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A condensed outline modeled after the 2013 Princeton Review book Created by © SenderSmash Productions 2013
Chapter 7: The Renaissance and Reformation (1350-1600)
I. II. City-States a. Rebirth, individualism, patrons of the arts b. Medici banking Humanism a. Petrarch – father of humanism, man of letters, universality b. Castiglione – Book of the Courtier c. Valla – textual criticism d. Bruni – female education Renaissance Art a. Individualism, naturalism, contrast (chiaroscuro), single-point perspective b. Da Vinci – Mona Lisa c. Raphael – single-point perspective d. Michelangelo – Sistine Chapel, David Northern Renaissance a. Christian Humanism – more religious focus b. Erasmus – In Praise of Folly, Handbook of the Christian Knight i. Unlike Luther: predestination, reform church c. More – Utopia d. Bocaccio – Decameron e. Gutenberg – printing press, Gutenberg Bible Protestant Reformation a. Question: practices, texts, leaders b. Black Death, simony, Wycliffe/Hus c. Council of Constance – end schism, elect Martin V (1417) d. Luther – 95 Theses (over indulgences), justification by faith alone, Bible, government > church, fewer sacraments, literal transubstantiation i. Luther vs. Calvin (see pg. 66) ii. Elector of Saxony – protection iii. Peasant’s Revolt 1525, 12 Articles, Priesthood of All Believers e. Schmalkaldic Wars – Peace of Augsburg 1555 (religion of ruler/ruled) f. Anabaptists (deny baptism) and Antitrinitarians (deny Trinity) g. Zwingli – denied sacraments i. Calvin – Institutes of the Christian Religion, predestination/elect, Geneva h. English Reformation – Act of Supremacy 1534: leader of church/gov. Counter-Reformation a. Index of Prohibited Books b. Council of Trent 1545 – simony, education, sacraments, salvation c. Jesuits – St. Ignatius Loyola: Spiritual Exercises
” e. Revocation of Edict of Nantes 1685 – lose civil rights. Royal Absolutism – Richelieu.Chapter 8: The Age of Expansion and the Rise of Monarchical States (1415-1700s) I. Scotland supports king. Bishop Bossuet. 2 . Henry VIII. 3. Queen Elizabeth. Treaty of Utrecht 1713 – separates French/Spanish thrones England a. Guises. Columbus – discovers the Indies c. Henry VII. Versailles – magnificent palace h. non-permanent victory d. Stuarts c. Machiavelli – The Prince 1513 (political thought. i. Mazarin. monarchy b. puts Parliament above king f. Bodin – abs. War of Spanish Succession – fight with Netherlands i. IV. V. VI. Charles V (1556) Ferdinand (HRE. Swedish-French Phase – Peace of Westphalia 1648 (confirm nation-states) France a. encomienda Dev. Five Great Farms (free trade). III. Fronde. Bohemian Phase – Defenestration of Prague. hate James d. Ship money – tax inner cities to pay for navy h. Battle of Lepanto – beat Ottomans. but resists changes to church II. Tonnage and Poundage only for 1 year (not life) e. “Paris is worth a mass. Danish Phase – Albrecht von Wallenstein. 2. Charles V fails to unify HRE b. Austria). Portuguese and Spanish Empires a. Pizarro – sets out for Peru d. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre d. French East India Co. Battle of White Mountain c. Louis XIV. Vasco da Gama – first to reach India 1498 b. James VI c. ADRM g. Petition of Right – force Charles to sign. Edict of Nantes 1598 – freedom to Huguenots f. Puritans – want church de-Catholicized. Admiral Coligny c. 4. Philip (Spain) c. St. Edict of Restitution (return land) d. Swedish Phase – Gustavus Adolphus. of Monarchical States a. Spanish Inquisition b. Power struggle: Catherine de Medici. Ferdinand and Isabella. Spanish system: haciendas. Duke of Alva – Council of Troubles (suppress Netherlands) Thirty Years War a. Italy – divided peninsula Spain a. some exiled j. Huguenots – French Calvinists b. 1. William of Orange – leader of Netherlands ii. War of the Roses – inter-aristocratic war b. Henry IV – Bourbon Dynasty. Mary Queen of Scots. Colbert – mercantilism. strong rulers) d. Refuse to dissolve Parliament g. Richelieu pulling strings e.
dowry. creates New Model Army i. Mutiny Act 1689 – civil law can govern the army iv. Act of Union 1707 – unite England and Scotland. Bank of Amsterdam ii. primogeniture. Poverty – English Poor Law. Price Revolution – high inflation c. Decentralized power i. Family structure – nuclear family. Art i. Test Act – Catholics can’t serve in military ii. Alchemy – early medicine 3 . VIII. Scholasticism – Aquinas harmonizes Aristotle with Church b. Charles tries to size members of HC. Cromwell rises up. Growth in population b. Pre-rev. English Rev. printing press. conditions a. New world. Grand Remonstrance – official grievances l. Growing power of Amsterdam i. Glorious Rev. Farm living – Small villages. 1688 – William and Mary overthrow James i. Act of Toleration 1689 – freedom of worship for Protestants only iii. Hals. Rembrandt Economic and Social Life a. IX. Becomes center of Christian life Chapter 9: Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment (1500s-1700s) I. Reformation Medieval World a. Religious toleration b. James’ absolutism d. yet executive growing more powerful c. starts English Rev. Bring back Charles II. Vermeer. but caveats i. Cities – guilds. Act of Settlement 1701 – Catholics barred from throne v. state provides for poor e. Bill of Rights 1689 – more powers to Parliament ii. 3-field system f.VII. Each estate has power. i. Radical factions: Levellers and Diggers c. state rivalry. Popularized join-stock companies iv. Parliament abolishes prerogative courts k. Lord Protector – divides England in 12 b. a. II. Declaration of Indulgence – religious freedom. Golden Age v. economic unit i. Long Parliament meets for 20 years j. form Great Britain Netherlands a. Gentry class d. Dutch East India Company 1602 iii. entrepreneurs g.
The Social Contract. Germany – Kant. deism. empiricism i. Rousseau – emotion over reason. Advancement of Learning. can rebel. adults vs. moon = earth. Voltaire – freedom of expression. War of Austrian Succession Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle. only toys with ideas b. knowledge is empirical b. Catherine the Great – Enlightened Absolutism. needed to protect men from destroying one another e. Joseph grants religious toleration. Austria i. Wealth of Nations. ltd. Kant – “dare to know.” find your own answers b. Geocentric system believed Copernican Revolution a. Italy – humanitarianism c. Pragmatic Sanction – Charles VI gives land to daughter iii. Candide (inner solace) d. give them Netherlands 4 .III. makes aristocracy pay taxes ii. connects heavens to earth e. Prussia i. checks and balances. supply/demand Women and the Enlightenment a. tabula rasa (experience) 18th Century Enlightenment a. kids Spread of Enlightenment Thought a. social contract. suffrage European Powers in the Enlightenment a. On the Revolution of Heavenly Orbs b. Scotland – Adam Smith. separation of powers. Locke – Two Treatises. IV. Hobbes – Leviathan. Diderot – 1st encyclopedia f. Copernicus – heliocentric theory. Republic of Letters c. Galileo – designs telescope. – gain French support. Novum Organum. rationalism i. Frederick William – Junkers control serfs. VII. Junkers enter army iv. abs. Discourse on Method – mind and matter c. invisible hand. Montesquieu – Spirit of the Laws. c. Philosophes. VI. Establishment of serfdom. Salons b. Kepler – orbits are elliptical d. laissez-faire. monarchy. general will. V. Frederick the Great – frees serfs on royal property only c. VIII. anti-slavery e. need help from Junkers ii. Mary Wollstonecraft – Vindication of the Rights of Woman. Austrian throne only for Habsburgs iv. anti-religion. Pascal – balance religion with science d. mercantilism. Newton – Principia. Separate spheres – men and women not equal c. i. calculus Philosophy a. universal gravity. The New Atlantis b. Brahe – moon and sun orbit earth c. give him revenue iii. Descartes – deductive reasoning (conclusionevidence). Bacon – inductive reasoning (evidenceconclusion). Diplomatic Rev.
kill commander b. II. IV. of the state 5 III. Yet. . Stable. Marquis de Lafayette – forms National Guard d. Vindication of the Rights of Women – Mary Wollstonecraft d. windows on the west. The Rights of Women – Olympe de Gouges i. conscript serfs. issue assignats f. artisans. Russia i. v. Whigs (pro-1688 revolution) c. Seven Years War 1756 – Frederick attacks enemies d. Tories (pro-monarch) vs. Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth – not strong/centralized ii. d. Poor harvest. Russian navy. escort king back to Paris e. Nobles exempt from taxes b/c Parlements have veto power Estates General a. economic activity b. PM Robert Walpole b. merchants (Abbe Sieyes) b. 1772 1st partition constitution iii. 1795 3rd petition Poland gone Britain a. The Ancient Regime a. Catherine the Great – no real reform e. war debts from Seven Years War b. Reform: greater freedom of press. Commune of Paris c. 1793 2nd partition revolt iv. Poland i. and the European Reaction (1789-1815) I. Louis XV – abolished Parlements Chapter 10: The French Revolution. Ivan the Terrible – Time of Troubles ii. Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen – equal before the law i. French monarchy bankrupt.IX. Louis XVI calls EG (1787) i. Storming of the Bastille – search for weapons. Civil Constitution of the Clergy 1790 – Church become a dept. 3rd Estate meets separately: Tennis Court Oath National Assembly Storming of the Bastille & Great Fear a. religion. Peter the Great – westernizer. List of Grievances c. March on Versailles – bread shortage. Role in American Rev. wins Great Northern War iii. bureaucracy. St. Control Church – seize property. August 4th decrees – ends feudalism Constitutional Monarchy a. X. Petersburg. high taxes e. Freedom of press. Napoleon. 3rd Estate – peasants. Great Fear – peasants attack noble estates. burn down i. suffrage France a. no full political rights c.
Girondins – dominant Jacobin faction. Mountain – conservative Girondins b. Committee of Public Safety – Danton. Émigrés – nobles flee. state pays salaries. sans-culottes support d. Slave rebellion – Touissaint L’Ouverture End of Monarchy a. Frankfurt Reign of Terror a. centralization. IX. system c. Republic declared 1792. ironically used most on peasants i. William Pitt (UK PM) – pro-Rev. warns of violence: don’t remove traditional gov. Rhineland. Treaty of Amiens 1802 – peace with UK c. Girondins expelled f. regulation. VI. Pope chooses bishops. Rise of Napoleon – quells rebellion Napoleon a. Jacobins: gov. Brunswick Manifesto – promise to destroy Paris if royal family is harmed e. comes back to France for Coup de Brumaire (help of Sieyes) b. salaries paid by state g. Clergy are civil servants. Girondins: laissez-faire. Napoleonic Code (1804) – unitary system. “majority of France is Catholic” i. Carnot. universal manhood suffrage i. Sans-culottes – working class f. yet poorly managed or provided for b. VIII. Bourgeois triumph Directory (1795) a. Louis guillotined 1793 European Reaction a. VII. National Convention – new legislative body. King flees Paris. i. Amnesty to émigrés. Concordat – agreement with Pope Pius. Constitution of 1791 – ltd. exile king c.V. Cult of the Supreme Being h. escorted back again c. Robespierre e. church surrenders land e. Austria/Prussia 1792 d. Consul for Life 1802 c. Republic of Virtue – new calendar. Passive and active voters (taxes) ii. kill king. attack Christianity. Price controls. France gains Netherlands. equality of law. Legislature – Council of Ancients. Invades Egypt. close Jacobins. X. Edmund Burke (UK Whig) – opposes Rev. purge Jacobins d. Thermidorian Reaction – kill Robespierre. Storming of the Tuileries. Hebertists – extreme radicals j. monarchy i. careers open to talent France at War a. Guillotine – national symbol of death. want war vs. conscription g. Departments created iii.. Big army. September Massacres g. b. local autonomy. Council of 500 b. secret police. Louisiana Purchase – given to Jefferson 6 . Jews and Protestants – full political rights h. high inflation again i. First Consul – plebiscite for new constitution. work to restore Old Regime b. taxes on wealthy.
Thomas Malthus – population will exceed food supply iii. End Junker monopoly. Russia. church gains Competing Ideologies a. XIII. dominance of UK navy 3rd Coalition – Austria. II. establish Louis XVIII as king b. Return of Napoleon – unleashes white terror. Metternich – conservative. Charles Fourier – cooperative community 7 . Liberalism – individual rights. John Stuart Mill. laissez-faire. Socialism – economic equality. Prussia band vs. g. church as foundation of society b. Karl Marx – Utopian Socialists ii. UK – Bourbons rule ii. expanded gov. k. Restoration period: Enlightenment suffers. lower wagers = competitive iv. Treaty of Chaumont – Napoleon exiled to Elba. European Nationalism – Baron von Stein and Count von Hardenberg reform i.d. Grand Army defeated at Moscow. Grimm’s folk tales. emphasis on tradition. War in Spain – Napoleon puts brother Joseph on throne. UK. h. Helena for good! Chapter 11: Europe from 1815 to 1871 (1815-1871) I. Conservatism – Edmund Burke: attack on rights. end social strife. e. XII. land barriers: Dutch Netherlands. Jeremy Bentham – utilitarianism. i. Treaty of Vienna – France returns to 1792 borders. loyal soldiers Invasion of Russia (1812) a. slow change over time. Nationalism – reaction to Napoleon. Restoration and Revolution a. j. liberalism c. Napoleon abdicates 1814 Congress of Vienna (1814) / Hundred Days a. Prussia – unsure iii. freedoms i. ltd. France Battle of Ulm / Battle of Austerlitz – French victories Confederacy of the Rhine – abolishes HRE. monarchy. Russian – new dictator iv. Saint-Simon – hierarchical society iii. common property i. end serfdom. reinstated emperor f. Civil Code. role d. Adam Smith – Wealth of Nations. Battle of Trafalgar 1805 – lose at sea. f. army reserve. 16 German states Battle of Jena – beats Prussian army Treaty of Tilsit – Alex I of Russia makes peace with France Continental System – ban UK goods to weaken UK economy Enlightenment Abroad – religious toleration. Prussian Rhine. Austria – Napoleon’s son d. Battle of Waterloo – Napoleon exiled to St. Country Demands for France i. rule via nepotism (Corsican Clan) Defeat of Napoleon a. wants to suppress nationalism. Piedmont’s Genoa e. XI. German spirit c. anti-mercantilism ii. David Ricardo – Iron Law of Wages. Spanish rebel b.
upper class can’t vote. no property requirements. suffrage/monarchy. Charles Albert – Sardinian King. Frederick William IV – rules Prussia. ii. Great Reform Bill 1832 – expands suffrage a little iv. Repeal of Corn Laws 1846 – lowers tariffs. New Lanark Political Restoration and Reform a. Greece i. Robert Owen – planned community. Papal States. IV. King Ferdinand returns. Revolt 1821. France – Charter of 1814: freedom of religion. France i. other areas ii. July Revolution (1830) – crown Louis Phillipe. 3rd Coalition less UK wants to intervene c. V. workshops vs. Decembrist Revolt (1825) – Nicholas on throne. July Monarchy b. Chartism – solve working class problems through politics ii. Duke du Berry killed – pressures king ii. censorship iv. Factory Act 1833 – reduce child labor vi. independence 1832 ii. German States i. Industrial Rev. situations d. Carbonari oppose monarch ii. Frankfurt Parliament 1848 – unify Germany: big vs. provisional gov. sign of a new political order Revolutions of 1848 a. King rules i. Italian States i. ltd. Peterloo Massacre – demand universal suffrage and annual Par. Serbia independent 1830 e. Assembly – freedom of press. worker/student revolt iv. iv. 8 . promises reform ii. iv. bicameral legislature iii. will Sardinia unify Italy? d. yet violates constitution ii. equal districts. Peoples Charter 1838 (passed later) – universal manhood suffrage. Troppau Protocol – Great European powers can intervene in rev. UK i. Charles X – new king iii. Const. annual Par. UK i. secret ballot. Spain and Portugal i. Revolt in Sicily. pay MPs. for Hungary. July Ordinances – dissolves assembly. What to do with Ottoman Empire (sick man of Europe)? iii. Louis Kossuth – demand const. June Days – Workers’ Revolt. Poor Law 1834 – poor must enter workhouses v. Constantine declines f. Louis Blanc – asks for provisional workshops iii.III. Russia i. Second Republic – lead by Louis Napoleon Napoleon III b. Italy i. Six Acts – bans demonstrations and censorship iii. Louis Phillipe flees ii. Guizot – France done evolving politically. small c.
Abraham Darby – smelting iron b.VI.. First International (1864) – organization to protect working class e. Frederick William refuses German crown b. overhaul oppressive society b. Zollverein – Prussian tariff union Impact of Industrialization a. a. Cavour blocks him e. Belgium industrializes first c. unite German socialists c. unsanitary c. Bourgeoisie (owners) vs. S German Unification a. distribute resources.. Victor Emmanuel – 1st king of Italy (1861) f. Proletariat (workers) d. 1st modern factory v. Cities – terrible conditions. aims to unify Germany i. Communist League – Marx and Engels. Sadler Committee – exposure of poor treatment of factory children d. Blood and Iron Speech – will conquer violently c. Expanding power: France. John Kay – flying shuttle ii. Cooperative Societies – predecessors to unions. secret alliance w/ France (Nap. Modernized Prussian army 9 . UK – political stability. overseas trade. Mazzini – romanticized nationalism c. economic conditions affect ideas (opposite of Hegel). Risorgimento / Irredentism – liberals want Italian state b. collect products b. Communist Manifesto – material dialectic. Agricultural Rev. capital. Luddites – anti-machines e. Garibaldi – leads Red Shirts to conquer southern Italy. Second International (1889) – loose federation of socialist parties National Unification a. VIII. Rebellions throughout Italy d. Unite: Italy and Germany Crimean War (1854) a. industries. real unions in 1824 Socialism and Marx a. Sectionalism – Italy divided N vs. Cavour of Sardinia – practical. UK b. Domestic System – putting out labor. religious toleration. UK turns isolationist Unification of Italy a. Concert of Europe shattered – end of cooperation ii. XI. struggle for workers to rise up and take over state i. Spain. Reason: UK fears Russians will gain access to Mediterranean b. IX. VII. X. James Watt – steam engine vi. transport. Result: Russia cedes territories on Danube. warships banned from Black Sea i. Otto von Bismarck – Prussian minister. James Hargreaves – spinning jenny (16 spinning needles) iii.) to oust Austria i. Marx – advocate of scientific socialism. France and UK declare war on Russia c. growing pop. Richard Arkwright – water frame (for spinning cloth) iv. Enclosure Act. resources i.
Holstein e. ended through violence d. Austrian-Hungarian Dualism – independent states. Steel – Henry Bessemer. Enemy French ii. Consequences of unity i. local autonomy c. Bulgaria Chapter 12: Europe from 1871 to 1914 (1871-1914) I. Congress of Berlin (1878) – independence of Serbia.. b/c he’s not revolutionary enough XV. Montenegro. Transportation i. Kulturkampf – Bismarck oppresses Catholics. Ottoman Empire a. both ruled by Francis Joseph XVI. Russia a. Buy their freedom. Zemstvos – district assemblies. socialists i. Austria – forms North German Confederation f. Ems Dispatch – Bismarck portrays Prussian king as angry with France g. Louis Napoleon – plebiscites for rule. Two-party system – Conservative and Liberal parties XIV. Ships: clipper. More suffrage – passed by William Gladstone c. steam 10 . a. Ease censorship c. William I becomes German Emperor (1871) h. Denmark Danish War: seize Schleswig. Paris Commune – radical gov. 2nd Industrial Rev. Rush to imperialism i. Franco-Prussian War – Prussian king invited to rule Spain i. Bessemer Process b. Eventually co-opts socialism. dictatorial powers. Boulanger Affair – general causes trouble XIII. passed by Benjamin Disraeli b. People’s Will – assassinates Alex II. Young Turks – liberal intellectuals and reformers c. Second Reform Bill – extends vote further. Seven Weeks War vs. Sick Man of Europe b. Austria a. Economic expansion – renovate city of Paris ii. given unfertile land b. France a.d. Third Republic i. Romania. Control Church appointments. Alliance with Austria vs. Habsburgs lose Italy (1866) b. ends Kulturkampf XII. Proclamation of 1861 – Alex II ends serfdom i. Suez Canal (1869) ii. Ban socialist literature iii. UK a. supervise church education ii. Electricity – Edison’s light bulb (1879) c. 3rd French Republic b.
Religion – important again b. basis of societal norms iii. Catholics iii. Pasteur – bacteria cause disease ii. Rerum Novarum – Pope Leo XIII. Natural Selection – The Origin of Species (1859). Bismarck’s Kulturkampf – cultural war vs.Bible as source of history. Philosophy i. dept. Medicine i. Women’s rights movement iv. Darwin i. papal infallibility ii. Specialized sciences: Faraday. Social Classes i. “survival of the fittest” ii.II. Freud – Interpretation of Dreams. Religion mainstream – for working class e. movies e. Dreyfus Affair – French anti-Semitism iii. stores offer consumer goods. working class must negotiate better conditions vi. Artificial fertilizers ii. Plan. Rutherford. Strauss . Catholicism i. Mendeleev. more professions available. Other Developments i. Anesthesia – ether i. Syllabus of Errors (1848) – Pope Pius IX. Wright Brothers d. Zionism – Herzl f. Dynamite – Alfred Nobel iii. Entertainment venues – dance halls and sports leagues v. New socialism – Bernstein: capitalism won’t collapse. artistwarrior superman g. Entertainment: phonograph. Einstein f. Meritocracy. The Descent of Man (1871).” anti-Germany. Communication i. Church responsible for poor c. Social Darwinism – Europeans superior to others j. “God is dead. Age of the Middle Class – late 1800s. Bible i. Joule. iii. Psychoanalysts i. Telegraph (1830) ii. Curie. Nietzsche – reject Enlightenment. Telephone (1876) iii. Judaism i. Internal combustion engines iv. yet still social discrimination ii. series of myths d. nobles less rich ii. innate violence h. Anarchism – Proudhon Social and Cultural Developments a. Women’s Rights 11 . Full political rights.
Informal empire – influence over a nation’s economy but not territory 1. New technology – rifles. III iii. surface perspective ii. Monet iv. Nap. Expressionism – Van Gogh. Leopold von Ranke – reconstruct the past. i. Impressionists – capture shimmering effects of light. “cult of domesticity” ii. Manet – nudes. family. novel Emile. steamships. late vocal solos ii. view objectively as it was ii. l. Colonies – increased centralization vi. Ex. Fascination with Middle Ages Music i. j. Cezanne – father of modern art v. social sciences Post-Realist Art i. telegraph. received in UK (1918) vi. Realists – paint the world as is Realist Literature i. Rousseau – major influence. Boer War (1899) – UK has less interest in empire ix. Influences: nationalism. UK and China vii. Beethoven – newfangled compositions. Anthropology. Beginnings of feminism iv. Fashoda Crisis (1898) – UK and France almost go to war 12 . Chopin and Liszt – music based on folk songs/tales iv. Asia i. Photography – daguerreotype ii. Social Darwinism. Schubert – solo voice with piano iii. h. archaeology Romanticism i. Flaubert – Madame Bovary iii. Balance of Power iv. New woman – Maria Montessori Social Sciences i. Suffragists – want voting rights. education iii. Munch vi. Limited education and work – paid less than men iii. Separate spheres.g. break with traditional styles iv. King Leopold II – ruled the Belgian Congo viii. quinine ii. Berlin Conference (1884) – countries need ample authority to establish a territory and protect rights v. Salon de Refuses – France’s exhibition of the rejected. sociology. Wordsworth – poet. m. Rejection of Enlightenment – emotional focus ii. Cubism – Picasso New Imperialism – expansion into Africa. i. Dickens – criticize industrialized society ii. Women’s Social and Political Union – Emmeline Pankhurst. violence v. Social imperialists – trying to relieve overpopulation iii. Zola – naturalism. k. Stravinsky – rejects classical ballet Art i.
Leon Trotsky – leader II. etc.Chapter 13: Global Wars (1914-1945) I. Nationalists (no) ii. Mensheviks (need progress) vs. Treaty of Versailles (1919) i. Zimmerman Telegram – Germany wants Mexico to fight US ii. Unionists (yes) vs. Russia – Russo-Japanese War (1904). Schlieffen Plan – Germany to attack France. Lusitania – sunk by German U-boats (1915) iii. 9 million dead + influenza outbreak g. Bolsheviks (skip to rev. takes over economy ii. WWI a. no man’s land. German blank check to Austria iii. Germany accepts full responsibility iii. end to secret agreements. Trench warfare. Alliances – Dual Alliance (Austria-Hungary). Total war – gov. Women vote (1918) – UK. nationality problems v. Costs of the War i. poison gas vi. France – Dreyfus Affair. Black Hand kills Archduke Ferdinand (1914) c. rules ii. iii. League of Nations ii. UK attacks Turkey (Churchill) vii. Entente Cordiale (UK/France) b. Declare war: SerbiaAustria-HungaryGermanyRussia ii. e. War at Home i. Battle of the Somme / Battle of Passchendaele – ineffective d. Propaganda offices iii. Militarization i. Workers form soviets ii. i. then Russia iv. Provisional Gov. Balkans – Ottomans annex Bosnia and Herzegovina. March 17: Nicholas II abdicates. Political and Social Tensions i. Reinsurance Treaty (Germany/Russia). Duma iv. France protects Verdun fortress (1916) viii. 13 . France gets Alsace-Lorraine Russian Revolution a. Express Alexandra and Rasputin b. Provision Gov. 14 Points – Wilson. Wiemar Republic f. The War i. anti-republican gov. UK – Home Rule. First Battle of the Marne – Allied victory v. Bolsheviks Triumph i.) c. Germany and Austria-Hungary – Magyarization. Germany forfeits air force and large army iv. End of WWI i. free trade.
Proportional representation – allows Mussolini to dominate ii. Goal: common community. Ministry of Propaganda – Joseph Goebbels vi. Free Corpse – voluntary military groups. Left: Trotsky. In Germany i. socialists v. inflation iv. anti-communists (whites) iii. Bolsheviks can’t win majority ii. Stock market crash. Right: Bukharin. In Italy i. jail. but with private property. nationalize industry 3. Split – communists vs. UK: Labour Party – represents the common man b. Hitler Youth Western Democracies in Crisis a. Stalin 1. unemployment ii. Mein Kampf iv. National Fascist Party iii. Corporatism – employees and workers negotiate wages/production c. Wiemar Republic i. Treaty of Brest-Litovsk – Russia leaves WWI. October 1929 i. ii. VI. emergency powers v. reject socialism b./private control vi. NEP. John Maynard Keynes – deficit spending v. Friedrich Ebert – leader ii. IV. 1930 elections – Nazis prevail iii. Soviet Experiment i. Hitler chancellor (1933) – Enabling Act. FDR – New Deal Fascism a. Red Terror vs. stops eco. Blackshirts – acts of violence iv. V. stay within Russia viii. Third International (Comintern) iv. Reichstag fire. overproduction. Bank failures – Credit-Anstalt in Vienna iii. kulaks (wealthy) Great Depression a. Five-Year Plan – collectivization. Kapp Putsch iii. War vs. Purges 2. March on Rome Mussolini made PM v. contraction of credit. Lateran Pact – papacy recognizes Italian state d. Gustav Stresemann – German chancellor. cedes land to Germany Interwar Years a.III. expand beyond Russia vii. France: social tension 14 . New Economic Policy (1921) – mix of gov. iii. Gold standard – hurts countries b/c currencies fixed iv. Lucarno Agreement – Germany accepts French-Germany borders b. President Paul von Hindenburg – authoritarian gov. war communism. Hitler joins German Workers’ PartyBeer Hall Putsch.
etc. US all stay out Road to WWII a. land redistribution b. Aftermath i. UK. V-J Day – September 2. VIII. 1945 iv. Tide Turning i. Kristallnacht – night of broken glass iii. de Gaulle – Free French Movement c. Joseph Mengele e. Guernica – massive bombings d. i. V-E Day – May 8. Germany invades Russia ii. Conservative revolt – General Francisco Franco. Fall of France i. Royal Air Force (RAF) d. Tehran Conference – invasion of Germany. Nagasaki v. Phony War – no fighting at first b. Blitzkrieg – lightning war iii. Nuremberg Laws – restrict Jews’ freedom ii. Germans migrate westward iii. Battle of Britain – London bombings ii. IX. Germany invades Czech. Dr. Beginning i. Popular Front – alliance vs. Britain i. Holocaust i. Leon Blum PM iii. Jewish Question Final Solution at Wannsee iv. D-Day iii. Nuremberg Trials – crimes against humanity 15 . annexes Austria Anschluss b. 1939 ii. Italy invades North Africa – lose at Battle of El Alamein f. De-nazification iv. Only Soviets provide arms. Leftist coalition – reforms. fascists ii. Vichy regime – authoritarian iii. France. Germany invades Poland September 1st. Germany invades. Matignon Agreement – workers can bargain with employers Spanish Civil War a. civil war c. Appeasement (Munich Agreement) – Chamberlain gives Hitler Sudetenland e. Maginot Line fails ii. Concentration/Death Camps – Auschwitz. Non-Aggression Pact (1939) – Germany and Russia WWII a. Pearl Harbor (1941) ii. v. 50-60 million dead ii. Atomic bombs: Hiroshima. 1945 g. c. Luftwaffe vs.VII. Rome-Berlin Axis – Germany and Italy unite d. US Involvement i.
Elsewhere i. People’s Democracies – established by Soviets ii. Declaration of Liberated Europe – free elections and democratic gov. FDR sells out Poland to Russia – couldn’t protect it c. III. Revanchism – countries take revenge. Post-Revisionists – combination of the two b. Other Tensions i. Marshall Plan – US aids all nations of E. Views i. Poland i. Containment and NATO i. George Kennan 1. People’s Militia – form new gov. Basics i. Multiparty Czech state comes to end e. Yalta Conference i. later break promise iii. Truman Doctrine – US to support free peoples resisting communism ii. Czech i. Salami tactics – Soviets intimidate non-Communist leaders d. development iii. Europe nations divided into spheres based on percentages of influence ii. 16 . European Stability a. IV. Tito – breaks with Russia entirely (1948) End of Imperialism II. Biggest issue: division of Germany into 4 zones ii. German reference Chapter 14: Postwar Europe (1945-present) I. Long Telegram – will never achieve coexistence with Soviets 2. Democratic governments – based on social contract Beginning of Cold War a. attempt to regain territory c. Traditionalists – blame Russia for W/E hostilities ii. Zero Hour – 1945. Joint occupation of Iran – Soviets and UK Persian Gulf conflict ii. Containment – keep them in their sphere d. Revisionists – blame US for selfish trade interests iii.v. in liberated places b. Stalin pressures Turkey to surrender naval bases iii. Iron Curtain – Churchill’s speech iii. dominated by Communists ii. Europe for eco. NATO (1949) – countries allied vs. communism Soviet Dominance Over Eastern Europe a. United Nations – San Francisco Conference (1945) b. Soviets promise democracy. Reparations – occupying powers collect in their own zones c. Percentages Agreement – E. Yugoslavia i.
Indonesia. France almost goes to war over losing Algeria Creation of European Union a. European Parliament (1962) – court of justice. Labour dominates v. Beveridge Report – adults contribute to social insurance 2. Downfall – introduces market principles to NHS. President Jacques Chirac – address deportation of Jews ii. Violence in Ireland 1. Maastricht Treaty (1992) – creates European Union. Tony Blair – leads New Labour: social services. Nationalism of Suez Canal – UK. and Social Reforms 1. Lacks central economic planning 2. Falkland Islands – UK victory over Argentina 3. re-privatize gov. Organization for European Economic Cooperation (OEEC) – handles US Marshall Plan funds b. France i. anti-European integration 4. Eco. Age of Austerity – debtor nation to US 3. Egypt and Africa i. d. control 2. France. Labour Party – lead by Clement Atlee ii. Bloody Sunday – UK soldiers kill 13 Catholic civil rights marchers vi. cut spending. and Algeria i. reform HL. Decline 1. 2. European Constitution Post-WWII Development in West Europe a. National Health Service iii. involvement iv. Colonies declare independence c. insurance f. Deal with union demands 3. Vietnam. Nationalized Industry 1. Bank of England – under gov. Politics of Consensus – Conservatives and Labour agree on providing social services and gov. banking. etc. Israel to attack Egypt ii. John Major – successor 5. devolution b. France divides Vietnam in 2: North and South ii. European Coal and Steel Community (1951) – board administers resources c. Israel – Jewish state founded (1948) b. European Single Act – free movement of labor. UK i. common currency g. VI. Eco. capital. lead 4th and 5th Republics. a. reduce inflation. Treaty of Rome (1957) – creates European Economic Community (Common Market) e. de Gaulle – grant women suffrage.V. restore 17 . Thatcherism – control money. Thatcher 1. cut taxes.
Economic miracle – Institute for Industrial Reconstruction (IRI). Gerard Ritter minister of economics 3. Reform in Hungary – Imre Nagy creates multiparty system b. Brezhnev Doctrine – Soviets will support communist states c. vi. German Democratic Republic (E) iii. later pushed out (1947) Monnet Plan – non-political technocrats run state Americanization – cultural trend President Mitterrand (1981) – social reforms. Adenauer leads Christian Dems. gap with North v. modernize country 18 . controls iv. iv. Germany re-enters NATO (1955) iv. Socialists Dems rise again – drop Marxism. German Reunification 1. Solidarity – trade union movement lead by Lech Walesa ii. Communists iii. Brezhnev – strengthen bureaucracy and KGB 1. W. Poland. wants ties to the West 2. Red Brigade – captures and kills PM Moro d. reduce unemployment President Chirac (1995) – social reforms. Cuban Missile Crisis (1962) – Soviets give missiles to Cuba iii. Bulgaria. job programs President Sarkozy (2007) – immigration policy. Germany i. v. Gerard Schroeder (Social Dem) – dismantle welfare state. Italy i. Czech. but system still good ii. tax cuts. Germany b. Power Struggle in Russia i. Fall of Mussolini – Civil War (1943). recognition of E. Communist regimes peacefully collapse (Hungary. vii. Khrushchev – Secret Speech: blames Stalin. Dem) vi. iii. West and East Germany unified (1990) 2. wants humanitarian socialism 2. Dem)Helmut Kohl (Christ. overturns Brezhnev Doctrine iv. eco. 3. Angela Merkel (Christian Dem) – first female chancellor Collapse of the Communist Bloc a. Christian Democrats vs. Willy Brandt a. and Economic Reform 1. Czech. Ostpolitik – treaties with Soviets. Political. Southern poverty – break up estates. Prague Spring – Czech movement reacts. Helmut Schmidt (Soc. withdraw from NATO Economic struggle – French Communist rise. c. Federal Republic of Germany (W) vs. Social. Postwar economic miracle – wages and productivity increase. form Republic ii. Europe i. Reform in Poland and E. Berlin Wall (1949) – built to stop exodus from W to E v. viii. Albania) France to global stage. Promise for multiparty elections iii.VII. Berlin Blockade (1948) Berlin Airlift (1948) ii. gov. Gorbachev – reform-minded.
Beslan Massacre (2004) – Chechens take hostages. so kill Muslims and Croats (murder lead by President Slobodan Milosevic) c. Inflation. IX.VIII. Yeltsin succeeded by Putin f. Serbs shell Sarajevo (capital) – Dayton Accords (1995) provides peace d. Putin popular – due to rise in oil prices (restores economy). Election 2000 – Milosevic loses to Kostunica but refuses to give up control. new Duma d. Soviet Union dissolves (1991) A New Russian Republic a. Reform movements fail. Bosnian Muslims and Croats want to as well b. nationalism arises iv. Results: street protests. Yeltsin – rival to Gorbachev. later collapses d. Romania – Ceausescu holds onto power. creates new constitution: more presidential power. Collapse of the Soviet Union i. Peace treaty with Chechnya e. Putin enacts law for popularly elected provincial governors g. Shock treatment – move from command economy to free-market capitalism b. Tito – breaks with Soviets. Glasnost – political openness ii. Impeachment of Yeltsin (1993) – Yeltsin orders tanks. oligarchy gains control on gov. Milosevic assaults Kosovo NATO bombards Serbia (1999) e. i. Perestroika – economic restructuring iii. Milosevic turned in to War Crimes Tribunal 19 . restoration of Russian military power Ethnic Warfare in the Former Yugoslavia a. v. stages a coup and seizes power b/c Gorbachev threating CP v. assets c. Ethnic cleansing – Bosnian Serbs don’t want to be a minority. gov.
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