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TITLE: AUTHOR(S): CONTENT/GRADE LEVEL: TECHNOLOGY LESSON?

LENGTH OF LESSON: SOURCE:

Using Molecular Geometry to predict properties of molecules Ramirez, George Louis III 10th/11th Grade – Chemistry/Geometry/Engineering NO 45 minutes n/a

LESSON OBJECTIVES: Upon successful completion of this lesson, students will be able to... 1) Use molecular shape and VSEPR theory to identify resonance structures and draw contributing structures for molecules that have resonance. 2) Predict overall molecular polarity for molecules based on molecular geometry. 3) Describe the role VSEPR, polarity and hydrogen bonding play in forming solid, liquid and gas phases of molecules 4) Explain how VSEPR, polarity and hydrogen bonding can contribute to the aqueous solubility of molecules.

TEKS ADDRESSED: (1) Scientific processes. The student, for at least 40% of instructional time, conducts laboratory and field investigations using safe, environmentally appropriate, and ethical practices. The student is expected to: (C) demonstrate an understanding of the use and conservation of resources and the proper disposal or recycling of materials. (2) Scientific processes. The student uses scientific methods to solve investigative questions. The student is expected to: (F) collect data and make measurements with accuracy and precision; (H) organize, analyze, evaluate, make inferences, and predict trends from data; and (I) communicate valid conclusions supported by the data through methods such as lab reports, labeled drawings, graphs, journals, summaries, oral reports, and technology-based reports. (3) Scientific processes. The student uses critical thinking, scientific reasoning, and problem solving to make informed decisions within and outside the classroom. The student is expected to: (A) in all fields of science, analyze, evaluate, and critique scientific explanations by using empirical evidence, logical reasoning, and experimental and observational testing, including examining all sides of scientific evidence of those scientific explanations, so as to encourage critical thinking by the student; (4) Science concepts. The student knows the characteristics of matter and can analyze the relationships between chemical and physical changes and properties. The student is expected to: (A) differentiate between physical and chemical changes and properties;

(C) compare solids, liquids, and gases in terms of compressibility, structure, shape and volume (D) classify matter as pure substances or mixtures through investigation of their properties; (5) Science concepts. The student understands the historical development of the Periodic Table and can apply its predictive power. The student is expected to: (C) use the Periodic Table to identify and explain periodic trends, including atomic and ionic radii, electronegativity, and ionization energy. (6) Science concepts. The student knows and understands the historical development of atomic theory. The student is expected to: (E) express the arrangement of electrons in atoms through electron configurations and Lewis valence electron dot structures. (7) Science concepts. The student knows how atoms form ionic, metallic, and covalent bonds. The student is expected to: (C) construct electron dot formulas to illustrate ionic and covalent bonds; (E) predict molecular structure for molecules with linear, trigonal planar, or tetrahedral electron pair geometries using Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) theory. (10) Science concepts. The student understands and can apply the factors that influence the behavior of solutions. The student is expected to: (A) describe the unique role of water in chemical and biological systems. (B) develop and use general rules regarding solubility through investigations with aqueous solutions.

SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS: Whenever students engage in kinesthetic learning or drama-based learning, there is always some element of physical risk involved. So some ground rules must be established: 1) Walk slowly, do not run or horseplay as you move to your desired spot in the classroom. 2) No physical contact of any kind between any student. 3) Do not stand on anything that is above the floor (i.e., a chair, the lab table, etc.) Your feet should remain on the floor at all times unless you are seated on a chair or lab stool. 4) Do not leave the classroom. 5) For safety purposes, you must remain completely quiet during the activity. 6) STOP THE CLASS, if you, or those you see, are at physical risk. 7) SUMMARY: STAY ALERT, FOLLOW DIRECTIONS, AND BE AWARE OF POTENTIAL HAZARDS! Moreover, as we move into the wet lab, some special safety rules (beyond those listed in AISD safety agreement to students) must be made explicit to students: 1) The Styrofoam balls and dowel sticks are to be used only for creating your model – they should not be used to engage in any other activity.

2) If students use scissors, they must be used appropriately and in a controlled manner. 3) A hot glue gun is appropriate to use, but there will be only two available and will be used after seeking permission. The glue gun should never be left plugged in, rather plug it in, use it and then un-plug it. Do not ever touch the metal tip of the glue gun, ever! Use gloves (on both hands) when operating the glue gun.

ADVANCED PREPARATION: Materials needed for the Teacher Pre-prepared models for the following molecules: CH4, BCl3, NH3, H2O, BeF2,

Materials needed for EACH Student An 11”x11” whiteboard Two different colored dry erase markers + eraser Warm-up handout Water molecule – pre designed already by the student Exit Slip

Materials needed for EACH Group - each lab station will need the following materials: Set of pre-designed models of ethanol, hexane, glucose and sodium chloride (salt)

ENGAGEMENT (Est. Time: _____) Teacher and Student Activity Segment Key Question: Why do the "other atoms" bonded to the central atom stay as far apart from each other as they possibly can? Warm-Up Activity (Individual Activity - Student Desks) 1. Given a set of molecules, students will determine/draw/write the following for each molecule: 2. Draw the Lewis Dot Structure 3. Identify each bond as covalent or ionic 4. Identify the # of electron domains for each molecule 5. Predict the bond angles between “other atoms and other atoms” and “lone pairs and lone pairs” 6. State the molecule’s electrondomain/pair geometry 7. State the molecule’s molecular geometry 8. Draw any contributing resonance structures and indicated any formal charges on atoms. 9. State the molecule's molecular polarity Students will discuss as a class their observations TRANSITION…

Probing Questions, Answers, Misconceptions
Teacher Role: Facilitator Questions:  How many electron domains do each of the molecules have? What is an electron domain?  How can you tell whether a molecule is 2D (flat) or 3D?  What influences the prediction of electron-domain geometry and molecular geometry?  What influences the prediction of molecular polarity? Formative Assessment:  Students may have some trouble recalling ideas learned from the previous class period. Identifying these issues, resolving them and ensuring students are proficient before proceeding will be crucial.

How can molecular shape and molecular polarity work together? What are some problems or issues with models of molecules?

EXPLORATION/EXPLANATION (Est. Time: _____) Teacher and Student Activity Segment Key Question: How does the 3D shape determine or influence polarity? What are the advantages/limitations of different models? Exploration (Group Activity)  Students will review properties of hydrogen bonding with some initial idea questions.  Students as an entire class will then create a 2D Model of Ice using their whiteboards. They will assemble their whiteboards

Probing Questions, Answers, Misconceptions Teacher Role: Guided Discussion Leader Questions:  What is a hydrogen bond?  How does hydrogen bonding influence or play a role in the properties of water?  What are the advantages and limitations of 2D/flat models vs. 3D models?

EXPLORATION/EXPLANATION (Est. Time: _____) Teacher and Student Activity together in a manner that includes everybody in the class as well as following the properties of hydrogen bonding. Students will reflect on their model by answering questions and presenting their ideas.  Students as an entire class will then create a 3D Model of Ice using their water models (pre-made from the polystyrene balls every student will have a pre-made water molecule). Again, students will reflect on their model by answering questions and presenting their ideas.  Students will then formulate ideas regarding advantages and limitations of each model; they will present these ideas to the class.

Probing Questions, Answers, Misconceptions  How does the 3D model of water allow hydrogen bonding to occur more effectively? What if water was 2D? Formative Assessment: As students practice the examples, teacher may notice that students aren't catching on and thus may need to either a) try another example or b) try returning to exploration activity and re-make the connection.

TRANSITION… How does molecular shape and molecular polarity play a role in the solubility of a molecule in water?

ELABORATION (Est. Time: _____) Teacher and Student Activity Segment Key Question: How does molecular shape and molecular polarity play a role in the solubility of a molecule? Elaboration (Group Activity)  Students will review properties of solubility with some initial idea questions.  Using a pre-designed model of ethanol, hexane, glucose or salt (sodium chloride), students will determine whether each molecule is polar or non-polar by using their 3D water models to show the hydrogen bonds between water and the two pre-designed models of glucose and menthol.  Students will predict solubility based on the shape, polarity and hydrogen bonding and will formulate a relationship between shape, polarity and solubility.  Students will consider the difference between 2D and 3D water molecules and will state why 3D molecules are more

Probing Questions, Answers, Misconceptions Teacher Role: Guided Discussion Leader Questions:  What are some factors that can influence a molecule's solubility?  How can molecular shape contribute to the solubility of a molecule?  How can molecular polarity contribute to the solubility of a molecule?  How can the principles of molecular shape, molecular polarity, and the solubility of a molecule play a role in biological systems? Formative Assessment:  As students practice the examples, teacher may notice that students aren't catching on and thus may need to either a) try another example or b) try returning to exploration activity and re-make the connection.

ELABORATION (Est. Time: _____) Teacher and Student Activity effective at hydrogen bonding and play a more crucial role in solubility of molecules.  Students will then consider a variety of molecules and will predict their solubility based solely on their 3D shape and polarity properties (examples include fat-soluble vs. water-soluble vitamins, oils vs. sugars, etc.).  Students will present their ideas and results to the class.  The ultimate questions students will answer are describing the relationship between polarity and solubility and how the 3D shape of a molecule impacts that relationship.

Probing Questions, Answers, Misconceptions

TRANSITION… How can we apply our knowledge of geometry of molecules?

EVALUATION (Est. Time: _____) Teacher and Student Activity Exit Slip

Probing Questions, Answers, Misconceptions

SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIALS: Include any supplementary materials (handouts, worksheets, data collection tables, assessments, etc.) as part of your lesson plan. Insert a page break between individual handouts.