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Normal Schok|Views: 1,187|Likes: 21

Published by Muthuvel M

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https://www.scribd.com/doc/14081580/Normal-Schok

01/14/2013

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and the changes in the flow properties across the wave are abrupt. When the shock waves are at right angles to the flow, they are called normal shocks, if it is inclined at an angle, then oblique shocks. Normal shocks may be treated as one dimensional hut oblique shocks require two dimensional approach. There will be an increase in static pressure and entropy, but loss in stagnation pressure across the shock. The flow changes from supersonic to subsonic with sudden increase in pressure. The applications of shock waves are (1 used in shock tubes and supersonic compressors. 1i) used in supersonic aircraft to obtain high pressure ratio in an axial compressor. Development of a Normal Shock Wave In an off-design value of pressure ratio, the variation in fluid properties is sudden and the flow changes from supersonic to subsonic. It occurs in the divergent portion of a convergent- divergent nozzle is shown in figure in the previous chapter. This is due to the formation of finite shock waves at this section and the thickness of the shock wave is 0.00! mm. Hg 3. I Ib) shows a constant area duct which contains gas initially at rest. When the piston moves right the pressure pulses (infinitesimal pressure waves) are transmitted through the gas to the right. The growth of pressure wave at time tj, 12, 13 is shown in Fig. 3.1 (a) and it travels towards right with the speed of sound relative to the gas. The gas near to the piston moves with a high velocity than the gas in the downstream region. Similarly the pressure of the gas nearer to the piston is higher than in the regions downstream. Therefore, the pressure waves nearer to the piston travel at higher velocities on account of higher gas velocity and speed of sound. Thus the upstream waves are continuously overtaking the downstream region. On account of the above phenomena the weak pressure wave generated at time i = grows stronger and steeper when it moves towards right. When this growth continuous, at some stage t = t the form of wave is vertical. This vertical wave front is called Normal Shock Wave across which the changes in pressure, density, temperature, velocity and Mach number are abrupt.

Fig. 3.2 shows a normal shock wave in a frictionless constant area duct contained in a control volume. The governing equations used in normal shock waves are (i) Continuity equation (ii Momentum equation

(iii) Energy equation and (iv) Equation of state The properties of gas in the upstream side is x’ and the downstream isy. From continuity equation, the mass flow rate m = Px A Cx = py A C {A = A) A = constant] = p = p... It is assumed that, there is no heat transfer and the shaft work is zero. Therefore, the adiabatic energy equation for the control volume containing the shock gives = ho = h = constant

From momentum equation (P —P A = iii (c —C

From equation of state h = f(S,p) 1 s = f(P,p) 5 The above equations are used to define the two important curves known as Fanno and Rayleigh curves. Fig. 3.2 shows a normal shock wave in a frictionless constant area duct contained in a control volume. The governing equations used in normal shock waves are (i) Continuity equation (ii Momentum equation (iii) Energy equation and (iv) Equation of state The properties of gas in the upstream side is x’ and the downstream isy. From continuity equation, the mass flow rate m = Px A Cx = py A C {A = A) A = constant]

It is assumed that, there is no heat transfer and the shaft work is zero. Therefore, the adiabatic energy equation for the control volume containing the shock gives = ho = h = constant

From momentum equation (P —P A = iii (c —C

From equation of state h = f(S,p) 1 s = f(P,p) 5 The above equations are used to define the two important curves known as Fanno and Rayleigh curves. Fanno Line Fanno line gives an adiabatic flow process in a constant area duct with friction. Since there is a friction, therefore the process is irreversible. The stagnation enthalpy and mass flow rate per unit area remains constant. The governing equations used for Fanno flow are continuity equation, energy equation and equation of state.

By substituting different values of Cy, we will get a line called fanno line on the h —s diagram as shown in Fig. 3.3. Figure shows the constant pressure lines also. The entropy is maximum at point F’ where the Mach number M = I is derived below. From adiabatic energy equation

dh + C dC = 0

pdC+Cdp = 0

l’ herefore, at the maximum entropy point (F) on the fanno line is sonic i.e., M = 1. The upper side of the curve represents subsonic flow whereas the lowerside is supersonic. Rayleigh Line Rayleigh line describes a frictioniess flow process in a constant area duct with heat transfer. The mass flow rate per unit area remains constant. The governing equations used for Rayleigh flow are continuity equation, momentum and equation of state. From equations

By substituting different values of Cy, we will get a line called Rayleigh line on the h —s diagram as shown in fig. 3.3. The entropy is maximum at point ‘ R’ where the Mach number M = I is derived below.

pC

= constant =0

DifferentiatingpdC+Cdp pdC = -Cdp

Prandtl-Meyer Relation

It is a fundamental equation which gives the relation between the gas velocities before and after the normal shock and the critical velocity of sound. Praridtl-Meyer equation is the basis for other equations for shock waves.

M x M* = 1 Mach Number Downstream of the Normal Shock Wave MT = Mach number before the normal shock (or) upstream Mach number M = Mach number after the shock (or) Downstream Mach number

Static Pressure Ratio Across the Shock Fx = Fy

Temperature Ratio across the Shock

Density Ratio Across the Shock (or) Rankine-Hugoniot Equation The Rankine-Hugoniot equation gives the relationship between the pressure and density ratios across a shock wave in a perfect gas. From continuity equation, Px C = p C) = pC = constant From momentum equation,

From adiabatic energy equation

By substituting this in the adiabatic equation,

We know that,

The above equation can be written as in terms of pressure ratio across the shock.

These Equations are known as Rankine-Hugoniot equations. These equations are compared with isentropic process equation for the same pressure-density relation .

Stagnation Pressure Ratio across the Shock Shock wave is an irreversible one across which there is an increase in static pressure and entropy hut loss in stagnation pressure. This stagnation pressure ratio is derived under as a function of upstream Mach number

We know that

We know that

Change in Entropy across the Shock The change in entropy for a perfect gas is given by

Therefore the change in entropy across the shock

Impossibility of Rare Faction Shock Wave

The variations of downstream Mach number and change in entropy with upstream Mach number is shown in the Figure. When the Mach number before the shock is greater, the

Mach number after the shock is very small.

When M, is greater than I. M is less than 1. By substituting ‘ Mi’ value in equation (3.45) for a given value of r, the change in entropy is positive. On the other hand, when M is less than I (subsonic), M will be greater than I (supersonic) and the downstream pressure (P is less than the upstream pressure ( P ). This will be possible only if the shock is an expansion shock. But the change in entropy is negative. A decrease in entropy in an adiabatic process which violates the second law of thermodynamics. Therefore an expansion shock wave (Rarefaction shock) is impossible and the shock is always a compression shock. Strength of a Shock Wave The strength of a shock wave is defined as the ratio of increase in pressure due to shock to the pressure before the shock. It is used in shock wave analysis.

Thus, the strength of a shock wave is proportional to (M$ —I). When M is greater, the shock waves will be strong shocks.

The strength of the shock wave becomes

It is observed from the above equation, when the density ratio is 6, the strength of the shock is infinity. Supersonic Wind Tunnels The convergent divergent section ofa supersonic wind tunnel is shown in Fig. 3.6 and 3.7. It consists of a nozzle, test section and a diffuser. Normal shock takes place at the test section is shown in fig. 3.6. The supersonic flow leaving the test section is then reversibly decelerated in the diffuser which raises the gas pressure to a back pressure value.

Due to boundary layer growth, the diffuser throat area is greater than the nozzle throat area. As a result of shock wave there will be a stagnation pressure loss across the shock and change in critical areas, but mass flow parameter is constant. Applying Fliegner’ s formula across the shock wave.

The above equation shows that, when a shock is at the test section, the diffuser throat Mea. is always greater than the nozzle throat area. Therefore for steady running conditions it is economical to keep the shock at the diffuser throat is shown in the figure. - change in enthalpv in reversible diffusion Diffuser efficiency 1D = . change in enthalpy in actual diffusion

111(a A gas (r = 1.4, R = 287 J/Kg K) at a Mach number of 1.8, P = 80 KPa and T = 373 K passes f/trough a normal shock. Determine its density after the shock. (‘ ompare this value in an isentropic compression through the same pressure ratio. [ ‘ 95. MS’ Lí j (b) A jet of air at 275 K and 69 KPa has an initial Mach number 2. If it passes through a normal shock wave determine at downstream of the shock the fOllowing Mach number, pressure, temperature, density, speed of sound and jet velocity. [ ‘ 95. Madras, Nov. 95,

MKU Apr. ‘ 96,

2.An air plane having a diffuser designed for subsonic flight, has the normal shock attached to the edge of the diffuser when the plane is flying at a certain Mach number. If at the exit oft/ic d?ffuser the mach number is 0.3. What must be the flight mach number assuming isentropic dfffusion behind the shock ? The area at inlet is 0.29 m and that at exit is 0.44 m [ ‘ 96. Madras]

QUESTIONS AND PROBLEMS 1.Describe two practical situations where oblique shock waves are produced. How are strong and weak shocks generated and how do they affect ? 2.Derive the energy equation for flow through an oblique shock:

State the assumptions used. Why is it same for the normal and oblique shocks? 3. Starting from the general energy equation for flow through an oblique shock obtain the Prandtl’ s equation:

Deduce from this the corresponding relations or the normal shock and an infinitesimal pressure wave. 4 Derive the Rankinc-Heugonoit relation for an oblique shock.

Compare graphically the variation of density ratio with the initial Mach number in isentropic flow with oblique shock. 5. Using the normal shock relations obtain the explicit expressions for the following quantities in terms of the initial Mach number and the wave angle, for oblique shocks:

7 Show graphically the variations of the following quantities for flow through an oblique shock, with the initial Mach number at two different values of the wedge angle:

8.a What is a shock polar? (h) Derive the shock polar equation

b. Sketch shock polar diagrams at two values of the initial Mach number. Show the positions of the strong and weak oblique shocks, the normal shock and the infinitesimal wave on the diagrams. 9.Sketch the Mach waves in a flow field over a convex corner of a curved wall. The initial flow is sonic and the final Mach number is 2.0. Draw Mach waves indicating the Mach angles at

10. The stagnation pressure and temperature of air at the entry of a nozzle are 5 bar and 500 K respectively. The exit Mach number is 2.0 where a normal shock occurs. Calculate the following quantities before and after the shock: Static and stagnation pressures and temperatures, air velocities and Mach numbers. What are the values of stagnation pressure loss and increase in entropy across the shock?

11. A Mach-2 aircraft engine employs a subsonic inlet diffuser of area ratio 3. A normal shock is formed just upstream of the diffuser inlet. The free-stream conditions upstream of the diffuser are: p = 0.10 bar, T = 300 K. Determine (a) Mach number, pressure and temperature at the diffuser exit. (b) Diffuser efficiency including the shock. Assume isentropic flow in the diffuser downstream of the shock.

12. (a) Derive the following relations for normal shock waves:

13. Depict graphically the variation of the following quantities with the Mach number upstream of the normal shock:

14. A supersonic is provided with a constant diameter circular duct at its exit. The duct diameter is same as the nozzle exit diameter. Nozzle exit cross-section is three times that of its throat. The entry conditions of the gas (t’ = 1.4, R=0.287 kJ/kg K) are p 10 bar, T 600 K. Calculate the static pressure, Mach number and the velocity of the gas in the duct: (a) when the nozzle operates at its design condition, (b) when a normal shock occurs at its exit, and (c) when a normal shock occurs at a section in the diverging part where the area ratio A/A* = 2.0

15. A nozzle is designed for superheated steam ( = 1.3) with a pressure ratio P/Po = 0.185; this operates at an off-design condition with a pressure ratio of 0.754. Determine the area ratio (A/A*) at the section where the normal shock occurs. What are the values of design and off-design Mach numbers at the nozzle exit? 16. Determine the pressure ratio and exit Mach number for a normal shock at the area ratio A/A* = 1.305 in the nozzle of problem 6.15. What is the maximum value of the Mach number occurring in the nozzle?

17(a) Explain how strong compression and expansion waves arc formed in a compressible fluid. (b) Under what conditions a compression wave changes into a shock wave (C) Why are expansion shock impossible? 18(a) Write down the four basic equations which satisfy the static points before and after a normal shock wave. (b) Using the above equations prove that at the maximum entropy on the enthalpyentropy diagrams the Mach number is unity. 19 Starting from the energy equation for flow through a normal obtain the following relations:

20.Derive the following relations for flow through a normal shock:

21. (a) Show that the stagnation pressure ratio and the change in entropy across a normal shock are given by

22. (b) If a diffuser achieves compression of air through a normal shock wave at an initial Mach number of 1.5 determine (I) its efficiency (ii) stagnation pressure loss and (iii) the increase in entropy. 23.A jet of air at 275 K and 0.69 bar has an initial Mach number of 2.0. If it passes through a normal shock wave d (a) Mach number (b) pressure (c) temperature (d) density (e speed of Sound and ( jet velocity downstream of the shock. 24. M aircraft flies at a Mach number of 1.2 at an altitude of 160 metres (p = 103 mbar, T= 216.65 K). The compression in its engine is partly achieved by a normal shock wave standing at the entry of its diffuser. Determine immediately downstream of the shock (a) Mach number (b) temperature of the air (c) pressure of the air and (d) stagnation pressure loss across the shock

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