Figure 0.

1
ABSTRACT ALGEBRA
DAVID S. DUMMIT AND RICHARD M. FOOTE
Solutions provided by Scott Larson.
Contents
0. Preliminaries 3
0.1. Basics 3
0.2. Properties of the Integers 4
0.3. Z/nZ: The Integers Modulo n 6
Part I – Group Theory 8
1. Introduction to Groups 8
1.1. Basic Axioms and Examples 8
1.2. Dihedral Groups 10
1.3. Symmetric Groups 11
1.4. Matrix Groups 11
1.5. Quaternion Groups 13
1.6. Homomorphisms and Isomorphisms 14
1.7. Group Actions 14
2. Subgroups 15
2.1. Definition and Examples 15
2.2. Centralizers and Normalizers, Stabilizers and Kernels 15
2.3. Cyclic Groups and Cyclic Subgroups 16
2.4. Subgroups Generated by Subsets of a Group 17
2.5. Definitions and Examples 19
2.6. The Lattice of Subgroups of a Group 20
3. Quotient Groups and Homomorphisms 20
3.1. Definitions and Examples 20
3.2. More on Cosets and Lagrange’s Theorem 21
3.3. The Isomorphism Theorems 23
3.4. Composition Series and the Holder Program 24
3.5. Transpositions and the Alternating Group 24
4. Group Actions 25
4.1. Group Actions and Permutation Representations 25
4.2. Groups Acting on Themselves by Left Multiplication – Cayley’s Theorem 25
4.3. Groups Acting on Themselves by Conjugation – The Class Equation 25
1
2 DAVID S. DUMMIT AND RICHARD M. FOOTE
4.4. Automorphisms 26
4.5. The Sylow Theorems 26
4.6. The Simplicity of A
n
27
5. Direct and Semidirect Products and Abelian Groups 28
5.1. Direct Products 28
5.2. The Fundamental Theorem of Finitely Generated Abelian Groups 29
5.3. Table of Groups of Small Order 30
5.4. Recognizing Direct Products 30
5.5. Semidirect Products 30
6. Further Topics in Group Theory 31
6.1. p-groups, Nilpotent Groups, and Solvable Groups 31
Part II – Ring Theory 33
7. Introduction to Rings 33
7.1. Basic Definitions and Examples 33
7.2. Examples: Polynomials Rings, Matrix Rings, and Group Rings 34
7.3. Ring Homomorphisms and Quotient Rings 36
7.4. Properties of Ideals 39
7.5. Rings of Fractions 42
8. Euclidean, Principal Ideal, and Unique Factorization Domains 45
8.1. Euclidean Domains 45
9. Polynomial Rings 46
9.1. Definitions and Basic Properties 46
9.2. Polynomial Rings Over Fields I 47
9.3. Polynomial Rings That are Unique Factorization Domains 48
9.4. Irreducibility Criteria 48
9.5. Polynomial Rings Over Fields II 50
9.6. Polynomials in Several Variables Over a Field and Gr¨obner Bases 50
Part III – Modules and Vector Spaces 53
10. Introduction to Module Theory 53
10.1. Basic Definitions and Examples 53
13. Field Theory 54
13.1. Basic Theory of Field Extensions 54
13.2. Basic Theory of Field Extensions 54
13.3. Classical Straightedge and Compass Constructions 56
13.4. Splitting Fields and Algebraic Closures 56
13.5. Separable and Inseparable Extensions 56
13.6. Cyclotomic Polynomials and Extensions 57
14. Galois Theory 57
14.1. Basic Definitions 57
14.2. The Fundamental Theorem of Galois Theory 57
15. Commutative Rings and Algebraic Geometry 58
15.1. Noetherian Rings and Affine Algebraic Sets 58
15.2. Radicals and Affine Varieties 58
15.3. Integral Extensions and Hilbert’s Nullstellensatz 58
15.4. Localization 58
3
0. Preliminaries
0.1. Basics.
Proposition 0.1. Let f : A →B.
(1) The map f is injective if and only if f has a left inverse.
(2) The map f is surjective if and only if f has a right inverse.
(3) The map f is a bijection if and only if there exists g : B →A such that f ◦ g is the identity map on B and
g ◦ f is the identity map on A.
(4) If A and B are finite sets with the same number of elements ([A[ = [B[), then f : A →B is bijective if and
only if f is injective if and only if f is surjective.
Proof. (a) Suppose f is injective so that f
−1
(b) contains a single element for b ∈ f(A). Thus g(b) = f
−1
(b) is
well-defined for b ∈ f(A). Hence g(f(a)) = a for all a ∈ A. Now suppose that f has a left inverse g so that
g(f(a)) = a for all a ∈ A. If f(a
1
) = f(a
2
) = b, then g(b) = a
1
and g(b) = a
2
. But g is a well-defined map so
a
1
= a
2
and thus f is injective.
(b) Suppose f is surjective. Take some b ∈ B so we can choose a ∈ A such that f(a) = b. Thus we can define
g(b) = a such that f(a) = b. Hence f(g(b)) = f(a) = b. Now suppose that f has a right inverse g so that f(g(b)) = b
for all b ∈ B. So f(g(B)) = B and thus f is surjective.
(c) Suppose that f is bijective so there is a left inverse, g
l
, and a right inverse, g
r
, of f. Let f(a) = b so that
a = g
l
(f(a)) = g
l
(b) and b = f(g
r
(b)). Since f is injective, g
r
(b) = a and thus g
l
= g
r
. Thus the right and left
inverses of f are the same map. Now suppose that there exists g : B → A such that f ◦ g is the identity map on
B and g ◦ f is the identity map on A. Then f is surjective because f(g(B)) = B. Now let f(a
1
) = f(a
2
) so that
a
1
= g(f(a
1
)) = g(f(a
2
)) = a
2
. Thus f is injective.
(d) Suppose that f is injective. Then f takes elements of A to unique elements of B. Since [A[ = [B[, f is
surjective. Now suppose that f is surjective. Then since [A[ = [B[, f takes elements of A to unique elements of B
so f is injective. Therefore f is either bijective or neither injective or surjective.
Proposition 0.2. Let A be a nonepty set.
(1) If ∼ defines an equivalence relation on A then the set of equivalence classes of ∼ form a partition of A.
(2) If ¦A
i
[ i ∈ I¦ is a partition of A then there is an equivalence relation on A whose equivalence classes are
preciselly the sets A
i
, i ∈ I.
In Exercises 1 to 4 let / be the set of 2 2 matrices with real number entries. Recall that matrix multiplication
is defined by
_
a b
c d
__
p q
r s
_
=
_
ap +br aq +bs
cp +dr cq +ds
_
Let
M =
_
1 1
0 1
_
and let
B = ¦X ∈ / [ MX = XM¦ .
0.1.1. The following elements of / lie in B:
_
1 1
0 1
_
,
_
0 0
0 0
_
,
_
1 0
0 1
_
.
0.1.2. Prove that if P, Q ∈ B, then P +Q ∈ B (where + denotes the usual sum of two matrices).
Proof.
(P +Q)M = PM +QM = MP +MQ = M(P +Q).

0.1.3. Prove that if P, Q ∈ B, then P Q ∈ B (where denotes the usual product of two matrices).
Proof.
(P Q)M = P M Q = M P Q = M(P Q).

4 DAVID S. DUMMIT AND RICHARD M. FOOTE
0.1.4. Find conditions on p, q, r, s which determine precisely when
_
p q
r s
_
∈ B.
r = 0, p = s.
0.1.5. Determine whether the following functions f are well defined:
(1) f : ¸ →Z defined by f(a/b) = a.
(2) f : ¸ →¸ defined by f(a/b) = a
2
/b
2
.
Proof. (a) f is not a well defined map because 1/2 = 2/4 and 1 ,= 2.
(b) f is a well defined map because if a
1
/b
1
= a
2
/b
2
, then a
2
1
/b
2
1
= a
2
2
/b
2
2
.
0.1.6. Determine whether the function f : 1
+
→ Z defined by mapping a real number r to the first digit to the
right of the decimal point in a decimal expansion of r is well defined.
f is well defined because the decimal expansion of a real number is unique. Thus there is one and only one
possible first number to the right of the decimal for each real number.
0.1.7. Let f : A →B be a surjective map of sets. Prove that the relation
a ∼ b if and only if f(a) = f(b)
is an equivalence relation whose equivalence classes are the fibers of f.
Proof. f(a) = f(a) so ∼ is reflexive. If f(a) = f(b), then f(b) = f(a) so ∼ is symmetric. If f(a) = f(b) and
f(b) = f(c), then f(a) = f(c) so ∼ is transitive.
If a
1
, a
2
∈ f
−1
(b), then f(a
1
) = f(a
2
) so a
1
∼ a
2
. If a
1
∼ a
2
then f(a
1
) = f(a
2
) so a
1
and a
2
are in the same
fiber of f.
0.2. Properties of the Integers.
(1) (Well Ordering of Z) If A is any nonempty subset of Z
+
, there is some element m ∈ A such that m ≤ a,
for all a ∈ A.
(2) If a, b ∈ Z with a ,= 0, we say a divides b if there is an element c ∈ Z such that b = ac. In this case we write
a [ b; if a does not divide b we write a [ b.
(3) If a, b ∈ Z¸ ¦0¦, there is a unique positive integer d, called the greatest common divisor of a and b, satisfying:
(a) d [ a and d [ b,
(b) if e [ a and e [ b, then e [ d.
(4) If a, b ∈ Z¸ ¦0¦, there is a unique positive integer l, called the least common multiple of a and B, satisfying:
(a) a [ l and b [ l,
(b) if a [ m and b [ m, then l [ m. The connection between the greatest common divisor d and the least
common multiple l of the two integers a and b is given by dl = ab.
(5) The Division Algorithm: if a, b ∈ Z and b ,= 0, then there exist unique q, r ∈ Z such taht
a = qb +r and 0 ≤ r < [b[ ,
where q is the quotient and r the remainder.
(6) The Euclidean Algorithm is an important procedure which produces a greatest common divisor of two
integers a and b by iterating the Division Algorithm: if a, b ∈ Z¸ ¦0¦, then we obtain a sequence of quotients
and remainders
a = q
0
b +r
0
b = q
1
r
0
+r
1
r
0
= q
2
r
1
+r
2
r
1
= q
3
r
2
+r
3
.
.
.
r
n−2
= q
n
r
n−1
+r
n
r
n−1
= q
n+1
r
n
where r
n
is the last nonzero remainder. Such an r
n
exists since [b[ > [r
0
[ > [r
1
[ > > [r
n
[ is a decreasing
sequence of strictly positive integers if the remainders are nonzero and such a sequence cannot continue
indefinitely. Then r
n
= (a, b).
5
(7) One consequence of the Euclidean Algorithm which we chall use regularly is the following: if a, b ∈ Z¸ ¦0¦,
then there exist x, y ∈ Z such that
(a, b) = ax +by
that is, the gcd of a and b is a Z-linear combination of a and b. This follows by recursively writing the
element r
n
in the Euclidean Algorithm in terms of the previous remainders.
(8) An element p of Z
+
is calle a prime if p > 1 and the only posotive divisors of p are 1 and p. An integer
n > 1 which is not prime is called composite. An important property of primes is if p is a prime and p [ ab,
for some a, b ∈ Z then either p [ a or p [ b.
(9) The fundamental theorem of arithmetic says: if n ∈ Z, n > 1, then n can be factored uniquely into the
product of primes, i.e., there are distinct primes p
1
, p
2
, . . . , p
s
and positive integers α
1
, α
2
, . . . , α
s
such that
n = p
α1
1
p
α2
2
p
αs
s
.
This factorization is unique in the sense that if q
1
, q
2
, . . . , q
t
are any distinct primes and β
1
, β
2
, . . . , β
t
, are
positive integers such that
n = q
β1
1
q
β2
2
q
βt
t
,
then s = t and if we arrange the two sets of primes in increasing order, then q
i
= p
i
and α
i
= β
i
, 1 ≤ i ≤ s.
Suppose the positive integers a and b are expressed as products of prime powers:
a = p
α1
1
p
α2
2
p
αs
s
, b = p
β1
1
p
β2
2
p
βs
s
where p
1
, p
2
, . . . , p
s
are distinct and the exponents are ≥ 0. Then the gcd of a and b is
(a, b) = p
min(α1,β1)
1
p
min(α2,β2)
2
p
min(αs,βs)
s
and the lcm is obtained by taking the maximum of the α
i
and β
i
instead of the minimum.
(10) The Euler ϕ-function is defined as follows: for n ∈ Z
+
let ϕ(n) be the number of positive integers a ≤ n
with a relatively prime to n, i.e., (a, n) = 1. For primes p, ϕ(p) = p −1, and, more generally, for all a ≥ 1
we have the formula
ϕ(p
a
) = p
a
−p
a−1
= p
a−1
(p −1).
The function ϕ is multiplicative in the sense that
ϕ(ab) = ϕ(a)ϕ(b) if (a, b) = 1.
Together with the formula above this gives a general formula for the values of ϕ: if n = p
α1
1
p
α2
2
p
αs
s
, then
ϕ(n) = ϕ(p
α1
1
)ϕ(p
α2
2
) ϕ(p
αs
s
)
= p
α1−1
1
(p
1
−1)p
α2−1
2
(p
2
−1) p
αs−1
s
(p
s
−1).
0.2.1. For each of the following paris of integers a and b, determine their gcd, their lcm, and write their gcd in the
form ax +by for some integers x and y.
(a) a = 20, b = 13.
(b) a = 69, b = 372.
(c) a = 792, b = 275.
(d) a = 11391, b = 5673.
(e) a = 1761, b = 1567.
(f) a = 507885, b = 60808.
Solution.
0.2.2. Prove that if the integer k divides the integers a and b then k divides as +bt for every pair of integers s and
t.
Proof.
0.2.3. Prove that if n is composite then there are integers a and b such that n divides ab but n does not divide
either a or b.
Proof.
6 DAVID S. DUMMIT AND RICHARD M. FOOTE
0.2.4. Let a, b and N be fixed integers with a and b nonzero and let d = (a, b) be the gcd of a and b. Suppose x
0
and y
0
are particular solutions to ax
+
by = N. Prove for any integer t that the integers
x = x
0
+
b
d
t and y = y
0

a
d
t
are also solutions to ax +by = N (this is in fact the general solution).
Proof.
0.2.5. Determine the value ϕ(n) for each integer n ≤ 30 where ϕ denotes the Euler ϕ-function.
Solution.
0.2.6. Prove the Well Ordering Property of Z by induction and prove the minimal element is unique.
Proof.
0.2.7. If p is a prime prove that there do not exist nonzero integers a and b such that a
2
= pb
2
.
Proof.
0.2.8. Let p be a prime, n ∈ Z
+
. Find a formula for the largest power of p which divides n! = n(n−1)(n−2) 2 1.
Solution.
0.2.9. Write a computer program to determine the greatest common divisor (a, b) of two integers a and b and to
express (a, b) in the form ax +by for some integers x and y.
0.2.10. Prove for any given positive integer N there exist only finitely many integers n with ϕ(n) = N where ϕ
denotes Euler’s ϕ-function. Conclude in particular that ϕ(n) tends to infinity as n tends to infinity.
Proof.
0.2.11. Prove that if d divides n then ϕ(d) divides ϕ(n) where ϕ denotes Euler’s ϕ-function.
Proof.
0.3. Z/nZ: The Integers Modulo n.
Theorem 0.3. The operations of addition and multiplication on Z/nZ are well defined, that is, they do not depend
on the choices of representatives for the classes involved. More precisely, if a
1
, a
2
∈ Z and b
1
, b
2
∈ Z with a
1
= b
1
and a
2
= b
2
, then a
1
+a
2
= b
1
+b
2
and a
1
a
2
= b
1
b
2
, i.e., if
a
1
≡ b
1
mod n and a
2
≡ b
2
mod n
then
a
1
+a
2
≡ b
1
+b
2
mod n and a
1
a
2
≡ b
1
b
2
mod n.
Proposition 0.4. Z/nZ)
×
= ¦a ∈ Z/nZ [ (a, n) = 1¦.
0.3.1. Write down explicitly all the elements in the residue classes of Z/18Z.
Solution.
0.3.2. Prove that the distinct equivalence classes in Z/nZ are precisely 0, 1, 2, . . . , n −1.
Proof.
0.3.3. Prove that if a = a
n
10
n
+a
n−1
n−1
+ +a
1
10 +a
0
is any positive integer then a ≡ a
n
+a
n−1
+ +a
1
+a
0
mod 9.
Proof.
0.3.4. Compute the remainder when 37
100
is divided by 29.
Solution.
0.3.5. Compute the last two digits of 9
1500
.
Solution.
0.3.6. Prove that the squares of the elements in Z/4Z are just 0 and 1.
7
Proof.
0.3.7. Prove for any integers a and b that a
2
+b
2
never leaves a remainder of 3 when divided by 4.
Proof.
0.3.8. Prove that for any integers a and b that a
2
+b
2
= 3c
2
has no solutions in nonzero integers a, b, and c.
Proof.
0.3.9. Prove that the square of any odd integer always leaves a remainder of 1 when divided by 8.
Proof.
0.3.10. Prove that the number of elements of (Z/nZ)
×
is ϕ(n) where ϕ denotes the Euler ϕ-function.
Proof.
0.3.11. Prove that if a, b ∈ (Z/nZ)
×
, then a b ∈ (Z/nZ)
×
.
Proof.
0.3.12. Let n ∈ Z, n > 1, and let z ∈ Z with 1 ≤ a ≤ n. Prove if a and n are not relatively prime then there exists
an itneger b with 1 ≤ b < n such that ab ≡ 0 mod n and deduce that there cannot be an itneger c such that ac ≡ 1
mod n.
Proof.
0.3.13. Let n ∈ Z, n > 1, and let a ∈ Z with 1 ≤ a ≤ n. Prove that if a and n are relatively prime then there is
an integer c such that ac ≡ 1 mod n.
Proof.
0.3.14. Conclude from the previous two exercises that (Z/nZ)
×
is the set of elements a of Z/nZ with (a, n) = 1
and hence prove proposition 0.4. Verify this directly in the case n = 12.
Solution.
0.3.15. For each of the following pairs of integers a and n, show that a is relatively prime to n and determine the
multiplicative inverse of a in Z/nZ.
(a) a = 13, n = 20.
(b) a = 69, n = 89.
(c) a = 1891, n = 3797.
(d) a = 6003722857, n = 77695236973.
Proof.
0.3.16. Write a computer program to add and multiply mod n, for any n given as input. The output of these
operations should be the least residues of the usms and products of two integers. Also include the feature that if
(a, n) = 1, and integer c between 1 and n −1 such taht a c = 1 may be printed on request.
8 DAVID S. DUMMIT AND RICHARD M. FOOTE
Part I – Group Theory
1. Introduction to Groups
1.1. Basic Axioms and Examples.
Proposition 1.1. If G is a group under the operation , then
(1) the identity of G is unique
(2) for each a ∈ G, a
−1
is uniquely determined
(3) (a
−1
)
−1
= a for all a ∈ G
(4) (a b)
−1
= (b
−1
) (a
−1
)
(5) for any a
1
, a
2
, . . . , a
n
∈ G the value of a
1
a
2
a
n
is independent of how the expression is bracketed.
Proposition 1.2. Let G be a group and let a, b ∈ G. The equations ax = b and ya = b have unique solutions for
x, y ∈ G. In particular, the left and right cancellation laws hold in G, i.e.,
(1) if au = av, then u = v,
(2) if ub = vb, then u = v.
Let G be a group.
1.1.1. Determine which of the following binary operations are associative:
(a) the operation on Z defined by a b = a −b
(b) the operation on 1 defined by a b = a +b +ab
(d) the operation on Z Z defined by (a, b) (c, d) = (ad +bc, bd).
Note that (1 − 2) − 3 = −4 and 1 − (2 − 3) = 2, so (a) is not associative. We calculate that (b) and (d) are
associative below.
(a b) c = (a +b +ab) +c + (a +b +ab)c
= a +b +c +ab +ac +bc +abc
= a +b +c +bc +a(b +c +bc)
= a (b c)
_
(a, b) (c, d)
_
(e, f) =
_
(ad +bc)f +bde, bdf
_
=
_
adf +b(cf +de), bdf
_
= (a, b)
_
(c, d) (e, f)
_
1.1.2. Decide which of the following binary operations are commutative:
(a) the operation on Z defined by a b = a −b
(b) the operation on 1 defined by a b = a +b +ab
(d) the operation on Z Z defined by (a, b) (c, d) = (ad +bc, bd).
Note that 1 −2 = −1 and 2 −1 = 1 so (a) is not commutative. We calculate that (b) and (d) are commutative
below.
a b = a +b +ab
= b +a +ba
= b a
(a, b) (c, d) = (ad +bc, bd)
= (cb +da, db)
= (c, d) (a, b)
1.1.3. Prove that addition of residue classes in Z/nZ is associative.
Proof.
1.1.4. Prove that multiplication of residue classes in Z/nZ is associative.
Proof.
9
1.1.5. Prove for all n > 1 that Z/nZ is not a group under multiplication of residue classes.
Proof.
1.1.6. Determine which of the following sets are groups under addition:
(b) the set of rational numbers in lowest terms whose denominators are even together with 0
(d) the set of rational numbers of absolute value ≥ 1 together with 0
(e) the set of rational numbers with denominators equal to 1 or 2.
Note that 1/6 +1/6 = 1/3 so addition is not a binary relation on (b) and thus (b) is not a group. Also note that
−3/2 + 1 = −1/2 so addition is not a binary relation on (d) and thus (d) is note a group. We notice that addition
is a well defined binary relation on (e), addition is associative on the rational numbers so this subset must also have
the associative property, the identity is 0, and the inverse of a is −a. Therefore (e) is a group.
1.1.7. Let G = ¦x ∈ 1 [ 0 ≤ x < 1¦ and for x, y ∈ G let xy be the fractional part of x+y (i.e., xy = x+y−[x+y]
where [a] is the greatest integer less than or equal to a). Prove that is a well defined binary operation on G and
that G is an abelian group under (called the real numbers mod 1).
Proof. Note that the sum of two real numbers has a unique fractional part, x, such that 0 ≤ x < 1. Thus is a
well defined operation that takes x y into G. We show that is associative on G.
(x y) z = (x +y −[x +y]) +z −[(x +y −[x +y]) +z]
= x +y +z −[x +y] + [x +y] −[x +y +z]
= x +y +z −[y +z] + [y +z] −[x +y +z]
= x + (y +z −[y +z]) −[x + (y +z −[y +z])]
= x (y z)
The identity element of G is clearly 0. The inverse of x ∈ G would be given by 1 −x for x ,= 0 because
x (1 −x) = x + 1 −x −[x + 1 −x] = 1 −1 = 0.
Note that 1 − x ∈ G for x ∈ G and x ,= 0. The inverse of 0 is clearly 0. We show that G is abelian by letting
x, y ∈ G and computing that is commutative on G.
x y = x +y −[x +y]
= y +x −[y +x]
= y x

1.1.8. Let G = ¦z ∈ C [ z
n
= 1 for some n ∈ Z
+
¦.
(a) Prove that G is a gorup under multiplication.
(b) Prove that G is not a group under addition.
Proof (a).
Proof (b).
1.1.9. Let G =
_
a +b

2 ∈ 1 [ a, b ∈ ¸
_
.
(a) Prove that G is a gorup under addition.
(b) Prove that the nonzero elements of G are a group under multiplication.
Proof (a).
Proof (b).
1.1.10. Prove that a finite gorup is abelian if and only if its group table is a symmetric matrix.
Proof.
1.1.14. Find the orders of the following elements of the multiplicative group (Z/36Z)
×
: 1, −1, 5, 13, −13, 17.
¸
¸
1
¸
¸
= 1,
¸
¸
−1
¸
¸
= 2,
¸
¸
5
¸
¸
= 6,
¸
¸
13
¸
¸
= 3,
¸
¸
−13
¸
¸
= 6,
¸
¸
17
¸
¸
= 2.
1.1.25. Prove that if x
2
= 1 for all x ∈ G then G is abelian.
10 DAVID S. DUMMIT AND RICHARD M. FOOTE
Proof. Since x
2
= 1 we know that x = x
−1
for all x ∈ G. Thus
xy = (xy)
−1
= y
−1
x
−1
= yx.

1.2. Dihedral Groups. In these exercises, D
2n
has the usual presentation
D
2n
=
¸
r, s [ r
n
= s
2
= 1, rs = sr
−1
_
.
1.2.1. Compute the order of each of the elements in the following groups:
(a) D
6
The order of elements from (a) are: [1[ = 1, [r[ = 3,
¸
¸
r
2
¸
¸
= 3, [s[ = 2, [sr[ = 2,
¸
¸
sr
2
¸
¸
= 2.
1.2.2. Use the generators and relations above to show that if x is any element of D
2n
which is not a power of r,
then rx = xr
−1
.
Proof. If x is not a power of r, then x = sr
k
for some 0 ≤ k < n. So
rsr
k
= sr
−1
r
k
= sr
k−1
= sr
k
r
−1
.

1.2.3. Use the generators and relations above to show that every element of D
2n
which is not a power of r has
order 2. Deduce that D
2n
is generated by the two elements s and sr, both of which have order 2.
Proof. If x ∈ D
2n
is not a power of r, then x = sr
k
for some 0 ≤ k < n. Notice that sr
0
sr
0
= 1 and suppose that
sr
i
sr
i
= 1 for 0 ≤ i < k. Then
sr
k
sr
k
= sr
k−1
sr
−1
r
k
= sr
k−1
sr
k−1
= 1,
by induction.
1.2.7. Show that
¸
a, b [ a
2
= b
2
= (ab)
n
= 1
_
gives a presentation for D
2n
in terms of the two generators a = s and
b = sr of order 2 computed in Exercise 1.2.3 above. [Show that the relations for r and s follow from the relations
for a and b and, conversely, the relations for a and b follow from those for r and s.]
Proof. First we start with the relations r
n
= s
2
= 1 and rs = sr
−1
. Clearly a
2
= 1, Exercise 1.2.3 shows b
2
= 1,
and
(ab)
n
= (ssr)
n
= r
n
= 1.
Hence the original relations imply the new relations.
Now suppose that a
2
= b
2
= (ab)
n
= 1. Then clearly s
2
= 1, r
n
= (ssr)
n
= (ab)
n
= 1, and
rs = ssrsrr
−1
= sr
−1
.

In Exercise 1.2.9 you can find the order of the group of rigid motions in 1
3
(also called the group of rotations)
of the given Platonic solid by following the proof for the order of D
2n
: find the number of positions to which an
adjacent pair of vertices can be sent. Alternatively, you can find the number of places to which a given face may
be sent and, once a face is fixed, the number of positions to which a vertex on that face may be sent.
1.2.9. Let G be the group of rigid motions in 1
3
of a tetrahedron. Show that [G[ = 12.
Proof. We use the second method described above to show that [G[ = 12. Since there are 4 faces of a tetrahedron,
each face having 3 distinct rotations, there are 4 3 = 12 positions to which a vertex on each fixed face may be
sent.
1.2.17. Let X
2n
=
¸
x, y [ x
n
= y
2
= 1, xy = yx
2
_
.
(a) Show that if n = 3k, then X
2k
has order 6, and it has the same generators and relations as D
6
when x is
replaced by r and y by s.
(b) Show that if (3, n) = 1, then x satisfies the additional relation: x = 1. In this case deduce that X
2n
has
order 2. [Use the facts that x
n
= 1 and x
3
= 1.]
11
Proof (a). Suppose we have the relations given by D
6
. Then clearly x
3k
= (x
3
)
k
= y
2
= 1. We also have
xy = yx
−1
= yx
3−1
= yx
2
.
Now suppose we have the relations given by X
2n
. Then clearly x
3
= y
2
= 1. The relations xy = yx
2
and x
3
= 1
show us
xy = yx
2
= yx
−1
.
Therefore D
6
= X
6
and [X
6
[ = 6.
Proof (b). Since (3, n) = 1, there exist s, t ∈ Z such that 3s +nt = 1. So
x = x
3s+nt
= (x
3
)
s
(x
n
)
t
= 1.
Thus X
2n
has order 2, namely X
2n
= ¦1, y¦.
1.3. Symmetric Groups.
1.3.4. Compute the order of each of the elments in the following groups:
(a) S
3
(b) S
4
For elements in S
3
we calculate that [1[ = 1, [(12)[ = 2, [(13)[ = 2, [(23)[ = 2, [(123)[ = 3, [(132)[ = 3.
For elements in S
4
we calculate that [1[ = 1, [(12)[ = 2, [(13)[ = 2, [(14)[ = 2, [(23)[ = 2, [(24)[ = 2, [(34)[ = 2,
[(123)[ = 3, [(132)[ = 3, [(124)[ = 3, [(142)[ = 3, [(134)[ = 3, [(143)[ = 3, [(234)[ = 3, [(243)[ = 3, [(1234)[ = 4,
[(1243)[ = 4, [(1324)[ = 4, [(1342)[ = 4, [(1423)[ = 4, [(1432)[ = 4, [(12)(34)[ = 2, [(13)(24)[ = 2, [(14)(23)[ = 2.
1.3.7. Write out the cycle decomposition of each element of order 2 in S
4
.
(12), (13), (14), (23), (24), (34), (12)(34), (13)(24), (14)(23).
1.3.11. Let σ be the m-cycle (1 2 . . . m). Show that σ
i
is also an m-cycle if and only if i is relatively prime to m.
Proof. First suppose that σ
i
is an m-cycle so that
σ
i
= (a
1
a
2
. . . a
m
).
Then assume that α[i and α[m so there are s, t ∈ Z such that
αs = i, αt = m.
So σ
i
= σ
αs
= [(a
1
a
α+1
. . . α
m−α+1
) (a
α
a

. . . a
m
)]
s
which can only be an m-cycle if α = 1. Thus i and m
are relatively prime.
Now suppose that i is relatively prime to m so that there are s, t ∈ Z such that
si +tm = 1.
But then σ = σ
si+tm
= σ
si
σ
tm
= (σ
i
)
s
. Since a power of σ
i
is an m-cycle, then σ
i
must be an m-cycle as well.
1.3.20. Find a set of generators and relations for S
3
.
S
3
=
¸
x
2
, x
3
[ x
2
2
= x
3
3
= 1, x
2
x
3
= x
−1
3
x
2
_
1.4. Matrix Groups.
1.4.7. Let p be a prime. Prove that the order of GL
2
(F
p
) is p
4
−p
3
−p
2
+p (do not just quote the order formula
in this section). [Subtract the number of 2 2 matrices which are not invertible from the total number of 2 2
matrices over F
p
. You may use the fact that a 2 2 matrix is not invertible if and only if one row is a multiple of
the other.]
Proof. Notice that the total number of 22 matrices over F
p
is p
4
. We count the number of non-invertible matrices
for a matrix
_
a b
c d
_
in Figure 1.1 to be p
3
+p
2
−p. Thus the order of GL
2
(F
p
) is p
4
−p
3
−p
2
+p.

1.4.8. Show that GL
n
(F) is non-abelian for any n ≥ 2 and any F.
12 DAVID S. DUMMIT AND RICHARD M. FOOTE
a = 0
b = 0
b = 0
c = 0 c = 0 c = 0 c = 0
d = 0
d = 0
d = 0
d = 0
d = 0
d = 0
d = 0
d = 0
1
p −1 p −1 (p −1)
2
p −1 (p −1)
2
0 0
a = 0
b = 0
b = 0
c = 0 c = 0 c = 0 c = 0
d = 0
d = 0
d = 0
d = 0
d = 0
d = 0
d = 0
d = 0
p −1
0 (p −1)
2
0 (p −1)
2
(p −1)
3
Figure 1.1. Number of non-invertible matrices.
Proof. First notice
_
1 1
0 1
__
0 1
1 0
_
=
_
1 1
1 0
_
_
0 1
1 0
__
1 1
0 1
_
=
_
0 1
1 1
_
so that GL
2
(F) is non-abelian for any F. Now notice that extending the matrices with zeros shows the result for
n > 2.
1.4.10. Let G =
__
a b
0 c
_
[ a, b, c ∈ 1, a ,= 0, c ,= 0
_
.
(a) Compute the product of
_
a
1
b
1
0 c
1
_
and
_
a
2
b
2
0 c
2
_
to show that G is closed under matrix multiplication.
(b) Find the matrix inverse of
_
a b
0 c
_
and deduce that G is closed under inverses.
(c) Deduce that G is a subgroup of GL
2
(1) (cf. Exercise 26, Section 1).
(d) Prove that the set of elements of G whose two diagonal entries are equal (i.e., a = c) is also a subgroup of
GL
2
(1).
13
Proof (a). Computing the product of two matrices in G, we find
_
a
1
b
1
0 c
1
__
a
2
b
2
0 c
2
_
=
_
a
1
a
2
a
1
b
2
+b
1
c
2
0 c
1
c
2
_
.
Since a
1
, a
2
,= 0 and c
1
, c
2
,= 0, this matrix is also in G.
(b). Notice that
_
a b
0 c
__
1/a −b/ac
0 1/c
_
=
_
1 −b/c +b/c
0 1
_
=
_
1 0
0 1
_
_
1/a −b/ac
0 1/c
__
a b
0 c
_
=
_
1 b/a −b/a
0 1
_
=
_
1 0
0 1
_
.
Since
_
1/a −b/ac
0 1/c
_
is in G, then G is closed under inverses.
(c). First notice that G ,= ∅ because
_
1 0
0 1
_
∈ G. To show that G is a subgroup of GL
2
(1), we must first show
that elements of G have nonzero determinant. So let M =
_
a b
0 c
_
.
det M = ac ,= 0.
Thus G ⊆ GL
2
(1). Note matrix multiplication is a binary operation on G, the identity is in G, and G is closed
under inverse. So G is a subgroup of GL
2
(1).
Proof (d). We first show that matrix multiplication is a binary operation on G

= ¦G [ a = c¦. So
_
a
1
b
1
0 a
1
__
a
2
b
2
0 a
2
_
=
_
a
1
a
2
a
1
b
2
+b
1
a
2
0 a
1
a
2
_
.
Since a
1
a
2
= a
1
a
2
, matrix multipliaction is indeed a binary operation G

. Notice that the identity element is in G

.
The inverse is given by
_
a b
0 a
_
−1
=
_
1/a −b/a
2
0 1/a
_
due to the calculation of inverse in G. Thus G

is closed under inverse and since G

⊆ G ⊆ GL
2
(1), we must have
G

as a subgroup of GL
2
(1).
1.5. Quaternion Groups.
1.5.1. Compute the order of each of the elements in Q
8
.
Let Q
8
= ¦1, −1, i, −i, j, −j, k, −k¦ as given in the textbook. Then [1[ = 1, [−1[ = 2, [i[ = 4, [−i[ = 4, [j[ = 4,
[−j[ = 4, [k[ = 4, [−k[ = 4.
1.5.2. Write out the group tables for S
3
, D
8
, and Q
8
.
1.5.3. Find a set of generators and relations for Q
8
.
Q
8
=
¸
−1, i, j, k [ (−1)
2
= 1, i
2
= j
2
= k
2
= ijk = −1
_
14 DAVID S. DUMMIT AND RICHARD M. FOOTE
1.6. Homomorphisms and Isomorphisms.
1.6.2. If φ: G → H is an isomorphism, prove that [φ(x)[ = [x[ for all x ∈ G. Deduce that any two isomorphic
groups have the same number of elements of order n for each n ∈ Z
+
. Is the result true if φ is only assumed to be
a homomorphism?
Proof. Let [φ(x)[ = n so that φ(x)
n
= 1 and φ(x)
l
,= 1 for 0 < l < n. But 1 = φ(x)
n
= φ(x
n
) and thus x
n
= 1. Now
suppose that x
l
= 1. Then 1 = φ(x
l
) which is a contradiction. Thus [x[ = n. Hence any two isomorphic groups
have the same number of elements of order n for each n ∈ Z
+
because of the bijectivity of φ.
The result that [φ(x)[ = [x[ is not true for φ any homomorphism. For example the trivial map φ(x) = 1 for all
x ∈ G for G non-trivial.
1.6.7. Prove that D
8
and Q
8
are not isomorphic.
Proof. Note that [s[ =
¸
¸
r
2
¸
¸
= 2. But Exercise 1.5.1 shows there are not two elements with order two in Q
8
. Thus
Exercise 1.5.2 shows that D
8
and Q
8
are not isomorphic.
1.6.13. Let G and H be groups and let φ: G → H be a homomorphism. Prove that the image of φ, φ(G), is a
subgroup of H (cf. Exercise 26 of Section 1). Prove that if φ is injective then G

= φ(G).
Proof. Let h
1
, h
2
∈ H so that there are g
1
, g
2
∈ G such that φ(g
1
) = h
1
and φ(g
2
) = h
2
. Thus φ(g
1
g
2
) =
φ(g
1
)φ(g
2
) = h
1
h
2
so h
1
h
2
∈ H. Hence ∗
H×H
: H H → H. Notice that φ(1) = 1 so H is nonempty. Let h ∈ H
and let φ(g) = h. Then φ(g
−1
) = φ(g)
−1
= h
−1
, so H is closed under inverse. Therefore H ⊆ G is a subgroup.
1.6.14. Let Gand H be groups and let φ: G →H be a homomorphism. Define the kernel of φ to be ¦g ∈ G [ φ(g) = 1
H
¦
(so the kernel is the set of elements in G which map to the identity of H, i.e., is the fiber over the identity of H).
Prove that the kernel of φ is a subgroup (cf. Exercise 26 of Section 1) of G. Prove that φ is injective if and only if
the kernel of φ is the identity subgroup of G.
Proof. First note that 1 ∈ ker φ so that ker φ ,= ∅. Now let g
1
, g
2
∈ ker φ so that φ(g
1
) = φ(g
2
) = 1. Then
φ(g
1
g
2
) = φ(g
1
)φ(g
2
) = 1 so that g
1
g
2
∈ ker φ. Suppose that g ∈ ker φ so that φ(g) = 1. Then φ(g
−1
) = φ(g)
−1
= 1
so g
−1
∈ ker φ and ker φ is closed under inverse. Thus ker φ ⊆ H is a subgroup.
Suppose that φ is injective. Thus there is only one element that maps to 1
H
. Since φ(1
G
) = 1
H
, ker φ = ¦1
G
¦.
Now suppose that ker φ = ¦1
G
¦ and let φ(g
1
) = φ(g
2
). Then φ(g
1
)φ(g
2
)
−1
= 1. So φ(g
1
g
−1
2
) = 1 and since
ker φ = ¦1
G
¦, we must have g
1
g
−1
2
= 1
G
and thus g
1
= g
2
. Therefore φ is injective.
1.6.18. Let G be any group. Prove that the map from G to itself defined by g → g
2
is a homomorphism if and
only if G is abelian.
Proof. First suppose that g → g
2
is a homomorphism. Let g
1
, g
2
∈ G so that g
1
g
2
g
1
g
2
= (g
1
g
2
)
2
= g
2
1
g
2
2
. Thus
g
2
g
1
= g
1
g
2
showing that G is abelian.
Now suppose that G is abelian. Let g
1
, g
2
∈ G so that (g
1
g
2
)
2
= g
1
g
2
g
1
g
2
= g
2
1
g
2
2
and thus g → g
2
is a
homomorphism.
1.7. Group Actions.
1.7.4. Let G be a group acting on a set A and fix some a ∈ A. Show that the following sets are subgroups of G
(cf. Exercise 26 of Section 1):
(a) the kernel of the action.
(b) ¦g ∈ G [ ga = a¦ –this subgroup is called the stabilizer of a in G.
Proof (a). Notice that 1 a = a for all a ∈ A so the kernel of the action is nonempty. Let g
1
, g
2
be two elements
in the kernel of the action. Then (g
1
g
2
)(a) = g
1
(g
2
a) = g
1
a = a so the group operation on G is a binary operation
on the kernel of the action. Now let g be in the kernel of the action. Then g
−1
a = g
−1
(ga) = (g
−1
g)a = a so the
kernel of the action is closed under inverse. Therefore the kernel of the action is a subgroup of G.
Proof (b). Notice that 1 a = a for all a ∈ A so the stabilizer of a in G is nonempty. Let g
1
, g
2
∈ ¦g ∈ G [ ga = a¦
so that (g
1
g
2
)a = g
1
(g
2
a) = g
1
a = a and hence the group operation on G is a binary operation on ¦g ∈ G [ ga = a¦.
Now let g ∈ ¦g ∈ G [ ga = a¦ so that g
−1
a = g
−1
(ga) = (g
−1
g)a = a and hence ¦g ∈ G [ ga = a¦ is closed under
inverse. Therefore ¦g ∈ G [ ga = a¦ is a subgroup of G.
1.7.5. Prove that the kernel of an action of the group G on the set A is the same as the kernel of the corresponding
permutation representation G →S
A
(cf. Exercise 14 in Section 6).
15
Proof. First suppose that ga = a for all a ∈ A. Then σ
g
(a) = a for all a ∈ A hence σ
g
= 1
S
A
. Now suppose that
σ
g
(a) = a for all a ∈ A. Then ga = σ
g
(a) = a. Therefore these kernels are equivalent.
1.7.10. With reference to the preceding two exercises determine:
(a) for which values of k the action of S
n
on k-element subsets is faithful.
Let S
n
act on subsets of order k for some 1 ≤ k ≤ n. Note if n = 1, then the group action is trivially faithful.
Now let σ ∈ S
n
be a non-identity element for n > 1. Since σ is not the identity, let σ(a
i
) = a
j
for a
i
,= a
j
. If k < n,
then we can choose ¦a
1
, . . . , a
k
¦ such that a
i
∈ ¦a
1
, . . . , a
k
¦ and a
j
/ ∈ ¦a
1
, . . . , a
k
¦. Thus
σ ¦a
1
, . . . , a
k
¦ , = ¦a
1
, . . . , a
k
¦ .
Hence the homomorphism representing the group action is injective for k < n. If k = n, then σ is just a bijection
of n-element sets so the homomorphism representing the group action is trivial. Therefore the values of k giving
rise to a faithful group action are all values of k < n.
1.7.13. Find the kernel of the left regular action.
If g is in the kernel of the left regular action, then ga = a for all a ∈ G. Thus g = 1 so the kernel of the left
regular action is ¦1¦.
1.7.14. Let G be a group and let A = G. Show that if G is non-abelian then the maps defined by g a = ag for all
g, a ∈ G do not satisfy the axioms of a (left) group action of G on itself.
Proof. Since G is non-abelian we can find g
1
, g
2
∈ G such that g
1
g
2
,= g
2
g
1
. We assume the axioms of a group
action hold. But g
1
g
2
= a
−1
ag
1
g
2
= a
−1
((g
1
g
2
) a) = a
−1
(g
1
(g
2
a)) = a
−1
(g
1
(ag
2
)) = a
−1
(ag
2
g
1
) = g
2
g
1
, a
contradiction. Therefore this is not a group action.
2. Subgroups
2.1. Definition and Examples.
Proposition 2.1 (The Subgroup Criterion). A subset H of a group G is a subgroup if and only if
(1) H ,= ∅
(2) for all x, y ∈ H, xy
−1
∈ H
Furthermore, if H is finite, then it suffices to check that H is nonempty and closed under multiplication.
2.2. Centralizers and Normalizers, Stabilizers and Kernels.
2.2.2. Prove that C
G
(Z(G)) = G and deduce that N
G
(Z(G)) = G.
Proof. Notice C
G
(Z(G)) =
_
g ∈ G [ gag
−1
= a, ∀a ∈ Z(G)
_
by definition. But a ∈ Z(G) if and only if ag = ga for
all g ∈ G, if and only if a = gag
−1
for all g ∈ G. Thus C
G
(Z(G)) = G.
Since C
G
(Z(G)) ≤ N
G
(Z(G)) and N
G
(Z(G)) ⊆ G, we have N
G
(Z(G)) = G as well.
2.2.4. For each of S
3
, D
8
, and Q
8
compute the centralizers of each element and find the center of each group. Does
Lagrange’s Theorem (Exercise 19 in Section 1.7) simplify your work?
S
3
. C
S3
(1) = S
3
, C
S3
((1 2)) = ¦1, (1 2)¦, C
S3
((1 3)) = ¦1, (1 3)¦, C
S3
((2 3)) = ¦1, (2 3)¦, C
S3
((1 2 3)) = ¦1, (1 2 3), (1 3 2)¦,
C
S3
((1 3 2)) = ¦1, (1 2 3), (1 3 2)¦.
D
8
. C
D8
(1) = D
8
, C
D8
(r) = ¸r¸, C
D8
(r
2
) = D
8
, C
D8
(r
3
) = ¸r¸, C
D8
(s) =
_
1, r
2
, s, sr
2
_
, C
D8
(sr) =
_
1, r
2
, sr, sr
3
_
,
C
D8
(sr
2
) =
_
1, r
2
, s, sr
2
_
, C
D8
(sr
3
) =
_
1, r
2
, sr, sr
3
_
.
Q
8
. C
Q8
(1) = Q
8
, C
Q8
(−1) = ¦1, −1¦, C
Q8
(i) = ¦1, i¦, C
Q8
(−i) = ¦1, −i¦, C
Q8
(j) = ¦1, j¦, C
Q8
(−j) = ¦1, −j¦,
C
Q8
(k) = ¦1, k¦, C
Q8
(−k) = ¦1, −k¦.
Note that Lagrange’s theorem lets us check our answers because the centralizer is a subgroup and thus must
divide the order of the group.
2.2.5. In each of parts (a) to (c) show that for the specified group G and subgroup A of G, C
G
(A) = A and
N
G
(A) = G.
(a) G = S
3
and A = ¦1, (1 2 3), (1 3 2)¦.
(b) G = D
8
and A =
_
1, s, r
2
, sr
2
_
.
(c) G = D
10
and A =
_
1, r, r
2
, r
3
, r
4
_
.
16 DAVID S. DUMMIT AND RICHARD M. FOOTE
Proof (a). Note that C
G
(A) = ∩
a∈A
C
G
(a) so by Exercise 2.2.4, C
S3
(A) = S
3
∩¦1, (1 2 3), (1 3 2)¦∩¦1, (1 2 3), (1 3 2)¦ =
A.
Proof (b). Similarly to part (a) by Exercise 2.2.4, C
D8
(A) = D
8

_
1, r
2
, s, sr
2
_
∩ D
8

_
1, r
2
, s, sr
2
_
= A.
Proof (c). Note that any power of r commutes with any power of r so A ⊆ C
D10
(A). Since C
D10
(r) = ¸r¸, we also
must have C
D10
(A) ⊆ A.
2.2.9. For any subgroup H of G and any nonempty subset A of G define N
H
(A) to be the set
_
h ∈ H [ hAh
−1
= A
_
.
Show that N
H
(A) = N
G
(A) ∩ H and deduce that N
H
(A) is a subgroup of H (note that A need not be a subset of
H).
Proof. Let x ∈ N
H
(A) so x ∈ H ≤ G and xAx
−1
= A. Thus x ∈ N
G
(A) ∩ H. Now let x ∈ N
G
(A) ∩ H so that
x ∈ HandxAx
−1
= A. Thus x ∈ G
H
(A) and hence N
H
(A) = N
G
(A) ∩ H.
Note that N
G
(A) and H are both subgroups of G and the intersection of two subgroups is again a subgroup.
Therefore N
H
(A) ≤ G.
2.2.10. Let H be a subgroup of order 2 in G. Show that N
G
(H) = C
G
(H). Deduce that if N
G
(H) = G then
H ≤ Z(G).
Proof. Let H = ¦1, h¦, x ∈ N
G
(H) so that x ∈ G and xHx
−1
= H. Since x1x
−1
= 1, we must have xhx
−1
= h so
that x¦1, h¦ x
−1
= ¦1, h¦. Thus x ∈ C
G
(H). Now if x ∈ C
G
(H), then x1x
−1
= 1 and xhx
−1
= h so xHx
−1
= H.
Thus x ∈ N
G
(H) and hence N
G
(H) = C
G
(H).
Note if N
G
(H) = G, then G = C
G
(H). Thus any element of G commutes with any element in H so H ⊆ Z(G).
Since H and Z(G) are subgroups we get H ≤ Z(G).
2.3. Cyclic Groups and Cyclic Subgroups.
Proposition 2.2. If H = ¸x¸, then [H[ = [x[ (where if one side of this equality is infinite, so is the other). More
specifically
(1) if [H[ = n < ∞, then x
n
= 1 and 1, x, x
2
, . . . , x
n−1
are all the distinct elements of H
(2) if [H[ = ∞, then x
n
,= 1 for all n ,= 0 and x
a
,= x
b
for all a ,= b in Z.
Proposition 2.3. Let G be an arbitrary group, x ∈ G and let m, n ∈ Z. If x
n
= 1 and x
m
= 1, then x
d
= 1, where
d = (m, n). In particular, if x
m
= 1 for some m ∈ Z, then [x[ divides m.
Theorem 2.4. Any two cyclic groups of the same order are isomorphic. More specifically,
(1) if n ∈ Z
+
and ¸x¸ and ¸y¸ are both cyclic groups of order n, then the map
ϕ: ¸x¸ →¸y¸
x
k
→y
k
is well defined and is an isomorphism
(2) if ¸x¸ is an infinite cyclic group, the map
ϕ: Z →¸x¸
k →x
k
is well defined and is an isomorphism.
Proposition 2.5. Let G be a group, let x ∈ G and let z ∈ Z¸ ¦0¦.
(1) If [x[ = ∞, then [x
a
[ = ∞.
(2) If [x[ = n < ∞, then [x
a
[ =
n
(n,a)
.
(3) In particular, if [x[ = n < ∞ and a is a positive integer dividing n, then [x
a
[ =
n
a
.
Proposition 2.6. Let H = ¸x¸.
(1) Assume [x[ = ∞. Then H = ¸x
a
¸ if and only if a = ±1.
(2) Assume [x[ = n < ∞. Then H = ¸x
a
¸ if and only if (a, n) = 1. In particular, then number of generators of
H is ϕ(n).
Theorem 2.7. Let H = ¸x¸ be a cyclic group.
(1) Every subgroup of H is cyclic. More precisely, if K ≤ H, then either K = ¦1¦ or K =
¸
x
d
_
, where d is the
smallest positive integer such that x
d
∈ K.
17
(2) If [H[ = ∞, then for any distinct nonnegative integers a and b, ¸x
a
¸ ,=
¸
x
b
_
. Furthermore, for every
integer m, ¸x
m
¸ =
¸
x
|m|
_
, where [m[ denotes the absolute value of m, so that the nontrivial subgroups of H
correspond bijectively with the integers 1, 2, 3, . . ..
(3) If [H[ = n < ∞, then for each positive integer a dividing n there is a unique subroups of H of order a.
This subgroup is the cyclic group
¸
x
d
_
, where d =
n
a
. Furthermore, for every integer m, ¸x
m
¸ =
¸
x
(n,m)
_
,
so that the subgroups of H correspond bijectively with the positive divisors of n.
2.3.1. Find all subgroups of Z
45
= ¸x¸, giving a generator for each. Describe the containments between these
subgroups.
The subgroups of Z
45
are given by
¸
x
0
_
, ¸x¸ ,
¸
x
3
_
,
¸
x
5
_
,
¸
x
9
_
,
¸
x
15
_
. The containments between these
subgroups are given by ¸x¸ ⊇
¸
x
3
_

¸
x
5
_

¸
x
9
_

¸
x
15
_

¸
x
0
_
.
2.3.5. Find the number of generators for Z/49000 Z.
Since Z/49000 Z is cyclic of order 49000, we count the number of relatively prime integers to 49000. This is given
by Euler’s ϕ function, so
ϕ(49000) = ϕ(2
3
5
3
7
2
) = ϕ(2
3
)ϕ(5
3
)ϕ(7
2
) = 2
2
(1) 5
2
(4) 7(6) = 16800.
2.3.8. Let Z
48
= ¸x¸. For which integers a does the map ϕ
a
defined by ϕ
a
:
¯
1 →x
a
extend to an isomorphism from
Z/48Z onto Z
48
.
All integers a such that (a, 48) = 1. So a ∈ ¦1, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 25, 29, 31, 35, 37, 41, 43, 47¦.
2.3.12. Prove that the following groups are not cyclic:
(b) Z
2
Z
Proof. Suppose Z
2
Z is cyclic and let (x, y) be a generator. Note that x, y are not identity elements in their
respective groups. Then there exists k ∈ Z such that
(1, y) = (x, y)
k
= (x
k
, ky).
Note k ,= 1 because x ,= 1. But then y = ky shows that y = 0. This is a contradiction so this group is not cyclic.
2.3.13. Prove that the following pairs of groups are not isomorphic:
(b) ¸Z
2
and ¸.
Proof. Suppose that ϕ: (¸ Z
2
) → ¸ is an isomorphism. Let (0, x) ∈ ¸ Z
2
be a non-identity element. So
ϕ((0, x)) = y ,= 0 but
0 = ϕ((0, 1)) = ϕ((0, x)
2
) = 2y.
Since y ,= 0 this is a contradiction, thus no such isomorphism exists.
2.3.18. Show that if H is any group and h is an element of H with h
n
= 1, then there is a unique homomorphism
from Z
n
= ¸x¸ to H such that x →h.
Proof. Since h
n
= 1, there is an m ∈ N such that [¸h¸[ = m so m[n. Define a map ϕ(x
k
) = h
k
. If x
k
= x
l
so
that k ≡ l (mod n), then k − l = αn for some α ∈ Z. But then h
k
= h
αn+l
= h
l
so ϕ is well-defined. Now take
x
k
, x
l
∈ ¸x¸ so that
ϕ(x
k
)ϕ(x
l
) = h
k
h
l
= h
k+l
= ϕ(x
k+l
)
shows that ϕ is such a homomorphism. Now suppose that ϕ and ψ are two homomorphisms such that ϕ(x) = h =
ψ(x). Take some x
k
∈ ¸x¸ so that
ϕ(x
k
) = ϕ(x)
k
= h
k
= ψ(x)
k
= ψ(x
k
).
Therefore ϕ = ψ shows there is a unique map with these properties.
2.4. Subgroups Generated by Subsets of a Group.
Proposition 2.8. If / is any nonempty collection of subgroups of G, then the intersection of all members of / is
also a subgroup of G.
Proposition 2.9. A = ¸A¸.
2.4.8. Prove that S
4
= ¸(1 2 3 4), (1 2 4 3)¸.
18 DAVID S. DUMMIT AND RICHARD M. FOOTE
Proof. First note that [S
4
[ = 4! = 24. Since ¸(1 2 3 4), (1 2 4 3)¸ ≤ S
4
, Lagrange’s theorem states we need
to find 13 elements generated by this set so that ¸(1 2 3 4), (1 2 4 3)¸ = S
4
. So we have (1 2 3 4), (1 2 3 4)
2
=
(1 3)(2 4), (1 2 3 4)
3
= (1 4 3 2), (1 2 4 3), (1 2 4 3)
2
= (1 4)(2 3), (1 2 4 3)
3
= (1 3 4 2), (1 2 3 4)(1 2 4 3) = (1 3 2),
(1 2 3 4)(1 4)(2 3) = (2 4), (1 2 3 4)(1 3 4 2) = (1 4 3), (1 3)(2 4)(1 2 4 3) = (1 4), (1 4 3 2)(1 2 4 3) = (2 3 4), (1 4)(2 4) =
(1 4 2), (1 3)(2 4)(2 4) = (1 3).
2.4.9. Prove that SL
2
(F
3
) is the subgroup of GL
2
(F
3
) generated by
_
1 1
0 1
_
and
_
1 0
1 1
_
.
Proof. First note that [SL
2
(F
3
)[ = 24 so we use a method similar to exercise 2.4.8 to show this subgroup is
generated by the two matrices. So we have
_
1 1
0 1
_
,
_
1 1
0 1
_
2
=
_
1 2
0 1
_
,
_
1 1
0 1
_
3
=
_
1 0
0 1
_
,
_
1 0
1 1
_
,
_
1 0
1 1
_
2
=
_
1 0
2 1
_
,
_
1 1
0 1
__
1 0
1 1
_
=
_
2 1
1 1
_
,
_
1 2
0 1
__
1 0
1 1
_
=
_
0 2
1 1
_
,
_
1 1
0 1
__
1 0
2 1
_
=
_
1 1
2 1
_
,
_
1 0
1 1
__
1 1
0 1
_
=
_
1 1
1 2
_
,
_
1 0
1 1
__
1 2
0 1
_
=
_
1 2
1 0
_
,
_
1 0
2 1
__
1 1
0 1
_
=
_
1 1
2 0
_
,
_
1 0
2 1
__
2 1
1 1
_
=
_
2 1
2 0
_
,
_
1 1
1 2
__
1 2
1 0
_
=
_
2 2
0 2
_
.
2.4.10. Prove that the subgroup of SL
2
(F
3
) generated by
_
0 −1
1 0
_
and
_
1 1
1 −1
_
is isomorphic to the quaternion
group of order 8. [Use a presentation for Q
8
.]
Proof. Let Q
8
be given by the presentation
Q
8
=
¸
i, j [ i
4
= 1 = j
4
, ij = −ji
_
.
Notice that
_
0 −1
1 0
_
4
= I =
_
1 1
1 −1
_
4
, and
_
0 −1
1 0
__
1 1
1 −1
_
=
_
−1 1
1 1
_
= −
_
1 −1
−1 −1
_
= −
_
1 1
1 −1
__
0 −1
1 0
_
.
Thus the relations of the subgroup of SL
2
(F
3
) generated by the matrices are contained in the presentation of Q
8
.
So the order of the matrix subgroup is less than or equal to 8. Since we have found 5 matrices in this subgroup and
[SL
2
(F
3
)[ = 24, Lagrange’s theorem shows that the order of this subgroup is indeed 8. Therefore these groups are
isomorphic.
2.4.11. Prove that SL
2
(F
3
) and S
4
are two nonisomorphic groups of order 24.
Proof. First notice that there is more than one element of order two in S
4
, namely (1 2) and (1 3). Now let
_
a b
c d
_
∈ SL
2
(F
3
) be an element of order 2. So
_
a b
c d
_
2
=
_
a
2
+bc ab +bd
ac +cd bc +d
2
_
=
_
1 0
0 1
_
and ad − bc = 1. Since bc = ad − 1 we see ad − 1 + d
2
= 1. So d(a + d) = 2 shows that cd(a + d) = 2c = 0 hence
c = 0. So ad = a
2
= d
2
= 1 together with b(a + d) = 0 shows that a
2
b + abd = 0 hence b = 0. Therefore the only
element of order 2 is
_
−1 0
0 −1
_
and hence these groups are not isomorphic.
2.4.12. Prove that the subgroup of upper triangular matrices in GL
3
(F
2
) is isomorphic to the dihedral group of
order 8. [First find the order of this subgroup.]
Proof. Since the diagonal must be have nonzero entries, the diagonal is a string of 1’s. Thus the order of this
subgroup is 2
3
= 8. We will show that the subgroup of upper triangular matrices in GL
3
(F
2
) is equal to
_
A =
_
_
1 1 1
0 1 0
0 0 1
_
_
, B =
_
_
1 1 0
0 1 1
0 0 1
_
_
_
19
where AB = B
−1
A and B
4
= I = A
2
. Calculating we find
_
_
1 1 1
0 1 0
0 0 1
_
_
2
=
_
_
1 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 1
_
_
_
_
1 1 0
0 1 1
0 0 1
_
_
4
=
_
_
1 1 0
0 1 1
0 0 1
_
_
2
_
_
1 0 1
0 1 0
0 0 1
_
_
=
_
_
1 1 0
0 1 1
0 0 1
_
_
_
_
1 1 1
0 1 1
0 0 1
_
_
=
_
_
1 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 1
_
_
.
Thus we found five matrices generated by A and B to show that it generates the whole group by Lagrange’s theorem.
Therefore these two groups are isomorphic.
2.5. Definitions and Examples. Let G and H be groups.
2.5.1. Let ϕ: G → H be a homomorphism and let E be a subgroup of H. Prove that ϕ
−1
(E) ≤ G (ie., the
preimage or pullback of a subgroup under a homormorphism is a subgroup). If E H prove that ϕ
−1
(E) G.
Deduce that ker ϕ G.
Proof. Let g
1
, g
2
∈ ϕ
−1
(E) so ϕ(g
1
) = h
1
and ϕ(g
2
) = h
2
where h
1
, h
2
∈ E. But ϕ(1
G
) = ϕ(1
H
) and ϕ(g
1
g
−1
2
) =
h
1
h
−1
2
∈ E so ϕ
−1
(E) ≤ G.
If E H then hEh
−1
⊆ E for all h ∈ H. So take ϕ
_
g ϕ
−1
(E) g
−1
_
⊆ ϕ(g) E ϕ(g)
−1
⊆ E. Thus g ϕ
−1
(E) g
−1

ϕ
−1
(E) shows ϕ
−1
(E) G. Since 1
H
is normal in H then ker ϕ G.
2.5.5. Use the preceding exercise to prove that the order of the element gN in G/N is n, where n is the smallest
positive integer such that g
n
∈ N (and gN has infinite order if no such positive integer exists). Give an example to
show that the order of gN in G/N may be strictly smaller than the order of g in G.
Proof. First note if 1 < m < n then (gN)
m
= g
m
N _ N for g / ∈ N so the order of gN ≥ n. But (gN)
n
= g
n
N = N
so the order of gN is n.
An example with the desired property would be D
8
/
¸
r
2
_
. Note that
¸
¸
r
2
¸
¸
= 2 in D
8
but
¸
¸
r
2
¸
r
2

¸
= 1 in
D
8
/
¸
r
2
_
.
2.5.6. Define ϕ: 1
×
→¦±1¦ by letting ϕ(x) be x divided by the absolute value of x. Describe the fibers of ϕ and
prove that ϕ is a homomorphism.
Proof. The fibers of ϕ are given by ϕ
−1
(1) = ¦α ∈ 1
×
[ α > 0¦ and ϕ
−1
(−1) = ¦α ∈ 1
×
[ α < 0¦. To show ϕ is a
homomorphism we calculate
ϕ(αβ) =
_
1 αβ > 0,
−1 αβ < 0,
ϕ(α)ϕ(β) =
_
1 αβ > 0,
−1 αβ < 0.

2.5.9. Define ϕ: C
×
→ 1
×
by ϕ(a + bi) = a
2
+ b
2
. Prove that ϕ is a homomorphism and find the image of ϕ.
Describe the kernel and the fibers of ϕ geometrically (as subsets of the plane).
Proof. We calculate,
ϕ((a +bi)(c +di)) = ϕ(ac +adi +bci −bc)
= (ac −bd)
2
+ (ad +bd)
2
= a
2
c
2
−2abcd +b
2
d
2
+a
2
d
2
+ 2abcd +b
2
d
2
ϕ(a +bi)ϕ(c +di) = (a
2
+b
2
)(c
2
+d
2
)
= a
2
c
2
+a
2
d
2
+b
2
c
2
+b
2
d
2
20 DAVID S. DUMMIT AND RICHARD M. FOOTE
so ϕ is a homomorphism.
2.5.11. Let F be a field and let G =
__
a b
0 c
_
[ a, b, c ∈ F, ac ,= 0
_
≤ GL
2
(F).
(a) Prove that the map ϕ:
_
a b
0 c
_
→a is a surjective homomorphism from G onto F
×
(recall that F
×
is the
multiplicative group of nonzero elements in F). Describe the fibers and kernel of ϕ.
(b) Prove that the map ψ:
_
a b
0 c
_
→ (a, c) is a surjective homomorphism from G onto F
×
F
×
. Describe
the fibers and kernel of ψ.
(c) Let H =
__
1 b
0 1
_
[ b ∈ F
_
. Prove that H is isomorphic to the additive group F.
Proof (a). ϕ is clearly surjective so we show it is a homomorphism by
_
a
1
b
1
0 c
1
__
a
2
b
2
0 c
2
_
=
_
a
1
a
2
a
1
b
2
+b
1
c
2
0 c
1
c
2
_
.
The fibers of ϕ are given by ϕ
−1
(a) =
__
a b
0 c
_
[ b ∈ F, c ,= 0
_
. The kernel of ϕ is elements of G with a = 1.
Proof (b). ψ is clearly surjective and the calculation from proof (a) shows it is a homomorphism. The fibers of ψ
are given by ψ
−1
((a, c)) =
__
a b
0 c
_
[ b ∈ F
_
. The kernel of ψ is elements of G with a = c = 1.
Proof (c). The calculation
_
1 b
1
0 1
__
1 b
2
0 1
_
=
_
1 b
1
+b
2
0 1
_
makes it clear that H is isomorphic to F
+
.
2.5.12. Let G be the additive group of real numbers, let H be the multiplicative group of complex numbers of
absolute value 1 (the unit circle S
1
in the complex plane) and let ϕ: G → H be the homomorphism ϕ: r → e
2πir
.
Draw the points on a real line which lie in the kernel of ϕ. Describe similarly the elements in the fibers of ϕ above
the points −1, i, and e
4πi/3
of H.
The points of the real line in the kernel of ϕ are the integers. The fibers are given by ϕ
−1
(−1) = (1/2)(1
+
/Z),
ϕ
−1
(i) = (1/4)(1
+
/Z), ϕ(e
4πi/3
) = (2/3)(1
+
/Z).
2.6. The Lattice of Subgroups of a Group.
3. Quotient Groups and Homomorphisms
3.1. Definitions and Examples.
Proposition 3.1. Let G and H be groups and let ϕ: G →H be a homomorphism.
(1) ϕ(1
G
) = 1
H
(2) ϕ(g
−1
) = ϕ(g)
−1
for all g ∈ G.
(3) ϕ(g
n
) = ϕ(g)
n
for all n ∈ Z.
(4) ker ϕ is a subgroup of G.
(5) im(ϕ) is a subgroup of H.
Proposition 3.2. Let ϕ: G → H be a homomorphism of groups with kernel K. Let X ∈ G/K be the fiber above
a, i.e., X = ϕ
−1
(a). Then
(1) For any u ∈ X, X = ¦uk [ k ∈ K¦
(2) For any u ∈ X, X = ¦ku [ k ∈ K¦.
Theorem 3.3. Let G be a group and let K be the kernel of some homomorphism from G to another group. Then
the set whose eelements are the left cosets of K in G with operation defined by
uK ◦ vK = (uv)K
forms a group, G/K. In particular, this operation is well defined in the sense that if u
1
is any element in uK and
v
1
is any element in vK, then u
1
v
1
∈ uvK, e.e., u
1
v
1
K = uvK so that the multiplication does not depend on the
choice of representatives for the cosets. The same statement is true with “right coset” in place of “left coset.”
21
Proposition 3.4. Let N be any subgroup of the group G. The set of left cosets of N in G form a partition of G.
Furthermore, for all u, v ∈ G, uN = vN if and only if v
−1
u ∈ N and in particular, uN = vN if and only if u and
v are representatives of the same coset.
Proposition 3.5. Let G be a group and let N be a subgroup of G.
(1) The operation on the set of left cosets of N in G described by
uN vN = (uv)N
is well defined if and only if gng
−1
∈ N for all g ∈ G and all n ∈ N.
(2) If the above operation is well defined, then it makes the set of left cosets of N in G into a group. In particular
the identity of this group is the coset 1N and the inverse of gN is the coset g
−1
N i.e., (gN)
−1
= g
−1
N.
Theorem 3.6. Let N be a subgroup of the group G. The following are equivalent:
(1) N G
(2) N
G
(N) = G
(3) gN = Ng for all g ∈ G
(4) the operation on left cosets of N in G described in proposition 3.5 makes the set of left cosets into a group
(5) gNg
−1
⊆ N for all g ∈ G.
Proposition 3.7. A subgroup N of the group G is normal if and only if it is the kernel of some homomorphism.
3.1.36. Prove that if G/Z(G) is cyclic then G is abelian.
Proof. If G/Z(G) is cyclic with generator xZ(G), then if gZ(G) ∈ G/Z(G) we have gZ(G) = (xZ(G))
n
= x
n
Z(G)
for some n ∈ N. Thus there is some z ∈ Z(G) such that g = x
n
z. Now take g
1
, g
2
∈ G such that g
1
= x
m
z
1
and
g
2
= x
n
z
2
. Then
g
1
g
2
= x
m
z
1
x
n
z
2
= x
m
x
n
z
2
z
1
= x
n
x
m
z
2
z
1
= x
n
z
2
x
m
z
1
= g
2
g
1
.

3.2. More on Cosets and Lagrange’s Theorem.
Theorem 3.8 (Lagrange’s Theorem). If G is a finite gorup and H is a subgroup of G, then the order of H divides
the order of G (i.e., [H[ [ [G[) and the number of left cosets of H in G equals
|G|
|H|
.
Corollary 3.9. If G is a finite group and x ∈ G, then the roder of x divides the order of G. In particular x
|G|
= 1
for all x in G.
Corollary 3.10. If G is a group of prime order p, then G is cyclic, hence G

= Z
p
.
Theorem 3.11 (Cauchy’s Theorem). If G is a finite group and p is a prime dividing [G[, then G has an element
of order p.
Theorem 3.12 (Sylow). If G is a finite group of order p
α
m, where p is a prime and p does not divide m, then G
has a subgroup of order p
α
.
Proposition 3.13. If H and K are finite subgroups of a group then
[HK[ =
[H[ [K[
[H ∩ K[
.
Proposition 3.14. If H and K are subgroups of a group, HK is a subgroup if and only if HK = KH.
Corollary 3.15. If H and K are subgroups of G and H and H ≤ N
G
(K), then HK is a subgroup of G. In
particular, if K G then HK ≤ G for any H ≤ G.
3.2.8. Prove that if H and K are finite subgroups of G whose orders are relatively prime then H ∩ K = 1.
Proof. Let [H[ = m and [K[ = n with (m, n) = 1. Now take x ∈ H ∩ K so [x[ [m and [x[ [n so x = 1.
22 DAVID S. DUMMIT AND RICHARD M. FOOTE
3.2.9. This exercise outlines a proof of Cauchy’s Theorem due to James McKay. Let G be a finite group and let p
be a prime dividing [G[. Let o denote the set of p-tuples of elements of G the product of whose coordinates is 1:
o = ¦(x
1
, x
2
, . . . , x
p
) [ x
i
∈ G and x
1
x
2
x
p
= 1¦ .
Define the relation ∼ on o by letting α ∼ β if β is a cyclic permutation of α.
(a) Show that o has [G[
p−1
elements, hence has order divisible by p.
(b) Show that a cyclic permutation of an element of o is again an element of S.
(c) Prove that ∼ is an equivalence relation on o.
(d) Prove that an equivalence class contains a single element if and only if it is of the form (x, x, . . . , x) with
x
p
= 1.
(e) Prove that every equivalence class has order 1 or p (this uses the fact that p is a prime). Deduce that
[G[
p−1
= k +pd, where k is the number of classes of size 1 and d is the number of classes of size p.
(f) Since ¦(1, 1, . . . , 1)¦ is an equivalence class of size 1, conclude from (e) that there must be a nonidentity
element x in G with x
p
= 1, i.e., G contains an element of order p. [Show p[k and so k > 1.]
Proof (a). The first p − 1 coordinates have [G[ choices and the pth coordinate must be the inverse of the product
of the first p −1 coordinates. Thus [o[ = [G[
p−1
.
Proof (b). Let (x
1
, x
2
, . . . , x
p
) ∈ o and notice x
p
x
1
x
2
x
p−1
= 1 just by multiplication on the right by (x
p
)
−1
,
then the left by x
p
. Thus (x
p
, x
1
, . . . , x
p−1
) ∈ o and any cyclic permutation can be realized by repeating this
process.
Proof (c). Reflexive is obvious. If α is a cyclic permutation of β, then β is a cyclic permutation of α so ∼ is
symmetric. If β is a cyclic permutation of α and γ is a cyclic permutation of β, then γ is a cyclic permutation of α
so ∼ is transitive. Thus ∼ is an equivalence relation.
Proof (d). If some x is changed to a y ,= x, then a cyclic permutation would yield a different element of the
equivalence class. If all the x are the same, then any cyclic permutation is indeed the same element of o.
Proof (e). It is clear that every equivalence class has order less than or equal to p. Suppose the equivalence class
is not of the form from part (d) and let σ ∈ S
p
be given by σ(i) ≡ i + j mod p for 0 ≤ j < p and suppose that
(x
1
, . . . , x
p
) ∼ (x
σ(1)
, . . . , x
σ(p)
). Then x
i
= x
σ(i)
= x
σ
2
(i)
= = x
σ
p−1
(i)
for all i. Since not every coordinate is
allowed to be equal, j = 0 because [σ[ = p (for p prime, σ ,= 1).
Thus the number of equivalence classes is the sum of size 1 and size p classes. Since equivalence classes are
disjoint, [G[
p−1
= k +pd.
Proof (f ). Since p divides [G[, then p divides [G[
p−1
and specifically p divides k. Thus k > 1 and hence there is an
element x in G with order p.
3.2.10. Suppose H and K are subgroups of finite index in the (possibly infinity) group G with [G : H[ = m and
[G : K[ = n. Prove that lcm(m, n) ≤ [G : H ∩ K[ ≤ mn. Deduce that if m and n are relatively prime then
[G : H ∩ K[ = [G : H[ [G : K[.
Proof by Dr. Schulze. By Problem 11, you have [G : H ∩ K] = [G : K][K : H ∩ K]. So n divides [G : H ∩ K], and
also m divides by the same argument. Therefore lcm(m, n) ⇐[G : H ∩ K].
Now note that the first isomorphism theorem works also for non-normal subgroups, but you get a statement on
maps of sets (not groups). Apply this to the map G →GG →G/H G/K sending g →(g, g) →(gH, gK).
Its kernel is H ∩ K, so the (set version of the) first isomorphism theorem gives an injective map G/(H ∩ K) →
G/H G/K. Thus, [G : H ∩ K] = [G/(H ∩ K)[ ⇐[G/H G/K[ = [G/H[[G/K[ = n m.
3.2.22. Use Lagrange’s Theorem in the multiplicative group (Z/nZ)
×
to prove Euler’s Theorem: a
ϕ(n)
≡ 1 mod n
for every integer a relatively prime to n, where ϕ denotes Euler’s ϕ-function.
Proof. Since a is relatively prime to n, a ∈ (Z¸nZ)
×
. Corollary 9 states that a
ϕ(n)
= a
[(Z\nZ)
×
[
= 1
|(Z\nZ)
×
|
≡ 1
mod n.
23
3.3. The Isomorphism Theorems.
Theorem 3.16 (The First Isomorphism Theorem). If ϕ: G → H is a homomorphism of groups, then ker ϕ G
and G/ ker ϕ

= ϕ(G).
Corollary 3.17. Let ϕ: G →H be a homomorphism of groups.
(1) ϕ is injective if and only if ker ϕ = 1.
(2) [G: ker ϕ[ = [ϕ(G)[.
Theorem 3.18 (The Second Isomorphism Theorem). Let G be a group, let A and B be subgroups of G and assume
A ≤ N
G
(B). Then AB is a subgroup of G, B AB, A∩ B A and AB/B

= A/A∩ B.
Theorem 3.19 (The Third Isomorphism Theorem). Let G be a group and let H and K be normal subgroups of G
with H ≤ K. Then K/H G/H and
(G/H)/(K/H)

= G/K.
If we denote the quotient by H with a bar, this can be written
G/K

= G/K.
Theorem 3.20 (The Fourth Isomorphism Theorem). Let G be a group and let N be a normal subgroup of G.
Then there is a bijection from the set of subgroups A of G which contain N onto the set of subgroups A = A/N
of G/N. In particular, every subgroup of G is of the form A/N for some subgroup A of G containing N (namely,
its preimage in G under the natural projection homomorphism from G to G/N). This bijection has the following
properties: for all A, B ≤ G with N ≤ A and N ≤ B,
(1) A ≤ B if and only if A ≤ B,
(2) if A ≤ B, then [B: A[ =
¸
¸
B: A
¸
¸
,
(3) ¸A, B¸ =
¸
A, B
_
,
(4) A∩ B = A∩ B, and
(5) A G if and only if A G.
3.3.3. Prove that if H is a normal subgroup of G of prime index p then for all K ≤ G either
(i) K ≤ H or
(ii) G = HK and [K: K ∩ H[ = p.
Proof. Suppose that K _ K so since K ≤ N
G
(H), HK = KH ≤ G. Since [K[ , = 1, [HK[ > H so HK = G because
[G : H[ = p and Lagrange’s theorem. The fact that [K : H ∩ H[ = p is immediate by the diamond isomorphism
theorem.
3.3.4. Let C be a normal subgroup of the group A and let D be a normal subgroup of the group B. Prove that
(C D) (AB) and (AB)/(C D)

= (A/C) (B/D).
Proof. Let π
1
: A → A/C and π
2
: B → B/D which exist by the normality of C and D. Now let Φ: (A B) →
(A/C B/D) be defined by π
1
and π
2
. Thus ker Φ = C D and thus (C D) (A B). Since Φ is surjective,
the first isomorphism theorem shows that (AB)/(C D)

= (A/C) (B/D).
3.3.7. Let M and N be normal subgroups of G such that G = MN. Prove that G/(M ∩ N)

= (G/M) (G/N).
[Draw the lattice.]
Proof. Define a homomorphism ϕ: G → (G/M) (G/N) by ϕ(g) = (g, g). Take some (m, n) ∈ (G/M) (G/N).
Then nm

n
−1
= m so take nm

= g = mn so ϕ(g) = (g, g) = (m, n) so ϕ is surjective. The kernel of ϕ is clearly
M∩N because g ∈ M and g ∈ N if and only if (g, g) = 1
G/M×G/N
. Therefore the first isomorphism theorem states
that G/(M ∩ N)

= (G/M) (G/N).
3.3.9. Let p be a prime and let G be a group of order p
a
m, where p does not divide m. Assume P is a subgroup of
G of order p
a
and N is a normal subgroup of G of order p
b
n, where p does not divide n. Prove that [P ∩ N[ = p
b
and [PN/N[ = p
a−b
. (The subgroup P of G is called a Sylow p-subgroup of G. This exercise shows that the
intersection of any Sylow p-subgroup of G with a normal subgroup N is a Sylow p-subgroup of N.)
Proof. First note that [PN[ = ([P[ [N[)/ [P ∩ N[ = (p
a+b
n)/ [P ∩ N[. But this divides p
a
m so [P ∩ N[ = p
b
α.
But then p
b
α divides p
b
n so α divides n shows α does not divide p. But now p
b
α divides p
a
so α = 1 and hence
[P ∩ N[ = p
b
. The diamond isomorphism theorem shows that [PN/N[ = p
a−b
.
24 DAVID S. DUMMIT AND RICHARD M. FOOTE
3.4. Composition Series and the Holder Program.
Proposition 3.21. If G is a finite abelian group and P is a prime dividing [G[, then G contains an element of
order p.
Theorem 3.22 (Jordan-Holder). Let G be a finite group with G ,= 1. Then
(1) G has a composition series and
(2) The composition factors in a composition sereis are unique, namely, if 1 = N
0
≤ N
1
≤ ≤ N
r
= G and
1 = M
0
≤ M
1
≤ ≤ M
s
= G are two composition series for G, then r = s and there is some permutation,
π, of ¦1, 2, . . . , r¦ such taht
M
π(i)
/M
π(i)−1

= N
i
/N
i−1
, 1 ≤ i ≤ r.
3.5. Transpositions and the Alternating Group.
Proposition 3.23. The map : S
n
→ ¦±1¦ is a homomorphism (where ¦±1¦ is a multiplicative version of the
cyclic group of order 2).
Proposition 3.24. Transpositions are all odd permutations and is a surjective homomorphism.
Proposition 3.25. The permutation σ is odd if and only if the number of cycles of even length in its cycle
decomposition is odd.
3.5.3. Prove that S
n
= ¸¦(i i + 1) [ 1 ≤ i ≤ n −1¦¸.
Proof. Let σ ∈ S
n
and decompose σ into a product of transpositions. But if (i j) is any transposition, then
(i j) = (j −1 j) (i i + 1) (j −1 j).
Therefore this set generates S
n
.
3.5.5. Show that if p is prime, S
p
= ¸σ, τ¸ where σ is any transposition and τ is any p-cycle.
Proof. Without loss of generality, suppose σ = (1 2) and τ = (1 p). If 1 ≤ i ≤ n −1, then
(i i + 1) = τ
i−1
στ
−i+1
.
Exercise 3.5.3 shows this generates S
p
.
3.5.6. Show that ¸(1 3), (1 2 3 4)¸ is a proper subgroup of S
4
. What is the isomorphism type of this subgroup?
Proof. Notice that (1 3)(1 2 3 4)
2
(1 3) = (1 2 3 4)
2
shows that (1 2 3 4)
2
∈ Z(¸(1 3), (1 2 3 4)¸). But
(1 2 3 4)
2
(1 4) = (1 2 4 3) ,= (1 3 4 2) = (1 4)(1 2 3 4)
2
.
Therefore ¸(1 3), (1 2 3 4)¸ < S
4
.
The isomorphism type of this subgroup is D
8
because we can construct 8 elements and we have
(1 3)
2
= (1 2 3 4)
4
= (1 3)(1 2 3 4)(1 3)(1 2 3 4) = 1.
3.5.7. Prove that the group of rigid motions of a tetrahedron is isomorphic to A
4
.
Proof. First notice that both groups are order 12. Now we represent the group of rigid motions of a tetrahedron as
a subgroup of S
n
. The elements in this subgroup are
1, (1 2 3), (1 3 2), (1 3 4), (1 4 3), (1 2 4), (1 4 2), (2 3 4), (2 4 3), (1 3)(2 4), (1 2)(3 4), (1 4)(2 3).
Since all 12 of these elements are even, this is A
4
.
3.5.10. Find a composition series for A
4
. Deduce that A
4
is solvable.
Solution. Let N
1
= ¦1, (1 3)(2 4)¦ and N
2
= ¦1, (1 3)(2 4), (1 2)(3 4), (1 4)(2 3)¦. Simple calculations show that
1 = N
0
N
1
N
2
N
3
= A
4
, while [N
i+1
/N
i
[ = p shows that each composition factor is simple. Since the order
of each composition factor is prime, they are also abelian and hence A
4
is solvable.
3.5.17. If x and y are 3-cycles in S
n
, prove that ¸x, y¸ is isomorphic to Z
3
, A
4
, A
5
, or Z
3
Z
3
.
25
Proof. If x = y, then ¸x, y¸ = ¸x¸

= Z
3
by order argument. Now let x = (i j k) and y = (j k l) and notice these
are both even permutations hence generate even permutations. Since 1, (i j k), (i k j), (j k l), (j l k), (i k l) and
(i j)(k l) are all generated by x and y, then ¸x, y¸

= A
4
by Lagrange’s theorem. Now let x = (i j k), y = (k l m)
and we will show that ¸x, y¸ A
5
, so they are equal because A
5
is simple. If we can show conjugating (i j k) by any
transposition remains in ¸x, y¸, then we are done because any permutation can be represented by a transposition, and
the argument for (k l m) will be similar. But (i j k)
(i j)
= (i j k)
(j k)
= (i j k)
(i k)
= (i j k)
−1
, (i j k)
(l m)
= (i j k),
(i j k)
(i l)
= (j k l) = [(i j k)
(k l m)
]
(i j k)
, (i j k)
(j l)
= [(j i k)
(k l m)
]
(j i k)
, (i j k)
(i m)
= [(i j k)
(k m l)
]
(i j k)
,
(i j k)
(j m)
= [(j i k)
(k m l)
]
(j i k)
, (i j k)
(k l)
= (i j k)
(k l m)
, and (i j k)
(k m)
= (i j k)
(k m l)
. If x and y are
disjoint 3-cycles, then it is clear that ¸x, y¸

= Z
3
Z
3
.
4. Group Actions
4.1. Group Actions and Permutation Representations.
4.2. Groups Acting on Themselves by Left Multiplication – Cayley’s Theorem.
4.2.2. List the elements of S
3
as 1, (1 2), (2 3), (1 3), (1 2 3), (1 3 2) and label these with the integers 1,2,3,4,5,6
respectively. Exhibit the image of each element of S
3
under the left regular representation of S
3
into S
6
.
Solution.
4.2.4. Use the left regular representation of Q
8
to produce two elements of S
8
which generate a subgroup of S
8
isomorphic to the quaternion group Q
8
.
Solution.
4.2.8. Prove that if H has finite index n then there is a normal subgroup K of G with K ≤ H and [G : K[ ≤ n!.
Proof.
4.2.10. Prove that every non-abelian group of order 6 has a nonnormal subgroup of order 2. Use this to classify
groups of order 6. [Produce an injective homomorphism into S
3
.]
Proof.
4.3. Groups Acting on Themselves by Conjugation – The Class Equation.
4.3.3. Find all conjugacy classes and their sizes in the following groups:
(c) A
4
.
Solution (c).
4.3.6. Assume G is a non-abelian group of order 15. Prove that Z(G) = 1. Use the fact that ¸g¸ ≤ C
G
(g) for all
g ∈ G to show that there is at most one possible class equation for G. [Use exercise 36, section 3.1.]
Proof.
4.3.13. Find all finite groups which have exactly two conjugacy classes.
Solution.
4.3.27. Let g
1
, g
2
, . . . , g
r
be representatives of the conjugacy classes of the finite group G and assume these elements
pairwise commute. Prove that G is abelian.
Proof.
4.3.29. Let p be a prime and let G be a group of order p
α
. Prove that G has a subgroup of order p
β
, for every β
with 0 ≤ β ≤ α. [Use theorem 8 and induction on α.]
Proof.
26 DAVID S. DUMMIT AND RICHARD M. FOOTE
4.4. Automorphisms. Let G be a group.
4.4.1. If σ ∈ Aut(G) and ϕ
g
is conjugation by g prove σϕ
g
σ
−1
= ϕ
σ(g)
. Deduce that Inn(G) Aut(G).
Proof. Let x ∈ G, so
σϕ
g
σ
−1
(x) = σ(gσ
−1
(x)g
−1
)
= σ(g)xσ(g)
−1
= ϕ
σ(g)
(x)
shows the desired equation. Since conjugating an element of Inn(G) with an element of Aut(G) is contained in
Inn(G), normality must hold.
4.4.2. Prove that if G is an abelian group of order pq, where p and q are distinct primes, then G is cyclic.
Proof. We use Cauchy’s theorem to pick x, y ∈ G with [x[ = p and [y[ = q. But if 1 = (xy)
k
= x
k
y
k
for k ≥ 1, then
k [ p and k [ q. Since x ,= y
−1
, then k ≥ pq. Thus ¸xy¸ = G and therefore G is cyclic.
4.4.3. Prove that under any automorphism of D
8
, r has at most 2 possible images and s has at most 4 possible
images (r and s are the usual generators). Deduce that [Aut(D
8
)[ ≤ 8.
Proof. Since there is only one subgroup of order 4, ¸r¸ is characteristic so if σ ∈ Aut(D
8
), then σ(¸r¸) = ¸r¸. Since
[r[ = 4, then σ(r) ∈
_
r, r
3
_
. Since σ(¸r¸) = ¸r¸, we must have σ(s) ∈
_
s, sr, sr
2
, sr
3
_
.
If x ∈ D
8
, then x = sr
k
for some 0 ≤ k ≤ 3. So σ(x) = σ(sr
k
) = σ(s)σ(r)
k
and thus the automorphism is
uniquely determined by the value on s and r. So [Aut(D
8
)[ ≤ 2 4 = 8.
4.4.11. If p is a prime and P is a subgroup of S
p
of order p, prove N
Sp
(P)/C
Sp
(P)

= Aut(P).
Proof. We know from a previous exercise that
¸
¸
N
Sp
(P)
¸
¸
= p(p −1) and from Corollary 15 that N
Sp
(P)/C
Sp
(P)

=
H ≤ Aut(P). Since C
Sp
(P) = P and [Aut(P)[ = p −1, we have the desired isomorphism.
4.4.18. This exercise shows that for n ,= 6 every automorhpism of S
n
is inner. Fix an integer n ≥ 2 with n ,= 6.
(a) Prove that the automorphism group of a group G permutes the conjugacy classes of G, i.e., for each
σ ∈ Aut(G) and each conjugacy class / of G the set σ(/) is also a conjugacy class of G.
(b) Let / be the conjugacy class of transpositions in S
n
and let /

be the conjugacy class of any element of
order 2 in S
n
that is not a transposition. Prove that [/[ , = [/

[. Deduce that any automorphism of S
n
sends transpositions to transpositions.
(c) Prove that for each σ ∈ Aut(S
n
)
σ: (1 2) →(a b
2
), σ: (1 3) →(a b
3
), . . . , σ: (1 n) →(a b
n
)
for some distinct integers a, b
2
, b
3
, . . . , b
n
∈ ¦1, 2, . . . , n¦.
(d) Show that (1 2), (1 3), . . ., (1 n) generate S
n
and deduce that any automorphism of S
n
is uniquely determined
by its action on these elements. Use (c) to show that S
n
has at most n! automorphisms and conclude that
Aut(S
n
) = Inn(S
n
) for n ,= 6.
Proof (a).
4.5. The Sylow Theorems. Let G be a finite group and let p be a prime.
4.5.1. Prove that if P ∈ Syl
p
(G) and H is a subgroup of G containing P then P ∈ Syl
p
(H). Give an example to
show that, in general, a Sylow p-subgroup of a subgroup of G need not be a Sylow p-subgroup of G.
Proof. Let [P[ = p
k
. Then p
k
¸
¸
[H[
¸
¸
[G[, so P ∈ Syl
p
(H).
Example. Let 1 = H _ G and p
¸
¸
[G[. Then 1 ∈ Syl
p
(H) and 1 / ∈ Syl
p
(G).
4.5.3. Use Sylow’s Theorem to prove Cauchy’s Theorem. (Note that we only used Cauchy’s Theorem for abelian
groups – Proposition 3.21 – in the proof of Sylow’s Theorem so this line of reasoning is not circular.)
Proof. Suppose that p
¸
¸
[G[ and let P ∈ Syl
p
(G) with [P[ = p
k
. Now take x ∈ P¸1 so [x[
¸
¸
p
k
and let [x[ = p
l
. Then
¸
¸
x
l
¸
¸
= p.
4.5.9. Exhibit all Sylow 3-subgroups of SL
2
(F
3
).
27
Solution. Note [SL
2
(F
3
)[ = 24 so if P ∈ Syl
3
(SL
2
(F
3
)) then [P[ = 3. Since n
3
≡ 1 mod 3, n
3
∈ ¦1, 4¦. But
_
1 1
0 1
_
,
_
1 0
1 1
_
,
_
0 1
2 2
_
,
_
0 2
1 2
_
,
all generate different subgroups of order 3.
4.5.13. Prove that a group, G, of order 56 has a normal Sylow p-subgroup for some prime p dividing its order.
Proof. Note 56 = 2
3
7. Suppose n
2
, n
7
> 1. Then (

Syl
2
(G))¸1 ≥ 14 and (

Syl
7
(G))¸1 ≥ 48. These are clearly
all distinct elements, so n
2
or n
7
is equal to 1.
4.5.18. Prove that a group of order 200 has a normal Sylow 5-subgroup.
Proof. Note 200 = 2
3
5
2
. But n
5
∈ ¦1, 6¦ and since 6 [ 8 we must have n
5
= 1.
4.5.19. Prove that if [G[ = 6545 then G is not simple.
Proof. Note 6545 = 5 7 11 17. But since n
11
≡ 1 mod 11 and n
11
[ 595, we must have n
11
= 1.
4.5.30. How many elements of order 7 must there be in a simple group of order 168?
Solution. Note 168 = 2
3
3 7. Since the group is simple, n
7
> 1. Since n
7
≡ 1 mod 7 and n
7
[ 24, we must have
n
7
= 8. Therefore there are 6 8 = 48 elements of order 7.
4.5.32. Let P be a Sylow p-subgroup of H and let H be a subgroup of K. If P H and H K, prove that P is
normal in K. Deduce that if P ∈ Syl
p
(G) and H = N
G
(P), then N
G
(H) = H.
Proof. If P H, then P is characteristic in H. Since P is characteristic in H and H K, then P K.
Now if P ∈ Syl
p
(G) and H = N
G
(P), then P ∈ Syl
p
(H) and P is characteristic in H. Thus if H
g
= H, then
P
g
= P so g ∈ N
G
(P) = H. Therefore N
G
(H) = H.
4.5.40. Prove that the number of Sylow p-subgroups of G = GL
2
(F
p
) is p + 1.
Proof. Note [GL
2
(F
p
)[ = (p −1)
2
p(p + 1) and n
p
≡ 1 mod p. Since
P
1
=
__
1 γ
0 1
__
, P
2
=
__
1 0
γ 1
__
∈ Syl
p
(G),
for γ ∈ F
p
¸ ¦0, 1¦, we must have n
p
≥ p + 1.
Now we show that the upper triangular matrices are a subgroup of N
G
(P
1
) with order (p − 1)
2
p. Simple
calculations show that for a, b, c ∈ F
p
, we have
_
a b
0 c
_
−1
=
_
a
−1
−a
−1
bc
−1
0 c
−1
_
.
Now if γ ∈ F
p
¸ ¦0, 1¦ we get
_
a b
0 c
_
−1
_
1 γ
0 1
__
a b
0 c
_
=
_
1 a
−1
γb −a
−1
bc
−1
b
0 1
_
.
Since the upper diagonal matrices have nonzero diagonal elements and any upper right entry, the order must be
(p −1)
2
p. Thus (p −1)
2
p [ N
G
(P
1
).
Sylow’s theorem states that n
p
= [G: N
G
(P
1
)], so n
p
[ p + 1. Therefore n
p
= p + 1.
4.6. The Simplicity of A
n
.
28 DAVID S. DUMMIT AND RICHARD M. FOOTE
5. Direct and Semidirect Products and Abelian Groups
5.1. Direct Products.
5.1.10. Let p be a prime. Let A and B be two cyclic groups of order p with generators x and y, respectively. Set
E = AB so that E is the elementary abelian groups of order p
2
: E
p
2. Prove that the distinct subgroups of E of
order p are
¸x¸ , ¸xy¸ ,
¸
xy
2
_
, . . . ,
¸
xy
p−1
_
, ¸y¸
(note that there are p + 1 of them).
Proof. Example 3 in this section shows that there are p + 1 subgroups of order p. Note that these p + 1 subgroups
are all distinct and nontrivial, so if the pth power of each generator is the identity element, then we are done. But
x
p
= 1, (xy)
p
= x
p
y
p
= 1, (xy
k
)
p
= x
p
(y
k
)
p
= 1, y
p
= 1.
5.1.11. Let p be a prime and let n ∈ Z
+
. Find a formula for the number of subgroups of order p in the elementary
abelian group E
p
n.
Solution. Every nonidentity element has order p, so there are p
n
− 1 many elements of order p. By Lagrange’s
theorem, each distinct subgroup intersects trivially. So there are (p
n
− 1)/(p − 1) = p
n−1
+ p
n−2
+ + 1 many
distinct subgroups of order p.
5.1.12. Let A and B be groups. Assume Z(A) contains a subgroup Z
1
and Z(B) contains a subgroup Z
2
with
Z
1

= Z
2
. Let this isomorphism be given by the map x
i
→ y
i
for all x
i
∈ Z
1
. A central product of A and B is a
quotient
(AB)/Z where Z =
_
(x
i
, y
−1
i
) [ x
i
∈ Z
1
_
and is denoted by A∗ B – it is not unique since it depends on Z
1
, Z
2
and the isomorphism between them. (Think
of A ∗ B as the direct product of A and B “collapsed” by identifying each element x
i
∈ Z
1
with its corresponding
element y
i
∈ Z
2
.)
(a) Prove that the images of A and B in the quotient group A ∗ B are isomrophic to A and B, respectively,
and that these images intersect in a central subgroup isomorphic to Z
1
. Find [A∗ B[.
(b) Let Z
4
= ¸x¸. Let D
8
= ¸r, s¸ and Q
8
= ¸i, j¸ be given by their usual generators and realtions. Let
Z
4
∗ D
8
be the central product of Z
4
and D
8
which identifies x
2
and r
2
(i.e., Z
1
=
¸
x
2
_
, Z
2
=
¸
r
2
_
and the
isomorphism is x
2
→ r
2
) and let Z
4
∗ Q
8
be the central product of Z
4
and Q
8
which identifies x
2
and −1.
Prove that Z
4
∗ D
8

= Z
4
∗ Q
8
.
Proof (a).
Proof (b).
5.1.18. In each of (a) to (e) give an example of a group with the specified properties:
(a) an infinite group in which every element has order 1 or 2
(b) an infinite group in which every element has finite order but for each positive integer n there is an element
of order n
(c) a group with an element of infinite order and an element of order 2
(d) a group G such that every finite group is isomorphic to some subgroup of G
(e) a nontrivial group G such that G

= GG.
Solution (a). The direct sum Z
2
Z
2
.
Solution (b). The direct sum Z
2
Z
3
.
Solution (c). Z Z
2
.
Solution (d). S
2
S
3
.
Solution (e). G = Z
2
Z
2
.
29
5.2. The Fundamental Theorem of Finitely Generated Abelian Groups.
5.2.2. In each of parts (a) to (e) give the lists of invariant factors for all abelian groups of the specified order:
(a) order 270
Solution (a). Since 270 = 2 3
3
5, the list of invariant factors is given by (30, 3, 3), (90, 3).
5.2.3. In each of parts (a) to (e) give the lists of elementary divisors for all abelian groups of the specified order
and then match each list with the corresponding list of invariant factors found in the preceding exercise:
(a) order 270
Solution (a). The elementary divisors of an abelian group of order 270 are either (2, 3, 3, 5) or (2, 9, 5) with lists
corresponding to respective orderings.
5.2.7. Let p be a prime and let A = ¸x
1
¸ ¸x
2
¸ ¸x
n
¸ be an abelian p-group, where [x
i
[ = p
αi
> 1 for all i.
Define the pth-power map
ϕ: A →A by ϕ: x →x
p
.
(a) Prove that ϕ is a homomorphism.
(b) Describe the image and kernel of ϕ in terms of the given generators.
(c) Prove both ker ϕ and A/imϕ have rank n (i.e., have the same rank as A) and prove these groups are both
isomorphic to the elementary abelian group, E
p
n, of order p
n
.
Proof (a). This map is clearly well-defined, so we calculate
ϕ(xy) = (xy)
p
= x
p
y
p
= ϕ(x)ϕ(y).

Solution (b). The image of ϕ is given by
ϕ(A) = ¦(β
1
, . . . , β
n
) [ β
i
= (x
γ
i
)
p
, γ ∈ Z¦ .
The kernel of ϕ is given by ¦(k
1
, . . . , k
n
)¦ where
k
i
∈ ¦x
γ
i
[ (x
γ
i
)
p
= 1, γ ∈ Z¦ .

Proof (c). The kernel of ϕ is of type (k
1
, . . . , k
n
) so it has rank n, while A/imϕ is of type (¯ a
1
, . . . , ¯ a
n
) so also has
rank n. If (x
γ
i
)
p
= 1, then [x
γ
i
[
¸
¸
¸ p so
¸
¸
¸
_
x
p
α
i
−1
i

¸
¸ = p, with each element to the power of p clearly one. Thus
ker ϕ

=
n

i=1
_
x
p
α
i
−1
_
so it is isomorphic to E
p
n. Since ϕ: A →A and
¸
¸
ker ϕ[
xi
¸
¸
= p, then
¸
¸
imϕ[
xi
¸
¸
= α
p−1
i
. Thus ¸x
i
¸ /imϕ[
xi

= Z
p
.
Therefore A/imϕ

= E
pn
.
5.2.5. Prove that A
n
is the commutator subgroup of S
n
for all n ≥ 5.
Proof. Since A
n
S
n
and S
n
/A
n

= Z
2
is abelian, proposition 7 part (4) states S

n
≤ A
n
. Also by proposition 7
part (3), S

n
is characteristic in S
n
. Since A
n
is simple, S

n
A
n
, and S
n
is non abelian, we must have A
n
= S

n
.

5.2.11. Prove that if G = HK where H and K are characteristic subgroups of G with H ∩ K = 1 then Aut(G)

=
Aut(H) Aut(K). Deduce that if G is an abelian group of finite order then Aut(G) is isomorphic to the direct
product of the automorphism groups of its Sylow subgroups.
30 DAVID S. DUMMIT AND RICHARD M. FOOTE
Proof. Let φ, ψ ∈ Aut(G) and notice that φ[
H
∈ Aut(H) and φ[
K
∈ Aut(K) since H, K are characteristic in G.
Now let f : Aut(G) →Aut(H) Aut(K) be given by
f(φ) = (φ[
H
, φ[
K
).
If φ = ψ, then (φ[
H
, φ[
K
) = (ψ[
H
, ψ[
K
) so f is well-defined. Now we calculate
f(φ ◦ ψ) = ((φ ◦ ψ)[
H
, (φ ◦ ψ)[
K
)
= (φ[
H
◦ ψ[
H
, φ[
K
◦ ψ[
K
)
= (φ[
H
, φ[
K
)(ψ[
H
, ψ[
K
)
= f(φ)f(ψ),
so f is a homomorphism. Now if φ
H
∈ Aut(H) and φ
K
∈ Aut(K), then let φ ∈ Aut(G) be given by φ[
H
= φ
H
and φ[
K
= φ
K
. So f(φ) = (φ[
H
, φ[
K
) = (φ
H
, φ
K
) shows f is surjective. Now if (φ[
H
, φ[
K
) = (ψ[
H
, ψ[
K
), then for
g = hk ∈ G,
φ(hk) = φ(h)φ(k)
= φ[
H
(h)φ[
K
(k)
= ψ[
H
(h)ψ[
K
(k)
= ψ(h)ψ(k)
= ψ(hk),
so φ = ψ. Therefore f shows Aut(G)

= Aut(H) Aut(K).
If G is finite abelian, then it is the direct product of its (characteristic) Sylow subgroups. Therefore Aut(G) is
isomorphic to the direct product of the automorphism groups of the Sylow subgroups.
5.2.14. Let G = ¦(a
ij
) ∈ GL
n
(F) [ a
ij
= 0 if i > j, and a
11
= a
22
= = a
nn
¦, where F is a field, be the group
of upper triangular matrices all of whose diagonal entries are equal. Prove that G

= D U, where D is the group
of all nonzero multiples of the identity matrix and U is the group of upper triangular matrices with 1’s down the
diagonal.
Proof. It is clear that D ∩ U = 1. Now let A, B ∈ G such that
A =
_
_
_
_
_
a a
12
a
1n
a a
2n
.
.
.
.
.
.
a
_
_
_
_
_
, B =
_
_
_
_
_
b b
12
b
1n
b b
2n
.
.
.
.
.
.
b
_
_
_
_
_
and note if AB = I, then ab = 1. If λI ∈ D for λ ∈ F, then
AλIB = λAIB = λAB = λI.
If | ∈ U, then note that there exist |
A
, |
B
∈ U such that A = a |
A
and B = b |
B
and
A|B = (a |
A
) |(b |
B
) = ab (|
A
| |
B
) ∈ U.
Thus D and U are normal in G and G

= D U.
5.3. Table of Groups of Small Order.
5.4. Recognizing Direct Products.
5.5. Semidirect Products.
5.5.7. This exercise describes thirteen isomorphism types of groups of order 56.
(a) Prove that there are three abelian groups of order 56.
(b) Prove that every group of order 56 has either a normal Sylow 2-subgroup or a normal Sylow 7-subgroup.
(c) Construct the following non-abelian groups of order 56 which have a normal Sylow 7-subgroup and whose
Sylow 2-subgroup S is as specified:
one group when S

= Z
2
Z
2
Z
2
two non-isomorphic groups when S

= Z
4
Z
2
one group when S

= Z
8
two non-isomorphic groups when S

= Q
8
three non-isomorphic groups when S

= D
8
.
31
(d) Let G be a group of order 56 with a non-normal Sylow 7-subgroup. Prove that if S is the Sylow 2-subgroup
of G then S

= Z
2
Z
2
Z
2
.
(e) Prove that there is a unique group of order 56 with a non-normal Sylow 7-subgroup.
Proof (a). Suppose that G is an abelian group of order 56 = 2
3
7. The invariant factors are given by (2
3
7), (2
2

7, 2), (2 7, 2, 2). Thus there are three abelian groups of order 56 given by Z
56
, Z
28
Z
2
, Z
14
Z
2
Z
2
.
Proof (b). Suppose that n
2
, n
7
> 1. Since n
p
≡ 1 mod p, we have n
2
≥ 3 and n
7
≥ 8. Counting [

Syl
2
(G)¸1[ +
[

Syl
7
(G)¸1[ = 3 7 + 8 6 > 56 reaches a contradiction. Therefore every group of order 56 has either a normal
Sylow 2-subgroup or a normal Sylow 7-subgroup.
Solution (c). Note for all of the Sylow 2-subgroup isomorphism types, if P ∈ Syl
7
(G), we have P ∩ S = 1 and
P G so G is a semidirect product.
If S

= Z
2
Z
2
Z
2
, then we consider the non-trivial homomorphisms ϕ: S → Aut(P), where Aut(P)

= Z
6
.
Thus [ker ϕ[ = 4 and [ϕ(S)[ = 2 for any such ϕ. Therefore P
ϕ
S is the unique isomorphism type.
If S

= Z
4
Z
2
, then ker ϕ ∈
_
Z
4
, Z
2
2
_
. Thus there are two isomorphism types.
If S

= Z
8
, then ker ϕ = Z
4
giving rise to one isomorphism type.
If S

= Q
8
, then the trivial map gives rise to the non-abelian Z
7
Q
8
. The non-trivial maps ϕ: S →Aut(P) give
rise to a second isomorphism type.
If S

= D
8
, then the trivial map gives rise to the non-abelian Z
7
D
8
. Two possible kernels of non-trivial maps
are ¸r¸

= Z
4
and
¸
r
2
, s
_

= Z
2
Z
2
. Since these kernels are not isomorphic, the comment in part (c) states there
are three isomorphism types.
Proof (d). If n
7
> 1, then the map ϕ: P → Aut(S) is non-trivial so that P is not normal. Thus ker ϕ = 1 and
ϕ(P)

= Z
7
. Let ϕ(P) = ¸x¸ so if s ∈ S¸1, then s
x
k
shows all elements in S¸1 have the same order. Since every
non-identity element in S must have order 2, it is given by the elementary abelian group, S

= Z
3
2
.
Proof (e). If S

= Z
3
2
, then Aut(S)

= GL
3
(F
2
) with [Aut(S)[ = 7 6 4 = 168. Let P
1
, P
2
∈ Syl
7
(G) so that for any
non-trivial ϕ: P
i
→ Aut(S), ker ϕ = 1. Thus ϕ(P
i
) ∈ Syl
7
(Aut(S)), so P
1
= P
σ
2
for some σ ∈ Aut(S). Therefore
by exercise 6, S
ϕ
P
1

= S
ϕ
P
2
.
5.5.20. Let p be an odd prime. Prove that if P is a non-cyclic p-group then P contains a normal subgroup U with
U

= Z
p
Z
p
. Deduce that for odd primes p a p-group that contains a unique subgroup of order p is cyclic.
Proof. Let [P[ = p
n
with P non-abelian. If n = 2, then P

= Z
p
Z
p
since P is not cyclic. Now suppose there exists
U P with U

= Z
p
Z
p
for all k < n. Since p [ [Z(P)[, let Z ≤ Z(P) with [Z[ = p. Thus the non-cyclic quotient
group, P/Z, has a subgroup U P/Z with U

= Z
p
Z
p
. Now we have the non-cyclic U P with [U[ = p
3
, so
there is a U

P with U

= Z
p
Z
p
.
6. Further Topics in Group Theory
6.1. p-groups, Nilpotent Groups, and Solvable Groups.
6.1.3. If G is finite prove that G is nilpotent if and only if it has a normal subgroup of each order dividing [G[, and
is cyclic if and only if it has a unique subgroup of each order dividing [G[.
Proof. Suppose G is nilpotent so theorem 3 states G

= P
1
P
s
for P
i
∈ Syl
pi
. But if n [ [G[, then n = p
k1
1
p
ks
s
.
Theorem 1 states each P
i
has a normal subgroup, P

i
, with order p
ki
i
. Thus [P

1
P

s
[ = n with the desired
normality property.
Now suppose G has a normal subgroup of each order dividing [G[. Then each Sylow subgroup is normal in G,
so theorem 3 states G is nilpotent.
If G is cyclic, then theorem 2.7 states it has a unique subgroup of each order dividing [G[.
If G has a unique subgroup of each order dividing [G[, then proposition 5 shows G is cyclic.
6.1.4. Prove that a maximal subgroup of a finite nilpotent group has prime index.
Proof. Let M < G be a maximal subgroup of G. Since G is nilpotent, MG. Since G/M is nilpotent, exercise 6.1.3
shows it has a normal subgroup of each order dividing [G/M[. If P G/M with
¸
¸
P
¸
¸
= p for p prime, then
M ≤ P ≤ G so P = G by maximality of M. Therefore [G : M] = p.
6.1.8. Prove that if p is a prime and P is a non-abelian group of order p
3
then [Z(P)[ = p and P/Z(P)

= Z
p
Z
p
.
32 DAVID S. DUMMIT AND RICHARD M. FOOTE
Proof. Since [P[ = p
3
we know P is nilpotent. Since P is a p-group Z(P) ,= 1, since P is non-abelian, Z(P) ,= P.
Thus [Z(P)[ ∈
_
p, p
2
_
. If [Z(P)[ = p
2
, then P/Z(P) is cyclic contradicting P being non-abelian. Thus [Z(P)[ = p.
Since P/Z(P) is not cyclic, we must have P/Z(P)

= Z
p
Z
p
.
6.1.12. Find the upper and lower central series for A
4
and S
4
.
Solution. The upper central series of A
4
is Z
i
(A
4
) = 1 and of S
4
is Z
i
(S
4
) = 1 for all i since the center of S
4
is
trivial.
Since s
−1
a
−1
sa is an even permutation, S
1
4
≤ A
4
. But if α ∈ A
4
, we can choose s ∈ S
4
such that s
−1
a
−1
s = αa
so that α ∈ S
1
4
. The same argument shows S
2
4
= A
4
. Since S
1
4
= A
4
and S
2
4
= A
4
, we have found the lower central
series for S
4
.
Now N = ¦1, (12)(34), (13)(24), (14)(23)¦ is the only proper normal subgroup of A
4
. Thus A
i
4
= N for all i so
this is the lower central series for A
4
.
33
Part II – Ring Theory
7. Introduction to Rings
7.1. Basic Definitions and Examples.
Proposition 7.1. Let R be a ring. Then
(1) 0a = a0 = 0 for all a ∈ R.
(2) (−a)b = a(−b) = −(ab) for all a, b ∈ R.
(3) (−a)(−b) = ab for all a, b ∈ R.
(4) if R has an identity 1, then the identity is unique and −a = (−1)a.
Proposition 7.2. Assume a, b and c are element of any ring with A not a zero divisor. If ab = ac, then either
a = 0 or b = c. In particular, if a, b, c are any elements in an integral domain and ab = ac, then either a = 0 or
b = c.
Corollary 7.3. Any finite integral domain is a field.
7.1.3. Let R be a ring with identity and let S be subring of R containing the identity. Prove that if u is a unit in
S then u is a unit in R. Show by example that the converse if false.
Proof. If u is a unit in S, then there is a v ∈ S such that uv = 1 = vu. But then v ∈ R and hence u is a unit in R.
Now consider 2 ∈ ¸ and notice that it is a unit because 1/2 ∈ ¸. But Z ⊆ ¸ is a subring of ¸ and 2 is not a
unit. Thus the converse is false.
7.1.5. Decide which of the following (a)-(f) are subrings of ¸:
(a) the set of all rational numbers with odd denominators (when written in lowest terms)
(b) the set of all rational numbers with even denominators (when written in lowest terms)
(c) the set of nonnegative rational numbers
(d) the set of squares of rational numbers
(e) the set of all rational numbers with odd numerators (when written in lowest terms)
(f) the set of all rational numbers with even numerators (when written in lowest terms).
Solution. (a), (f).
7.1.6. Decide which of the following are subrings of the ring of all functions from the closed interval [0, 1] to 1.
(a) the set of all functions f(x) such that f(q) = 0 for all q ∈ ¸∩ [0, 1]
(b) the set of all polynomial functions
(c) the set of all functions which have only a finite number of zeros, together with the zero function
(d) the set of all functions which have an infinite number of zeros
(e) the set of all functions f such that lim
x→1
− f(x) = 0
(f) the set of all rational linear combinations of the functions sin nx and cos mx, where m, n ∈ Z
+
.
Solution. (a), (b), (c), (e).
7.1.7. The center of a ring R is ¦z ∈ R [ zr = rz, ∀r ∈ R¦ (i.e., is the set of all elements which commute with every
element of R). Prove that the center of a division ring is a field.
Proof.
7.1.12. Prove that any subring of a field which contains the identity is an integral domain.
Proof. Let F be a field and let R ⊆ F be a subring of F with 1 ∈ R. Then since R ⊆ F, every element of R is a
unit. Therefore there are no zero divisors in R.
7.1.13. An element x in R is called nilpotent if x
m
= 0 for some m ∈ Z
+
.
(a) Show that if n = a
k
b for some integers a and b then ab is a nilpotent element of Z/nZ.
(b) If a ∈ Z is an integer, show that the element a ∈ Z/nZ is nilpotent if and only if every prime divisor of n
is also a divisor of a. In particular, determine the nilpotent elements of Z/72Z explicitly.
(c) Let R be the ring of functions from a nonempty set X to a field F. Prove that R contains no nonzero
nilpotent elements.
7.1.14. Let x be a nilpotent element of the commutative ring R (cf. Exercise 7.1.13).
(a) Prove that x is either zero or a zero divisor.
34 DAVID S. DUMMIT AND RICHARD M. FOOTE
(b) Prove that rx is nilpotent for all r ∈ R.
(c) Prove that 1 +x is a unit in R.
(d) Deduce that the sum of a nilpotent element and a unit is a unit.
Proof (a). Suppose x ,= 0 and since x
m
= 0, let n be the smallest positive integer such that x
n
= 0. Then xx
n−1
= 0
where x
n−1
,= 0 so x is a zero divisor.
Proof (b). Since R is commutative, we have (rx)
m
= r
m
x
m
= 0. Thus rx is nilpotent for all r ∈ R.
Proof (c). Observing the calculation
(1 +x)(1 −x +x
2
−x
3
+ x
m−1
) = 1
shows that 1 +x is a unit.
Solution (d). Let u be a unit so vu = 1 and let x be our nilpotent element. Then part (b) shows vx is nilpotent
and part (c) shows 1 +vx is a unit. Thus v(u +x) is a unit and hence u +x is a unit.
7.1.23. Let D be a squarefree integer, and let O be the ring of integers in the quadratic field ¸(

D). For any
positive integer f prove that the set O
f
= Z[fω] = ¦a +bfω [ a, b ∈ Z¦ is a subring of O containing the identity.
Prove that [O: O
f
] = f (index as additive abelian groups). Prove conversely that a subring of O containing the
identity and having finite index f in O (as additive abelian group) is equal to O
f
. The ring O
f
is called the order
of conductor f in the field ¸(

D). The ring of integers O is called the maximal order in ¸(

D).
Proof. Let a + bfω ∈ O
f
. Since bf ∈ Z, then a + bfω ∈ O so O
f
⊆ O. Now (a + bfω)(c + dfω) = ac + (ad +
bd)fω +bdf
2
ω
2
∈ O
f
and (a +bfω) −(c +dfω) = (a −c) + (b −d)fω ∈ O
f
. Thus O
f
is a subring of O.
Let a +bω +O
f
= a

+b

ω +O
f
. Then (a +bω) −(a

+b

ω) ∈ O
f
and (a −a

) +(b −b

)ω ∈ O
f
. So b −b

= b

f
thus b ≡ b

mod f. Now let b ≡ b

+ α for 1 ≤ α < f and suppose ∃a, a

such that a + bω + O
f
= a

+ b

ω + O
f
.
But this is a contradiction because f would have to divide b −b

. Thus a +bω +O
f
and a

+b

ω +O
f
are the same
coset if and only if b ≡ b

mod f hence [O: O
f
] = f.
Suppose that a subring, S, of O contains the identity and has finite index f. Since 1 ∈ S then a ∈ S for all
a ∈ Z because S is closed under addition. Since [O/S[ = f, [ω +S[ divides f. But then S = f(ω +S) = fω +S so
fω ∈ S. Since S is closed under addition then bfω ∈ S for all b ∈ Z. Now we have a + bfω ∈ S for all a, b ∈ Z so
O
f
⊆ S. Since [O
f
[ = [S[, we must have O
f
= S.

7.1.26. Let K be a field. A discrete valuation on K is a function ν : K
×
→Z satisfying
(i) ν(ab) = ν(a) +ν(b)
(ii) ν is surjective, and
(iii) ν(x +y) ≥ min ¦ν(x), ν(y)¦ for all x, y ∈ K
×
with x +y ,= 0.
The set R = ¦x ∈ K
×
[ ν(x) ≥ 0¦ ∪ ¦0¦ is called the valuation ring of ν.
(a) Prove that R is a subring of K which contains the identity. In general, a ring R is called a discrete valuation
ring if there is some field K and some discrete valuation ν on K such that R is the valuation ring of ν.
(b) Prove that for each nonzero element x ∈ K either x or x
−1
is in R.
(c) Prove that an element x is a unit of R if and only if ν(x) = 0.
Proof (a).
Proof (b).
Proof (c).
7.2. Examples: Polynomials Rings, Matrix Rings, and Group Rings.
Proposition 7.4. Let R be an integral domain and let p(x), q(x) be nonzero elements of R[x]. Then
(1) degree p(x)q(x) = degree p(x) + degree q(x),
(2) the units of R[x] are just the units of R,
(3) R[x] is an integral domain.
Let R be a commutative ring with 1.
7.2.1. Let p(x) = 2x
3
− 3x
2
+ 4x − 5 and let q(x) = 7x
3
+ 33x − 4. In each of parts (a), (b), and (c) compute
p(x) + q(x) and p(x)q(x) under the assumption that the coefficients of the two given polynomials are taken from
the specified ring (where the integer coefficients are taken mod n in parts (b) and (c)):
35
(a) R = Z,
(b) R = Z/2Z,
(c) R = Z/3Z.
Solution (a).
p(x) +q(x) = 9x
3
−3x
2
+ 37x −9
p(x)q(x) = 14x
6
−21x
5
+ 94x
4
−142x
3
+ 144x
2
−181x + 20

Solution (b).
p(x) +q(x) = x
3
−x
2
+x −1
p(x)q(x) = x
5
−x

Solution (c).
p(x) +q(x) = x
p(x)q(x) = 2x
6
+x
4
+x
3
+ 2x

7.2.6. Let S be a ring with identity 1 ,= 0. Let n ∈ Z
+
and let A be an n n matrix with entries from S whose
i, j entry is a
ij
. Let E
ij
be the element of M
n
(S) whose i, j entry is 1 and whose other entries are all 0.
(a) Prove that E
ij
A is the matrix whose i
th
row equals the j
th
row of A and all other rows are zero.
(b) Prove that AE
ij
is the matrix whose j
th
column equals the i
th
column of A and all other columns are zero.
(c) Deduce that E
pq
AE
rs
is the matrix whose p, s entry is a
qr
and all other entries are zero.
Proof (a).
Proof (b).
Solution (c).
7.2.7. Prove that the center of the ring M
n
(R) is the set of scalar matrices (cf. Exercise 7.1.7). Use Exercise 7.2.6.
Proof. Let [z
ij
] = Z ∈ Z(M
n
(R)) so ZE
ij
= E
ij
Z for all E
ij
. If i ,= j, then the (j, j)
th
element of E
ji
Z is z
ij
and
the (j, j)
th
element of ZE
ji
is 0, so z
ij
= 0. Now we observe that the (j, i)
th
element of E
ji
Z is z
ii
and the (j, i)
th
element of ZE
ji
is z
jj
, so z
ii
= z
jj
. Thus Z must be a scalar matrix.
If Z = rI, then
AZ = ArI = rAI = rIA = ZA,
for all A ∈ M
n
(R).
7.2.10. Consider the following elements of the integral group ring ZS
3
:
α = 3(1 2) −5(2 3) + 14(1 2 3) and β = 6(1) + 2(2 3) −7(1 3 2)
where (1) is the identity of S
3
. Compute the following elements:
(a) α +β,
(b) 2α −3β,
(c) αβ,
(d) βα,
(e) α
2
.
Solution (a).
α +β = 6(1) + 3(1 2) −3(2 3) + 14(1 2 3) −7(1 3 2)

36 DAVID S. DUMMIT AND RICHARD M. FOOTE
Solution (b).
2α −3β = −18(1) + 6(1 2) −16(2 3) + 28(1 2 3) + 21(1 3 2)

Solution (c).
αβ = −108(1) + 81(1 2) −21(1 3) −30(2 3) + 90(1 2 3)

Solution (d).
βα = −108(1) + 18(1 2) + 63(1 3) −51(2 3) + 84(1 2 3) + 6(1 3 2)

Solution (e).
α
2
= 34(1) −70(1 2) −28(1 3) + 42(2 3) −15(1 2 3) + 196(1 3 2)

7.2.12. Let G = ¦g
1
, . . . , g
n
¦ be a finite group. Prove that the element N = g
1
+ g
2
+ + g
n
is in the center of
the group ring RG (cf. Exercise 7.1.7).
Proof. Let X = x
1
g
1
+ +x
n
g
n
for x
i
∈ R. Then
NX =
n

k=1
_
_

gigj=g
k
x
j
_
_
g
k
=
n

k=1
_
_
n

j=1
x
j
_
_
g
k
=
n

k=1
_
_

gigj=g
k
x
i
_
_
g
k
= XN.

7.3. Ring Homomorphisms and Quotient Rings.
Proposition 7.5. Let R and S be rings and let ϕ: R →S be a homomorphism.
(1) The image of ϕ is a subring of S.
(2) The kernel of ϕ is a subring of R. Furthermore, if α ∈ ker ϕ then rα and αr ∈ ker ϕ for every r ∈ R, i.e.,
ker ϕ is closed under multiplication by elements from R.
Proposition 7.6. Let R be a ring and let I be an ideal of R. Then the (additive) quotient group R/I is a ring
under the binary operations:
(r +I) + (s +I) = (r +s) +I and (r +I) (s +I) = (rs) +I
for all r, s ∈ R. Conversely, if I is any subgroup such that the above operations are well defined, then I is an ideal
of R.
Theorem 7.7.
(1) (The First Isomorphism Theorem for Rings) If ϕ: R → S is a homomorphism of rings, then the kernel of
ϕ is an ideal of R, the image of ϕ is a subring of S and R/ ker ϕ is isomorphic as a ring to ϕ(R).
(2) If I is any ideal of R, then the map
R →R/I defined by r →r +I
is a surjective ring homomorphism with kernel I (this homomorphism is called the natural projection of R
onto R/I). Thus every ideal is the kernel of a ring homomorphism and vice versa.
Theorem 7.8. Let R be a ring.
(1) (The Second Isomorphism Theorem for Rings) Let A b ea subring and let B be an ideal of R. Then
A+B = ¦a +b [ a ∈ A, b ∈ B¦ is a subring of R, A∩ B is an ideal of A and A+B/B

= A/(A∩ B).
37
(2) (The Third Isomorphism Theorem for Rings) Let I and J be ideal of R with I ⊆ J. Then J/I is an ideal
of R/I and (R/I)/(J/I)

= R/J.
(3) (The Fourth Isomorphism Theorem for Rings) Let I be an ideal of R. The correspondence A ↔ A/I is an
inclusion preserving bijection between the wset of subrings A of R that contain I and the set of subrings of
R/I. Furthermore, A (a subring containing I) is an ideal of R if and only if A/I is an ideal of R/I.
7.3.12. Let D be an integer that is not a perfect square in Z and let S =
__
a b
Db a
_
[ a, b ∈ Z
_
.
(a) Prove that S is a subring of M
2
(Z).
(b) If D is not a perfect square in Z prove that the map ϕ: Z[

D] →S defined by ϕ(a +b

D) =
_
a b
Db a
_
is
a ring isomorphism.
(c) If D ≡ 1 mod 4 is squarefree, prove that the set
__
a b
(D −1)b/4 a +b
_
[ a, b ∈ Z
_
is a subring of M
2
(Z)
and is isomorphic to the quadratic integer ring O.
Proof (a). S is clearly a group under addition, so we show that S is closed under multiplication. But
_
a
1
b
1
Db
1
a
1
__
a
2
b
2
Db
2
a
2
_
=
_
a
1
a
2
+Db
1
b
2
a
1
b
2
+a
2
b
1
D(a
2
b
1
+a
1
b
2
) Db
1
b
2
+a
1
a
2
_
so S is a subring of M
2
(Z).
Proof (b). We calculate
ϕ((a
1
+b
1

D) + (a
2
+b
2

D)) = ϕ((a
1
+a
2
) + (b
1
+b
2
)

D)
=
_
a
1
+a
2
b
1
+b
2
D(b
1
+b
2
) a
1
+a
2
_
=
_
a
1
b
1
Db
1
a
1
_
+
_
a
2
b
2
Db
2
a
2
_
ϕ((a
1
+b
1

D)(a
2
+b
2

D)) = ϕ((a
1
a
2
+b
1
b
2
D) + (a
1
b
2
+a
2
b
1
)

D)
=
_
a
1
a
2
+b
1
b
2
D a
1
b
2
+a
2
b
1
D(a
1
b
2
+a
2
b
1
) a
1
a
2
+b
1
b
2
D
_
=
_
a
1
b
1
Db
1
a
1
__
a
2
b
2
Db
2
a
2
_
so ϕ is a homomorphism of rings. Now let
_
a
1
b
1
Db
1
a
1
_
=
_
a
2
b
2
Db
2
a
2
_
, so a
1
= a
1
, b
1
= b
2
and thus
a
1
+b
1

D = a
2
+b
2

D. Now if
_
a b
Db a
_
∈ S, then ϕ maps a +b

D to this element. Therefore ϕ is an
isomorphism.
Proof (c). This is clearly a group under addition, so we show it is closed under multiplication. But
_
a
1
b
1
(D −1)b
1
/4 a
1
+b
1
__
a
2
b
2
(D −1)b
2
/4 a
2
+b
2
_
=
_
a
1
a
2
+ (D −1)a
1
b
2
/4 a
1
b
2
+a
2
b
1
+b
1
b
2
(D −1)(a
1
b
2
+b
1
b
2
)/4 (D −1)b
1
b
2
/4 +a
1
a
2
+a
1
b
2
+a
2
b
1
+b
1
b
2
_
so this is a subring of M
2
(Z). Similarly to the proof in part (b), this is isomorphic to the quadratic integer
ring O.
7.3.15. Let X be a nonempty set and let T(X) be the Boolean ring of all subsets of X defined in exercise 21 of
section 1. Let R be the ring of all functions from X into Z/2Z. For each A ∈ T(X) define the function
χ
A
: X →Z/2Z by χ
A
(x) =
_
1, x ∈ A,
0, x / ∈ A,
χ
A
is called the characteristic function of A with values in Z/2Z. Prove that the map T(X) → R defined by
A →χ
A
is a ring isomorphism.
38 DAVID S. DUMMIT AND RICHARD M. FOOTE
Proof. Let A = A

so that ϕ(A) = χ
A
= χ
A
= ϕ(A

), so ϕ is well defined. Now let A, B ⊆ X so that
ϕ(A+B) = ϕ((A¸B) ∪ (B¸A)) = χ
(A\B)∪(B\A)
.
But
χ
(A\B)∪(B\A)
=
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
1, x ∈ A¸B,
1, x ∈ B¸A,
0 x ∈ A∩ B,
0, x ∈ X¸(A∩ B)
But simple calculations show this is ϕ(A) +ϕ(B). Similarly,
ϕ(AB) = ϕ(A∩ B)
= χ
A∩B
=
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
0, x ∈ A¸B,
0, x ∈ B¸A,
1, x ∈ A∩ B,
0, x ∈ X¸(A∩ B),
= ϕ(A)ϕ(B).
Now let f ∈ R so let A ⊆ X be the set such that f(A) = 1 and f(X¸A) = 0. So ϕ(A) = χ
A
= f and ϕ is
surjective. Now let f = g ∈ R so there exist A, B such that ϕ(A) = f = g = ϕ(B). So χ
A
= χ
B
, thus A = B and
ϕ is injective. Therefore ϕ is a ring isomorphism.
7.3.17. Let R and S be nonzero rings with identity and denote their respective identities by 1
R
and 1
S
. Let
ϕ: R →S be a nonzero homomorphism of rings.
(a) Prove that if ϕ(1
R
) ,= 1
S
then ϕ(1
R
) is a zero divisor in S. Deduce that if S is an integral domain then
every ring homomorphism from R to S sends the identity of R to the identity of S.
(b) Prove that if ϕ(1
R
) = 1
S
then ϕ(u) is a unit in S and that ϕ(u
−1
) = ϕ(u)
−1
for reach unit u of R.
Proof (a). If ϕ(1
R
) ,= 1
S
, then
(ϕ(1
R
) −1
S
)ϕ(1
R
) = ϕ(1
R
)ϕ(1
R
) −1
S
ϕ(1
R
)
= ϕ(1
R
) −ϕ(1
R
)
= 0.
So ϕ(1
R
) is a zero divisor in S. If S is an integral domain, then there are no zero divisors. Since an integral domain
has a 1 ,= 0 and ϕ(1
R
) ,= 0 if ϕ(R) ,= 0, then ϕ(1
R
) −1
S
= 0. Therefore ϕ(1
R
) = 1
S
.
Proof (b). If u ∈ R is a unit, there exists v ∈ R such that uv = 1
R
. So ϕ(u)ϕ(v) = ϕ(uv) = ϕ(1
R
) = 1
S
. Thus
ϕ(u) is a unit, with ϕ(u)
−1
= ϕ(v) = ϕ(u
−1
).
7.3.27. Prove that a nonzero Boolean ring has characteristic 2 (cf. exercise 15, section 1).
Proof. Let a = −1 so that
0 = (−1)
2
+ 1 = 1 + 1.
Since 1 ,= 0, then R has characteristic 2.
7.3.29. Let R be a commutative ring. Recall (cf. exercise 7.1.13) that an element x ∈ R is nilpotent if x
n
= 0 for
some n ∈ Z
+
. Prove that the set of nilpotent element form an ideal – called the nilradical of R and denoted by
A(R).
Proof.
7.3.30. Prove that if R is a commutative ring and A(R) is its nilradical (cf. exercise 7.3.29) then zero is the only
nilpotent element of R/A(R) i.e., prove that A(R/A(R)) = 0.
Proof. Let x ∈ R/A(R) with x
n
= 0 for some n ∈ N. Then there exists r ∈ R such that x = r +A(R). But then
0 = x
n
= (r +A(R))
n
= r
n
+A(R). This implies r
n
∈ A(R) so r ∈ A(R) and thus x = 0.
7.3.33. Assume R is commutative. Let p(x) = a
n
x
n
+a
n−1
x
n−1
+ +a
1
x +a
0
be an element of the polynomial
ring R[x].
(a) Prove tha tp(x) is a unit in R[x] if and only if a
0
is a unit and a
1
, a
2
, . . . , a
n
are nilpotent in R. [See
exercise 7.1.14.]
39
(b) Prove that p(x) is nilpotent in R[x] if and only if a
0
, a
1
, . . . , a
n
are nilpotenet elements of R.
Proof (a).
Proof (b).
7.4. Properties of Ideals.
Proposition 7.9. Let I be an ideal of R.
(1) I = R if and only if I contains a unit.
(2) Assume R is commutative. Then R is a field if and only if its only ideals are 0 and R.
Corollary 7.10. If R is a field then any nonzero ring homomorphism from R into another ring is an injection.
Proposition 7.11. In a ring with identity every proper ideal is contained in a maximal ideal.
Proposition 7.12. Assume R is commutative. The ideal M is a maximal ideal if and only if the quotient ring
R/M is a field.
Proposition 7.13. Assume R is commutative. Then the ideal P is a prime ideal in R if and only if the quotient
ring R/P is an integral domain.
Corollary 7.14. Assume R is commutative. Every maximal ideal of R is a prime ideal.
Let R be a ring with identity 1 ,= 0.
7.4.2. Assume R is commutative. Prove that the augmentation ideal in the group ring RG is generated by
¦g −1 [ g ∈ G¦. Prove that if G = ¸σ¸ is cyclic then the augmentation ideal is generated by σ −1.
7.4.3.
(a) Let p be a prime and let G be an abelian group of order p
n
. Prove that the nilradical of the group ring
F
p
G is the augmentation ideal (cf. exercise 7.3.29).
(b) Let G = ¦g
1
, . . . , g
n
¦ be a finite group and assume R is commutative. Prove that if r is any element of the
augmentation ideal of RG then r(g
1
+ +g
n
) = 0.
Proof (a). Suppose there exists m such that (

p
n
i=1
a
i
g
i
)
m
= 0. If ϕ is the augmentation map, then
0 = ϕ(
p
n

i=1
a
i
g
i
)
m
= (
p
n

i=1
a
i
)
m
. Since F
p
¸ ¦0¦ is a multiplicative group, we must have

p
n
i=1
a
i
= 0. Thus

p
n
i=1
a
i
g
i
∈ ker ϕ.
Now let g −1 ∈ ker ϕ. Then (g −1)
p
n
= g
p
n
+p(. . .) −1 = 0 in F
p
G. Since exercise 7.4.2 states ker ϕ is generated
by ¦g −1 [ g ∈ G¦, we must have ker ϕ ⊆ A(F
p
G). Therefore ker ϕ = A(F
p
G).
Proof (b). By exercise 7.4.2 we may assume r = g
i
−1. But then
(g
i
−1)(g
1
+ +g
n
) = g
i
g
1
+ g
i
g
n
−g
1
− −g
n
= g
1
+ +g
n
−g
1
− −g
n
= 0.

7.4.7. Let R be a commutative ring with 1. Prove that the principal ideal generated by x in the polynomial ring
R[x] is a prime ideal if and only if R is an integral domain. Prove that (x) is a maximal ideal if and only if R is a
field.
Proof. Let ϕ: R[x] → R be given by ϕ(p(x)) = p(0) and notice ker ϕ = (x). Thus R[x]/(x)

= R so by proposi-
tion 7.13, (x) is prime if and only if R is an integral domain.
Similarly, proposition 7.12 shows (x) is maximal if and only if R is a field.
7.4.10. Assume R is commutative. Prove that if P is a prime ideal of R and P contains no zero divisors then R is
an integral domain.
Proof. Since P is prime, we know that R = R/P is an integral domain. So if r, a ∈ R¸P, then ra = r a ,= 0. Thus
ra ,= 0 and R is an integral domain.
7.4.13. Let ϕ: R →S be a homomorphism of commutative rings.
40 DAVID S. DUMMIT AND RICHARD M. FOOTE
(a) Prove that if P is a prime ideal of S then either ϕ
−1
(P) = R or ϕ
−1
(P) is a prime ideal of R. Apply this
to the special case when R is a subring of S and ϕ is the inclusion homomorphism to deduce that if P is a
prime ideal of S then P ∩ R is either R or a prime ideal of R.
(b) Prove that if M is a maximal ideal of S and ϕ is surjective then ϕ
−1
(M) is a maximal ideal of R. Give an
example to show that this need not be the case if ϕ is surjective.
Proof (a). Let r ∈ ϕ
−1
(P), so ϕ(rs) = ϕ(r)ϕ(s) ∈ P because ϕ(r) ∈ P and P is an ideal. Since R is commutative,
ϕ
−1
(P) is an ideal. Now let rs ∈ ϕ
−1
(P), so ϕ(r)ϕ(s) = ϕ(rs) ∈ P so ϕ(r) or ϕ(s) is in P because P is prime. So
r or s is in ϕ
−1
(P) so ϕ
−1
(P) is prime or ϕ
−1
(P) = R.
Specifically if R ⊂ S and ϕ is the inclusion homomorphism, then ϕ
−1
(P) is either R or a prime ideal of R. But
ϕ
−1
(P) = P ∩ R.
Proof (b). Let π
1
: S → S/M and π
2
: R/ ker(π
1
◦ ϕ) be the canonical projection maps. Since π
1
◦ ϕ is surjective,
R/ ker(π
1
◦ ϕ)

= S/M. But ker(π
1
◦ ϕ) = ϕ
−1
(M). So R/ϕ
−1
(M) is a field and ϕ
−1
(M) is maximal.
7.4.15. Let x
2
+x +1 be an element of the polynomial ring E = F
2
[x] and use the bar notation to denote passage
to the quotient ring F
2
[x]/(x
2
+x + 1).
(a) Prove that E has 4 elements: 0, 1, x and x + 1.
(b) Write out the 4 4 addition table for E and deduce that the additive group E is isomorphic to the Klein
4-group.
(c) Write out the 4 4 multiplication table for E and prove that E
×
is isomorphic to the cyclic group of order
3. Deduce that E is a field.
Proof (a). Let

n
i=1
a
i
x
i
be an element of F
2
[x]. If n = 1 then

1
i=0
= a
0
+ a
1
x. Suppose there exists c
0
, c
1
such
that

n−1
i=0
a
i
x
i
= c
0
+c
1
x. Then if n is even,
n

i=0
a
i
x
i
=
n−1

i=0
a
i
x
i
+a
n
x
n
=
n−1

i=0
a
i
x
i
+a
n
(x + 1)
n/2
=
n−1

i=0
c
i
x
i
= c
0
+c
1
x.
Now if n > 2 is odd,
n

i=0
a
i
x
i
=
n−1

i=0
a
i
x
i
+a
n
x
n
=
n−1

i=0
a
i
x
i
+a
n
x(x + 1)
(n−1)/2
=
n−1

i=0
b
i
x
i
= c
0
+c
1
x.
So there exist c
0
, c
1
such that

n
i=0
a
i
x
i
= c
0
+c
1
x for all n. Since c
0
, c
1
∈ ¦0, 1¦, F
2
[x]/(x
2
+x+1) ⊆
_
0, 1, x, x + 1
_
.

Solution (b). The addition table in table 7.1 shows F
2
[x]/(x
2
+x + 1)

= V
4
.
Solution (c). The multiplication table in table 7.2 shows E
×

= Z
3
. Therefore E is a field.
7.4.30. Let I be an ideal of the commutative ring R and define
rad I =
_
r ∈ R [ r
n
∈ I for some n ∈ Z
+
_
called the radical of I. Prove that rad I is an ideal containing I and that (rad I)/I = A(R/I) (cf. exercise 7.3.29).
41
Addition Table
0 1 x 1 +x
0 0 1 x 1 +x
1 1 0 1 +x x
x x 1 +x 0 1
1 +x 1 +x x 1 0
Table 7.1. F
2
[x]/(x
2
+x + 1).
Multiplication Table
0 1 x 1 +x
0 0 0 0 0
1 0 1 x 1 +x
x 0 x 1 +x 1
1 +x 0 1 +x 1 x
Table 7.2. F
2
[x]/(x
2
+x + 1).
7.4.31. An ideal I of the commutative ring R is called a radical ideal if rad I = I.
(a) Prove that every prime ideal of R is a radical ideal.
(b) Let n > 1 be an integer. Prove that 0 is a radical ideal in Z/nZ if and only if n is a product of distinct
primes to the first power (i.e., n is square free). Deduce that (n) is a radical of Z if and only if n is a
product of distinct primes in Z.
Proof (a). Note P ⊆ rad P. Let r ∈ R so if r
n
∈ P, either r or r
n−1
is in P. Induction shows r ∈ P, so
rad P = P.
Proof (b). Suppose rad 0 = 0 and n = mp
2
. Then mp ,= 0 mod n and (mp)
2
= 0 mod n which is a contradiction.
Thus n is a product of distinct primes to the first power.
Now suppose n is a product of distinct primes to the first power. If α
m
= 0 mod n, then α
m
contains all of the
prime factors of n. Thus α must contain all prime factors of n so α = 0 mod n. Therefore rad 0 = 0.
7.4.39. Following the notation of exercise 7.1.26, let K be a field, let ν be a discrete valuation on K and let R be
the valuation ring of ν. For each integer k ≥ 0 define A
k
= ¦r ∈ R [ ν(r) ≥ k¦ ∪ ¦0¦.
(a) Prove that A
k
is a principal ideal and that A
0
⊇ A
1
⊇ A
2
⊇ .
(b) Prove that if I is any nonzero ideal of R, then I = A
k
for some k ≥ 0. Deduce that R is a local ring with
unique maximal ideal A
1
.
Proof (a). Since ν is surjective, A
k
is nonempty. Since −1 ∈ R
×
, ν(−1) = 0. So ν(a − b) ≥ min ¦ν(a), ν(−b)¦ =
min ¦ν(a), ν(b)¦ ≥ k. Also ν(ab) = ν(a) + ν(b) ≥ k so A
k
is a subring. If r ∈ R and a ∈ A
k
then ν(ra) =
ν(r) +ν(a) ≥ k and similarly ν(ar) ≥ k. So A
k
is an ideal.
Now let ν(a) = k by surjectivity of ν. Notice that 0 = ν(1) = ν(aa
−1
) = ν(a) + ν(a
−1
) so ν(a) = −ν(a
−1
). If
b ∈ A
k
then ν(ba
−1
) = ν(b) −ν(a) ≥ 0 so ba
−1
∈ R. Thus b = ba
−1
a ∈ (a), so A
k
⊆ (a). Therefore A
k
is a principal
ideal and it is clear that A
0
⊇ A
1
⊇ A
2
⊃ .
Proof (b). Let k = min ¦ν(I)¦ with ν(r) = k. Then A
k
= (r) = I. From part (a) any proper ideal is contained in
A
1
so A
1
is the unique maximal ideal of R.
7.4.41. A proper ideal Q of the commutative ring R is called primary if whenever ab ∈ Q and a / ∈ Q then b
n
∈ Q
for some positive integer n. Establish the following facts about primary ideals.
(a) The primary ideal of Z are 0 and (p
n
), where p is a prime and n is a positive integer.
(b) Every prime ideal of R is a primary ideal.
(c) An ideal Q of R is primary if and only if every zero divisor in R/Q is a nilpotent element of R/Q.
(d) If Q is a primary ideal then rad (Q) is a prime ideal (cf. exercise 7.4.30).
42 DAVID S. DUMMIT AND RICHARD M. FOOTE
Proof (a). Let I ⊂ Z be a primary ideal so I = (n) for some n ∈ Z since every ideal of Z is principal. Let n = pa
for p some prime, so p / ∈ (n), a / ∈ (n) with (n) a primary ideal implies that p
i
∈ (n). So n[p
i
shows that n = p
k
for
some k ≥ 1. Thus (n) = (p
k
).
Now consider (p
k
) ⊆ Z. Let ab ∈ (p
k
) with a / ∈ (p
k
). Then p
k
[ab and p
k
[ a, so p[b. Thus p
k
[b
k
, so b
k
∈ (p
k
) and
(p
k
) is a primary ideal.
Proof (b). Let P be a prime ideal of R with ab ∈ P. If a / ∈ P then b ∈ P so P is a primary ideal.
Proof (c). Let a b = 0 in R = R/Q. Then ab ∈ Q with a
k
∈ Q and b
l
∈ Q for k, l > 1. So a
k
= 0 thus every zero
divisor is nilpotent in R.
Now suppose every zero divisor in R is a nilpotent element. Let ab ∈ Q with a / ∈ Q. Then b is a zero divisor in
R so b
k
= 0. Thus b
k
∈ Q and Q is a primary ideal of R.
Proof (d). Let ab ∈ rad (Q) and a / ∈ rad Q, so (ab)
n
∈ Q and a
m
/ ∈ Q for all m ∈ Z
+
. Since Q is primary then
b
nk
∈ Q so b ∈ rad (Q). Therefore rad (Q) is a prime ideal.
7.5. Rings of Fractions.
Theorem 7.15 (cf. theorem 15.36). Let R be a commutative ring. Let D be any nonempty subset of R that does
not contain 0, does not contain any zero divisors and is closed under multiplication (i.e., ab ∈ D for all a, b ∈ D).
Then there is a commutative ring Q with 1 such that Q contains R as a subring and every element of D is a unit
in Q. The ring Q has the following additional properties.
(1) every element of Q is of the form rd
−1
for some r ∈ R and d ∈ D. In particular, if D = R¸ ¦0¦ then Q is
a field.
(2) (uniqueness of Q) The ring Q is the “smallest” ring containing R in which all elements of D become units,
in the following sense. Let S be any commutative ring with idenitty and let ϕ: R →S be any injective ring
homomorhpism such that ϕ(d) is a unit in S for every d ∈ D. Then there is an injective ring homomorphism
Φ: Q → S such that Φ[
R
= ϕ. In other words, any ring containing an isomorphic copy of R in which all
the elements of D become units must also contain an isomorphic copy of Q.
Corollary 7.16. let R be an integral domain and let Q be the field of fractions of R. If a field F contains a subring
R

isomorphic to R then the subfield of F generated by R

is isomorphic to Q.
Let R be a commutative ring with identity 1 ,= 0.
7.5.1. Prove theorem 7.15.
Proof. Let T = ¦(r, d) [ r ∈ R, d ∈ D¦ and define the relation ∼ on T by
(r, d) ∼ (s, e) if and only if re = sd.
It is immediate that this relation is reflexive and symmetric. Suppose (r, d) ∼ (s, e) and (s, e) ∼ (t, f). Then
re − sd = 0 and sf − te = 0. Multiplying the first of these equations by f and the second by d and adding them
gives rf − td)e = 0. Since e ∈ D is neither zero nor a zero divisor we must have rf − td = 0, i.e., (r, d) ∼ (t, f).
This proves ∼ is transitive, hence an equivalence relation. Done the equivalence class of (r, d) by
r
d
:
r
d
= ¦(a, b) [ a ∈ R, b ∈ D and rb = ad¦ .
Let Q be the set of equivalence classes under ∼. Note that
r
d
=
re
de
in Q for all e ∈ D, since D is closed under
multiplication.
We now define an additive and multiplicative structure on Q:
a
b
+
c
d
=
ad +bc
bd
and
a
b

c
d
=
ac
bd
.
In order to prove that Q is a commutative ring with identity there are a number of things to check:
(1) these operations are well defined
(2) Q is an abelian group under addition, where the additive identity is
0
d
for any d ∈ D and the additive
inverse of
a
d
is
−a
d
,
(3) multiplication is associative, distributive and commutative, and
(4) Q has an identity.
43
To check that addition is well defined assume
a
b
=
a

b

(i.e., ab

= a

b) and
c
d
=
c

d

. We must show that
ad+bc
bd
=
a

d

+b

c

b

d

, i.e.,
(ad +bc)(b

d

) = (a

d

+b

c

)(bd).
The left hand side of this equation is ab

dd

+ cd

bb

substituting a

b for ab

and c

d for cd

gives a

bdd

+ c

dbb

,
which is the right hand side. Hence addition of fractions is well defined.
To check that multiplication is well defined assume
a
b
=
a

b

and
c
d
=
c

d

. We must show
(ac)(b

d

) = (a

c

)(bd).
The left hand side of this equation is (ab

)(cd

) substituting a

b for ab

and c

d for cd

gives (a

b)(c

d) which is the
right hand side. Hence multiplication of fractions is well defined.
To show Q is an abelian group under addition note that
0
d
∈ Q with
0
d1
+
r
d2
=
d1r
d1d2
=
r
d2
so there exists an
additive identity in Q. Now if
r1
d1
,
r2
d2
,
r3
d3
∈ Q, then
(
r
1
d
1
+
r
2
d
2
) +
r
3
d
3
=
r
1
d
2
+r
2
d
1
d
1
d
2
+
r
3
d
3
=
r
1
d
2
d
3
+r
2
d
1
d
3
+r
3
d
1
d
2
d
1
d
2
d
3
=
r
1
d
1
+
r
2
d
3
+d
1
d
2
d
2
d
3
=
r
1
d
1
+ (
r
2
d
2
+
r
3
d
3
).
Thus addition is associative. Now if
r
d
∈ Q, then
−r
d
∈ Q with
r
d
+
−r
d
=
rd −rd
d
2
=
0
d
.
So Q is closed under inverse. Since addition is clearly commutative in Q, we see Q is an abelian group under
addition.
To show multiplication is associative, let
r1
d1
,
r2
d2
,
r3
d3
∈ Q so
(
r
1
d
1

r
2
d
2
)
r
3
d
3
=
r
1
r
2
d
1
d
2

r
3
d
3
=
r
1
r
2
r
3
d
1
d
2
d
3
=
r
1
d
1

r
2
r
3
d
2
d
3
=
r
1
d
1
(
r
2
d
2

r
3
d
3
).
To show multiplication is distributive, let
r1
d1
,
r2
d2
,
r3
d3
∈ Q so
(
r
1
d
1
+
r
2
d
2
)
r
3
d
3
=
r
1
d
2
+r
2
d
1
d
1
d
2

r
3
d
3
=
r
1
r
3
d
2
+r
2
r
3
d
1
d
1
d
2
d
3
=
r
1
d
1

r
3
d
2
d
2
d
3
+
r
2
d
2

r
3
d
1
d
1
d
3
=
r
1
d
1

r
3
d
3
+
r
2
d
2

r
3
d
3
r
1
d
1
(
r
2
d
2
+
r
3
d
3
) =
r
1
d
1

r
2
d
3
+r
3
d
2
d
2
d
3
=
r
1
r
2
d
3
+r
1
r
3
d
2
d
1
d
2
d
3
=
r
1
d
1

r
2
d
3
d
2
d
3
+
r
1
d
1

r
3
d
2
d
2
d
3
=
r
1
d
1

r
2
d
2
+
r
1
d
1

r
3
d
3
.
44 DAVID S. DUMMIT AND RICHARD M. FOOTE
To show multiplication is commutative, let
r1
d1
,
r2
d2
∈ Q so
r
1
d
1

r
2
d
2
=
r
1
r
2
d
1
d
2
=
r
2
r
1
d
2
d
1
=
r
2
d
2

r
1
d
1
.
To show Q has an identity, notice that
d
d
∈ Q for any d ∈ D. Now let
r
d1
∈ Q so
r
d
1

d
d
=
rd
d
1
d
=
r
d
1
.
Next we embed R into Q by defining
ι : R →Q by ι : r →
rd
d
where d is any element of D.
Since
rd
d
=
re
e
for all d, e ∈ D, ι(r) does not depend on the choice of d ∈ D. Now let r
1
, r
2
∈ R so
ι(r
1
+r
2
) =
(r
1
+r
2
)d
d
=
r
1
d
d
+
r
2
d
d
= ι(r
1
) +ι(r
2
)
ι(r
1
r
2
) =
(r
1
r
2
)d
d
=
r
1
d
d

r
2
d
d
= ι(r
1
)ι(r
2
),
so ι is a ring homomorphism. Furthermore, ι is injective because
ι(r) = 0 ⇔
rd
d
=
0
d
⇔rd
2
= 0 ⇔r = 0
because d is neither zero nor a zero divisor. The subring ι(R) of Q is therefore isomorphic to R. We henceforth
identify each r ∈ R with ι(r) and so consider R as a subring of Q.
Next note that each d ∈ D has a multiplicative inverse in Q: namely, if d is represented by the fraction
de
e
then
its multiplicative inverse is
e
de
. One then sees that every element of Q may be written as r d
−1
for some r ∈ R and
some d ∈ D. In particular, if D = R¸ ¦0¦, every nonzero element of Q has a multiplicative inverse and Q is a field.
It remains to establish the uniqueness property of Q. Assume ϕ: R →S is an injective ring homomorphism such
that ϕ(d) is a unit in S for all d ∈ D. Extend ϕ to a map Φ: Q → S by defining Φ(rd
−1
) = ϕ(r)ϕ(d)
−1
for all
r ∈ R, d ∈ D. This map is well defined, since rd
−1
= se
−1
implies re = sd, so ϕ(r)ϕ(e) = ϕ(s)ϕ(d), and then
Φ(rd
−1
) = ϕ(r)ϕ(d)
−1
= ϕ(s)ϕ(e)
−1
= Φ(se
−1
).
Now let r
1
d
−1
1
, r
2
d
−1
2
∈ Q. Then
Φ(r
1
d
−1
1
+r
2
d
−1
2
) = Φ((r
1
d
2
+r
2
d
1
)(d
1
d
2
)
−1
)
= ϕ(r
1
d
2
+r
2
d
1
)ϕ(d
1
d
2
)
−1
= ϕ(r
1
)ϕ(d
2
)ϕ(d
1
)
−1
ϕ(d
2
)
−1
+ϕ(r
2
)ϕ(d
1
)ϕ(d
1
)
−1
ϕ(d
2
)
−1
= ϕ(r
1
)ϕ(d
1
)
−1
+ϕ(r
2
)ϕ(d
2
)
−1
= Φ(r
1
d
−1
1
) + Φ(r
2
d
−1
2
)
Φ(r
1
d
−1
1
r
2
d
−1
2
) = Φ((r
1
r
2
)(d
1
d
2
)
−1
)
= ϕ(r
1
r
2
)ϕ(d
1
d
2
)
−1
= ϕ(r
1
)ϕ(d
1
)
−1
ϕ(r
2
)ϕ(d
2
)
−1
= Φ(r
1
d
−1
1
)Φ(r
2
d
−1
2
).
So Φ is a ring homomorphism. Finally, Φ is injective because rd
−1
∈ ker Φ implies r ∈ ker Φ∩R = ker ϕ; since ϕ is
injective this forces r and hence also rd
−1
to be zero.
45
7.5.2. Let R be an integral domain and let D be a nonempty subset of R that is closed under multiplication.
Prove that the ring of fractions D
−1
R is isomorphic to a subring of the quotient field of R (hence is also an integral
domain).
Proof. Let Q be the quotient field of R. Since R is a domain, D¸ ¦0¦ is also a multiplicative set of R. By theorem 7.15
there exists an injective ring homomorhpism ι : R →Q with ι(R¸ ¦0¦) ⊆ Q
×
. Since D¸ ¦0¦ ⊆ R¸ ¦0¦, theorem 7.15
states there exists an injective ring homomorhpism ψ: D
−1
R →Q with ψ[
R
= ι.
8. Euclidean, Principal Ideal, and Unique Factorization Domains
8.1. Euclidean Domains.
Proposition 8.1. Every ideal in a Euclidean Domain is principal. More precisely, if I is any nonzero ideal in the
Euclidean Domain R then I = (d), where d is any nonzero element of I of minimum norm.
Proposition 8.2. If a and B are nonzero element sin the commutative ring R such that the ideal generated by a
and b is a principal ideal (d), then d is a greatest common divisor of a and b.
Proposition 8.3. Let R be an integral domain. If two elements d and d

of R generate the same principal ideal,
i.e., (d) = (d

), then d

= ud for some u ∈ R
×
. In particular, if d and d

are both greatest common divisors of a
and b, then d

= ud for some unit u.
Theorem 8.4. Let R be a Euclidean Domain and let a and b be nonzero elements of R. Let d = r
n
be the last
nonzero remainder in the Euclidean Algorithm for a and b described at the beginning of this chapter. Then
(1) d is a greatest common divisor of a and b, and
(2) the principal ideal (d) is the ideal generated by a and b. In particular, d can be written as an R-linear
combination of a and b, i.e., there are elements x and y in R such that
d = ax +by.
Proposition 8.5. Let R be an integral domain that is not a field. If R is a Euclidean Domain then there are
universal side divisors in R.
8.1.3. Let R be a Euclidean Domain. Let m be the minimum integer in the set of norms of nonzero elements of R.
Prove that every nonzero element of R of norm m is a unit. Deduce that a nonzero element of norm zero (if such
an element exists) is a unit.
Proof. Let a ∈ R with N(a) = m. Since R is a Euclidean Domain, there exists q, r ∈ R such that 1 = qa + r with
N(r) < N(a) or r = 0. Since a is chosen to be minimum norm, r = 0. Thus a is a unit.
8.1.5. Determine all integer solutions of the following equations:
(a)
(b) 17x + 29y = 31
(c)
Proof (b). Notice that 372 17 −217 29 = 31. So any solution to this equation has form
x = 372 +m 899, y = −217 −m 527,
for any m ∈ Z.
8.1.8. Let F = ¸(

D) be a quadratic field with associated quadratic integer ring O and field norm N as in section
7.1.
(a) Suppose D is −1, −2, −3, −7 or −11. Prove that O is a Euclidean Domain with respect to N.
(b) Suppose that D = −43, −67 or −163. Prove that O is not a Euclidean Domain with respect to any norm.
8.1.10. Prove that the quotient ring Z[i]/I is finite for any nonzero ideal I of Z[i].
Proof. By exercise 8.1.8(a), Z[i] is a Euclidean Domain. So I = (α) for some α ∈ Z[i]. Let x + I be a coset of I.
Then there exists q, r such that
x +α = qα +r.
Since x / ∈ (α), then r ,= 0 so N(r) < N(α). But now x+I = r +I, so any coset of I has a representative with norm
less than N(α).
Let F = ¦f ∈ R [ N(f) < N(α)¦. Then if f = f
1
+f
2
i and α = a
1
+a
2
i we have f
2
1
+f
2
2
< a
2
1
+a
2
2
. Since there
are only a finite number of (f
1
, f
2
) ∈ Z Z with this property, Z[i]/I is finite for any nonzero ideal I of Z[i].
46 DAVID S. DUMMIT AND RICHARD M. FOOTE
8.1.11. Let R be a commutative ring with 1 and let a and b be nonzero elements of R. A least common multiple
of a and b is an element e of R such that
(i) a [ e and b [ e, and
(ii) if a [ e

and b [ e

then e [ e

.
(a) Prove that a least common multiple of a and b (if such exists) is a generator for the unique largest principal
ideal contained in (a) ∩ (b).
(b) Deduce that any two nonzero elements in a Euclidean Domain have a least common multiple which is unique
up to multiplication by a unit.
(c) Prove that in a Euclidean Domain the least common multiple of a and b is
ab
(a,b)
, where (a, b) is the greatest
common divisor of a and b.
Proof (a). First suppose there exists a least common multiple e of a and b. Since a [ e and b [ e we must have
(e) ⊆ (a) and (e) ⊆ (b). If (e

) is a principal ideal such that (e

) ⊆ (a) ∩ (b) then e

[ a and e

[ b. Thus e [ e

and
(e

) ⊆ (e) so (e) is the largest principal ideal contained in (a) ∩ (b).
Now suppose there is a largest principal ideal (e) contained in (a) ∩ (b). Then e [ a and e [ b. If a [ e

and b [ e

,
then (e

) ⊆ (a) ∩ (b). Since (e) is the largest such principal ideal, then (e

) ⊆ (e). But then e [ e

.
Proof (b). If a and b are nonzero elements of R then (a) ∩ (b) is the largest ideal contained in (a) ∩ (b). Since R is
a Euclidean Domain, there exists e ∈ R with (e) = (a) ∩ (b). So part (a) shows e is a least common multiple of a
and b.
Now let e, e

be two least common multiples of a and b. Then e [ e

and e

[ e. So e = se

and et = e

. Since a
and b are nonzero then e is also nonzero so e = ste and e(1 −st) = 0 implies 1 = st because R is a domain. Thus
least common multiples are unique up to multiplication by a unit.
Proof (c). First note that (
ab
(a,b)
) ⊆ (a) ∩ (b) so (
ab
(a,b)
) ⊆ (e). Now let ax = e = by. Then abx = eb and aby = ea
so ab [ eb and ab [ ea. Thus ab [ (ea, eb) and
ab
(a,b)
[ e. So we have (e) ⊆ (
ab
(a,b)
). Therefore
ab
(a,b)
is a least common
multiple of a and b.
8.1.12 (A Public Key Code). Let N be a positive integer. Let M be an integer relatively prime to N and let d
be an integer relatively prime to ϕ(N), where ϕ denotes Euler’s ϕ-function. Prove that if M
1
≡ M
d
mod N then
M ≡ M
d

1
mod N where d

is the inverse of d mod ϕ(N): dd

≡ 1 mod ϕ(N).
Proof. Since (M, N) = 1 we know that M
ϕ(N)
≡ 1 mod N. Thus
M
d

1
≡ M
dd

mod N
≡ M
αϕ(N)+1
mod N
≡ M mod N.

9. Polynomial Rings
9.1. Definitions and Basic Properties.
Proposition 9.1. Let R be an integral domain. Then
(1) degree p(x)q(x) = degree p(x) + degree q(x) if p(x), q(x) are nonzero
(2) the units of R[x] are just the units of R
(3) R[x] is an integral domain.
Proposition 9.2. Let I be an ideal of the ring R and let (I) = I[x] denote the ideal of R[x] generated by I (the
set of polynomials with coefficients in I). Then
R[x]/(I)

= (R/I)[x].
In particular, if I is a prime ideal of R then (I) is a prime ideal of R[x].
9.1.13. Prove that the rings F[x, y]/(y
2
−x) and F[x, y]/(y
2
−x
2
) are not isomorphic for any field F.
Proof. Since y
2
−x
2
= (y −x)(y +x) then F[x, y]/(y
2
−x
2
) is not a domain. Not let ϕ: R[x, y] →R[y] be given by
ϕ(p(x, y)) = p(y
2
, y).
Let p(x, y)(y
2
−x) ∈ (y
2
−x) so that
ϕ(p(x, y)(y
2
−x)) = p(y
2
, y)(y
2
−y
2
) = 0.
47
Thus (y
2
−x) ⊆ ker ϕ. Now let p(x, y) ∈ ker ϕ so that 0 = ϕ(p(x, y)) = p(y
2
, y). Note that we can write p(x, y) =
r(x)+ys(x)+q(x, y)(y
2
−x) by considering cosets of F[x, y]/(y
2
−x). But then 0 = ϕ(r(x)+ys(x)) = r(y
2
)+ys(y
2
).
So r = 0 and s = 0. Therefore p(x, y) = q(x, y)(y
2
−x) so ker ϕ ⊆ (y
2
−x).
9.1.14. Let R be an integral domain and let i, j be relatively prime integers. Prove that the ideal (x
i
− y
j
) is a
prime ideal in R[x, y].
Proof.
9.1.15. Let p(x
1
, x
2
, . . . , x
n
) be a homogeneous polynomial of degree k in R[x
1
, . . . , x
n
]. Prove that for all λ ∈ R
we have
p(λx
1
, λx
2
, . . . , λx
n
) = λ
k
p(x
1
, x
2
, . . . , x
n
).
Proof. First we write
p(x
1
, x
2
, . . . , x
n
) =
m

i=0
a
i
n

j=1
x
kj
j
,
where

n
j=1
k
j
= k. Then
p(λx
1
, λx
2
, . . . , λx
n
) =
m

i=0
a
i
n

j=1
(λx
j
)
kj
= λ
k
m

i=0
a
i
n

j=1
x
kj
j
= λ
k
p(x
1
, x
2
, . . . , x
n
).

9.1.17. An ideal I in R[x
1
, . . . , x
n
] is called a homogeneous ideal if whenever p ∈ I then each homogeneous
component of p is also in I. Prove that an ideal is a homogeneous ideal if and only if it may be generated by
homogeneous polynomials.
Proof.
9.2. Polynomial Rings Over Fields I.
Theorem 9.3. Let F be a field. The polynomial ring F[x] is a Euclidean Domain. Specifically, if a(x) and b(x)
are two polynomials in F[x] with b(x) nonzero, then there are unique q(x) and r(x) in F[x] such that
a(x) = q(x)b(x) +r(x) with r(x) = 0 or deg r(x) < deg b(x).
Corollary 9.4. If F is a field, then F[x] is a Principal Ideal Domain and a Unique Factorization Domain.
9.2.4. Let F be a finite field. Prove that F[x] contains infinitely many primes.
Proof. Suppose on the other hand that p
1
(x), . . . , p
n
(x) are all of the primes in F[x]. Let p(x) =

n
i=1
p
i
(x) and
notice 1 +p(x) ∈ F[x]. Since F[x] is a unique factorization domain we can write
1 +p(x) =
m

i=1
p
αi
(x)
where each p
αi
(x) is irreducible. But now
1 =
m

i=1
p
αi
(x) −p(x)
= p
α1
(x)
_
m

i=2
p
αi
(x) −
p(x)
p
α1
(x)
_
.
This is a contradiction because a prime is not a unit.
9.2.5. Exhibit all the ideals in the ring F[x]/(p(x)), where F is a field and p(x) is a polynomial in F[x].
48 DAVID S. DUMMIT AND RICHARD M. FOOTE
Proof. Since F is a field, F[x] is a Euclidean domain and in particular a unique factorization domain. So let
p(x) =
n

i=1
p
i
(x),
where each p
i
(x) is irreducible. Let I/(p(x)) ⊆ F[x]/(p(x)) be an ideal. By the lattice isomorphism theorem,
(p(x)) ⊆ I, and I is an ideal of F[x]. Since F[x] is a Euclidean domain, it is also a principal ideal domain so let I =
(q(x)). Since (p(x)) ⊆ (q(x)), p(x) = r(x)q(x) for some r(x) ∈ F[x]. Let r(x) =

s
i=1
r
i
(x) and q(x) =

t
i=1
q
i
(x)
for r
i
(x), q
i
(x) irreducible. Then α

s
i=1
r
i
(x)

t
i=1
q
i
(x) =

n
i=1
p
i
(x), for some α ∈ F. So there exists σ ∈ S
n
such that α
i
q
i
(x) = p
σ(i)
(x) for all 1 ≤ i ≤ t, α
i
∈ F. Therefore (q(x)) = (

t
i=1
q
i
(x)) = (

t
i=1
p
σ(i)
(x)).
9.2.6. Describe the ring structure of the following rings:
(d) Z[x, y]/(x
2
, y
2
, 2).
Show that α
2
= 0 or 1 for every α in the last ring and determine those elements with α
2
= 0. Determine the
characteristics of each of these rings.
Proof (d). The highest power of x and y is 1 along with the largest coefficient. Let α = α(x, y) + (x
2
, y
2
, 2) so
α
2
= (α(x, y))
2
+ (x
2
, y
2
, 2) ∈
_
0, 1
_
because if there is no constant term then every term has even degree and if
there is a constant term, let α(x, y) = β(x, y) +1 where β(x, y) has no constant term. So α(x, y)
2
= (β(x, y) +1)
2
=
β(x, y)
2
+ 2β(x, y) + 1 so this is in 1. The elements with α = 0 are the elements with no constant term.
9.2.10. Determine the greatest common divisor of a(x) = x
3
+ 4x
2
+ x − 6 and b(x) = x
5
− 6x + 5 in ¸[x] and
write it as a linear combination in ¸[x] of a(x) and b(x).
Solution. Using division of polynomials we calculate
x
5
−6x + 5 = (x
3
+ 4x
2
−x −6)(x
2
−4x + 15) −(50x
2
+ 45x −95)
x
3
+ 4x
2
+x −6 = (50x
2
+ 45x −95)(x/50 + 31/500) + (31/10 x
2
+ 1395/500 x −2945/500)
50x
2
+ 45x −95 = (31/10 x
2
+ 1395/500 x −2945/500)(500/31).
So we write the greatest common divisor as
31/10 x
2
+ 1395/500 x −2945/500 =
= (x
3
+ 4x +x −6)[(x
2
−4x + 15)(x/50 + 31/500) −1] −(x
5
−6x + 5)[x/50 + 31/500].

9.3. Polynomial Rings That are Unique Factorization Domains.
Proposition 9.5 (Gauss’ Lemma). Let R be a Unique Factorization Domain with field of fractions F and let
p(x) ∈ R[x]. If p(x) is reducible in F[x] then p(x) is reducible in R[x]. More precisely, if p(x) = A(x)B(x) for some
nonconstant polynomials A(x),B(x) ∈ F[x], then there are nonzero elements r, s ∈ F such that rA(x) = a(x) and
sB(x) = b(x) both lie in R[x] and p(x) = a(x)b(x) is a factorization in R[x].
Corollary 9.6. Let R be a Unique Factorization Domain, let F be its field of fractions and let p(x) ∈ R[x]. Suppose
the greatest common divisor of the coefficients of p(x) is 1. Then p(x) is irreducible in R[x] if and only if it is
irreducible in F[x]. In particular, if p(x) is a moni polynomial that is irreducible in R[x], then p(x) is irreducible
in F[x].
Theorem 9.7. R is a Unique Factorization Domain if and only if R[x] is a Unique Factorization Domain.
Corollary 9.8. If R is a Unique Factorization Domain, then a polynomial ring in an arbitrary number of variable
with coefficients in R is also a Unique Factorization Domain.
9.4. Irreducibility Criteria.
Proposition 9.9. Let F be a field and let p(x) ∈ F[x]. Then p(x) has a facto of degree one if and only if p(x) has
a roote in F, i.e., there is an α ∈ F with p(α) = 0.
Proposition 9.10. A polynomial of degree two or three over a field F is reducible if and only if it has a root in F.
Proposition 9.11. Let p(x) = a
n
x
n
+a
n−1
x
n−1
+ +a
0
be a polynomial of degree n with integer coefficients. If
r/x ∈ ¸ is in lowest terms (i.e., r and s are relatively prime integers) and r/s is a root of p(x), then r divides the
constant term and s divides the leading coefficient of p(x). In particular, if p(x) is a monic polynomial with integer
coefficients and p(d) ,= 0 for all itnegers d dividing the constant tterm of p(x), then p(x) has no roots in ¸.
49
Proposition 9.12. Let I be a proper ideal in the integral domain R and let p(x) be a nonconstant monic polynomial
in R[x]. If the image of p(x) in (R/I)[x] cannot be factored in (R/I)[x] into two polynomials of smaller degree,
then p(x) is irreducible in R[x].
Proposition 9.13 (Eisenstein’s Criterion). Let P be a prime ideal of the integral domain R and let f(x) =
x
n
+a
n−1
x
n−1
+ +a
1
x +a
0
be a polynomial in R[x] (here n ≥ 1). Suppose a
n−1
, . . . , a
1
, a
0
are all elements of
P and suppose a
0
is not an element of P
2
. Then f(x) is irreducible in R[x].
Corollary 9.14 (Eisenstein’s Criterion for Polynomial Ring over Z). Let p be a prime in Z and let f(x) =
x
n
+a
n−1
x
n−1
+ +a
1
x +a
0
∈ Z[x], n ≥ 1. Suppose p divides a
i
for all i ∈ ¦0, 1, . . . , n −1¦ but that p
2
does not
divide a
0
. Then f(x) is irreducible in both Z[x] and ¸[x].
9.4.1. Determine whether the following polynomials are irreducible in the rings indicated. For those that are
reducible, determine their factorization into irreducibles. The notaion F
p
denotes the finite field Z/pZ, p a prime.
(b) x
3
+x + 1 in F
3
[x].
(c) x
4
+ 1 in F
5
[x].
Solution (b).
Solution (c).
9.4.2. Prove that the following polynomials are irreducible in Z[x]:
(c) x
4
+ 4x
3
+ 6x
2
+ 2x + 1
(d)
(x+2)
p
−2
p
x
, where p is an odd prime.
Proof (c).
Proof (d).
9.4.3. Show that the polynomial (x −1)(x −2) (x −n) −1 is irreducible over Z for all n ≥ 1.
Proof.
9.4.6. Construct fields of each of the following orders: (a) 9, (b) 49, (c) 8, (d) 81.
Solution (a).
Solution (b).
Solution (c).
Solution (d).
9.4.8. Prove that K
1
= F
11
[x]/(x
2
+ 1) and K
2
= F
11
[y]/(y
2
+ 2y + 2) are both fields with 121 elements. Prove
that the map which sends the element p(x) of K
1
to the element p(y + 1) of K
2
(where p is any polynomial with
coefficients in F
11
) is well defined and gives a ring isomorphism from K
1
to K
2
.
Proof.
9.4.16. Let F be a field and let f(x) be a polynomial of degree n in F[x]. The polynomial g(x) = x
n
f(1/x) is
called the reverse of f(x).
(a) Describe the coefficients of g in terms of the coefficients of f.
(b) If f(0) ,= 0 prove that f is irreducible if and only if g is irreducible.
Solution (a).
Proof (b).
9.4.19. Let F be a field and let f(x) = a
n
x + a
n−1
x
n−1
+ + a
0
∈ F[x]. The derivative, D
x
(f(x)), of f(x) is
defined by
D
x
(f(x)) = na
n
x
n−1
+ (n −1)a
n−1
x
n−2
+ +a
1
where, as usual, na = a + +a (n times). Note that D
x
(f(x)) is again a polynomial with coefficients in F.
The polynomial f(x) is said to have a multiple root if there is some field E containing F and some α ∈ E such
that x−α)
2
divides f(x) in E[x]. For example, the polynomial f(x) = (x−1)
2
(x−2) ∈ ¸[x] has α = 1 as a multiple
root and the polynomial f(x) = x
4
+ 2x
2
+ 1 = (x
2
+ 1)
2
∈ 1[x] has α = ±i ∈ C as multiple roots. We shall prove
in section 13.5 that a nonconstant polynomial f(x) has a multiple root if and only if f(x) is not relatively prime to
50 DAVID S. DUMMIT AND RICHARD M. FOOTE
its derivative (which can be detected by the Euclidean Algorithm in F[x]). Use this criterion to determine whether
the following polynomials have multiple roots:
(a) x
3
−3x −2 ∈ ¸[x]
(b) x
3
+ 3x + 2 ∈ ¸[x]
(c) x
6
−4x
4
+ 6x
3
+ 4x
2
−12x + 9 ∈ ¸[x]
(d) Show for any prime p and any a ∈ F
p
that the polynomial x
p
−a has a multiple root.
9.5. Polynomial Rings Over Fields II.
Proposition 9.15. The maximal ideals in F[x] are the ideal (f(x)) generated by irreducible polynomials f(x). In
particular, F[x]/(f(x)) is a field if and only if f(x) is irreducible.
Proposition 9.16. Let g(x) be a nonconstant monic element of F[x] and let
g(x) = f
1
(x)
n1
f
2
(x)
n2
f
k
(x)
n
k
be its factorization into irreducibles, where the f
i
(x) are distinct. Then we have the following isomorphism of rings:
F[x]/(g(x))

= F[x]/(f
1
(x)
n1
) F[x]/(f
2
(x)
n2
) F[x]/(f
k
(x)
n
k
).
Proposition 9.17. If the polynomial f(x) has roots α
1
, α
2
, . . . , α
k
in F (not necessarily distinct), then f(x) has
(x −α
1
) (x −α
k
) as a factor. In particular, a polynomial of degree n in one variable over a field F has at most
n roots in F, even counted with multiplicity.
Proposition 9.18. A finite subgroup of the multiplicative group of a field is cyclic. In particular, if F is a finite
field, then the multiplicative group F
×
of nonzero elements of F is a cyclic group.
Corollary 9.19. Let p be a prime. The multiplicative group (Z/pZ)
×
of nozero residue classes mod p is cyclic.
Corollary 9.20. Let n ≥ 2 be an integer with factorization n = p
α1
1
p
αr
r
in Z, where p
1
, . . . , p
r
are distinct
primes. We have the following isomorphisms of multiplicative groups:
(1) (Z/nZ)
× ∼
= (Z/p
αi
i
Z)
×
(Z/p
αr
r
Z)
×
(2) (Z/2
α
Z)
×
is the direct product of a cyclic group of order 2 and a cyclic group of order 2
α−2
, for all α ≥ 2
(3) (Z/p
α
Z)
×
is a cyclic group of order p
α−1
(p −1), for all odd primes p.
9.6. Polynomials in Several Variables Over a Field and Gr¨obner Bases.
Theorem 9.21 (Hilbert’s Basis Theorem). If R is a Noetherian ring then so is the polynomial ring R[x].
Corollary 9.22. Every ideal in the polynomial ring F[x
1
, x
2
, . . . , x
n
] with coefficients from a field F is finitely
generated.
Theorem 9.23. Fix a monomial ordering on R = F[x
1
, . . . , x
n
] and suppose ¦g
1
, . . . , g
m
¦ is a Gr¨obner basis for
the nozero ideal I in R. Then
(1) Every polynomial f ∈ R can be written uniquely in the form
f = f
I
+r
where f
I
∈ I and no nonzero monomial term of the remainder r is divisible by any of the leading terms
LT(g
1
), . . . , LT(g
m
).
(2) Both f
I
and r can be computed by general polynomial division by g
1
, . . . , g
m
and are independent of the
order in which these polynomials are used in the division.
(3) The remainder r provides a unique representative for the coset of f in the quotient ring F[x
1
, . . . , x
n
]/I. In
particular, f ∈ I if and only if r = 0.
Proposition 9.24. Fix a monomial ordering on R = F[x
1
, . . . , x
n
] and let I be a nonzero ideal in R.
(1) If g
1
, . . . , g
m
are any elements of I such that LT(I) = (LT(g
1
), . . . , LT(g
m
)), then ¦g
1
, . . . , g
m
¦ is a Gr¨obner
basis for I.
(2) The ideal I has a Gr¨ obner basis.
Lemma 9.25. Suppose f
1
, . . . f
m
∈ F[x
1
, . . . , x
n
] are polynomials with the same multidegree α and that the linear
combination h = a
1
f
1
+ +a
m
f
m
with constants a
i
∈ F has strictly smaller multidegree. Then
h =
m

i=2
b
i
S(f
i−1
, f
i
), for some constants b
i
∈ F.
51
Proposition 9.26 (Buchberger’s Criterion). Let R = F[x
1
, . . . , x
n
] and fix a monomial ordering on R. If I =
(g
1
, . . . , g
m
) is a nonzero ideal in R, then G = ¦g
1
, . . . , g
m
¦ is a Gr¨ obner basis for I if and only if S(g
i
, g
j
) ≡ 0
mod G for 1 ≤ i < j ≤ m.
Theorem 9.27. Fix a monomial ordering on R = F[x
1
, . . . , x
n
]. Then there is a unique reduced Gr¨obner basis for
every nonzero ideal I in R.
Corollary 9.28. Let I and J be two ideal in F[x
1
, . . . , x
n
]. Then I = J if and only if I and J have the same
reduced Gr¨obner basis with respect to any fixed monomial ordering on F[x
1
, . . . , x
n
].
Proposition 9.29 (Elimination). Suppose G = ¦g
1
, . . . , g
m
¦ is a Gr¨obner basis for the nonzero ideal I in F[x
1
, . . . , x
n
]
with respect to the lexicographic monomial ordering x
1
> > x
n
. Then G ∩ F[x
i+1
, . . . , x
n
] is a Gr¨obner basis
of the i
th
elimination ideal I
i
= I ∩ F[x
i+1
, . . . , x
n
] of I. In particular, I ∩ F[x
i+1
, . . . x
n
] = 0 if and only if
G∩ F[x
i+1
, . . . , x
n
] = ∅.
Proposition 9.30. If I and J are any two ideals in F[x
1
, . . . , x
n
] then tI + (1 −t)J is an ideal in F[t, x
1
, . . . , x
n
]
and I ∩ J = (tI + (1 −t)J) ∩ F[x
1
, . . . , x
n
]. In particular, I ∩ J is the first elimination ideal of tI + (1 −t)J with
respect to the ordering t > x
1
> > x
n
.
52 DAVID S. DUMMIT AND RICHARD M. FOOTE
9.6.24. Use reduced Gr¨obner bases to show that the ideal I = (x
3
−yz, yz +y) and the ideal J = (x
3
z +x
3
, x
3
+y)
in F[x, y] are equal.
Proof. By corollary 9.28 two ideals in F[x, y, z] are equal if and only if I, J have the same reduced Gr¨obner basis
for any monomial ordering. So fix the lexicographical ordering x > y > z for F[x, y, z]. To find a Gr¨obner basis for
I,
S(f
1
, f
2
) = yzf
1
−x
3
f
2
= −y
2
z
2
−x
3
y ≡ 0 mod ¦f
1
, f
2
¦ .
Since x
3
−yz = −1(yz +y) + (x
3
+y), then our reduced Gr¨obner basis for I is G =
_
x
3
+y, yz +y
_
.
Now to find the reduced Gr¨obner basis for J,
S(g
1
, g
2
) = g
1
−zg
2
= x
3
−yz ≡ −yz −y mod ¦g
1
, g
2
¦
S(g
1
, g
3
) = −yg
1
−x
3
g
3
= −x
3
y +x
3
y ≡ 0 mod ¦g
1
, g
2
, g
3
¦
S(g
2
, g
3
) = x
3
g
2
+yzg
3
= x
3
−y
2
z ≡ 0 mod ¦g
1
, g
2
, g
3
¦ .
Thus ¦g
1
, g
2
, g
3
¦ is a Gr¨obner basis for J. Since LT(g
2
) mod LT(g
1
), G =
_
x
3
+y, yz +y
_
is the reduced Gr¨obner
basis for J.
9.6.32. Use Gr¨obner bases to show that (x, z) ∩ (y
2
, x −yz) = (xy, x −yz) in F[x, y, z].
Proof. Let I = (x, z) and J = (y
2
−yz). Then proposition 9.30 states
I ∩ J = (tI + (1 −t)J) ∩ F[x, y, z].
By calculating the S(f
i
, f
j
) we find
tI + (1 −t)J = (tx, tz, ty
2
−y
2
, tx −tyz −x +yz, xy
2
, tyz +x −yz, x
2
−xyz, y
2
z, xz −yz
2
, x −yz)
is given by a Gr¨ obner basis. Thus
tI + (1 −t)J = (tz, ty
2
−y
2
, tyz +x −yz, y
2
z, x −yz)
and finally I ∩ J = (y
2
z, x −yz).
Now to find a Gr¨obner basis for (xy, x −yz), we calculate
S(f
1
, f
2
) = f
1
−yf
2
= y
2
z
S(f
1
, f
3
) = yzf
1
−xf
3
= 0
S(f
2
, f
3
) = y
2
zf
2
−xf
3
= −y
3
z
2
≡ 0 mod ¦f
1
, f
2
, f
3
¦ .
Thus
_
xy, x −yz, y
2
z
_
is a Gr¨obner basis so
_
x −yz, y
2
z
_
is the reduced Gr¨obner basis because x [ xy. Since the
reduced Gr¨obner basis is the same for both ideals, corollary 9.28 states the ideals are equal.
53
Part III – Modules and Vector Spaces
10. Introduction to Module Theory
10.1. Basic Definitions and Examples.
Proposition 10.1 (The Submodule Criterion). Let R be a ring and let M be an R-module. A subset N of M is a
submodule of M if and only if
(1) N ,= ∅, and
(2) x +ry ∈ N for all r ∈ R and for all x, y ∈ N.
10.1.8. An element m of the R-module M is called a torsion element if rm = 0 for some nonzero element r ∈ R.
The set of torsion elements is denoted
Tor(M) = ¦m ∈ M [ rm = 0 for some nonzero r ∈ R¦ .
(a) Prove that if R is an integral domain then Tor(M) is a submodule of M called the torsion submodule of
M.
(b) Give an example of a ring R and an R-module M such that Tor(M) is not a submodule.
(c) If R has zero divisors show that every nonzero R-module has nonzero torsion elements.
Proof (a). Tor(M) ,= ∅ because r0 = r(m−m) = rm−rm = 0. If r
1
x = r
2
y = 0, r ∈ R, then
r
1
r
2
(x +ry) = r
2
r
1
x +rr
1
r
2
y = 0
so Tor(M) is a submodule of M because r
1
r
2
,= 0.
Example (b). If R = 0, then this is such an example.
Proof (c). Let x, y ∈ R¸ ¦0¦ with xy = 0. If ym ,= 0, then xym = 0 so either way there are nonzero torsion
elements.
10.1.14. Let z be an element of the center of R, i.e., zr = rz for all r ∈ R. Prove that zM is a submodule of M,
where zM = ¦zm [ m ∈ M¦. Show that if R is the ring of 2 2 matrices over a field and e is the matrix with a 1 in
position 1, 1 and zeros elsewhere then eR is not a left R-submodule (where M = R is considered as a left R-module
as in example 1) – in this case the matrix e is not in the center of R.
Proof. zM is clearly nonempty. Let x = zm
1
, y = zm
2
, r ∈ R so
x +ry = zm
1
+rzm
2
= zm
1
+zrm
2
= z(m
1
+rm
2
)
so zM is a submodule of M.
If a ∈ eR then a =
_
f
1
f
2
0 0
_
but
_
1 1
1 1
__
f
1
f
2
0 0
_
=
_
f
1
f
2
f
1
f
2
_
so eR is not a left R-submodule.
10.1.16. Prove that the submodules U
k
described in the example of F[x]-modules are all of the F[x]-submodules
for the shift operator.
Proof. Note since F is a field, then if a component contains a nonzero element then that component of the submodule
must contain all of F. But if a component is zero to the left of some nonzero component, then it would not be
T-stable. Thus it is clear that the U
k
s are all of the F[x]-submodules by the bjiection of F[x]-submodules and
subspaces invariant under T.
10.1.22. Suppose A is a ring with identity 1
A
that is a (unital) left R-module satisfying r (ab) = (r a)b = a(r b)
for all r ∈ R and a, b ∈ A. Prove that the map f : R →A defined by f(r) = r 1
A
is a ring homomorphism mapping
1
R
to 1
A
and that f(R) is contained in the center of A. Conclude that A is an R-algebra and that the R-module
structure on A induced by its algebra structure is precisely the original R-module structure.
Proof. If f(x) = f(y) then x = x 1
A
= y 1
A
= y so f is well defined. Now f(x +y) = (x +y) 1
A
= f(x) +f(y),
f(xy) = (xy) 1
A
= f(x)f(y) and f(1
R
) = 1
R
1
A
= 1
A
. Since (r 1
A
) a = (r a) 1
A
= a (r 1
A
). Thus
by definition A is an R-algebra and the R-module structure on A induced by its algebra structure is precisely the
original R-module structure.
54 DAVID S. DUMMIT AND RICHARD M. FOOTE
13. Field Theory
13.1. Basic Theory of Field Extensions.
Proposition 13.1. The characteristic of a field F, ch (F), is either 0 or a prime p. If ch (F) = p then for any
α ∈ F,
p α = α +α + +α = 0.
Proposition 13.2. Let ϕ: F →F

be a homomorphism of fields. Then ϕ is either identically 0 or is injective, so
that the image of ϕ is either 0 or isomorphic to F.
Theorem 13.3. Let F be a field and let p(x) ∈ F[x] be an irreducible polynomial. Then there exists a field K
containing an isomorphic copy of F in which p(x) has a root. Identifying F with this isomorphic copy shows that
there exists an extension of F which p(x) has a root.
Theorem 13.4. Let p(x) ∈ F[x] be an irreducible polynomial of degree n over the field F and let K be the field
F[x]/(p(x)). Let θ = x mod (p(x)) ∈ K. Then the elements
1, θ, θ
2
, . . . , θ
n−1
are a basis for K as a vector space over F, so the degree of the extension is n, i.e., [K : F] = n. Hence
K =
_
a
0
+a
1
θ +a
2
θ
2
+ +a
n−1
θ
n−1
[ a
0
, a
1
, . . . , a
n−1
∈ F
_
consists of all polynomials of degree < n in θ.
Corollary 13.5. Let K be as in theorem 13.4, and let a(θ), b(θ) ∈ K be two polynomials of degree < n in θ. Then
addition in K is defined simply by usual polynomial addition and multiplication in K defined by
a(θ)b(θ) = r(θ)
where r(x) is the remainder (of degree < n) obtained after dividing the polynomial a(x)b(x) by p(x) in F[x].
Theorem 13.6. Let F be a field and let p(x) ∈ F[x] be an irreducible polynomial. Suppose K is an extension field
of F containing a root α of p(x): p(α) = 0. Let F(α) denote the subfield of K generated over F by α. Then
F(α)

= F[x]/(p(x)).
Corollary 13.7. Suppose in theorem 13.6 that p(x) is of degree n. Then
F(α) =
_
a
0
+a
1
α +a
2
α
2
+ +a
n−1
α
n−1
[ a
0
, a
1
, . . . , a
n−1
∈ F
_
⊆ K.
Theorem 13.8. Let ϕ: F ˜ →F

be an isomorphism of fields. Let p(x) ∈ F[x] be an irreducible polynomial and let
p

(x) ∈ F

(x) be the irreducible polynomial obtained by applying the map ϕ to the coefficients of p(x). Let α be
a root of p(x) (in some extension of F) and let β be a root of p

(x) (in some extension of F

). Then there is an
isomorphism
σ: F(α) ˜ →F

(β)
mapping α to β and extending ϕ, i.e., such that σ restricted to F is the isomorphism ϕ.
13.2. Basic Theory of Field Extensions.
Proposition 13.9. Let α be algebraic over F. Then there is a unique monic irreducible polynomial m
α,F
(x) ∈ F[x]
which has α as a root. A polynomial f(x) ∈ F[x] has α as a root if and only if m
α,F
(x) divides f(x) in F[x].
Corollary 13.10. If L ⊂ F is an extension of fields and α is algebraic over both F and L, then m
α,L
(x) divides
m
α,F
(x) in L[x].
Proposition 13.11. Let α be algebraic over the field F and let F(α) be the field generated by α over F. Then
F(α)

= F[x]/(m
α
(x))
so that in particular
[F(α): F] = deg m
α
(x) = deg α,
i.e., the degree of α over F is the degree of the extension it generates over F.
Proposition 13.12. The element α is algebraic over F if and only if the simple extension F ⊂ F(α) is finite.
More precisely, if α is an element of an extension of degree n over F then α satisfies a polynomial of degree at most
n over F and if α satisfies a polynomial of degree n over F then the degree of F(α) over F is at most n.
Corollary 13.13. If the extension F ⊂ K is finite, then it is algebraic.
55
Theorem 13.14. Let F ⊆ K ⊆ L be fields. Then
[L: F] = [L: K][K: F],
i.e., extension degrees are multiplicative, where if one side of the equation is infinite, the other side is also infinite.
Corollary 13.15. Suppose F ⊂ L is a finite extension and let K be any subfield of L containing F, F ⊆ K ⊆ L.
Then [K: F] divides [L: F].
Lemma 13.16. F(α, β) = (F(α))(β), i.e., the field generated over F by α and β is the field generated by β over
the field F(α) generated by α.
Theorem 13.17. The extension F ⊂ K is finite if and only if K is generated by a finite number of algebraic
elements over F. More precisely, a field generated over F by a finite4 number of algebraic elements of degrees
n
1
, n
2
, . . . , n
k
is algebraic of degree ≤ n
1
n
2
n
k
.
Corollary 13.18. Suppose α and β are algebraic over F. Then α ± β, αβ, α/β (for β ,= 0), (in particular α
−1
for α ,= 0) are all algebraic.
Corollary 13.19. Let F ⊂ L be an arbitrary extension. Then the collection of elements of L that are algebraic
over F form a subfield K of L.
Theorem 13.20. If K is algebraic over F and L is algebraic over K, then L is algebraic over F.
Proposition 13.21. Let K
1
and K
2
be two finite extensions of a field F contained in K. Then
[K
1
K
2
: F] ≤ [K
1
: F][K
2
: F]
with equality if and only if an F-basis for one of the fields remains linearly independent over the other field.
If α
1
, α
2
, . . . , α
n
and β
1
, β
2
, . . . , β
m
are bases for K
1
and K
2
over F, respectively, then the elements α
i
β
j
for
i = 1, . . . , n and j = 1, . . . , m span K
1
K
2
over F.
Corollary 13.22. Suppose that [K
1
: F] = n, [K
2
: F] = m in proposition 13.21, where n and m are relatively
prime: (n, m) = 1. Then [K
1
K
2
: F] = [K
1
: F][K
2
: F] = nm.
13.2.1. Let F be a finite field of characteristic p. Prove that [F[ = p
n
for some positive integer n.
Proof. Let ϕ: Z →F be the ring map given by ϕ(n) = n 1
F
. Since pZ ⊆ ker ϕ then ¯ ϕ: F
p
→F is well defined. But
¯ ϕ is a ring map of fields so it is trivial or injective. Notice ¯ ϕ(1
Fp
) = 1
F
so ¯ ϕ is injective. Thus we can consider F as
a vector space over F
p
. Since F is finite then
[F[ = [F
p
[
[F: Fp]
= p
n
for some n ∈ Z
+
.
13.2.7. Prove that ¸(

2+

3) = ¸(

2,

3). Conclude that [¸(

2+

3): ¸] = 4. Find an irreducible polynomial
satisfied by

2 +

3.
Proof. Since ¸,

2,

3 are contained in ¸(

2,

3), then ¸,

2 +

3 are contained in ¸(

2,

3). Hence by
definition ¸(

2 +

3) ⊆ ¸(

2,

3).
To prove the other inclusion notice that
_
(

2 +

3)
3
−9(

2 +

3)
_
/2 =

2. Thus

2 ∈ ¸(

2 +

3) thus

3 ∈ ¸(

2 +

3). By definition we have ¸(

2,

3) ⊆ ¸(

2 +

3) and thus equality.
Since ¸(

2,

3) = ¸(

2 +

3) then [¸(

2 +

3): ¸] = [¸(

2,

3): ¸] = 4. Notice that p(

2 +

3) = 0
where
p(x) = x
4
−10x
2
+ 1.
If p were to be reducible, then there would be an irreducible polynomial with degree less than 4. This contradicts
the minimality of the degree of m

2+

3
= 4. Therefore p is irreducible in ¸.
13.2.10. Determine the degree of the extension ¸(
_
3 + 2

2) over ¸.
Solution. First note that [¸(
_
3 + 2

2): ¸] = [¸(
_
3 + 2

2: ¸(

2)][¸(

2): ¸]. But x
2
− 3 + 2

2 = (x − 1 +
2

2)(x + 1 + 2

2) so [¸(
_
3 + 2

2): ¸(

2)] = 1. Thus [¸(
_
3 + 2

2): ¸] = 2.
13.2.13. Suppose F = ¸(α
1
, . . . , α
n
) where α
2
i
∈ ¸ for i = 1, . . . , n. Prove that
3

2 / ∈ F.
Proof. Since [¸(α
1
, . . . , α
k
): ¸(α
1
, . . . , α
k−1
)] ∈ ¦1, 2¦, then [¸(α
1
, . . . , α
n
): ¸] = 2
l
for some l ∈ Z
+
. Now if
3

2 ∈ F then ¸ ⊂ ¸(
3

2) ⊆ F then [¸(
3

2: ¸)] [ [F : ¸]. Since 3 does not divide 2
l
for l ∈ Z
+
then
3

2 / ∈ F.
56 DAVID S. DUMMIT AND RICHARD M. FOOTE
13.2.16. Let F ⊂ K be an algebraic extension and let R be a ring contained in K and containing F. Show that
R is a subfield of K containing F.
Proof. Let α ∈ R¸ ¦0¦ so since α ∈ F then there is some irreducible p ∈ R[x] such that p(α) = 0. Let p(x) be given
by
p(x) = a
n
x
n
+ +a
0
,
and notice since p is irreducible, a
0
,= 0. Since p(α) = 0 we have
α
−1
= −a
−1
0
(a
n
α
n−1
+ +a
1
).
Since a
i
∈ F ⊆ R and α ∈ R then α
−1
∈ R and R is a field.
13.3. Classical Straightedge and Compass Constructions.
Proposition 13.23. If the element α ∈ 1 is obtained from a field F ⊆ 1 by a series of compass and straightedge
constructions then [F(α): F] = 2
k
for some integer k ≥ 0.
Theorem 13.24. None of the classical Greek problems: (I) Doubling the Cube, (II) Trisecting an Angle, and (III)
Squaring the Circle, is possible.
13.4. Splitting Fields and Algebraic Closures.
Theorem 13.25. For any field F, if f(x) ∈ F[x] then there exists an extension K of F which is a splitting field
for f(x).
Proposition 13.26. A splitting field of a polynomial of degree n over F is of degree at most n! over F.
Theorem 13.27. Let ϕ: F ˜ →F

be an isomorphism of fields. Let f(x) ∈ F[x] be a polynomial and let f

(x) ∈ F

[x]
be the polynomial obtained by applying ϕ to the coefficients of f(x). Let E be a splitting field for f(x) over F and
let E

be a splitting field for f

(x) over F

. Then the isomorphism ϕ extends to an isomorphism σ: E ˜ →E

, i.e., σ
restricted to F is the isomorphism ϕ.
Corollary 13.28 (Uniqueness of Splitting Fields). Any two splitting fields for a polynomial f(x) ∈ F[x] over a
field F are isomorphic.
Proposition 13.29. Let F be an algebraic closure of F. Then F is algebraically closed.
Proposition 13.30. For any field F there exists an algebraically closed field K containing F.
Proposition 13.31. Let K be an algebraically closed field and let F be a subfield of K. Then the collection of
elements F of K that are algebraic over F is an algebraic closure of F. An algebraic closure of F is unique up to
isomorphism.
Theorem (Fundamental Theorem of Algebra). The field C is algebraically closed.
Corollary 13.32. The field C contains an algebraic closure for any of its subfields. In particular, ¸, the collection
of complex numbers algebraic over ¸, is an algebraic closure of ¸.
13.5. Separable and Inseparable Extensions.
Proposition 13.33. A polynomial f(x) has a multpile root α if and only if α is also a root of D
x
f(x), i.e., f(x)
and D
x
f(x) are both divisible by the minimal polynomial for α. In particular, f(x) is separable if and only if it is
relatively prime to its derivative: (f(x), D
x
f(x)) = 1.
Corollary 13.34. Every irreducible polynomial over a field of characteristic 0 is separable. A polynomial over such
a field is separable if and only if it is the product of distinct irreducible polynomials.
Proposition 13.35. Let F be a field of characteristic p. Then for any a, b ∈ F,
(a +p)
p
= a
p
+b
p
, and (ab)
p
= a
p
b
p
.
Put another way, the p
th
-power map defined by ϕ(a) = a
p
is an injective field homomorphism from F to F.
Corollary 13.36. Suppose that F is a finite field of characteristic p. Then every element of F is a p
th
power in F,
i.e., F = F
p
.
Proposition 13.37. Every irreducible polynomial over a finite field F is separable. A polynomial in F[x] is separable
if and only if it is the product of distinct irreducible polynomials in F[x].
57
Proposition 13.38. Let p(x) be an irreducible polynomial over a field F of characteristic p. Then there is a unique
integer k ≥ 0 and a unique irreducible separable polynomial p
sep
(x) ∈ F[x] such that
p(x) = p
sep
(x
p
k
).
Corollary 13.39. Every finite extension of a perfect field is separable. In particular, every finite extension of either
¸ or a finite field is separable.
13.6. Cyclotomic Polynomials and Extensions.
Lemma 13.40. The cyclotomic polynomial Φ
n
(x) is a monic polynomial in Z[x] of degree ϕ(n).
Theorem 13.41. The cyclotomic polynomial Φ
n
(x) is an irreducible monic polynomial in Z[x] of degree ϕ(n).
Corollary 13.42. The degree over ¸ of the cyclotomic field of n
th
roots of unity is ϕ(n):
[¸(ζ
n
): ¸] = ϕ(n).
14. Galois Theory
14.1. Basic Definitions.
Proposition 14.1. Aut(K) is a group under composition and Aut(K/F) is a subgroup.
Proposition 14.2. Let K/F be a field extension and let α ∈ K be algebraic over F. Then for any σ ∈ Aut(K/F),
σα is a root of the minimal polynomial for α over F i.e., Aut(K/F) permutes the roots of irreducible polynomials.
Equivalently, any polynomial with coefficients in F having α as a root also has σα as a root.
Proposition 14.3. Let H ≤ Aut(K) be a subgroup of the group of automorphisms of K. Then the collection F of
elements of K fixed by all the elements of H is a subfield of K.
Proposition 14.4. The association of groups to fields and fields to groups defined above is inclusion reversing,
namely
(1) if F
1
⊆ F
2
⊆ K are two subfields of K then Aut(K/F
2
) ≤ Aut(K/F
1
), and
(2) if H
1
≤ H
2
≤ Aut(K) are two subgroups of automorphisms with associated fixed fields F
1
and F
2
, respec-
tively, then F
2
⊆ F
1
.
Proposition 14.5. Let E be the splitting field over F of the polynomial f(x) ∈ F[x]. Then
[Aut(E/F)[ ≤ [E: F]
with equality if f(x) is separable over F.
Corollary 14.6. If K is the splitting field over F of a separable polynomial f(x) then K/F is Galois.
14.2. The Fundamental Theorem of Galois Theory.
Theorem 14.7 (Linear Independence of Characters). If χ
1
, . . . , χ
n
are distinct characters of G with values in L
then they are linearly independent over L.
Corollary 14.8. If σ
1
, . . . , σ
n
are distinct embeddings of a field K into a field L, then they are linearly independent
as functions on K. In particular distinct automorphisms of a field K are linearly independent as functions on K.
Theorem 14.9. Let G = ¦σ
1
= 1, σ
2
, . . . , σ
n
¦ be a subgroup of automorphisms of a field K and let F be the fixed
field. Then
[K: F] = n = [G[ .
Corollary 14.10. Let K/F be any finite extension. Then
[Aut(K/F)[ ≤ [K: F]
with equality if and only if F is the fixed field of Aut(K/F). Put another way, K/F is Galois if and only if F is
the fixed field of Aut(K/F).
Corollary 14.11. Let G be a finite subgroup of automorphisms of a field K and let F be the fixed field. Then every
automorphism of K fixing F is contained in G, i.e., Aut(K/F) = G, so that K/F is Galois, with Galois group G.
Corollary 14.12. If G
1
,= G
2
are distinct finite subgroups of automorphisms of a field K then their fixed fields are
also distinct.
Theorem 14.13. The extension K/F is Galois if and only if K is the splitting field of some separable polynomial
over F. Furthermore, if this is the case then every irreducible polynomial with coeffiecients in F which has a root
in K is separable and has all its roots in K (so in particular K/F is a separable extension).
Theorem 14.14 (Fundamental Theorem of Galois Theory).
58 DAVID S. DUMMIT AND RICHARD M. FOOTE
15. Commutative Rings and Algebraic Geometry
15.1. Noetherian Rings and Affine Algebraic Sets.
15.2. Radicals and Affine Varieties.
15.3. Integral Extensions and Hilbert’s Nullstellensatz.
15.4. Localization.
Theorem 15.36 (cf. theorem 7.15). let R be a commutative ring with 1 ,= 0 and let D be a multiplicatively closed
subset of R containing 1. Then there is a commutative ring D
−1
R and a ring homomorphism π: R → D
−1
R
satisfying the following universal property: for any homomorphism ψ: R → S of commutative rings that sends 1
to 1 such that ψ(d) is a unit in S for every d ∈ D, there is a unique homomorphism Ψ: D
−1
R → S such that
Ψ◦ π = ψ.
Corollary 15.37. In the notation of theorem 15.36,
(1) ker π = ¦r ∈ R [ xr = 0 for some x ∈ D¦; in particular, π: R → D
−1
R is an injetion if and only if D
contains neither zero nor any zero divisors of R, and
(2) D
−1
R = 0 if and only if 0 ∈ D, hence if and only if D contains nilpotent elements.
15.4.18. Let R be any commutative ring with 1 and let f be any element of R. Let D be the multiplicative set
¦f
n
[ n ≥ 0¦ of nonnegative powers of f in R. Define R
f
= D
−1
R. Note that R
f
= 0 if and only if f is nilpotent.
If f is not nilpotent, then f becomes a unit in R
f
. Prove that R
f

= R[x]/(fx − 1) where R[x] is the polynomial
ring in the variable x, if f is not nilpotent in R.
Proof.
15.4.21. Suppose ϕ: R → S is a ring homomorphism with ϕ(1
R
) = 1
S
and D

is a multiplicatively closed subset
of S. Let D = ϕ
−1
(D

). Prove D is a multiplicatively closed subset of R and the map ϕ

: D
−1
R → D
−1
S given
by ϕ

(r/d) = ϕ(r)/ϕ(d) is a ring homomorphism.
Proof. Let d
1
, d
2
∈ D with ϕ(d
1
d
2
) = ϕ(d
1
)ϕ(d
2
) so d
1
d
2
∈ ϕ
−1
(D

) because D

is a multiplicative set.
Let
r1
d1
=
r2
d2
. Then r
1
d
2
= r
2
d
1
so
ϕ

(
r
1
d
1
) = ϕ

(
r
1
r
2
d
2
r
2
d
1
d
2
)
=
ϕ(r
1
r
2
d
2
)
ϕ(r
2
d
1
d
2
)
=
ϕ(r
2
d
1
)ϕ(r
2
)
ϕ(r
2
d
1
)ϕ(d
2
)
= ϕ

(
r
2
d
2
)
59
So ϕ

is well defined. Now let
r1
d1
,
r2
d2
∈ D
−1
R. Then
ϕ

(
r
1
d
1
+
r
2
d
2
) = ϕ

(
r
1
d
2
+r
2
d
1
d
1
d
2
)
=
ϕ(r
1
d
2
+r
2
d
1
)
ϕ(d
1
d
2
)
=
ϕ(r
1
)
ϕ(d
1
)
+
ϕ(r
2
)
ϕ(d
2
)
= ϕ

(
r
1
d
1
) +ϕ

(
r
2
d
2
)
ϕ

(
r
1
d
1
r
2
d
2
) = ϕ

(
r
1
r
2
d
1
d
2
)
=
ϕ(r
1
r
2
)
ϕ(d
1
d
2
)
=
ϕ(r
1
)
ϕ(d
1
)
ϕ(r
2
)
ϕ(d
2
)
= ϕ

(
r
1
d
1

(
r
2
d
2
).

15.4.22. Suppose P ⊆ Q are prime ideals in R and let R
Q
be the localization of R at Q. Prove that the localization
R
P
is isomorphic to the localization of R
Q
at the prime ideal P R
Q
(cf. exercise 15.4.21).
Proof.

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