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Created by Jon Sender, © SenderSmash Productions 2013 # 1 Unit: Gauss' Law Flux Formula: Φ = EAcosθ = Qenc/εo Qenc (+): "source" out Qenc (-‐): "sink" in Calculating enclosed charge Gauss' Law Equation Finding charge on each surface E-‐field inside a conductor = 0 E-‐field b/n 2 conducting plates E-‐field outside a conductor E-‐field outside a charged sheet E-‐field: infinite charged line E-‐field for a sphere E-‐field for a circle E-‐field for a cylinder Using symmetry Qenc Conducting vs. Nonconducting 3-‐D Charge Density: Qenc = ρV 2-‐D Charge Density: Qenc = σA 1-‐D Charge Density: Qenc = λl Using ratios for volume/area 2 Fields Background Newton's Description Gravitational Field Vector, 9.8 m/s^2 Mass conserved, not quantized Electric Field F=qE Charge conserved, is quantized Test charge is positive Field lines: denser = stronger For point charge: E = kQ/R^2 Coulomb's Law: F = kQq/R^2 Finding E-‐field Page 1 of 6 Concept: Subtopics: Need to Work On:
Time A = 0.E-‐field due to point charges E-‐field from a line of charge E-‐field of an arc of charge E-‐field due to a charged disc dq = λds dE = kdq/r^2 Using components Using symmetry Using integration 3 Universal Formulas Gravitation Force of gravity (Fg) Acceleration due to gravity (g) Potential Energy (PE) Kinetic Energy (KE) Total Energy (TE) Relationship b/n PE and Force Calculus Escape Velocity Solving for it: KEi + PEi = 0 Kepler's Laws 1st Law: Arrangement Orbits and foci 2nd Law: Area vs.5r^2dθ mvr = mvr 3rd Law: Equation GM/4π^2 = r^3/T^2 4 Electric Potential Background NOT the same as Electric PE Zero at infinity ΔUe = qΔV W = -‐qΔV Electron volts ΔV = 0 for conductors Equipotential Lines Perpendicular to E-‐field lines Fringing at the ends Partial derivatives Calculus Relationship: E-‐field & Voltage ΔV from a point charge in space Page 2 of 6 .
5 CV^2 U = 0.5εE^2 In Parallel Ceq: like resistors in series Voltage the same Charge adds In Series Ceq: like resistors in parallel Voltage adds Charge the same 6 Calculus Relations Relationships Force to E-‐field E-‐field to Force Force to PE Page 3 of 6 .5 QV U = Q^2 / 2C Unaffected by dielectric Energy Density U = 0. not in circuit) Energy in a Capacitor U = 0.Calculating Voltage V = Σ kq/R Point charges: use all combos 5 Capacitors Definition Gap b/n 2 large conductors Regular Capacitors Find E-‐field (use Gauss) Find ΔV (use calculus) Find C (use C = Q / V) Cylindrical Capacitors Find E-‐field (use Gauss) Find ΔV (use calculus) Find C (use C = Q / V) Spherical Capacitors Find E-‐field (use Gauss) Find ΔV (use calculus) Find C (use C = Q / V) Dielectrics Effect: reduce E-‐field inside Decrease E-‐field by κ Increase capacitance by κ Effect in circuit w/ battery Effect if charged.
Time (dec.) Circuit: Current v. Time (dec.) Page 4 of 6 . Time (dec. Time (inc. vel: high to low potential J = I / A = neVd Resistivity ρ = E / J Units: Ωm R = ρL / A Kirchoff's Laws Junction Rule: Vin = Vout Loop Rule: ΔV = 0 Solving circuits: V.) Capacitor: Voltage v.) Capacitor: Voltage v.PE to Force PE to Potential Potential to PE E-‐field to Potential Potential to E-‐field Others Vectors: Forc & E-‐field Scalars: PE & Potential Losing a "q" Losing an "r" 7 Current Definition I = dq/dt Current Density I = (integral) J dA Drift Speed Avg. Time (dec.) Resistor: Voltage v. Time (dec. R for all 8 RC Circuits Charging ε -‐ IR -‐ (Q/C) = 0 Solve differential equation Capacitor: Charge v.) Time constant Equation for current Discharging (Q/C) -‐ IR = 0 Solve differential equation Capacitor: Charge v. Time (inc. I.) Resistor: Voltage v. Time (dec.) Circuit: Current v.
Time constant Equation for current Galvanometer Use as ammeter Use as voltmeter Shunt Resistor (low R. high I) 9 Magnetism Definition Dxn a small north pole is pushed F = qvBsinθ Cross-‐product Never does work Velocity-‐selector setup Wires F = ILxB Current Loop τ = BIAsinθ Biot-‐Savart Law How to use it. FM) Page 5 of 6 . what it means B-‐Field Infinite thin wire: B = μi / 2πr Semi-‐infinite wire: B = μi / 4πr Current arc: B = μiΦ / 4πr Two Parallel Wires B = μIaIb / 2πr 10 Ampere's Law Ampere's Law Equation Enclose current in a loop Sign convention: if CCW. out (+) B dS = the part circling the loop Use I = (integral) J dA B-‐Field Solenoid: B = μni Toroid: B = μNI / 2πr 11 Induction & Magnetic Flux Inductance Faraday's Law Φb = (integral) B dA ε = -‐N(dΦ/dt) ΔB-‐Field makes an E-‐field ΔE-‐Field makes a B-‐Field Think: radiowaves (AM v.
What is inc.Lenz's Law Sign convention B-‐Field opposes flux Law of Dead Pigeons: Resist Δ 1. 2nd RHR: find dxn of current 12 Self-‐ Definition Induction & RL Circuits V = -‐L(di/dt) L = NΦ / i Units: Henry Inductance of a Solenoid L/l = μn^2A Self-‐Induction Result when current increasing Result when current decreasing RL Circuits ε -‐ IR -‐ L(di/dt) = 0 Using Kirchoff's Laws Solve the differential equation Time constant τ = RC = L/R LC Circuits q = Acos(t/(LC)^0. Oppose the change 3.5 Li^2 Page 6 of 6 . in which dxn 2./dec.5 + ϕ) Analog: spring position equation Energy in an Inductor (dU/dt) = Li (di/dt) U = 0.