rum. 45 parts. BRICK WALLS. It is preferable to apply them dry upon one of the abovenamed mediums serving as size. 5 parts. which are fused in a crucible. BRICKS : comes perfectly clear. 4 parts of cherrylaurel water. Mix in the order given and place the container in warm water until the syrup be- for a rubber. Gold bronze is BRITANNIA. adding the mercury only when the tin and the bismuth are in fusion. gum arabic. BRITANNIA METAL: See Alloys. which are heated for some time in an earthen Silver bronze is a mixture of retort. : BRILLIANTINE See Hair Preparations. BRIDGE PAINT: See Paint. bring the brick to a uniform color. chloroform. BRIONY ROOTS: THEIR PRE3ERVATION : See Roots. ANTISEPTIC: See Antiseptics. tin. and Bronzing BRONZE POWDERS. than to mix them with the liquids themselves. tion fills the pores of the brick and makes a smooth. for in the latter case their luster is impaired. parts. : BROMINE. Next reduce to a To apply these very fine powder. BRONZE CASTING: See Casting. bronzes. glycerine. Artificial. and keep it well wet while rubbing with cement water. IMITATION: See Plaster. a mixture of equal BROMOFORM. een devised: is insoluble in dilute al- may be dissolved by the aid of The following formula has 1 Bromoform Alcohol 2 tincture of 2 part parts parts parts Compound Glycerine cardamon U equal parts of bismuth. and mercury. and sufficient water. Bromoform Rum. BRIMSTONE (BURNING): See Pyrotechnics. 150 parts. 4 parts of powdered acacia. See Ceramics. Add 3 parts of bromoform to 20 parts of expressed oil of almond. BRICKMAKERS' NOTES: See Ceramics.

bronze powder. stone. I. solution is complete. absolutely dry. bronze varnish add to the deacidified dammar solution about 250 parts of bronze or brocade per liter. in which state it is maintained 2 or 3 hours Let cool. and stir frequently. and continue working with boiled linseed II. acid-free varnish should be used. Finely pulverize 5 parts.. adding a small These three bronzes quantity of drier. raise the heat. wrapped around the finger. the upper one consisting of benzine-rosin solution and the lower. or ish color of the mixture For clear bronze brown. strong gum water or isinglass. and answers excellently for many purposes. and dissolve by repeated shaking. such as pale yellow. when all this has been covered with the bronze it must be left to dry. wax.5 parts corrosive sublimate. Ten parts of the quently. 120 parts oxide of zinc in powder form.000 parts of petroleum benzine over 350 parts of finely ground dammar rosin. stir with a clay tube until the mixture takes on the appearance of Dutch gold and pour out. by weight. from 5 to 10 minutes. fluid are mixed with 5 parts of metallic bronze of any desired shade. if it deposits quickly it is too thin and a part of the solvent must be evaporated before stirring in the it General Directions for Bronzing. and pour over it 50 parts of carbon tetrachloride. into the filtrate put 300 to 400 parts of bronze powder of any desired shade. III. 60 parts saltpeter. For the produc- tion of liquid bronze. Next add to the solution 250 parts of a 10-per-cent aqueous solution of caustic soda and shake up well for 10 minutes. and put Shake well before using. Or else carefully mix 100 parts of finely ground dammar rosin with 30 parts of calcined soda and heat to fusion. Prepare a paste from it with oil. Heat gently. the turbid mass obtained. Put the powder into a glass carboy. which. If the metallic powder remains distributed over the mass for a long time it is of the right consistency.BRONZING bronze powders. For the deacidification of dammar rosin pour 1. of copper. as bronze ground with ordinary varnish will form verdigris. Cool and pulverize again. and let boil until the greenpasses over to a "marbling" or bronzing paper articles. grind with frequent stirring. II. and the loose powder is then cleared away with a hair pencil. resistant . it 135 in a flask. General Formulas for Bronzing PrepaI. and 3. The choice of bronze powders is determined by the degree of brilliancy to be obThe powder is mixed with tained. the brocades being especially well adapted for this purpose. When cold mix the color with boiled linseed oil and turpentine. appearance. etc. rule a very small quantity of fat. aqueous one containing the resinic acid dissolved as soda salts. this answers particularly well. of prime Dammar rosin and 1. is dipped into the powder and rubbed over the work. grind copper. stir together. A liquid bronze. into bottles. pasteboard. LIQUID BRONZES. Pour off the benzine layers and agitate again assiduously with 250 parts of the 10-perNow set cent caustic-soda solution. must be covered with a pale. oil and turpentine. By repeated shaking of the flask the soluble portion of the molten mass is dissolved. and laid on with a brush or pencil. until no more carbonic acid bubbles up. Take 240 parts subacetate rations. Liquid Bronzes.5 parts of ammonia soda. yet possesses a metallic luster and a bronze III. is made as follows: Dissolve by the aid of gentle heat 10 parts of aniline red and 5 parts of aniline When purple in 100 parts of alcohol. filter after allowing to settle. let 'this stand for 2 days. After standing for a short time two strata will have formed. a metallic appearance. The bronze powders are employed to produce coatings or certain finishes on metals themselves or to give articles of wood. almost but not A piece of soft leather. while contains no metallic constituent. dammar solution siphoned off will be perTo obtain goldfectly free from acid. Dissolve 120 parts sulphate of copper and add 120 parts chipping of tin. stir well and gather the precipitating After complete drying. very finely in boiled linseed oil and tur- pentine. dark yellow to copper red. and pour a little coal benzine or petroleum benzine over Incombustible Bronze Tincture. add 5 parts of benzoic acid. 60 parts borax. Melt in a crucible 60 parts sulphur and 60 parts stannic acid. stirring freThen filter. the powder is heated with constant stirring in flat iron pans until through the oxidation of the copper the bronzes consist of the brass powder of an alloy from which the socalled Dutch gold is produced the deAs a sired shade of color is reached. or even paraffine is added in this operation. aside for a complete classification and The separation of the two liquids.

This liquid can be applied to all metals Preparation of French French bronze may ducing to a powder hematite. cleansing of all articles from grease by boiling in potash is absolutely necessary to success. and after that bronzed piece is passed through the stove. some hours. parts of water. 5 parts. To produce a I. freed Bronze for Brass. and at last a reddish white. latter solution alone be used the product will be a brighter dark-yellow or reddish-brown color. parts of hydrochloric acid in 1. If the articles have besoft sawdust. which changes to green. and those treated with carbonate will be thick and darkened. Articles. rinse. zinc a brown color. Dissolve 10 parts of fuchsine and 5 parts of aniline purple in 100 parts of alcohol (95 percent) and add to the solution 5 parts of benBoil the whole for 10 minzoic acid. different colors are pro- perature a little is heated to a tembelow the boiling point Let dry for 24 to 48 hours at an ordinary temperature. 5 A By polishing with a tolerably hard brush the article will assume the beautiful appearance of real bronze. a varnish composed of cherry gum lac This varnish is dissolved in alcohol..000 Let remain 30 seconds. instead of lead acetate. then to carmine. potassium permanganate. This process is analogous to the one practiced at the Mint of Paris for bronzing medals. and let dry in fine. Cream also be effected. 10 parts. To Bronzing and Patinizing of Small Zinc Coatings of bronze tones and on zinc patina shades may be produced oy means of various liquids. oil and brush the piece uniformly. By substituting other metal salts for the lead acetate many changes in tints and quality of the coatings can It is To Bronze Copper. 10 parts. Acetate or chlorhydrate of ammonia. . Treat as before. Florentine bronzing. 50 parts. II. and mixing into a Apply the paste with spirit of wine. ent some of the lead is precipitated on the surface and. let dry for 5 or 6 hours and place in sawThen heat the article on a moddust. hydrochloric acid. Immerse the from dirt and ^grease. If the 1. Iron objects treated in this solution take a steel-blue color. or if a reddish-brown color be desired. 50 parts of iron sulphate. composition with a soft brush to the article to be bronzed and set it aside for Bronze. Sea salt . and from light blue to blue white. an equal weight of sulphuric acid (1* ounces) is added to the sodium hyposulphite and the process carried on as before. dark red.136 BRONZING the same may be coated with colors varying from gold to copper red. If. depending on the time the metal remains in the solution and the temperature used. Diluted acetic acid. Spread on the copper object a solution composed of: recommended. erate charcoal dust fire. the brass becomes coated with a very beautiful red.. chlorhydrate of ammonia will assume a blue coloring. the put on with a brush. according to the thickness of the layer. then withdraw. tarnish lacquer. durable coating and may be especially very difficult to obtain exact shades by this process withThe thorough out some experience. water. 30 parts 10 10 10 100 parts parts parts parts of tartar Acetate of copper . Prepare a solution of 1* ounces of sodium hyposulphite in 1 pint of water and add to the same a solution of 1A ounces of lead acetate dissolved in 1 pint of water.000 parts. come too dark. The green portions soaked with brush.) solution of chromic acid. and plumbago. New Bronzing Liquid. articles. but the . When it this mixture precipitates sulphide of lead in a state If some metal is presof fine division. . apply to the articles. immerse for about 1 minute in a warm (140 F. utes until the color turns bronze brown. By heating in a drying oven the tone of the colors is im* proved. If the article is of brass it must be given a coat of copper by means of Next dip a brush in olive the battery. 10 parts. in a cold solution of 10 parts 01 potassium permanganate. produce an even color the articles must be evenly heated. The surface of the metal will become covered with a series Brush with a waxed of varying tints. How to Bronze Metals. and finally a splendid brown with a green This last is a very and red iridescence. be prepared by re- and dries quickly. which must have previously been dipped. iron sulphate. Florentine Bronzes. In the case of copper objects a golden yellow cannot be obtained. By immersion of brass articles for 5 minutes duced.. The desired tint may be regulated by the proportions of the ingredients. otherwise they will soon in rooms where gas is burned. 8 parts.

this stand for 2 days. that. The best bronze or patina effects on bronze are obtained by electroplating the article with a fairly thick deposit of brass rich in copper and then treating it like genuine bronze. either the size is inferior or the solution too weak or the mixture too thick.. Alcohol . instead of the dyes. Heat gently. i. so as to prevent the kerosene from running into the ornament. Put the powder into a glass carboy. Instead of gum arabic with glycerine. until the evolution of carbonic acid ceases. With this paint the ornaments neatly. i. gelatine glue may also be employed as an firmly. tends over the whole surface. it is true. taking care that it is not too wet. bronze must become dull and yet adhere under which condition it has a hardened color. and 1. e. Finally finish wiping with an Kerosene especially soft. because of the radically different reflection of the light. e. underlay. Shake the tincture well before using. 137 and when cool pulverize again. as the genuine leaf gold is so spotted that a bronzed The surface is cleaner than a gilt one. powdered and shake. the second time commencing at the opUnder no circumstances posite end. with frequent stirring. but also somewhat rough. In hour the bronze will have dried. etc. After the precipitation. The moldings are coated twice. is thinned with clean. exgilding. Then apply the bronze solution. Bronze Gilding on Smooth Moldings. must always be highly diluted. The following recipe is used in imitation gold bronzes: Sandarac Mastic Venice turpentine. and stir again. parts of prime dammar rosin and 1. dead gilding give off If it does color when grasping it firmly..4 parts and add Aluminum. the remaining deposit.BRONZING before being worked upon. let Take bronze and Bronzing Engraved Ornaments. where the bronze has overrun the polished surface. good gold size. nuid are to be mixed with each 5 parts of metallic bronze of any desired shade. A perfect substitute for dead gilding cannot be obtained by bronzing. dab and wipe again. is somewhat darker and dimmer than leaf This dimness.. the water is poured off and renewed repeatedly by fresh water.5 parts of ammonia soda. 10 parts 5 parts 135 parts In the above dissolve: Metanil yellow and gold orange 0. are dabbed with a small rag soaked with kerosene. with it In consequence of this diffusion of light. Bronzing of Zinc. prepared with dammar and one-tenth varnish. following process is the best known at present: Choose only the best bronze. To render bronzes durable on banners. even the best executed. After a short while the bronze will have dissolved and can be wiped off with a soft rag. which is first prepared thick with pure Next add a quantity of water spirit. for the matt gilding presents to the light a perfectly smooth surface. and pour over it 50 parts of carbon tetrachloride. If it does not become dull the varnish is too strong and should be diluted with turpentine. ing. should the dry. as a consequence of which the bronze or patina coatings will adhere much better. stirring freTen parts of the quently. very finely pulverized. Mix thoroughly 30 parts of sal ammoniac. When the spirit has been washed out again in this manner. then filter. and put into bottles. Then take from the fire. clean rag. the bronze. Durable Bronze on Banners. deeper shade desired it is to use ethyl orange and gold orange well in the same proportion.000 parts of Apply with a brush or a rag vinegar. while in bronzing every little scale of bronze reflects the light in a different direction. the ground must be primed with gum arable and a little glycerine. pale copal varnish diluted one-half with turpentine. however. otherwise they may eat entirely through the thin metallic coatarticles. The bronze must be thin enough just to cover. which occurs promptly. The places from which the bronze is to be removed. If a finely 20 parts is Five Incombustible Bronze Tincture. The stir. until the desired tint is produced. For the production of imitation copper bronze take the above-mentioned rosin mixture and dissolve therein only gold . to make them not only perfectly metallic. and therefore is not perceptible to the layman. does not attack polish on wood. all bronzing. and cannot be called an evil. several times. If this does not remove it entirely. should be rubbed down with very fine glass or emery paper. 10 parts of oxalate of potash. BRONZE SUBSTITUTES. making 50 parts . The solutions used.

Or else a paste is applied on the article.000 parts. pearance to new objects of bronze. brass brocade and tin bronzes serve as bases for the aniline dyes. After the artithe essence of lavender. prepared in this manner excel in luster and color effect. wooden boxes. with a sufAfter 24 ficient quantity of alcohol.4 parts is produced. as is the case with pigments in which hydrate of alumina is used. sea salt. Wall or moire paper prepared with these means powdered rosin thrown on lighted coal. inkstands. giving rise to the most of colors in perpendicular or laterally reflected light. 500 parts. Under the action of sun and moisture the articles lose some of their luster. whereby Metanil yellow 0. essence Dissolve the abietate of silver in parts. In coloring the pulverized bronze care must be taken that the latter is as free as possible from or- orange 0. These are employed together with a varnish of certain composition. as tinware. unless spread over the paper surface with a suitable protective binding medium. Bronze articles ac- Pickle for Bronzes. Abietate of of lavender. BRONZE COLORING: To Color Bronze. parts. are produced by pressing the paper lengths or web The painted with aniline-bronze dyes. which is produced by rubbing with a ite over the that the copper is simply dyed. etc. solution composed of sal ammoniac 4 parts. are suitable. other lacquers of . and add aluminum 20 a handsome copper color parts. may Handsome smoked hues dry. 1 Green Bronze on Iron. so as to obtain a smoke which will change the color of the varnish employed. sorrel salt 1 part. cles have been well pickled apply the abietate-of-silver solution with a brush. for instance. 10 parts. but objects kept indoors such as figures of plaster of Paris. which of course must not interfere with the special rate. but makers of wall or stained paper have recently given their attention to these products. relative constancy to reductive agents. so that the copper makes its appearance. quire handsome tempering colors by In order to impart an old apheating. Only pigments of certain properties. dissolved in 60 to 100 parts of vinegar. Some color effect.138 BRONZING beautiful reliefs. naphthol yellow. way is to dip the pieces into a boiling solution of cupric acetate 20 parts. zapon (celluloid) Tar dyes should be disganic fats. such as The bronzes lacquer being unsuitable. A hot hours brush off the dry powder. of the tar pigments only basic aniline dyes soluble in alcohol are used. put graphpiece to be bronzed so fectly Another also be brushed on. phenylene-diamin. Sulphuric acid. such as gold orange. retain their brilliancy for years. Apply 1 or 2 coats after the first is per- soft brush. be obtained by holding the bronze either over the dust of lighted peat or may Patent bronzes (products colored by of aniline dyes) have hitherto been used in the manufacture of toys and de luxe or fancy paper. commerce. made use of in larger quantities. silver. When the copper or coppered article is perfectly dry and the copper or copper coating made brilliant. toys.. the cost is very low. The patent bronze is then dried by allowing the alcohol to evapoThis method of coloring is purely mechanical. Next put on a thin coat of Japanese varnish. They are suitable for bronzing lowpriced articles. etc. Blue bronze is pro- . as the tar dyes do not combine with the metallic bronze. 1. The varnish must be liquid enough to be worked easily. soot. Likewise only a lacquer of certain composition is fit for use. consisting of graphite 5 parts and bloodstone 15 parts. vinegar 200 Imitation Japanese Bronze. A coating of aniline bronze of this kind is therefore very sensitive to moisture. nitric acid. solved in as concentrated a form as possible in alcohol and stirred with the bronze. or protected by a transparent coat of varnish. such as solubility in alcohol. unsuitable are. which imparts the necessary gloss to the mixture. for this style of bronzing is only applicable to brass. the pigment being then fixed on the vehicle with an alcoholic solution of tannin. etc. because the luster of the bronze is materially affected.8 parts. 19 part. dyes furnishes covers or prints of silken gloss with a peculiar double-color effect in which the metallic brilliancy characteristic of bronze combines with the shades of the tar pigments used. until the desired shade is attained. and sal ammoniac 10 parts. without gold orange gives with the same charming play amount of lacquer a greenish tone of The pigments must not be bronze. Wipe off the raised portions with a damp cloth. next place the objects in a stove and let the temperature attain about 150 C. they may be heated over a flame and rubbed with a woolen rag dipped in finely powdered graphite. Very Blue Bronze. use powdered aluminum and yellow organic dyestuffs. 5 parts. wipe the relief again and let dry.

and repeating the These articles. forms. Genuine gold bronze is produced from the waste and parings obtained in gold The parings. porcelain. an 8 solution (by Beaume) of antimony chloride. but with a solution of 1 part of verdigris crystals and 2 parts of sal ammoniac in 600 parts of water. bronze. which bronze articles otherwise acquire only after several years' exposure to the at- The green vitriol. glass. it turns a bright yellow. dried after removal of all liquids. as well as greenish. whereby the smell is caused to disappear in a few days. and with an alum solution consisting of 20 parts of alum in 4. petroleum is poured on 2 pounds of bronze. which is intimately mixed and spread out into a thin layer. Brown Oxidation on Bronze. ever. These pale yellow. produced in the ordinary way from whitebronze color.500 parts of alcohol. furthermore.. soon lose the unpleasant glaring metallic luster and assume instead a soft brown tint. as long as a precipitate This deposit is gold bronze. into this solution drop. and for china and glass decoration. allowing it to dry. When the bronze is dark enough it is washed out in warm water. into a very fine powder. and metal by means of a water-glass solution. and before entirely dry 1 tablespoonful 139 Gold and Silver Bronze Powders. which. In water containing sulphuric acid. mosphere. The rods must be perfectly clean and polished The color of the gold bronze bright. distilled water. gradually turns to brown.. until the desired blue shade is reached. is chiefly employed in painting. Gold bronze is also obtained by dissolving gold in aqua regia and mixing with a solution of green vitriol in water. which is placed in the liqThe gold is uid in the form of rods. mixed with a solution of 15 parts of aniline blue in 1. must be dissolved in boiling water and mixed in a glass. To bronze wood. other tints are obtained with the aid of cooking salt. olive green at first. Bronzing with Soluble Glass. little pure hydrochloric acid and repeat this to drive out all the free chlorine and to produce a pure hydrochlorate The gold salt is dissolved in of gold. taking \ liter per ducat (3J grams fine gold). operation several times. Metallic gold powder is. and then dried before an open fire till the green color The operation is begins to disappear. with sulphuric acid and stirred until the basic iron sulphate separating in flakes has reAnother way of producing dissolved. the product of pure English tin. by treatment with a solution of crystallized verdigris or blue vitriol in water it assumes more of a reddish hue. or hydrochloric acid. exposed to the air. tints are caused by the various percentages of gold or the various mixtures of the gold with silver and copper. for bronzing. . red. which will remain unaltered even when exposed to strong heat. of green vitriol. coat the article with potash water-glass of 30 Be. reddish. tartar. viz. in this manner is placed in a porcelain dish. By the use of various salt solutions or acidulated substances other shades can be imparted to bronze. drop by drop. In order to further increase the brilliancy the dried substance may still be ground. Genuine bronze can be beautifully oxidized by painting it with a solution of 4 parts of sal ammoniac and 1 part of oxalium (oxalate of potash) in 200 parts of vinegar. This manipulation must be repeated 6 or 8 times. A beautiful bronze color which will remain unaffected by heat can be imparted to bronze articles by the BRONZE POWDERS: of bronzing. or saltpeter in water. completely separated thereby. are ground beating. deep yellow. depends upon the proportions of the gold.500 parts of water boiled for 5 hours and washed The bronze prepared clean and dried. repeated 10 to 20 times. with honey or a gum solution. See also Plating for general methods and Varnishes.rd granite stones. and sprinkle on the respective bronze powder. stirring the bronze powder and liquid until the alcohol has evaporated entirely and the bronze color becomes dry. nitric acid. such as iron or zinc. while stirring by means of a glass rod. etc. obtained by dissolving pure and alloyed gold in aqua regia and precipitating it again by an electro-positive metal.BRONZING duced by the wet process by coloring white bronze (silver composition) with A blue-bronze color can be aniline blue. gold bronze is by dissolving gold in aqua regia and evaporating the solution in a When it is almost dry porcelain dish. protected against rain. whereupon the gold falls down as a metallic powder which may be treated in add a The object is first following process: washed in a solution of 1 part of crystallized verdigris and 2 parts of sal ammoniac in 260 parts of water. howdifferent ways. which is repeatedly washed out with water and There are various shades of gold dried. The color of the article. upon a glass plate or under ha.

or applying it with varnish or white of egg in the preparation of gold paper or for gilding cardboard and wood. golden. when in use. handsome mosaic purest. Mosaic gold of golden-yellow color is produced by heating 6 parts of sulphur and 16 parts of tin amalgam with equal parts of mercury and 4 parts of sulphur. Genuine Silver Bronze. : BROWNING OF STEEL: BROWNSTONE. BRUNETTE POWDER: See Cosmetics. gold. This solution is then diluted with water and brightly scoured copper plates are put in. by mixing it with 6 parts of bone tion. 35. and most gold-like mosaic gold is obtained by melting 12 parts of pure tin. tool. parts of flowers of sulphur and 6 parts of The handsomest.37 parts. being the handsomest mosaic gold. brush should be dipped in the paint and put to work without first being . removed from the fire. is then washed and dried. but eventually when no more fumes are generated is increased to dark -red heat. life and spring. however. and tin. while the mosaic gold remains on the bottom. This is obtained through the waste in beating imitation leaf silver. IMITATION: See Brick Stain. It passes through the shank of the brush and is kiln-dried to fit tles of Mosaic amalgam parts of muth. stirring all with an iron wire until the bismuth is fused as well. whereby the silver precipitates as a metallic powder. : ashes. 8 parts of precipitate from stannic muriate (stannic acid) and 4 parts of sulphur also give a BRONZING OF WOOD See Wood. out of hot rooms. and any temperature that would tend to shrink the wood of the handle. rubbing it on wet. It is employed principally for bronzing plaster-of-Paris figures. Imitation Silver Bronze. next vermilion sublimates and some stannic chloride. springing. ammoniac. it Mosaic gold. 64. In order to increase the luster it is ground again in a dry condition. One may also melt 50 good tin in a crucible. the sal Brushes HOW TO TAKE CARE OF PAINT AND VARNISH BRUSHES. and brass. and mixing with 6 parts of mercury This is mixed with 7 to an amalgam. copper. lacs and spirit stains. finely ground. is odorless and tasteless. delicately translucent leaflets. 2d. or elasticity sufficient to enable the varnisher to spread the varnish without reducing it with turpentine. consisting of lustrous. in a cool place. generally of tin. Mosaic silver is an of equal parts of mercury. 3d. excellence of make. This is obtained by the finely ground waste from beating leaf silver or by dissolving silver in aqua fortis.140 Mosaic Gold. its outward tension is lost and the bristles loosened. and dissolves only in chlorine solua can be ground on a stone compound BRONZE VARNISHES: See Varnishes. and boiling potash lye. which includes fullness of hair or bristles and permanency of binding. free from lead. See Plating. such as shel- upper layer. See Photography. excellence of material. As soon as this occurs the crucible must be Silver. then stir in. The brisevery brush are held in place by the handle. If it shrinks. and 4th. : BROOCHES. BRONZING SOLUTIONS FOR PAINTS See Paints. to a true chisel edge. and sulphur. Whitewash or kalsomine brushes should not be put into newly slaked lime or hot kalsomine. It is a good plan to fill the varnish brush before putting it in the keeper. BRUSHES evenly until slab. as long as the contents are still liquid. Cement-set brushes should never be put in any alcohol mixture. and as soon as it becomes liquid add 50 parts of bismuth. Temperature for Brushes. Varnish brushes should be selected with a view to their possessing the following qualities: 1st.63 parts. bis- perfectly. whereupon the mass is subjected for several hours to a heat which at first does not attain redness. aqua regia. For this reason the first principle in brush care is to keep the when it is new or not soaking. This operation is conducted either in a glass retort or in an earthenware crucible. 25 parts of mercury and mix the whole mass No new Cleaning Paint Brushes. The sal ammoniac escapes first on heating. PHOTOGRAPHS ON: BROWN OINTMENT See Ointments. which.

After working them through the hand it is a good thing to pass the brush back and forth over a sheet of sandpaper. most of them will first few minutes' workeasily picked from the brushes. This is done to prevent twisting of the bristles. The chisel-pointed brushes should be set at an incline. . it dry. but with the bristles enunder water. with a long and curved glass tube attached to it. A good remedy to restore lettering brushes which have lost their elasticity and do not keep a point. and the breadth of the stripe to be drawn with the brush can be accurately regulated. as that makes the brush ** lousy" roughening the bristles. It is then ready to dip in the paint. Instead of the twine. immersed An imporPaint Brushes at Rest. should be placed in water for a few minutes. This rough surface will pull out the loose bristles and smooth down the rough ends of the chisel point. To Restore Brushes. They should be more thoroughly dry cleaned. a covering of rubber employed. tant principle in brush care is never to leave the brush on end while at rest. then laid on their sides over night. and all color in varrequire different handling than paint brushes. stain. Holes are bored in the handles so the brush will hang free of the bottom. pentine of the varnish that the brush is used for. The bristle bunch of brushes is bound with rope so as to keep them together for use. thus thoroughly dry cleaned. Even for temporary rest during a job the brush should never stand on end. The brush nish but not cleaned.BRUSHES BUNIONS By working it with a brisk movement back and forth through the hand most of the dust and loose hairs will be taken out. They should be dipped in raw oil or the For the Methods. The cleaning of the brush is much facilitated thereby. BUBBLE (SOAP) LIQUID: See Soap Bubble Liquid. and then swung and shaken dry. Setting the first Paint -Brush Bristles. should not be They preferably kept in turpentine. then dip the pencil quickly in cold water. in order that all loose hairs may be worked out. or from one varnish to another. All brushes should be washed in benzine or turpentine and shaken dry not whipped when it is desired to change from one color to another. with nails driven through the sides on which the brushes can be suspended in water. See also Cleaning Preparations a--d a few minutes in clean turpentine and swinging in water. BUBBLES. Bubbles of becomes set. and although some of the hairs come out in the ing and can be surface. or be removed by the aid of a soft brush. Before placing tirely air often adhere to in depositing solutions. Varnish Cleaning Varnish Brushes. but the liquid should be free from sediment. or a paint keg. BUNIONS : See Corn Cures. should then be washed by working it for A Removable Binding. is as follows: oil Put the pencil in and brush it sev- eral times over a hot iron in such a man- ner that the hairs touch the iron from each side. better. but only until wet through. It should never be put may be For carriage work and fine varnishing the brush should be broken in on the rubbing coat in order to work out all the dust particles before it is used on the finishing coats. not long enough to soak or swell it. A paint brush. 2 or 3 days new brushes require special care while at rest. Varnish Brushes at Rest. At night it should always be placed in a "brush-keeper" a water-tight box. Washing Brushes. paint itself and smoothed out carefully. molds They prevented by previously dipping the object into spirits of wine. Varnish brushes should be kept at rest in turand or in some varnish. It is necessary to do this only 2 or 3 times before the shape BUBBLES f GELATIN: See Gelatin. when cleaned. which is easily slipped over the bristles and can be conveniently removed again. and brushes used in varnish buggy paint. and to keep the shape of the brush. or by directing a powerful current of the liquid against them by means of a vulcanized india-rubber bladder. may still be loose. according to how far the covering is slipped over the brush. the handle supported just enough to allow the brush to lie along the point. 141 them in wiped so as not water the brushes should be to be too full of paint. may be BUG KILLERS: See Insecticides.

alco- The orlean and hol. approaching the consistency of cocoa butter. often enough to prevent their becoming dry or sticky. Leave the surface uncovered. nor does it come from a single vegetable or animal fat on the other. colored with yolk of egg. stearine remains. It is then taken and. saffron. Butter (See also Foods. turmeric are macerated with olive oil and The weight of the filtered expressed. arms in the solution. and best to immerse fingers. For burns in the face and other parts of the body. of witch ha/el (distillate) and apply freely. While not derived from milk. what is more. Fat from freshly slaughtered cattle thorough washing is placed in clean water and surrounded with ice. salt water poultices are applied. and will yield an oleopalmitin suitable for churning up into a butter substitute. an- . liquid is made up again to 240 parts. curcuma root (turmeric). creamy paste. 240 parts. being rather firmer at ordinary temperatures than that sub- stance. oleomargarine.. 5 parts." or butter substitute. Mixture for Burns. temperature.6 C. leaving a product commercially known as oleo oil which. the addition of a little salt the melted fat is drawn off. when churned with cream or milk. after hands. by weight. ature of the mixture is raised to 113 F. in cold weather. stood to cool so as to allow the stearine and palmitin to separate. by measure. the whole Eortion eing properly salted. the membranes are dissolved and the fat is melted and After rises to the top of the mixture. Artificial Butter. by weight.) the graining vats and allowed to stand for a day. and with usually a proof creamery butter. by weight. are taken. by weight. A mixture of castor oil with the white of egg is recommended for burns. or both. menthol into 44 parts. base of cocoa butter. It is fluid oleopalmitin (so-called "oleoThe "oleo margarine'') is pressed out.000 parts of fat. In making butterine use neutral III. then settled until it is II. under the influence of the pepsin in the stomachs. washed beef suet furnishes a Carefully basis for which is made from selected leaf lard in a very similar manner to oleo oil. Put 27 parts. After 2 hours. product. Enough oil is added to make a thick. but in taste it resembles that of a fair article of butter and. salted. and the alcohol is expelled again by heating the mixture. "Ankara" is a substance which in general appearance resembles a good article of butter. is churned with cream and milk. (65. which is the same as that used by the manufactures of an edible substitute The thoroughly butter. 80 parts. 1. 1 part. A good plan is to bandage the parts and wet the wrappings with this mixture. This neutral lard is cured in salt brine for from 48 to 70 hours at an ice-water lard. its behavior under heat is very similar to that of butter it browns and forms a sort of spume Ankara consists of a like that of fat. burns is a solution of cooking salt in water. by weight. excepting that no stearine is extracted. IV. In both cases coloring matter is used. 1 part of potassium carbonate. where it is allowed to remain until all animal heat has been removed. gives the new food perfectly clear. by measure. The pressing extracts the stearine. producing an article which when properly salted and packed is ready for the market. 300 parts of water. carrying about 10 per cent of milk. on the one hand. At certain seasons of the year viz. by weight. and 2 stomachs of The temperpigs or sheep. and constituted the "oleomargarine. oil" is then mixed with 10 per cent of its weight of milk and a little butter color and churned. 80 parts. A very efficacious remedy for III. for natural washed and finely chopped suet is rendered in a steam-heated tank. and then pressed in bags in a hydraulic Forty to 50 per cent of solid press. of II. It is then cut into small pieces by machinery and cooked at a temperature of about 150 F. next the filtered saffron-alcohol extract is added. which must be tolerably strong. The eggs are broken into a bowl and the castor oil slowly poured in while the eggs are beaten. It is quite odorless. The product is then worked. with the desired proportion of oleo oil and fine butter. olive oil. with olive oil. while 50 to 60 per cent dairymen to color their butter. when it is ready for the presses. I. Then it is drawn into Butter Color.) until the fat in liquid form has separated from the tissue. I. a small quantity of sesame oil or salad oil made from cottonseed oil is used to soften the texture of the product. Leaf lard can be worked in the same way as beef suet.BURNS BUTTER BURNS : of See also Ointments and Turpentine. which is applied to the The applications are repeated burn. Orlean.

this has remained in contact for a few minutes. sunflower oil. 40 parts. work the mass up thoroughly. by VII. by weight. and to this be added from 3 to 4 ounces of good olive oil. To Sweeten Rancid Butter. The powder is prepared as follows: Sodium chloride. with constant rubbing up with the pestle. yi. neutral lard. coarsely powdered and careAfter fully sifted to free it from dust. cocoanut 30 parts. entirely harmless. decomposition of the soap. Dissolve the powder in the water and add the vinegar and syrup. by weight. vinegar. 150 parts. 80 parts. syrup of buckthorn. in a clean Wedgwood mortar. 5 parts. The molten fats are added to the egg batter and the whole is stirred at a temperature sufficient to produce coagulation of the albumen (150-200 F. and about 16 The appearper cent of cow's butter. 33. by weight. 20 parts. oleo oil. 7 parts. and macerate together for fully a week. and it gives a beautiful golden To make the color. is mixed with albuminous "batter. e. add to it a fatty acid product. The mass is then cooled gradually with continuous stirring. animal fat. and this may be fat. It is known as The margarine will keep for months. Harmless Butter Color.. part. let "aleoli. by weight. V. g. by weight." 4 parts. then spread out and dry over some hot surWhen dry. 150 parts. animal fat. : . or cream. and distillation in the vacuum at about 140 F. then wash in plenty of fresh. In order to give margarine the aroma and flavor of cow butter. it would certainly raise its melt- ing point. instead of butter. 10 parts. by weight. 50 parts. Buttermilk powder. without imparting any The above composition is strong smell.). milk sugar. albuminous constituent be composed of the whites and yolks of eggs beaten to a foam the product will have the consistency and color of butter. 80 parts. garlic If an ounce of peeled be rubbed up into a pulp. BUTTERMILK. 5 parts. carefully working out the residual water. with the addition of 1 If the part of salt as a preservative. Fresh butter. Melt the butter in a water bath. by weight. sunflower oil. It is seen that these three varieties contain respectively 50. If cheaply prepared from mutton added. complete the process.BUTTER CAFlS PARFAIT 143 kara may be considered as belonging to the category of the margarines. alum. lie on the point of a penknife is added to a churnful of milk. ARTIFICIAL. cold water. by weight. An English Margarine. A mixture of edible fats of suitable consistency. BUTTER COLORANT: See Foods. 100 parts. cocoanut oil. The addition of the product is made upon emulsification of the fats with milk. by weight. which runs liquid in the Spanish summer. Fresh butter. 1 part. 50 parts. CADMIUM ALLOYS See Alloys. by weight. the butter is strained through a clean flannel. II. Alum. Olive-Oil Paste. and the salt is worked in. extract of turmeric add 1 part of powmeric. 100 parts. weight. again pulverize thorface. BUTTONS OF ARTIFICIAL AGATE: See Agate. before churning. sunflower oil. that the mucilage obtainable from other bulbs of the Lilium tribe would prove equally efficient in conferring semisolidity on the oil. Ankara is obtained in the market in the form of cakes or tablets of 2 pounds in weight. 1 part." The more oil is portion of olive easily solidified stearine. As much of the powder as will light. 20 parts. by weight. 5 parts." To Impart the Aroma and Taste of Natural Butter to Margarine. III. 80 parts. the oil becomes converted into a It is possible pasty mass. Add 25 to 30 drops of lime chloride to every 2 pounds of butter. ARTIFICIAL: TESTS FOR: See Foods. I. 1 part. and butter. Formulas V to VII are for a Russian arti" ficial butter called Perepusk. If the rancid odor is BUTTER. Mix. 30 parts. oil. along with some freshly burned animal charcoal. potassium nitrate. Fresh butter. pul- verized finely. in certain proportions. Protect the product from the oughly. and work out the residual water. which is obtained by saponification of butter. Wash the butter first with fresh milk and afterwards with spring water. cocoanut oil. like butter. 100 parts. to olive oil. 1 dered turmeric to 5 parts of alcohol. ance of the mixture is nearly perfect. extract of turWith the extract dampen the powder as evenly as possible. largely used by the Spanish peasantry. not completely removed. animal fat.

leum many other substances have been proposed which answer the purpose equally well. and that the camphor dries more quickly. and pours a layer of gelaand water soluble varnish When it is nearly reduced little alcohol. in scales Camphor hot mass: 3. evaporating. spread out in the air. powdered camphor may be used for all purposes except for solution in alcohol. thus limiting the subsequent generation of acetylene from the Instead of petroremaining carbide. then pass through a moderately fine wire sieve. prevents the access of air to the carbide. if necessary. toluol. etc. with formation of acetylene gas. pitch. say 15 minutes. so that the water can get at the contents. e. as well as chalk. shells containing bars. such as colophony. rosin. the cartridge-like shell is pierced or cut open. this decomposition is also atOne of the oldest tended with dangers. The petroleum. talc. The saccharine substances dissolve in the generating water. which previously have to be liquefied. According to another process carbide put on the market in such a shape that. the loss. limestone. preparation is employed as a moth preventive. proposes for portable especially bicycle lamps. Of a different nature is a medium offered by Letang of Paris. methods of preservation is the saturation of the carbide with petroleum.. wax paper. Calcium carbide is known to possess a glue. which prevents the water from CALCIUM SULPHIDE (LUMINOUS): See Paints. Deodorization of Calcium Carbide. of Rouen. Before sifting add 1 per cent of white vaseline and 5 per cent of sugar of milk.000 parts 1. For this ordinary and varnished pasteboard. or varnish of any kind. over the carbide petrolatum. CAMPHOR PREPARATIONS: Fragrant Naphthalene Camphor. paraffine. g. of bars. which is formed by the decomposition of the carbide which admits of its easy removal. Before use. Take equal parts of strong ether and alcohol to reduce the camphor to powder. with this mixture. vaseline. tar. using a stubby shaving brush to assist in working it through. oils. to the proper degree of fineness add a few drops of fluid petrolatum and immeIn this manner diately triturate again. Melt on the steam bath and add to the Coumarin Mirbane oil 2 parts 10 parts The Cast in plates or compressed tablets.000 parts turpentine. and similar substances may be used which ward off atmospheric moisture. to which it is well to add some nitro-benzol (mirbane essence). CALFSKIN: See Leather. simply to pour some petroleum over the carbide and to pour off the remainder not absorbed. It is claimed for this method it only takes one-half of the time required when alcohol alone is used. that ^ . and also have a dissolving action on the slaked lime. The carbide is coated sulphur. CALCIUM CARBIDE: and Use of Calcium Calcium carbide is readily attacked by the air and the moisture contained in the generators and consequently decomposes during the storing. This which does not cake together. Others make a certain quantity of reduced carbide. Le Roy. a powder as fine as flour is obtained. either without any admixture or united into a compact mass by a binding agent. such as stearine. thus protecting the carbide from premature decomposition. CAMERA RENOVATION: See Photography.CALAMUS dORDlAL-CAMPMOft very unpleasant odor because It stantly develops small quantities of impure acetylene in contact with the moisture of tne air. Powder the camphor in the usual manner. Permanent Form. owing to the insolubility of the II. The more or less reduced carbide is filled in the shell. as it will impart to the latter a faint opalescence. but permits a very satisfactory generation of gas on admission of water. a little petroleum. Aside from Preservation Carbide. with the addition of a use equivalent quantities for every charge. solid bodies. tinfoil. thin sneet zinc. sand. He employs sugar or saccharine bodies to which he adds. in which the evil is more noticeable than in large plants. I. Naphthalene white. or sand. Triturate fairly dry. merely by counting or measuring one is in a position to is Powdered Camphor in. In using such carbide a layer of petroleum forms on the surface of the water in the generator. without weighing. Gearing casts molten carbide in the shape tin. etc.

stearic acid). 2 pounds. garded as the extreme limit consistent with proper solidity of the candles. CANARY-BIRD PASTE. Some add to every 5 pounds. stir well. Melt the wax and suet together. which 16 parts Benzoated suet 48 parts Camphor. mix. 5. parts 27 peach-pink. remove.000 parts of ceresine. and pour into molds. Recipe I of course gives petroleum. The following are two recipes given in a German The figures depatent specification. strain into a similar vessel. blanched Pea meal . stiff Camphor White wax Lard. 10 or 15 grains of saffron and the yolks of 2 eggs. Paraffine wax. Three parts of hydroxystearic acid are dissolved in 1 part of a suitable solvent (e. 3 ounces. pale or dark.. ingredients stiff The paste. then add the camphor in saturated solution in spirit.000 Manufacture of Composite Paraffine Candles. colors should be ground in oil and the ceresine tinted with them afterwards. stearine. to the melted substance when at the point of cooling. Oil of cloves 1 145 (un3 parts sufficient to Butter.. candles more transparent than does The 15 per cent may be rerecipe II. . 16 parts 32 parts The solution dries quickly and does not affect the burning of the candle. Green: 16-17 brilliant green. Pink and red: of ceresine. 8 parts Essential oil. 200-250 parts per 5.000 parts of ceresine. 41 May green. Paraffine wax. 90. put in the oils when nearly are worked into a pressed through a colander or large sieve to granulate the mass. 200 parts per 5. medium. Transparent Candles.000 parts of ceresine. is make pound Melt the wax and lard together. mix well. and let cool. but before the mixture begins to set add the camphorated oil and the perfume. and the solution is mixed with paraffine wax to form a stock for the manufacture of composite candles. Dip the candles in the following mixture: Magnesium sulphate 15 parts 15 parts Dextrin 100 parts Water . powdered by means of alcohol.CAMPHOR CANDLES Camphor Pomade Oil of bitter almonds. to perfume. CANDLES : Coloring Ceresine Candles for the Christmas Tree. II. previously warmed. add the camphor and perfume. molds. Dissolve the camphor in the oil by the aid of a gentle heat. by German canary-bird Sweet almonds. powdered. 15. drachm fresh salted) . For coloring these candles only dye stuffs soluble in oil can be employed. stir well and pour into 5 5 pounds pounds The above-named parts of ceresine. 5. CAN VARNISH The : See Varnishes. cold. 70. orepared 20 drops li ounces 4 ounces 1 Honey. powdered.. 33 May green. add a solution of 2 ounces powdered borax in 1 pound of glycerine. note parts by weight: I. or 29 chamois. 200 parts per 5.000 White wax Spermaceti Melt on a water bath in an earthen or porcelain dish. g. Silver gray: 29 silver gray. fast viole. Stearine (stearic acid) 8 pounds 10 pounds Lard L Camphor Ice.000 parts of ceresine. White wax CANARY BIRDS AND THEIR EASES : DIS- See Veterinary Formulas. 15. quantity sufficient.000 parts of ceresine. 1 part Perfume. III. quantity a paste. 100-120 parts Violet: 26 per 5. stearine. IN THE : PREPARATION OF CELLULOID CAMPHOR AND RHUBARB AS A REMEDY FOR CHOLERA: See Cholera Remedies. 150 parts per 5. petroleum. following is a formula much used raisers: To Prevent the Trickling of Burning Candles. 61 old gold.t R. Oil of a Imond 16 parts 4 parts White wax 4 parts Spermaceti Paraffine 8 parts Camphor. Melt the solids together. When nearly cold. and pour into molds. about 100 parts per 5. add camphor. II.. CAMPHOR SUBSTITUTES See Celluloid. Yellow and orange: 30 wax yellow. Blue: 23-24 lavender blue. 150 parts per 5.

. an action which occurs suddenly. CARAMEL Cloudless it is : where they are not wanted. Candles are colored they sometimes body that is covered with a colored layer of paraffine wax. is necessary so as to retain the mass in its swollen condition. latter. a small addition of alcohol will prove an effective remedy. CANDLES (FUMIGATING) See Fumigants. Turpentine may be employed for the same purpose. brilliant The up can hardly be recommended. owing to its acid character. it will be apparent that heat must not be carried on to the point of carbonization. They are more easily applied. paraffine. candles are made (stearine. made from sugar it. stearine the necessary quantity of the color is added to the melted mass and well stirred in. ordinary while coloring or glucose being constantly sugar pletely cooled off. Caramel Coloring. Hence the cloudiness. which are apt to cause trouble by distributed in soluble being accidentally CAPPING MIXTURES FOR BOTTLES See Bottle-Capping Mixtures. owing to the intensity of the heat of the mass. etc. and also special preparations of the colors in stearine. however. and has no injurious effect on the quality of the stearine. A CANDY COLORS AND FLAVORS: See Confectionery." formed by making concentrated solutions of the color. CARAMEL See Food. Since paraffine and ozokerite dissolve comparatively little. some blues turn red at a moderate degree of heat (120 F. : to a temperature of about metal pan capable of holding nearly ten times as much as the sugar used. I. they will not become colored. either throughout consist of a white CANDLE CARAMELS CANVAS WATERPROOFING See Waterproofing. and are. particles. for instance. there are the cosine colors previously mentioned. perfectly understood that in the manufacture of caramel. and so must be colored One way is to dissolve the indirectly. According to the material from which or CAOUTCHOUC See Rubber. It is also an advantage to dissolve the colors previously in alcohol and add the concentrated solution to the melted stearine. auramine. IN FOOD : CANDY: See Confectionery. Cloudy caramel is due to the fact that part of the sugar has been dissociated and reduced to carbon. The finished product will be insoluble if more than about 15 per cent of its weight is driven off by the heat. Extreme care must be taken and the face and hands protected during the addition of the water.) and return to blue only when comit material is by heating stirred. : CAPSULE VARNISH: See Varnishes. Then carefully add sufficient water to bring the viscid mass to the consistence of a heavy syrup. The alcohol soon evaporates. dissolves the coal-tar colors much more readily than do the perfectly neutral parFor coloring affine and ozokerite waxes. An interesting phenomenon is the change some colors undergo in a warm temperature. and consequent sputtering. this will be noticed while the candle mixture is being melted previous to molding into candles. The green. thereto the aniline fore. con- When tinuing the heat until caramelization takes place or until tumescence ceases and the mass has assumed a dark-brown color. sugar is to be deprived of the one molecule of its water of constitution. : CAOUTCHOUC SOLUTION FOR PAINTS See Paint. Concerning the colors suitable for candles. if the solution effected happens to be incomplete. and also chroline yellow. 405 F. For a number of years there have been on the market so-called " fat colors. the fire must instantly be extinguished or removed. Caramel may be made on a small scale in the following manner: Place 4 or 5. II. ounces of granulated sugar in a shallow porcelain-lined evaporating dish and apply either a direct heat or that of an oil bath. taniline blue. . which is insoluble in water. bleaches so rapidly that tartrazine. or ozokerite). preferred powdered colors.146 Candle Coloring. CARAMELS : See Confectionery. the process of coloring varies. : Stearine. color in oleic acid or in stearine acid and add the olution to the wax to be colored. As soon as it froths up so as nearly to fill the pan.

CARDBOARD. of the volatile oils. 4 drachms 4 drachms 9 ounces Keep in a and filter. 25 parts. CARPET SOAP 147 Carbolic acid (cryst. improved carbolineum is applied to wood or masonry with a brush. with stirring. protected dampness and for- CARBON PRINTING: See Photography.. obtained See Cleaning Preparations and Meth- Disguising Odor of Carbolic Acid. clove. II. I. to an extent at least. I. decolorize the acid the following simple method is recommended. ture. Perfumed Carbolic Acid. and of somewhat Treatment of Carbolic-Acid Burns. through fuller's earth. . after the greater part of the substance has crystallized out. See See Waterproofing. by weight. TO CLEAN ods.. and on being melted yield a nearly colorThe alcohol may be recovless liquid.). cool place for a few days. Carbolic acid (cryst. Melt together 50 parts of American rosin (F) and 150 parts of pale paraffine oil (yellow oil). of creosote oil. quite brown-red on account of having been kept in a tin vessel. and wintergreen may be used. Mix together and heat to about 347 F. letting cool down and.9. caraway. thus causing only a part of the contents to In this state the acid is put into melt. or until the fumes given The resulting off begin to deposit soot. and add. cajeput. glass funnels and left to stand for 10 to 12 days in a room which is likewise Clear kept at the above temperature. For purifying carbolic acid which has already become thick consistency. white crystals form from the drippings. decanting See Pain Killers. of beechwood tar oil of a higher specific weight than 0. and the burning and tingling will almost immediately cease. CARDS (PLAYING).) Cologne water Dilute acetic acid. carbolineum is brown. however. 20 parts of rosin oil (rectified). and then CARBOLINEUM: See also Paints and Wood.stronger smelling substance will disguise the odor of carbolic acid. ered by redistillation at a low temperaThis is a rather costly procedure. elapsed since the burning is too great for alcohol to be of value. : from the air and light. but it is a difficult odor to CARDBOARD.CARBOLIC ACID CARBOLIC ACID. adding 12 per cent of alcohol of 95 per cent. while by repeating same process more clear crystals are obtained from the solidified dark colored mother lye. CARBON PROCESS IN PHOTOGRAPHY: See Photography. to make filter 3 minims 10 minims 10 ounces CARBOLIC SOAP: See Soap. : 80 per cent of clear product altogether.10. the alcoWhen the time hol has no effect.. when cool it is ready This for use and is packed in casks. the receptacle is exposed for a short time to a temperature of 25 C. the surfaces treated dry quickly. of black coal tar oil of a specific gravity higher than 1. . WATERPROOFING: CARMINATIVES : such as peppermint. Water.). tained in this manner are snowy white. 1 ounce 1 ounce Alcohol 10 minims Oil bergamot 10 minims Oil eucalyptus Oil citronella The crystals obthe liquid residue. Tincture cudbear. . Set aside for several days. CARBONYLE See Wood. Any Cements and disguise on account Camphor and some of its persistence. by weight. CARPET PRESERVATION: See Household Formulas. and are effectively protected from mation of fungi. CARPET SOAP: See Soap. Sixty parts. To Decolorization of Carbolic Acid. II. brush the burns with a saturated solution of picric acid in water. In this manner 75 to is CARBUNCLE REMEDIES: See Boil Remedy. 25 parts. WATERPROOF GLUE FOR: Adhesives under Waterproof Glues. To Restore Reddened Carbolic Acid. very soon loose the odor of the carbolineum. Thoroughly wash the hands with alcohol.. Preparation of Carbolineum. (77 F. Demont's method consists in melting the acid on the water bath.. Unless employed immediately. by weight. which remained unchanged.

In the manufacture of fancy papers. facture of the various articles made from artificial ivory (billiard balls. or caseinate of alumina. On the other hand. and of ammonia are the only ones soluble in water. lactic acid. and is ready to be incorporated in the plastic mass of the celluloid. meerschaum. itate should be washed thoroughly. should be chosen. but on account of its gummy or pasty state. The two solutions are mixed in a receptacle provided with a mechanical stirrer. Casein. etc. to obtain caseinate of alumina it is sufficient to add to a solution of casein in caustic soda. in practice. and moistened with a solution of camphor in alcohol (40 to 50 parts of camphor in 50 to 70 of alcohol for 100 of nitro-cellulose) as it is practiced in celluloid factories. laces. the caseinate of alumina If a white compound is yields the best. for it renders the mass more plastic. and various articles It prepared from agglomeration of cork (packing boards. and capaprocess. and the solution filtered. casein is very widely used. of soda. this washing presents certain difficulties. or papers that are made to imitate the appearance of various cloths. may be conducted in a mixing apparatus. and should After the washing DC done carefully. the cylinders of which are slightly heated at the same time as the cdseinate. a salt of the base of which the caseinate is desired is disIt is solved.. redissolved in a sodium carbonate solu- tion. For the latter immersion and washing it has been found that an addition of 1 to 5 per cent of borax is advantageous. is instantly formed. for preparation of waterproof products. etc. ana silks. etc. well not to operate on too concentrated a solution. or of magnesia. caseinates of potash. by draining. it is found preferable to effect it with a rolling mill. and nickel will give varied tints. dried. CARRON See OIL: See Cosmetics. (175-195 F. ble of replacing it in all its applications. milk is heated to from 70 to 90 C. ordinary cellulonged washing. and pulverized. although possessing the same properties. all the others are insoluble and may be readily prepared by double decomposition. This plastic mass of nitro-cellulose is placed in a rolling mill. as known. the caseinate of zinc. and sulphuric or hydrochloric acid is added until it no longer The precipitate causes precipitation. in order to obtain the insoluble caseinate precipitate in as finely This precipdivided a state as possible. and is finding new uses every day. this time by It is again washed. skimmed milk or buttermilk is used. etc. may be CASE HARDENING: Steel. as they cannot be employed for feeding hogs or for making cheese. is For the transparency. by means of proPure. dried or pressed again. Thus. is also largely used in waterproofing tissues.). color. Thus. but. Casein. and facilThis itates the operation of mixing. cheaper than pure cellulose. oper- On washed to free it from residual lactose. its Manufacture and production of casein. imitation of celluloid. copper. is as follows: dissolved in a solution of caustic soda (100 parts of water for 10 to 25 parts of soda). ating as follows: The nitro-cellulose is introduced in the plastic state. the most suitable caseinate should be selected. toilet boxes. except of a very inferior sort. and again precipitated. articles of slight value.). a solution of sulphate of alumina. may act the part of an acid and combine with bases to form caseinates or caseates. and for colored products the caseinates of iron.). The process employed for the new products. for example. According to the results desired. hardness. with a base of celluloid and casein- one hand casein is ate. the mass is freed from the greater part of water contained. prepared as above. of This little or no alimentive qualities. and this liquid is filtered to separate the matters not dissolved and the impurities. It takes 8 gallons of skimmed milk to make 1 pound of dry casein. This precipitate ought to be freed from the sulphate of soda (formed by double decomposition). so as to free it from the soda salt formed by double decomposition. then it is washed in alcohol. among these compounds. in Casein Dried Uses. or energetic pressing. It also enters into the manusteam. With lime water casein makes a glue that resists heat. an insoluble precipitate of casein.148 CASEIN lose CARRIAGE-TOP DRESSING See Leather. then the whole mass is worked by the cylinders until the mixture of the two . etc. desired. incorporated with it by this producing a new compound.. followed by drying. if a translucent compound is to be obtained. combs.

or iron cast in brass. and has all At 90 to 100 C. The process is designed to produce a strongly acid compound of phosphoric acid and casein. The intimate union of the phosphoric acid and casein during the gradual concentration of the mixture and during the grinding and drying. turned. The remainder of the casein or of the caseinate is added now zinc. It burns less readily than celluloid. til recent years metal castings were all made in sand molds. and takes on a superb polish. easily /with the solution until it is intimately incorporated and the mass becomes uniform. Although the water runs off again. for example. the cost price is less than that of celluloid. Nearly all of the softer metals are syrupy consistency. When this compound is mingled with its equivalent yields of sodium bicarbonate it about 17 per cent of gas. CASEIN CEMENTS: See Adhesives. CASSIUS. The product resembles celluloid. that is. It may be sawed. the same as iron castings are produced to-day. it and the pouring has for the purpose of to be by any convenient method. : compound. such as a CASKET TRIMMINGS: See Castings. by decomposing dicalcic or monocalcic phosphate with sulphuric acid.CASTING homogeneous. compound an alkaline of casein and an is alkali or earth. has dried up it naturally cannot hold the water poured into swelling it. it swells and dissolves slowly. and produces a dry and stable product. products may be manufactured at an extremely low cost. removes the hydroscopic property of the phosphoric acid. PURPLE OF: See Gold. Casting UnCastings Out of Various Metals. and only the silver . the moistened straw remains behind and greatly assists the swelling up of the wood. and it assumes a uniform fluid form. repeated many times before the desired end is reached. practically stable and not hydroscopic. produced in the CASTS. A caseinate may also be employed. and carved without difficulty. dried in an apparatus in the same way as ordinary celluloid. water. where they are compressed. The compound is dried in a current of hot air. CASEIN VARNISH See Varnishes. The mixture is then heated till the curdled form of the casein disappears. and it is ground to a fine powder. REPAIRING OF BROKEN See Adhesives and Lutes. : CASKS : duction. finally. The commercial phosphoric acid may also be employed.). and should be washed with cold water to remove impurities. and the casein introduced in the proportion of 25 to 50 per cent of the weight of the phosphoric acid present. The casein may be precipitated from the skimmed milk by means of a suitable acid. which may be employed as an acid ingredient in bakers' yeast and for other purposes. molds. is 149 perfectly is and mixed mass These leaves are placed in hydraulic presses. The phosphoric acid may be obtained Phosphate of Casein and its Pro- To Render Shrunken Wooden Casks When a wooden receptacle Watertight. copper. which may be regarded as a hyperphosWhen it is mixed with phate of casein. (194 erties. or in any other way that will not discolor it. The employment of 23 to 25 parts by weight of phosphoric acid with 75 to 77 parts of casein constitutes a good proportion. and its combustibility diminishes in proportion as the percentage of casemate increases. and the block thus formed is afterwards cut into leaves of the These leaves are thickness desired. PRESERVATION OF: See Plaster. following way: A sufficient quantity of phosphoric acid is incorporated with the casein or a caseinate in such a way as to insure sufficient acidity in the resulting The new compound CASTS (PLASTER). and molded. F. Then the mixture is concentrated to a CASTS FROM WAX MODELS: See Modeling. then cold. An aqueous solution of phosphoric acid is made. the patterns were used for the impressions in the sand. laying a stone on top and then filling the vessel with water. first hot. A much quicker way is to stuff the receptacle full of straw or bad hay. filed. and by using a large proportion of caseinate. and the final sufficiently hard to be drawn out in leaves in the same way as practiced for pure celluloid. it its propis to 212 becomes quite plastic.

he pours out the balance. but gold and silver can be run into them. are usually This has a close affinalloyed with zinc. and requires strengthening at the weak portions. Surprising results are obtained with this material. Wash or to Make a Plaster Cast of a Coin Medal. and alloys readily. on the other hand it will not well and will corrode in Aluminum a short time. its carbon residue filling up the finest pores Casket hardware trimmings. Plaster of Paris molds are the easiest made for pieces where only a few castThe only difficulty is ings are wanted. but this mixture is a detriment and causes much trouble afterwards. but if a real intimately bronze piece is to be produced it must be out of copper and the mold made in To make the castings hollow. in respect to the whole mass. in sand. and the metal should be poured in as cool a state as it silver articles. as this class of work looks very unsightly. as the different co-efficients of expansion of the two substances may easily exercise a disOne-fifth of graphite. which one has procured at the foundries. bronzes. a core is required. The most exact observance of any written or printed directions is no guarantee of success. are cast the old way. and make the walls of any thickness. as they often extend deep into the body of the metal. and as the core is made out of sand. in melting. manner. 2 parts. The larger holes cannot. though the former material is highly porous. is The French The tin. An experienced man can make hollow castings in this way. before burning. but it is advisable to add complished by mixing both substances and adding melted rosin. carries the fine graphite particles along into the pores. If the casting is to be hollow and is to be cast in a metal mold. wood spirit. which The liquid mixture plenty of rosin. The rosin. Large bicycle frames have been successfully cast in this will run. An experienced hand knows poured in. Sand Holes in Cast-brass work. are nearly all cast out of tin and antimony. should be well dipped into the dipping acid before being polished. when plated and finished. whereupon the whole mass is exposed to heat. then again in a suitable manner and sifted. Use a mixture of Alfinely ground coke and graphite. and after the molds are full the metal is cooled gradually and the casting taken out as soon as cooled enough to prevent breaking from the shrinkage. While this alloy assists the molder to produce his castings easily. Cast-Brass are so extensively used on coffins.150 and German CASTING should be well smoked over a gaslight. or until well covered with a layer of soot. indeed. Practice alone can give expertness in this work How . sand. and the fine pulverization is a difficult operation. if possible. and this is mostly done with wood filling or with iron rods. A plaster mold polish how this awkward 1 far he dare go in polishing work of character. The merous and deep sand holes. possess the consistency of mortar. Aluminum can be readily cast in iron molds. and in brass Work. are cast in the Adhesion of Modeling Sand to Castings. with sand. lutely necessary to use them successfully. which are imicopper or brass molds. ity with aluminum. and when the operator thinks the desired thickness has cooled next to the walls. in order thoroughly to clean these objectionable cavities. like wire real bronze. part. in sufficient quantity to color. lampblack. then the process is very simple. it not infrequently happens that in endeavoring to work out such cavities they become enlarged. gives the best results. castings. that it requires a few days to dry the and that is absoplaster thoroughly. when it presents nu- metal used is brittle. still the invention attains its purpose of producing an abThis is acsolutely smooth surface. especially the handles. Black Gumlac. especially if the molds have been previously heated to nearly the same temperature as the molten aluminum. Those difficulties may be avoided if pure aluminum is used. the same can be afterwards washed out. The mold is filled with molten metal. and the polishing should be pushed to an extent sufficient to obliterate the smaller sand holes. which are secured in the molds before the metal is molds. Not only can the softer metals be run into plaster molds. of the coke. for Casting Molds. turbing action. without considerable labor. if pitted all over with minute hollows. be obliterated. so that the rosin decomposes. This fills the inside of the figure so that the molten copper runs around it. must. After cooling the mass is first ground in edge mills. It is advisable to take proportionately little graphite. tations. possessing this quality even as a fine powder. To Prevent material used and an unlimited number can be made principally zinc and of castings in the mold.

best done by dipping the mold in sulphuric acid. when Finally. The latter escapes. half-spherical cavities should be scooped out. therefirst reducing it to ashes. and is above. It form flat back or half The mold should still The ladle the casting is made. With very delicate obclay. open it. especially with tin and its composition. this purpose is the so-called alabaster. in order to prevent the possible entry of dirt or The heating should be foreign matter. As the geometrically exact contour of the coin or medal is often the cause of breaking of the edges. it is always better to provide two molds in case of accident. Drosses.nd. hot an oven strongly heated. owing mostly to the Inthin edges and frail connections. made up with a solution of alum and sal ammoniac. It is then fixed in the center of a paper or wooden box by means of of fine wire. perature (as in India this is much higher than in our zone. again and place on a hearth of fine. is placed upon the back of the insect to produce a runner for casting. A fore. After the plaster has set. is recommended. will ensure exactness in the finished mold. which subsequently serve to form air channels in wooden the mold by their removal. so as to hold the heat while the casting is being made. and the other is to have the The bluing is mold properly blued. Even the most* practiced be glowing metal molders take this precaution. so that it is perfectly and the rim and very finely powdered. so called. every plaster casting must not be forIn the first casting some little gotten. Casting of Soft Metal Castings. To obtain a full casting in brass II. fastened to a wooden board fitted to the back of the other half of the mold. and thicker wires are run from the sides of the box to the object. should contain plenty of metal. By this means very thin castings may be produced that would be more difficult with a solid metal back. by engaging with the depressions. for example arranged in a natural position. very slowly at first. should be thoroughly mixed before the addition of water. when to casting delicate objects. cut a canal for the flow of the molten casting material. The casting ordinary manner. stick. have the deep recesses vented so the air will escape. and afterwards heating gradually This incinerates the obto a red heat. the object is removed from the interior by It is. is is then made in the The halves are now ready to be bound together with When bound heat the a light wire. stead of using solid metal backs for the molds it is better to use cardboard. which will appear in the second half- Eieces -ee. stirred in water. All metal throw off the softer grades of considerable dross. The presence of a little zinc in the metal ensures a sharp casting. How The object is first Castings of Insects. to ensure success. dried jects the proportion of plaster may be The dry material slightly increased. Make which is usually skimmed off. a dead beetle. ject. is removed through the wire holes as suggested placed. reduced to fine ashes. The addition of first feet are connected with an oval of wax. smooth paper. especially castings out of the softer metals so that they will run full. by leaving in the shade at a normal tem- and melts the waxen base upon it is which round knobs. and the object. of the mold should be about the thickness The keys. and which. of of the finger. in the proportion of 2 parts of the to 1 of the second. It is also well first to brush the object with this paste to preAfvent the formation of air bubbles. Unless this bluing is done it will be impossible to obtain a sharp casting. take out the mold. allowed to dry. but the materials most generally used are plaster of Paris and brick dust. The box is then filled up with a paste with 3 parts of plaster of Paris and 1 of brick dust. the operator sometimes uses wax to make the edges appear half round and it also allows the casting to be more easily removed from Each half the second half of the mold. sa. tapering toward the bottom. continued as long as there is a suspicion When finally of remaining moisture. and blow it out. with the addition of a little sal ammoThe best quality of plaster for niac. and the brick dust should be as finely powdered as possible. then dry the mold thoroughly in burned as it does so.CASTING The composition of the 151 mold is of the most varied. assured of this fact. mold gradually and slowly and let the mouth of the canal remain underneath while the heating is in progress. molds for soft metal two important One is to points should be observed. ter the mold thus formed has set. Should much of this gather on the top of the molten . often difficult to I. or heavy. it will be necessary to place the mold in a moderately warm place). to make sure of Close and bind absolute cleanness. then placing it on a gas stove until the mold is a dark color.

and. and the finished casting have a bright. Britannia metal should not be skimmed or stirred too much. at a moderate heat. then placing over a gas or charcoal fire until the mold is Fuel. pewter. Castings of any mefal can be done in a plaster mold. A good substantial mold for small castings of soft metal is made of brass. is | and melted down when there Dross or six times is enough may be all remelted before This is done by casting purposes. tro-deposited ones are made out of copthe and backs filled in with a softer per. The mold may be very warm. and consequently the castings are chilled and will not run full. Where a good soft coal can be at a low price. the drosses should for a kettle full. Smoke the mold well with a brand of rosin to insure a full cast. Molds. and may be looked upon as temporary. New iron or brass molds must be blued before they can be used for Temperature of Metal. hot. as this will cause them to run sluggish. Metals for casting purposes should not be overheated. The expense of making the cast considerable. as in the middle West. The handles are secured with screws. II. should be made out of brass that contains enough zinc to produce a light-colored brass. and set enough a little careful manipulation many pieces can be cast with these molds. for several days.. The molds are made in part the same as when of brass. provided the mold has dried. clean appearance. otherwise it will melt the mold. cast. This chills the casting so that it can be removed easily with the plyers. morning. the mold should be well warmed and the metal must not be too hot. and consequently must be handled very comparison with a brass casting. The electro-deposited mold. and out of tin that contains as much hardening as possible. The eleccarefully to keep its shape. IV.152 metal. or by swabbing with sul- the good metal out. CASTING IN WAX: See Modeling. clean castSome of the metals will not stand ings. The metal should be heated enough so that it can be poured. otherwise there will be too much loss in the dross. This refers particularly to the gas furnaces that are operated from the power plant in the shop. besides. however. the only objection being the length of time needed for a thorough drying of the mold. and it is especially handy to keep the metal in a molten state during the noon hour. The hardening consists of antimony and copper. This is done with articles that are not numerous. or not often used. it should be placed in a warm place and left to dry for a day or two. This produces a much cheaper mold. Plaster Molds. Very good castings may be obtained this way. etc. this is perhaps the cheapest and easiest fuel to use. CASTINGS. spelter. on that account. is very frail in I. and. it may be of dental plaster. A soft-coal fire can be regulated to keep the metal at an even temperature. which can be made very quickly. The metal must not be used too ing. which tends to prevent the metal from melt- worker is removing a finished casting from the mold so that the next pouring will come full. Molds for the use of soft metal castings may be made out of soft metal. or at the beginning in the had perfectly oxidized. which is so much used in the East. five all CASTING be saved. By III. . This metal mold must be painted over several times with Spanish red. metal. the superiority over the dark red copper-colored brass is that it will stand more heat and rougher usage and thereby offset the extra labor of cutting the hard brass. and much time is lost by the remelting after one o'clock. it has some advantages over gas. name phuric acid. Where ornaments or figures to done in a mold made out there are only one or two The mold should be heavy enough sufficient to re- more quickly. some manufacturers are is mold ^ making their molds by electro-deposition. If the mold is too light it cools tain heat while the After the mold is made so that it can be taken apart. While this hard brass is more difficult for the mold maker to cut. however. TO SOFTEN IRON: See Iron. Brass molds for the casting of soft metal ornaments out of britannia. when this power shuts down during the noon hour the metal becomes chilled. placing the mold face downward on a charcoal fire. then the metal need not be so hot for bright. reheating too often. Where the molds are heavy enough they will admit the use of a swab and water after each pouring. When ready to use the inside should be well smoked over a gaslight. If any of the softer metals show blue colors after cooling it is an indication that the metal is too hot.

who has tried to pour castor square. Castor oil. ft.. Cologne spirit Oil of . With 5-gallon round cans it is possible to fill shop bottles in the same manner by resting the can on a box or counter. the main thing is that the can be lowered slowly. when filling shop bottles. minims drachms ounces (im- quan1 pint tity sufficient . 1 pint 3 fluidounces winter- green Oil of sassafras. agitate well and filter. and mix. 20 parts . and raise the temperature to about 140 F. The following keeps well: of air. . clean rancid castor oil mix 100 parts of the oil at 95 F. like codliver oil. to 90. well3 4 8 3 12 grains grains stoppered bottles. and a tube. such as spirits of turpentine.. while holding the bottle by the neck between the middle and ring fingers. . pip. Resting the can on a table.. One part of common cooking molasses to 2 of castor oil is the best dis- . Oil of anise 40 minims 20 minims 15 minims 1 Mix Castor oil 24 parts 24 parts Glycerine Tincture of orange 8 parts peel Tincture of senega 2 parts Cinnamon water enough to make. In this way the bottle may be filled without spilling any of the oil and that. otherwise the first portion may spurt out over the bottle. ricinus Ol. When a funnel is used for nongreasy liquids. which must be rejected. too. With a wire nail a hole is punched in the top of the can between the screw cap and the edge of the can. ol. menth. pour the mixture into a vessel with a stopcock at its base. . when knows how difficult it is to it Any one oil from a is Absolute alcohol. II. boiling for A hour. garantose.000 parts of the oil to be deodorized and rendered Cork the container tasteless.. stand for 3 hours. 950 parts Oil of cinnamon . One drachm to 2 fluidounces. Saccharine tablespoonful. it is may be rendered square varnish can. First prepare an aromatic solution of saccharine as follows: Refined saccharine. be avoided by hav- in the alcohol. Tasteless Castor Oil. nearly tasteclaimed.. Vanillin . slowly. Vanillin Of Garantose Ol. M. may ing a hole punched in the cap which screws onto the can. Of this liquid add 20 parts to 980 parts of castor oil and mix by agitation.. to allow egress nel. pip. olivae ported). with the screw-cap tube to the rear.." Even mobile liquids. however. 5-gallon can. put on a water bath. With the opening to the rear.CASTOR OIL CASTOR OIL : 153 To Purifying Rancid Castor Oil. excepting the last portion. without a funnel. Draw off the oil. . This. Alcoholis Ol. full. menth. then Dissolve the saccharine and vanillin add the cinnamon oil. may be poured into shop bottles without a funcourse. 25 parts 5 parts How to Pour Out Castor Oil. : is 5 grains Hot water. the can is carefully tilted forward with one hand and the shop bottle held in the other. Keep at this heat from 15 to 20 minutes. Mix vanillin. Place the castor oil in a gallon bottle. olive oil. Pour over the mass 1. ground as fine as possible. after which time the purified oil may be taken off. then less. soldered on. tightly. with alcohol and add castor oil and Dose: IV. V. at which temperature Finally III. Dose . 100 parts and make an emulsion. let cool down. and allow the mixture to stand tor 12 hours. Dissolve the essential oils and saccharine in the cologne spirit and add to the washed castor oil. I. Pure castor oil. by treating it as follows: Into a matrass of suitable size put 50 parts of freshly roasted coffee. Add a pint of hot water and shake vigThen orously for about 15 minutes. with a mixture of 1 part of alcohol (96 per cent) and 1 part of Allow to settle for 24 sulphuric acid. It is preferable to rest the can on a table when pouring from a 1. Now wash with warm water. a sufficient quantity.or 2-gallon avoid a mess. 2 inches long and f of an inch in diameter. allow to settle for 24 hours in well closed vessels. This will admit air while pouring. . let filter. the funnel may be slightly raised with the thumb and little finger from the neck of the bottle. sol. . hours and then carefully decant from the precipitate. and 25 parts of purified and freshly prepared bone or ivory black. the can is likewise tilted forward slowly so as to allow the surface of the liquid to become "at rest. and put up in small.

Sugar Peppermint water. oil 4 grains Saccharine . O. not to the If the patient grips the nostrils taste. Hence. stirring constantly. The disgust to the odor. Castor oil Powdered acacia. Gros. 2 2 4 ounces drachms drachms ounces nary Formulas. to the molten mass.. . CATATYPY. which is bland and tastefor castor oil is How toTake due It all depends upon preventing any from entering the nose during the time while there is any oil present... Professor Ostwald and Dr. plat- formed. that is to say the chemical properties of the preparations also change in the dark. Hence no photographic (light) picture. 10 grams 1 1 posed to the light under a negative. through the gradations of the tonevalues in the negative. according to the effect desired). etc. the positive print is formed. as the act of changing or accelerating the speed of a chemical reaction by means of agents which ap- Sugar Sodium bicarbonate.. less. It is remarkable that these substances.. both under constant stirring. by a contact lasting a few seconds the receives the picture. The acquired picture still in- . gram gram ounce Castor ture oil 1 Compound of tinc- carda4 3 3 2 mom Oil of wintergreen Powdered acacia. Continue the heat for 30 minutes. All that is necessary is to bring paper and negative into contact. Castor Oil. but a catatypic picture (produced by contact) is created. pear to remain stable.c. Have the sugar well dried and add. . VII.154 CASTOR OIL CATATYPY oil guise for the taste of the used. single application several prints can be made. removing the last vestige of the oil before removing the fingers. lips. when these have been thoroughly incorporated add the peppermint water . drinks the oil complacently. Cacao. have given the name of "catatypy" to the new copying The use of light is entirely process. except that for the sake of convenience the manipulations are executed in the light. and chromium in photographic processes are generally voluntary ones and that the light really acts only as an accelerator. apparently do not take part in the process. the process being termed catalysis. done away with. pulverized5 parts Vanillin sugar Mix the chocolate and oil and heat in the water. no matter whether in the light or in the dark. dioxide of paper From a hydrogen being destroyed. which can be done without any damage to the latter. for the ascending and descending action of the tone values in the positive picture is produced only by the quantity in the varying density of the silver powder contained in the negative.. but bring about merely by their presence. oil Castor-Oil Chocolate Lozenges. In any case. he will not get the least taste from the oil. called catalyzers. VIII.. c.. larynx. . 8 minims Oil of peppermint. firmly before pouring out the dose. that can be 1 CAT DISEASES AND THEIR REMEDIES: See Insecticides and Veteri- VI. though a longer time is required. with water. .c. the modification of their chemical properties is accelerated in such a way that. rough or smooth. Catatypy is carried out as follows: Pour dioxide of hydrogen over the negative. and then thoroughly cleanses the mouth. Castor Vanillin enough 12 ounces 3 grains 4 ounces. triturating the mixture until an emulsion is tions of the inum.in small portions. adding the oil gradually. is This formula for an emulsion said to yield a fairly satisfactory prod- When these preparations are ex- uct: 500 oil Mucilage of acacia 125 Castor Spirit of gaultheria c. compounds of silver. Hence the negative (if necessary a positive may also be employed) need not even be transparent. use only a fresh oil. of the Leipsic University. It is a well-known fact that the reac- Triturate the sugar and acacia. decomposition or combination of other bodies during or upon contact. free from oil 250 parts 250 parts Castor oil 500 parts Sugar. and lay a piece of paper on (sized or unsized. in short. then pour out and divide into lozenges in the usual way. catalysis may be defined. Now it has been found that we also have such accelerators in material substances that can be used in the light. 3 drachms Alcohol Olive oil enough to make 1 pint. but the final result is the same. Sugar drachms drops drachms drachms to Cinnamon water make IX.

the large group of iron salts are 155 CELERY COMPOUND. development takes place as follows: When the paper which has been in contact with the negative is drawn through a solution of ferrous oxide. and dried. such as desired. as well as color pigments. . wash out. In infected wounds it was absorbed after 32 days. consisting of iron oxide.000 parts of pyroxyline is prepared in the usual manner. The is stretched tightly over a glass plate tanned in 5 per cent watery extract of quebracho. 1. the layer with the pigments becomes insoluble and all other dye stuffs can be washed off with water. have been carefully tested and are composed of such as are known to possess unlimited durability. and also Household Formulas. CELLARS. in conjunction with a glue solution. : CEILING CLEANERS: See Cleaning Preparations and Methods. and a permanent picture is Orange Sugar 6 peel (ground) 100 (granulated). generally denominated Venice turpentine. Alcohol Water. the ketone of methyloxynaphthyl. Celery (seed ground) Coca leaves (ground). and ketones. and the ketone of dioxynaphthyl. and was absorbed after 83 days. this suture material in aseptic wounds remained intact for 65 days. CATERPILLAR DESTROYERS See Insecticides. Hyoscyamus (ground) leaves parts parts parts parts parts parts Podophyllum dered) (pow10 .CATATYPY CELLULOID visible may now in the further course of the process. . pack in percolator and pour on menstruum till 340 parts is obtained disit and strain. The whole is shaken and left at rest for about 12 hours. certained that turpentine produced by the Pinus larix. Celluloid : New Celluloid. s. the French turpentine from the Pinus maritima. 25 25 25 12 above all eminently adapted. cut. the Canada turpentine from the Pinus balsamea. obtained. It is then passed between hot rollers. subjected to the action of a 4 per cent formalin solution for 24 to 48 hours. Black haw (ground). like or- dinary celluloid. dizing bodies. After a short contact. In experiments on dogs. pigments. q. catgut CATSUP (ADULTERATED): See Foods. CATTLE DIPS AND APPLICATIONS See Disinfectants and Insecticides. the action is as follows: In the places where the picture is. of which the pictures consist. To put this process in practice. hence a yellow positive picture. but other parts parts parts substances. or 250 parts of ketone and 250 parts of ether. and mixed with 65 parts of turpentine. The chemical inks and reductions. manganese. in combination with acetone (dimethyl ketone). and finally pressed. the ketone of dinaphthyl. have a reducing or oxyAs picture-producing action. M. such as chromium. may be employed. etc. CELLOIDIN PAPER: See Paper. but other turpentines. washed or a short time in water. the protoxide is transformed into oxide by the peroxide. . boiled in water for 10 to 15 minutes. 500 parts or 750 parts of methyl alcohol is added. and a colInstead of turorant. which can be readily changed into other compounds. washed in running water for 24 hours.. yields the best results. WATERPROOF: See Household Formulas. CELLS. it may be added to the mixture. results. so that the most varying tones of With tne use of color can be obtained. rosins derived from it may be employed. as well as pigments with glue The solutions may also be employed. ad Mix the alcohol with water and macerate drugs solve sugar in 150 400 150 parts of for 24 hours. and stored in a mixture of absolute alcohol with 5 per cent glycerine and 4 per cent carbolic acid. Ortmann has as- CATGUT: Preparation of Catgut Sutures. such as the American from the Pinus australis. SOLUTIONS AND FILLERS FOR BATTERY: See Battery Solutions and Fillers. simply immerse the picture in the respective solution. such as the ketone of methyl-ethyl.. If the employment of camphor is desired to a certain extent. pentine..

The nitro-cellulose. And the new material . lowers materially the cost of the The result is obtained product. its it becomes opaque and loses transparency. and dried like ordinary cellulose. The pulp may also be conapparatus. in order to remove the excess of moisture. The quantity of formol albumen to add is variable. or ivory may also be imparted. under suitable conditions. either by making an emulsion with camphor alcohol. moistening. and by the same processes and odor. The formol albumen is reduced to a perfectly mixed intimately with the plastic matter before rolling. On pulverizing. When the mixture is accomplished. which are readily found in trade. this it is easy to ascertain by means of aniline water. and diminishes more or less according to the proportion of casein associated with the ordinary celluloid. This product is obtained by mingling with celluloid. and the appearance of shell. albumen. Instead of simple water. is soaked in the alcohol. or even alcoholized water. into the albuminoid matter. solution of acetate of urea in alcohol. The plastic product of nitrocellulose base. properties. The formolizing may be effected in the moist state or in the dry state. hours the casein is thoroughly penetrated. like ordinary celluloid. The albumen may be that of the egg or that of the blood. verted into tubes and other forms. and the mass is well mixed. the manufacture of plastic substances. but swells in this II. The dry or moist albumen is brought into contact with the solution of commercial formol diluted to 5 or 10 Care must be per cent for an hour. The plastic pulp thus obtained is rolled. or by making simultaneously a thorough mixture of the three substances. being diminished according to the quantity of camphor. in appearance and properties it cannot be distinguished from ordinary celluloid. Thus obtained. and is filtered or decanted and washed with water until all the formol in excess has completely disappeared. It may be applied to the various manufacturing processes in use for the preparation of articles of all kinds. replacement of part of the celluloid by the gelatin. haying more firmness than final those of celluloid. It is advisable to subject the improved plastic pulp to a treatment with formaldehyde for the purpose of rendering insoluble the casein incorporated in the celluloid. In this plastic product various colorants may be incorporated. pearl. of which the cost is much less. With this in view. or by mixing it thoroughly with nitro-cellulose. which produces a turbid white as long as a trace of formic aldehyde remains. in the course of the homogeneous powder. the paste is rolled according to the usual operation. and the use which may be derived from them for Celluloid. for 100 parts of casein 5 parts of acetate of urea and 50 parts of alcohol are emThe mass swells. marble. taken to pulverize the albumen. if it is The formol penetrates rapidly dry. wood. thus obtained. It is necessary to introduce the formol albumen. This difference explains why albumen should not be confounded with gelatin or casein. gelatin or strong Iti s clear that the glue of gelatin base. should be pressed between paper or cloth. Plastic Substances of Nitro -Cellulose Base. The whole is mixed and left at rest for 2 days. It is then ready to be incorporated with the camphored nitro-cellulose. cut. The product thus obtained is without when camphor is not employed. The casein prepared as described is introduced into the mass. the Societe Anonyme 1'Oyonnaxienne has originated the following processes: I. then. These are not identical with reference to plasticity. while the expense of production is considerably reduced. This cannot be considered an adequate means for effecting the mixture. it may previously be swollen in water in order to render it more malleable. Instead of adding the desiccated for- Improved Celluloid. and its cost price liquid. the product appears as a transparent corneous substance. The formol albumen is afterwards dried at low temperature by submitting it to the action of a current of dry air at a temperature not exceeding 107 F. presents in employment the same general properties as ordinary celluloid. To manufacture plastic substances the Compagnie Franyaise du Celluloid commences by submitting casein to a It is soaked with a special operation.156 CELLULOID mol albumen. having received the addition of camphor. and Formol Albumen for Preparation of Formol has the property of forming combinations with most albuminoid substances. and in 48 ployed. alkalinized or acidified water may be taken for this purThe pose. It is completely insoluble in water. without detriment to the qualities of the These are said to be of superior objects.

drop by drop. if a boiler with agitator is made use of. recovered. liquefied fish glue and gum arabic are introduced and allowed to swell for 24 hours in a very dry position. Ten parts of kitchen salt are then added. such a way that there are no solid pieces. There is but little work in distilling the alcohol and acetic These may be acid in the autoclave. After swelling. and in a state more or less pure) in alcohol marking about 140 F. the celready to be employed and does not produce flame when exposed. while stirring taking care to pour it in the and to increase luloid is complete. with access of air. in order to produce the solid monoAfter havchlorhydrate of turpentine. heating of the mass should not exceed 77 F. is The cellupletely colorless and clear. Whichever of the two methods of preparation may be employed. at the moment when the heating is to be accomplished in an autoclave heated with steam. Then the gelatin is added in monochlorhydrate. and mingled with an equal quantity of alcohol. Substitute for Camphor in the Preparation of Celluloid and Applicable to Other Purposes. more or less. and for the preparation of plastic objects. while agitating When the mixture is complete anew. except for the introduction of the mixture of gelatin. taking care to add a little acetone. cold. oil of loid. the solid matter is desiccated and introduced into an autoclave apparatus capable of resisting a pressure of 6 atmospheres. and the whole mass passed through the sieve. in order to mingle them thoroughly with the water. the mass may be produced in any form. calculated on the weight of the monochlorhydrate. extracted the of glass or porcelain. The preparation in a closed vessel does not differ from that which has been described.. by the rollers ordinarily employed for celluloid and other similar pastes. or for replacing hard caoutchouc for the insulation of electric conductors. The proportion of celluloid in the mixture may be 50 to 75 per cent of the weight of the gelatin. by means of the press. ing. or by any other suitable methods. the paste the operation considerably comes from the autoclave well mingled. 5 to 10 per cent) of crystallizable In a few hours the material acetic acid. middle of the celluloid the surface of contact. it is worked. freely. the substance may be rolled as in the ordinary process. after being rectified by distillation over caustic soda. and acetone. the mixture is passed through a sieve in order to retain the pieces which may not have been dissolved. and at the same time the celluloid pulp (camphor and gun cotton). has swollen considerably. The receiver is removed from the water bath and colza oil added. Afterwards it is heated on a water bath. Before cooling. Preparation of Uninflammable CelluThe operation of this process by Woodward is the following: In a receiver In this process commercial turpentine. alcohol. the gelatin is first immersed cold (in any form. celluloid. liquid several washings with cold and after water. The treatment of celluloid necessitates employing a solution com- The mass in. is subjected to the action of gaseous chlorhydric acid. and is then submitted to the action of rollers. Fifty per cent of caustic soda. containing the fish glue is poured carefully.CELLULOID is 157 worked more readily than the employed alone. allowing the air to circulate The receiver is not covered. and the dissoluit is left tion and it sieve. capable of supporting a pressure of 2 to 5 pounds. . and on account of their evaporation the mass presents the desired consistency when it reaches the rollers. and furnished with a mechanical agitaThis method of proceeding abridges tor. open v celluloid in The new product may be prepared air or in a closed vessel under pressure. and the pieces which may remain are broken up. same films purification by means of the allowed to rest still in the The position. by means of a porcelain spatula) until The the gum is completely liquefied. This product may be utilized for the preparation of photographic films or for those used for cinematographs. The solution of fish glue may be prepared by allowing 200 parts of it to swell for 48 hours in 1. according to the result After heating the mixture desired. or similar material. slightly. formed while cooling may be removed. and the contents stirred (for example. porcelain. with the addition of a certain quantity (for example. and it is then introduced in alcohol of about 90 per cent.000 parts of cold distilled water. to repose for 24 hours. loid to be treated while it is still in the pasty state should be in a receiver of glass. The apparatus is closed and heated for several hours at the temper- . It is then passed through is When the mixture the sieve. When operated in the air. is added in the form of a thick solution.

In an hour. the oxygen necessary for the reaction. Elastic Substitute for Celluloid. without its inflammability. Celluloid. instead of using acidulated water. and proceed as in the previous case. oil of turpentine. Melt together 1 part of acetate of cellulose and parts of phenol at about the temperature of 104 to 122 F. aldehydic. which. which at the outset is similar to caoutchouc. the mass. in another it occasions too much softness in the products manufactured. and of agreeable odor. such as oxygenized water. II. and combined by ordinary means with nitrated cellulose. or ketonic groups. sublimed according to need. which can be worked like celluloid. washed and dried. Probably a bond is formed when these combinations act on the acetate of cellulose. can be converted into an elastic corneous compound. Compress an intimate mixture of equal parts of acetic cellulose and hydrate of chloride or of aniline. at least. like nitro-cellulose. Acetic cellulose. or a product optically inactive. of removing from gelatin its solubility and its fusibility. a celluloidic product. either alone or mixed with camphor or one of its substitutes. at a temperature of 122 to 140 F. Deborda adds to the gelatin treated by means of formaldehyde. imparting remedy finest details. In the electrolytic oxidation of the camphene. The effect is accomplished by a slight pro- portion. in one case ing their rejection. They can be produced by the following methods the Lederer process: I. or a mixture of oil of turpentine and German turpentine or Venice turpentine. In certain respects they resemble celluloid. The mass is constantly stirred. When a clear solution is obtained place the H mass of reaction on plates of glass or to it great softness and elasticity. which is of a snowy and brilliant white. 5 to 10 per cent. because the mass camphor Production of Substances Resembling metal slightly heated and allow it to cool After a rest of several days gradually. whatever is capable of furnishing. applied. The material is washed several times for freeing it from the mingled sodium chloride and sodium hydrate. The substances particularly suitable for the operation are organic substances containing one or more hydroxy. the substances obtained form a hard mass. but it has also another property. is not inferior to ordinary celluloid and has the advantage of reduced cost. as known. it is said. and the permanganates. When hardened. or an acid amide. prejudicial in certain applications.. and they can be employed in the same manner. camphene and water strongly mixed with sulphuric acid are introduced and heated so as to attain 9 pounds of Then an electric current is pressure. as acetamide. considering the complex nature of the molecule of cellulose. and in still another it does not allow of pressing. and is then suitable for replacing camphor in its industrial employments. the material is drawn from the too brittle. apparatus. copies of enflexible. of rendering the composition hard and friable. as acetophenone. or other operations. celluloid-like substance which is useful for the produc- . and especially the solid chloride of turpentine. or other ethers of cellulose. is hard and forms flexible plates. they can be cut and polished. Most of the substitutes for in the preparation of celluloid are attended with inconveniences limiting their employment and sometimes causThus. Callenberg has found that the halogenous derivatives of etherized oils. grayed designs can be reproduced in their employed. A transparent. more or less In the soft state. barium bioxide. but the bond cannot well be defined. In order to this prejudicial action M. The addition removes from the composition its friability and hardness. Formaldehyde has the property. according to the origin of the oil of turpentine made use of. either right-hand camphor. According to the mode of preparation. capable of producing the decomposition of water. principally oil of turpentine. and the camphor resulting from this operation is treated in the following manner: In an autoclave constructed for the purpose. as well as the acid amides. either mechanically or more simply by allowing a little of the steam to escape by a tap. Plastic and Elastic Composition. amide.158 ature of 284 is CELLULOID to 302 F. may be . are suitable for yielding. III. folding. in still others combinations are produced which in time are affected unfavorably by the coloring substances employed. treated with acetic ether. the celluloid does not allow of the preparation of transparent bodies. In the same way a ketone may be employed. for the camphene is converted entirely or in greater part into camphor. under the influence of the electric current.

the action of heat. Reduced Inflammability. tographic foundations produced in this manner do not change. yielding cellulose. is also necessary that these bodies should be soluble in a solvent of celluit loid. layers. The syrupy product may be pressed into molds or poured. but also incombustible. a clear. The maceration is allowed to continue for several hours. which purifies it.5 parts. but The any ether derivative sufficient for practical purposes freedom from inflammability is attained by the following proportions: Fifty-five to 65 parts in volume of the solvent of the celluloid. suitable proportions vary according to the degree of inflammability desired. either in the state of amylic. after washing and drying. IV. and a substance of shellcolor is produced. when it is ready for purification. and products have been selected that yield Any ignited body is extinguished chlorine. for instance. and other articles. therefore. it is left for spontaneous evaporation. as ethyl disilicate. and in developing they When the ether derivative is in the solid form. 100 grams carbon disulphide are then added. or methylic silicate. the vessel closed and allowed to stand for 12 hours longer. After this has swelled up.). any individual mentioned results. such. the liquid is decanted is The mass there pressed off (of The soluhydrate. The material is divided by the usual methods. with heating and stirring and addition of 5 parts of gelatin. of nitrocellulose in 16 parts of glacial acetic acid. and carbon disulphide. but especially as an underlay for sensitive films in photography. The union of the solvent and of the derivative is accomplished by mixing the two liquids and shaking out the air as much as of this remain flat. or in the state Celluloid of I. add 7. preferably at a temperature not above 10 The resulting residue is a C. previously divided or reduced to the state of chips. which dissolves it. (50 F. and dried again. The upon glass plates to form thin are well dried articles washed with water. is 100 grams) is then treated with a 20 per cent aqueous solution of sodium and at its close and the residue and washed thoroughly. then an ether-alcohol solution of ferric perchlorThe two solutions are mingled. The celluloid thus treated loses none of its properties in pliability and trans- parency. and according to the proportion of silica in the ether derivative employed. syrupy liquid of yellow color. and dissolved by means of the usual solvents. is produced by of 159 dissolving 1. among chlorated products. stirring constantly. shaking or stirThe ring as free from the air as possible. pegamoid. Viscose thus formed is soluble in water.. and others producing bromine. the attempt has therefore been made to find products capable of producing an uninflammable gas. ethylic. tubes. nor attack the layers sensitive to light. mixture of the silicate or derivative. silicates or derivatives will accomplish the same A in a gaseous medium which is unsuitable for combustion. which does not harm the essential properties of the celluloid. mixture with the celluloid. See also Casein for Celluloid Substitutes. effects the desired result. etc. caustic soda. practicable method consists in incorporating silica. Viscose is the name of a new product of the class of substances like celluloid. A This is the process: An ether-alcohol solution of celluloid is made. cellulose by mascerating this substance in a 1 per cent dilution of hydrochloric acid. is obtained by drying very slowly. after further dilution with the said solvents in the stated proportion. and 35 to 45 parts of the derivative of silicic acid. this is soluble in the ether-alcohol mixture. of alcohol (96 per cent). is obtained. cold or tepid. long continued. or of a slightly pale yellow. which we will suppose The incorporation possible. ferric chloride has been taken. and yields a solution of a pale brownish color. by weight. to which silica has been added. and is not only uninflammable. yielding no precipitate.8 parts. new product scarcely distinguished from ordinary celluloid. of silicic acid. it is brought to the liquid state by means of any of the solvents. . A solution of the precipitated article is colorUnder less. but at the expense of much of its solubility. which. from which it is precipitated by alcohol and sodium chloride. and ide. or inversely. tion is allowed to stand for 3 days in a tightly closed vessel. viscose is decomposed. usual methods are employed for the desA good result iccation of the mass. except that the inherent inflammability is considerably It is not important to employ reduced. . The liquid is poured into a cup or any suitable vessel. substances having most varied and valuable appliIt is obtained directly from cations. nor do they become electric. is effected by pouring the mixture on the chips. which may contain a Photrace of soda lye. II. by weight.CELLULOID tion of plates.

. but the mass of celluloid. oil of turpentine. so that one may even imbed in it metal. camphor. The following are some proportions for solutions of celluloid: I. alone. outside. For preventing the calcium bromide from eventually oozing on the surface of the celluloid. of celluloid in 30 parts. by weight. alcohol. Witn 5 parts. 30 parts Acetone 30 parts 7 30 parts Amyl acetate . the celluloid must then be scraped fine and macerated in 90 per cent alcohol. and with 4 to 6 per cent of Canada balsam. by weight. and its facility of preparation reduces at least one-half the apparatus ordinarily ric perchloride may Camphor IV. In steam at 120 C. amyl acetate. by weight. by reason of its d"eliquescence. celluloid in 25 parts. until a paste results. each of amyl acetate. camphor. by weight. and sulphuric ether. consists in mixing bromide of camphor with cotton powder. . Still. in order that it may be less brittle. after previous treatment with a solution of oxalic acid. The latter product is not incombustible. Amyl II. Dissolve 25 parts of ordinary celluloidin in 250 parts of acetone and add a solution of 50 parts of magnesium chloride in 150 parts of alcohol. may present to the celluloid a surface capable of being affected by moist air. by weight. without the power of ignition. It may be objected that ferric perchlor- ide and calcium bromide. which occurs with a proportion of about 100 parts of the former solution to 20 parts of the latter solution. a bath in boiling water will answer. the product obtained fuses in the flame.. acetone. of celluloid in 16 parts. are said to be obtained by dissolving 4 to 8 per cent of collodion wool (soluble pyroxylin) in 1 per cent of ether or alcohol and mixing the solution with 2 to 4 per cent of castor oil. and may be melted without any danger of The manufacture all not at Softening and Cementing Celluloid. and 4 parts. Camphor III. IV. it becomes so soft that it may be easily kneaded like dough. and alkalies. for the camphor bromide is strictly uninflammable. on exposure to the light. acetone. Celluloid 5 parts 10 parts 16 parts 16 parts 10 parts Sulphuric ether . With of celluloid may be prepared: 5 parts. odorless. Glass-like plates which are impervious to acids. flexible. and infrangible. 10 parts. it is extinguished. based on the principle above mentioned. be warmed only sufficiently to be able to bend it. sulphuric ether. With 5 parts. phuric acid.). amyl acetate. or a be intended to soften it to solubility. V. calcium bromide has been selected. whereupon it takes on the character of cement and may be used to join broken Solutions pieces of celluloid together. and gives an absolutely incombustible material. Celluloid acetate Acetone Sulphuric ether . by weight. alcohol and 5 parts. by weight. amyl acetate and 25 parts. by weight. 1. etc. weight. it may be fixed by immersing the celluloid in water acidulated with sulFor industrial products. This paste is carefully mixed and worked through. celluloid with fer- Solvents for Celluloid. is of this product dangerous. by weight. by weight. wood. III. The inflammability of these plates is claimed to be much less than with others of collodion. allowing small quantities of camphor to evaporate.. If dissolving the gun cotton. by weight. adding castor oil to soften the product. or it any similar material. With 5 parts.. celluloid in 50 parts. and may be almost entirely obviated by admixture of magnesium chloride. by weight. the surface of the perchlorinated celluloid may be fixed by immersion in albuminous water. in water. Celluloid Amyl acetate Celluloid Amyl acetate 50 parts 5 parts Acetone If celluloid is to 25 parts 25 parts made use of in the manufacture of cellu- loid. which produces nearly the same result. fixes the chlorinated or brominated product. Another method of preparing an uninflammable celluloid. and still possess a transparency similar to ordinary glass. such as toilet articles.160 CELLULOID similar non-resinifying oil. if a light yellow product is desired. as the celluloid undergoes a slight decomposition. Celluloid dissolves in acetone. then dried. amyl acetate. however. each of sulphuric ether.. being soluble appearance of ivory. 2. celluloid in 50 parts. With acetone. by 3. benzine.. An addition of zinc white produces the Of bromated compounds. 5.. (248 F. not being liable to penetration by water. salts. 3 parts 5 parts 50 parts 5 parts 5 parts Celluloid Alcohol be employed. or in various combinations of these agents. 4. but it is uninflammable.

plumbers' ceconsists of 1 part black rosin. This dissolves and removes a minute superficial layer and lays bare a new surface. it in water warmed to 40 F. The tympan should be hard. let dry in the light. Special inks of different colors are made for this kind of press work. wipe with The with it celluloid fragments dabbed stick together almost instantane- ously. Make ready the form so as to be perfectly level on the impression that is. dry quickly in a heating chamber and saturate with a more concentrated celluloid solution. which solution penetrates deeply into the tissue. as fol- lows: Ten pounds fine yellow ocher. and 2 parts of brickdust. this is to allow for the thickness of the sheet of celluloid. and ether. thoroughly powdered and dried. Celluloid. found about a few drops of copal varnish. because the outer layer may be very thin. Aniline colors but they are less may also be employed permanent. if CELLULOID PUTTY: See Cements. A ment Bleaching Celluloid. Red: First dip into a diluted bath of nitric acid. 3 parts. Black: First dip into pure water. Cements (See also Putties. melted. in black a good card-job quality will be surrounded by of many celluloid. The fabric is first saturated with a dilute celluloid solution of the consistency of olive oil. the interior fibers consists printing on the celluloid. 161 Dipping (104 C. 1 to 2 per cent.CEMENTS so that It is often desirable to soften celluloid it will not break when hammered. Brown: Dip into a solution of permanganate of potash made strongly alkaline by the addition of soda. flexible CELLULOID CEMENTS AND GLUES See Adhesives. Printing on be done in the usual way. Bring up the form squarely. Celluloid dishes squeezed together.) For Adhesive Cements intended for repairing broken articles. merely superficially discolored. 4 . cam- gris. e. but if Cement A cement for Steam and for pipe joints Water is made Pipes. : CELLULOID LACQUER: See Lacquer.are mixed with the ink before beginning to print. Plumbers' Cement. which show cracks are easily repaired by brushing the surface repeatedly with alcohol. Ink marks may be removed in the same manner. the quantity should be small in the first solution. A little jeweler's rouge or putzpomade greatly facilitates matters. Another very useful gluing agent for celluloid receptacles is concentrated acetic acid.) will suffice for this. See also Adhesives for Methods of Mending celluloid Celluloid. until the mass turns soft and can be readily Mending Celluloid. while fabric A or no oil. a woolen rag wet with absolute alcohol and ether mixed in equal proportions. its whiteness can hardly be restored. allowing for about a 3. To restore the polish rub briskly first with a woolen cloth and finish with silk or fine chamois. compound of 2 parts shellac. and 4 parts strong alcohol. tin. g. in the following ones 5 to 8 per cent. applied warm. which. By putting only 1 part of ether in 3 parts of alcohol and adding a little shellac. 3 parts spirit of phor.or 4-sheet cardboard to be withdrawn from the tympan when about to proceed with Printing on may Process of Impregnating Fabrics with Celluloid. while the outer layer contains very little impregnated in this manner possesses a very flexible surface. loid to To use a fasten cellu- wood. produces quicker results.. about as viscous as molasses. If the celluloid has become discolored throughout.. then into a solution of nitrate of silver. Printer's ink may be removed from celluloid by rubbing first with oil of turpentine and afterwards with alcohol and ether. If oil be added to the celluloid solution. Putty for Celluloid. etc. then in a concentrated solution of chromate of potash. Colored Celluloid. Green: Dip into a solution of verdiright. then into an ammoniacal solution of carmine. The pressure must be maintained for about one day. uniform to impressional touch on the face. Yellow: First immerse in a solution of nitrate of lead. see Adhesives. a cement for celluloid is obtained. Blue: Dip into a solution of indigo neutralized by the addition of soda. Use live but dry and well-seasoned rollers. 4 parts.

The resulting jelly is diluted with 3 additional volumes of glycerine. coating of soluble glass will impart to cement surfaces exposed to ammonia not only a protective covering. and the whole mixed to a stiff paste with about 15 parts of boiled oil. by weight. Stir sand and fine Gutter Cement. The mucinous mass is painted over the screw threads. If the crack be a very narrow one. and omitting the lime. and is impervious to hot and cold water. To this mixture is added 20 parts of ground litharge. Mix to11 parts. by weight. lead white. boiled oil. cut up fine. Place small of shellac around the stone when pieces in position and subject it to heat. litharge. which it closes. -by weight. until the whole has become sintered together. 4 parts. This last preparation possesses the advantage of remaining plastic for a long time when stored in a cool place. 1 part. grows firmer and harder the longer the mended article is used. and from 4 to 6 ounces of this fluid are placed in each tire. and the fitting is preparation can be To Fix Iron in Stone. be avoided as follows: The pallets are . lead and sulphur. make the iron and silicate into This material paste instead of putty. and forms a nice. 40-100 parts. Cement Make for Waterpipe. of quicklime. A good cement for making tight joints in pumps. Finally. tering the loose particles have first to be removed by washing. a good and simple mixture for tightening screw connections is made from powdered shellac dissolved in 10 per cent ammonia. Portland cement. of glycerine are mixed with 1 volume of liquid water glass. mixed. etc. and make to a paste with boiled oil in which 3 per Cement gether cent of its weight of colophony has been dissolved. 30 parts of graphite. 4 pounds whitand pound of hemp. limestone. and an acid is stirred in.162 CEMENTS Puncture Cement. The ingredients are powdered. this coating will become glossy like oil paint. A Protection for Cement Work. Mix 1 part. Use hot. magnesite. after drying and rubbing with a cloth or brush. 700 parts. Cemented surfaces can be protected from the action of the weather by repeated coats of a green vitriol solution consisting of 1 part of green vitriol and 3 parts of water. is made of a mixture of 15 parts of slaked lime. by weight.). Three volumes lime into boiled paint skins while hot and thick. screwed home. all as pure as possible. pipes. by weight. (2606 to 2732 F. Two coatings of 5 per cent soap water are said to render the cement waterproof. ration for automatically repairing punctures in bicycle tires consists of glycerine holding gelatinous silica or aluminum hydrate in suspension. and 40 parts of barium sulphate. torn-up wadding. This cement must be used as soon as made.. which is stirred into the molten sulphur in the ratio of 1 to 3 The strength of the parts by weight. Cement for Pallet Stones. kaolin. and is this. The ammonia soon leaving behind a mass which hardens quickly. The green vitriol solution is likewise commendable for application on old and new plastering. the internal pressure of the air forces the fluid into the hole. Another cement for the same purpose consists of 15 parts of chalk and 50 of graphite. This can apt to displace the stone. after the latter have been thoroughly cleaned. I. 1 part. ing. washed. well mixed together. ground. In case of puncture. white cement-like mass. Of the quickly hardening cements. This application is especially recommended for sick rooms. II. in addition to being unsightly. since the walls can be readily cleaned by washing with soapy water. but also increased solidness. Often the lac spreads unevenly or swells up. and stirred up with 15 parts of Cement for Pipe Joints. pounds ground litharge. for Closing Cracks in Stoves. 20-40 parts. makes a tight joint. latter is increased by this addition. of boiled oil. since it produces thereon From old plaswaterproof coatings. A stiffer made by increasing the proportions of graphite and barium sulphate to 30 and 40 parts respectively. by weight. The coating is rendered more and more waterproof thereby. It can be rendered still more suitable for purposes of pouring by the admixture of Portland cement. and heat to 1430 to 1500 C. the latter is popularly employed. and reground to fine powder. Mix together feldspar. and sodium chloride. a putty of reduced iron (iron by hydrogen) and a solution of sodium or potassium silicate. 2. volatilizes. and force it into the crack. A patented prepa- Mix to together thoroughly with linseed oil about the consistency of putty.5-5 parts. White Portland Cement. by weight. 100 parts. since the formation of so coarse a crystalline structure as that of solidifying pure sulphur is disturbed by the powder added. and 3 parts.

and squeeze out the excess of the latter Work up the solid through leather.0 parts. it powdered As a binding liquid acid-free is well to use ficient mercury. 163 After cooling. or Dentists' Zinc. DENTAL CEMENTS: Fairthorne's Cement. add a solution of zinc chloride of 1. This consists of pure zinc filings combined with twice their weight of mercury. and the harder the latter will be. yellow ocher. The compound. a gentle heat being employed to render It is best apthe union more complete. and rub the whole thoroughly in together a must be applied very quickly. 10.0 glass. Powdered glass. is said to set in 2 minutes. and shake them until cold. in concentrated. 8 parts. The mixture at once. CEMENT. to stir the commercial pure zinc oxide into a stiff paste with water to which 2 per cent of nitric acid zinc kin. CEMENT. the denser it is the better is it adapted for dental cements. drogen is evolved the zinc in excess is still left in the solution for some time. free from iron. silicic parts. Pour the melted metals into an iron or wooden box. pure. hydrochloric acid. acid. CEMENT COLORS: See Stone.0 parts. AGAINST ACID: See Acid-Proofing. plied as soon as made. and reduce it to filings. has been added.CEMENTS held in long sliding tongs. the consistency of putty. a very thin layer can thus be spread over them. of tin with 1 of cadmium. PAINTS FOR: See Paint. residue in the hand. Its color is gray. CEMENT. which can be prepared by dissolving pure zinc. so that it cannot absorb carbonic acid.260 specific gravity. 200 parts. thus obtained. powdered borax.5 parts. mortar. then tint with a small quantity of golden pcher or manganese. Powder very finely and mix. testing the degree of heat by touching the tongs with the shellac. This thread will break off. the zinc oxide. 500. Phosphate Cement. The dental cement prepared with such zinc oxide turns very hard and solidifies with the concentrated zinc-chloride solution in a few minutes. is very finely powdered and kept in hermetically sealed vessels. . or the like. Concentrate pure phosphoric acid till semi-solid. because it is too loose. zinc oxide.0 powdered manganese. powdered. in such a manner that zinc When no more hyis always in excess. half its bulk of fine sand. MORDANT FOR: See Mordants. for all practical purposes. and it is said to be effective and durable. For this reason it is well. The tongs will not lose the heat suddenly. The cement Zinc Amalgam. soon becomes as hard as marble and constitutes a very durable tooth cement. forms the most lasting and. 5 4 parts. and the pallet stone can then be placed in position and held until cold enough. Commercial zinc oxide cannot be employed without previous treatment. and mix aluminum phosphate with it by heatFor use. powdered borax. when melted add throw in 5 parts of cadmium. small proportion of Pure tin. run it into inForm gots. those into a fluid amalgam with mercury. parts. To cement a ruby pin. heat it and roll it into a cylinder between the fingers. mixed before use with concentrated syrupy zincchloride solution. the paste is dried and heated for some time at white heat in a Hessian crucible. with a cadmium and suf- Huebner's Cement. 1. heat the tongs at a little distance from the pallets. and liquefied again by means of a hot pincette. and press it into the tooth. in order to obtain a dense product. applied in the consistency of syrup. and used as above described. so that the stone can easily be raised or lowered as required. The latter is filtered and boiled down to the consistency of syrup. again heat the extremity and draw it out into a fine thread. parts. PROTECTION OF. as it hardens Metallic Cement. Mix zinc oxide with Sorel's Cement. mix with zinc oxide to ing. so as to obtain the alloy in a powder. This is mixed with 2 to 3 times its weight of mercury in the palm of the hand. one may also use shellac dissolved in spirit. by seizing the stone with it. When it melts easily.5-4. Zinc oxide. The projecting particles of cement can be removed by a brass wire filed to an angle and forming a scraper. 1. lightly touch the two sides of the notch with it. Take a piece of shellac. Or melt some beeswax in a pip- chloride. leavNow ing a point at the end of the lac. and 7 or 8 parts of tin in small pieces. 100. the least Melt 2 parts objectionable amalgam.

CHAPPED HANDS: See Cosmetics. oxide of zinc. or other grinding powder. where clearness and brilliancy are of the first importance. borax. especially in the purchase of the following: Lead. calcination of 5 parts oxide of zinc. or posed part litharge. selecting oxides. Flux made of 10 parts tincal. minerals. with ultramarine blue for blue. China clay Ball clay Feldspar Flint 24 parts 8 parts 8 parts 4 parts The brick should but thoroughly. Preparations and Meth- glaze. whose CHALK FOR TAILORS. etc. for potters' use. diamond. afterwards dip the face in the same mixture. whiting. and immediately afterwards in glaze. borax. OIL BRICK AND TILEMAKERS' GLAZED BRICKS White. TO CLEAN: See Cleaning ods. dip the face in clean cold water. or film. 1 Slip. to secure pure goods. Feldspar the order given: I. requires care. 4 parts oxide of zinc. that reduces their value for decorative purposes. oxide of iron. and oxide of cobalt. The different ingredients comrising any given color or glaze should E e thoroughly mixed before being calcined. To glazed brick and tile makers. No. finely ground ocher for yellow. III." the following have been the most successful methods employed. that can be obtained at any tool The cutting has to be done agency. until they are uniformly mixed. CHARTA SINAPIS : : See Mustard Paper. 6 pounds to each hundredweight of CHAIN OF FIRE: See Pyrotechnics. Glass-. i Slip. the edge of which has been charged with emery. Pottery or any soft or even hard stone substance can be cut without chipping by a disk of soft iron. To Cut Pottery. well oiled to prevent sticking. with a liberal supply of water fed continually to the revolving disk and the substance to be cut. . antimony. Addition of raw oxide of zinc. CHARTREUSE See Wines and Liquors. To arrest the unsightly defect of "crazing. A CHAINS (WATCH). and allow to dry slowly at ordinary temperature or at a very gentle Knead moistened chief difficulty appears to be the production of a slip to suit the contraction of their clay. particularly of colors or enamels comin of lead.. Ceramics GROUND CERAMICS LAYING FOR: See Oil.in the press.164 CERAMICS II. parts parts 7 parts 6 ^ parts To be mixed and lawned one week before use. manganese. with a very soft brush cover the part to be glazed with No. cut and press into wooden or metallic molds. etc.. Cornwall stone Whiting Oxide of zinc Plaster of Paris 18 3 parts parts parts l| parts f part 11 . then when moist dip in the white body. for manufacturing different articles. roll out into thin sheets. . 9 parts 1 part 5 parts 4 parts White Body. and Brickmakers. When the brick or tile leaves : Notes for Potters. in Same clay as brick Flint Ball clay China Allow the brick to remain slowly drying for 8 to 10 hours. causes a dullness of shade. otherwise the mass will be of a Calcination streaky or variegated kind. 1 part soda. Over-firing. now be dried slowly and when perfectly dry Hard Glaze. It is of the highest importance . and adhere strongly to either a clay or a burnt brick or tile. 1 part pearl ash. especially in the manufacture of enamel colors. the follow- ing method may be recommended: Mix together: Ball clay Cornwall stone China clay Flint 10 10 heat. together ordinary pipe clay.

1 part.. Oxide of zinc Crocus martis Oxide of chrome. 9 parts.'. Pure alumina Oxide of zinc Oxide of cobalt Mazarine Blue. Black. Gordon Green. etc. Oxide Oxide Flint of chrome. used that will stand a very high fire. 165 Claret White lead Feldspar of zinc Plaster of Paris 13 Oxide Flint glass Cornwall stone Paris white parts 20 parts 3 parts 1 part 13 parts 3 parts 1J parts Brown. Oxide of cobalt white Sulphate barytes i'aris Black color 20 parts 8 parts 4 parts Paris white Flint Carbonate of soda . from the sides and ends of the brick. Litharge 30 parts . set the bricks face to face. . Oxide of copper Carbonate of cobalt Oxide of cobalt . Oxide of cobalt Blood Red. 12 8 part Bichromate of potash. of zinc . must be passed 2 or 3 times through a very fine lawn. . 7 7 5 5 2 parts parts parts parts parts Oxide Oxide of zinc of cobalt 8 1J parts parts Grass Green. . 7 parts. 4 8 8 parts parts parts . . Preparation of Colors.CERAMICS Soft Glaze. Iron scale 5 parts 2 parts 1 part \ part Oxide of cobalt Oxide of manganese.. . . Bichromate Flint of potash. about an inch space being left between the two glazed faces. color. Pure alumina Oxide of zinc Bichromate of potash. . 30 parts 20 parts 12 parts 4 parts 2 parts Crocus martis parts parts parts parts . In placing. Oxide of cobalt . . . the white lead and glass may be left out. Oxide of zinc Oxide of tin . .. 1 Process for Colored Glazes. Oxide of manganese. The specified ingredients should all be obtained finely ground. to glaze. Oxide of cobalt Violet. . which is then ready for the kiln. Use color. Turquoise. Oxide of zinc Crocus of martis Oxide of chrome 40 parts 6 6 5 5 1 Mahogany. . Cornwall stone 2$ parts . be fired in the brick kiln and afterwards ground for use. The kiln must not be opened till perfectly clay is Where 6 2 parts parts f part Oxide of Sky Blue. Oxide of nickel Oxide of tin Oxide of cobalt Imperial Blue. Oxide of chrome. Use part. Oxide of zinc Iron scale Blue Green. 3 parts 1 part 1 part 2 parts 3 parts 2 parts 5 parts 1 part cold. and after being mixed in the proportions given should. Flint Oxide Cobalt of zinc 9 parts 13 parts 2 1 parts 1 Phosphate soda part Chrome Green. to white body. Chromate of iron. Oxide of chrome Paris white Red lead Boracic acid Red oxide of iron . A wire brush should now be used to remove all superfluous glaze. in a saggar or some clay vessel. . parts parts 4^ parts i part Orange.. Oxide of zinc.. Olive. parts parts 7 parts 2 1 parts 1 part 10 parts 9 parts 1 part Red Brown.. . In firing the ingredients the highest heat attainable is necessary. . Borax Red oxide of iron. 24 parts 2 parts 2 parts 5 parts Oxide parts part | part 10 1 Royal Blue. after being mixed with water to the consistency of cream. . All the mixtures. . 2 parts 2 parts 1 part 1 part Oxide Flint of chrome cobalt. Oxide Flint of of chrome copper 6 1 Chromate of iron.

or an outside coating may be ap- may Feldspar Bull fire plied. Calcined oxide of zinc 5 CERAMICS parts f part J part 1 part In making mazarine blue glazed bricks use the white body and stain the glaze only. In many cases this arises from the fact Yellow Green. 120 parts 120 parts 35 parts 12 10 8 16 parts parts parts parts 3 parts Blue Paviors. 16 parts 6 parts China clay . 4 i 2 Red lead 2 Fluorspar li Plaster of Paris Flint Paris white that the clay contains more or less sulphur or other impurity. Cane marl Ball clay 30 parts 10 parts 7 parts 4 parts Stone Feldspar Ground ironstone. Ball clay China clay Flint 22 parts 5i parts 5" parts Feldspar Cane marl Black. 80. . Carbonate of cobalt Oxide of nickel Paris white . vert clay of any color into a rich. 4 2 4 2 parts parts parts parts 7 parts Glaze For royal blue use 1 part stain to 6 parts white body. 60 parts. Red marl China clay Ground manganese Feldspar 50 parts . the only drawback being that the clay does not burn a good color. Fire blue paviors very hard. Ball clay 3J parts 12 parts coating upon the goods. effectively hides the natural color of the brick or tile upon which it may be used. and 50 or 60 parts clay and 1 part stain for staining through. Oxide Oxide Manganese of chrome of zinc Sulphate barytes Dove. 20 parts 5 parts Chromate of iron 6 parts Manganese 1 part Oxide of nickel Use 1 part clay and 1 part stain for coating. then with a sponge force the liquid two or three times through a very fine brass wire lawn. Stain. cream. Brown. 7 parts 6 parts 3 parts Buff Terra-Co tta Buff fire clay Slip. the clay may be stained throughout. Blood-Red Stain.166 Lavender. external slip Ground ocher Ground manganese Buff. 1 Crocus martis Yellow ocher Sulphate of iron 20 parts 4 parts 10 parts 2 parts is Red oxide of iron BODIES REQUIRING NO STAIN: Ivory. that is. of stain. Numerous brick Oxide Oxide Oxide Oxide of nickel of cobalt of chrome of flint Paris white 7 parts 2 parts 1 part 18 parts 3 parts manufacturers possess beds of clay from which good and sound bricks or tiles can be made. being quite opaque. clay Stain for Blue Paviors. Mazarine blue 1 part Brown. No. The process is to mix: 1 part Blood-red stain Good red clay 6 parts Add water until the mixture becomes about the consistency of. deep red. and dip the goods in the liquid as soon as they are pressed or molded. Blue paving bricks be produced with almost any kind of clay that will stand a fair amount of heat. . by adopting the same methods as in the former case of blood-red bricks. which spoils the external appearance of the finished The following stain will conarticle. to clay. . Ball clay China clay .. or A The still cheaper method to put a slip Cane marl Ball clay Feldspar 16 parts 12 parts 8 parts 6 parts 4 parts China clay Flint Cream.. and glaze unstained. Oxide of copper parts parts parts parts parts parts part mixed in proportions part. 6 4 Bichromate of potash. Yellow ocher Drab.

glaze.. and spread a coating upon plate to be enameled.. 118 40 28 4 Ground flint glass 4 parts Ground white lead . burning. II. I.. . POTTERY BODIES AND GLAZES: Ordinary. 4 parts Add water to the materials after mixing well. I. if desired.. parts parts \ part 8 parts China clay Cornwall stone Bone Flint 35 parts 23 parts 40 parts 2 parts .. \ part glaz. 5 3 2 1 parts parts parts parts part powder. To run these glazes intense heat is required.. pass through the fine lawn. 1 parts 3 5 2 7 3 5 3 parts China clay Stone Cornwall stone Flint Paris white Ball clay Oxide of zinc 40 7 4 15 6 White lead II. VI. 4 parts Ground oxide of zinc. I. . glaze The may require an easy firing: The following glaze is excellent for bricks in the biscuit and pottery.. . and fired again. The glaze being comparatively soft will fuse at about half the heat required for the first be stained. SPECIAL RECIPES FOR POTTERY AND BRICK AND TILE WORKS Verifiable Bodies.e is suitable for bricks or tiles of very good red clay. or until the material runs down into a liquid. . grind the flux to an extremely fine Feldspar Flint 30 9 8 3 Stone China clay III.CERAMICS Yellow ocher Ball clay Flint 167 Feldspar Cornwall stone 25 6 2 2 parts parts parts parts parts parts parts parts parts parts parts parts part parts parts parts \ part 3 parts 10 parts III. parts parts 3 parts 3 parts 1* parts 1 J parts Barytes Superior. The following mix: White lead Stone Flint 20 parts 9 9 4 2 Borax. Feldspar 16 4 4 2 1 China clay Stone This made Oxide of zinc Plaster of Paris . 1 part. . . parts parts parts parts Chain clay Stone Flint 20 Feldspar Cornwall stone. 12 3 2 1 parts parts parts parts parts parts parts parts These materials should be procured ground. Cornwall stone.. and dip the goods when soft in the liquid. the natural color of the clay showing through the The goods must first be fired glaze. previously brushing a little gum thereon.. 15 parts parts parts parts parts parts Bone Barytes III. Oxide of zinc China clay Cornwall stone Feldspar Paris white Flint Transparent Glaze. V. and after being thoroughly mixed should be placed in a fire-clay crucible. IV. 5 Oxide Flint of zinc Lynn sand Sulphate barytes. with any of the colors given in glazed-brick recipes. sharply.. dis1 solved part China clay Stone 2^ parts 1 Special Glazes for Bricks or Pottery at One Burning. I. which White. Oxide of zinc require no glaze when a proper heat is attained.. Feldspar Stone Flint Plaster 10 5 2 afterwards glazed. 1 part. Oxide of zinc Whiting Plaster of Paris . sufficiently hard to make them durable. The plate must then be fired until a sufficient heat is attained to run or fuse the powthe der. 20 . Soda crystals. then with a pair of iron tongs draw the crucible from the kiln and pour the liquid into a bucket of cold water. in the following proportions: Stain. and be fired for 5 or 6 hours.. 20 parts Feldspar China clay Whiting Plaster of Paris .. and they are admirably They Feldspar finely parts parts parts parts 3 parts adapted for stoneware glazes.. tures will flux only at a very high heat. Bone II. Feldspar Stone.

. Ball clay China clay Flint Cornwall stone 13J parts 11 4 5 4 China clay Cobalt ! 48 parts 25 parts 24 parts 10 parts Feldspar Stain as required. Cane marl Ball clay Blue clay Finest China Bodies. Bone Flint 50 parts 3 parts 4 parts Ball clay China clay Flint Blue clay III. I. 2$ parts One pint of cobalt stain to 1 ton of glaze. Ball clay China clay Bone Feldspar III. Ball clay Bone Flint V.. 9$ parts 5$ parts 4 parts part part Cawk clay Blue clay II. Cornwall clay 200 parts 150 parts . Blue clay China clay Stone Bone. Ball clay 12$ parts 8 parts China clay Flint 5$ parts Cornwall stone . Feldspar Black Body. Ball China clay Flint clay 18$ parts 13$ parts 8$ parts Manganese China clay Ironstone Body. Red clay Flint Earthenware Bodies. . 18 parts China clay 11 parts 10 parts 8 parts : China clay Cornwall stone 32 parts 23 parts 34 parts 6 parts 5 parts 7 parts COLORED BODIES Ivory Body. Stone Blue clay parts parts 5 parts 2 parts 1 part III.. IV. last mentioned ingre- Bone Feldspar Caledonia Body.168 II. VI. 2 parts Cobalt carbonate. Common clay 50 parts 7$ parts 1 1 Ball clay China clay Flint Cornwall stone 13 parts Manganese Jasper Body. IV. 120 parts 120 parts 35 parts China clay Stone Grind the three dients first. 2 pints to ton. . Blue clay Calcined ocher. Ocher Manganese . 2 pints to ton. China clay Cornwall stone 8 parts Stone Feldspar Blue stain. parts parts parts parts Egyptian Black. 10 10 Bone Flint Cobalt Stone Body. CERAMICS China clay Cornwall stone 35 parts 8 parts V. China clay Stone 30 parts 15 parts 35 parts 20 parts Yellow clay China clay Flint 32 parts 10 parts 4 parts Bone Feldspar Brown Body. Flint China Flint 22 parts 5$ parts 5 parts 40 parts 28 parts 5 parts 20 parts Stone 3$ parts 30 parts 10 parts 7 parts 4 parts Dark Drab Body. Stone 235 parts 225 parts 45 parts 15 parts 4 parts Stone Blue stain. China clay Cornwall stone 20 parts 60 parts 20 parts 30 parts 40 parts 30 parts 25 10 45 20 parts parts parts parts Bone Feldspar II. 15 parts 12 parts 6 parts 4 parts 4 parts Bone Flint 40 parts 29 parts 5 parts Stone Feldspar Blue clay IV. I. (Parian).

parts part Red lead Flowing blue 10 parts 3 parts 3 parts Stone Flint Enamel blue Grind. then take: Of above White glaze 8 parts 3 parts 1 part 6 parts 1 30 parts 24 parts 7 parts part Feldspar 6 parts Or II. Common ball clay. Calx part Cream Body. G. 4 parts Brown parts clay Black clay Cornish clay Buff color Light Drab. lead of Oxide uranium 10 parts 8 parts Stone Flint 24 parts 15^ parts 6| parts 31 parts White lead . Red 100 parts 10 parts 8 parts 5| parts Red lead Raddle 100 parts 8 parts 8 parts 2 parts 24 parts 4 4 2 2 2 parts parts parts parts parts White glaze Manganese Flint Red lead Enamel amber Yellow underglaze Grind.. Ivory. Turquoise. Blue clay 1 1 Dried flint Cornwall stone Litharge Yellow underglaze. I. I. 15 parts 50 parts . Sage Body. Grind. Glost fire.. Enamel red Grind. Green Glaze. Calcined copper oxide of 14 J White glaze Oxide of cobalt 100 parts . Yellow. 5 parts 4 parts 4 parts Borax Flint Pearl ash 6 parts 2 parts 12 parts 4 parts 2 parts To 100 parts . Cane marl Ball clay China clay 15 parts 15 parts 5 parts Red lead Stone Flint Flint glass China clay 60 24 12 12 3 Stained with turquoise stain. Frit: Red lead Stone Niter Carbonate Enamel blue Malachite. 80 8 4 3 2 2 Soda crystals Borax Niter White glaze Red lead Marone pink U. 3 parts Oxide of cobalt Grind only.CERAMICS Blue clay Flint 169 5 parts 200 parts 100 parts 1 II. Oxide of copper Flint of glass Flint Red lead Grind. stronger as required. Oxide of cobalt Carbonate of cobalt.. 110 Grind. Cane marl Ball clay . Best. III. if parts part 1 part \ part | part Green. Pink. WHITE GLAZES: 100 parts 10 parts of soda. parts parts parts parts parts parts \ part parts parts then take: 60 57 oxide of Above frit Red lead Calcined copper Black. I. parts parts parts parts parts COLORED GLAZES FOR POTTERY Blue. 100 parts 8 parts 8 parts 3 parts Whiting Oxide of cobalt Glost fire. Buff. White glaze China. White glaze lead Buff color Grind. mill: White glaze Frit Red Grind.

212 130 50 110 parts parts parts parts IV.. CERAMICS Frit: Paris white 15 parts Stone Borax Lynn sand Feldspar Paris white 24 53 40 32 16 parts parts parts parts parts Stone 80 parts 65 parts White lead II. IV. Borax Stone Flint China clay Pearl ash 74 94 30 22 5| parts parts parts parts parts To mill: To 270 parts 20 parts mill: Frit Flint Frit Lead 175 parts 46 parts . Flint 200 parts 60 parts 80 parts Frit: Niter Borax White lead Flint glass Stone Paris white To mill: Frit Stone Borax Flint Red lead Flint glass 145 56 16 15 60 8 Frit: parts parts parts parts parts parts Borax Soda crystals 50 100 20 60 20 parts parts parts parts parts To mill: Frit Lead Stain 178 pounds 55 pounds 3 ounces Frit: Earthenware. Frit: Frit Stone Flint 40 parts 25 10 20 10 40 parts parts parts parts parts Stone Lead Pearl White Glaze. Frit: Flint To China clay Paris white Boracic acid mill: Frit Stone White lead Flint 90 parts 30 parts 90 parts 4 parts 2 parts Soda crystals 62 30 38 48 26 parts parts parts parts parts To mill: Glass III..170 II. Frit: To mill: Stone Frit 200 China clay White clay Stone Flint parts 16 parts 3* parts 3 parts 2 parts Flint Paris white Borax Niter 100 44 46 70 10 parts parts parts parts parts To mill: V. L Flint China clay Paris white Borax Soda crystals 108 45 60 80 30 parts parts parts parts parts Opaque Glaze. Frit: Stone 100 55 60 75 parts parts parts parts Flint Borax China clay Whiting Feldspar Lead Stain as required. Frit: Frit Stone Flint Stone Borax Flint Flint glass 50 40 30 30 Pearl barytes parts parts parts parts 10 parts Lead III. Frit: 230 160 60 120 56 55 60 20 120 parts parts parts parts Stone Paris white Flint China clay To mill: Frit Red lead Enamel blue Flint glass 160 30 2 parts parts part parts Borax Soda crystals parts parts parts parts parts 15 parts To mill: Frit.

20 parts 3 2 2 3 iron. Stone Flint China clay 100 80 30 30 40 40 80 parts parts parts parts parts parts parts Manganese Red oxide of Ball clay China clay 1 parts parts parts parts part China clay Paris white Feldspar Stoneware Bodies. I. and grind.. Flint 160 32 48 52 Red lead parts parts parts parts Whiting glaze: 10 parts parts parts parts Hard Feldspar Flint 25 parts 5 parts 15 parts 1 part Stain with blue II. 14 parts 10 parts 8 parts : .. ... Hard Stone Flint 10 5 1 Lead.. White: L White lead Borax Stone.. I.. 360 50 50 80 100 50 50 40 20 parts parts parts parts Stone Ball clay China clay Flint Frit: Borax Stone. HI. Red lead Litharge Tincal Stone Flint 80 60 40 40 52 50 7 3 5 1 Feldspar Flint glass . of Red oxide Stone Flint manganese of iron .CERAMICS Flint 171 Red lead Stone Flint Oxide of tin Flint glass 10 parts 12 parts 12 parts Frit: III. Raw Glazes. Ball clay China clay Flint 20 parts 13 parts 7 parts 1 part Stone White lead 30 parts 3 9 3 5 parts parts parts parts Cane marl China clay Flint 22 parts 15 parts 8 parts 1 part Red marl Manganese Feldspar . . Flint Paris white China clay parts parts parts parts parts Stone Feldspar Cane marl 14 parts 11 parts 4 parts 5 parts 4 parts 16 parts 10 parts 9 parts 5 parts glaze: China clay Stone Flint To mill: Frit Stone Flint 210 parts 104 parts 64 parts 95 parts Glazes.. White lead Litharge. Glaze for Granite.. Stone Red marl Oxide II. . Boracic acid 80 parts 60 40 45 50 parts parts parts parts lead Plaster Softer: Red Stone Flint White lead Flint glass Treat as foregoing. 20 parts parts parts parts parts White lead Stone 14 14 3 Oxide of zinc Whiting Plaster ROCKINGHAM GLAZES. To mill: 8 parts 5 parts 3 parts 4 parts Frit.. White lead Borax Flint 100 parts 4 parts 11 parts 50 parts Feldspar Stone Whiting Best: 13 10 18 parts parts parts 3 parts 1* parts Cornwall stone. Soda crystals Borax Stone Ball clay China clay Flint . IV.. Flint Stone Lead II. parts parts parts parts part Rockingham Bodies.. parts parts parts parts 3 parts 1* parts 1 part Litharge.

MATERIALS: Tin Ash. and dry 70 parts 3 parts for use. Granulated Niter tin 5 pounds Put on saucers and \ pound fire in glost oven. In order to attain this. Oxide of Chrome is made by mixing powdered bichromate of potash with sulphur as follows: 6 parts Potash 1 part Flowers of sulphur. Blue Stains. in consequence of the low baking temperature. Flint Paris white Stone 60 30 7| 140 Oxide of Tin. . . Best manganese. . Calcine in hard place of biscuit oven. . and. add water. Red lead Stone I. of cobalt 3f parts 3f parts 2J parts 100 parts 14 parts 20 parts 40 parts 2 parts Turquoise Stain. then spread on a dish. I. clay . . Another Process Body. . 4 parts 2 parts ladle. When Glaze. Chromate of iron Oxide of nickel Oxide of tin . and put in saggar again. and dip the ware therein. . Carbonate of cobalt. inside kiln.CERAMICS Glazes. Litharge. It parts 6 6 1 China clay Manganese Oxide of iron Oxide of zinc China clay Carbonate of soda parts parts part Hard fire. 100 15 10 10 40 parts parts parts parts parts 2 parts Whiting Flint Oxide Glost fire. 2^ parts 7 1 parts 7^ parts 6 pounds 4 pounds 4 pounds 5 ounces Red II. . so that fumes are carried away. Leave about 12 hours. fire. Ball clay China clay Flint clay Stone clay Black stain 16 parts 12 parts 9 parts 6 parts 7 parts Put in saggar. 60 parts 8 parts . G. Oxide of cobalt Paris white 10 parts 9 parts 1 part Sulphate barytes Calcine. . . Wash this until the water is quite clear. II. colors are readily decomposed by acids and atmospheric influences. Glaze. Production of Luster Colors on PorThe luster celain and Glazed Pottery. by passing through a fine lawn. Oxide of manganese Calcine and grind. because they do not contain. and pour out in water. and calcine in glost oven with plenty of air. Paris white Flint Stone Black stain 12 parts 30 parts 20 parts 12 parts 2 2 5 2 parts parts parts parts Black Stain. then pound very fine. Mazarine Blue Stain. White lead Feldspar Flint 3 parts 5 parts Fire this very hard. Procure some first-class red marl. Prepared cobalt . . . and place 4 or 5 pieces of red-hot iron on the top so as to ignite it. Oxide Oxide Stone of cobalt. of zinc . Litharge Feldspar '. Hard III. 60 parts 6 parts 16 parts 6 parts 12 parts Zinc Flint III. enough silicic acid to form resistive compounds. Jet. China clay Manganese Crocus martis IV. Alefeld has patented a process according to which such compounds are added to the luster preparations as leave behind after the burning an acid which transforms the luster preparation into more resisting . make it into a slip. Red clay Manganese Red lead Stone Flint China clay Oxide of cobalt. fired use the following: Old lead Grain tin Melt in an iron parts parts parts Red lead parts One part mazarine -blue stain to 10 parts glaze.

Instead of the chlorides. According to a process patented in Germany. Besides coal. preeminently phosphoric chloride. The mass treated in this manner is brought together in saggars with finely divided organic substances. . brought out. . such as sawdust. cut straw. are suitable. antimony. a mixture is prepared from various natural or artificial varieties of ocher. bring to boil gradually. . give the essary. as. in a reducing atmosAfter cooling the ferruginous phere.. shavings. They are mixed with oil of lavender in the ratio of 1 to 5. is manganese. free or combined.! be respectively substituted for silver carbonate and red ocher. tungstic.) in the approximate proportion of 5 to 1. ocher may be dispensed with. as they form phosphides with the metallic oxides of the lusters after the burning. These phosphides are especially fitted for the production of saturated resisting compounds.. etc. ground with a little gum tragacanth and water. in power of resistance.. and not so hard and white as The main differences in the porcelain. To toughen china or glass place the new article in cold water. but also on account of their colorings. molybdic. Since the lusters to be applied are used dissolved in essential oils.. The formulas used by the Arabs and their Italian successors are partly disclosed in manuscripts in the British and South . it is necessary to make the admixture of phosphoric substance also in a form soluble in essential oils. iron. and the colors thus and yellow ocher may acetates. Sulphur. not only on account of their insolubility in water.. v To Toughen China. Enamels containing a coloring base copper. Then proceed as usual. In this manner handsome shades How ployed. copper. and porcelain are due to the ingredients used. 5 1 20 . 95 . or zinc may be emcolor-giving layer moved by washing or brushing. The intensity and tone of the iridescence depend on the duration of the reduction. as regards gloss. Pottery is opaque. is not inferior to the nonsaturated metallic oxides. below: Kensington Museums. two are given Arab Copper sulphide Silver sulphide Italian 26 87 1. wood-wool. if it is translucent it is porcelain.. manufacture of stoneware. while it mate- 173 compounds. earthenware. and to the degree of heat to which they are sub- cadmium. and are furnaced at 1202 F. and vanadic compounds may be produced. Copper oxalate Copper sulphide Stannous oxide . boil for 4 hours. salts and oxides of silver. silver. may also be employed.49 These were ground with vinegar and applied with the brush to the already baked enamel. deposit is rubbed off. 5 . following simple test will serve: Hold the piece up to the light. and the resulting reaction product is added to the commercial metallic oxide luster. 1. The glazings now exhibit that thin but stable metallic color which is governed by the substances used. best results.98 49. cobalt. The metallic phosphates produced by the burning give a luster coating which. Metallic Glazes on Enamels. . is not neccinnabar has no action. platinum. singly or in conjunction with precious metal preparations (glossy gold. and the nature of the enamel.03 24 74 . 30 IV 28 . while the desired color is burned in and remains. Similarly titanic-. nickel. well as any readily destrucorganic compounds. The ingredients. and broom is not needed in the furnace. A great variety of iridescent and metallic tones can be obtained by one or the other. Mercury sulphide Red ocher 71. to Tell Pottery and Porcelain. For the production of this admixture the respective chlorides. are applied with a brush to enamels melting about 1814 F.15 . which are entered into fusing rosin or rosinous liquids. to the way they are mixed. 2 . 3 12 . nickel especially in presence of tin. Silver carbonate Bismuth subnitrate. 10 Red ocher Silver chloride 25 70 85 55 70 84 . After the heating the material is taken put. nitrates and tible Copper carbonate. 24 74 . and any organic gummy matter may be used instead of vinegar. to which 25-50 per cent of finely powdered more or less metalliferous or sulphurous coal is added. and if it can be seen through that is. and leave standing in the water till cool. Metallic Luster on Pottery.CERAMICS In this connection the admixture of such bodies has been found advantageous. III . chrome iron. etc. Glass or china toughened in this way will never crack with hot water. The re- The can be produced. . and subjected to feeble red heat.. or a mixture of the following formulas: I rially excels them II . V VI .

valerianic acid has been detected along with the other acids in present " its mucous membrane it. Alkalies dissolve this curd at a boiling heat. wares found "When cheese-curd is kept in a cool place a series of transformation takes in consequence of which it assumes entirely new properties. it exhibits a feebly acid reaction. this is mixed with milk. changes both the composition of the latter substance and The soluble nutritive qualities.174 jected in firing. and in the superior kinds of French cheese. of water is left in contact with a small quantity of a calf's stomach for a few hours. Neutral salts. the cheese itself passes into a state of decomposition. and the volatile butyric acid. margarate of lime is formed. " transition of the insoluble into casein depends upon the decomposition of the phosphate of lime by the margaric acid of the butter. or the the last stomach of the calf. dairies and districts. and heat coagulum is formed. the margaric and oleic acids. a tion. depends on principles which chemistry has developed and ilWhen a vegetable or minlustrated. and the differences in its pungency or aromatic flavor depend upon the proportion of free butyric. and which. Fresh cheese is very sparingly soluble in water. and Swiss cheeses which are nearly inodorous. which whilst fresh is acid. The acid indispensable to the coagulation of milk is not added to the milk in the preparation of cheese. develops the characteristic caseous odor. its " . which neutralizes the alkalies. is caused by certain fetid products containing sulphur. and gum arabic. forming " The bad smell of inferior kinds of cheese. the water absorbs so minute a portion of the mucous membrane as to be scarcely ponderable. its state of transformation is communicated (and this is a most important circumstance) not to the cheese. especially those called meager or poor cheeses. it gradually becomes semi-transparent. in every gradation. capric. CHEESE Most in this of the old English country are pottery or semichina. and which are formed by the decomposition or puThe alteration trefaction of the casein. which the butter undergoes (that is. and so prethe curd in an insoluble state. is coagulated by the addition of the acetic or any mineral and which is almost exclusively is rennet. but to the milk-sugar. as well as some other substances. earthy and metallic salts. but it is formed in the milk at the expense of the A small quantity milk-sugar present. when separated from the liquid poris constitutes cheese. The process of cheese making is one which is eminently interesting and scientific. Cheese Manufacture. In those English. although the term china is commonly applied to them all. flavor of the cheese is due to the decomposition of the butter. to a state similar to that in which it originally existed in the milk. of The odor and precipitate in The solubility of casein milk is occasioned by the presence of the phosphates and other salts of the alkalies. also produce the same effect. If the cheese is not immediately separated from the whey. added to milk. and caproic In the cheese of certain acids present. the casein of the milk is unaltered state. or for a night. throughout the whole mass. returns during the maturation. sugar. In fresh milk these substances may be readily detected by the property it possesses of restoring the color of reddened litmus paper. Butyric acid imparts to cheese its characteristic caseous odor. forming with it a solution which. the fluid turns acid. capric and caproic acids are liberated in consequence of the decomposition of glycerine. eral acid applied. Bolard in that of Roquefort. the alkaline reaction of the milk ceases as soon as the coagulation begins. Dutch. like milk. or ripening. By means of litmus paper the process may be followed and observed through all its stages. but after having been left to itself for two or three years it becomes (especially if all the fat be previously removed) almost completely soluble in cold water. the non-volatile acids. or which occurs in the milk-sugar still present. a compound soluble in water. and. The addition of an acid neutralizes the alkali. but that which answers the purpose best. and place. The philosophy of cheese making expounded by Liebig: " cipitates is thus just Messrs Jljenjo and referred to. which. Laskowski found this acid in the cheese of Limbourg. The cheese. The principal conditions for the preparation of the superior kinds of cheese. the formation of lactic acid continues. and M. the elements of which transpose themselves into lactic acid. being transmitted to the casein. and acids again used by dairy farmers. and thus causes the separation of the cheese. whilst the phosphoric acid combines with the casein. in becoming rancid). insoluble. and more or less soft. as it is called.

etc. and the length of time allowed for maturation. is " " " ladder or next placed on a horse over the tub. used either fresh or salted and dried. thus partially separated from the whey. covered" with cheese cloth. and the tub covered over. though more rarely. added when that coloring is used. the addition of coloring matter. all tend to alter the taste and odor of the cheese in some or other particular. Before placing it in the press the last time the common practice is to pare the edges smooth and sightly. The same principles which influence the maturation or ripening of fermented A cool cellar. The milk generally in the latter state. in the preparation. Much depends upon the quantity of cream it contains. after which it is allowed to subside. and is very excellent.CHEESE (other obvious circumstances being of duly regarded) are a careful removal of the whey. according to the Cows' quality of the cheese required. and pressure The applied for about 2 or 3 hours. milk is that generally employed." Cheese differs vastly in quality and flavor according to the method employed in its manufacture and the richness of the milk of which it is made. breeds Cheddar. that from goats. the rennet or rennet liquor added. is commonly regarded as the best If possible. the addition to or subtraction of cream from the milk. as is usually done. or in storing of the cheese." when the curd is gently struck down several times with the skimming dish. The curd is pressed down with the hands. of this article. neither damp nor dry. either whole or broken. communicating with changes of temperature In preparing his cheese the dairy farmer puts the greater portion of the milk into a large tub. ** mountain grottoes and caverns which are kept constantly cool. and. but occasionally ewes' milk is used." It will thus be seen that very slight differences in the materials. The vat. not only should the cows be properly fed. and sometimes. To insure the richness of the milk. but certain 175 course cheese is next turned out and surrounded by a fresh cheese cloth. before pressing. by currents of air from clefts in The value of these celthe mountains. is preferable when it can be procured. The storing of the newly made cheese is the next point that engages the attention of the maker and wholesale dealer. Cheshire. which is prepared from sheep's milk. as annotta or saffron. These are cellars. It is now allowed to stand until completely turned. "The quality of Roquefort cheese. or of flavoring. Those of Alderney. after which it is commonly removed from the all press. The and again pressed cheese it rapidly becomes bad-flavored.. any whey over. and a low temperature during the maturation or ripening of the cheese. It now only remains to wash the outside of the cheese in warm whey or water. salted for 15 to 20 of the cheese esquality pecially depends on this part of the procas if of the is left in the ess. gether. the place and method of storing. the temfor the purpose. and a proper quantity of salt. consequently. after which a board is placed over and under it. This plan is adopted in the manufacture of Stilton cheese and others of The addition of a a like description. The newly formed cheese. and then again submitted to pressure in the cheese press for 8 or 10 hours. at any An average of portion of the year. at about 41 to 42 F. hours. The materials employed in making Rennet is cheese are milk and rennet. care being taken to allow as little as possible of the oily particles or butter to run back with the whey. and that in a way readily percep- . when a superior quality of cheese is desired cream is frequently added to the curd. have been widely preferred. which holds the milk-sugar in solution. about 45 F. chosen. the separation of the curd from the whey with or without compression. and filled with curd by means of the skimmer. This process is repeated until the curd rises to about two inches above the edge. is now placed in a clean tub. liquors also operate here. and to color it with annotta or reddle. depends exclusively upon the places where the cheeses are kept after pressing and during maturation. pound or two of butter to the curd for a middling size cheese also vastly improves the quality of the product. as well as of annotta. sufficiently heated to raise the temperature to that of new The whole is then whisked tomilk. perature should on no account be permitted to exceed 50 or 52 F. lars as storehouses varies with their property of maintaining an equable and low temperature. and more added as it sinks. to wipe it dry. A place exposed to sudden is as unfit for storing cheese as it is for storing beer. may be of any kind. to which he adds the remainder. and which is uninfluenced by change of weather or season. the salting of the curd.. the collection of the curd. materially influence the quality and flavor The richness of the milk.

It is usually made in small oblong. without skimming. Rich. and flavor. Brickbat. round.or 4-pound weight) being dissolve with the casein. and differ greatly from each other in richness. 5 to 14 pounds each. and frea little powdered lump sugar. plum cheese. in large. foo. white. or of the quality of the materials from which they have been prepared. so that the be brought to the heat of new milk. Gloucester. of the size of a half-dollar put into a pint of water over night. quently tible to the palate of the connoisseur. cream. the morning's milk being mixed with that of the preceding evenpreviously warmed. flavor A rich kind of cheese. weighing from 30 to 60 pounds. of new milk and cream. other alimentary substance appears to be so seriously affected by slight variations in the quality of the materials from which it is made. flattish forms. or by such apparently trifling differences in the methods of preparing. from a mixture of milk and cream. From the "strippings" (the last of the milk drawn from the cow at each milking). in pieces will From new milk and cream. Dutch (Holland). skimmed milk. however. in Stilton. ton. and turned every day until It ripens in about 3 weeks. Lincoln. Named from in Dunlop. and then boiled with about one-fourth the weight of sugar. Cream. and dry. It is firm and dry. double Gloucester. Emmenthaler. soft and A strong variety of cheese. Dunlop cheese. cream cheese of French origin. those from spongy kind of cheese. the eyes or vesicles of which contain a rich oil. raw milk. Cheshire. Stilton. in large. this the rennet is added. in Switzerland. Thus we have Dutch. the pulp passed through a sieve. and pressed into molds. names which explain themselves. white. From milk mixed with the juice of an infusion or decoction of sage leaves. The following are the principal varieties : No Damson. thick cheeses (100 to 200 pounds each). A piece of dried rennet. Of a globular form. Mild tasted. These are commonly distinguished by names indicative of the places in which they have been manufactured. hours it is placed upon a board or wooden trencher. On this point much of the flavor and mildness of the cheese is said to depend. Brie. from milk retaining the whole of the cream. friable rather than viscid. . Same as Gruyere. white. and not keep over 2 or 3 months. Single Gloucester. A Gouda less so. made up into round. gooseberry cheese. made. erally solid. rich variety. Limburger.176 CHEESE After 12 applied to press out the whey. fine kind of cheese made Gruyfere. The varieties of cheese met with in commerce are very numerous. this coagulum is worked up like sour milk. until the mixture solidifies on cooling. called taowhich they sell in the streets of CanThe paste from steeped ground peas is boiled. Same as Cheddar. Soft.. round forms. using the respective kinds of fruit. semibuttery consistence. Gloucester. Cherry cheese. a general pressure only (that of a 2. A small. Prepared from damsons boiled with a little water. being flatter and broader than the latter. and exhibits numerous cells of considerable magnitude. are prepared in the same way. They are all very agreeable candies or confections. very similar to American Factory. pounds). A soft. From new milk. Derbyshire. after straining the liquid it is coagulated by a solution of gypsum. from which. whole may To Green or Sage. is sufficient for 18 or 20 gallons of milk. A dry. in Wiltshire. Those from Edam are very highly salted. homogeneous. and Cottenham. thick cheeses of considerable size (150 to 200 fine. etc. its form. well ripened. which causes the starch to Same as Dutch. it differs in shape. They are gening's. and buttery. little salt is generally added. and other cheeses. square. round. or rounded cakes. and allowed to stand until the next morning. and largely consumed A on the Continent. The Chinese prepare Holland. in less quantity than is commonly used for other kinds of cheese. according to the quality desired. color. or from raw cream only. it is next poured into small tin molds previously dusted out with sugar. about 2 inches thick. salted. Leguminous. without being friable. Cheddar. and consistence not unlike an actual cheese from peas. from milk deprived of part of its cream. to which marigold flowers and parsley are frequently added.

round.38 35. the Roquefort. for present use only.28 30.16 4. Sage. ety of Swiss cheese. and possesses a peculiar pungency and flavor.00 Stilton Cother- Roquefort. From ewes' milk. and covering it with a cloth or pan to keep off the dirt. best prevented by cutting a sufficient quantity for a few days' consumption When a whole cheese is cut. This removes the objection existing in families against purchasing a whole cheese at a time. this as they are broad.90 Water Casein Fatty matter Salts Same as green cheese.CHEESE A much-esteemed variNeufchatel.50 .93 stone 38. or by surrounding it with masses of fermenting straw or dung.00 100. its 177 peculiar flavor from the curd being allowed to become partially putrid before In small balls or rolls of being pressed. The principal cheeses made Swiss. smell. but not superior. the Neufchatel. Should cheese become too dry to b .Skim dar ter Water Casein Fatty matter Mineral matter. of which it possesses all the peculiar pungency. York. rather damp than dry. it is generally found From skimmed milk.76 38. and unctuosity of cheese.00 31.64 5.nitrogenous ganic loss matter and 1. spreading a thin film of butter over the fresh surface. It greatly resembles Stilton. in cheeses generally twicers high Like wine. and the new surface varnished with linseed oil.36 24.64 23. The gluten of wheat is kneaded with a little salt and a small portion of a solution of starch. and when kept a certain time is not to be distinguished from the celebrated Roquefort cheese. cheese is vastly improved by age. in cheeses of 30 to 50 pounds. and keeping the remainder in a cool place. and to lose This is flavor before it is consumed..00 to become unpleasantly dry.10 100.54 35.40 27.61 21. and one side colored red. good.96 100.00 100.00 100. and made up into cheeses.00 100. best 36. A very rich. from 24 to 30 pounds each.50 24. Parmesan.00 or- Non . cheese.22 3. Very hard and horny. about 1 pound each.93 3. with melitot. and weighs about 5 or 6 ounces. and is therefore seldom eaten before it is 2 A spurious appearance of years old. white Slipcoat or Soft. hardened by a gentle heat. Water Butter Casein Milk. and extractive matters Mineral matter 32. about 1 pound each. after making the outer crust is cut off. in forms.76 4. made in 40.18 37. We some give below the composition of of the principal varieties of cheese: Double Ched. Norfolk. It derives cheese should be avoided. in Switzerland are the Gruyere. as not only a higher price is paid for any given quality but there is little likelihood of obtaining exactly the same flavor twice running.10 29. The rennet is added at about 120. and the consumption small. It is said that this mixture soon acquires the taste. damp cellar. sugar. Suffolk. From the curd of skimmed milk. but is scarcely of equal richness or quality.44 4. during which the curd separates in A few pinches of saffron small lumps.Glouces. age is sometimes given to it by placing it in a warm. It will not keep. Stilton. and the Schabzieger or The latter is flavored green cheese.47 43. From which cream taken from other milk is added. made of cream. The common practice of buying small quantities of small rolls of Made in small balls or Westphalian.00 Gruyere Ordinary (Swiss) Dutch 36.70 3. England. The outside is painted with reddle or red ocher or whey. Gloucester. flat from the cheese. From cream. Dyed yellow with annotta or saffron. and an hour afterwards the curdling milk is set on a slow fire until heated to about 150 F. By slightly varying the process other kinds of cheese may be imitated.00 3.89 23.50 The richest and finest cheese raw milk to 6. prepared in France. Resembles Cheshire or Wiltshire.31 2. somewhat resembling butter. About a fortnight are then thrown in.64 45..20 100. Imitation.

The most successful manufacturers attribute their success to the 64 parts White wax 640 parts Sugar 128 parts Glucose 192 parts Water 4 parts Balsam of Peru . . Balsam of Tolu Benzoin White wax Paraffine Powdered sugar. and left for several weeks. Goats' milk cheese is made as follows: Warm 20 quarts of milk and coagulate it with rennet. which will make it tough and plastic. Flavorings. the manufacturer can flavor and alter to suit himself. or for making grated cheese. and paraffine together and pour on top of the syrup. glucose. Formula: Mix. etc. and work the whole up together.178 CHEWING GUMS I. cose in a small copper pan. Gum chicle 240 parts worked up. sugar. either the powder or extract. and aside from inpublishing general formulas. The working formulas and the these manufacturers are processes guarded as trade secrets. First mash and soften the gum at a Place the sugar and glugentle heat. 4 parts 1 part 1 part 1 part 1 part well. and any mold removed. 4 parts 384 parts 48 parts Dissolve the sugar in the water by the aid of heat and pour the resultant syrup on an oiled slab. . enough. set on a fire and cook to 244 F. and again into thin slices. drachm CHEESE COLORANT: See Food. Separate the curds from the whey in a colander. run through sizing machine to the proper thickness.. Gum chicle Sugar Glucose Caramel butter 1 1 1 pound pound pound 2 pounds Goats* Milk Cheese. take out and add the paraffine. roll out into sticks or any other desirable form. 2 drachms 1 Peru. Melt together. machinery. change the proportions until Manufacture. Water 20 ounces 8 ounces 6 ounces CHEMICAL GARDENS: See Gardens. Triturate the chicle and balsams in water.. employment of the most approved machinery and the greatest attention to details. add enough water to dissolve the sugar. is it Gum chicle of Paraffine 122 parts 42 parts . and water together to what is known to " confectioners as "crack heat. Balsam Sugar Water Tolu. Melt the gum.. roll out on a . and. little formation can be given. II. the former only salted. Thus. right. Add any desired flavor. mix well into a smooth paste... V. enough. Chemical. and sprinkled with salt. After a few days they may be put away on shelves to ripen. it may be used for stewing.. After a few days the dry curd may be shaped into larger or smaller cheeses. rience in manipulation is necessary to succeed. first heated. The cheeses must be turned every day. balsam. But given a basis. Pure goat's milk cheese should be firm and solid all the way through. and roll into sticks of the usual dimensions. CHERRY BALSAM: See Balsam. cut into strips. CHERRY CORDIAL: See Wines and Liquors.. mix . agreeable. Proceed as indicated in II. if the mass is either too hard or soft. pour the over the oil slab and turn into it syrup the gum mixture. or Welsh rarebits. are worked in under pressure by suitable of Flavoring matter. III. Chicle Paraffine 6 ounces 2 ounces Balsam Balsam Sugar Glucose of of Tolu . lift off the fire. Chewing Gums The making of chewby no means the simple opering gum Much expeation which it seems to be. pepsin. when sufficiently cool. the latter containing salt and caraway seed. Boil the sugar. Chicle gum is purified by boiling with water and separating the foreign matter. add the caramel butter and lastly the gum. and the published formulas can at best serve as a guide rather than as something to be absolutely and blindly followed. Twenty quarts of milk will make about 4 pounds of cheese. Flavoring. dusting with finely pow- dered sugar. often it will be found that different purchases of the same article will vary in their characteristics when is IV.. . smooth marble..

. powdered. 60 parts of powdered iron lactate and 60 parts of sugar syrup. and Next grind plunging it in cold water. get a handle. Tincture of rhubarb. With the point pick out the it place to be bored. Prepare 1. CHOKING IN CATTLE: See Veterinary Formulas. CHILBLAINS: See Ointments. CHILBLAIN SOAP: See Soap. Tincture of capsicum.. previously dusted with powdered sugar. J ounce of finely powdered quicklime. into a liquid substance. under Miscellaneous Methods. polished. The less cement applied the better. See Castor Oil. TO REMOVE BURNED LET- TERS FROM: CHOCOLATE EXTRACTS: See Essences and Extracts.000 parts of finished cacao CHICKEN-COOP APPLICATION: See Insecticides. CHILDREN. Of Scent with 40 parts of vanilla sugar. the point on a grindstone and finish on an oilstone. CHINA. and immediately add the sugar. See Cleaning Preparations and Methods. taking care to do for fear of breaking the article. CHLORIDES. Melt the gums separately. roll out at once into sheets. . small three-cornered file.. 1 1 1 1 1 part part part part pa~t Squibb's Diarrhea Mixture. after a good consistency has been reached. fently then the hole can easily be made by working the point round. CHOCOLATE CORDIAL: See Wines and Liquors. kneading it thoroughly on a hot slab. and cut into sticks. from 1 edge. and 30 parts of fresh cacao oil. Tincture of opium . CHINA REPAIRING: See Porcelain. TESTS FOR: See Foods. The wire may then be passed through and fas- CHOLERA REMEDIES: Sun Cholera Mixture. 20 parts 20 parts 60 parts A good cement may be made ounce of grated cheese. it will melt into a fluid of proper consistence No water must be for coating tablets. n a little while a piece will break off. CHICKEN DISEASES AND REMEDIES: See Veterinary Formulas. . CHOCOLATE ENGES: CASTOR . CHINA RIVETING. iron mortar. : CHOCOLATE. harden it by then placing it in the fire till red hot.OIL LOZ- CHINA: See Ceramics. DOSES FOR: See Doses. CHLORINE-PROOFING See Acid-Proofing. 40 parts Tincture opium 40 parts Tincture capsicum. .CHEWING GUMS CHOLERA REMEDIES Spruce Chewing Gum. Spirit of Spirit of camphor . China riveting is best left to practical men. this mass weigh out tablets of 125 parts into the molds. finely rubbed together. CHOCOLATE SODA WATER: See Beverages. Spruce gum . using a feather to spread it over the broken tened. and white of egg sufficient to make a paste. THEIR CHICORY. added. . Any desired flavor or color may be added to or incorporated with the sugar. When completely incorporated remove to a cold slab. a small portion at a time. CHILLS.. Coating Tablets with Chocolate. CHINA CEMENTS: See Adhesives and Lutes. PLATT'S: See Disinfectants. 179 Chicle Sugar. peppermint . If a chocolate which is free from sugar be placed in a dish over a water bath. but it can be done with a drill made from a splinter of a diamond fixed on a If this is not to be had. The coating is formed by dipWhen they are suffiping the tablets. and. mix while hot. add to it 800 parts of finely powdered sugar. in a warmed.. ciently hardened they are laid on oiled paper to dry. Spirit camphor 40 parts 15 parts Chloroform Alcohol 65 parts . BITTERS FOR: See Wines and Liquors.

TEST FOR: See Pigments. lips.. and consequently show the color through in CHROME YELLOW. wash with clean. the superfluous liquid finally letting run off. the breath should show an even blue surface on the glass. To Make . coat the back of the picture a few times with castor oil until it is perfectly transparent.. . carefully remove the oil without rubbing.. tion over the polished side of the glass. so that the liquid is evenly distributed. . Tincture opium Tincture camphor. . When the picture and the gelatin are perfectly dry. ground Rhubarb . Tincture capsicum. When the should first be sketched in. 160 8 4 . When the picture has been attached to the glass plate without blisters (which is best observed from the back). soluble. is pictures neces- The glass plate to be used should off be washed with warm water. Coat the unmounted photograph to be colored with benzine by means of wad- Cider Pick the apples off the tree by hand. such as eyes. Every apple before going into the press should be carefully Cider. . . kitchen gelatin in 8f ounces of distilled or pure rain water. Fluid extract blackberry root Fluid ginger. Spirit peppermint. then allow percolation to proceed. cracking off ture Brandy Sugar Essence cloves Essence cinnamon Chloroform q. dry with a towel. after having been finished. as these are already present in the picture. minims ounces 256 256 128 1 pounds minims minims minims gallon from the glass in a short time. 2 2 3 4 4 4 ounces ounces ounces ounces ounces ounces side tering excess on the gelatin-covered plate. a second glass plate should be laid on for protection. beard. . Tincture catechu Tincture rhubarb. and for this reason the small details. ding. soak for an hour. and then heat until the gelatin has com- Oil peppermint Alcohol. The solution must never be allowed to 2 pints 5J ounces 5J ounces boil. of chromo Practice little skill. first coat is dry the dress and the flesh The whole surface tints are painted. ad Macerate the ground drugs with 75 parts alcohol in a closely covered percolator for several days. In percolate dissolve the oil of peppermint. . from there to the left below and right below.. cold water. When the coloring has dried. and proceed with the painting. . CHROMO MAKING. Aromatic Rhubarb. Care must be taken. The best way is to pour the solution on the upper right-hand corner. preferably by means of a small sponge and lukewarm water. . s. and squeeze out the gelatin solution gently. and then laid in a 10 per cent solution of nitric After one hour. 8 parts 8 parts 4 parts 1 part 2 parts 5 parts 100 parts Calumba Saffron Powdered opium . the edge of the glass is cleansed of gelatin. cenit nicely. but without pressure. may be painted over. pasting the two edges together narrow strips of linen. not over-thick oil colors. Fluid catechu Fluid opium for tinc. so that the retouching of the picture is not disPlace 2 tablets of ordinary turbed. which has been previously slightly moistened on the back. which is best accomplished with good. Blackberry Mixture. . prefer- ably by means of a rubber squeegee. CHROMIUM GLUE: See Adhesives. however. and it is not necessary to paint shadows. as it is easily spoiled. with certained by breathing on the glass. acid. Take the photograph. Alcohol (25 per cent). varying strength..180 CHOLERA REMEDIES CIDER Cinnamon. since this would render the gelatin brittle and would result in the picture. s. using sufficient alcohol to obtain 95 parts of percolate. The production requires a sary. ad CHOWCHOW: See Condiments. allowing it to flow into the left-hand corner. and hair. q. The coloring must be observed from the glass side. and polish the plate with good alcohol on the inhollow side until no finger marks side This is best asor streaks are visible. lay it with the picture Rhubarb and Camphor. not to displace the picture in this manipulation. Pour this warm solupletely dissolved. and the plate is allowed to dry over night.

Put 10 gallons of old and clean II. Calcium sulphite (sulphite of lime) is largely used to prevent fermenAbout J to I of an ounce tation in cider. I. juice should be closely watched and as soon as the least sign of fermentation appears (bubbles on top. pitched within (a sound beer cask is the very thing). remove the pomace and put in a cask with a false bottom and a strainer beneath it. let dissolve. when it is bottled. To make the most sparkling cider the five. but care should be taken not to add too much.CIDER wiped. until the action of the sulIt will preserve the phite is exerted. filled. and it is a point of considerable nicety not to carry the first fermentation too The bottle should not be quite far. being unable to escape. under way the spume or foam should be scraped off with a spoon several times a When fermentation has ceased day. open tubs or casks with the heads out and provide with a faucet. the liquid must be fined. or 4 ounces of gelatin dissolved in sufficient hot water and add 4 gallons of proof spirit. and the car- To 100 gallons of good add 3 gallons of strained honey (or 24 pounds of white sugar will answer). Have the bung ready and the moment the soda is added put it in and drive it home. 25 or 30 pounds of sugar. But this is true only within certain limits. put in a warm place. and also to the temperature. The fermentation continues. and add and stir in well 40 ounces of simple syrup. stir in well. The cider will be ready for use in a few hours. then syphon off. and let ferment for 15 days. the more complete is its carbonation by the carbonic-acid gas. so as to allow more freedom for the carbonic-acid gas which forms. filled to the bunghole. then added to the bulk. before the greater part of the sugar which it contains has been converted into alcohol by fermentation. the hardening of the beverage on exposure to air. Artificial Ciders. as that would impart a slight sulphurous taste. I. when it is very warm the first fermentation is usually completed in 7 days. cork. is dissolved in the cider and produces the sparkling. Add 5 ounces of tartaric acid. is 181 small quantity of cider. The greater the quantity of sugar contained in the liquor. As fast as the juice runs from the press place it in clean. The various fruit ethers are for sale at any wholesale drug To house. Let stand 3 days longer. to a certain extent. When the bottles have been filled. and this is best done with catechu dissolved in cold cider. To convert ordinary cider into champagne cider. as they are strong and will stand pressure. transforming more of the sugar into alcohol. and tie or wire down. or as near to the bunghole as After fermentation is well possible. It should first be dissolved in a liquor is allowed to stand for three. bottle. Cider Preservative. It is now ready for use or for bottling. salt II. The barrel should then be bunged and allowed to stand for several days. As soon as a charge of apples ground. Champagne quarts are generally used for bottling cider. and thus retain in the cider as much carbonic acid as possible. champagne the liquor should be clarified and bottled in the sweet condition.) it should be run off into casks prepared for this purpose and placed in a moderately cool room. etc. put The in about two inches above bottom. This is well stirred and left to settle for a few days. four. Clarify the cider by adding a half gallon of skimmed milk. and consequently the more sparkling it is when poured out. besides being a convenient Champagne Cider. tightly bung. and the whole agitated until thoroughly mixed. 2 ounces of catechu to the barrel of cider. . then add 7| ounces sodium bicarbonate in powder. during which fermenThe time varies actation proceeds. Bunging the cask tightly is done in order to induce a slow fermentation. bonic acid. Bottling Sweet Cider. the bismuth renders alcoholic fermentation more complete. or six weeks. of the sulphite is required for 1 gallon of cider. The cider at this stage is still sweet. The addition of 154 grains of bismuth subnitrate to 22 gallons of cider prevents. then add the flavoring matter to suit taste. size is to say. and let alone that for a week. moreover. and a vessel to catch the drainage from pomace. The barrels should be entirely filled. for if the production of sugar is too high the fermentation will be arrested. sweetness of cider perfectly. 25 gallons of soft water add 2 pounds of tartaric acid. cider in a strong and iron-bound cask. proceed as follows: cider In making cider for consumers. in the bottle. the cider is racked off into clean casks. and the bung driven in tightly. or materially retards. Before bottling. and a pint of yeast. sweet. cording to the nature of the apples.

. be in the atmosphere rushes into the case.182 CIDER CIGARS The its corked. makes a passable substitute for cider. use sugar-house molasses instead. in a clean cask with the bung out. for instance. a "Perfecto" swells in the middle and tapers down to a very small head at the lighting end. After all. zinc-lined chest. then warm place to fer- Let ferment for about 15 days. or else the cider will taste of the cork. alum. after which the liquor is ready for use. powdered. and have absorbed more moisture than has been put in the case. it is a comparatively simple All matter to take good care of cigars. but correspondingly poor above may be made as Twenty-five gallons of soft water. after adding 3 gallons of whiskey. 13 and A 12. A formula for an imitation cider is as follows: Cigars . Yeast (brewer's preferably) 2 pints in a Mix and put ment." a very dark-brown one a "Colorado. 2 pounds tartaric acid. for 24 hours. Imitation Cider. 5 ounces Alum. Bung tightly. powdered. which should be dry. desired use caramel sufficient to proIf honey is not duce the correct tinge. warmer weather from 12 to 13 days will When fermentation is be sufficient. they should be placed in a good cellar. . stirring well in: add the Cloves Bitter almonds. and honey add the yeast.800 parts 32 parts of all cigars being 7 inches long. the shapes. . named according shape. let stand 48 If a higher color is hours. Honey Water Yeast in the water. and rack off into clean casks. obtainable. they should never be allowed on cold or damp floors. and wired down. to Cigars are color their and A dead-black cigar. . crushed 8 ounces 8 ounces an "Oscuro. They have been dry. I. it is not the original freshness in which they were received from the factory. A substitute for the follows: cheaper. a "Napoleon" is the biggest Let stand 24 hours. prepared. Even though the cigars have the appearance of freshness. Alum. and put in some warm place to ferment. Dissolve the catechu." a medium brown is a "Colorado Claro. The bottles should not be laid for four or five weeks. The container should be filled to the square opening. . following. instead of in the usual four layers of 13. made by sawing out five or six inches of the center of a stave. 12. add two or three gallons of good whiskey. about 1 ounce of powdered loaf sugar can be added to each bottle. and is finally taken up by the cigars. and a very pleasant drink: Catechu. a "Conchas" is very short and fat. Then bung up the CIDER VINEGAR: See Vinegar. that is necessary is a comparatively airThis should be tight. alcohol of volume much may be replaced by twice good bourbon whiskey." and that is as As to far as most of them need to know. Rain water 100 gallons 6 gallons Honey. a "Panatela" is a thin." Most smokers know the names of the shades from "Claro" to "Colorado. powdered. or comparatively so. In cooler weather from 2 weeks to 18 days will be In required for thorough fermentation. and a "Londres" is shaped like a "Perfecto" except that it does not taper to so small a head at the "Reina Victoria" is a lighting end. and 1 pint of yeast are allowed to cask. When they are being laid they should be placed on laths of wood or on dry sand. com- plete add the following solution: 1 part Oil of bitter almonds 1 part Oil of clover 32 parts Caramel 192 parts Alcohol How to Keep Cigars. and let stand for 48 hours. The following. when properly II. stand in a warm place. it can never restore the flavor that was lost during the drying-out process. and the spume skimmed off daily as it arises. and it matters not what that moisture may be. "Londres" that comes packed in a ribbon-tied bundle of 50 pieces. straight. but honey is preferable. 3 parts 5 parts 640 parts 12. or breakage will ensue. Cigars kept in a case are influenced every time the case Whatever of taint there may is opened." and a yellowish light brown is a "Claro. . or if it has been fermented too far. powdered.. Should the cider be relatively poor in sugar. unstrained 3 ounces Catechu. upand-down cigar without the graceful curve of the "Perfecto". is is Cigar Sizes and Colors. 25 pounds of brown sugar. or else a measure of sugar syrup before pouring in the cider. then bottle.

corks of jugs not intended for immediate use should be covered with a piece of bladder or strong parchment paper. taking out from time to grinding the other ingredients to a coarse powder.CIGARS CLARET PUNCH 183 behind the counter in a place where the When a customer temperature is even. . and then puts the box back again. pared liquor is sprinkled on the tobacco. Into a bottle filled with V. to which a little gum benzoin and storax may be added. Tonka beans . for there is a delicacy of flavor to be preserved that is never present in the The speckled appearCigar Spots. 8 2 2 2 4 16 i ounces ounces ounces ounces CINNAMON OIL AS AN ANTISEPTIC: See Antiseptics. serves his customer. calls for a cigar the dealer takes the box out of the chest. cork The tightly. . Some persons add a small quantity of camphor or oil of cloves or cassia. Havana cigars are more susceptible to change. enough to make IV. Alcohol . into earthenware or stoneware jugs. so as to avoid opening and closing one particular chest so often. I. . and add J pint of mastic extract. 4 4 drachms drachms 1 drachm 2 drachms 5 ounces 3 parts 1 part 8 parts Dissolve the washing soda in the hot water. They are said to acquire a pleasant flavor French brandy put 1J ounces of cascarilla bark and 1J ounces of vanilla previously ground with pound of sugar. ground fine. add the alcohol. the latter being then exposed to light and air. pint of time whatever they need for use. the disagreeable odor produced soon disappears. make a display in his show case. and the chest is open but a moment. heavy chest are always safe from atmospheric influences. shrinkage in value of the cigars in the case is merely a business proposition of profit have been obtained for methods of spotSt. in 1 quart rum. III. of course. The finished cigars are moistened with this liquid. occasionally shaking. decant ture for 3 minutes. and mild strength through ment. and keep in a cool place. a strong tincture of cascarilla. Extract vanilla Alcohol 16 ounces 4 ounces $ gallon Jamaica rum Tincture valerian. add the chlorinated lime. which produces an exceptionally fine tobacco for wrappers. Nitrous ether Tincture vanilla. packed in boxes. strain. put all together in a jug and macerate for 2 weeks. and after CLARET LEMONADE AND CLARET PUNCH See Beverages. and tightly tied down to prevent the escape of gas. in which they keep different brands. drachms ounces CITRATE OF MAGNESIUM: See Myrrh Magnesium : Citrate. Louis firm uses a solution composed of: A and loss. The cigars in the close. under Lemonades. Caraway seed English valerian root Bitter orange peel. Moisten ordinary cigars with 2 of of Tincture of valerian. lastly. and heat the mixture to a boiling temperaWhen cool. . In a certain district of Sumatra. carefully close up the flask and distil in a warm place. Every dealer must. it is said. Some of the best dealers have either a large chest or a cool vault in which they keep their stock. tincture valerian. The box being opened for a moment the cigars are not perceptibly affected. Some have a number of small chests. . the leaves of the plant are commonly speckled in this way. ance of certain wrappers is due to the work of a species of fungus that attacks the growing tobacco. After 3 days pour off the liquid.. and extract of vanilla. as the boxes are closed. when. and consequent weakening of the The prebleaching power of the fluid. this treat- It may be said that it is only the higher priced cigars that need special care in handling. Soak the myrrh for 3 days in 6 quarts of water. Sodium carbonate Calx chlorinata Hot water Water CINCHONA: See Wines and Liquors.. II. Several patents cheaper grades of cigars. ounces of cinnamon and 4 ounces tonka beans. and preserved from air by a well-closed lid. Macerate Cigar Flavoring. Butyric aldehyde. while the dealer is taking out a box from which to serve his customer. . but he need not The serve his patrons with these cigars. gallon CINNAMON ESSENCE: See Essences and Extracts. although the cheaper grades The are not to be handled carelessly. ting tobacco leaves artificially.

. filtering paper. by incorporating some heavier sub- stance. the above mixture acts more ener' getically. former substances to separate in more or The quantity of alcohol required varies greatly according to It should be the nature of the liquid. This The by measure. so that the one richest in vaseline will be the softest.184 CL A RIFYING GLUE: CLEANING PREPARATIONS For clarifying etc. shake repeatedly in the course of a few days. liquors. the process by which Clarification any solid particles suspended in a liquid are either caused to coalesce together or to adhere to the medium used for clarifying. By the use of various varieties of clay and the suitable choice of admixtures. Polishes. When purpose clarifying vegetable extracts. effect of much albumen as possible in solu- Egg albumen may also be used. then filter. the albumen which is naturally present in most plants accomplishes this moniac.. 1 part common salt. a trowel. quent filtration is gum Suspended may be removed by cautious precipitation with tannin. turpentine. in the form of a This has fine magma of filtering paper. Then rinse with soap and water. There must be no excess of tannin used. CLARIFYING. It is obvious that the hardness of the material decreases with the amount of vaseline added. and to form a compact sediment. In each case the clarifying process may be hastened by making the separating particles specifically heavier. Another method of clarifying liquids turbid from particles of gum. or pectin particles of much the Plastic Modeling Clay.. 40 parts 40 parts 20 parts Reduce them to very mix thoroughly. The proportion of clay to the vaseline varies according to the desired consistency of the product. less large flakes. dry. A rough mold shaped to fit the tuyere opening. and heating to Methods (See also Soaps. pectin. The albumen may be increased by the addition of cellulose. which may cause the flocculi to sink more rapidly. and then adding vaseline or petroleum residues rich in vaseline. albumen. of which only an exceedingly small sary. the mixture being kept in a warm room. etc. the plasticity. etc. Powdered talcum renders the same service. that is. so as to render the is take for every quart of liquid 75 grains of the above mixture. may be removed by the addition of bole. and gle application usually suffices to remove . so as to get as tion. that they may be removed by filtration (which would previously have been impossible). of Aniline -Dye Stains from the stained skin with a pinch of slightly moistened red crystals of chromic trioxide until a distinct sensation of warmth announces the destruction of the dye stuff by oxidation and an incipient irritation of the skin.. as well as the color of the mass. may be varied. CLARIFICATION OF GELATIN AND See Gelatin. Clarifying powder for alcoholic liquids: TO REMOVE STAINS FROM THE HANDS: the Skin. the admixture of vaseline varying from 10 to 50 per cent. mixture dries hard and when glazed by fire will last.. such as are occasionally met with in honey. and a few minutes' time are all that are needed to complete the successful claying of the forge. nently plastic clay can be obtained by first mixing it with glycerine. It facilitated. essences. is to add to them a definite This causes the quantity of alcohol. fine powder. or similar bodies. and Household Formulas). etc. wines. liquid clear. and has the additional advanHowtage of being entirely insoluble.. ^ part sal am- albumen. provided the vegetable matter is extracted in the cold. Cleaning Preparations and pulped boiling. One of the best agents for this is CLAY: Claying Mixture for Forges. all purpose easily. Sugar of milk Starch . constantly stirring the mass as the wetting proceeds. A perma- amount is usually neces- combines with the gelatinous than substances better with the aid of heat in the cold. Resinous or waxy substances. A sin- Removal Rub Egg albumen. 20 parts cast-iron turnings. determined in each case by an experiment on a small scale. Twenty parts fire clay. such as talcum. ever. the further advantage that the subse- materials should be thoroughly mixed dry and then wet down to the consistency of common mortar.

over the surface. In the morning wash in warm water. the damp article in the sunlight to dry. and carefully wipe off the dead gold with this. 68 parts. and rinse the goods with plenty of water. To clean polychromed work sponge with a lye of rain water. To clean gilt articles. A very effective way of eliminating developer stains is to dip the ringer tips occasionally during development into the It is best to use the clearing bath. 1. using a stiff brush as before. For matt gilding. One plan to avoid stains is to use rubber Nitricfinger stalls. Finally. If there is no sunlight. Pyrogallic-Acid Stains on the Fingers (see also Photography). not roughly. or apply a warm solution of soda or potash. similar to those for use on woodwork. or harshly. . or potash solution. etc. and off the permanganate with a 5 atic) acid. . In the course of five minutes the dirt will have become Then go over soft. of an agreeable odor. SPOT AND STAIN REMOVERS: To Remove Aniline Stains. and immediately wash off with a clean sponge and water. Next go over the gilt work with a small sponge saturated with alcohol to remove all dirt. 89 parts 10 parts Now lay Ascetic ether 1 part Pear oil This yields an effective grease eradi- cator. There are soaps made especially for this purpose. CLEANING GILDED ARTICLES: To Clean Gilt Frames and Gilded Surfaces Generally. such as gold articles To Clean moldings... % 130 parts 70 parts 1. and In order to avoid let dry completely. made I. so that the lye does not attack the paint too much. which are often very stubborn. attention to the poisonousness and strong caustic action of chromic trioxide. the surface again gently with the same or a similar brush dipped in rain water. Pyro stains be prevented fairly well by rubbing in little may a wool fat before beginning work. and easy of removal. rub the hands with pumice or infusorial earth. acid stains can be removed from the hands by painting the stains with a solution of Sodium nitrate 7 grains Diluted sulphuric acid 15 grains washing permanganate of potash.. Fire-gilt are cleaned. is vertical. 185 streaks. before resorting to soap. as follows: A spot remover 7 parts is Saponine Water Alcohol Benzine. be noticeable on the tongue. 1 ounce Water Let the mixture stand a day or two before using. washing and brushing an hour or so afterwards. Dip a soft brush in alcohol to which a few drops of ammonia water has been added. etc. using a Restiff brush. or rubber gloves. place it near a warm (but not hot} stove. according to their condition. clearing bath. fine little sponge is used which is moistened but lightly with tartaric acid and passed over the gilding. drying next with a fine linen rag. as the latter seems to have a fixing effect upon the stain. Any soap that roughens the skin should be avoided at all times. peat the application two or three times during the day. ammonia.. stains are said to disappear at once and II. has been found to be After its use the liquid opodeldoc. use only a white flannel dipped in lye. Fire-Gilt Articles. with water. when they have become tarnished or covered with flyspecks. An excellent medium for the reof aniline stains. during the drying. Work on a Cleaning and Altars. and with it go Do not rub at least. with ample friction.000 parts. but only moderate caution is required to article. moval entirely. diluted hydrochloric acid. per cent solution of hydrochloric (muriAfter this wash the hands with pure castile soap. and so are the ammonium persulphate reducer and the thiocarbamide clearer.. in which infusorial earth or similar matter is incorporated. and apply glycerine. and calcined potash. To Polychromed clean bright gold To Clean Very Soiled Hands. Castile soap is the best to keep the skin in good condition. Apply to the spot with a sponge. etc.. and wash with a moist soft sponge after Gilded about 2 hours.CLEANING PREPARATIONS AND METHODS It is hardly necessary to call the stain. rub them slowly with an onion cut in half and dipped off lightly in rectified alcohol. To Remove Nitric-Acid Stains. If hydrochloric acid is employed thorough dilution with water is especially The acidity should hardly necessary. II.788 parts 5 parts Oil mirbane Benzene (benzol). Lemon peel is useful for removing pyro stains. take care that the position of the not exactly avoid evil effects. and wash in warm water. I. Cleansing Fluids.

or copper. rubbing it with the fingers. This mixture is applied in suitable quantity to oil-stained. also. and old ones in a minute or two. moved readily if the stain is a layer of magnesium carbonate. bromide. though rarely. To Clean Colored Leather. silver. of Besan9on. with a glycerine sponge or otherwise. off. if the stains are old ones they should first be rubbed with the strongest acetic acid and then treated as above. . put it on the stain and go over it with a hot smoothing iron. or of salts of mercury. then wash off with water or alcohol. 4 parts 1 part 100 parts linen. Have prebits of heavy blotting paper plication does not remove all the grease or stain.. Apply a solution of Boric acid Recent stains of picric acid be recovered with may CLEANING SKINS AND LEATHER: See also Leather. and allow it to stand about 24 hours. II. and moisten the latter with water. say turning the wad over repeatedly. for instance) there is no better detergent than glycerine. brush of soft rubber. This process will instantly restore any faded writing or printing. Pour carbon bisulphide on non-vulcanized guttapercha. Pour benzol (not benzine or gasoline. but Merck's "c. but this practice is apt to be neglected so that the skin becomes saturated with dirt and grime. After shaking actively add more gutta-percha gradually until the solution becomes of gelatinous consistency. I. or several pieces of heavy blotting paper. Let 2 hours. The color the sulphuret evaporates. and pass the iron over it to neutralize the strong alkali. Any dirt that re- mains can be removed by using a piece If Purposes. To clean it. after soaping it and rolling it into a compact wad. This should suffice to loosen the dirt. as it has a tendency to shrink and harden the skins. first thoroughly soak in clean. to the the Apply spot. soft water. etc. let stand a minute or so. apply to the place.. Then saturate another bit of blotting paper with a 4 per cent or 5 per cent solution of hy- drochloric acid in distilled water. tip of the comes a crumbling mass. it immediately after use. Dr. gold from the hands. The dry gutta-percha can be redissolved in sulphuret of carbon and used over again. then wash them in plenty of tepid water. The best way to clean a chamois skin is to wash and rinse it out in clean water which has been put a them lie here for ting pad. only those leathers on which a dressing containing has starch been used look a little lighter in color. To Remove Stains of Sulphate of III. Water III. is the surface. etc. a blotting pad. wash them first with a dilute solution either of ammonia. Then. bath should also be made alkaline with soda. the carbonate moistened with a little water to form a paste.186 CLEANING PREPARATIONS AND METHODS For cerGlycerine as a Detergent. and the paste then rubbed over the spot. repeat the operation. tain kinds of obstinate spots (such as coffee and chocolate.. Removal of Picric-Acid Stains. The method of using it is simply to lay a small pinch on the stain. The skins are finally rinsed in warm water. and make the paper bright and fresh again. To Clean Skins Used for Polishing First beat them thoroughly the foregoing fails (which it sometimes. II. according pared some to get rid of dust. of the stain. and apply this rubbing it in lightly. of strength of from 3 per cent to 5 per cent. p. Then rinse in clean water until the skin . recomlithium carbonate for the removal of picric-acid stains from the skin or mends from To Remove Finger Marks from Books. saturating one of the bits of blotter with the hot sodium hydrate solution.. iodide. and then with plenty of water. especially for fabrics with delicate colors. and dried quickly. If one ap- somewhat larger than the spot to be removed. rubbing them This vigorously until perfectly clean. I. colored leather and allowed to dry two or three hours. etc. and keeping it well wet and soaped. When the benzol not injured in the least by of carbon. does). Lay the spiled page face downward on the blot- to the age. and rolling it off Sodium benzoate. The subsequent operation consists merely in removing the coat of gutta-percha from the surface of the leather that is. Fresh stains disappear almost instantly. Cold water must be avoided at all stages of the cleansing process." crystallizable) on calcined magnesia until it beto the spot. beat with a small round stick a buggy spoke. then. with the finger. try the following: Make a hot solution of sodium hydrate in distilled water. but the better class of leathers so are not dressed. then go over the surface on both sides with a piece of good white soap and lay them in warm water in little soda. Prieur. Hot glycerine is even more efficient than cold. or cyanide of potassium.

any good white soap. and the article to be bleached being suspended from a string stretched A cover not fitting so across the top. otherwise employed dissolves the varnish. Sponge the straw with a solution 750 parts Rosin 150 parts Venice turpentine 150 parts Castor oil 20 parts Alcohol 2. and 1 part of ammonia. the dish of burning sulphur being placed at the bottom.000 III. but not the paint. some brimstone (roll sulphur). and sprinkling over it some live coals to start concombustion. and it is then suspended over the sulphur fumes. composition dissolves the old varnish coat. Before using the skin again rinse it in clear water is 187 I. Scrub with castile soap and warm water. and pressed on a block with a hot iron to bring them back into shape. has been thoroughly rinsed. it 175 Venice turpentine 50 Castor oil 15 Alcohol 2. AND ENAMEL RE- MOVERS: Coats. down to the Waterproof Stiffening for Straw Hats. It will not only be as clean as when new. VARNISH. press out the surplus water. followed by a similar application of water. merse the hat completely in the rinse water. the lacquer as well as the oil paint coming mulas follow: The ammonia off completely. it is advisable to use a small clothes wringer. The hat is then placed in the hot sun to dry and in the course of three two or hours is ready for use. The hat after being so treated should be fastened by the rim to a board by means of pins. As wringing by hand is apt to injure the chamois skin. PAINT. or. A little glycerine added to the rinsing If the hat has become much dark- ened in tint by wear the fumes of burning sulphur may be employed. Sandarac will keep its shape in drying. Copal Sandarac Venice turpentine Castor oil Alcohol 450 parts 75 parts 40 parts 5 parts to which a been added. 800 parts 500 parts parts parts parts parts Shellac STRAW-HAT RENOVATION: To Renovate Straw Hats. Hats made of natural (uncolored) straw. rinse a second time. so mounted as to keep the heat from setting fire to anything beneath. How to Clean a Panama Hat. tightly as to exclude all air is placed over it. These are generated by placing in a metal water entirely prevents the stiffness and brittleness acquired by some hats in drying. using a Turkish bath towel for the purpose. . The cleaned hat will be a trifle stiff at first. while a little ammonia in the washing water materially assists in the scrubbing process. may be cleaned by thoroughly sponging with a weak solution of tartaric acid in water.500 parts Shellac of By weight Sodium hyposulphite. and let it rest on the towel when drying. 10 Glycerine Alcohol parts 5 parts Water 10 parts 75 parts place for 24 hours Lay aside in a damp and then apply Citric acid Alcohol By weight 2 parts 10 parts 90 parts Water Press with a moderately hot iron. after stiffening with weak gum water. Upon being thoroughly moistened with water the old varnish may be readily washed off. Paint. 36 per cent). To Remove Old Oil. about 1 part of soda lye (40 The per cent). as well as the paint. little pulverized alum has II. Ivory. Apply a mixture of about 5 parts of potassium silicate (water glass. and the apparatus allowed to stand for a few hours. a nail brush being used as an aid to get the dirt away. but it will retain its shape admirably. if necessary. I. III. adding the glycerine Imto the water used the second time. The varnish coatings which are to be removed may be brushed off or left for days in a hardened state. will answer as well as It is well to castile for the purpose. The operation is ducted in a deep box or barrel. moving it about to get rid of or earthen dish. When the hat traces of the dirty water. in fact. If a waterproof stiffening is required use one of the varnishes for which for- bottom.CLEANING PREPARATIONS AND METHODS clean. so that II. Hats so treated will require to be stiffened by the application of a little gum water. or Varnish I. followed by water alone. The material should be first cleaned by thoroughly sponging with an aqueous solution of potassium carbonate. which have become soiled by wear. but will soon grow supple under wear.

paint. lacquer. so as just to cover the parts whereby hydroFor use. may be softened in a few minutes so that they can be easily scraped off. CLEANING PREPARATIONS AND METHODS Apply a mixture of 1 part oil of and 2 parts of ammonia. Pour enough of oil of vitriol (concentrated sulphuric acid) over powdered fluorspar in an earthen or lead vessel. from the brushes. The cleaning o the brushes and vessels in which the varnish or oil paint had (see To Clean Brushes and Vessels dried is usually done by boiling with soda solution. it suffices to Wood. and not to get any liquid on the skin. Paste I. Dissolve 20 parts of caustic soda (98 per cent) in 100 parts of water. and 1 ounce of alcohol. This frequently spoils the brushes or cracks the vessels if of glass. 3 parts 6 parts 4 parts 10 parts 7 parts 2 parts .. of turpentine. . . Varnish. with stirring. . The mixture is applied to the coating with a little oakum. The work liquid acts more rapidly.. A much than 10 minutes. It keeps moist quite long enough to be easily removed after it has acted. .. again rendered serviceable at once.188 II. II. The amyl acetate can be easily removed etc. Finally. 385 parts 450 parts Hydrochloric acid. part part Removing Varnish. The composition is made by mixing 4 ounces of benzol. en or leaden vessels. and care should be taken not to inhale the fumes. and stir in a kettle provided with a mechanical stirrer. This mixture should be heated until the wax melts and rubbed sparingly on the stains. rub the surface with a linen rag until it is restored to brilliancy. mixture. To Remove Varnish from Metal. Ammonia Mix. 5 parts Turpentine This mixture is applied to the surface and left on for some time. per cent) water etc. stated by the inventor that this mixture. It is then brushed off. by applying the following mixture. Hydrofluoric acid must be kept in earth- Now add. ammonia and dip the articles in equal parts of alcohol (95 per cent). If For necessary. dish and scrape a little white wax into it. dip fluoric acid is generated. until the emulsion is complete. as hydrofluoric acid is one of the most dangerous poisons. or Varnish Coats. besides. tar. etc.. cleaning vessels shake the liquid about in them. will make the surface quite clean in has been taken out in England more suitable remedy is which is a liquid with a pleasant odor of fruit drops. 3 ounces of It is fusel oil. the process is repeated. even if the coatings withstand the strongest lye.. To remove old varnish from metals.. Removing Paint and Varnish from . which softens the paint so that it is this can be readily removed with paper. which does not injure If heated. from Wood. and paint. as it destroys glass. Sodium hydrate Soluble soda glass Flour paste To Remove Paint. Varnish. Potassium silicate. To Remove Enamel and Tin Solder. should always be conducted in the open air. no matter how old and hard. by alcohol or oil Varnish and Paint Remover. the process is rather slow and for a liquid for removing varnish. and brings the paint away with it. 20 parts of sawdust and pass the whole through a paint mill to obtain a uniform intermixture. 160 parts Bleaching powder. for Removing Old Paint 5 parts . etc. used mainly for dissolving and cementing celluloid. A patent Paint of Dry also Brushes and Paints). To Remove Water from Var- Pour olive oil into a nished Furniture. .. The two liquids are shaken in a bottle until they mix like milk. the the articles in any way. Stains The following compound is given as one which will clean paint or varnish from wood or stone without injuring the material: Flour or wood pulp. Water Soap Potassium hydrate. 40 5 parts turpentine B. (27 1 1 This is effective. if applied to a painted or varnished surface. which are highly injurious to the health. mix the solution with 20 parts of mineral oil. Apply the paste moist. If amyl acetate is poured over a paint brush the varnish or hardened paint dissolves almost immediately and the brush dirty. after a few minutes the old paint can be wiped off. In manner much labor can be saved. Water glass Soda lye.. . the article suspended on a wire into the liquid until the enamel or the tin is eaten away or dissolved. and that a paint" " can be soaked brush as hard as iron made as soft and pliable as new by simply soaking for an hour or so in the less amyl acetate.

sulphur. desired to vend in a liquid form add an equal part of water.. and the article can be polished with emery. borax solution. (a) parts. If narrow and deep vessels are used the operation will require more time. removing any excess of water with a blot- 2 parts the chloride of lime to the water. When the stain has disappeared. This method is equally reliable for old and fresh ink stains.891 to the spot. shake well and set aside for a week. II. warm water. amber. P. and will not injure the most delicate fabric. . and dab it next with a wad of cotton which has been saturated with dilute phosphoric acid.CLEANING PREPARATIONS AND METHODS To Remove Old Enamel. 25 minutes the old enamel will fall into dust. followed by use of pure water and frequent drying with clean blotting paper. For use. In 20 or Malachite green ink bleached by ammonia water. 3 parts 16 parts Dissolve the citric acid in the water Apply to the paper with a delicate camel's-hair pencil. to drop on the ink spot. the spot or the writing will disappear at once. Alum. then apply solution (6). this powder is placed on an ink spot or fresh writing. and mix by agitation. I. 189 Lay the articles horizontally in a vessel containing a concentrated solution of alum and boil them. ter. removed by alcohol. citric. In use. 1 part. apply the blotter and wet the spot with clean water. Citric acid 1 part (a) Citric acid 1 part Concentrated solution of borax . and also rubbed in. A good single mixture which will answer for most inks is made by mixing If citric acid and alum in equal parts. . I. To remove ink spots the fabric is soaked in warm water. followed by diluted easily INK ERADICATORS: Two-Solution Ink Remover. 2 parts 10 parts Water. in equal parts. the spot with (a).. potassium chloride. If a little of keep in a glass bottle.891. A few drops of water A are then added... let dry. acetic acid or vinegar. add the and add the borax. Ink Erasers. In all cases apply the substances with camel's-hair brushes or feathers. potassium hypochlorite. and oil of peppermint. The solution should be just sufficient to cover the pieces. Distilled water. . 1 borax solution. repeat the procedure two or three times. part. and nearly all by chlorinated lime. A Add acts energetically on most inks. apply a blotter to take off the excess of liquid. The ma- Mix. the powder is spread well over the spot and (if on cloth or woven fabrics) well rubbed in with the fingers. Water Concentrated borax solution . is ing with blotters. a few minims of liquor ammonia? fortis. afterwards drying in the sun. Removing Ink terial Stains.. specific gravity 0. saturate the spot with solution (a). and the fabric Now allow spread over a clean cloth. when every trace of ink will have vanished. . the ink spot will have disappeared without leaving the slightest trace. (&) Sodium hydrochloric acid and water. Mix well together and saltpeter. dissolved in just enough water to give a clean solution. followed by dilute acetic acid and water. Erasing Powder or Pounce.. of liquid ammonia of a specific gravitj' of 0.. then saturate a tiny tuft of absorbent cotton-wool with acidum phosphoricum dilutum. B. distilled Concentrated solution of borax 2 parts 16 parts Dissolve the acid in the water. final rinsing with water completes the Wet brush it process. in equal II. then overlightly with (6). in equal parts. and finally rinse well in warm water. 1 part. and allow them to remain no longer than necessary. and tartaric acids. and apply repeatedly and with firm pressure over the stain. blotting paper. Most other black inks are erased by use of a weak solution of chlorinated lime. After repeating the process several times and drying the piece in the sun. 1 part. Inks made with nut- and copperas can be removed by using a moderately concentrated soluoxalic acid. rubbing very lightly with a clean linen rag.. then decant the clear liquid and to it add the mixture of oxalic. after which rinse well with water and dry with II. finally dry between two sheets of blotting paper. (fc) Chloride of lime. the superfluous moisture removed.. galls I. then it is squeezed out and spread upon a clean Now apply a few drops piece of linen. silver inks by potassium cyanide or sodium Some aniline colors are hyposulphite. with frequent drytion of requiring treatment should first be soaked in clean. chloride. is rapid in action. and rinse in clear water.

acidulated with Eosine does not disappear acetic acid. are at once removed by moistening with alcohol of 94 per cent. IV. Care should be taken that every part of the wall is well scraped. hours. If the whitewash has been thoroughly soaked it can easily be removed with the scraper. drop by drop. A simple method is to put a little aqua ammonia essary. to the alcohol. and the whole ter of Paris distempered. Ink spots may be removed by III. The sulphur vapors destroy the aniline stains. Oil Stains on Wall Paper. should be treated with water. Walls. after which time it is very carefully removed with a soft rag. 30 parts. next rub in the above powder with the bowl of a spoon acid. unless it be of the cheapest variety. To Remove Aniline Stains from CeilIn renewing ceilings. in 3. If old ceilings are in bad condition it is desirable that they should be lined with paper.000 The liquid is applied by parts of water. as they penetrate the The customary method of cleansis new coating. AND WALL PAPER: See also Household Formulas. a piece of alum the size of a hen's egg. " This forms the salts of lemon " sold by Procure a hot dinner plate. is allowed to remain 10 to 12 The Finally. medium To Remove Red (Aniline) Ink. and 450 parts of brown soap of should be vigorously used. this will be obtained CLEANING OF WALLS. however. except eosine.. etc. until when dropped on the stain. by weight. druggists. To Renovate Brick Walls. pound Venetian red. stained parts should be painted with oil color. but avoiding all friction. suggested that whitewashed walls which it is desired to paper. after which it is soaked in a weak solution of chloride of lime say 1 ounce to a quart of water.. and gently wipe over the No scrubbing is necpainted surface. dampen a flannel with it. place a tin vessel on the floor of the room. to preventing peeling.190 CLEANING PREPARATIONS AND METHODS good quality. Make a thick paste of pipe clay and water. To Clean Painted Walls. It is Treatment of Whitewashed Walls. the paste should be composed of magnesia and benzine. Under such circumstances the linen should be thoroughly rinsed in several waters afterwards. Thick blotting paper is soaked in a concentrated solution and dried. but other drawbacks A very practical remedy is to appear.. add. In the case of a light. applying it carefully flat upon the then rinse in clean water and dry. cut in small pieces. Acetic acid 5 parts Water to make 500 parts Mix. while hot. The amount of acetic acid to be used is ascertained by adding it. more red and brown if too light. Here is a more harmless method: V. to use oxalic acid. etc. lay the part stained in the plate. delicate paper. and in many instances will take the latter out without ing ink spots In more stubleaving a trace behind. raked out and stopped with putty (plasand distemper mixed). Old Ceilings. the old ings. In dealing with old ceilings the distemper must be washed off down to the plaster face. after which the scraper Simmer gently on the fire. and moisten with hot water. Dissolve glue in water in the proportion of 1 ounce of glue to every gallon of water. which disappear entirely. aniline color stains are often very annoying. until the stains disappear. so easily. the following mixture: 10 parts Oxalic acid 2 parts Stannic chloride . in moderately warm water. and to burn a quantity of sulphur in it after the doors and windows of the room have been closed. means of flannel and rinsed off at once with pure water. and 1 pound Spanish brown. CEILINGS. with a view Cleaning Painted Doors. born cases the cloth is dipped in boiling water and rubbed with crystals of oxalic acid. stirring con- stantly. Oxalic acid is undesirable for certain fabrics because it removes the color. without blurring or destroying the design of the wall paper. paste oil stain. and the whole rubbed smooth with pumice stone and water. powdered fine. It is then laid immediately on the blot. Add more water if too dark. Stains of red anilines. . In many cases a repeated action will be necessary until the purpose desired is fully reached. Painting over with shellac or oil paint will bring relief. of pulverized borax. all cracks Equal parts of cream of tartar and citric and mixed together. which should have a coat of weak size before being distempered. The following recipe is designed for painted objects that are much soiled. testing the mixture from time to time. the latter at once disappears.

thaline are added. and put a handful of bran on it. and | ounce of burnt umber. wheat bran. clean sponge. with 1 quart of flour. Hold the clean. sponge flat side up. Allow to stand for several hours. the surface being systematically gone over. of course. Bread will clean paper. to avoid the production of streaks. sponge and ether. fine. flat sponge. In this way one can change places on the cloth when soiled and use the whole face of the cloth. III. IV. of the proper size to be grasped in the hand. sew each roll separately in a cotton cloth. . preferably with a feather duster. To this 1 ounce common V. with the nap of the cloth outside. one end.CLEANING PREPARATIONS AND METHODS Cleaning Wall Paper. If there are any grease spots they should be removed by holding a hot flatiron against a piece of blotting paper If this fails. salt and First make the soap-bark extract by boiling the crushed bark in water until it has assumed a dark color. so as to have the ends of the stick covered. If the room is furnished it will. flour together 1 pound each of rye and white flour into a dough. then proceed as before. To take out a grease First. then strain the liquid into an evaporating dish. which will soak into the brown paper. especially when the paper is very dirty. scratching the paper with the crust of the bread. then boil for 40 or 50 minutes. then repeat the operation. as it is very inflammable. Procure a soft. commencing at the top. take a very sharp knife and pare off a thin layer. Mix 4 ounces of powdered pumice II. It is well to niake sure that the walls are quite dry before using the bread. a little placed over them. fuller's earth or pipe clay should be made into a paste with water. repeat with clean brown or a Then take an paper blotting pad ounce vial of washed sulphuric ether and a soft. absorbed the grease. and they are ready for use. Do not rub the bread backwards and forwards. so as to render the mass firm. inch thick and 10 inches long. but never use the same bran twice. Hold a large pan or spread down a drip cloth to catch the bran as it falls. and hold a hot flatiron against it to draw out the grease. Be careful to have enough layers of brown to the iron from keep paper scorching or If the first discoloring the wall paper. Mix Powdered borax. ordinary soap and water are sufficient for removing grease and the ordinarily attendant dirt. but dab the sponge A small carefully against the place. CLOTHES AND FABRIC CLEANERS: for Clothing and Fabrics. and this should then be carefully plastered over the grease spots and allowed to remain till quite dry. does not take out application nearly all the grease. then quickly turn against the wall. take several spot requires care. and in use it should be drawn in one direction over the surface to be cleaned. the discolored surface of the bread being removed from time to time. dry.. I. which is partially cooked and the crust removed. The composition is formed into a mass. A preparation for cleansing wall paper that often proves much more effectual than ordinary bread. so as to expose a fresh portion for Care should be taken to avoid use. and with the aid of Form the water make a stiff dough. Still another way is to use Canton flannel in strips a foot wide and about 3 yards Roll a strip around a stick 1 long. thicknesses of brown wrapping paper and make a pad. and . and the rubbing should be in one direction. Select a Cut off the crust at least two days old.. Extract of soap bark Ox gall (fresh) Castile soap 30 30 120 450 parts parts parts parts ounce of powdered naphand finally 1 ounce of corn meal. I. quantity of ether is advised. being careful that there are no hard or gritty places in it. and sponge the spot carefully until all the grease disapDo not wipe the place with the pears. and rub down the paper. or it may smear the pattern. as in painting. As the cloth gets soiled. is made by mixThis ing dough and ^ plaster of Paris. place it against the grease spot. be necessary to place cloths around the room to catch the crumbs. but in When the end gets dirty single strokes. VI. should be made a day before it is needed for use. remove the crust. and should be very gently baked. the fabric is washable and the color fast. and rub the wall gently and carefully with it. dough into rolls 2 inches in diameter and 6 inches long. unroll the soiled part and roll it up with the soiled face inside. 191 To first clean wall paper the dust should be re- moved by lightly brushing. then get a bucket of new. and the surface then gently rubbed with slices of moderately stale bread. but unless it is properly used the job will be a " " tin loaf at very tedious one. but special soaps are made which may possibly be more When Soaps when it will be found to have effectual.

or sufficient. The places treated with benzine should subsequently be rubbed with a little talcum. preserved by the addition of alcohol.. . pints Dissolve the borax. previously dissolved in the alcohol and the ammonia. cult. Dilute alcohol 70 . water. stirring occasionally. add the soap previously reduced to thin shavings. and finally. ammonia. forms a good liquid cleanser for fabrics of the more delicate sort. folded. spot is not large. Castile soap 4 av. A strong decoction of soap bark. .192 CLEANING PREPARATIONS AND METHODS Alcohol 120 Decoction of quillaia bark of 30 . Acetone Hot water to make. 15 parts 15 parts To Remove Vaseline Stains from Moisten the spots with a mixClothing. If a paste is desired. When benzine is used the operator must be careful to apply it only in the absence of light or fire. carrying the greasy matter with it. and the liquid sponged on freely enough that it may soak through. of course. For use in large quantities carbon tetrachloride is suggested. V. and some more alcohol would it.. remove from the fire. Chloroform.. and then add the ammonia The addition of a couple of water. I. Varnish in the stains. otherwise. by the aid of heat evaporate it to a solid extract.. The soap will apparently be quite as efficacious without the camphor and Dissolve and add: Water 1 Ammonia Ether Alcohol gallon 8 fluidounces 2 fluidounces 4 fluidounces Cloth. When nearly ready to set. ounces of rose water will render it some- may on account of the When dried. Some skill in manipulation is requisite to avoid simply spreading the stain and leaving a "ring" to show how far it has extended. until dissolved. ture of 1 part of aniline oil. boiling. unite the solutions. : probably improve Clothes-Cleaning Fluids See also Household Formulas. a potash soap should be used instead of the castile in the foregoing formula. Ether. by the addition of sufficient A water. when same way. are treated of the solvent two acetone and alcohol together. " " Before paint becomes it can be dry removed from cloth by the liberal appliIf the cation of turpentine or benzine. . and a portion or all of the water omitted. and diluted alcohol. what fragrant. .500 10 Acetic ether 10 Amyl acetate 10 Liquid ammonia. ounces Water. pounds * Potassium carbonate. adding more water if necessary. VI. absorbent cloth should be placed under the fabric which has been spotted. keep warm over a water bath. . a thick. which plied by means of a cotton rag. II. Soaps made from potash remain soft. but does not attack India and other inks. has been recommended. while soda soaps harden on the evaporation of the water which they contain when first benzine also takes off lead-pencil marks.. . mix the soap 3 5 4 4 4 drachms ounces ounces ounces Removal of Paint from Clothing. otherwise it would not be possible to use the pen on them. Melt the castile soap by adding a small quantity of water and warming. parts of extract. 2 . made. Another good non-inflammable spot remover consists of equal parts of acetone.. 32 fluidounces Dissolve the potassium carbonate in the water. stir in the camphor. sodium bicarboin the and hot nate. 4. is To Remove Spots from Tracing It is best to use benzine. and mix well. ounce ounce Sodium carbonate. its removal becomes more diffiIn such case soaking in strong ammonia water may answer. III. The ap- ammonia. then powder and mix it with the borax and the ox gall. it may be immersed in the liquid. 1 of pow- . An emulsion. formed by shaking together 2 parts of ammonia water and 1 of spirits of turpentine. but the action fresh. then add the other ingredients parts parts parts parts parts parts IV. About 100 parts of soap bark make 20 Castile soap . pound Camphor Alcohol Ammonia Hot water. either paint or varnish has II. . possibly not be so complete gum rosins present. liquid preparation may be obtained. Borax Castile soap 1 1 . on account of the extremely inflammable character of the vapor. when of a consistence to become semisolid on cooling. water ounce | ounce ounce pint. Ammonia water Alcohol .

mixed with ammonia. duced by means of hydrogen in another vessel. as by removing the tarnish the base metal becomes more distinguishable from the fine gold. and the base metal exposed. After allowing the cloth to lie for 5 or 10 minutes. 200 parts. Keroclean. Dip a fine hair pencil in this. put another wet cloth on top. and press. and it exhibits a lustrous surface. This non . and household pests by suffocation and extermination. attaching a weight to the lower end. For gildings the stuff is dipped in a solution of gold chloride. Silver laces are put in curdled III. Alkaline liquids sometimes used for cleaning gold lace are unsuitable. Silver Lace.. II. and with a soft brush take up some of the powder. strong odor of carbon bisulphide is detected in the carbon tetrachloride first shake with powdered charcoal and filter. cleaned by dusting them with Vienna lime.. Silver embroideries may also be V. and hold a hot flatiron a few inches above them.. Dissolve potassium bioxalate. Wet with lemon juice and If one apsalt and expose to the sun.. most delicate this purpose.. is also useful for more water is added. Soak gold laces over night in cheap white wine and then proceed as with silver laces. Then rinse in clear water... (6) dipping for 2 hours in a solution of nitrate of silver. immerse in a solution of 150 parts of sodium hyposulphite in 500 parts of water.000 and filter. etc. and it may be used without any danger to the silk. 193 To Remove Grease Spots from Plush.. it is not so successful in accomplishing its purpose. Kerosene . colors. insects. IV. 31 grains of turmeric in strong alcohol and pour off the ruby-colored fluid. dip the laces in a clear solution of equal parts of sugar and gum arabic. If a yellowish stain remains. wetting and re peating the application several times. Next.inflammable cleanser removes grease spots from delicate fabrics without injury. cleans all kinds of jewelry and tableware by removing fats and tarnish. To this a quantity of honey and fresh ox gall is added. To clean silver lace take alabaster in very fine powder.. 3 ounces Oil of citronella ... rubbing the moistened spots frequently. and rub both sides with it till it becomes bright and clean. between two clean pieces of cloth. three minutes with a solution of 5 parts of bromine and 500 parts of water. one of the following two Paintprocesses may be employed: (a) ing with a solution of 1 part of phosphorus in 15 parts bisulphide of carbon and dipping in a solution of nitrate of silver. in distilled water. lie for ink spots with this solution. If the gold is worn off.800 parts. paint the pieces to be renewed. put 771 grains of shellac.. is scraped and stirred into 2 quarts of rain water. To Remove Silver Stains from White Moisten the fabric for two or Fabrics. ounce Carbon tetrachloride (commercial) .. Place fresh bread rolls in the oven. Wrap a wet cloth around the roller of a mangle. and rub the spots with the crumbs.. pass them again through the mangle. which does not alter even the milk for 24 hours. 31 grains of dragon's blood... but where the gold is worn off. and will stand any is as clear as 1 water fire test. let the linen.. wind the laces over this. wash with water. Rust-Spot Remover. and should Alcohol is therefore not be employed. then exposing to a current of pure hydrogen. add glycerine. To Clean Gold and For silvering... . or any other good soap.. 8. and brushing off with a velvet brush. and this is re- To Remove Iron Rust from Muslin and Linen. and filter if necessary.CLEANING PREPARATIONS 'AND METHODS dered soap.. copperware by removIt ing verdigris. and 10 of water. interferes with certain colors.. kills moths. a second rarely fails to do so. lay the lace upon a cloth. If it becomes too thick. This mass is allowed to stand for half a day. and cleans ironware by removing rust. for they generally corrode or change the A solution of soap also color of the silk. and the wet laces are painted with it. brassware by removing grease. afterwards polish with another brush until all remnants of the powder are removed. I. Purified benzine. and hang them up to dry thoroughly. break them apart as soon as they have become very hot. so that only the laces receive the heat. and then wash well with water. A piece of Venetian soap. and the whole is stirred for some time. 1. Moisten the rust or parts. plication does not remove the spots.. continuing the work by using new rolls until all traces of fat have disappeared from the fabric. an effectual remedy for restoring the luster of gold. 3 hours. and again rinse in clear water.. 2 drachms If a Mix.

Bichloride of mercury Distilled water 5 parts 5 parts 40 parts Apply the mixture then rub. 500 parts carbo- Magnesium nate 50 parts into a paste with a small quantity of benzine or water. CLEANING PAINTED NISHED SURFACES: Woodwork. until the oil is completely oxidized. Ink spots may be removed with dilute or (if and Preserving acid. water. etc. the ends. by the use of a stiff brush. apply to stains made by fats or oils on the cloth- Mix and make ing and when dry remove with a brush. which is applied with a cotton swab. Stains on the skin thus cotton. should be removed as far as possible and as soon as possible after they are made. Furthermore.. however. Cleaning Powder. paper being placed beneath the and the latter is then copiously moistened with chloroform. it should be gone over very thinly and evenly with brunoline applied with a desired to give an finish. give it a preliminary coat of brunoline and follow this on the day after with a second. before drawing any more ink lines. following concentrated hydrochloric its use with dilute ammoIn extreme cases it may be nia water. The fabric is spread out. soft (rain) The next day they water over night. and 10 parts Boil of lead acetate. It may be rubbed freely over the tracing without injury to lines drawn in ink. even old stains on linen. almost instantaneously. treated become whitish yellow and soon disappear. First all stains and spots should be gone over with a sponge or a soft brush and very weak ammonia water. swelling up the wadding. To Clean by first Quilts are cleaned > washing them in lukewarm soap- suds..and water-proof. to the spots with a This removes. and dry. dirt will quickly disappear. marks and ately. or even in water color. The rubbing should be firm and hard. Removing chloride. are pressed as dry as possible and hung up. The glaze may be restored to tracing cloth after using the eraser by rubbing the roughened surface with a piece of hard wax from an old phonograph The surface thus produced is cylinder. Nitrate of Sil- Ammonium cloth. a piece of filter stain. If it is especially handsome Rags for Cleaning and Polishing. Bole. the quilts should be repeatedly turned during the drying from right to left and also from top to bottom. It is very essential to beat the drying quilts frequently with a smooth stick or This will have the effect of board. Then press. and pencil marks removed by the use of benzine. The benzine evaporates almost immedileaving the tracing unharmed. should be rubbed with the shellac and linseed oil solution on a soft linen rag. Brunoline may be purchased of any dealer in soft pencil. Spots on the polished surface. made by alcohol. as it is absolutely oil. or some similar substance. must be wrung out from time to time. placing a layer of the powder between each two. and finally washed When dry with dilute ammonia water. seed oil . The carved work should be freed of dust. and preventing it from felting. in which the moisture remains for a long time. or both. applied by of a tuft of cotton wool. and sift over them a mixture of finely powdered tripoli and To make it. The surface. separate. but the pencil Oak as a general thing is not polished. Tracing cloth can be very quickly and easily cleaned. spread on a linen cloth. Immerse flannel rags in a solution or 20 parts of dextrine and 30 parts of oxalic acid in 20 parts of logwood decoction. superior to that of the original glaze. tc be avoided. Rub down work with a very weak Cleaning AND all VAR- Removal of Peruvian-Balsam Stains. or wool. also powdered. Pile the moist rags one upon another. put 70 parts of linin a very capacious vessel (on account of the foam that ensues) and add to it 20 parts of powdered litharge. stirWhen completely oxiring constantly. Polished the polished alcoholic solution of shellac (1 to 20 or even 1 to 30) and linseed oil. In this manner streaks are avoided. If the spots are due to acids go over them with a little dilute ammonia water. pumice stone. by the use Afterwards they of boiled linseed oil. necessary to use the scraper or sandpanecessary) per. then laying them in cold. tinctures. but has a matt surface which can be washed with water and soap. has been softened and must be rubbed down with talc. gently wring them out. 20 parts of powdered minium. etc.194 CLEANING PREPARATIONS AND METHODS Quilts. but is of a When it acquires dark brown color. dized the oil is no longer red. paints. Cleaning Tracings. after the surface is entirely dry. means is Rubbing Solution for ver Spots.

This is a cheaply produced compound. 100 parts 75 parts 10 parts 10 parts 5 parts GLOVE CLEANERS: Powder I. for Cleaning Gloves. rub on the powder.. This brunoline serves splendidly for polishing furniture or other polished this color. and stir well. and neither get a light nor make a mark. Shake well before using. " " may strike a match there all day. and incorporate the talcum. wood. 15 parts 15 parts and dry Water Removing and Preventing Match The unsightly marks made on a painted surface by striking matches on can sometimes be removed by scrubbing with soapsuds and a stiff brush. Curd soap Water Oil of lemon 1 av. and heat on the water bath to a smooth paste. Soaps and Pastes for Cleaning Gloves. rubbing it A second rubbing with a dry bit hard. II. and brush off after drying. White old castile soap. and 1 quart oil. To clean an oil painting. then add the other ingredients. incorThis should porating them thoroughly. bring to a boil and remove from the fire. 1 part Cut or shave up the soap. vate varnished work make a polish of 1 quart good vinegar. add the water.. and with it go over the surface. white. IV. the gloves with a damp cloth. Ammonium ide parts chlor- 2. 1 1 III. 2 ounces butter of antimony. Carbon disulphide. lay a piece of cloth moistened with rain water on it. II. 1 ounce Benzine. Powdered borax. previously finely shaved. To Clean Paintings. To prevent match marks dip a bit of flannel in alboline (liquid vaseline). Apply with a bit of soft flannel or old linen. I.0 parts grain 7. . in the water. Castile soap. 195 lemon | oil. Ammonia water. 15 . cations may be required to secure a Then wipe the picture perfect result. and finally wiped with a soft rag. Shred the soap and melt it in the water by heat. Talcum White hard soap. . .. a sufficient quantity. part part Water 4 parts Shave the soap into ribbons. fectually. and make into a stiff paste with a sufficient quantity of chalk. Gold frames may be cleaned with a freshly cut onion. White bole or pipe clay Orris root 60. and add 160 parts of turpentine oil. very gently with a tuft of cotton wool damped with absolutely pure linseed oil. Soft soap 1 ounce Water 4 ounces Oil of lemon drachm To renoPolish for Varnished Work. and add the other ingredients and mix thoroughly. add the oil. Remove. 2 ounces alcohol. into a thin cream with water and rub on the gloves while on the hands. . V. This is also useful for clothing. Mix Liquid Cloth and Glove Cleaner. sulphuric.5 parts Moisten the above ingredients. take it out of its frame. To make powder thoroughly rubbed together.. Solution of chlorinated soda 16 parts Ammonia water. A man of flannel completes the job. ounce 4 fluidounces fluidrachm French chalk. and make into a stiff paste with French chalk.CLEANING PREPARATIONS AND METHODS remove from the fire. .0 parts (pow- Powdered soap dered) 30. deodorized 75 parts Melt the soap. Let cool down. 2 pounds powdered white soap. dissolve in the water by the aid of heat. Four pounds powdered pipeclay. wipe off and polish by rubbing with an old silk handkerchief. To Clean Lacquered Goods. Dissolve the soap in the water. be put up in collapsible tubes or tightly closed metallic boxes. Marks. and leave it for a while to take up Several applithe dirt from the picture. and dry Water Tincture of quillaia Ether. 1 ounce ounce .. rubbing hard. FF . and does its work efuse. they should be wiped with a soft sponge wet with rain water a few hours after the application of the onion.. it Precipitated chalk. let cool. Papiermache and lacquered goods may be cleaned perfectly by rubbing thoroughly with a paste made of wheat flour and olive oil. old. 1 gallon Gasoline Chloroform 1 . add the oil of lemon.5 parts . a sufficient quantity.

. 4 parts 4 parts be accomplished by rubbing it first with sand. ordinary use or exposure may be cleaned by a simple bath of soap and water. V. Clay is made into a thin paste with ammonium sulphide. Wash the surface with a mixture of finely powdered pumice stone and vinegar. Ox gall 1 part Saturated solution of sodium carbonate 4 parts Oil of turpentine. then wash it off with clean water. which converts the metal into hydrated metastannic acid. and.. a weak solution of oxalic acid should be applied with a sponge or rag. and leave it for several hours. III. care being taken that the After ten spot is only just covered. In effectually takes out ink stains. Lay it evenly on the stained part with a brush. so that its luster has been seriously impaired. Mix thoroughly and rub over the marble with a piece of flannel. X. with the fine sand a leaden plate is used. the mixture used being dependent upon the nature of the stone to be polished. During all these applications water is allowed to trickle over the face of the stone. . Chlorinated lime. The following method for removing rust from iron depends upon the solu- bility of the sulphide of iron in a solution of cyanide of potassium. but only with the solution of beeswax above mentioned. finishing is to apply a solution of white wax in turpentine (about 1 in 10). and other substances. The final polish is A given by the so-called putty powder. wash it off and repeat the process if the stain is not The putty powder referred to is binoxide of tin. wedged tightly into an iron planing tool. or soft cloth. To remove oil If clay saturated with benzine. and end the cleaning with soap and water. and 1 part of finely pulverized chalk. add enough flour to bring the mixture to a proper consistency. and leave it on for 24 hours.196 CLEANING PREPARATIONS AND METHODS Essential oil almond. the grease has remained in long the polish will be injured. and add sufficient water to form ate. Another method of restore the luster. Pass through a fine sieve to screen out all particles capable of scratching the marble. Iron mold or ink spots may be taken out in the following manner: Take J ounce of butter of antimony and 1 ounce of oxalic acid and dissolve them in 1 pint of rain water. In practice putty powder is mixed with alum. rubbing well in. When rub with whiting and wash leather. plate of iron is generally used in applying the coarse sand. handling it the poisonous nature of this acid should not be forgotten. If this does not remove stains. Sodium carbonate. becomes anhydrous. IX. then dry. In this condition it is known as putty powder. A strong solution of oxalic acid VII. Soft soap Whiting . and polish the marble with a piece of flannel or an old piece of felt. but the stain will mon stains apply com- be removed. after which tripoli or pumice is used. This. To 5 drops be applied with a sponge a pasty mass. sary to repeat this operation. . and the rust spot smeared with the mixture. rubbing thoroughly with a piece of flannel or soft leather. and It may be necesfinally rubbing dry. and Polishing Marble. VI. it may be necessary to repolish This it in a more thorough manner. 2 ounces 1 ounce Water 14 ounces Mix well and apply the magma to the marble with a cloth. in a measure. sulphur. Rubbing well after this with chalk moistened with water will. Sodium bicarbonate 1 part 2 parts Copper sulphate. Take 2 parts of sodium bicarbonpart of powdered pumice stone. minutes this paste is washed off and replaced by one consisting of white bole mixed with a solution of potassium cyanide (1 to 4). when heated. STONE CLEANING: Cleaning I. 1 part Pipe clay enough to form a paste. Oil bergamot Oil cloves 5 drops 1 drachm Mix. and the pumice is employed in the form of a smooth-surfaced For the final piece of convenient size. According to Warwick. polishing coarse linen or bagging is used. which is in its turn . beginning with a moderately coarse-grained article and changing this may twice for finer kinds. washing quickly and thoroughly with water to minimize injury to the surface. colored marble should not be treated with soap and water. VIII. after it has remained for a few days. 1 wholly removed. II. If the marble has been much exposed. brush it hard and wash it clean. . Rub the marble with it vigorously. Marble that has become dirty by IV. obtained by treating metallic tin with nitric acid.

into a thin paste. persisting without soiling either the hand or the articles.4 parts. Some days later.. paint the terra cotta. apply to the greasy part of the marble. XIV. works toward A few such treatments should suffice. wash off all soap particles by means of a watering p. Saturate fuller's earth with a solution of equal parts of soap liniment. ox gall. This treatment will restore the former gloss to the marble. stains can only be effaced by placing the whole piece of marble for hours in benzine. Preparation for Cleaning Marble. rubbing gently. XI. rinsing off with water. If the piece of marble is small enough to permit it. Ink spots are treated. XII. they are cleaned with diluted spirit of sal ammoniac. mixing the ingredients thoroughly in order to form a homogeneous paste. Should a reddish spot remain after washing off the first paste. a bottle equal quantities of sulphuric acid and lemon juice. chlorine waOld oil ter. have already appeared. tion for 100 parts of the product: Wax. which absorbs the moisture. 2. In a spacious tub place a tall with soap and water. wine. 45 parts. Fresh oil or grease spots are obliterated by repeated applications of a little damp. highly diluted oxalic acid. keep there for some hours. a few inches of cold water hot water renders marble dull take a soft brush and a piece of Venetian soap. Furniture. acetic acid. using Javelle water 1 or 2 drops should be carefully poured on each spot. Especially CopThis preparation is claimed to give per. from Marble. very quickly perfect brilliancy. and then brush hours. take a quantity of newly slaked lime. blood stains by brushing with alabaster dust and distilled water. and water. oil of turpentine. dust and dirt have >been dissolved. brushing off the article from When in this manner top to bottom. * part. Marble slabs keep well and do not lose their fresh color if they are cleaned with hot water only. turpentine. mix it with water into a paste-like consistency. white clay and subsequent brushing with soap water or weak soda solution. Removing Oil Stains.ot and cold water. If the spots are fresh. Soft soap 197 Whiting 4 ounces 4 ounces Sodium carbonate. Stone. dab the object with a clean sponge. beer. and leave the coating alone for two to three days before it is washed off. then bleach with chloride of lime that is put on a piece of white cloth. apply on the and wash off after 24 To Remove Grease Spots from Marble. soft cloth. and as it evaporates occasionally renew the solution. When the spots are old brush with distilled water and finest French plaster energetically. hydrochloric acid. Mix and shake thoroughly in XIII. After having carefully removed all dust. repeating the operation several times. then bleaching with chlorine solution. and without leaving any odor o$ The following is the composicopper. when more oil the surface repeat the operation. This is of the following composed ingredients. Alizarine ink and aniline ink spots can be moderated by laying on rags saturated with Javelle water. with a mixture of slightly gummed water and finely powdered terra cotta. Cleaning Terra Cotta. vessel article to On this set the upside down. 42 parts. a sufficient quantity. Javelle water. by means of a brush. or chloride of lime paste. and Metals. etc. repeat the latter. 16 parts. white soap. The paste on the surface is then removed by passing over it quickly a piece of soft . which would loosen Into this tub pour the cemented parts. XV. When wiped off dry the stain will have nearly disappeared. though the proportions may be varied: Cereal flour or wood pulp. 42 parts. ammonia. Surfaces of Renovation of Polished and Varnished Wood. apply the paste uniformly on the spot with a brush. be cleaned so that it will not stand in the water. 1 ounce Water. pressed down with a smoothing iron sufficiently hot to warm the mass. dip the former in the water and rub on the latter carefully. rub them over with a piece of cloth that has been dipped into pulverized china clay. citric acid. coffee. 9. or. the object to be treated is smeared with it and allowed to stand for some time. with acid oxalate of potassium. 38* parts. chloride of After lime. soak it for a few hours in refined benzine. For many other spots an application of benzine and magnesia is useful. which is injurious to the color. without the addition of soap. If the spots are not removed by a In single application. place it upon a cloth and carefully dry with a very clean. 42 parts. Make soiled surface. Moisten the spots and rub them lightly with a linen cloth and they will disappear. etc.4 parts. Care must be taken that no If spots of liquid dries on the marble. a second layer may be applied for about 5 minutes.CLEANING PREPARATIONS AND METHODS washed off after about 2| hours.

This is followed by a washing with lime milk. To insure this an iron wire may be firmly wound around the iron object and connected with the zinc. and especially large pieces. and objects of metal will be rendered lustrous. steel from rust and imbedded grains of sand the articles are treated with fluorhydric acid (about 2 per cent) 1 to 2 hours. Hub the iron with this preparation by means of a skin. The iron is not attacked in the least. diluted with Afte 2. time will depend upon the depth to which the rust has penetrated. By rubbing gently with a cloth or piece of leather a polished surface will be imparted to wood. In this manner a perTo take off old fect polish is obtained. this solution is added to one containing 2 parts tartaric acid dissolved in 1.000 parts of water. Apply the following solution by means of a brush. rust. after having been washed. so as to >orm a paste. then covering the place with white argillaceous earth (pipe clay). they should be painted with Javelle water. While energetic in its cleansing action on brass and other metallic objects. and does not affect the varnished or polished surfaces of wood or marble. The rust on iron and steel ob- To remove Nitrate of Silver Spots. cyanide and add chalk sufficient to make Add the soap cut in a creamy paste. 200 Triturate all well and rub the The effect will be piece with this paste. Take cyanide parts. and finally rubbing with sharp Caustic amsoda lye. fine shavings and thoroughly incorporate in a mortar. white soap. parts. The latter is made as follows: Potassium cyanide. The preparation is rapid in its action. dry Steel 100 parts of stannic chloride are dissolved in 1. to neutralize any fluorhydric acid remaining. of calcium. or with very fine emery and a little oil. When virulent poison. allowing the solution to act upon the stain for a few seconds. When the articles are taken from the liquid they assume a dark gray or black color and are then washed and oiled. first with a moist cloth. VII. To remove rust from polished steel cyanide of potassium is excellent. it is rubbed clean. To free articles of iron and VIII. V. monia also removes oil-paint spots from sandstones. quicker if before using this paste the rusty object has been soaked for 5 to 10 minutes in a solution of cyanide of potassium in the ratio of 1 part of cyanide to 2 parts of water. and other deleterious substances. washing the spots with pure turpentine oil. Allow this to act till all loose rust is removed. is readily removed by rubbing the pieces with oil of tartar. mix equal parts of fine tripoli and flowers of sulphur. soak the instrument to be cleaned in a solution of cyanide of potassium in the proportion of 1 ounce of cyanide to 4 ounces of water. I. RUST REMOVERS: To Remove Rust from Iron or Utensils. after having removed any grease by rubbing with a clean. which will remove dirt.198 CLEANING PREPARATIONS AND METHODS After containing a little sulphuric acid. whereby the impurities but not the metal are dissolved. and finally 20 cubic centimeters indigo solution. the articles have been in the liquid for several days or a week. oil. using a brush. Apply turpentine or kerosene after letting it stand over night. white castile Make a saturated solution of the soap. leaving it to dry. If possible. these spots from white marble. The length of completely disappeared. mingling this mixture with olive oil. and water. the rust will have leather or a brush. with a piece of zinc and placed in water . thus allowing the ready removal of the paste without damaging the varnish or polish. passed over a concentrated solution of thiosulphate of soda (hyposulphite). precipitated chalk. VI. sand and jewelers' rouge. and . while the turpentine serves as a disinfectant and renders the odor less disagreeable during the operation.000 parts of water. it is attended with no corrosive effect. or by putting powdered alum in strong vinegar and rubbing with this alumed vinegar.000 parts of water. the rust is recent it is removed by rubbing the metal with a cork charged with oil. IV. 25 powdered. membered that potassium cyanide is a Spanish white. The addition of chloride of lime tends to keep the paste moist. jects. 25 parts. and then polish with cyanide soap. then with a dry cloth. are added. clean with finest emery cloth. When the mixture is stiff It should be recease to add the soap. A little sulphuric acid may be added from time to time. as long as the zinc is kept in good electric contact with it. grease. to restore the polish use is made of cloth: silver II. but the chief point is that the zinc always has good electric contact with the iron. To Remove Oil-Paint Spots from This may be done by Sandstones. 50 parts. The rusty piece is connected III.

after which they are allowed to dry on a plate. dry.. if movable.CLEANING PREPARATIONS AND METHODS To Remove Rust from Nickel. and dip the instruments. Then boil the article in water. and it may be used either Plain articles may cold or lukewarm. and taken out with tongs or tweezers. Next lay the instruments on a plate in a dry room. and tripoli. To Steel from Rust. Then rub vigorously with a piece of flannel or willow wood. Upon withdrawal from the solution the instruments are rinsed with water. add a few drops of hydrochloric acid to the ammonia. It can be removed again with a cloth To Preserve soaked in turpentine. which have been dried by leaving them in heated air. with a paste composed of olive oil. immersing them in strong nitric acid and then washing them in clean water.he heat of boiling water. . Common salt Water 1 ounce 16 ounces METAL CLEANING: Cleaning Coins. Lay the instruments over night in a saturated solution of chloride of tin. the same as varnish. or 2-5 parts of potassium cyanide. Instead of potassium cyanide alone. without wiping off the oil as far as possible. kerosene in 200 parts of benzine or carbon tetrachloride. a mixture of that and potassium carbonate may be used. If the rust spots persist. leave for several days. rub The potassium-cyanide process may be used with all small iron objects. way. rubber used in business may be employed. Steel Cleaner. after a few days. and dried. Removal rust of Rust. with a soft " " brush and cover with zaponlack (any good transparent lacquer or varnish will answer). a coating may be employed. it can be introduced into the smallest cavities perfect cleaning be and windings. rub them with a rag charged with ammonia. The rust spots will disappear through reduction. By beveling it. made of 10 parts of potassium cyanide and 1 part of cream of tartar. Next rinse with water. then. To Remove Rust from Instruments. and finally with fine plumbago on a piece of Smear the object with preferably petroleum. First 199 grease the articles well. Mix A . or cutting it to a point as needful. Finally. Cleaning with absolute alcohol and polishing chalk may also follow. so that it may enter all the crevices. placed in a hot soda-soap solution. process produces the finest possible I. be brightened by putting a drop or two of the liquid upon them and lightly brushing the surface with fine tissue paper. but a longer time is not harmful. Restoring Tarnished Gold. the emery and the oil with a rag. about under the liquid. and dry in a drying When dry brush closet. as in forceps and scissors. To Clean Old Medals. preserve steel from rust dissolve 1 part caoutchouc and 16 parts turpentine with a gentle heat. the ink-erasing offices coating of silver chloride may be reduced with molten potassium cyanide. Pour olive oil on the rust spots and III. Apply to the steel with a brush. then add 8 parts boiled oil. moving their parts. so Neethat the benzine can evaporate. Wipe them dry before putting away. Or. After treatment in this brittle. oil. sulphur flowers. The well and apply with a soft brush. displace the water with alcohol. again with emery soaked with vinegar. chamois skin. delicate objects of silver become less Another way is to put the article in molten sodium carbonate and remove the silver carbonate thus formed. . dles are simply thrown in the paraffine solution. or always bringing Afterwards remove it back on the spot. and allow some days for penetration of the surface of the metal. To take off the from small articles which glass or emery paper would bite too deeply. Sodium bicarbonate. Make a solution of 1 part of II. rub and wipe off at once. 20 ounces 1 ounce Chlorinated lime. and Small Iron Articles. 24 hours is generally sufficient. Immerse in lemon juice until the coating of oxide has completely disappeared. or of rotten stone and oil. and a effected. then rub with emery or tripoli. by This acetic acid of 50 per cent strength. with the 'iiddition of 55 parts of carbonate of lime and 20 parts of white soap. This converts the is iron oxide into iron sulphide that is easily washed off and leaves the surface of a fine black color. very small quantity of the solution is sufficient. For larger ones molten potassium rhodanide recommended. and Preserving Medals. Old coins may be cleansed by first polish. in this. and mix by bringing them to t. and polish with tripoli.

etc. then take out. and agitate until homogeneous. Some authorities advise the cleaner to let the paste dry on the ware. Acetic acid 2 parts 1 part 1 part Cream of tartar Magnesium carbonate 1 part Water.00 CLEANING PREPARATIONS AND METHODS particle of carbonaceous matter be got rid of. 1 part Nitric acid II. Sulphuric acid Oxalic acid Jewelers' rouge Distilled water 2 parts 2 parts 1 part 2 parts 200 parts and water and stir in the rouge. Silverware Cleaner. This ought to be done at least every month. set it on the stove. Dissolve in a quart of soft water an ounce or an ounce and a half of washing soda. Lard oil. and let the coin lie in this until the crust of silver sulphide is dissolved. Rinse in running water. To Remove Hard Grease. go well over the off with hot water and dry. using an old half-gallon tomato can. Rinse in clear water and dry in sawdust. 10 parts 32 parts Oleic acid. rubbing well with a soft brush. in equal parts. the article may be dipped for an instant in hydrochloric acid and immediately rinsed in running water. Use Armenian bole mixed into a paste with oleic acid. as otherwise the thin layer of plating may be cut through. Make a bath of 10 parts of sulphuric acid and 90 parts of water. rubbed up in distilled water. Stearine oil 1 Alum Levigated chalk part 2 parts 2 parts 1 part Ammonia Benzine Alcohol water 25 parts 50 parts 75 parts add the benzine and then the alcohol. from machinery add half a pound of caustic soda to 2 gallons of water and boil the parts to be cleaned in It is possible to use it several the fluid. Every will thus done every 2 weeks. and let it boil strongly for 5 or 6 minutes. and dry in sawdust. acids Mix the wet with article. Fifty parts of alcohol. 20 parts I. and then to rub off and rinse with hot water. Silver-Coin Cleaner. stirring constantly. from Machinery. To remove grease. Put in wide-mouthed vessels and close carefully. cut fine Precipitated chalk Jewelers' rouge 16 parts .. Make a thin paste of levigated (not precipitated) chalk and sodium hyposulphite. 1 part of nitric acid. and the burner be as clean and serviceable as new. after first rubbing it up with a portion of the liquid. Apply this paste to the surface. a sufficient quantity. and . To Cleanse rectified Cleaning Silver-Plated Ware. Larger articles may be treated as coins are immersed for 2 or 3 minutes in a 10 per cent aqueous solution of sulphuric acid. but the light would be better if it were Cleaning Copper. Paint. . and dip it next into rectified alcohol. To Clean Petroleum Lamp Burners. Into this put the burner after removing the wick. and dry._Water 2 parts Alum 2 parts Tripoli. When required for use wet sufficient of the powder and with soft linen rags rub the article. being careful not to use much pressure. paint. and then carefully rub with chamois. Dissolve the soap in the smallest quantity of water that will effect solution over Add the other ingredients a water bath. Oxalic acid Tripoli 40 parts 2 parts 7 parts I. Into a wide-mouthed bottle provided with a good cork put the following mixture: Cream of tartar II. badly blackened with silver sulphide.. With a clean cloth. 3 parts Iron subcarbonate. Water. dry with a soft cloth. Rinse in hot suds. a sufficient quantity. Dry with a fine linen rag or with sawdust. to the solution while still hot. Soap. rinse again. rinse it off in cold water. if small. a sufficient quantity. I. HI. then rub with a soft brush and castile soap. Nickel. Iron oxide Gold-Ware Cleaner. or the surface may be rapidly wiped Powder the alum and rub up with the cork tightly. and afterwards in clear When water. Plunge the piece in the bath for 10 to 15 seconds. Rub up the stearine with the ammonia.. From 5 to 10 minutes usually suffice. rinse under the tap. other ingredients. Pumice stone IV. times before its strength is exhausted. 1 part of sulphuric acid. etc. 1 part Rotten stone II. this Rinse mixture. . Solutions for Cleaning Metals.

pour a use. and rub dry with a linen cloth. and rinse in running water. or the rubbing continued too long.000 parts of petroleum. and then quickly dried. Or the following plan may be used: dead silver. rinse in alcohol. woolen rag. 10 parts 1 part 40 parts Rinse in running water. dirt. but readily yield to a Japaste of chloride of lime and water. For gilt work. and finish with chamois or wash leather. and in this boil the articles for a few minTake utes five will usually be enough. even in the case of statues that had apparently turned completely black. frequently become badly stained with ink. etc. velle water may be also used. How to Renovate Bronzes. As soon as the gilding reappears or the . then dry. remove. Five seconds suffice ordinarily.. If greasy. Set the article To Clean Polished Parts Put aside and. of Machines. as this is liable to attack the iron itself. next day. and subsequently with ammonia. Articles thus treated look as bright as new. Britannia Metal Cleaner. The yellowest and brownest nickeled articles are restored to pristine brilliancy by leaving them in the alcohol and acid for 15 seconds. and as soon as the liquid has cooled down sufficiently to be borne by the hand. Silver articles in domestic use. dry. As a rule 12 to 24 hours will suffice. To Clean Silver Ornaments. dip into a hot solution of caustic potash. first remove all grease. in a flask 1. with a solution in water of potassium or sodium hydrate. rub it well with a To Remove Ink cially Stains on Silver. the residual oil finally leaves the surface protected by a delicate layer of paraffine that will prevent rusting for a long time. wash has been found that after remedy the dirt layer is loosened and the green platina reappears. . carefully in suds. wash in suds. After the objects have been removed from the bath they must be rinsed with water. dip into the following mixture: alkali. Finally give a light rubbing with a chamois. wax. will disappear provided the article has not been neglected too long. or unglazed earthenware) to dry. 85 per cent Water 125 parts . Rinse in boiling water and place on a porous substance (a bit of tiling. and with a soft rag apply the following: Sodium carbonate. cork the bottle and stand aside for a couple of days. If not then clean and bright. Articles attacked by rust may be conveniently cleaned by dipping them into a wellsaturated solution of stannic chloride. The length of time of the action must be regulated according to the thickness of the rust. Greasing with vaseline seems to prevent new formation of rust. using a brush to get into the minute crevices.. A pinch of table salt taken between the thumb and finger and rubbed on the spot with the end of the finger will usually great pressure has not been made. or apply with a brush. Lay them for a few seconds in alcohol containing 2 per cent of sulphuric acid. Removing Egg Stains. shake the bottle. brush off with a fine linen cloth or a supple chamois skin. etc. resinified grease. wash in running water. with a soft brush scrub the articles with it. add 20 parts of paraffine. little of the liquid upon a woolen rag and rub evenly over the part to be cleaned. pour the soap solution into a basin. When this dries on. but it is essential to prevent an excess of acid in the bath. it and employing this Nitric acid Aluminum Water Mix. In this case a further applicaIf too tion of the oil will be necessary. a brick. This process gives a brilliant polish and is especially useful with plated articles on the plating of which the usual polishing materials act very destructively. Go over every part carefully. sulphate . shaved fine. and espesilver or plated inkstands. dry. better. remove the darkest egg stain from silver. and then wash in suds with a soft rag. giving it an occasional shake. Objects treated in this manner are said to resemble To Clean Articles of Nickel. The mixture is now ready for To use. 201 Cleaning Gilt Bronze Ware. Solvent for Iron Rust.CLEANING PREPARATIONS AND METHODS with a swab carrying nitric acid and instantly rinsed in running water. Potash has been found to be an efficacious remedy. dry and go over the spots where the gilt surface is discolored with a brush dipped in a solution of two parts of alum in 250 parts of water and 65 parts of nitric acid. etc. Make a strong solution of soft soap and water. out. Professor Weber proposed a diluted Remove grease. as directed above. These stains cannot be removed by ordinary processes. rinse.. Every particle of rust. Rub first with jewelers' rouge made into a paste with oil. 7 parts 15 parts Spanish whiting 50 parts Alcohol. or.

next wash it in plenty of water. Rub on with a woolen rag. whereupon they are brushed off with Vienna lime and petroleum. fenders. grease will be dissolved. similar to that employed in silvering. kettles and saucepans. work is well done and the gilding has not been on too long. either with a dry cloth or leather. aluminum sulphate. The film which forms on low-quality gold articles is removed by coating with fuming hydrochloric acid. brass andirons. rinsed in clean brasses quickly and economically. water. Oxalic acid and salt should be employed if it touches the for furniture brasses wood it only improves the tone. Otherwise the metal will soon tarnish again. mixtures used to clean brass will effecOxalic acid is said tively clean copper. Rub. and polish with dry whiting and rotten Finish with a leather and dry stone. may be well brushed with this lye and afterwards To Clean Bronze. brown To Clean a Gas Stove. Wipe the brasses well with a wet cloth. 4 parts. or some other polishing agent. moved with this is Treatment of Cast-iron Grave Crosses. The encaustic is spread by means of a linen or woolen wad. after using. said lye to be made of 9 parts of caustic soda and 180 parts of These pieces. and candlesticks and trays are best cleaned with vinegar and salt. After this priming has oecome hard. etc. but if false a brown spot will be produced. There are some bronzes gilt with imiWhere the tation gold and varnished. Things even pots and pans need for show which gives a deep. polish thoroughly Sometimes powdered rotten stone does better than the tripoli. and dry in sawdust. Cleaning Inferior Gold Articles. When of red lead or graphite paint. clean chamois. wipe. If the gilding is true no discoloration will occur. some articles are best cleaned by immersing in hot soap suds and rubbing Rinse in clear. An easy method of removing grease spots consists in immersing the separable parts for several hours in a warm lye. Finally. Finally. The brass to be cleaned must be freed completely from Wash grease. and the stove restored almost to its original state. clean the objects with benzine. and with oil and tripoli. Cooking vessels in constant use need only to be well washed afterwards. Still another cleaner is acid. Copper oxalic acid. 125 parts. and apply light encaustic mixture composed of spirit of turpentine in which a small quantity of yellow wax has been dissolved. to be the best medium for cleaning copper. yellow luster. which is mostly composed of asphalt or tar. gle oil) and linen rag. For gilt bronze. rub them with vinegar and salt or with polish with tripoli and Unless the acid is washed off sweet oil. the rubbing. ever. using a soft brush to get the residual suds out of crevices. " " mixtion portions with (gilding Such crosses look gild as usual. add 1 spoonful of alkali to 3 spoonfuls of water and rub the article with this by means Next wipe with a of a ball of wadding. until there is no trace of oil. howthe practiced eye. or a bit of chamois. is followed by one of lampblack ground Now paint the sinwith coach varnish. The crosses treated in this manner are preserved for many years. as above. done apply one or two coats . warm water. ten stone into a stiff paste with soft soap and water. and not the so-called black varnish. fixed parts of the stove. (158 F. and made of nitric 30 parts. caked dirt. good for six months. Let dry.). let dry. may easily be detected by touching a spot on the gilt surface with a glass rod dipped in a solution of corrosive sublimate. but it is essential to use good exterior or coach varnish for varnishing. How to Clean Brass and Steel. dry in the direct sunlight.202 CLEANING PREPARATIONS AND METHODS wash off. The rust must first be thoroughly rea steel-wire brush. better when they are not altogether black. with strong ammonia suds and rinse dry before beginning with the acid and salt. they will deceive even The deception.. dried. the article will tarnish quickly. but after using it the surface of the copper must be well washed. Clean the bronze with soft soap. polishing. The best treatment for wrought steel is to wash it very clean with a stiff brush the oil rich. surface becomes bright. paint with doubleburnt lampblack and equal parts of oil of This coating turpentine and varnish. heated to about 70 C. hot with a soft brush. together with the water. rinse again in pure benzine. Rinse off and dry in sawdust. then finish by rubbing the gilt spots or places with a soft. To after The clean. distilled or rain water. and apply the solution with a camel's-hair pencil. Wash immediately and Make rotCleaning Copper Sinks. Ornaments may be very well treated in colors with oil paint and then varnished. and then rubbed with sweet oil and tripoli. Clean of grease. and grime. Many of the substances and whiting.

immerse the parts to be To Clean Gilt Objects. ceresine. remove all the After dusting. caput mortuum. best grade. little nitro-benzol may be added to scent the mixture. taking care that the acid does not touch the metal. 15 parts (or. palm oil. and introduced into a case so that it can be used like a stick of cosmetic. fire clay. Smear the rusted parts well with grease (ordinary animal fat will do). 20 parts. this is molded in order to give a cylindrical form. of oil Composition Nickel. 6 ounces. and the rust may be easily rubbed off. with sawdust. Putz Pomade. For small shops this mode of cleaning is doubtless the best. and stir in the tripoli. by weight. II. Compound for Cleaning Brass. better. necessary. and other Metals. by heat. rinse clean. very stiff brush. Boil common alum in soft.. and wipe with a soft rag. Into an ordinary drinking glass pour about 20 drops of ammonia. and dust thickly with powdered quicklime. To Clean Zinc Articles. immerse the piece to be cleaned repeatedly in this. rinsing off is. 3 parts.. boil it to dryness. This silver stripping bath may be used several times. Melt the To Clean Gummed Parts of MaBoil about 10 to 15 parts of chinery. and polish with a cloth. 1 ounce. apply a diluted solution of hydrochloric acid. 46 parts. 5 parts. When it is saturated with silver. heated on the When the silver has left the water bath. III. dry. and immerse the For article in it> the solution. by weight. and mineral oil together. caustic soda or 100 parts of soda in 1. 5 parts. Treat the article with pure water. By leaving cleaned in this for some time. especially bronzes. rust is not thick the grease and rust may be rubbed off with a cloth dipped in ammonia. by weight. and allow the If the article to stand several days. with a softer brush. Stripping silvered articles of the silvering may be accomplished by the following mixture: Sulphuric acid. then make into a A paste with the oil and petrolatum. oil of mirAfter mixing bane. iron and steel may be kept from rust almost indefinitely. Canova wax. rub the spot with cleaning and dry frames. and brush with a soft brush. then with alcohol. 1 part. enough whale oil and spirits of turpentine of equal parts. cocoanut oil. rinse the objects several times. and melt in the crucible to obtain the metal. unless to eat and pit it for antique effects. by weight. then brush Polish it off with a clean. 60 parts. these different ingredients. 10 parts. 1 part.. grind evenly in a paint mill. Put the lime on. petroleum or Perfume with mirbane oleine. A thorough will have done the work. to mix. Oxalic acid. pure water. To Remove Silver Plating. by weight.. if white the article with this paste. I. next. if it is kept in a well-closed bottle. powdered pumice stone. rotten stone. Let the lime stay on 2 days. heat the mixture to about 166 F. To Remove Rust from Nickel. Then wash the article and polish in the usual way. copper. nitric acid. paraffine. oil. or. Rub pomade is desired. in strong white soapsuds and ammonia. sulphuric acid 100 parts and potassium nitrate (saltpeter) 10 parts in a vessel of stoneware or porcelain. To make a brass cleaning compound use acid. Wool grease. then add the residue to the deposit. 60 B. 15 parts 20 parts Rotten stone 60 parts Palm oil 5 parts Petrolatum Pulverize the acid and the rotten stone and mix thoroughly with the rouge. In order to clean articles of zinc. and immerse the articles by means of a copper In a few seconds the acid mixture wire. Oxalic acid Peroxide of 1 iron part (jewelers' rouge). or III. and rub with cloths until the luster comes out. tripoli. picture . oxalic Oleine Ceresine Tripoli 40 parts 5 parts 40 parts mineral Light oil 20 parts (0. dry plentifully with sweet oil. decant the liquid. Never let acid touch a bronze surface. I. Sift to remove all grit. II. I. 1 part. wash well dust possible.000 parts of water. and make a paste. and add a handful of silver sand and a little vitriol.CLEANING PREPARATIONS AND METHODS and ammonia soapsuds. oil rinse well. 40 B. 12 parts). for Cleaning Copper. Then rinse and dry. which constitute a paste. 30 parts. boil them with it. II. polish with just a suspicion and and rotten stone. of course. rinse with water. and rub off afterwards every trace of the oil.870) oleine. 4 parts. If the rust is very deep. Before wetting any sort of bric-a-brac. by weight. stir rye bran into a paste with boiling water.

using a somewhat stiff brush. but it irritates the eyes and nose. and let stand a few days before using. etc. V. by weight. and after washing it with plenty of water. When it wants cleaning.. . Bicarbonate of soda. and wipe off. Next. The measures are allowed to soak in the solution for a short time. to which a few hard to clean so they will have a bright. To restore the pieces to brilliancy place them for some time in water that has been slightly acidulated with sulphuric acid. cooking Brush salt. of chloride of lime. by weight. dip it in the bath composed of | nitric acid and $ water. Next rub the spot with dry bran. VI. whiting. scale ing. . by weight. all kinds of gilded work. then throw on fine powdered gypsum. and leave them therein for a few I Take 80 parts. rinse several times in water. If the preparation is to be kept for any length To Clean Dull Gold. a thin paste is formed. which should be rubbed on the silver with a dry brush.000 parts of of spirits of water. mixed with caustic ammonia to form a paste. An efficacious preparation is obtained by mixing beech-wood ashes. if the odor is not objectionable. mix 3 parts of best washed and purified chalk and 1 part of white soap. apply to the scale with a cloth rolled in the form of a brush. Cleaning with the usual fine powders is attended with some difficulty and inconvenience. and finally to a mixture of rum and olive oil. If the articles are only slightly tarnished. giving the article more the appearance of pewter than silver. well For use. pentine and For polishing by hand. . rain water. III. A grayish violet film which silverware acquires from perspiration. lay the corked. which is put on with a brush or rag. Aluminum frosted pieces. yo^ part. which is put into a solution of 80 parts. An excellent result is obtained without injury to the silver by employing a saturated solution of hyposulphite of soda. in the cellar. Wash the objects with the aid of a soft brush with the solution. Funnels and measures used for measuring varnishes. ana ary in fine sawdust. This mixture is very effective. I. entirely free from grit. After 8 or 10 hours To remove the Scale Cast Iron. To Clean Aluminum. Dilute alcohol is also excellent. answers admirably. but gives extraordinary gloss to the silver. pour the liquid. diluted with about 5 volumes of water. as it dulls the luster. by weight. by the use of naphtha or petro- leum benzine. to Clean Tarnished Silver. 2 parts. This not only causes it to disappear. articles are very I. the best medium is liquor potassse. Wash the aluminum with coal-oil. VII. Never use soap on silverware. can be readily removed by means of ammonia.000 parts. A solution of crystallized potas- moldings. may be used. oils. new appearance. in fact. This is especially the case with the matted or near the fire. and 20 parts. To render aluminum capable of being worked like pure copper. Shake it. from cast iron use a solution of 1 part vitriol and 2 parts water.5 parts 15 parts 240 parts 31 Grind the chloride of lime with a little water to a thin paste. II. of bicarbonate of soda. To remove spots from silver lay it for 4 hours in soapmakers' lye. even paste. water. may be cleaned by soaking them in a strong solution of Another mixture for lye or pearlash. in a porcelain vessel. The article is then washed with plenty of water. of oil of tursteanc acid are used. . made into a paste with pure water. of water. over them so as just to cover them. then put it in a concentrated solution of caustic potash. and. 8 parts. II. the silver with this lye. which has previously been well shaken. till Cooking Water salt parts 15. dry A troleum lubricating oils may be removed. when the resinous matter of the paint or varnish is thin coating of peeasily removed. of salt. Venetian soap. 2 parts. and add the remaining chemicals. when the hard. of time the bottle should be placed. adding How days. using enough to wet the surface well. tarnished articles in a dish.&04 CLEANING PREPARATIONS AND METHODS II. As a substitute. gasoline or benzine. drops ammonia have been added. moisten the latter with vinegar to cause it to adhere. subject it to a bath of concentrated nitric acid. it is said. IV. Methylated wood spirit. rub it with a piece of soft leather and prepared chalk. scaly surface will be completely removed. take a solution of 30 parts of borax and 1. till the articles are quite bright. sium permanganate has been recommended. the same purpose consists of pearlash with quicklime in aqueous solution. Chloride of lime. Cleaning Funnels and Measures. in 3. after mixTo wash off with water. and rub it up with gradual addition of water in a porcelain mortar into a thin.

part sulphuric acid with 12 parts of water. In this imbibe a cloth wrapped around a stick (to protect the hands). Next they are rinsed with clean water and placed on a table with a clean linen cover on which they are left to dry without being touched. Employ powdered chicory mixed with water. To polish pewter plates it is well to have the turner make similar wooden forms fitting the plates. comes bright. otherwise spots will apThis scouring is not necessary so pear. woolen rag. Scale Pan Clearer. Cleaning Gilded Bronzes. bran after use and cleaned perfectly. IV. 65. best white.CLEANING PREPARATIONS AND METHODS Cleaning Bronze Objects. wipe. II. using about 1 part of chromate. with a brush. brushed with a stiff brush. pans is a solution of potassium bichromate in dilute sulphuric acid. wood ashes upon the tin. Desilvering may be effected in the same manner. and dry in the sun or near a fire. Do this at tap or hydrant. alcohol (85). rubbing the dishes with it until the mass becomes dry. and with it rub the pans. but if the cyanide is not completely removed it will corrode the goods. throw on sand. rinse in the sun or near a stove. clean sawdust. Files which have come clogged with tin or lead beare mence by removing the spots of grease and wax with a little potash or soda dissolved in water. and rub with a hard. to 3 parts of acid and 6 parts of water. About the quick- parts nitric acid. so as to obtain a which is applied paste.and Paint -Spot Eradicators. lye of Tarnish on Electro -Plate Goods. or whisk until all particles of dirt have been dissolved. Tarnish on jewelry can be speedily removed by this process. This tarnish can be removed by dipping the article for from 1 to 15 minutes that is. and fill into a stone jug or jar. parts are cleaned with a After removing the grease spots. The hollow brush. off 205 and dry After the brushing. est cleaner for brass scale To Clean Tarnished Zinc. and 125 parts of pure water. warm. 125 parts. and to rub them clean this way. . 250 parts. and letting it burn off on the file. III. always be rinsed in water after the treatment. put the objects in hot water. 15 parts. GREASE-. and close tightly. When the gilding bewater. sufficient. Wash in hot water containing a little soda. Degilding or stripping gilt articles may be done by attaching the object to the positive pole of a battery and immersing it in a solution composed of 1 pound of cyanide dissolved in about 1 gallon of water. dry and pass over all the damaged parts a pencil dipped in the following mixture: Alum. whiting. so that no time is lost in placing the pan in running water after having rubbed it with the acid solution. 500 parts Benzol Benzine 500 parts Soap. Apply with a rag a mixture of 1 . Immerse the objects in boiling soap water. Dry in sawdust. then dried with fine. when they are quite dry rub the shining parts only with an old linen cloth or a soft leather. 50 parts. and pass over the gilding a pencil soaked in a liquid made of 30 let cleaned by dipping for a few seconds into concentrated nitric acid. OIL-. in powder. Grease. but here the process has to be The files should repeated several times. and facilitate the action of the soap by rubbing with a soft brush. Com- To Clean Files. dry. File-ridges closed up by zinc are cleaned by immersing the files in diluted sulphuric acid. and dried in sawdust or by pouring alcohol over them. nitric acid. When this coating is dry pass a fine linen cloth or a piece of supple skin over it. must be taken out and thoroughly rinsed in several waters. until the tarnish shall have been removed in a pickle of the following composition: Rain water 2 gallons and potassium cyanide pound. PAINT-SPOT ERADICATORS: I. and let them dry in the air. often if the pewter is rubbed with wheat having been immersed. a bath of blue vitriol is employed. I. without touching the others. hat felt. Stripping Gilt Articles. Such as have become filled with copper or brass are also treated with nitric acid. 5 parts shaved Water. Rinse the zinc with clear water. 2 parts. 4 parts of aluminum phosphate. New pewter is polished with a paste of whiting and brandy. Let dry. To remove iron filings from the file cuts. 7 parts. For pans not very badly soiled rubbing with ammonia water and rinsing is sufficient. and apply the following mixture with a rag: Carbonate of soda. After the files have been rinsed in water they are likewise dipped in nitric acid. after Pour hot Cleaning Pewter Articles. Dissolve together. The article. water. brush them carefully.

rubbing it well. dab the spot carefully with spirits of sal ammoniac. If the mixture is slow in emulsifying. Mix the benusing from 50 to 60 parts. by laying them for a few seconds in pure aqua ammonia. etc. and rinse the stain with soap and lukewarm water. and after allowing it to act for a while. The chains a little table salt is added. etc. from Plate Glass. alcohol. are first in alcohol. wash with clean water. and add the soap solution. Pour good vinegar over this and rub Rinse in clean water and vigorously. A good polish will be obtained. White spots on polished tables are removed in the following manner: Coat the spot with oil and pour on a rag a few mixtura balsamica oleosa. 1 part. which will disappear immediately. cooking salt. if necessary.. finally. and finally dried in sawdust. after stirring it up well. Imitation gold and plated chains cleaned in benzine. To Clean Linoleum. shaking up well after each addition. This treatment may have to be repeated a few times. Oil Spots from . or until it separates. and shining soot (lampblack). amianthus. The product is a plastic mass. Rust spots and other stains can be removed from linoleum by rubbing with si^eel chips. easily removed by brushThe same ing with a suitable brush.206 CLEANING PREPARATIONS AND METHODS Removing Spots from Furniture. With this mixture and a wad of cotton. to act for a Allow this few hours. black coffee spots were removed from a valuable diagram without erasure by knife or rubber. and next are pickled. add the tallow soap and mix WATCHMAKERS' AND JEWELERS' CLEANING PREPARATIONS: the Tops of Clocks in ReSprinkle whiting on the top. still warm. Place soapstone. a little at a time. go over the entire of benzine made the glass. To remove all kinds of greasy materials from glass. taking care. application with a brush. The brass mountings are cleaned of dirt by dipping them for a short time into boiling soda lye. are boiled in this mixture. which causes a strong generation of heat. add at one time from 50 to 100 parts of warm water.Leather. then rinsed and afterwards shaken in dry sawdust. sulphuric acid. etc. then rinsed in afterwards several times in water. incorporate the ox gall. etc. no matter whether they be matt or polished. Next scrape off the butter with the point of a knife. then decant the superfluous water. and finally shaken in clean sawdust. which may be rolled into sticks or put up into boxes. " To Remove Spots from Drawings. 10 per cent Acetic ether III. Ordinary chains are first dipped in the following pickle: Pure nitric acid is mixed with concentrated sulphuric acid in the proportion of 10 parts of the former to 2 parts of the latter. pairing. The pickling mixture. any of the substance left in the is corners. they are then rinsed in. with peroxide of hydrogen. Grease. zol and benzine. Sometimes the Triturate the quillaia and borax together. is usually sufficient. or powdered magnesia on the spot. and shake Set the emulsion aside for a violently. however. part. papers. etc. few days. free from sand. saturating it Soap Ammonia spirit 100 parts solution. alcohol. but should settle for at least Cases. first Cleaning Brass Mountings on Clock . watch chains can be cleaned with a very excellent result. To Clean To remove Removing oil To Clean Watch Chains. dry slowly in the sun or at the fire. and rub on the spot. After drying. II. whereby they acquire a handsome golden-yellow coloring. use a paste and burnt magnesia of such consistence that when the mass is pressed between the fingers a drop of benzine will exude. and.. and pour the residual pasty mass. and to leave the latter bright and clean. stains from leather. lay on white filtering paper. however. fresh Tallow soap part 1 part 6 parts 15 parts 1 If necessary. in a mixture consisting of nitric acid. silver Gold or spot may be removed very simply by spreading the place rather thickly with butter and letting this act for a few hours. into suitable boxes." drops of which can be bought in every drug store. 40 parts. of surface One rubbing preparation is very useful for cleaning mirrors and removing grease stains from books. and remove the Extract of quillaia Borax Ox gall. 25 parts 15 parts . In this manner repeat the operation. must not be employed immediately after pouring together the acids. Dissolve the soap in the warm water. and. if possible. To Remove Putty. 60 parts. not to injure the color of the leather. thoroughly by kneading. fine meerschaum shavings.

and pour over them some benzine. Dial. nor are the steel parts attacked by it. Take a bit of cotton the size of a hen's egg. 80 to 100 parts of whiting. this is diluted with alcohol. Soak a small wad of cotton in alkali and rub it on the spot. next. then brushed with soap. mountings previously warmed and dry plate. the dial should immediately be immersed in warm water. and other metallic watch injured by the alkali. Enamel powder made into a paste with water. thus cleaning the clock. mixed with of alcohol. are laid in diluted sulphuric acid (1 part acid to 10 to 15 parts Heatwater). The powdered bronze is applied dry with the When the aid of a brush or cotton wad. rinse in clean water. ner gummed up parts of tower clocks. which a little carbonate of soda has been Brush the piece in the lather. and dried in hot boxwood dust. To replace the gilding. If the clock is very dirty or much oxidized. oil. a black spot will remain. but do not allow Springs. etc. the oil loosen the particles of dust. immerse the pieces in the bath while warm. and 2 ounces of an ounce strong ammonia. in the solution and leave place the spring it there for about one half hour. rinsed. The clock will be like a new one and if you look inside you will find the cotton The fumes of batting black with dust. must be extremely fine. it may affect the This may be polish and render it dull. tripoli moistened ishing the surface. 1 part of gold varnish sufficing for 10 Into this liquid dip the parts of alcohol. Pieces of blued steel are not Gold. After that they are cleaned with soap water and finally polished with rouge. In an enameled iron or terra -cotta vessel pour 2. and a small cup of spirits of To Clean adhering may now easily be with a hard brush. The powder used for repol- brushed with powdered with oil. and wait 3 or 4 days.CLEANING PREPARATIONS AND METHODS After the dipping the objects are rinsed in plenty of clean water and dried on a hot. dip it in kerosene and place it on the floor of the clock. This being decanted and bottled can be used indefinitely for rinsing.000 parts of water. To Remove a Figure or Name from a Oil of cases which in soldering have been exposed to heat. and to restore to has been removed. to boil. This makes the somer and more uniform. shut the door of the clock. a little bronze powder of the color of the gilding. obviated by trying different strengths of the alkali. letting the liquid fall into an empty vessel. and at the same time warmed for lacSince the pieces would be quering. dissolved. it may be revived by immersion in a bath of cyanide of potassium. Silver cases are polished after boiling. add 50 parts of scraped Marseilles soap. oil still Dissolve caustic soda in warm water. with a scratch brush dipped in beer. It A Simple Way to Clean a Clock. ing the acid accelerates the cleaning process. Wipe traces of the alkali. them again on the hot Gilt frequently happens that clocks of gilt zinc become covered with green spots. to free them from oxide.. and dry in rather The piece should be dried hot sav. are added to the solution. Gold cases are next spike lavender may be employed for erasing a letter or number. 1 day. On removal from this bath. but in this case any painted figures will be destroyed. The green color will disappear at once. The articles are then well rinsed in water and dried. ammonia. and oil paint may be removed from metal or wood.'dust. It is applied with a piece of peg- . as moisture will cause it to turn black. by means of liquid gum arabic. To remove such spots the following process is used: Zinc Clocks. in off well to all To Restore the Color of a Gold or Gilt Dip the dial for a few seconds in the following mixture: Half an ounce of remove cyanide of potassium is dissolved in a quart of hot water. Or it may simply be immersed in dilute nitric acid. It should be previously levigated so as to obtain several degrees of fineness. A Bath for Cleaning Clocks. 207 articles hand- the original color. but free from danger. but the gilding being gone. dry the In this manspring with a clean cloth. and they fall. locks. but frequently it suffices to wash it with a soft brush in soap and water. Any Gummed Up ess of solution. well inside and outside. and as long as necessary. lacquered too thick and unevenly in pure gold varnish. silver. may be quickly and thoroughly cleaned. To hasten the procwarm. iron plate. The lye is sharp. put on. gilding of the clock has become black or dull from age. where an impression remove the pale spots caused by the heat and boiling. or turpentine is also used for this purpose. when pure. Take them out with a skimmer or taken off strainer. even Dial. To Clean Soldered Watch Cases. If the bath has too much alkali or is used when too hot. in the corner.

Take a little parts. Take diluted nitric acid about as strong as strong be injured by it. or sunflowers is cut out. If glue has simply dried upon the glass hot water ought to remove it. Another method is to have the V. For this warmed through. strung on a silk thread or wrapped up in thin gauze. try diluted hydrochloric. as has been proposed. VI. Pearls turn yellow Cleaning Pearls. pointed pieces of elder pith are emTo dip dirty and greasy lenses ployed. and dry them at an ordilinen. strong. and rosin dissolved in a solution of soda and combined with starch. The best method is to powder. the pieces are dried and pasted singly alongside of one another upon a piece of cork. Hang the pearls for a couple of minutes in hot. 950 parts of With bolus. finely powdered lime and wood charcoal. alum. white cloth. but not too brown. and applied with a stick of pegwood. throw salt on them. Quillaia bark Carbonate ammonia. Place the pearls in a piece of fine III. take them out. Then mix with soft water to the consistency of cream. and wash off well with clean water. employ diamond powder. some abrasive powder (flour of emery) must be used and the glass repolished with jewelers' rouge applied by means of a chamois skin. and 550 parts of oleine. however. into oil of turpentine or ether and rub them with a linen rag. and on the arms. otherwise they will must be had to chemical means for their removal. pounds pounds pounds pounds ounces ounces Phosphate calcium. mixed in a loaf of bread 01 barley flour the spots are due to size (the gelatinous wash used by painters) when dried they become very refractory and recourse and to have the loaf baked well in an oven. It is recommended for show particularly windows ornamented with metal. GLASS CLEANING: Cleaning Preparation for Glass with Metal Decorations. suspend the pearls over the steam of the boiling water until they are II. elders.000 parts of denaturized spirit (96 per cent) with 150 . at the throat. 1^ 2J 2J 18 6 and the ingredients. or any of the If the spots still remain stronger acids. Rose pink . 15 parts of ethylic ether. sulphuric. wine vinegar or highly diluted sulphuric acid. and apply to the glass by means of a soft rag or sponge. nary temperature. Mix 1. remove. and dry them with a clean. wipe off with a cloth. turning freLet them cool in the liquid. The commonest size being a solution of gelatin. 6 Prepared chalk Powdered chalk French . and polish with sift Mix constant motion. 200 parts of Vienna lime. which has been strained through a gauze sieve. Do not leave them too long in the acid. because the Canada balsam with which the lenses are cemented might dissolve. allow it to dry on. through muslin. . chamois. There are several ways of rendering them white again. up. quently. Watchmakers will do well to try on disused dials several degrees of fineness of the diamond powder. The medulla Optical Lenses. Cleaning Window Panes. and then boil them in the liquid for 5 minutes. seems hazardous.208 wood of the CLEANING PREPARATIONS AND METHODS or ivory. and rinse them in water. whereby a brush-like apparatus is obtained. about little pearls may also be boiled hour in cow's milk into which a cheese or soap has been scraped. of ammonia. If. make into a paste with on the end of a copper polisher the surface of which has been freshly filed and slightly rounded. Cleaning purpose a German contemporary recommends vegetable pith. hot solutions of causIf tic soda or of potash may be used. 20 parts of acetic ether. pearls. it may be rendered bright by rubbing with the same powder mixed with a greater quantity of oil. The best process is said to be to put the pearls into a bag with wheat bran and to heat the bag over a coal fire. When cool remove the pearls. this mixture both glass and metal can be quickly and thoroughly cleaned. to a boil with 500 parts of pure rain water. of rushes. Paste for Cleaning Glass. Another method is to bring 8 parts each of well-calcined. that fails to remove them. rinse off in fresh water. IV. in fine powder. The marks will rapidly disappear when rubbed with this. take them out. The surface is left a little dull. which is passed over the surFor very small lenses face of the lens. | The To Remove Glue from Glass. and tie them Next rinse the tied-up pearls in lukewarm water until all the salt has been extracted. with fine oil. in the course of time by absorbing perspiration on account of being worn in the hair. I. by weight. Owing to the varied nature of sizes used the above are only suggestions.

For cleaning the large panes of glass of store windows. Glass. a subsequent polishing with chalk is also advisable. Polishing with salt remove paint spots.. of kept in a tight-closing bottle. and also ordinary show cases.. 3 fluidounces with chalk. moisten the whole surface with it. The nitric acid removes the other side. tained. leave it to act a minute and throw on pulverized whiting. because these paints destroy the polish ot the glass. from stone and masonry. In the case of silicate paints (the so-called weather-proof coatings) the over it will also 12 fluidounces make Dissolve the soap with the aid of heat in 4 fluidounces of water. ounces be go Ammonia water. then with a duster on which a little whiting has been sprinkled. Green soap Boiling water 20 to 25 parts 750 parts Liquid ammonia. 1 part Water 8 parts The compound is poisonous. 30 to 40 parts 20 to 30 parts Cards. linen. 2 av. This treatment will make the glass beautifully bright. . rinse the globe with clean water and carefully dry it with a fine.CLEANING PREPARATIONS AND METHODS vinegar and pass it over the glass pane. or cotton goods: Mercuric chloride. but just enough to Now rub both give off a hissing sound. If the benzine is added in small porfluidtions. Solid Cleansing Compound.. a semiliquid paste may be employed. After a few hours the plants can be washed off with water. Solution of potas. and thoroughly agitated. Formulas in which soaps are used in this way follow: I. The basis most of the solid grease eradicators is To Remove Oil-Paint Spots from If the window panes have been bespattered with oil paint in painting walls. When they have become dry the operation is more difficult and alcohol and turpentine in equal parts. by rubbing them with a soft rag dipped in a solution of camphor. Very little of the latter is may be made clean necessary. paint spots sheet zinc must be used. Rubbing the spots with brown soap is also a good way of removing the spots. and rub the stains with a fine linen rag. apply water in To Clean Milk Glass.. . The salt grates somewhat. After that benzine and the simplest form is a benzine jelly made by shaking 3 ounces of tincture of quillaia (soap bark) with enough benzine to make 16 fluidounces. 1 part Ammonia muriate. MISCELLANEOUS CLEANING METHODS AND PROCESSES: Universal Cleaner. but it is not hard enough to cause scratches in the glass. A little of this substance rubbed on the spot with a linen rag will make it disappear. To Mirrors. and even with inferior panes a good appearance is oball 209 panes must be especially protected. soft cloth. To remove oil spots from milk glass panes and lamp globes. Benzine may also be solidified by the use of a soap with addition of an excess of alkali. of course. add the ammonia and potassa and the remainder of the water. as the drying of the salt might For scratching off soft injure the glass. To Clean Store Windows. To Remove Vegetable Growth from To remove moss and lichen Buildings. Removing Silver Stains. Cocoanut-oil soap. . with a cotton rag until it is brilliant. Slightly caustic Acetic ether Mix. impurities which have remained on the glass at the factory. and also from woolen. and finally polish with clean paper or a wash leather. Pour 2 spoonfuls of a slightly heated solution of potash into the globe. The following solution will remove silver stains from the hands. clean water and a little alcohol and polish Repeat the process on dry and clear. made of calcined magnesia and purified The glass should be rubbed benzine. or spirit of sal ammoniac should used to soften the paint. knead burnt magnesia with benzine to a plastic mass. the spots are. Cleaning Lamp Globes. but care must be taken in rinsing off that the window frames are not acted upon. 2 ounces of the above will be found sufficient tp solidify 32 fluidounces of benzine. Clean Playing To Clean Rub the mirror soiled playing cards with a ball of soft paper slightly dampened with methylated spirits. easily removed while wet. as it cannot damage the glass on account of its softness. with the hand over the whole pane and Rinse off with polish with a dry rag. sium Water enough 1^ fluidounces to . which must be which 1 per cent of carbolic acid has been dissolved.

All the above are roasted. the bottles should be moistened inside with a little ether. little From dandelion CLICHE METALS: See Alloys. and cold. COCOANUT CAKE: See Household Formulas and Recipes. Corks containing oil or fat cannot be cleaned by this in 10 Cork Cleaner. Dandelion. WATERPROOFING: See Waterproofing. per cent solution of hydrochloric acid. dried in a kiln or oven. little Bean. terant. This method is claimed to be more rapid and convenient than the customary one of using strips of paper. and finally leave the sponges in a solution of bromine in water until clean. white. with a III. Rinse well first in very weak. dried. make 16 fluidounces Meth when Dissolve the soap in the water. CLOCK-HAND COLORING: See Metals. boiling 3i av. They possess none of the exhilarating properties or medicinal virtues of the genuine coffee. Acorn. which are larger than coffee berries are cut into small slices before being roasted. let stand a few minutes and If then add about a gill of cold water. and ground with a caramel. COBALTIZING: See Plating. roots. Dry quickly and in the sun if possible. warm. II. Finally the corks are washed with a solution of soda and pure water. CLOTHS FOR POLISHING: See Polishes. COACH VARNISH: See Varnishes. SUBSTITUTES FOR. the bottle be then rotated in a horizontal position. CLOCKMAKERS' CLEANING PROCESSES. CLOCK REPAIRING: See Watchmaking. They will whiten sooner if exposed to the sun in the bromine water. especially when old. CARE OF: See Household Formulas. add the other ingredients. COAL OIL: See Oil. Water. Household Formulas. beet root. Horse beans roasted along honey or sugar. caustic-soda lye. and ground with a little coffee. and left standing a few hours before the introduction of sawdust. TO EAT BURNING: See Pyrotechnics. IV. in a similar way to that V. I. COFFEE. CLOTHING. Cod-Liver. and of roasted. Wash COCOA CORDIAL: See Wines and Liquors. CLOTH. The roasted root is prepared by cutting the full-grown root into slices. with a little fat or lard. along with about 1A per cent or 2 per cent of lard. COD-LIVER OIL AND ITS EMULSION: See Oil. Water of ammonia fluidrachms Benzine enough to CLOTHES CLEANERS: See Cleaning Preparations and ods. adopted for powder When ground to coffee. From the yellow Beet Root. and shake well to cover the interior surface thoroughly. sliced. it will usually be found clean In the case of after a single treatment. CLEANING PREPARATIONS COFFEE Castile soap. sliced. CLEARING BATHS: See Photography. ounces 3J fluidounces 5 CLOTH TO IRON. then immerse in a solution of sodium hyposulphite and hydrochloric acid. GLUEING: See Adhesives. See Cleaning Preparations and Methods. From acorns deprived their shells. Those ing them. Bottles. also. in a mill it constitutes the ebi- . To Clean Oily Use 2 heaped tablespoonfuls (for every quart of capacity) of fine sawdust or wheat bran. To Clean Sponges. COCOAS: See Beverages. method. COALS. etc. roasted. dried. soap solution. Then repeat the rinsings in weak lye and clean water. before grind- CLOCK-DIAL LETTERING: See Watchmakers' Formulas. drying oils. using the latter till all smell of bromine has disappeared. then with clean water. COCHINEAL INSECT REMEDY: See Insecticides. and exposing it to heat in iron cylinders.210 II. husked. CLOCK OIL: See Oil. This is a common adulChicory.

Glycerine Oxymel III.COFFEE COLD AND COUGH MIXTURES Syrup of squill. . ders. less coffee. Decoction of Iceland . The use. In this way a Concentrated acid infusion of roses Distilled water. weighing 20 grains each. materials. fresh. and hungerstaying properties of that valuable product. IMPRESSIONS OF: See Matrix Mass. Rhatany extract Tragacanth Sugar . 2 4 drachms drachms Camphorated tincture of opium Powdered extract licorice 4 ounces 1 Cold and Cough Mixtures Cough Syrup. to water make 30 fluidounces 6 1 Heroin Aromatic sulphuric grains acid fluidounces fluidounces fluidounces fluidounces fluidounces quantity of coffee may be used. Distilled fluidounces fluidrachms enough II. roasted chicory to 10 or 12 parts of coffee forms a mixture which yields a beverage of a fuller flavor. Cough Balsam with Iceland Moss. Balsamic Cough Syrup. seldom fails to weaken the powers of digestion and derange the bowels. while the continual use of roasted chicory. . Mix to- be taken in tea- I. Dose: 112 parts COIN METAL: See Alloys. Sulphuric acid. of squill.500 Roll out and divide into lozenges parts. of a larger proportion of chicory than that just named imparts to the beverage an insipid flavor. Solution of morphine acetate COIL SPRING: See Steel. fluidounces fluidounces fluidounces fluidounces Oxymel Syrup Benzoic-Acid Pastilles. One teaspoonful. Most of the other compounds contain ingredients that are prone to undergo fermentation. soothing. however... 1 1 fluidounce Syrup fluidrachrn 10 fluidounces Whooping-Cough Remedies. a sufficient quantity. make the balsam of tures. COINS. monium Add 16 ounces Peru to the tincrub up the extract syrups.. Benzoic acid Cochineal. lowing mixture is The fol- a spray to be used . and in a mortar of licorice with the gether and direct to spoonful doses.. dilute Cherry-laurel water.. Orange-flower water. .. intermediate between that f treacle and licorice. Ipecacuanha wine Spirit of anise.. Syrup.. 105 525 35 140 parts parts parts parts COFFEE EXTRACTS: See Essences and Extracts. or highly chicorized coffee... in the shape of powmixed well and sufficient fruit paste added to bring the mass up to 4. cough syrup syrup of of ounce The simplest form good keeping quality of is Syrup squill Syrup dextrine cose) 4 ounces (glusufficient lo wild cherry containing amchloride in the dose of 2i grains to each teaspoonful. simple Glycerine Tincture of saffron. but it should be remembered that the article substituted for it does not possess in any degree the peculiar exciting. are COFFEE SYRUPS: See Syrups. triple 12 parts 12 parts 12 parts COIN CLEANING: See Cleaning Preparations and Methods. 4 5 5 10 2 4 10 10 Glycerine Fluid extract of wild cherry .. and of a deeper color than that furnished by an equal quantity of pure or unmixed 8 4 Tincture of Tolu. The COFFEE FOR THE SODA FOUNTAIN: See Beverages. Balsam of Peru Tincture of Tolu . cory coffee so generally employed both as a substitute for coffee and as an The addition of 1 part of adulterant. COFFEE CORDIAL: See Wines and Liquors. . 24 128 48 8 parts parts parts parts moss Mix.. COLAS: See Veterinary Formulas.. good..

Mock 2 make 2 quarts. Syrup wild cherry 3 1 $ drachm drachms drachms fluidounces 4 6 3 2 2 2 1 ounces ounces ounces ounces enough .. tightly covered.. extract of beef. Tincture guaiac Tincture rhubarb. 5 parts 10 parts 94 parts sweet marjoram. > COLOGNE FOR HEADACHES: See Headaches. Collodion 1 part Castor oil Dissolve the turpentine in the ether and alcohol mixture (in equal parts) and filter. 4 ounces winter savory. 24 parts 100 parts COLD CREAM: See Cosmetics. Thyme Savory Eucalyptus Bonbons for Coughs. 15 parts 30 grains 30 grains 30 grains Cacao 1. COLORS: See Dyes and Pigments. sweet basil. eschalots. 8 ounces. 1 drachm Potass. 4 drachms. Coriander Allspice Dose: II. extract of orange peel. 1 ounce. .COLD AND COUGH MIXTURES CONDIMENTS in the sick room in cases of whooping 1. 1 COLOGNE: See Perfumes.. red pepper. cough: Thymol Tincture of eucalyptus.. 4 ounces . and drained. COLIC IN CATTLE: See Veterinary Formulas. The pickles are to be parboiled with salt. 2 drachms Celery seed Cider vinegar 2 gallons Mix all the powders with the vinegar. Condiments Chowchow. cloves 2 ounces. arrowroot. Potass. bay leaves. and the spiced vinegar. 4 ounces. Tincture of benzoin . prepared as above. chloride. Turtle Extract. 2 ounces.. 30 grains 2 nuidrachms Paregoric 2 fluidrachms Syrup of ipecac. Bonbon mass 2.0 COLORS FOR PAINTS: See Paint. add the alcohol. Turpentine Ether and alcohol. soluble. 1 drachm. Toma- See also Court Plaster. toes. Alcohol Water enough to make Pour some of the mixture on a cloth and hold to mouth so that the mixMix.. bruised celery seed. Ammon.0 30. Artificial. chlorate.... 2 ounces. Mix the vegetables. then add to the mixture of collodion and castor oil. The chowchow keeps best in small jars. Filter and press out. 1 ounce.. Essence of Extract of Soup Herbs. Expectorant Mixtures. Thyme. 2 ounces. .0 1000.. 4 ounces. ture inhaled. quantity Mix. 5 parts Eucalyptus oil Tartaric acid Extract of malt . Liquid. FUSIBLE ENAMEL: See Enameling. and steep the mixture over a very gentle fire for 3 hours. . Tomato Bouillon Extract. COLORS FOR SYRUPS: See Syrups. 64 ounces. properly bruised.0 COLOR PHOTOGRAPHY: See Photography. concentrated chicken.0 100. This makes a good elastic collodion. 1 ounce. CONCRETE: See Stone. clam juice. well corked.. ounce. Worcestershire sauce. close the container and set aside in a moderately warm place to digest for 15 days. . Curry powder Mustard powder Ginger Turmeric Cayenne Black pepper powder. sufficient to flavor.4 parts Peppermint oil . COLORS.203 parts Mix and make into bonbons weighing 30 grains each.. 3 drachms. is to be poured over them while it is still warm. Extract of ounces. One teaspoonful. tincture of black pepper. hot water enough to beef. Syrup wild cherry enough to make 2 fluidounces . is 30. Preserve in 4-ounce bottles. to make 1 drachms drachms drachm drachm 3 Mace Dose: One teaspoonful. . extract of celery. thereby giving relief. alcohol (50 per cent). I. 1 ounce. COLLODION. chlorate. 1 . 1 quart. grated lemon peel.

4 ounces ketchup. strain and add soy and sufficient vinegar to make 1 gallon. ginger. then simmer for 10 minutes. 6 5 4 18 drachms scruples drachms grains grains grains Black pepper Poppy seed 54 94 2 1 heads scruple seeds raw Jamaica ginger.. heat to boiling. 4 ounces horse-radish root.. 4 ounces gar4 ounces eschalots. and boil in To vinegar for 15 minutes and strain. Pimento Clove Black pepper Ginger 2 1 1 1 1 drachms drachm drachm drachm ounce ounce turmeric. then boil for 5 minutes. 2 ounces garlic. garlic. Bruise spices and garlic. boil them in sufficient vinegar with the tamarinds and raisins until soft. \ ounce chili pods. core the apples. f ounce cayenne pepounce ossein. Mustard Ground ginger Allspice pound pound Fenugreek seed ounces ounce 1 ounce 1 ounce \ ounce 2 ounces 2 \ ounces black peppercorns. 50 ounces best vinegar. J ounce inace. this add 2 pints mushroom ketchup. onions. quantity sufficient. Two Brown sugar Tamarinds Sherry wine Wine vinegar 2 2 2 8 4 Bruise spices. Keep in bulk as long as possible. tamarinds. 3 ounces black peppercorns. and boil in vinegar for 15 To the strained minutes. pints India soy. Capsicum Mustard Shallots. Then add the other ingredients and vinegar. Cinnamon Cardamom Cloves Chillies 5 8 1 or 2 . 1 o pints India soy. 1 ounce mus1 ounce coriander fruit (seed). adding more of the vinegar as it is lost by evaporation. Lincolnshire Relish. 2 ounces black pepper \ ounce chili pods 3 ounces . Two ounces gar- Jamaica ginger. FLAVORING SPICES. 4 parts. 8 ounces strong acetic acid. 16 parts. 4 ounces garlic. strain. Table Sauce. and bottle. 4 ounces eschalots. II. etc. II. 12 ounces sultana raisins. 10 parts.. boil in the vinegar for 10 minutes. pods.. 4 parts. Coriander seed Turmeric Fresh ginger Cumin Garlic seed. 16 parts. soy. seeds. 2 parts. soy. etc. thickens. 2 ounces black peppercorns. per. bruised Salt 1 drachm ounces ounces ounces ounces ounces ounces Jamaica ginger.CONDIMENTS RELISHES: Digestive Relish.. and add sherry wine. 4 pints malt vinegar. \ gallon malt vinegar.. curry powder. garlic. Piccalilli Epicure's Sauce. then add the wine. 4 parts. lic. then pulp through a fine sieve. One pound soy. . ^ ounce cloves. soy. The ingredients are to simmer together with the vinegar for an hour. 1^ and 1 strain. 1 gallon malt vinegar. spices. tard seed. salt. only pods \ J Grated cocoanut. f ounce nutmeg. Sauce. 1 pint 2 pints The spices must be freshly bruised. and simmer in \ a gallon of vinegar for 20 minutes. 4 ounces eschalots. 1 pint India Bruise roots. 2 ounces powdered natal arrowroot. 2 powdered parts. 2 ounces flower of mustard. Curry Powder. Rub powders in a mortar with acetic acid and add to above. \ ounce pimento. I. 1 pound burnt sugar (caramel). and if desired some caramel coloring. Pare and vinegar. 64 parts. Coriander seed One drachm chili Turmeric Cinnamon seed Cayenne . cool. 3 drachms cardamom seeds. 1 \ Enough malt vinegar Bruise spices.'. liquor add golden syrup. cayenne. \ ounce cloves. 2 parts. 2 parts. 60 parts. 2 bark. then boil for 5 minutes. Set aside for a week. I. Five ounces powdered cinnamon ounces powdered cloves. \ ounce mace. Again simmer for 15 minutes' and strain through muslin. 4 ounces capsicum. 1 ounce pimento (allspice). | 2 ounces 2 ounces salt .-. Pound the onions and garlic in a mortar and add the pulp to that of the apples. 1 drachm cardamom strain. If a sweet sauce is desired add sufficient treacle before the final boiling. Boil well and ripe apples. \ ounce nutmegs. 1 part. Eight ounces tamarinds. garlic.. Brown sugar. . \\ pounds golden syrup. then strain. and enough vinegar to make the sauce just pourable. One ounce ground Jamaica TABLE SAUC1 jtershire Sauce. 2 Curry powder . etc.. \ lic. f ounce garlic. mustard powder. 1 ounce powdered cloves. or until it ginger. I.. ounce cinnamon. to make 1 gallon. and burnt sugar..

onions. The flavors. marjoram. and Brassica The first yields the "white" juncea. is of a mild. of 1 per cent. of 1 per cent. etc. The brown cake is made with black mustard. tarragon. II. This dough immediately becomes spongy. The mustard flour is prepared by first decorticating the seed. technically called "cake. 5 ounces distilled water. complete the mixture. etc. is derived from three varieBrassica Brassica (Cruciferoe) Brassica nigra. amount MUSTARD : The Prepared Mustards of Commerce. and contains about the following proportions: cf flour used depends on the pungency of the mustard flower. cloves. by the addition of wheat or rye flour. mustards. much employed by Russians. The mustard. Cut up ginger and pound chili pods. Add 4 ounces of brown cake and 8 ounces of yellow cake and mix well. salt. in fact. shallots. refined. which also has the advantage of serving as a binder of the sharpness mustard. which produces a mild mustard. then grinding to a fine powder. mint. 1J ounces powdered coriander seeds. on a water bath. however. wheat or rye flour. the second the "black" seed. Mustard Cakes. 1J pounds mustard seed. Mix and pass through a sieve. small Jamaica ginger. the exof the fixed oil from which pression This oil. as in every other kind of manufacture. from 1 to 3 per cent. pleasant taste. from 20 to 30 per cent. yielding the more pungent powder. Dissolve in the boiling liquid 5 pounds of sugar. or some other noted brand of olive oil. i. it is said. from 10 to 15 per cent. In preparing the mustards on a large scale. and of a greenish color. e. and the latter a very pungent and oily musThe tard. digest in mixture 14 days. then filter. thyme. and in this condition. that it is impossible to give exact proIn the manufacture of table portions. dels It is also extensively used for illuminating purposes. pimento. cent. Reduce 30 Kirschner Wine Mustard. 2 A pounds black peppercorns. ished product. but it may be made stronger if desired hot.. chervil. from 20 to 30 per 1 to 3 per cent. wine. spices. or peanut oil being thus converted into huile merge de Lucca. ^ ounce to each pint of boiling vin- fermented grape juice). and mix all the other ingredients intimately. from I to from is The pungency completely. wheat flour. Bruise all the spices and having mixed spirit and water. from J to from 8 to 12 per cent. 1J ounces powdered caraway seeds. The variations are so wide. excellence is attained only by practice and the exercise of sound judgment and taste by the manufacturer. 20 grains cayenne pepper. the mustard flower and wheat or rye flour are mixed and ground to a smooth paste with vinegar. or wine. pungency of the condiment is also affected by the method of preparing the paste. shaking frequently. must. in the cold processes. the flower or powdered seed. especially in south- ern Russia. used in preparing the different condiments. In the mixture. etc. leeks. parsley. i ounce powdered Let all be dry and in fine powallspice. Two and one-half ounces black peppercorns. and the flavor desired to be imparted to the fin- Black mustard. cottonseed. by boiling over a moderate fire. such as Ten pounds Pickling Spice. and pour the syrup through a colander containing 2 or 3 large horse-radishes cut . f ounce nutmeg. A general formula for the yellow cake is: Yellow mustard. l pounds white peppercorns. the bark.CONDIMENTS ounces powdered nutmegs. f pound long pepper. Vinegar. 15 ounces spirit of wine. 1J pounds allspice. makes it valuable in the sophistication and imitation of "olive" oils. sage. J ounce caraway seeds. must (un- One ounce egar is sufficient. finally garlic. excessive heat destroying the ties of alba L. long pepper into small pieces. mustard other than that of the of the various prepara- tions are imparted by the judicious use of spices cinnamon. | ounce cloves. Twelve sarand 280 capers are crushed into a paste and stirred into 3 pints of boiling wine vinegar. seed of commerce. and chives. Moutarde des Jesuittes. The cakes are broadly divided into the yellow and the brown. itself. Essence of Savory Spices. nutmeg. or whatever is used in the preparation. aromatic herbs. spices. \ ounce cinnamon commerce. 1 ounce pimento." is used as the basis of the various mustards of mace. 1 ounce powdered Jamaica ginger. quarts of freshly expressed grape juice to half that quantity... a mill similar to a drug or paint mill being used for the purpose. the volatile. further controlled and tempered. salt. der. which. Florence. unlike completes the process.

Sweet. brown. 40 pounds 1 pound Tarragon herb Laurel leaves White pepper Cloves Basil. aside for a week or ten days. Vinegar Tarragon vinegar. Sharp..wine vinegar. it is to be added according to the taste or discretion of the manufacturer. Brown mustard cake. adding a little of the spiced vinegar from time to time. fresh. Parsley Chervil Krems Mustard. Strain the liquid through a cloth and add the salt. . Laurel leaves 8 5 Cinnamon Cardamom . seeds. Sour. Sugar. 384 parts. Finally strain.. ... then strain Ravigotte Mustard.. 5 ounces of pimento. after the general directions given German Table Mustard. . and grind together. Yellow mustard flour. Brown mustard flour. This is prepared by adding to every 100 pounds of the above 21 ounces of white pepper.. chopped Lemon 6 parts 6 parts 3 parts chopped peel. Rub up mustard with the olive oil in a vessel set in ice. Tarragon. 10 pounds Mustard flour. White wine Mustard crushed or 10 days in a off. then strain through muslin. boil down to a paste and then Chives Cloves Garlic 2 parts 2 parts 2 parts Thyme Tarragon Salt 8 parts of wine vinegar. yellow. To the colate add the following. Tarragon Mustard. chopped fine. 10 parts 8 parts juice. and 2 J ounces of cloves. gofod white .. Mix above. 30 Yellow mustard parts Grape Mix and stir in flour.. Krems Mustard. Tarragon Mustard.. . Celery.. 5 ounces 12 drachms 3 ounces Mace 12 drachms 2 drachms 1 gallon Vinegar Mix the herbs and macerate them in the vinegar to exhaustion.. fine . Duesseldorff Mustard. Mix and boil down to the proper consistency. fresh.CONDIMENTS and laid on a coarse towel spread over the bottom and sides of the colander. Grind all together to a perfectly smooth paste. 575 parts 515 parts seed. 48 ounces 96 ounces Boiling water 64 ounces Wine vinegar 5 drachms Cinnamon 15 drachms Cloves 64 ounces Sugar Wine. . Mix above. all in a state of fine powder: into very thin slices 215 in a mill. In all the foregoing formulas where the amount of salt is not specified. part part part 1 part 8 parts 4 parts 128 parts 1 1 1 Mustard flower. % after general directions as given White-wine vinegar. Boil the mustard in the 40 parts 20 parts 6 parts 6 parts Olive oil White. then put in a warm spot and let stand for 10 days or 2 weeks.. Wine vinegar Brown cake Yellow cake 2 64 96 10 48 ounces drachms drachms ounces ounces ounces ounces Mustard Vinegar. Yellow mustard cake. 2^ drachms 2 1 drachms Cinnamon Brown mustard Ginger cake. mixing thoroughly by grinding together Cardamom seeds Nutmeg Cloves . coarsely 32 parts 6 parts powfine dered Onions. and strain several times through muslin... Mustard flour. 64 ounces 44 drachms 1 ounce 1 ounce 6 pounds 9 pounds Moutarde aux Epices. 10 ounces Yellow mustard cake. Cut or bruise the plants and spices. the fresh herb Cloves. then add to Set the mustards. sufficient. and macerate them in the vinegar for 15 or 20 days. 10 pounds Yellow cake Brown cake 20 pounds 6 pints Fresh grape juice .. Brown mustard flour.. Mix and macerate warm 100 parts together for a week place. until the whole is incorporated and the complete mixture makes vinegar and add the tarragon vinegar.

Set off the fire. and dried in the drying room. To make such a mass into tablets. Experiment as to the sufficiency of the boiling in making candy may be saved and greater certainty of a good result secured by the use of a chemical thermometer. form into a round mass on the slab and spin out long. stirring well so as to avoid the risk of burning the sugar. Add cream to the mixture. "hard ball". sugar and 5 pounds of glucose in a copper pan. cut in small pieces. and when it starts to boil add 5 pounds of ground Stir and cook to 240 on the therfigs. and pour 3 gallons of boiling water over Now set the pan with it. the sugar is then in a condition to yield the "thread" form. and add 2 pounds melted chocolate liquor for the chocolate caramel when nearly cooked. Place 5 pounds of Fig Squares. until the candy is firm. as neatly as posthe thickness of. say." By simply suspending the thermometer in the liquid and observing it from time to time. also. Confectionery Stir into for Hoarseness. and at 290. heat to boiling. of orange flavor. and let it steam for 1 hours. Heat 10 pounds sugar and 8 pounds glucose in a copper kettle until dissolved. twice that of the back of a table knife and let it sible. CONDITION POWDERS FOR CATTLE: See Veterinary Formulas. thin sticks. To make the candy itself. at 245. at 240 "soft ball" is formed. mix well and pour out on greased marble. previously blanched. turning the edges back if inclined to run. Cook to a rather stiff ball. a pint of water into a suitable pan or kettle. mix well. when cool For the white enough. ones flavor with vanilla. To make "drops" a suitable harden. and let the gum settle for nearly an hour. When has cooled enough to be handled. stir it up well. roll smooth. Put in a pan and cook. and cut like caramels. set the pan on the kettle with the hot water. and then scoring with a knife so that it can easily be broken into pieces when cold. until 2 Quarts are used. until it becomes brown and viscid. It is compar- the stove and cover the fire with ashes. Gum Drops. it Nut Candy Sticks. "crack". with water enough to dissolve end the boiling. with continuous stirring. say. Cook 19 pounds of sugar with sufficient water. but to put the material into "drop" form CONDIMENTS. Continue boiling the syrup so formed until a little of it poured on a cold slab forms a mass of the If the candy is to be required hardness. CONDUCTIVITY OF ALUMINUM ALLOYS: See Alloys. at intervals. m Set on the fire. flavor and run out with the fun- . add nuts.216 CONDIMENTS CONFECTIONERY TERATED: atively easy to make a hard candy. the sugar. it gets completely hard lines with a knife across the surface in such manner that when it is quite hard it will break along them. 2 pounds of glucose. Cook to 320 F. easily. it is necessary only to pour out on a wellgreased slab.. Add 2J pounds caramel butter and 12 ounces paraffine wax to the mixture. then strain it through a No. a little fresh oil of orange is added just before the mass is ready to set and the taste is improved according to the general view at least by adding. then open the door of Candy Orange Drops. 500 parts of cream 500 parts of white sugar. taking care that the water in the kettle does not run dry. to and smooth Before apparently requires experience and a machine. As the syrup is boiled and the water evaporates the temperature of the When it reaches 220 F. into bits the size of a lozenge. and add gradually to it 2 pounds or more of sugar. Pour out on an oiled slab and add 5 pounds almonds. pour out between iron bars and. 2 drachms of citric acid dissolved in a very little water. 8 pounds best sugar in 2 pints water. cut into strips. one may know exactly when to liquid rises. TESTS FOR ADULSee Foods. at 252. Grind 25 pounds of Arabian or Senegal gum. the gum into another pan containing boiling water Caramels. draw nuts thoroughly with the sugar. place it in a copper pan or in a steam jacket kettle. "hard crack. then remove the scum which has settled on top. pour it over the gum. Mix up well together to incorporate the mold is necessary. 40 sieve. with 4 pounds glucose added. As a coloring an infusion of safflower or tincture of turmeric is used. mometer. say. Now put in a bak- Cream Bonbons ing tin out. and a teaspoonful of cream of tartar to a stiff ball. put. and stir the gum slowly until dissolved. and then add 5 pounds of fine cocoanuts.

1 ounce 2^ ounces 2| ounces . and when cool enough to handle mold in the acid and flavoring. utes. slab. it may be cut. 4 with sugar. Violet flaViolet Flavor for Candy. pull. add gradually the sugar and glucose. Gelatin Glycerine (by weight) Orange-flower water. and enough water to easily disSet on the fire or cook solve the sugar. but when sufficiently cool pass the batch through the acid tablet rollers and dust Proceed pounds of sugar. pick on trays sale. and does not stick to the the hand. cayenne. and color if you wish. add 20 pounds of the counter. Tartaric acid . cut. Put the pan containing the syrup on the fire. into a very stiff froth. clove. 14 pounds 1^ ounces | Cream Water of tartar ounce quarts 2 Anise-seed. off the fire and rub portions of the sugar against the side until it produces a creamy appearance. Pour the water on the leaves and let it gently simmer till reduced to 3 pints. into 10 dozen pastilles. Menthol Rectified spirits 5 1 grains out on a sugar-dusted table. slab. Pass it through the acid drop rollers. and before and place the rub some icing with them. then take the drops out of the starch. in the steam pan in 2 quarts of water. them apart. Chewing Candy. when well beaten up. until dry. and when cool enough. one Cook sugar and water or two layers. and pour into square ing. Remove the lid and let the sugar boil up to crack Turn out the batch on an oiled degree. and place when they are ready for Taffy. and when at a sharp boil add the cream of Put the lid on the pan for 5 mintartar. then remove it. then drain the syrup off. Horehound Candy. clean them off well and place them in crystal pans. trays in the drying room for 2 days. and add the liquid to the sugar. and put in When cold trays dusted with fine sugar. Pull until light. . 10 Dried horehound leaves 2 pounds ounces ounce Cream Water of tartar This taffy keeps long without being grained by the heat. and add 1 \ ounces of glycerine. and 1J pints of water. and when at a sharp boil add the cream of tartar. to 34 J on the syrup gauge and pour over Let stand in a the drops lukewarm. flavor. Place 20 pounds of sugar in a copper pan. A Good Summer kettle Place in a drops of each. Montpelier Cough Drops. and cut oblong. or else it drachm Soak the gelatin in the water for 2 will run and get sticky. when it boils drop in a piece of butter half the size of an egg and about 2 ounces of Cook to 262.CONFECTIONERY dropper into the starch impressions. then spin out on the table in strips about 3 inches wide and cut into 4. as before prescribed. glucose. and wrapped in wax paper. Melt the sugar in the water. sifting. Cover the pan for 5 minutes.or 4^-inch Then wrap in wax paper for lengths. Menthol pastilles are said to be an excellent remedy for tickling cough as well as laryngitis. 3 pounds of glucose. then heat on a water bath until dissolved. Dissolve the menthol in the spirit. or else it may be stretched 2 quarts Anise-seed flavoring. quantity sufficient. pour on a paraffine wax. the patient may take half of one. They should be so that freshly prepared. add to the glyco-gelatin mass. a few clean table. and peppermint flavoring. flavor with vanilla. are very comimitation is a plex mixtures. tin frames. 10 Brown sugar 2 Tartaric acid pounds ounces ounce Cream of tartar Water I| quarts Anise-seed flavoring. then strain the infusion through muslin. like violet perfumes. Dutch crushed sugar. and when hours. and beat at very little heat either in the steam beater or on a pan of boiling water until back of light. This chewing candy has to be kept in a very dry place. or less. and about an hour afterwards knock the gum drops out on a nel the drops are chipped up. mix with the remainder of the glycerine. Light-brown sugar. add 5 pounds of powdered sugar. as may be necessary. Menthol Cough Drops. and their . or until dry. Have a pound of egg albumen soaked in Beat this like eggs 2 quarts of water. and pour into an oiled tin tray (such as the lid of a bisWhen the mass is cold divide cuit box). Medicated Cough Drops. previously well oiled. quantity sufficient. then add the flavorStir all well. vors. moderately warm place over night. and let the sugar Take the pan boil to stiff boil degree.

place on a water bath. powerIt may usually ful. little by little. The following are excellent Potato flour Bluish Rose. An may The aniline colors made by the "Akfur Anilin . are absolutely non-toxic. is 5 parts the colors marked with an asterisk (*) add.* and Grenadine. Colors given in form of powders should be dissolved in hot water for use. entirely harmless coloring agents for the purposes named: White dextrine Potato flour Yellowish Rose. adding the water last. with perfect confidence in their innocuity. the coloration of syrups. ethereal tincture of orlean. under constant trituration. 65 parts 30 parts 5 parts Red. dilute with water until the requisite tint Mix. White dextrine Potato flour 65 parts 30 parts 5 parts Carmine Green. and heat to dryness. quan- Orange. CONFECTIONERY COLORS. a grain and a half each of potassium iodide and sodium nitrate. Woodruff (Waldmeister) green 55 parts 5 parts Rosa II Dextrine Potato flour 35 parts Carmine Liquor potassae Rose water. Yellow.218 correspondingly difficult CONFECTIONERY undertaking. candies. also Indigo carmine Water Mix. Set aside over night. and orris. in coarse parts 5 parts 5 parts powder Alcohol 6 parts 30 parts Potassium carbonate 2 parts Distilled water 15 parts 12 parts Violet Red violet Simple syrup enough to make 500 parts Rub up the potassium carbonate and the cochineal together. or turmeric. follows: Cochineal syrup prepared as Rosa II Citron yellow White dextrine Potato flour 60. adding the water and alcohol. Blue. and harmless agent. quality White dextrine 7 parts first 1 part 2 parts . Add the tincture of orlean to the sandalwood tincture until the desired shade of orange is obtained. with a very little of some punThe folgent oil to bring up the flavor. i. part. etc.. enough to part 6 parts 1 make 48 parts Should the color be too high. vanilla (or vanillin). lowing will give a basis upon which a satisfactory flavor may be built: is The Sap -Blue Paste. for every 4 pounds. Various shades of yellow be obtained by the maceration of Besiello saffron.Fabrikatiengesellschaft tion. When entirely dry put Citron yellow II Grape sugar. Pastille Yellow. A red added to any of the yellows gives color. an orange gives aqueous solution of quercitrine an excellent yellow. be bought commercially. rose. Tincture of red sandal wood. 1 part 2 parts Indigo carmine is a beautiful. or grains d'Avignon in alcohol until a strong tincture is obtained. cakes. basis Dark blue Grape sugar Water Sugar-Black Paste. To acquired. 1 tity sufficient. Pink. Dilute with water until the desired shade is obtained. but if it cannot be readily obtained. Cochineal.. and can be used for the purposes recommended. e.. then add the syrup and liltei.* Scarlet White dextrine Cumarin Oil of clove Alcohol 30 grains 30 minims 11 ounces 5 ounces 65 parts Water 30 parts 5 parts Make a solution. 3 parts 1 part 6 parts 3 parts 1 part 6 parts Oil of orris Oil of rose Vanillin drachm 1 drachm 2 drachms 1 Carbon black Grape sugar Water Cinnabar Red. 4i ounces." of Berlin. proceed as follows: Into a capsule put 30 grains of indigo in powder.

Refined sugar. narrow. obtained to a tall. adding the carbonate a little at a time. Filter. This is not because the lower grades. a few drops at a time. important. thus giving brittle copper tube with a copper wire snugly fitted into it. Even the ordinary heating in a muffle this Voice and Throat Lozenges. drop by drop. and at the end of the time named cautiously neutralize the liquid. rolled. while the interior is damaged the exterior to split terior when bent or the appearance of a less. COOLING SCREEN: See Refrigeration. 120 grains. by weight. mercial chlorophyll gives grass-green. as the least excess of alkali will cause the indigo to separate out. of copper are less liable to be harmed by overheating than samples containing even a small amount of impurities. or is left in the muffle at the ordinary temperature of annealing too long. add 3 fluidounces of distilled water. tion is to oxidize and either volatilize or turn to slag all the impurities contained This procedure is main the copper. since it is performed by the aid of gases generated by stirring the melted copper with a pole. rendering them unfit for further working. stirring continuously during the Cover the swollen mass closeaddition. but because methods of working are not adequate to prevent these grades of copper from experiencing the deterioration due of lozenges. Copper that has been burnt is yellow. terially aided by the fact that the sub- . P. with the addition of indigo-carmine solution. it is burnt. treatment hence the necessity for a large. It is apparent that copper that has been thus overheated in the muffle is entirely unfit for It is found that the purer forms rolling. Copper is almost universally annealed in muffles. of sulphuric acid. Green. COOKING TABLE: See Tables. loose This causes from the in- carmine" of commerce. glass cylinder or beaker.. grains grains grains minims ounces Mucilage of acacia. It is necessary to watch the copper carefully. all due to exterior burning. stirring the indigo solution and testing it after each addition. also A solution of comgives a fine green. Stop when the test shows the near approach of neutrality. or comparatively large. a reducing action which. 191 Catechu Tannic acid 273 273 Tartaric acid 30 Capsicin 7 Black-currant paste. rubbing or stirring Transfer the liquid thus continuously. and evaporate in the water bath to dryness. as the slight remaining acidity will not affect the taste or the properties of the liquid. as the workmen say. of each a sufficient will often suffice to burn in this manner the surface of some specimens of copper. The resultant matter is sulphindigotate ftf potassium. and fall in a doughy mass. Mix to produce 7 pounds to overheating. and subsequently allowed to cool either in the air or in A muffle is nothing more or less water. more brittle at a red heat than when cold. Cracks a half inch in depth have been observed on the surface of an ingot on its first pass through the rolls. when refined. Tincture of indigo may also be used as a harmless blue. so that when it has reached the right temperature it may be drawn from the This is muffle and allowed to cool. Copper that has been thus ruined is of use only to be refined again. is The object of the oxidacalled poling. quent giving the liquid an occasional stirring.CONFECTIONERY COPPER into a large porcelain mortar (the substance swells enormously under subse- 219 Copper Annealing Copper. mortar) and cautiously add. in shades varying according to the concentration of the solution. for if the copper is heated too high. than a reverberatory f urnr ce. quantity. Now ly. The addition of the solution indigo carmine to an infusion of any of the matters given under "yellow" will produce a green color. in which it is raised to the desired temperature. C. Tincture of crocus and glycerine in equal parts. coarsely and brittle even exceedingly granular. and set aside for 24 hours. cannot stand sufficiently high tests. or the "indigo In the case of coarse wire it is found that only the surface is burnt. process of refining copper consists in an oxidizing action followed by The CONSTIPATION IN BIRDS: See Veterinary Formulas. cover and let stand for 4 days. As may be inferred only the highest grades of refined copper are used for drawing or for rolling. Make a strong solution of sodium carbonate or bicarbonate.

and is fibrous like a tuft of silk. The object of the reducing part of the refining process is to change the excess of the suboxide of copper to metallic gen is left copper. Burnt copper is nothing more or less than copper in the overpoled condition. At tough pitch copper offers the highest degree of malleability and ductility of which a given specimen is capable. This is brought about by the action of reducing gases in the muffle. but that this is not the essential ruling principle in case of annealing is shown by the fact that pure copper does not undergo this change under conditions that ruin impure copper. That the addition of oxygen to refined copper is not so damaging is shown by the fact that at present nearly all the copper that is worked is considerably oxidized at some stage of the process.2 per cent and cause it to become exceedingly It is simply claimed that this is brittle. hammering a piece to a thin plate it should show no cracks at the edge. and more red-short than coldshort. This is the condition in which refined copper is (or should be) placed on the market. the of pitch. fortunately. Obviously the only way of accomplishing this is to inclose the mere trace of impurities. There are methods of avoiding the numerous accidents that may occur in the annealing of copper.2 per cent expresses the amount of oxygen necessary to renThe removal der the impurities inert. any specimen of copper that could be brought to this condition would be suitable for But tough pitch is rolling or drawing. after it is broken. but when its oxy- of copper is freely soluble in metallic copper and thus penetrates to all parts of the copper. ter appreciated when it is considered that from 0." and is in a fit state to be worked. of a shining yellow color. and thus For example. If the copper to be refined contains any impurities. This is shown by the absolutely worthless condition of overpoled copper. the color is pale red.01 to 0. and one that is corresponds almost exactly in its properTo be sure ties with overpoled copper. one which is exceedingly cheap and universally copper when heated and till cool in an atmosphere that can neither oxidize nor deoxidize copper.220 oxide COPPER with impurities in the copper. of this very small amount of oxygen. " " Copper is said to be tough pitch when it requires frequent bending to break it. due to a change As already pointed out. probably not what occurs in the production of so-called burnt copper during annealing. such as arsenic or antimony. and also by the fact that the same state may be produced by annealing in pure hydrogen and thus removing the oxygen that renders the arsenic or antimony inert. which is often so small as to be almost within the limits of the errors of analysis. In this condition it is brittle. oxidizes the impurities. By so doing copper may be heated to the melting point and allowed to cool again without suffering . It is quite apparent. oxide of arsenic or antimony is incapable of combining more than mechanically with the copper. that a really good method of annealing copper will prevent any change in the state It is necessary to prevent of oxidation. and parting with its oxygen. and neither too much nor too little oxygen is present. access to the heated copper both of atmospheric air. and of the reducing gases used in heating the muffle. and is both cold-short and redshort. overpoled copper is produced. The addition of carbon also plays a very important part in the production of overpoled copper. paratively few gases that can be used for this purpose. the fracture has a silky lusOn ter. therefore. The amount of impurities capable of rendering copper easily burnt This may be betis exceedingly small. which would oxidize it. If this is done. When the refining has been properly done. quality of refined copper is lowered if oxygen be either added to or taken from it. and when. but. the renders them inert. By this means the small amount of oxygen necessary to give the copper its tough pitch is removed. This oxygen is combined There are comas regards its pitch. granular. which would take oxygen away from it. Copper containing even less than 1 per cent of the suboxide of copper shows decreased malleability and ductility. and if it could be worked without changing this tough pitch. By far the more important of these is the removal of oxygen. overpoled copper is supposed to contain carbon. especially from those specimens that contain more than a removed the arsenic or antimony free to combine with the copper. and not especially to its detriment. No attempt is made to deny the wellknown fact that carbon does combine with copper to the extent of 0. it is well not to remove too much of the oxygen in the refining process. This forms a brittle alloy. the copper is in " the condition of tough pitch. changed if oxygen is either added or taken from refined copper. will suffice to render copper overpoled and ruin it for any use.

A fine red color may be given to copper by gradually heating it in an air bath. Water. calcined soot. or condition a product that has hitherto been obtained only by processes (mostly secret) which are too cumbersome and too expensive for extensive use. Preparations of Copper Water. essence of turpentine. sulphate of alumina. As these bleaching baths attack the copper quickly. 30 parts. alcohol. Such a process antimony chloride and rubbing it afterwards with a piece of wood covered with cotton. may COPPER COLORING: Blacking Copper. In order to apply the principles enunciated it is necessary only to anneal copper in the ordinary annealing pots such as are used for iron. 30 parts. . emery paper. bran. steam. Red Coloring of Copper. often in only a small section of the wire. parts. with no detri- soon as the desired color is attained the metal should be rapidly cooled by quenching in water. kitchen salt. The expense and time of cleaning are wholly saved. III. 100 parts. the objects must be left in only for a few seconds. copper Objects made of be satisfactorily tempered by subjecting them to a certain degree of heat for a determined period of time and bestrewing them with powdered While hot sulphur during the heating. copper that has hitherto been worked only at a great disadvantage. when dipped for a few seconds into a solution some of crystallized copper acetate. 1. 1. Take nitric acid. and drying in sawdust. 10 parts. COPPER IN FOOD: See Food. or rapid heating at a high temAs perature. with the danger of producing the overpoled condition. To Dye Copper Parts Violet and OrPolished copper acquires an ange. During this operation the copper must be heated to a degree bearable to the hand. There is no chance of producing the underpoled condition due to the absorption of suboxide of copper. sulphuric acid. COPPER CLEANING: See Cleaning Preparations and Methods. washing them afterwards in plenty of water. heat gently in a Bunsen or spirit flame.COPPER prevalent fulfills all requirements. I. COPPER ETCHING: See Etching. 300 parts. 10 parts. 40 parts. or spent tan. or nitric acid.000 parts. water. The metal thus colored may be varnished. size. 50 of annealing copper offers many advanIt allows the use of a grade of tages. There is no chance of producing the overpoled condition from the action of reducing gases used in heating the muffles. II. 100 parts. clean it with a COPPER ALLOYS: See Alloys. This will effectually exclude air and prevent the ingress of gases used in heating the annealer. 80 parts. handviolet is obtained by placing the metal for a few minutes in a solution of A ment to the wire. and. 50 parts. the objects are plunged into a bath of blue vitriol. after the bath they may be heated again. orange-like color leaning to gold. To give a copper article a black covering. essence of turpentine. A crystalline appearance is produced by boiling the article in copper sulphate. This may seem into those manufacturers who have tried to anneal copper wire after the manner of annealing iron wire. spirit of wine. and heat again. 2 parts. None of the metal is lost as scale. Pickle for Copper. Incidentally bright annealed copper is produced by a process which is applicable to copper of any shape. 520 parts. as in the annealing of iron wire. care being taken to inclose the copper while heating and while cooling in an atmosphere of steam. owing to its tendency to get out of pitch. produces the same result. Water.. viz. but thus ruining the whole piece. fine tripoli. COPPER LACQUERS: See Lacquers. It allows the use of annealers such as are ordinarily employed for annealing iron. Sulphuric acid. oxalic acid. 100 parts. hydrochloric acid. 50 parts. immerse for 10 seconds in solution of copper filings in dilute nitric acid. Tempered Copper. oxalic acid. as is the case with at least one process. and the saving that is thus effected amounts to a considerable percentage of the total value of the copper. Prolonged heating at a comparatively low temperature. 1 part. and thus cheapens the annealing considerably as compared with the present use of muffles. Twenty-four hours may be used in the process.000 parts. By this method perfectly bright annealed credible wire may be produced. 2 parts. fine tripoli.

the paper may be held up to the light and examined from the back. or pictures with The length of time since a impressions. and keeps its point much longer than a graphite its is pencil. and prints 8 The able compound. The im- See Gold. in fact. Other kinds of paper. best copies can be obtained by following the directions below: Lay the metallic transfer paper. If and many of the results are worthless. and rubbing on the back of the fresh sheet just as COPPER. Copying Process on Wood. seem to recommend them for transfer purposes. almost all give streaked. COPPER SOLDER: See Solders.222 COPPER COPYING PRINTED PICTURES viewed by means of its COPPER PAPER: See Paper. be seen. they retain their original shade and are set off clearly and the sharply against the parts browned by Based on this property of the sunlight. This paper can be used as a transfer paper for copying engravings or sketches. indis- plates. COPPER VARNISHES: See Varnishes. usually zinc oxide mixed with a little starch and enough glue to make it adhere. and lay the print face down upon it. making them less likely to become soiled by contact with metallic objects. paper of firmer texture could be prepared with the same surface finish. for it is easy to read backward what few letters generally occur. if sufficiently important. a browning of dark tone in the exposed places. notably the heavy plate papers used for some of the best trade catalogues. On the back of the print place a sheet of heavy paper. without any halftones. copper. When used on the indicator it receives the faint line drawn by a brass point at one end of the pencil arm. and pression thus produced will be fainter than the first. or any of the softer metals. reflected image. Fairly good transfers can be made from almost any common printers' ink. if desired. aluminum. wood surfaces are exposed to direct sunlight the wood will exhibit. picture was printed does not seem to determine its copying quality. After drying it is passed between calendar rolls under great The various brands manupressure. . an exact counterpart of the original may be taken from the reversed copy by laying another sheet face downward upon it. though they will not receive marks from a meThe latter feature would tallic pencil. or thin cardboard. face up. Some very old prints can be copied better than new ones. If the question of right and left is not important this reversal will seldom be objectionable. when will : the true relations of right and left COPPER PATINIZING AND PLATING See Plating. COPPER POLISHES: See Polishes. upon at least a dozen sheets of blank paper. and run the rubbing tool over this protecting sheet. chemically prepared so that black lines can be drawn upon it with pencils made of brass. factured for the trade. Metallic. Very few half-tones can be transferred satisfactorily. are If not equally well suited for copying. probably much larger copies could be produced. but so far no kind has been found which will remove enough ink to give copies anywhere near as dark as the indicator paper. Certain parts of the surface being covered up during the entire exposure to the sun. silver. so-called "metallic" paper used for steam-engine indicator cards has a smooth surface. give the best copies. it was by accidental transfer to an indicator card from a book nearly a hundred years old that the peculiar property of this "metallic" paper was discovered. after 2 weeks action. or placed before a mirror and tinct copies. or anything printed or written in ink or drawn in pencil. In this manner it is comparatively easy to prevent slipping. The transfer taken off as described is a reverse of the original print. COPYING PRINTED PICTURES. possess this transfer property to a slight degree. but some inks copy much better than others. but almost always it can be made dark enough to show a distinct outline which may afterwards be retouched with a lead pencil. For indicator cards the paper is prepared by coating one surface with a suit- The special advantage over ordinary paper that the metallic pencil slides over its surface with very little friction. SEPARATION FROM: OF GOLD was done in making the reversed copy. However. though perhaps equally good for indicator diagrams. Line drawings printed from sharp contrast of black and white. and some yield only the faintest or 10 inches on a side may be copied relief satisfactorily. Moreover.

reverse water. shade has appeared the design obtained is partly fixed by polishing or by a coating of varnish. CORKS : Impervious Corks. the following process may succeed: Make a thin solution of glucose. before attempting to separate the papers. Manuscripts. The subsequent polishing. in contact with water. Remove careand place on a heavy sheet of blotting paper. as above). Next. After that it is dried well. CORDAGE LUBRICANT: See Lubricants. or cotton. expose to the fumes of strong water of ammonia. and smoothed out. Best suited for such works are the pine woods. The print is now ready for ink- following recipe for the preservation of fishing nets is also applicable to ropes. etc. thickness of paper.COPYING PROCESSES wood is a sun-copying process on wood. The design is sharper and clearer than that produced by painting. what longer than in copying recent docu- downward. that stands out boldly. How to Reproduce Old Prints. alcohol. neither do they become fixed by a blow or long disuse. with a roller and printers' or is which CORDAGE WATERPROOFING: See Waterproofing. . The method is used for producing tarsia in imitation on wood. which was almost universally an iron and tannin or If written in the To Copy Old stretcher is employed. or paper is laid on a freshly planed plate of wood. and wash thoroughly in a gentle stream of running If the paper is heavy. cover up well. Prepare a bath as follows: Sulphuric acid. lithographers' ink. etc. cut with oil of turSuitable paper is then laid on pentine. been subjected to long test. show a yellowish brown tone of handsome golden gloss. the sides.. in water. part of potassium chromate. still face of the print. pierced stencil of tin. stronger even than the so-called Zuckerschnur. and with this wet the paper in the usually observed way in copying recent documents in the letter book. especially the 5-year fir and the cembra pine. When carefully done and the right kind of paper used. etc. and put into a common copying frame. remove. and cannot be replaced by any staifi or by pyrography. done exactly as in lithoing. it is said that the imitation of the original is perfect in CORDIALS: See Wines and Liquors. 3 to 5 parts. and coated with linseed oil. spread out in a clean Not place. The kutch is boiled with 150 parts of water until dissolved. 3 to 5 parts (according to the antiquity of print. cover with another. With a very soft sponge go over the surface with a thin coating of gum-arabic water. and screw down Let it remain in the press sometightly. wood. and the cordage must boil 5 to 8 minutes. and let the water flow over fully Where a wringing machine is convenient and sufficiently wide. Strong In short.. and rolled with a dry roller. the The upward on a heavy swers equally well). whereupon expose to the sun for After the brown from 8 to 14 days. To prevent the CORKS A Letters. and 2i parts of wood tar are required. the total effect is pleasing. and as many prints as desired pulled off in the usual lithographing method. CORDAGE: See also Ropes. 100 parts. In this soak the print from 5 to 15 minutes (the time depending on age. Preservation of Fishing Nets. pasting it on in places to avoid shifting. lacquer. or honey. and then the blue vitriol is added. graphing. is then laid face glass plate (a marble slab or a lithographers' stone anprint. every detail. which is then applied to a zinc plate or a lithographers' stone. For 40 parts of cord. copy side gallic-acid ink." may be obtained by laying the thread of fibers in a strong solution of alum. Some have etc. or wax. especially after wood from warping a ments. 1 part of blue vitriol. The whole should be stirred well. Now take out the netting. put in the press. commercial ink of the period from 1860 to 1864. before 6 hours have elapsed should it be folded together and put into the water. which. and then carefully drying them. passing the blotters and print through the rollers is better than mere pressing with the hands. The treatment with linseed oil may be omitted. spread face downward on a glass or ebonite plate. 3 parts of kutch. after the exposure.). This gives a reverse image of the print. water. the net is entered and the tar added. lay it in another vessel. and leave alone for 12 hours. When removed. Twine. Corks which have been steeped in petrolatum are said to be an excellent substitute for glass stoppers. An extraordinarily strong pack thread" or cord. moist. and press out every drop of water possible. Acid in no way affects them and chemical fumes do not cause decay in them. hemp.

. by weight. parts. As a last opera- tion the formic aldehyde is introduced. part. and the liquid made up to the required amount. under Pastes. 1 ounce. salicylic acid. cocaine. by weight. collodion elasticum. Non-Porous Corks. by measure. Soften the extract with the alcohol. 2 parts. 24 parts. by weight. The extract is dissolved in the alcohol and the acid in about 50 parts. it is aspirated. and water. by measure. off with it. If the bunion is due to flatfoot. by weight. 2 parts. Treatment of Bunions. 3 parts. Cheap corks can in this Compound Salicylated Collodion Corn Cure. U. 1 part. The formic aldehyde renders the product insoluble in nearly all liquids. acetic acid. and morning in a 4 per cent solution of carbolic acid for a few minutes. alcohol. collodion enough to make 10 ounces. 1 part. by weight. the solutions mixed. lanolin. sufficient to make 100 . a "sufficient quantity to make 100 parts. CORK TO METAL. of collodion. by weight. salicylic acid. Wood pulp or Substitute for Cork. by measure. flexible collodion. The Indian hemp is presum- grating the ligneous substances. 10 parts. turpentine. by weight. and frequently the whole of the corn. hold them down with a piece of wire screen cut to fit the dish in which you melt the paraffine. the pumice stone being dipped into the solution by the CORKS. way be made gas- and air-tight. portions in which these constituents combine with the best results are the following: Wood pulp. but the proAfter disinteportions may be varied. Resorcin. 20 per cent formicaldehyde solution. CORKS. Yellow wax. oil of turpentine. immerse the corks in hot melted paraffine. water. and the mass is left to coagulate in this solution. TO CLEAN: See Cleaning Preparations and Methods. The corn will readily come off. elastic. by weight. The mass is stirred thoroughly so as to obtain a homogeneous mixture. cannabis indica. whether it serves this or any other useful purpose seems a matter of doubt. by weight. the arch of the foot must be restored by a plate. after several weeks. bringing the indurated portion. in a vapor bath. 2 parts. 10 parts. under Miscellaneous Methods. 3 parts. IV. The excess of moisture is removed. ation is terminated the substance is submitted to pressure during its coagulation. by weight. For benzine. P. 1 part. Corn Cure. Keep them under about 5 minutes. glycerine. or into a mass which is afterwards converted into the finished product. II. balsam of Peru. alkaloidal. When the joints are enlarged because of gout or rheuma- . and varnish cans. and lastly the acid. salicylic acid. by weight. ceding one. 1 part. So it is in this last operation that it is necessary to be careful in producing the ably intended to prevent pain. 90 grains. Whan taken out lay them on a screen till cool. Paint the corn daily for 5 or 6 days with the above solution and take a foot bath in very hot water. III. The liquid used by chiropodists with pumice stone for the removal of corns and callosities is usually nothing more than a solution of potassa Removal or concentrated lye. 1 part. followed by plain water. the mass drops off. and stir finely ground salicylic acid. Extract of cannabis indica.Acid Corn Cure. by measure salicylic acid. Melt soap plaster. glycerine.CORKS CORN CURES After a few applications. Extract Salicylic. then add the collodion. The acid is frequently used without this addition. the bursa is still distended with fluid. 1 ounce. 2 parts. by weight. other ligneous material may be treated to imitate cork. When the opercomposition properly. the inner edges of the sole of which are perfectly The bunion is bathed night straight. lactic acid. 85 parts. 1 part. by weight. putting each layer directly on the pre- operator just before using. 4 parts. WATERPROOFING: See Waterproofing. Corn Plaster. 1 part. by weight. 2 parts. For the success of the composition it is necessary that the constituents be mingled and treated under The volumetric prospecial conditions. cornstalk gelatin. and while these are in a moist and hot condition they are mingled with the solution of gelatin. by weight. into it. 4 parts. rosin. 5 parts. and yellow wax. collodion. CORN CURES: I. 10 parts. 10 parts. and can be cut and bored with ease. CORK AS A PRESERVATIVE: See Preserving. 5 parts by weight. by weight. pith. If. by measure. FASTENING: See Adhesives. alcohol. 1 Salicylic acid. Apply a thin coating every night. 11 parts. Wear right and left stockings and shoes. by weight. S. of Corns. Venice turpentine. 2 parts. glacial. extract of Indian hemp. either by molding it at once into a desired form.

The Treatment of Corns. To this end a well-fitting shoe is essential.CORN CURES COSMETICS tism. In other cases.. add the almond oil.. Anaesthesia is now and. This is then covered with a layer of glycerine jelly. The treatment is of three kinds preventive. Oil of almonds 26 ounces Castor oil (odorless). The oozing is pretty free. and applied to the surface of the corn. The best method. lavender oil. lastly. and curative. which make Mix Freeland confidently advises the full and complete excision of corns. which alone make a corn a matter of serious import. and the bursa if present sected out. . 425 185 62 62 4. If the point of a sharp. with the latter structure that complica- of treatment to be secure the removal of the Glyconine Oil of lavender. A A Cosmetics COLD CREAM. and the wound is left to heal primary union in a few days being the rule. and it is sometimes necessary to torsion a small vessel. to form a raised rampart. The skin is rendered insensitive with ethyl chloride. monds Any method curative must entire corn. 6 ounces Lard (benzoated) . then incorporate the solution of borax in Tragacanth Boric acid Glycerine 125 100 140 of al- parts parts parts Expressed oil beneath. and be made to penetrate toward its central axis. III. osteotomy and tenotomy are required.. The rapidity of the healing is often phenomenal. . Any corn may be speedily and permanently cured. preventive treatment lies in adopting such measures as will secure freedom from pressure and friction for the parts most liable to corns. care being taken that they penetrate well into the subcutaneous tissue. There is produced a scar tissue at the site of the corn. but the hemorrhage is never severe. II. The shoes should be of. briefly. a layer of skin and subcutaneous is distissue. an antiseptic dressing is applied. Seizing the parts included in the incision with a pair of dissecting forceps.. is. in summer more. Extract of cassia. soft and elastic.000 parts the tragacanth and the boric acid with the glycerine.. III.. together with the underIt is mainly in connection lying bursa. I. After a wait of a few minutes the superficial parts of the site of the incision are rendered insensitive with ethyl chloride. The edges of the wound are brought together by one or two fine sutures.. and before it sets a pad of cotton wool is applied to the surface. a wedgeshaped piece of tissue including the corn. and should be cut to a * proper model. Extract of jasmine. 50 parts 50 parts 0. . palliative. 8 ounces White wax Rose water ter 8 ounces (in win- less.. as follows: ring of glycerine jelly is painted around the circumference of the corn. piece of salicylic plaster mull is then cut to the size and shape of the central depression..5 parts Water enough to tions. I. minims drachms drachms Borax Glycerine 2 ounces 4 ounces . are likely to arise.. Every precaution having been taken to render the operation aseptic. and egg glycerite. The palliative treatment is generally carried out with chemical substances. the constitutional conditions must be treated. 1. until the horny layer separates and is cast off. add the water in divided portions until a clear jelly of the desired consistency is obtained. a spot is selected for the injection of the anaesthetic solution.5 300 parts parts parts parts parts parts first four ingredients. and 5 minims of a 4 per cent solution of cocaine is injected into the subcutaneous tissue beneath the corn. on the basis of his experience in upward of 60 cases. II. but this leads to no untoward results. thin-bladed knife be introduced at the groove which runs around the margin of the corn. The growth. well-seasoned leather. Oil of almonds . Lanolin White wax Spermaceti is repeated as often as is necessary. 12 ounces Orange-flower water Oil of rose 8 ounces 15 6 4 Two semielliptieal incisions meeting at their extremities are made through the skin around the circumference of tne complete. by the exercise of a little manual dexterity the horny part of the corn can be easily made to separate from the parts This process Borax Rose water Melt together the the rose water. have been previously well incorporated. than quantity named) .

white. oil of i pound. ounce. 1 drachm. if desirable. Vaseline oil. petrolatum (white). make a solution of the borax in the glycerine and rose and orange-flower waters.COSMETICS Melt the oil of sweet almonds. then gradually add the rose water. 5 drops.0 1. 10 drops. (pure). Cinnabar Infusorial earth 8 . Vaseline Pomade. of Peru. Melt the wax and spermaceti. inflamed lips. eucalyptol. sweet monds White wax of al8 fluidounces 1 1 Lemon oil VI. 1. White castile soap. can . I butter of cocoa. Vaseline oil. wash the precipitate II. . 15 drops. Spermaceti Saffron surrogate. hot. menfinger tips: thol. Putty powder (fine) Carmine Oil of rose 4 2 1 1 drachm drachms drachms grains drop part parts IV.000 200 Wax. Clove oil 20 After settling. J ounce. genuine 10 2 Spermaceti. . 10 per cent. oil of cassia. 1.. \ ounce.0 .. wax Spermaceti pound. Almond oil 1. and the perfume may be varied to suit the taste... Petrolatum (white). alkanet root. white .5 1.000 Wax. and stir in the castor oil. Lip pomatum said always to retain a handsome red color and never to grow rancid is prepared as follows: I. and lard together. finally add the oil of rose dissolved in the extracts. Camphor Rose water Borax (in fine powder) Oil of rose oil 1 ounce ounce ounce Paraffme Vaseline Oil of lemon Oil of violet 49 49. strain. Paraffine Vaseline Anchusine Bergamot oil Lemon peel 80 80.. rough. 7 ^ Paraffine Lanolin Water Oil of rose 2 3 3 ounces ounce ounces ounces drops MANICURE PREPARATIONS: I. | ounce. Lastly add the oil of rose. Digest the root in the melted paraffine and petrolatum. or Lipol. Afri- 40 20 Lemon III. quantity sufficient. Vaseline oil. parts parts parts parts Camphorated Cold Cream. add the of sweet almonds. oil parts parts Rose Pomade. oil 20 parts parts parts parts Yellow Pomade. Petrolatum Cold Cream. 8 \ drachms drachm drops drops 6 5 1 II.0 0. Wax. in which the borax has previously been or dissolved. Oil almond oil. wax. add this solution. 1. . For treating sore. stirring constantly to insure thorough incorporation. 1 pound. Hot water 16 parts parts parts part part Zinc chloride solution. ounce. white Alkannin 300 3 Geranium IV. a little at a time. .000 300 Wax. pour off the clear portion and add 2 fluidrachms of orangeflower water and stir briskly until it White Pomade.0 . pour off the curs. 200 10 Melt and drachm of balsam V. almond oil. beating agitating constantly with a wooden spatula until cold. add the other ingredients and pour into lip jars. Geranium oil. white parts parts parts parts parts IV. white lin. supernatant fluid. apply the following night and morning. to the melted fat. quantity 4 drachms 10 drops sufficient. 5 fluidounces parts parts 75 parts 75 parts Carmine. white Bitter concretes. oil of cloves. the Lips. bitter almonds. LIP SALVES: Pomades for which is Powdered Nail Tin oxide Carmine Rose oil Neroli oil Polishes. Dissolve the soap in the water and to the solution add the zinc-chloride solution until no further precipitation ocLet stand over night. paraffine. I (pure). rubbing in well with the Camphor.. and beat the ointment until cold. in which the camphor has been dissolved with very gentle heat.000 parts 300 parts . lanostir in 1 2 ounces. III. white. white. drachm 1 Alcohol A small quantity of borax may be added. J pound. .

000 parts 5. Add the alkanet tincture to the melted grease. add the sol ution. 15 oil.. Lavender oil. fresh Alkanet tincture. 3 drops. parts parts parts parts Glycerine Rose water. a sufficient quantity.When the strawberry season is on. The spermaceti is melted in the nut oil on a water bath and digested with the gamboge for 20 minutes. Melt lard and tallow together on the water bath at the temperature of boiling Have the strawberries arranged water. Geranium African oil. .. Herb Pomade. 8 parts. Essential oil. . I. desired. Geranium oil.. polish with chamois skin.. Polishing Pastes for the Nails. wipe. 125 drachms. powdered castile soap. white 20. yellow Chlorophyll . sweet and 25 parts fresh 5 parts Tallow. stir in. quantity sufficient. 12 parts 4 parts Dissolve the acid in the water. Lemon oil Bergamot Clove II.000 parts 5. IV. rose oil. Solution of carmine sufficient to tint. and per- fume II. Vaseline oil. it is next strained. The coolIning must take place very slowly. temperature. and poured into cans which are standing in water. drachm Crystalline Honey Pomade. 1 part. . Any desired scent mixture may be employed. brown Peru balsam. . . 2 drachms. an ointment is sometimes used consisting of white petrolatum. on a straining cloth.. Lemon oil Clove oil Nail-Cleaning Washes.000 parts perfume. Vaseline oil. to suit. 50 parts 30 parts 20 parts Chloroform Oil of rose POMADES: I. . Vaseline oil. drachms: gamboge.000 parts 15 parts and II. Dissolve the cosine in as little alcohol as will suffice. yel- low Ceresine. .COSMETICS well with water. quan- tity sufficient to oil. . .. . Make paste. mix the tincture of myrrh and cologne. scented. ripe 4 parts and fresh Lard. and berries are plenty and cheap. African Curled mint oil. . Alkannin. Palmarosa oil. yel- low Ceresine. For softening the nails. Lemon Clove III. 20. and stir until cool.000 parts 2. stead of gamboge. etc. Rose Pomade.. vervain Nut oil. yellow Ceresine. and dry at the ordinary Carmine may be added if Brilliant. curing hangnails. Beef-Marrow Pomade.000 parts 15 parts 50 parts 20 parts 5 parts 10 parts substi- Strawberry Pomade. Talcum Stannous oxide Powdered tragacanth 5 drachms 3 drachms 5 grains 1 Bergamot oil oil oil Lavender . 20.. China Pomade. Paraffine Lemon wax oil. 1 Water 2 3 ounces drachm drachm drachms V. 10 drops..000 5. Vaseline oil. the following is timely: Strawberries. Nail Varnish. white Ceresine. melt the other ingredients together. spermaceti. . bergamot 1 ounce Soft paraffine Alcohol. quantity sufficient. 12 parts 50 parts 5 5 5 5 oil.000 parts 3. oil. Tincture of myrrh Cologne water 20. butter color may be used. yellow Beef marrow Saffron tute . Eosine 10 \ grains | White wax Spermaceti drachm drachm cinnamon oil. Oxalic acid Rose water 30 grains 1 ounce 60 grains 2 ounces 3 drops VI. Tartaric acid I. Stir the strained fats until the low mass be- . Dip the nails in this solution.. . 20 drops.. and then pour the mixture over the berries.000 20 50 20 parts parts parts parts parts 1 . and add to the acid solution. 30 drops. yel- . oil .

and 2 parts of lemon oil. 2 fluidrachms Spirit of coumarin per 2 fluidrachms bitter (|) (15 Spirit grains of ounce) al- monds to 8 minims the quantities prove agreeable. browns with burnt umber. dissolve any essential oils desired as perfume in the spirit. under constant agitation. ing well with a rod from time to time. Pomade may be Colors for Pomade. Add and rub in the witch-hazel. . A add the perfume and artificial little essence 1 of to Acid tartaric . then add the (which may be warmed to blood heat). Powdered white soap. grains per ounce). and finally the otto. 2 2 2 4 15 Mix and make VII. ounces ounces ounces ounces Paraffine oil 300 parts . colored red by infusing alkanet in the grease. or another perfume consisting of Spirit of vanillin (15 32 parts Glycerine 20 parts Soft soap Tincture of musk. add the perfume. ^Witch-Hazel Jelly. Stick Pomade. otherwise it mars the beauty of the preparation. ounce by ounce. Glycerole of starch . Any other perfume may be used. and then adding this strongly colored This procegrease to the remainder. 160 to 240 grains 240 grains 6 fluidounces 10 fluidounces Water Perfume to suit. and there are many Yellows are obtained varieties of color. (thick) Oil of cassia Oil of bergamot. parts of freshly rendered lard and 25 parts of white wax at moderate heat and mix well with 200 parts of vaseline. Orange-flower water or rose water could be substituted for the water if desired. White wax Refined suet . Add 15 parts of bergamot oil.. These colors should in each case be levigated finely along with their own weight . given above would Cucumber Pomade. Jasmine pomade Tuberose pomade. 2 2 3 3 ounces ounce drachms ounces ounces ounces Cherry-laurel water. usually employed is rose. and add the cherry-laurel water. Melt 250 VIII. quantity sufficient to perfume. to form a smooth and uniform cream. 1 part Acid phenic 2 parts Acid salicylic make 48 the soap and mixed. Vaseline Pomade. light 500 150 50 200 parts parts parts parts White Cosmetique. . an oil-soluble chlorophyll will give a green color by admixture. Cucumber pomade. with ocher. Brocq's Pomade for Itching. 3 parts of lavender oil. and then add the oil. making up to 48 ounces with plain water. and blue is made with ultramarine. squeezportion of the grease. Powdered borax . Theatrical face paints are sold in sticks. Tallow Ceresine Wax. dure obviates exposing the entire mass to heat. place in a small heat gently.COSMETICS gins to set. then add the pomades.. 3 parts strawberries may be added. 2 parts of geranium oil. The perfume must IX. Oil of clove 5 parts 5 parts 2 parts minims Rose oil Melt the wax and suet over a water bath. Mix in a large mortar the glycerine and soft soap and stir until incorporated. In coloring grease by means of alkanet or annotto it is best to tie the drug up in a piece of coarse cloth. then stir in. Rectified spirit Distilled water to . ROUGES AND PAINTS: Grease Paints. Oil of sweet al- monds Extract of witchhazel fluid 256 parts 10 parts be one that mixes without opalescence. and neither decantation nor straining is needed. small stream.. yellow Rosin. Glycerine and Gelatin Boric acid Glycerine Cucumber Jelly. letting it fall in a very thin. about every 2 pounds. musk to a quart of jelly is sufficient. mixing well. The odor drop 60 to 100 parts a pomade. When 40 ounces of water have been so the Rub borax pomade with until intimately water distilled incorporated. yellow may be obtained by using annotto in the same way. slowly. keeping up the agitation until complete inTen drops of corporation is attained.

ounces 2 fluidounces 6 av. ounces tity sufficient. Red. . Sweet almond oil. 5-6 parts. with the oil but that generally used is composed of 1 drachm of essence of bouquet. bismuth. . 9 parts Oil of peppermint. make into a paste Any perfume may be added. but colored with a solution of carmine. 2 6 almond Red.. 120 parts Zinc oxide 120 parts 2 parts Camphor Essence bouquet. Dissolve the cosine in the essence bouquet.. equal parts) well perfumed. Eosine Essence bouquet ounces ounces ounces phor. to II. Cacao butter White wax Olive oil 4 av. Cacao butter Perfume. quantity Mix as before. almond oil Vermilion Tincture of saffron. oil. . bismuth. ounces 2 fluidounces . ounces av. Mix the zinc. tints may Carmine 30 parts water 1 part 5 parts 3 parts Ammonia White Grease Paints. ounces . . ounces av. Bright Red. Bismuth subnitrate. etc. quantity sufficient. Like the preceding. . . 8 drops 3 drops 2 drops Tincture musk . 2 parts Almond oil. . 12 minims oil of peppermint. 4 4 4 4 av. 2J fluidounces 40 grains 3 fluidrachms fluidrachms should be used 3 the zinc. Zinc oxide Bismuth subnitrate Aluminum oxychlor. paste with Camphor Almond Oil of peppermint. . Add 24 grains of camphor. or Bordeaux. add the powder and make almond oil. Aluminum plumbate..COSMETICS of equal parts of precipitated chalk and oxide of zinc and diluted with the same to the tint required. salts. 8 parts quantity sufficient.. . and 12 grains of camsalts. or sufficient. Pink. Zinc oxide Bismuth subnitrate.. . Zinc carbonate Bismuth subnitrate. sufficient. 30 parts . form a mass of proper consistence. quan- Prepared chalk Zinc oxide . and 24 minims of oil of peppermint dissolved in the essence bouquet. Zinc oxide 2 2 2 1 Almond oil. Zinc oxide 30 parts Bismuth subnitrate. about Camphor Esobouquet tract Sufficient Oil peppermint. Soot Sweet almond oil . Asbestos. ex. By Deep. . ounces 4 av. Perfume. 18 parts 12 parts Orris root. I. and aluminum and to every 4 ounces of the mixture add 2J grainj of cosine dissolved in a drachm of essence of bouquet. 250 parts 250 parts 250 parts 100 55 55 25 1 Expressed oil of al- monds Camphor Perfume Eosine Oil 01 peppermint .. Rouge. Mix Vermilion.. and 12 minims of oil of peppermint for every 3| ounces of paste. 20 quantity sufficient. . and aluminum Dissolve the carmine in the ammonia and add solution to the mixture. bismuth. quantity sufficient. . precipitated. Aluminum ide oxychlor- blending these colors. ounces av. .. 2 av. 12 grains of camphor. 2 drops Carmine 90 grains Ammonia water 3 fluidrachms Oil of rose Oil of bergamot Oil of neroli . Essence bouquet Peppermint. . Aluminum ide 10 parts 10 parts 10 parts parts parts parts parts part oxychlor- Dark Red.. I. powdered 30 parts Chalk. . then made into sticks with mutton suet (or vaseline or paraffine. and make the whole into a paste with oil of sweet almonds. Mix the zinc. . Make the whole into a oil. and aluminum oxychloride thoroughly. subni- Asbestos powder. 8 parts 8 parts ide Almond oil. Black Grease Paints. Bismuth trate. and mix with the camphor and into a paste with drachm drachms drachms minims peppermint. camphor. other thus be obtained.

sienna. A very delightful violet odor. jeweler's rouge. add the lampblack. Rose Powder. add 600 parts of rose petals. is . powder Oil neroli. color to suit. To prepare palettes rub up together: Carmine French chalk rouge These have a Fatty Face Powders. shaking occasionally. then add to the melted cacao butter. to taste. 100 parts of sandal wood. etc. mix a using. III. 2 minims. 100 parts of patchouli. parts parts parts parts Nose Putty.. 1 minim. rosin. which the coloring matter is carmine. 8 parts. It should be triturated to a smooth mixture with the oil. is obtained by using A cheaper preparation may be made as follows: Mix. 1 ounces.230 COSMETICS stiff The soot should be derived from burning camphor and repeatedly washed with alcohol. . with Melt together. add the perfume. such as finely levigated burned umber. 8 parts. 6 drachms. to the fore- paste with a spirit little water and apply it to the nose.. and form into sticks. cork tightly. As a base take 200 going base instead of lampblack. Lampblack Expressed oil of 1 part part part stiff perfume. preferably in the shape of an essential oil (attar of rose. small percentage of fat mixed with them in order to make the powder adhere to the skin. 1 drachm. almond oil. I. sufficient. Dextrin Simple syrup. if necessary. . adding the perfume toward the last. minims. ocher.. water with when V. 3 well. Incorporate the ammonium carminate and add just enough simple syrup to make a mass easily rolled out. 10 parts 25 parts 8 parts Mix the talc and dextrin and add the IV. 50 parts drachms of light magnesia. and attar Add palette. sufficient. mutton suet. white. this 4 Carmine Stronger ammonia 4 water Essence of rose . sufficient. etc. I. if preferred. 5 part of carmine to 2| parts of strong ammonia water. Rouge Palettes. and 2 parts of true rose oil. in The carminate. 2 drachms. 2 drachms. 16 500 Rose water to make. and while cooling make an intimate mixture. The al1 1 monds Oil cocoanut Perfume. parts of powdered iris root. and those in which the aniline colors are used. Ammonium carminate. to following is . synthetic oil of jasmine. The best are those prepared with carmine. little necessary. 9 parts Almond oil 12 parts Add enough tragacanth mucilage to make the mass adhere and spread the whole evenly on the porcelain Liquid Rouge. perfume. stiff ammonium 1 carminate is made by adding Beat the finest lampblack into a paste with glycerine and apply with a sponge. A good perfume is coumarin. oil of lemon. Mix in a vial. Dissolve 1 drachm anhydrous lanolin in 2 drachms of ether in a mortar. Melt the cacao butter and the lampblack. dry. 4 parts.). oil of neroli. and stir constantly as the mixture cools. and set aside until a solution is formed. Beat the lampblack into a with glycerine. boric acid. 3 parts of oil of geranium. White wax. knead into a ionone in place of rose essence. 2 grains. having previously painted gum. add a little water Or you can to the mixture when using. There are two disof these tablets: those in Melt the cacao butter and oil. or ammonium Lampblack Cacao butter 1 part 6 parts speak more correctly. Perfume. Take as much of the powder as necessary.. powdered starch. 1 drachm Best lampblack II. make a grease paint as follows: Drop black. . Mix and then add the following: French chalk. Mix. sufficient. if paste it Apply with a sponge. Cacao butter Olive oil Oil of neroli 3 drachms 3 drachms 2 drops Rouge tinct classes Tablets. Brown or other colors may be obtained by adding appropriate pigments. Mix 1 ounce wheat flour with 2 drachms of powdered tragacanth and tint with carmine. 2 ounces. II. cocoanut oil. an excellent formula: Talc. adding the perfume toward the end. or violet. The ammonium carminate is made by dissolving carmine in ammonia water to saturation. using 6 to 8 drops to every 4 ounces of other ingredients. of rose. Cut into tablets of the desired size. a sufficient quantity.

Let the mass obtained in this manner get completely cold.. Mix. mix with the base and dry. II. stead of olive oil any pure fat. aqueous content of the albumen is comCare must be taken pletely driven off. or gaslight. Rough Mix. and fresh appearance. mucilage (instead of which a solution of fine gelatin may be used). cum a. regulated to a very small flame). make mucilage of tragathe mass adhere to the .. Eosine Distilled water 1 part SKIN FOODS. 40 drops 40 drops 5 drops Mix. Any other color may be used in place of rose. thickening it with the addition of sufficient rice flour to give the desired conInsistence. or heliotrope. Distilled water 4 drachms 16 fluidounces Mucilage of acacia.. and dissolve the alum by the aid of very gentle heat (derived from a lamp. ounces ounces gallons ounces Color by adding . or fatty oil. Pure acid hydrochloric Distilled water 2i drachms 64 fluidounces Mix. Mix the alum and the white of eggs. as follows: 1 part IV. and. for inA cheaper prepstance. Rose water Glycerine Carmine . quantity sufficient. 1 part Stronger ammonia 1 part water 4 parts Attar of rose 125 parts Rose water Mix. then pour off the clear portion and collect the precipitate on a filter. as all know).: 2 parts Apply twice daily. Perfume... rough places are to have the following application twice daily either a few drops of: in I. " Sig.. skin is to be washed constantly Vichy water. Gradually add 3 Tincture of benzoin . quantity sufficient. . shake. . tincture of benzoin. oil. 6 Wash with the same amount of and immediately throw the precipitate into a glass measure. Theater Rouge. add the boric acid. violet (ionone). b. Geranium red Base Mix Water as above and dry. 10 grains 6. stirring in with a glass rod sufficient of b to measure 16 ounces in all. and rub up together. Rub oil together with 10 parts of sufficient almond and add canth to III. Besides this. serves to protect and preserve it: Alum. without any addition of water whatever. aration may be made by substituting cosine for the carmine." This formula gives the skin a beautiful. 100 parts 25 parts part Or use: Orange-flower water 100 parts 10 parts Glycerine $orax Mix. smooth. Buffalo cosine . and constant. 16 ounces add 8 ounces of glycerine. even. . 6 4 drachms drachms Face Bleach or Beautifier. 10 grams 2 eggs 3 . Carminoline Base may be used. powdered Whites of Boric acid Tincture of benzoin Olive oil . Base: Cornstarch Powdered white tal- 4 6 drachms drachms Rice flour. Peach a. in an earthen vessel.. to avoid coagulation of the albumen (which occurs very easily. grams . and perfuming at will. then throw into a Wedgwood mortar. 40 80 Glycerine 5 Distilled water Mix.. Mix. and set aside for a few hours. Beauty Cream. Water drachms drachms Dissolve the carminoline in the water. Pour a into 6.. 5 parts Glycerine 75 parts Cologne water 100 parts Alcohol Tannin Mix. Wrinkles on the face yield to a wash consisting of 50 parts milk of almonds (made with rose water) and 4 parts alu- 20 parts 5 parts Glycerine Cologne water Alcohol 75 parts 100 parts minum sulphate. Eosine 20 parts Distilled water . Pass through a hair sieve To every to get out any filtering paper. Syrupy lactic acid.COSMETICS II. Tint. at the same time. etc. This must continue until the stirring. porcelain palette. Use morning and night. even vaseline or glyc- 10 grains 6 4 erine.

but a white soap is Castile soap does not make preferred. The borated glycerine should be cooled before mixing it with the lanolin. grains Ammonia solution. . The face should first be thoroughly steamed or washed in water as hot as can be comfortably borne. and yellow wax 3 parts). first washing the face with hot water and castile soap.. BLACKHEAD REMEDIES.0 parts.0 parts. Boric acid 1 drachm 6 drachms Glycerine Dissolve by heat and mix with Lanolin 6 drachms Vaseline 1 ounce HAND CREAMS AND LOTIONS: Chapped Skin. as firm a paste as soap made from animal fats. is bad for the skin people. . Glycerine Water to 3 Heat this to drive off the ammonia.. drachm drachm drachm drachms ounces Hydrous wool Castor oil . should be thoroughly rubbed into the affected areas. The best substances for the purpose are unguentum cereum or oleum olivarum. and add Solution of ionone. Unna advises hydrogen dioxide in the treatment of blackheads..0 parts. 12. and mix all. As glycerine of many bright. This rarely fails to cure the worst "chaps" in two nights. 3 ounces.COSMETICS Carmine No. A good paste may be made by dissolving soap in the least possible quantity of hot water. If the skin of the hands is already cracked the following preparation will heal it: Hydrous wool Petrolatum III. and scent with rose water. I. . Wax salve (olive oil 7 parts. bismuth oxychloride. Any soap may be used. glycerine.0 parts. Wash the acid. 1 drachm Add a few drachms of kaolin and filter until ounce ounce ounces Mix the bay rum and glycerine. A sure remedy for chapped hands consists in keeping them carefully dry and greasing them now and then with an anhydrous fat (not cold cream). An excellent plan is to steam the face by holding it over a basin of hot water. III. 1 ounce. Ichthyol Zinc oxide Starch 1 Petrolatum 2 2 3 drachm drachms drachms drachms Hand-Cleaning Paste. with fat oil. add the ammonia water. then filter. Apply to the face I V. or pure olive oil. 1 6 drachms II. 1. . fat . . and finally the rose It is especially efficacious after water. 2. cient to make 200 parts night and morning with a sponge. after removing the paste with a bland soap. 5. In the morning. 10 parts 30 parts 1 part 2 parts Thymol Boric acid Tincture of witchhazel Rose Mix. using force enough to start the dried secretions. here is a recipe which will be found more generally satisfactory as it contains less glycerine: Bay rum. bathe with cool water and dry with little friction. Cosmetic Jelly. next add glycerine. lanolin. from powdered pumice to fine sand. and as it cools and sets stirring in the grit. 18 parts water suffi. preferably just before going to bed. All pustules should then be opened and blackheads emptied with as little violence as After careful drying the paste possible.0 parts. Add any perfume desired. A good formula is: This paste should be applied at night. Lactic acid Boric acid Ceresine Paraffine oil 1 1 1 6 fat. 40 40 1 . anything may be used. Finely ground zinc oxide. White soap Fine sand 2| pounds 1 Water pound 5J pints Lotion for the Hands. 30. carbolic drachm (30 drops). 5. shaving. his prescription being: Hydrogen dioxide 20 to 40 parts Rub in thoroughly. hands well and apply while hands are soft.0 parts. keeping the head covered with a cloth. and the latter also lather better. rib- Tragacanth (white 8 parts water 4 parts 4 parts 4 parts Ammonia Bay rum Glycerine bon) Rose water 60 grains 14 ounces Rose water Macerate for two days and strain forcibly through coarse muslin or cheese . and drying it with a coarse towel. II. set aside. For grit. Cleaning pastes are composed of soap and grit. 10. Shake. IV. either with or without some free alkali.

essential oil of almonds. neuralgias. oil of pep- etc. One may also Acetic acid Oil of rose geranium Oil of bitter almond. White potash soap. After rubbing the hands with this mixture. rubbing in well until dry. camphor. rub gently twice or three times a day with half a tablespoonful of this is now produced powdered form. enough. 3 Beat briskly II. 1 part. oil of wintergreen. eucalyptol. Melt the wax.. immediately after bathing. Take rectified Perspiring Hands. The following formula is suggested: gallon 1 1 1 1 Skimmed milk Water of ammonia. . 50 parts (by weight). and many other afflictions of the skin and bones. . Work this thoroughly Bleach. see Photography. . 4 4 4 4 4 Snow-white cold cream Lanolin Oil of theobroma. 1 . enough to color. rice starch. Perfume to suit.. 233 basis of casein. 30 parts Alcohol (90 per cent) 10 parts Dissolve the soap by heating it with the glycerine and water. . Presumably the borax solution should be of the same temperature as the melted mass. For the removal of developing stains. shaved 20 parts 30 parts Glycerine Water. is smooth or corrugated surfaces. adding enough carmine to color it a delicate pink. To the product thus obtained add an equal amount of cold cream made by the formula herewith given: White wax Spermaceti W hite petrolatum Rose water 7 in a 4 ounces 4 ounces 12 ounces 14 ounces Borax 80 grains MASSAGE CREAMS: Massage Application. I. Spein and add ounce drops cially useful headaches. and by treatment with glycerine and perfumes it is possible modern massage cream Casein to turn out a satisfactory cream. the the The Use each 1 ounce.. White petrolatum Distilled water In hot weather add oil headaches sage ball. wrapped in foil in cool places. until creamy. 8 parts. Oil of anise ounce ounce 2 drachm drachm drachms Cold cream Carmine (see below). and petrolatum together over a water bath. 10 parts glycerine. and rheumatic affections. very cheaply in is Add glycerine and alcohol. during 6 minutes. Medicated Massage Balls. They are the balls of paraffine wax molded with a smooth or rough surface with menthol. 30 parts borax. macopoeia. carbonate of magnesia. day with the following mixture: mixture. employ chalk. added before shaping. German PharFilter while hot. spermaceti. cover them with gloves during the night. eau de cologne.. dissolve the borax in the rose water and add to the melted mass at one time. The only external method for the treatment of all kinds of Orange-flower water. followed by a solution of 4 parts of tannin in 32 of glycerine. 2 Wedgwood mortar. the menthol medicated masThis may be made with ounces ounces ounces ounces ounces Keep Spermaceti White wax 1^ drachms %\ drachms . White wax $ ounce Spermaceti | ounce Cocoanut oil 1 ounce 1 Lanolin ounce Oil of sweet almonds 2 ounces Melt in a porcelain dish. Hand parts . remove from the fire. . glycerine. the acetic acid and let it stand another 24 Then strain through cheese cloth hours. Then add By weight Rose water Borax Glycerine 125 parts 10 parts 8 parts . This preparation is used in massage for removing wrinkles: I. belladonna dye. Rub the hands several times per II. Agitate violently. of Casein Massage Cream. Add and the water of it ammonia to the milk let stand 24 hours. mixed. Massage Skin Foods. 20 parts . permint. 1 Tincture of benzoin. 3 parts. Continue until relief is obtained or a sensation of warmth. Lanolin. hot and cold baths of the hands (as hot and as cold as can be borne). The method of using them is to roll the over the affected part by the aid of ba|J the palm of the hand with pressure.COSMETICS cloth. Add the alcohol. and for every 30 ounces of the solution add 5 or 6 drops of the mistura oleoso balsamica. and add the oils. .

be employed as a general skin bleach. or it may be strained out through cheese cloth. as friction assists the absorbed fat in developing the muscles. shake well. Put the tincture of benzoin in an 8-ounce bottle. which.. P. . Ointment ammoniac mercury Ointment zinc oxide. drops drops drops 8 drops 2 drops Digest the quince seed in the water for 24 hours. C. For impure skin the following composition is recommended: II. makes a good perfume. 30 grams . but it will settle out. Quince seed Water Glycerine Alcohol Salicylic acid 7 ounce ounces 1 ounces 4j ounces grains grains Carbolic acid Oil Oil Oil Oil Oil of bay of cloves of orange peel... Lanolin Oil sweet almond. A skin-bleach- ing action. of course. Prepared and perfumed in proportion same as cold cream. Borax Glycerine Hydrogen peroxide. due to the presence of hydrogen peroxide. and when these have melted pour the mixture into a warm mortar.. III. grams grams 30 grams 10 grams 5 5 Orange-flower water 14 fluidounces (triple) Rose water to make fluidounces . . previously mixed. ETC.. 30 grams Glycerine 10 grams Rose water Concentrated nitric 5 drops acid drops grains Lanolin Oil sweet almond. 5 drops Nitric acid..COSMETICS In winter the two latter are left out and the proportion of cocoa butter is modified. . and to remedy an oily or flabby skin. . add the other ingredients.. . 15 grams the lanolin and oil. . add the lanolin and petrolatum. dissolve the salicylic acid in the alcohol. and bottle. And of gradually stir into this a solution Borax 2 grams White petrolatum 7 Paraffine wax. of wintergreen. and shake slightly. ounces Lanolin Water Oil of rose Vanillin 2 3 3 2 1 ounce av. Methods and Photography for removal of stains caused by photographic developers. Apply with sponge night and morning: 1 J ounces Cucumber juice ounce Tincture of benzoin 1 ounce Cologne 5 ounces Elder-flower water . of rose zoin in this mixture. . add the carbolic acid to the glycerine. is possessed by the following mixtures: I. similar manner as the in a Prepare Rose oil in either ointment foregoing. in fact.. Both ointments may.. This is used to correct coarse pores. There will be some precipitation of benSee also Cleaning . 10 grams 1 Borax Glycerine Solution hydrogen peroxide gram grams Alcohol fluidrachm 15 Melt the paraffine.. LOTIONS. dissolved in the alcohol. Zinc sulphocarbolate 30 grains 4 fluidraclfms 2 fluidrachms 1 Alcohol (90 per cent) Glycerine Tincture of cochineal White mercurial oint- fluidrachm ment Zinc ointment Lanolin Bitter almond oil. then incorporate the borax previously dissolved in the mixture of glycerine and peroxide solution. BALMS. Bleaching Skin Salves. and also imparts softness and fullness to the skin. . Mix IV. 6 10 10 5 10 Lanolin Bitter 30 parts oil. incorporate When nearly cold add the the water. almond Mix and solution of 10 parts stir with this salve base a 1 part . 30 grams 10 grams . ounces fluidounces III. with constant stirring. Emollient Skin Balm. 5 5 grams grams grams 30 grams 10 grams 2 SKIN BLEACHES.: Borax Glycerine Rose water . Astringent Wash for Flabby Skin. is their real .. and. and then press through a cloth. | av.. put all together. oil and vanillin. 15 parts 15 parts Skin Lotion. . Preparations of this kind should be rubbed into the skin vigorously. office cosmetic creams.

and a few drops of essential oil. When fluid add the wax and spermaceti in large pieces. which must be removed. 15 per cent. is non-poisonous. or add to the hot water application enough witch-hazel to scent the water. etc. and it is perhaps no better for the purpose than The mistake is often made glycerine.. using great care. . The preparation is a mixture of soft soap and hard tallow. and rinse with cold water. through the strainer. TOILET CREAMS: Almond Cold Creams. a sufficient quantity. 10 minims 20 minims Alcohol 6 fluidounces Water. melted together over the fire and incorporated with a little emery powder. pumice stone. . and thereby better effect union with the soap. without attacking it. but does not dry hard. . It is well to be mond cream may milk of almond: I. run into it slowly the emulsion. and 1 of rose water. slow in its action is. of applying the latter too freely. dry on a towel. better still. Care must be taken not to add Removing Inground Egg albumen Boric acid Glycerine . 55 per cent. Apply sev- on a soft towel without rubbing. Sweet almonds. This preparation is troublesome to make and rather expensive... the simplest of which is that in buttermilk.. stirring well all the time. Do not try any of these bleaches on a skin freshly sunburned. For that. one pint of water. mix the albumen and to suit. White wax Spermaceti Oil of bitter al- 5 ounces 2 drachms 2 drachms 2 drachms monds Oil of bergamot. Peroxide of hydrogen diluted with 5 times as much water. emery powder. also will bleach discolorations. quartz. It has been known as by burning them its off. Paste thus made will attack grease. When all is melted place the soapy mixture in a mortar. and after that has dried into the skin it will be soon enough to try other applications. A liquid albe made by the appended formula. apply the mixture and wipe slightly or just enough to take up superfluous liquid. flint. At pour a small quantity into a saucer and If the skin bedip the cloth into this. more readily.. 50 parts Dissolve the boric acid in a sufficient quantity of water. If new. . glycerine and pass through a silk strainer. apply a small quantity of the paste to the stained skin. and the quantity of soap may be reduced. sleep in a pair of cotton gloves. If an extra detergent quality is desired. Moisten the hands with a little cold water. enough water to bring the measure of the strained liquid to 1 pint. rub the hands together for a few minutes. . etc. add to gradually. Finally. and dry eral times daily with a soft linen rag. with smooth paste is obtained. 2 of These glycerine. The mixture sets to a mass The like putty. will mix without heating. White castile soap. and then moisten them lightly but thoroughly with the liquid. over a very gentle fire or on a water bath. comes sore use less of the remedy and allay the redness and^ smarting with a good cold cream. etc. Perfume . and melted. glass. or. Add. and can be used without hot water. so as to allow them to melt slowly. Strain the resulting emulsion without pressure through a cotton cloth previously well washed to remove all foreign matter. the cloth will contain starch. It is always an acid that removes freckles and discolorations. Detergent for Skin Stains.COSMETICS Skin Discoloration. Lastly add the alcohol in which the perfumes have been previously dissolved. 8 parts 1 part 32 parts make. in the same manner. Discoloration of khe neck may be removed by the use of acids. then gradually add water in very small quantities. night. wash in hot water. pestle. Dirt. Stir occasionally. but if the action of this is too slow try 4 ounces of lactic acid. use until you find how severe It is not wise to try for home making any of the prescriptions which include corrosive sublimate or any other deadly poison. Every time the hands are washed. with enough water to cover it. tallow. Distilled water to the emulsion faster than it can be incorporated with the soap. mix the two fluids and add the residue of water. Moritz Weiss has introduced a detergent paste which will remove stains from the skin Beat the almonds in a smooth mortar much divided as their nature will admit. 30 per cent. its "stickiness" being unpleasant. sand. While this operation is going on let the soap be shaved into thin ribbons. but it is harder on the skin. approximate proportions of the ingredients are: Soft soap. on retiring. and it is . continuing the beating until as a little essential oil to mask the smell of the soap. 4 ounces of sodium carbonate may be added. blending the two all the while with the until a this.

transfer to a mortar. Heat the ointment. white 5 ounces hot add. The perfume may easily be obtained by dissolving a very small proportion of handkerchief "extract" or slowly with constant stirring until all has been added and a smooth cream has been formed. 1 1 1 ounce fluidounce fluidounce grains monds Oil of bergamot . oil Bergamot oil. . straining through cotton which has previously been washed to remove starch. . oil. weight. By Bergamot oil . Sweet oil almond Almond By oil Glycerine Oil of rose gera- 6 fluidounces 4 fluidounces 1 Lanoline White wax Spermaceti Rose water VIII... of course. Ointment almonds Glycerine Boric acid of rose water. oil then mixing with plain water.000 parts Then stir in some II. Lemon oil Castor oil 10 parts 5 parts 4 parts Rose water Beat until creamy: 1| ounces By White wax Almond oil weight. not until cold. sufficient. add the two volatile oils. stirring constantly until an emulsion or saponaceous mixture is .. tincture of benzoin. . 6 parts 5 parts 10 parts weight. When the cream begins to thicken add a few drops of oil of rose.. 120 grains Oil of bitter al- IX. Make an emulsion of the almonds with water so as to obtain 16 fluidounces of product. Be careful in weighing the wax and spermaceti. White wax Tallow.. sufficient to perfume. Stir until cold. blanched Castile soap. 3 ounces Spermaceti 500 parts 100 parts 150 parts Melt at moderate heat and scent with By Geranium oil Lemon VII. 100 parts 1. Rose water J 500 parts 260 parts White wax Spermaceti Oil of sweet al- ounce And scent with 2J ounces 2 fire. White wax Spermaceti By weight. Melt. 1 part of sodium carbonate dissolved in 79 parts of hot Perfume to the water.. Mucilage Water enough quince seed 4 fluidounces fluidounces to make Oil of rose. Such a lotion may be made by mixing 1 part Glycerine 9 parts Rose water Plain water may. White wax 4 ounces III. Alcohol 6 fluidounces Water. and Almond By weight. with constant stirring. at moderate heat. remove from the ounces and add VI. add the wax and spermaceti.. Geranium oil.. White wax 120 grains 120 grains Spermaceti .. Sweet almonds.. be used as the diluent. 6 parts Spermaceti Oil of sweet 4 parts 2 parts al- monds Melt together and while 6 parts still IV. taste. and oil When all are incorof rose geranium. V. and solution of soda together. Dissolve the soap with the aid of heat in the necessary amount of water to form a liquid. nium Tincture of benzoin fluidrachm 400 200 60 60 300 parts parts parts parts parts 4 fluidrachms the Melt the wax and spermaceti. monds Melt. Oil of sweet . 10 drops 20 drops .. These precautions will insure a good product. Finally. then beat in the glycerine. pour into molds. but a slightly perfumed preparation is generally considered more desirable. and incorporate the almond emulsion 100 of Solution soda 2 J fluidounces of . creamy mass. Only the finest almond oil should be used.. porated to a smooth. add oil of sweet almonds.. freshly tried out By weight.286 best to dilute it COSMETICS largely with water. essential oil in the glycerine. continue the heat until the latter is melted... of oil 40 each of bitter almonds. weight.

monds Oil bergamot. on the water bath. Spermaceti White wax 3 parts 2 parts volatile oils. Sweet almond oil . 2 ounces Spermaceti. 0.. 12 parts fresh Rose water. little by little. Oil of bergamot 24 6 Oil of rose Oil of bitter drops drops drops drops almonds ..COSMETICS formed. the orangeflower water and glycerine mixed. 2 ounces White wax. acid. al- parts Distilled water. and glycerine together. Honey Castile Water Lead acetate Flavoring. mix this with the cream. and finally add the oils of beroil.. makes a fine cream: and mucilage and about 30 fluidounces of water. add the erine. and add the remainder of the water. . fluidrachm \ fluidrachm 15 drops 1 fluidrachm suffi- I. under constant and lively Constirring. The rose-water ointment used should be the "cold cream" of the United States Pharmacopoeia. Sweet oil almond 14 Water.1 part Coumarin Add for each pound of the cream 5 drops of etheric oil of bitter almonds. add the incorporate the water in which the borax has previously been dissolved. double 1 part 1 part Glycerine. Melt on a water bath the spermaceti and wax. 3 3 8 3 ounces ounces ounces ounces Melt together the wax. pure. .. \\ ounces 1^ ounces 10 grains soap.. ounce Macerate the quince seed in water. and continue the trituration until thoroughly mixed. monds bitter al- 26 1 fluidounces previously dissolved in sufficient water. Proceed as in making cold cream. tinue the stirring for 15 or 20 minutes.. bers previously grated. .. rose. I. and pour the whole into a slightly .. . if desired. Benzoinated lard. Melt the spermaceti and wax. Finally add. Peru balsam. strain and again stir the "cream" until cold. 800 parts White wax 800 parts Spermaceti and infuse in the liquid the cucumAllow to cool. spermaceti. add the oil (which should be fresh). stir until cold. to prevent granulation. 1 Oil Oil white powder sweet al- av. Mix the volatile oils and balsam with the sweet almond oil. . White wax Spermaceti Benzoinated lard... Suet . XII.. Oil of sweet 5 ounces 3 ounces 10 ounces cold cream. . 237 following also Then warm together the glyc- The XIII. enough carmine solution to impart a rose tint. ounces XI... remelt. .. pure Add a sufficient quantity of any suitable perfume. Quince seed Glycerine 2 drachms gamot. Solution carmine. of Oil almonds. 8 5 Tincture of ambergris . sufficient. . add the glycerine and lead acetate. II.... powder 60 Coumarin fluidounces fluidounces grains grain warmed mortar. and 3 drops tincture of ambra. then immediately put into containers. tinue the trituration until the mass has a white. under constant stirring. the honey with the soap in a morand add enough liquor potassa (about 1 fluidrachm) to produce a nice cream. distilled 7 Borax. oil. and Confinally the perfume as before. flavor with jockey club or orange essence. and is about the consistence of butter at ordinary temperature. of each Cucumbers lard. mix with the emulsion. cient. sweet almond Chappine Cream. parts Borax parts oil parts Bergamot 5 parts Attar of rose. and bitter almond. . Melt. and Mix tar. 2 av. stirring well. creamy appearance... . 5. . Cucumber Creams. X. strain. remove and as the mass cools down add the perfume in sufficient quantity to make a creamy mass. Oil cloves . the wax. Cucumber juice Proceed as in making Glycerine Creams. Add. Liquor potassa..800 50 20 monds White wax 100 parts 13 parts 25 parts Glycerine. Lastly. let stand a day..600 2.

IV.. and add the cologne Linseed mucilage. finally adding the odors and The curdled milk coloring if wanted. Mucilage Creams. then mix strain. about 15 drops of ionone or 20 drops of synthetic ylangylang. then quickly gallon until it curdles and Strain it allow it to stand 12 hours. ine. filled the product weigh 64 ounces. These products are III. Witch-Hazel Creams. by weight. . . by weight. Anhydrous lanolin. COSMETICS Quince seed Boric acid Starch Glycerine Carbolic acid Alcohol Oil of lavender Oil of rose 1 1 ounce ounce Aqua naphse Distilled water 16 grains 16 ounces 10 parts 15 parts 5 parts 4 parts 4 parts Glycerine Boric acid 30 minims 12 ounces 30 minims 10 drops 1 Borax Geranium oil. . triple. A diately transparent slime will form immewhich can be drawn off at once. 40 parts 15 parts 10 parts 40 drops . II. latter way is preferable and is more the Borax Boracic acid Oil rose geranium Oil bitter almond. and add to the quinceseed mucilage. Extract. . Oil lavender flowers 90 grains 8 grains 4 fluidounces 6 fiuidounces 6 drachms 4 fluidounces Lanolin Olive oil Paraffine ointment. quantity sufficient. 60 Glycerine 120 Cologne water 120 Rose water Instead of the cologne water tracts may be used. allow to stand 24 hours. through cheese cloth and allow it to Mix in the stand again for 12 hours. of gelatin in toilet water. Dissolve the oils and the extract of rose in the alcohol. and spirit of wine.30 parts 15 parts Carrageen mucilage. sufficient. and no trouble will be found in forming a good base for the Milk Heat the milk mix and shake with 650 parts. Almond oil . I. Boric acid Salicylic acid . must be entirely free from water to avoid If the milk will not curdle separation. Extract of white rose ounce Water enough to make 64 ounces Dissolve the boric acid in a quart of water and in this solution macerate the quince seed for 3 hours. cucumber cream for Melt 15 parts..238 II. ylang are recommended.. 240 2 parts parts parts parts parts 1. drachm . Heat together the starch and the glycerine until the starch granules are broken. I. with glycerine. by weight. III. 480 parts 240 parts 240 parts Boil the starch in the carrageen mucilage. is offered as a substitute uses. and shake with a suitable amount of perfume. It may be perfumed or not. all and add water enough Glycerine 1 together. of boracic acid as well as 150 parts. the total amount of water used should not exceed 300 parts. then strain. salts and glycerine and triturate in a mortar. . 650 parts Peach-kernel oil. Starch Boric acid Glycerine Cologne water . I. Lilac any exand ylang- Lanolin Creams.3 parts by weight. hot water containing 15 parts. 200 parts. This for add the boric acid and the glycerLet cool. warm distilled waier. . of ylang-ylang. 50 parts. Anhydrous lanolin. of glycerine. which have the advantage over lanolin that they go further. cream. heat (not boil). The ounce 2 drachms 1 either into glasses or into tubes. and mix with this the carbolic acid. 100 parts. but present the drawback of not being so quickly absorbed by the skin. to make 650 drachms 200 drachms Water 150 drachms 5 drops Oil of ylang-ylang Preparations which have been introduced years ago for the care of the skin and complexion are the glycerine gelees. 30 drops 15 drops 1 ience of handling. A good recipe for such a gelee following: and more adopted. fast enough the addition of 1 ounce of water ammonia to a gallon will hasten it. owing to the convenis Moisten white tragacanth powder. Water Perfume with 200 parts 150 parts Quince seed Boric acid Glycerine Alcohol Carbolic acid Cologne water . II. add 1 ounce ammonia water.. Take a gallon of milk.

with frequent agitations. and glycerite. skimmed and boiled for 5 minutes. pounds ounces ounces ounces ounces ounces gallons \ \ Quince seed Hot water Glycerine Witch-hazel water Boric acid . Washed unpeeled cucumbers are grated cold weather the quantities of wax and ounce ounce spermaceti may be reduced. Macerate the quince seed in half of the boiling water. 32 ounces 128 ounces 6 ounces 2 ounces Rose extract 1 ounce Violet extract Macerate the quince seed in the hot water. and while cooling incorporate the subchloride of bismuth (in Cucumber Juice. keeping up the heat until perfectly mixed. and pour gradually into the hot melted soap and cerate. stirring occasionally. incorporate with the previous mixture. strain soap 10 26 24 32 Cucumber juice castile Water to lonone Jasmine Neroli 5 1 and add the perfume. 22 grains 1 ounce Lanolin Tincture benzoin . in which the boric acid has been previously dissolved. little the last portion of the colate is added. Almond der) oil 1 1 Oleate of zinc (pow3 2 2 drachms drachms drachms Extract of white rose Glycerine Ro'se water \\ drachms 1. then . then perfume. add the remainder of the borax and hot water. well. add the glycerine and the perfume. 4 ounces Powdered Glycerine Alcohol 16 ounces . Simple cerate Powdered borax 2 11 . the latter dissolved Dissolve the boric acid in 16 ounces of the witch-hazel extract. It is well to it Melt the vaseline.. and repeat after standing again if necessary. TOILET MILKS: Cucumber Milk. strain. and add enough witch-hazel extract to bring to the measure of 32 fluidounces.. 10 parts 1. set aside for 48 hours. carbolic acid. 12 drachms Water. powdered. add the glycerine. as make warm mortar). the colate of quince seed. White castile powdered soap... and add Dissolve the oils in the to the fatty mixture. add the glycerine and witch-hazel. then put the mixture on the .000 parts 5 parts Borax 5 parts Boric acid 100 parts Glycerine 125 parts Alcohol. 94 per cent. Add 1 part of alcohol to 2 parts of juice. Finally. Glycerine Starch. Skin Cream for Collapsible Tubes. then cooled and filtered. let stand for 12 hours or more. Distilled witch-hazel extract enough to make 32 fluidounces 239 In the residue of the boiling strain off. macerate the quince seed in the solution for 3 hours. alcohol.. stirring. until it forms a jellylike Remove from the bath and stir in the remainder of the starch. ounces Glycerite starch . Face Cream Without Grease. which should be kept up for 5 minutes after add. White wax 5 drachms Spermaceti Subchloride bismuth 6 drachms Attar of rose Oil of bitter almonds Rectified spirit 15 Rhodinol the melted cerate in a hot water bath add the soap and stir well. Mix the alcohol. under constant agitation. Attar of rose. . quantity sufficient to Quince seed Boiling water steam bath and heat. let the mixture stand for 2 "days. and mix well. 6 ounces White vaseline 1 ounce '. In and pressed: the juice is heated. under continuous mass. and drachm drachm drachm minims To lastly 6 1 minims minim \ ounce Shake well while the alcohol. Now by little. I. for 2 hours and 30 minutes. Glycerine Milk. Add 8 ounces of borax to 1 gallon of boiling water. and filter until clear. and mucilages. enough. and siphon Snake off any water that may separate. cooling. perfume. lavender oil. cologne water.150 parts 160 parts 400 parts Distilled water 20 parts Tincture of benzoin Rub up 80 parts of the starch with the glycerine.COSMETICS 4 av. a large quantity. in the alcohol. Lanolin II. wax. water dissolve the borax and boric acid. keeps indefinitely. and spermaceti together. then the heated juice and glycerine. II. add the water and tincture and stir till homogeneous. stirring all until uniform and cold. Lanolin Toilet Milk.

I.240 COSMETICS Acid chrysophanic. at night. to the affected places. To 25 parts add gradually. 2 quarts and 0.15 to 0. In the morning remove the plaster and all remnants of it by rubbing fresh butter or cold cream over the spots. and allowed to dry on.10 part of jasmine essence. (a) Corrosive sublimate flower 1 Orangewater dilute part of grain part of zinc white. Clean the affected part with 10 parts 4 parts 2 parts 2 parts Magnesium carbonate Zinc oxide Freckle Remedies. which last is a very powerful agent. finally stir in 0. Leloir has found the following of service. glass bottles. Filter the mixture and fill into For use as a cosmetic. When Jasmine Milk. add the rose water. . finally. with constant 1 of water stirring.500 parts Acid. the following is used: V. green soap or with alcohol. This application will loosen itself in several uays. 1 part 95 parts Saponify the oil with the lead acetate. 1 in 500. then incorporate the two with each other. on retiring. concentrated Ammonium may composed of vaseline and Vigo's plaster (emplastrum hydrargyri compositum). when the process should be repeated. rub on the raspberry paste on retiring at night. .. 1 1 part part 2 parts 5 parts When the application dries thoroughly. and in the morning use the jasmine milk to remove the paste from the skin. Should it cause too much inflammation. or. Apply over the affected apply emplastrum hydrargyri compositum to the spots. peroxide of hydrogen. Poppy oil Lead acetate Tincture benzoin. II.500 parts Orange-flower water 25. applied with a glass rod: dilute nitric acid. Other external remedies that be used are lactic acid diluted with 3 volumes of water. . and. 5 grams of tincture of benzoin. the latter may be assuaged by using an ointment of zinc oxide or bismuth subnitrate or one may use the following: Kaolin Vaseline Glycerine : . IV. 500 parts . drop by drop. Rub up effect. white 20 parts . . According to Brocq the following should be penciled over the affected spots: t Fresh pure milk Glycerine 50 parts 30 parts 5 parts 3 parts Acid. go over it with a layer of traumaticine. morning and evening. capsule. 7. SUNBURN AND FRECKLE REMEDIES. . (6) Bitter almonds. Besnier recommends removal of the mercurial ointment with green soap. also mix the lanolin with 2 fluidounces of warm water. Dissolve the soap in 2 fluidounces of water. and the use. Kaolin . in equal parts..500 parts 2. II. and make an ointment. 4 parts Mix. For redness of the skin apply each other day zinc oxide ointment or ointment of bismuth subnitrate. of an ointment This preparation is applied with a sponge. adding the second to the first. The two work together in their spirit. skin a solution of corrosive sublimate. Finally mix the two solutions. Apply with a camel's-hair pencil. 1 in 300. warm from Acid salicylic Collodion 1 to 4 parts 1 to 2 parts 40 parts there is need for a more complicated treatment. if the patient can stand it. Spirit nitrous ether. III. The latter finally adding the tincture. hydrochloric. VI. 5 parts 5 parts VII. may be replaced by 90 grains of powdered borax. hydrochloric.000 parts to an emulsion in a porcelain Filter and add. . Tincture quillaia.. and for the night I.25 part of glycerine. and then apply several coats of the following: 15 parts Acid chrysophanic 100 parts Chloroform Mix. When the skin is only slightly discolored use a pomade or apply the following: of salicylic acid. . Glycerine 4. and apply the following: Vaseline.. Chloral hydrate Carbolic acid 2 1 drachms drachm . In the morning wash off with soap and warm water. and under constant stirring. chlorate. . and follow with the Rose water tinctures. Bismuth carbonate.07 to 0.

then strain through muslin. White soft soap. 2 drachms 4 drachms 5 ounces 3 drops of al- monds III. then add the rose water. the powders. Citric acid drachms Ferrous (cryst. Borax Potassium chlorate Glycerine Alcohol Rose water to make 8 parts 1 part 1 part 4 parts 2 parts 10 parts 4 parts 90 parts 2 Mix XI. alcohol. Modern Freckles and Liver Spots.. 50 1 ounce with a VI. rose water. Apply camel's-hair pencil at night. then strain off the liquid. methods of treating dermatological freckles and liver spots are based partly on remedies that cause desquamation and those that depigmentate (or destroy or neutralize pigmentation). then mix in the glycerine cream and essential oil. Shake the bottle before use. 1 drachms drachm Compound tincture This mixture is allowed to stand for 3 or 4 days in the sun and filtered.. stirring well after each addition. . and very gradually add the oil. . cent part parts small pieces 135 parts per Ointment water VII. Lassar makes use of a paste of naphthol and sulphur. 660 parts cut in Sodium ate bicarbon1 Lemons. glycerine. percent part parts dissolve. 10 ounces 2 ounces Glycerine Alcohol. Sodium Orangewater Rose water chloride flower . Dissolve the potassium iodide in a . 3 parts 2 parts Tan and Freckle Lotion. 85 Lavender Water Citron oil oil 88 parts 23 parts 88 parts 6 parts Bicarbonate of soda 2 Powdered borax . and rub down Glycerine cream Jordan almonds Rose water Essential oil .. Both methods may be distinguished in respect to their effects and mode of using into the following: The active ingredients of the desquamative pastes are reductives which promote the formation of epithelium and hence expedite desquamation. 2^ drachms 1 Glycerine Almond oil 11 drachms drachms Well mix the glycerine and soap in a mortar. There are many such methods. and then dry and beat them up into a perfectly smooth paste. Spirit of II. . 1 part 20 parts 70 parts muth Powdered French chalk Glycerine Rose water 1 drachms grains 30 2 1 drachms ounces care- camphor. Potassium carbonate .. 15 parts 65 parts and infusion rose. . VIII.COSMETICS Tincture iodine Glycerine 60 drops 1 V. and when cold add to it the glycerine. iodine. X. of rose 7 Alcohol. and especially to be mentioned is that of Unna.. Boroglycerine. Then gently dry by dabbing with a soft towel. Coat. and of lavender . .) sulphate 18 grains 2 grains Elder-flower water 3 fluidounces Camphor Blanch the almonds. . 2 drachms Quince seeds Distilled water.. by means of a sponge before retiring. fully with the glycerine. stirring constantly until perfectly mixed. 94 per cent 1 ounce Rose water 2 ounces Boil the seeds in the water for 10 minutes. . Mix and Ointment water of rose 9 Distilled vinegar. Apply with a small piece of sponge 2 or 3 times a day. 1^ drachms 1 ounce Glycerine Rose water 4 ounces Dissolve the soda and borax in the glycerine and rose water. I. the places of the skin where the freckles are and allow to dry. and add the tincture. . cent Cologne water. who uses resorcin for the purpose. III. IX. IV.. Sunburn Remedies. Gradually add the rose water. Solution A: Potassium iodide. Subnitrate of bis- Zinc sulphocarbolate Glycerine Rose water 90 per Alcohol.

in coarse powder.) 3 LIVER SPOTS. powder. and spread on glass to dry. and water. Rub the oil and extracts and evaporated. Oil of lavender 4 ounces the old Improved Carron Oil. Powdered yellow ounces 120 grains 60 grains Rub down the carmine and ocher with alcohol in a mortar. 3 ounces . oil oil 600 parts 50 parts 15 parts 15 parts 6 parts Almond meal Bran meal Violet root 7. . . 2 ounces. oil Perfume the same. rose water.000 parts 2. Almond Powders for the Toilet. distilled water. Agitate until a solution is obtained.. Mop over the affected parts. ocher. shake well. oil Linseed Limewater Paraffine. and after standing an hour. obtained.500 parts Cornstarch Rice flour 7 1 1 . 6.. and albumen intimately. abrasions. then mix and sift. . 40 Corrosive s ub 1 i - Lemon juice Water to mate White sugar White of egg 1 part 190 parts 34 parts 275 parts . It may be increased or reduced in strength by adding to or taking from the amount Do not forof bichloride of mercury. Violet Poudre de Riz. scalds. Keep out of the way of ignorant persons and children. the sublimate. Bichloride of mercury. (av. Superior to and more suitable. witch-hazel. 10 grains. or soft rag with B and lay it upon the affected part. and again applying until the iodine stain has disappeared. then add the lemon Dissolve. tan. with this fluid moisten the iodine in a glass of water and rub it down.. sunburn.. and add Shake well before using.000 100 40 10 parts parts parts parts parts Bath Powder.COSMETICS quantity of the infusion and a of the glycerine. Agitate the two together until a complete solution is Add ounce of glycerine. almond oil 18 parts Palmarosa oil.. 8 grains..000 parts Lemon oil Clove Neroli II. freckle. until a slight or tolerably uniform brownish At the yellow skin has been produced. . Repeat the process thrice daily.000 parts Borax Bitter Cure for Tan. removing.. With a small camel's-hair pencil or piece of fine sponge apply a little of solution A to the tanned or freckled surface. 36 parts 10 parts Bergamot III. Almond meal Bran meal .000 3. soaking it afresh. to the with the borax salicylic acid until the alcohol has Use a heaping teaspoonful body bath. Carmine No.000 parts Bran meal Soap powder Bergarnot oil 3. Borax Salicylic acid Extract of cassia Extract of jasmine. but diminish the frequency of application if tenderness be produced.. Apply with a small sponge as often as not strong enough to agreeable. filter. get that this last ingredient is a powerful poison and should be kept out of the reach of children and ignorant persons. TOILET POWDERS: I. A desirable .000 parts This Wheat Sand Bitter flour Lemon oil almond oil. I. sugar. 1 pounds pound pound pound ounce Extract of cassia Extract of jasmine. 2 ounces. Ap- Mix Powdered Powdered talc orris root.. Almond meal . liquid 2 ounces 2 ounces 1 Base pounds ounce Powdered Florentine orris pound Mix the linseed the paraffine. Bichloride of mercury. juice and water. or lung affections. Does not oxidize so quickly or dry up so rapidly and less liable to rancidity. is A 900 parts 350 parts oil . drachm and let morning after the usual abludry on the face. small ply in the tions. . 3. 1 pint. gradually adding more liquid. then stir in the remainder of the ingredients. I. drachm drachm 1 drachm 20 minims 1 1 preparation for burns. squeezing away the liquid. expiration of 15 or 20 minutes moisten a piece of cambric. 3. in coarse II. blister and skin the face in average cases. and bottle the mixture. make. 1 . . lint. 2. Solution B: Sodium thiosulphate and rose water. until complete solution has been obtained. 9 1 Brunette or Rachelle..

Cornstarch Precipitated chalk. pound pound ounces White Face Powder.. or rice 100 parts Extract white rose.. but expensive. I. .COSMETICS II. Base Powdered Florentine orris 9 pounds 3 Perfume the same. and adding the orris.: pounds pound musk . powder should be 1 pound Mix and sift. Potato starch 8 1 Powdered Powdered Extract pounds talc orris of cassia. Calcium Powdered talc Powdered orris ple 3 parts 3 parts tri- Extract orange flower. Powdered talc 5 3 2 1 pounds pounds pounds Oil of neroli Oil of cedrat Oil of orange 1 2 . . Antiseptics are sometimes added in small proportion. Extract of jasmine :: II. 40 Extract of jasmine Oil of neroli Vanillin Artificial . Powdered Oil of rose talc . Powdered ate talc 22 2t 1 pounds Magnesium carbonPowdered boric acid Mix. satisfactory proportion is \ drachm of the oil to a pound of the powder. 1 . as a toilet Barber's Powder. . 9 pounds 1 Powdered Florentine orris pound Oil of rose Oil of wintergreen Extract of jasmine. the oil should be triturated first with a small portion of it. 300 parts precipitated 50 parts Steatite. The following formulas for other varieties of the powder may prove useful: Violet Talc. Powdered talc . this should then be further triturated with a larger portion. 250 grains 100 minims 20 minims 5 grains 30 grains 30 grains 1 grain IV. Cheaper. Talc. Coumarin . Powdered Oil of rose talc Extract of jasmine. if the quantity operated on be large. siftings. rose oil may be employed. tri. As a perfume. drachm drachm drachms ounce Extract of jasmine. The following combines the best qualities that a powder for the skin should have: Zinc. Bora ted Apple Blossom. pounds drops drops ounces Flesh Face Powder. Rub the carmine with a portion of the base and alcohol in a mortar. 3 . ple Rose Talc. . 6 9 1 pounds pound drachms drachms pounds pound rose geranium frequently used. the talcum alone is the best and the safest. I. For general use. oil is fume may be thoroughly disseminated throughout the powder. 50 4 2 Carmine No. 14 2 ounces ounces ounce f ounce Extract of cassia. Ylang-ylang would doubtless prove very attractive. In order that the per- A probably more Potato starch Powdered Oil of rose talc Extract of jasmine. and... when used Cornstarch 9 1 1J . drachm ounces Extract of jasmine 4 5 Powder the by repeated Base solids and mix thoroughly Tea-Rose Talc. Many odors besides that of rose would be suitable for a toilet powder. \ \ drachm ounce Ideal Cosmetic Powder. sift all until specks of carmine disappear on rubbing. White heliotropin. . triple root. 3 parts 1 part III. Talcum Powders.. Extract of cassia . best white. 1 Rose Poudre de Riz. and may prove irritating. 5 \ pounds Tincture of myrrh. in a state of very fine division. wheat. the final mixing may be effected by sifting. . 3 parts triple Extract jasmine. To 2 ounces Extract of trefle . at all events. Carnation pink blossom (Schimmers) . but on account of its cost.. II. . Starch.. white 50 parts carbonate.. but these are presumably of little or no value in the quantity allowable. 2 drachms 12 drachms of this mixture add: 1 Neroli drachm Vanillin \ drachm ounces Alcohol to Sufficient for 25 pounds. mixing the perfume the same way in another large Mix and mortar.

40. 5 parts of milk of sulphur.. finally. and with constant agitation. I. add the glycerine. Alcohol. Alcohol.. especially as a hair wash. filter and color the filtrate with chlorophyll. add the vinegar. dis- 24 parts 3 parts 1 part 12 parts 6 parts the water with 700 parts of the alcohol.." Fresh egg albumen. produce a little lather.. Bergamot oil. 30. K oiler says that this preparation consists of 1 part of camphor.000 parts Water Tincture of cantharides Salicylic acid 500 parts 25 25 100 40 30 parts parts parts parts parts 5 parts TOILET WATERS: " Glycerine Oil of birch buds . Dissolve the oils in the alcohol. alcohol. or an ingredient in hair washes. and. Finally.250 parts Dissolve the balsam of Peru in the by little.. and to the mixture add.. and the alum in the rose water.. an hour before the bath. Birch water.. Mix tilled 575 parts Alcohol 1. Alcohol.500 parts Water 700 parts Potash soap 200 parts 150 parts Glycerine Oil of birch buds. cent 96 per 2. . 50 parts Essence of spring flowers 100 parts Chlorophyll. repeat the operperfectly clear.. Lemon Mix the first oil Lavender oil Oil of thyme Dissolve the oils in the alcohol.... add an tincture of saffron. to which is added a little To use. add the acid and tincture of cantharides. It Bergamot Vanillin oil. Vinaigre Rouge. 10 per cent. and Rottmanner's Beauty Water. At night. 840 parts 44 parts 4 parts 2 parts 2 parts Alcohol. and rub it over the face and neck. II. ... forms a light. mix well. and in the mixture dissolve the Add the essence of spring flowers soap. In the morning.. Birch Waters. liquid becomes flocculent.. let stand for a week and filter. mix thoroughly. III. equal volume of water to. may be prepared as follows: TOILET VINEGARS: Pumillo Toilet Vinegar. color. fineness. Alcohol oil. clearness. quantity sufficient to . but after standing for 2 or 3 days clears up sometimes becomes When ingredients mixed the Alcohol Birch juice Glycerine and may be decanted.. Ammonia water . about letting it dry on.000 90 10 50 14. solve the carmine in the ammonia water and add to mixture. 500 parts 125 parts 2 parts 2 parts 2 parts well together. 80 per cent 1.. 96 per cent 3. and birch oil to the remainder of the alcohol. .000 40. amber-colored liquid that remains clear for months. then decant. Geranium Water IV. Geranium oil . add the acetic Disacid. color as before.000 3. Oil of pinu spumillo Oil of lavender Oil of lemon Oil of bergamot . . Beauty Water. Shake thoroughly. pour about a teaspoonful of the water in the palm of the hand. Mix the two solutions. let stand for a few minutes. Acetic acid Alum Peru balsam Carmine. and 50 parts of rose water.000 1. .COSMETICS ation. and set aside for 8 days. Rose water. and let stand overnight.. mix the water and glycerine and add.600 parts Vinegar.. Oil of birch Bergamot oil.. the soap mixture. which has many cosmetic applications. The regular use of this preparation for 4 weeks will give the skin an extraordinary freshness.. also letting the liquid dry on the skin.000 150 100 50 parts parts parts parts parts parts parts parts parts parts parts . . before retiring. Lemon oil .. No. . ..

000 parts. next steamed during 1-2 hours at a pressure of \ atmosphere. Cotton BLEACHING OF COTTON: I. at a pressure of atmosNext wash. Fill suitable bottles with coarsely II. product is then filtered and the filtrate made up to 200 parts with distilled . is more specific and states that cotton is soluble in a concentrated solution of copper ammonium sulphate. Cotton. violet extract. cotton goods are impregnated . washed and dried. The bisulphite may also be replaced by calcium hydrosuland. and calcium chloride. in heaps for 1 hour. wash and phere. or of a coarsely powdered mixture. 1 drachm. acidulate. The pieces are piled in heaps on carriages. by weight. violet extract. spirit of ammonia. The whiteness obtained by the above process is handsomer than that produced by the old method with hypochlorites. acidulate slightly with hydrochloric acid. extraneous matter by boiling with potash. is soluble in copper ammonium sulphate solution. the latter are shoved into the well-known apparatus of Mather & monium carbonate. wash. 1 ounce. mulas: I. 1 . then through sulphuric acid or hydrochloric It is acid. acidulated. according to the U. washed. S. Bleaching of Vegetable Fibers with Hydrogen Peroxide. wash. on an ordinary reeling vat. Pass the pieces through a solution containing caustic soda. wash. 10 minims. pomade essences. Spirit pint. For 5 pieces are needed about 1.. I. and cautiously adding solution of ammonia to the liquid until the precipitate The first formed is nearly dissolved. The standard test solution (B. of hydrogen After 3-4 hours' boiling. acidulate. 2t ounces. and the liquid is pumped ounces. yields pure cellulose or absorbent cotton. of water. by weight. arations of this character consist of either coarsely powdered ammonium carbonate. The bleaching may also be done dry. 8 fluidrachms. and part of bisulphite of 40 Be. P. wash and dry. contained in a suitable bottle. 1 part of burnt magnesia. The result is as white a fabric as by the method with caustic lime. and afterwards with hydrochloric acid.COTTON Palmarosa Glycerine oil. aromatic spirit of ammonia. extract cassia. or handkerchief exThe following are typical fortract.) is made by dissolving 10 parts of copper sulphate in 160 parts of distilled water. with 1 part. peroxide. Violet Witch-Hazel. 3 drachms. with a mixture of concentrated tincture of orris root. by weight. and next through soda lye. hydrogen peroxide. put again through sodium chloride. powdered ammonium carbonate and add to the salt as much of the following soluOil of orris. The following is a formula for III. hour. 2 fluid- Moisten coarsely powdered am- Platt (kier). wash and dry. 30 minims. orris. of water. which. 245 Bleaching with Calcium Sulphite. soap. wash. Borax Water 100 parts 2. tincture of spirit of rose. old III. 1 part of caustic lime.000 parts II.. when freed from The Bleaching by Steaming. singed and washed cotton goods are passed through hydrochloric acid of 2 Leave them in heaps during 1 Be. oil of lavender flowers. and the fabric is weakened to a less extent. stronger water of ammonia. with or without the addition of ammonia water. P. with calcium sulphite. a liquid preparation: Extract violet. the whole being perfumed by the addition of volatile oil. steam. The B. . diluted with 10 times Let the pieces lie the volume of water. instead of steaming. TESTS FOR COTTON. 5 tion as it will absorb: minims. 4 fluidrachms cologne spirit. 30 parts. The Most prepViolet Ammonia Water. which slowly evolves the odor of ammonia. and burnt magnesia. soda. 10 parts. 4 fluidrachms. of ionone may be used instead of extract of violet. of solid caustic soda.000 parts 150 parts 20. Should the whiteness not be sufficient. repeat the operations. on for 6 hours. Spirit of ionone 6 $ drachm ounces Rose water Distilled extract o f witch-hazel enough to make 16 ounces the practicable also to commence with latter and finally give a treatment with hydrogen peroxide. pass through sodium hvpochlorite of 10 Be. The bleaching may also be performed by passing through barium peroxide. P. pass through caustic soda lye of 38 Be. the ibric may be boiled for several hours Ehite. diluted with 8 times its volume of water. 8 fluidrachms. by weight.

Woolen material is colored crimson. clove oil. (5) washing with water. air being drawn through both vessels to facilitate the removal of the acid vapors. COUGH MIXTURES FOR CATTLE: See Veterinary Formulas. light red.. but intensity of color may be increased by slightly heating. and prepared for bleaching by the following process. etc. (4) boiling with an alkali lye. . 1. 500 parts. (2) steaming. and distribute evenly on cotton. Aromatic Cotton. as it rapidly dissolves cellulose. IV. DETECTION OF: See Foods and Lard. pink. flax. spirit of wine (90 per cent). ple will be almost completely bleached. (3) treatment with a mineral acid. COTTONSEED FOOD. OIL: To Distinguish Cotton from Linen. then wash the precipitate and dissolve in 20 per cent ammonia until saturated. the blue will be strongly reinforced. The heat developed is sufficient to give a color at the contact point of the liquids.COTTON COUGH MIXTURES The concentrated solution is prepared by using a smaller quantity water. resorcin will give an orange color. linen. the acid vapors coming from the mixture may be led into a second quantity of material contained in a separate vessel. COTTONSEED See Oil. The amount of acid to be added depends on the material employed and on the duration of the heating. and after drying expose to ammonia vapor and rinse in water. a lavender. Cotton may be detected in colored goods. wool. thymol or menthol a pink. fibers and parts. but not wool. Take a sample about an inch and a half square of the cloth to be tested and into a tepid alcoholic solution of cyanine. 5 parts. This solution dissolves cotton. Liebermann's Test.16). to be especially useful in microscopy. TESTS FOR: See Foods. to a temperature of 212 to 300 F.000. II. which is performed without the waste being removed from the apparatus: (1) treatment with a solvent. COUGH CANDY: See Confectionery. Overbeck's test for cotton in woolen consists in soaking the fabric in tion Cotton Degreasing. COTTONSEED OIL IN FOOD. but has no action on lignin. and heated in a closed vessel. 5 parts. such as benzine. using boneblack to decolorize the solution. During the heating. hydroquinone or pyrogallol a brown. is placed in an acidproof apparatus. After the coloring matter has been absorbed by the fiber. plunge it COTTONSEED OIL IN LARD. The cotton is left pressed together in a tightly closed tin vessel for a few days. and overlay on concentrated sulphuric acid free from nitrous products. pine-leaf oil. Dye the faban hour in fuchsine solution rendered light yellow by caustic soda solution and then washed with water silk is colored dark red. After heating. By heating for 30 minutes the above percentage of acid is required. alphanaphtol a purple. Cotton waste. and cotton remains colorless. in a greasy condition. etc. if necessary. morphine or codeine. If the product resulting from treating the cotton is made up 1 in 1.. cottonseed kernel meal. the substance is ground and at the same time mixed with some basic substances such as sodium carbonate. 80 parts. Test for Wash add 1 part resorcin. for the purpose of vaporizing and expelling from the cotton waste the solvent still remaining in it after as much as possible of this has been recovered by draining. provided with a stirrer. If the sample be then plunged in ammonia. gallic acid a green gradually becoming violet down in the acid. to neutralize the acid. chalk. ric for half Cottonseed hulls or other material containing fiber difficult of digestion are thoroughly mixed with about 5 per cent of their weight of hydrochloric acid (specific gravity. but the quantity may be reduced if the heating is prolonged. while linen preserves the blue color almost unchanged. of distilled water. 5 produced as follows : Schweitzer's reagent for textile cellulose is made by dissolving 10 parts of copper sulphate in 100 parts of water and adding a solution of 5 parts of potassium hydrate in 50 parts of water. where it is simultaneously freed from grease. Jandrier's Fabrics. by means of an atomizer. HULLS AS STOCK an aqueous solution of alloxantine (1 in 10). cotton remains blue. To 100 to 200 parts of this soluIII. Woolen Cotton in the sample of fabric and treat with sulphuric acid (20 Be. V. rinse it in water and then plunge into dilute sulIf it is of cotton the samphuric acid. and The reagent is said silk.) for half an hour on the water bath. Aromatic cotton is Mix camphor.

elastic. It is best to prepare 2 or 3 crayons of each set. but most dispensers prepare it with an ordinary egg beater. allow to Court Plasters (See also Plasters. ways to There are many very highly indorsed: whip cream. purified Cough Mixtures. If the ether evaporates. II. each application or layer should be permitted to harden. and it protects them and will not wash off. CRAYONS FOR WRITING ON GLASS: See Etching. Heat 4 parts white wax over a of water and 1 part of fire until the wax has on ice until ready to earthen vessels about 6 inches in diameter. hence the following rules must be observed in order to produce the desired result: The following is Keep the cream Take 2 whip.. To avoid this the temperature of the cream must be kept at a low degree and the whipping must not be too violent or prolonged. and must not be simply left in their natural tone. A mixture of warm solution of sodium silicate and casein. potash. CRAYONS FOR GRAINING AND MARBLING. and white lead for oak. Unlike ordinary collodion it will not be If tinted very likely to dry and peel off. Genuine whipped cream is nothing other than pure cream into which air has been forced by the action of the different apparatus manufactured for the purpose. etc.. of the former to 35 or 40 parts. slightly with alkanet and saffron it can be made to assume the color of the skin shades must be composed on the grinding slab as they are wanted. gelatinizes and forms a sort of liquid court plaster. since they can be used with either oil or water. The pencils should be kept in a dry place and are more suitable for graining and marbling than brushes. the skin should be perfectly dry. by volume.) Liquid Court Plaster. collodion. It may be made by weighing successively turpentine. umber. about 9 parts of the former to 1 part of the latter. III. have more ether put in to liquefy it. Whipped Cream. and Glass. flexible. by weight. Into 1 bowl put 1 pint of rich sweet cream. If soluble guncotton is dissolved in acetone in the proportion of about 1 part. bruises. and 5 drops of best vanilla extract. The whipped cream will stand up all day and should be let stand in the vessel on ice. P. The desired combination has taken place. . Procure an ounce bottle and fill Collodion Canada .) In order to make liquid court plaster U. It is a good thing to have in the house and in the tool chest. for instance. a colorless. Use. Three or four coats are usually sufficient. of the latter. CRAYONS: See Pencils. so that when applied it is scarcely observable. Vandyke brown. I. and half a part each of castor oil and glycerine be added. Special machines have been constructed for whipping cream. All the earth colors can be conveniently worked up. leaving it too thick for use. With this mixture the desired colors are ground thick enough so that they can be conveniently rolled into a pencil with chalk. fill up with ether. care must. be exercised in order that butter is not produced instead of whipped cream. however. it and three-fourths full of flexible collodion. skim off the froth into the other vessel and so proceed whipping and skimming until all the cream in the first vessel has been exhausted. into a tarred bottle: 4 av. is the best liquid that can possibly be recommended. 2 teaspoonfuls powdered sugar. COW DISEASES AND THEIR REM- EDIES: See Veterinary Formulas. umber alone would be too dark for walnut use. Apply to cuts. mixing the first a little lighter by the addition of white lead and leaving the others a little darker. S. intimate cool and add a proportionate quantity of gum arabic. and flexible film will form on the skin wherever it is applied. Add the white of 1 egg and beat with large egg beater or use whipping apparatus until 2 inches of froth has formed.COURT PLASTERS CREAM COUGH MIXTURES AND REMEDIES: See Cold and 247 When an Stir in 1 part of completely dissolved. ounces 95 grains Castor oil 57 grains Before applying. Cream (See also Milk.

arises. an hour. jewelers' rouge. . then place aside to settle. The addition of an even teaspoonful of salt to 1 quart of sweet cream. quick. place a bowl in each pan. therefore. tends to expel it. for II." so exceedingly useful as a pol- IV. and whip it again. in order to sweeten it. soft soap. into the first bowl. 30 Boil the ingredients together for parts. Creosote. One of the best starting points for the preparation is the "creosote" obtained blast furnaces. under Cements. easy. and perform the operation in a cool place. and whip it with a whipped cream churn. on the contrary. sweet cream. which forms the whipped cream. which has been chilled by being placed on the ice. CROCKERY CEMENTS: See Adhesives. add to it a heaping tablespoonful of powdered sugar and 2 ounces of a solution of gelatin (a spoonful dissolved in 2 ounces of water). 6.. Use only pure cream. I. American Soda Fountain ComTake 2 earthen pany's Whipped Cream. The cream should be pure and rich. likewise surrounded with ice. then with a whipper beat to a consistency that will withstand its own weight. 5. 2. The substance known which is as "crocus. and solution of soda (10 per cent). and skim off the whipped cream into the other bowl. CREAM CRYSTAL CEMENTS Secure pure cream and as fresh as the churn drives air into the cream. which has settled to the bottom. CREAMS FOR THE FACE AND SKIN See Cosmetics. may be very generally obtained in the cinders produced from coal containing iron.248 1. As rapidly as the whipped cream skim it off and place it in another slowly. surround it with broken ice. which is rich in cresols and contains comparatively little The proportions used are: phenols. III. COLD: See Cosmetics. Foy's Whipped Cream. each 6 or 8 inches greater in diameter than the bowls. while the second. Keep the whipped cream on ice. dark fluid is Eberle's Whipped Cream. 7. and convenient way is to use a beater. possible. bowls and 2 tin pans. Steel burnishers may be brought to a high state of polish with this substance by rubbing them upon a buff made of solAfter this diers' belt or hard wood. operation. Take a pint of fresh. CROCUS. in churning. and bring it down quickly and When the second bowl is full forcibly. Fill about one-half full of cream. and beat vigorously for 2 or 3 minutes. Surround the bowl in which the cream is being whipped with cracked ice. readily CRESOL EMULSION. and blows an infinity of tiny bubbles. before whipping. the burnisher should be rubbed on a second buff charged with will color. The philosophy of the process is that ishing medium for steel. of whipped cream. put the cream to be whipped in 1 bowl. It be easily recognized by its rusty and should be collected and reduced to a powder for future use. and placed on ice. whip slowly for a minute or two until a heavy froth gathers on top. 30 parts. 3. : CREOSOTE SOAP: See Soap. Place 12 ounces of rich cream on the ice about 1 hour. beater. The downward motion of the beater should be more forcible than the upward. whipped cream rises and fills the bowl. Make whipped cream in small quantities will make it whip up very and stiff. raise the dasher gently and possible. a little powdered sugar may be added before beatThe cream may be left in the ing. and in a convenient dish for whipping with a wire whipper. Skim off the dense froth. and put in container for counter use. CROCKERY: See Ceramics. pour off the liquid cream. The from and keep it on ice. 10 parts. and neither sugar nor As the gelatin should be added to it. A little powdered sugar should be added to the cream after it is whipped. remove the churn. etc. A clear. continue this until you have frothed all that is oily portion floating afterwards drained from any upon the top. bowl. have it ice cold. and stand up much longer and better. as the first has a tendency to force the air into the cream. Cummins's Whipped Cream. 4. Do not whip the cream too long or too violently. CRYSTAL CEMENTS FOR REUNITING BROKEN PIECES: Se