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MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the letter corresponding to the best answer. Which of the following set of quantum D. Same subshell and orbitals but different numbers is possible? shells A. n=1, l=0, ml=1, ms=1/2 3. For systems with positive changes in B. n=5, l=3, ml=-2, ms=-1/2 enthalpy and entropy, processes become C. n=2, l=1, ml=0, ms=0 spontaneous at __ D. None of these A. All temperatures Two electrons in the same atom which have B. Low identical values of quantum numbers l and C. High ml are said to be in ___ D. Absolute zero A. The same shell and subshell but in 4. Which of the following is a polar molecule? different orbitals A. RbCl B. Same shell but different subshells and B. BF3 orbitals C. CCl4 C. Same shell, subshell and orbitals D. PCl3
1|DLRC Chem 16 LE2 Samplex
cathode D. Exothermic D. B. 18. None of the above Which of the following statements is false? A. A. [H:]-[Ca] + C. None of these Which of the following ions has the largest atomic radius? A. ClF5 C. The C-N bond is a double bond. Ammonium B. 7. He2+ C. Calcium will not precipitate to limiting and excess ammonia. w D. Oxygen difluoride D. 9. q C. anode C. anode In the experiment on Corrosion. C. [H:]-[Ca]2+[H:]B. H2 B. Na+ B. PF5. 2|DLRC Chem 16 LE2 Samplex . the portion of the nail that was oxidized was ___ in color and acted as the __. Reversible B. none of these 13. Pink. B. ∆H B.5. Combustion of octane fuel D. Neutralization of NaOH and HCl B. 14. FWhich of the following atoms has the largest first ionization energy? A. 1s22s22p63s23p63d10 D. A. Protected Cathode Which of the following reactions is nonspontaneous? A. All of the above The shorter the internuclear distance between two bonded atoms. Ca-H Which of the following is best represented by a set of resonance structures? A. D. 1 D. Sulfur dioxide What is the formal charge on N in nitrate ion? A. 6. 2 B. H-Ca-H D. 1s22s22p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 4p63d13d1 C. Blue green. More energy needed to break the bond Which of the following is an unstable species and is bound not to exist? A. 10. White. Be2 Which of the following pairs have similar molecular geometry? A. 2C. What is the correct electronic configuration for a nickel atom? A. 1s22s22p64s23d23d23d23d13d1 B. Spontaneous C. More resonance D. Freezing water in room temperature C. Protected Anode. CH3B. 17. 19. Al D. then the reaction is said to be ___. Less multiple bonding character there is C. Methane C. Of the following. Less energy needed to break the bond B. Sacrificial Cathode B. Endothermic In the experiment on Corrosion. Blue green. Protected Cathode. There is a lone pair of electrons on N. 11. Sacrificial Cathode. 8. 15. Which of the following is false about the structure of thiocyanate ion? A. NH2D. 16. All have same magnitude of energy. Mg+ C. the A. 12. Be2+ D. The C-H bond is a single bond. The Lewis structure for calcium hydride is A. Protected Anode D. 1If there is a negative change in the Gibb’s energy. CH3+. Sacrificial Anode. Sacrificial Anode C. Rb B. 20. There are no lone pairs on C. anode B. H2O. which is a state function? A. O2D. Ferrous hydroxide is formed by adding soluble Fe3+ sample to NaOH or NH3. zinc acted as the __ while the nail is the __ A. Sr C.
05×10-7 m. 5 B. 5. Calcium chloride B.63×10-12 m C. 2. sp3-sp3-sp2 D. 30. +1. B.47×1014 s-1 B. sp2-sp3-sp2 Which of the following is true? A. 2.0 g C. 42 . 21. D. What is the net heat change if 25. 26. 31. Magnesium arsenate C.08×10-24 nanograms? A. Their MGG and hybridization C. +1. sp3 – sp3 The formal charge of N3 is __ and the hybridization overlap in C – N3 – C is __. and Cobalt can act as sacrificial anodes for Iron.37×10-12 m B.05×10-6 m. Tetrahedral. 7. 24. Given that ∆Hf of ammonia is -46. 42 .47×1015 s-1 C. Nickel. Bromide. 1. there will be no visible reaction. -5. Their EGG. given that the mass of the photon is 7. sp3 D. 23. The EGG. MGG. Tin(IV) oxide For numbers 22-26. 29. 32. 5 D.3 kJ. refer to the structure of capsaicin below: 28.09×10-9 kg. angular. 5.0 g B. C. 0. 22. Their EGG and hybridization B.05×10-7 m. 25. 43 . what is the uncertainty of the position of the photon? A. Sulfate.0 mL of 1. 65. 2. and hybridization of O1 is: A. A Prussian blue precipitate will form when Fe2+ is added to potassium ferricyanide. 0. angular. 2. Zinc. 3. Tetrahedral.30 kJ D.05×10-6 m. 1. 4 What is the hybridization overlap in O4? A. Iodide D.C. 130. Sodium oxalate D.63 g D.0 mL of 3.78 M sulfuric acid is neutralized by 50. 2. 27. Trigonal planar. 1. Ammonium and thiocyanate C.14×10-15 m/s.86×10-12 m D. angular. sp3-sp3-sp2 C. 43 . sp2-sp3-sp2 B. Manganese(II) cations are dominant in basic medium.47×1014 s-1 D. 2. Which of the following ionic compounds has the highest entropy? A.90 M potassium hydroxide? A. sp3 C. Bromide. sp2 The difference/s between C2 and C5 is: A. D.27 kJ B. MGG. and hybridization How many σ and π bonds are in capsaicin? A. -5. Thiocyanate. 1. A more acidic medium promotes corrosion of metals. trigonal pyramidal. Thiocyanate only B. how many grams of ammonia are produced if 176. 2.45×10-12 m Nitrogen gas and Hydrogen gas react to form ammonia gas. sp3 – sp2 C. Thiocyanate 3|DLRC Chem 16 LE2 Samplex . sp2 – sp2 D. When organic chlorine and iodine are combined in a toluene-water mixture.81 g Which ion/s can give an interfering false ring for nitrate test? A. A.47×1015 s-1 If the uncertainty for a velocity of a photon is 3.7 kJ of heat is released? A.30 kJ What is the De Broglie wavelength and frequency of a photon with mass 1. sp2 B. sp2 – sp3 B. Trigonal planar. The formula of the brown ring in the nitrate test is [Fe(NO)]2+. Their EGG and MGG D. 2.27 kJ C. 4 C.
The form of carbon with a ∆Ho formation value of zero is diamond. The 4f orbitals can accommodate a maximum of 10 e-. If a reaction is endothermic from high entropy to low entropy. 4. An exothermic reaction from low entropy to high entropy will only proceed at high temperatures. 7. III. Decrease. There will be an exothermic change in heat if the system gives off heat to the surroundings. The student pulled the thermometer out of the set-up to take temperature readings. The number of dominant resonance structures of naphthalene is two. Otherwise. Hess’s Law is a consequence of the first law of thermodynamics. 17. Actual molarity of the base is greater than the recorded value. C10H8. 1. Nitrate ion does not exhibit pi bond delocalization. determine what part of the statement made it false and offer corrections. The oxidation state assigned to P in the phosphate ion is +5. l=1. 13. Parameter Effect 1. O3(g) absorbs harmful UV radiation and forms oxygen gas and gaseous oxygen atom. In the aluminum atom. The formation of the vapor is an endothermic process. XeO2F2 has a trigonal bipyramidal electron group geometry. The cylinder used for measuring the base solution was wet. is made up of two benzene rings “stacked” or “glued” together. Magnitude of calculated ∆H Magnitude of calculated Ccal 4|DLRC Chem 16 LE2 Samplex . m l=1. 3. MODIFIED TRUE OR FALSE. 4. The order of hydrohalidic acids’ ionic character in increasing order is: I < Br < Cl < F. There is a tiny hole in the cork. Naphthalene. and a square pyramidal molecular group geometry. On a humid day. 12. 20. Zn2+ will form a colorless complex [Zn(OH)4]2-. 6. 2. 18. Zn2+ will form a colorless complex [Zn(NH3)2]2+. and the surroundings does work to the system. The net dipole moment of water explains sodium chloride’s miscibility in it. 16. while from potassium ferrocyanide indicates the presence of Fe2+ ions. exposing the inside of the calorimeter. Effects: Increase. Determine the effect of the cause stated in the first column on the parameter in the second assuming all other variables are held constant. and ms=+1/2. the outermost electron has the quantum numbers n=3. Adding potassium ferricyanide to Zn2+ will form yellow precipitate KZn[Fe(CN)6]. 10.II. The entropy change for this process is equal to zero. In excess ammonia. 8. qsoln is still part of qcal even if the volumes of the solution used for calibration and calculation are not constant. 5. 15. 9. The azimuthal quantum number tells us how far from the nucleus an electron is. 19. while in excess NaOH. CAUSE AND EFFECT. 11. Prussian blue precipitate from potassium ferricyanide indicates the presence of Fe3+ ions. 14. the reverse reaction is non-spontaneous. 2. 5. In the ozone layer. we can observe water vapor to condense along the outer wall of cold drink bottles. No Effect Cause Actual molarity of the acid is greater than the recorded value. Write TRUE if the statement is true. while adding potassium ferrocyanide will form white precipitate KZn3[Fe(CN)6]. 3.
serve as the electrodes of the battery. Copper(II) nitrate was added with Dissolution to deep blue NaOH. b) WRITE the overall balanced equation for lead-acid battery discharge. Assume that sulfuric acid does not fully ionize during discharge. IV. the sulfuric acid is almost diluted to water. because it can generate large amounts of current for short periods of time. The problem with lead-acid batteries is its environmental risks.0 g of solid lead. A battery explosion happens when water molecules hydrolyze to hydrogen and oxygen gas during recharging. then with excess ammonia. lead can still escape from the battery. is the oldest model of rechargeable batteries. During discharge. 7. 10. chemists use cerimetry. d) WRITE the balanced equation for the hydrolysis of water. There are ten problems in this part of the review. 5|DLRC Chem 16 LE2 Samplex . and solve for what is asked. c) CALCULATE the number of electrons loss/gained after full discharge if 150. the grids are converted to lead(II) sulfate. Problem 1: Lead-Acid Battery The lead-acid battery. complex 11. When a lead-acid battery is fully charged. Gelatin mixture was accidentally Appearance of Prussian blue added with concentrated NaOH (after 1 day) 8. To detect concentration of lead(II) ions in bodies of water. the battery contains sulfuric acid as the electrolyte. lead grid and lead(IV) oxide grid. KMnO4 was accidentally added in Persistence of Pink Color excess. No Effect (stays the same) Cause Parameter 6. Two grids. Becomes absent.Effects: Becomes present.2 M sulfuric acid was present at full charge. 9. Effect PROBLEM SOLVING. a redox titration by using cerium(IV) ions as the titrant. especially during battery explosion. Lead mostly accumulates in bodies of water in the form of lead(II) ions. Bromide sample was accidentally Pink-red toluene layer contaminated with iodide sample for Yellow toluene layer KMnO4 elimination test. it will only give one H+ during ionization. 150.00 L of 4. Litmus paper was accidentally dipped Indication of gaseous ammonia into unknown solution with NaOH. and 3. Even though lead-acid batteries are rechargeable. INDICATE the reducing and oxidizing agents. Lead-acid batteries are normally used in automobile engines.0 g lead(IV) oxide. Mossy Zinc and Aluminum metal were accidentally coiled together with iron Corroded Zinc nail. An explosion can spray battery acid and release harmful lead compounds in the environment. and when the battery is fully discharged. Read (without underestimation) the problems carefully. a) WRITE the balanced half-reactions for the anode and the cathode. invented in 1959 by French physicist Gaston Planté.
The bomb calorimeter uses an insulated sealed vessel where the reaction (with the sample) takes place.00 °C. The following data were collected before and after the tests: Final Temperature 27.50 mL of a wastewater sample near a lead-acid battery explosion site was acidified with 25 mL 6 M HCl. only containing the desirable compounds) was burned in the sealed vessel of the calorimeter in an initial temperature of 25. Problem 2: Bomb Calorimetry A more sophisticated calorimeter than the constant-pressure (coffee cup) calorimeter is the bomb calorimeter. 6|DLRC Chem 16 LE2 Samplex . Bomb calorimetry is used mostly in calculating energy needed to burn food or fuel.400% Density of palmitic acid 0. The cerium(IV) sulfate solution was prepared dissolving 250 g of the solid in 800 mL distilled water. f) CALCULATE the concentration of lead(II) ions in the wastewater sample.0 g of solid glucose (C6H12O6) in the sealed vessel. Several experiments were conducted to find the percent volumes of some of the compounds and the amount of products formed. Gallic acid (MW = 170. b) WRITE the balanced equation for the combustion of solid glucose. gallic acid and palmitic acid.7604 g d) CALCULATE the molecular formula of gallic acid.7 g/mL Percent volume of gallic acid 0. igniting the sample. a) The bomb calorimeter is also known as “constant-volume” calorimeter.24 °C Density of fructose 1.385 g Heat of combustion per mole of gallic acid -2655 kJ/mol Grams of water 0. A thermometer will then measure the temperature change by contact with the water inside the calorimeter. c) CALCULATE the heat capacity of the bomb calorimeter. f) WRITE the balanced equations for the combustion of palmitic acid and gallic acid. A certain milk tea was found to contain fructose (C6H12O6).694 g/mL Percent volume of fructose 0.00 °C to 59.0 mL of the sample (filtered. because reactions are carried out at constant volume. 100. e) CALCULATE the molar heat of combustion of palmitic acid. The vessel is pressurized with excess oxygen gas and it is placed inside the calorimeter full of water. and the temperature rose from 25.6 mL of cerium(IV) sulfate solution. The bomb calorimeter is calibrated by burning 25. while palmitic acid (C16H32O2) is an unsaturated fat found in dairy products. e) If lead(II) and cerium(IV) becomes lead(IV) and cerium(III) during titration.200% Density of gallic acid 1.50 °C. Electric current will run through the vessel.853 g/mL Percent volume of palmitic acid 0. EXPLAIN why ∆E corresponds to the transferred heat in bomb calorimeter rather than ∆H. The heat of reaction for the combustion of one mole of solid glucose is -2803 kJ.300% Heat of combustion per mole of fructose -2812 kJ/mol Grams of carbon dioxide 2. WRITE the balanced equation of the redox reaction. and was titrated with 32.12 g/mol) is an antioxidant found in most Chinese herbs.
the topnotcher of the 1st Chem 16 LE. 13. Give the quantum numbers of their last-entering electron. ±1. all fresh (soluble) anionic and cationic samples have molarity of 1. a. a yellow precipitate formed. Dessa is a mischievous student. except with the quantum numbers. but when mossy zinc was immersed before adding D. Aufbau’s Principle.) b) WRITE and DRAW the electronic configuration of DLRC-Land elements 28. Ionization Energy: 2. What makes DLRC-Land peculiar is that it defies the laws and theories behind the structure of atoms.0 M. a blue precipitate formed. a deep red solution formed. When it was added with 5 drops M. Problem 4: “Qualitative” Analysis Dessa Eibaf Conor. c) ARRANGE the following elements by their periodicity. a) DRAW the first five periods of the DLRC-Land periodic table based on the information given above (You just need to draw blocks. 14 d) What rules in covalent bonding does DLRC-Land follow if our planet’s elements follow the octet rule and 18-electron rule? EXPLAIN.[Problem 3]: DLRC-Land In the year 21XX. a Chem 16 student in UP Diliman. This means lr = 0. and 21. ±3…± (n-1). scientists discovered a peculiar planet outside Earth. and (c) octahedral electron-group geometry. However. (b) trigonal bipyramidal. Assume that like elements in Earth. When 5 drops of C was added with 5 drops D. Heisenberg’s Uncertainty. and they named it “DLRCLand”. 24. By calculations they concluded that they have the quantum numbers d. 7|DLRC Chem 16 LE2 Samplex . Based on her lab manual. The tissue paper acquired a burnt mark. et c. 162+ 62b. tried to find out the compounds based on her vast knowledge of Chem 16. Air Asserc. and c. a blue precipitate formed. Hund’s Rule. (6)(5)3 c. all apply to DLRC. e) INDICATE which of the following hypothetical covalent compounds are possible to exist in DLRC-Land. d corresponds to quantum number n. lr corresponds to both quantum numbers l and ml. DRAW their Lewis structures and indicate the electron-group geometry and moleculargroup geometry in each central atom. so she removed the labels of the bottles and replaced them with labels A to Q. lr. Atomic Radius: 7-. DLRC-Land elements have their cationic and anionic forms. Pauli’s Exclusion Principle. Scientists noticed that the elements in Earth are different compared to the elements in DLRC Land. Hypothetical “carbon chain” (5)3(1)5 b. Hypothetical “carbon chain” (5)2(1)6 d. When G is added with 5 drops A. c corresponds to quantum number ms. The elements in DLRC-Land are named by their atomic number. ±2. If possible. Hypothetical anion (13)(7)4 f) GIVE the hybridized DLRC-Land orbital that corresponds to (a) tetrahedral. a. These are the results of her tests/observations: Dessa accidentally placed one drop of L on a tissue paper. 9. was asked to get 17 reagents from the IC Stock Room for the qualitative analysis experiment.
5 M P. b) DRAW the three most dominant resonance structures of pentazenium. By records in the stock room. When 10 mL B was added with 5 mL of 0.89 g of it in 500 mL distilled water.37 g of white precipitate formed. After doing the said tests and observations. a white precipitate formed. Pentazenium (N5+). and it dissolved (with effervescence) in excess Q. and azide (N3-). GIVE the hybridization overlaps between the five nitrogen atoms for each resonance structure. 0. INDICATE the formal charges of each atom. Karl Christe proposed a reaction between gaseous hydroazoic acid and N2F+ gas to give pentazenium and hydrogen fluoride as the byproduct. the toluene and aqueous layers turned yellowishbrown. Solid F dissolves into a blue solution when added with L. Air Asserc knew the corresponding compounds from A to Q. N. or N5-. and it dissolved in excess organic acid Q. solution N was made by dissolving 98. When 5 mL N was added with 1 mL of 6 M K.0 M silver nitrate. G. 1. Pentazole anion. d) CALCULATE the change in bond enthalpy of the proposed mechanism. GIVE the corresponding compounds from A to Q. The precipitate turned colorless when added with 1 drop of L. By records in the stock room. When added with excess O. a brown precipitate formed. When 10 mL I was added with 10 mL G.) Problem 5: Polynitrogen Chemistry In 1999. Due to its all-nitrogen cyclical structure. a) DRAW the Lewis structures (and resonance structures if possible) for azide anion. When 5 drops I was added with 2 drops 0.45 g of it in 600 mL distilled water. an open chained “polynitride” like the other compounds. 0. but turned green when added with 3 drops of K. Christe and his team of researchers from the Air Force Research Laboratory synthesized a polynitrogen species other than N2. a new polynitrogen species is being studied.50 g of white precipitate formed. Qualitative analysis alone is not enough to solve the problem.939 g of precipitate formed. solution I was made by dissolving 73. However. Karl O. Only B and A released a basic gas (by litmus paper test) when added with 2 drops K. chemists have been studying this anion as 8|DLRC Chem 16 LE2 Samplex . was synthesized for a less toxic and more environmental-friendly alternative to hydrazine.5 M P. is an anion from aromatic pentazole. the solution turned deep blue. (NOTE: Some of the compounds have slight modifications from the compounds in the Chem 16 manual. When 5 drops of E was added with 5 drops J. The bond energies of the atoms are given below: H – H 432 kJ/mol F – F 159 kJ/mol N = N 418 kJ/mol H – F 565 kJ/mol F – N 283 kJ/mol N ≡ N 945 kJ/mol H – N 391 kJ/mol N – N 160 kJ/mol c) WRITE the balanced equation of the proposed mechanism. using the Lewis structures of the compounds/ions (instead of writing with chemical formulas). When 5 mL H was added with 5 mL of 1.972 g of brown-orange precipitate formed. a gas used in rocket fuel. When H was studied for the toluene elimination test. and P gave a brown ring when the test for nitrate was done. 0.
a) PROPOSE identities for the substances A. INDICATE their magnetic properties. a soluble white solid C remains. Both A and B dissolve in hydrochloric acid to give a clear solution. When lanthanum metal is added to water. When either of these solutions is evaporated. b) WRITE net ionic equations for all the reactions described. e) DRAW the three most dominant resonance structures of pentazole anion. etc. a white precipitate D forms. C. in the activity series. and D. above hydrogen or below hydrogen? EXPLAIN. gas bubbles are observed and a different white solid B is formed. INDICATE the formal charges of each atom. F2. PROVE that: a) Binary (homonuclear) molecules from diamagnetic atoms cannot exist. and B2-. B2.) exist? Consider binary fluorine species F2+. and F2-. If compound C is dissolved in water and sulfuric acid is added. Problem 6: Molecular Orbital Theory Using Molecular Orbital Theory. 9|DLRC Chem 16 LE2 Samplex . What you will see below are free energy changes of redox reactions (regardless of spontaneity) between lanthanum and certain metals: La(s) + Al3+(aq) → La3+(aq) + Al(s) -208 kJ/mol 2Al(s) + 3Yb2+(aq) → 2Al3+(aq) + 3Yb(s) 212 kJ/mol + 3+ 3Rb (aq) + La(s) → 3Rb(s) + La (aq) 174 kJ/mol 2Rb(s) + Yb2+(aq) → 2Rb+(aq) + Yb(s) -42 kJ/mol 3+ 2+ 3Yb(s) + 2La (aq) → 3Yb (aq) + 2La(s) -221 kJ/mol Ti(s) + Yb2+(aq) →Ti2+(aq) + Yb(s) 218 kJ/mol 3+ 2+ + 2+ 3Ti(s) + 2La (aq) → 3Ti (aq) + 2La(s) 434 kJ/mol Ti(s) + 2Rb (aq) → Ti (aq) + 2Rb(s) 261 kJ/mol 3Rb(s)+ Al3+(aq) → 3Rb+(aq) + Al(s) -382 kJ/mol 3Ti(s) + 2Al3+(aq) → 3Ti2+ + 2Al(s) 19 kJ/mol d) ARRANGE the five elements (in the table) in decreasing reducing property. and binary boron species B2+. B. ARRANGE the groups of species (separately) in increasing order by: d) Bond Energy e) Bond Length f) CALCULATE the bond order of all the species. Problem 7: Activity of Lanthanum Lanthanum metal forms cations with a charge of 3+.another alternative for propellants in space travel. can binary noble gases (Ne2. a white solid A is formed that contains lanthanum and one other element. c) Is Lanthanum. but so far pentazole is known to be unstable and it does not last longer than a few seconds. He2. Consider the following observations about the chemistry of lanthanum: When lanthanum metal is exposed to air. e) INDICATE which elements can act as a sacrificial anode for lanthanum. GIVE the hybridization overlaps between the five nitrogen atoms for each resonance structure. b) Charged binary (homonuclear) molecules from diamagnetic atoms can exist. c) Using your answer in (a).
and the average molarity of ascorbic acid.286 g/mol) is a special aromatic compound with five carbon rings stacked together like a benzene ring. A Chem 16 student wants to find out the amount of Ascorbic Acid (MF = C6H8O6) in a sample of orange juice.48 g carbon dioxide. 10 | D L R C C h e m 1 6 L E 2 S a m p l e x . depending on the pH of the solution. A 25 mL orange juice sample was added with 25 mL distilled water. 20 mL of 0. b) CALCULATE the molarity of KMnO4 in each trial. Problem 9: Olympicene Olympicene (MW = 240. a) CALCULATE the molecular formula of olympicene.f) INDICATE which elements will be protected by lanthanum from corrosion.0 mL c) WRITE the balanced redox equation for titration of ascorbic acid.1 M sulfuric acid is added to the oxalic acid solution to acidify the medium.5 mL 3 7. d) CALCULATE the molarity of ascorbic acid in each trial. and O) turn into carbon dioxide gas and water during titration. The results of the standardization are as follows: Trial Starting Point Endpoint 1 0. based on inorganic nomenclature. 1. It was recently synthesized by Anish Mistry and David Fox of the University of Warwick only for the purpose of celebrating the London 2012 Olympics. and it is an alternative to acid-base titration because permanganates can transform to different manganese species.5 mL 11. and the average molarity of KMnO4. Problem 8: Permanganometry Permanganometry is a special redox titration that involves the use of permanganates. Trial Starting Point Endpoint 1 0. and was titrated with the KMnO4 solution. Standardization of KMnO4 is done by oxalic acid as the primary standard (You should know the formula of oxalic acid. a) WRITE the balanced redox equation for standardization.6 mL 17.) Oxalic acid was prepared by dissolving 0. While titrating. H.63 g of oxalic acid crystals in 100 mL water.00 g of olympicene (only containing C and H) was burned in excess oxygen and the combustion yielded 3.6 mL 11.6 mL 3 11. the analyte slowly turned into a solution with brown precipitate.7 mL 7.7 mL 2 3.0 mL 3.0 mL 5.0 mL Organic acids (Acids containing C.6 mL 2 5.
CALCULATE the grams of sodium chloride used in the process.48 kJ/mol ∆Srxn = -394.47 J/mol*K CaO(s) + H2O(l) → Ca(OH)2(s) ∆Hrxn = -65. c) GIVE three possible resonance structures of olympicene by assigning the C and H atoms. and double bonds. d) GIVE all possible hybridization overlaps in olympicene. and this chemicals are needed in glass making and oxidizing bleaches. Problem 10: Solvay Process The Solvay Process. 11 | D L R C C h e m 1 6 L E 2 S a m p l e x .31 J/mol*K The overall reaction of the spontaneous process is: 2 NaCl(aq) + CaCO3(s) → Na2CO3(s) + CaCl2(aq). invented by Ernest Solvay in the 1860s.81 J/mol*K CaCO3(s) → CaO(s) + CO2(g) ∆Hrxn = 178. Based on experiments.17 kJ/mol ∆Srxn =215. b) CALCULATE the overall free energy change of the Solvay process in 25 °C c) If 1324.2 kJ of free energy were released in the process (in excess calcium carbonate): a.82 J/mol*K 2 NaHCO3(s) → Na2CO3(s) + H2O(l) + CO2(g) ∆Hrxn = -85.3 kJ/mol ∆Srxn = 160.17 kJ/mol ∆Srxn =-26. is an industrial process used to make sodium carbonate. The following reactions are steps for Solvay Process: NaCl(aq) + CO2(g) + NH3(g) + H2O(l) → NaHCO3(s) + NH4Cl(s) ∆Hrxn = -129. b. a) CALCULATE the overall ∆Hrxn of the Solvay process. only Ring 2 cannot undergo pi-bond delocalization.26 J/mol*K Ca(OH)2(s) + 2NH4Cl(s) → 2NH3(g) + CaCl2(aq) + 2H2O(l) ∆Hrxn = 73. CALCULATE the grams of sodium carbonate synthesized in the process. b) Can Ring 2 have all of its carbon atoms sp2 hybridized? EXPLAIN.The picture above is the carbon skeletal structure of olympicine.75 kJ/mol ∆Srxn =356.
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