the periodic table and chemical bonding | Ion | Periodic Table

Unit III

The Periodic Table and Chemical Bonding

The Periodic Table of Elements is a work of great scientists with unending curiosity on how elements in the periodic table should be arranged logically. Chemical bonding is an important part of everyday life. The things that make life easier are all products of chemical bonding.

All rights reserved. Copyright ©2008 by Allen A. Espinosa.

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Chapter 1

Order Among Elements in the Periodic Table

Have you been to a high school chemistry laboratory? If yes, then you might have noticed a chart with different colors and symbols hanging on the wall. This is called the Periodic Table of Elements. The Periodic Table is actually a work of great scientists whose curiosity of arranging the numerous known elements in a logical manner is never-ending. The Periodic Table could actually be compared with a library. Books in a library are arranged logically in such a way that books of the same content are in the same division making it easier for you to find the book that you are looking for. Do you wonder why the elements in the Periodic Table are arranged in such way? In this chapter, we will be discussing the bases of such arrangement and we will find the answer to the following questions:

 Why are the elements in the Periodic Table named and given a symbol in such way?  Who are the great minds behind the Periodic Table?  How can we use the Periodic Table to predict the chemical behavior of an element?  How is the valence electron of elements related to their group number in the Periodic
Table?

 What are the trends and periodic variation of the elements in the Periodic Table?  What are the properties and uses of each group of elements in the Periodic Table?  Why is it important for us to know the properties of elements and their application to the
environment and modern technologies? and

 What are some elements that are important to the human body?
All rights reserved. Copyright ©2008 by Allen A. Espinosa. 2

Lesson 1

Why are the Elements in the Periodic Table Named and Given a Symbol in Such Way?

Do and Discover
Explore your Periodic Table of Elements! Complete the table below either by supplying it with the correct name or symbol of the element. Element Arsenic Gallium Nickel Tin Tungsten Symbol Element Symbol Bk Fm N K Y

Whiz Quest
Chemical symbols are used by chemists to represent elements in a shorter manner. Each element has its own unique symbol. Since chemistry is an international enterprise, chemical symbols are determined by international agreement. Applications of this chemical symbols is very visible in the preceding chapters of this book. Even early chemists use chemical symbols to represent elements for these elements to be easier to work with. Below are some of the symbols that early chemists used.

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3

Figure 3.1 John Dalton’s chart of elements At present, chemists use symbols to represent elements. The name of each element is derived either from the name of a scientist, the country where it was discovered, or words from early civilization languages. The table below shows some of the elements, their symbol and the origin of their name. Table 3.1 Some elements, their symbol and the origin of their name _____________________________________________________________________________ _ Element Symbol Origin _____________________________________________________________________________ _ Argon Ar Greek word argos, “inactive” Californium Cf California Curium Cm Pierre and Marie Curie Fermium Fm Enrico Fermi Magnesium Mg Latin word magnesia Polonium Po Poland ______________________________________________________________________________ As you can observe in the Periodic Table, most of the elements have a single letter symbol or a double letter symbol where the first letter is always capitalized. Most of the symbols of elements are derived from their English names but some others are derived from words from early civilization languages. Below are some examples of some elements and their corresponding symbols. Table 3.3 Some elements and their corresponding symbols ____________________________________________________________________________ Element Symbol Element Symbol ____________________________________________________________________________ Boron B Antimony Sb, stibium Iodine I Copper Cu, cuprum Potassium K Gold Au, aurum Radium Rd Lead Pb, plumbum Selenium Se Mercury Hg, hydrargyrum Xenon Xe Silver Ag, argentumsi ____________________________________________________________________________

Application
Are you familiar with the game bingo? What if you replace the numbers in the bingo card with chemical symbols of elements? Then we’ll have a chemical symbol bingo! Your task now is to create your own symbo-card and choose the chemical All rights reserved. Copyright ©2008 by Allen A. Espinosa. 4

symbol of your choice then your teacher will facilitate the chemical symbol bingo. Below is a sample symbo-card.

S
Ag W H Li Pd

Y
F Mg Ne Cr Si

M
Mn C Free Na B

B
Xe Cl Kr P Cs

O
He K Hg Sb O

Science Link
Most of the elements in the periodic table could either consist of a single letter or a double letter symbol. But there are also elements that are consist of three letter symbol, these are the elements Ununbium (Uub), Ununtrium (Uut), Ununquadium (Uuq), Ununpentium (Uup), Ununhexium (Uuh), Ununseptium (Uus) and Ununoctium (Uuo). On the other hand, these chemical names and symbols are just temporarily given by the IUPAC (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry) since these elements are still under study.

Web Trips
Let’s see how well you are familiar with the symbols of the elements, do the chemical symbol quiz at: http://www.fordhamprep.org/gcurran/sho/sho/students/classof03/mcenc3.htm

Word Pad
 Chemical symbol is a shorthand abbreviation of the names of the known elements.

All rights reserved. Copyright ©2008 by Allen A. Espinosa.

5

Wrap It Up
At the beginning of the lesson, you have explored your Periodic Table by focusing on the name and symbol of elements. Now, try completing the table below by supplying it with either the name or symbol of the element without looking at your Periodic Table. Element Symbol Os Kr Pb Hg V Element Dysprosium Rutherfordium Astatine Antimony Lead Symbol

Photo and content credits, lesson 1 (http://www.meta-synthesis.com/webbook/35_pt/pt.html)
(http://www.elementsdatabase.com/)

All rights reserved. Copyright ©2008 by Allen A. Espinosa.

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Lesson 2

Who are the Great Minds Behind the Periodic Table?

Do and Discover
While you are reading the Whiz Quest, focus your attention on the name of the scientist and his contribution to the development of the Periodic Table. Jot down your notes on the table below. Scientist Hennig Brand Antoine Lavoisier John Dalton Johann Dobereiner Beguyer De Chancourtois John Newlands Lothar Meyer Dmitri Mendeleev Clemens Winkler Henry Moseley Glenn Seaborg Contribution

Whiz Quest
The Periodic Table you have right now is actually a long time in the making. It continuously evolves as new ideas arrived. These new ideas arouse from great minds of scientists. Before the idea of arranging the elements into a Periodic Table comes up to, people were aware of some of the elements in the Periodic Table, such as gold, silver, copper, lead, tin, and mercury. In 1649, Hennig Brand, a German alchemist discovered the element phosphorus through scientific inquiry. It was the first element ever discovered. Years past, scientists get interested of discovering more and more elements and that’s why the need to arrange it in a logical manner awakens.

All rights reserved. Copyright ©2008 by Allen A. Espinosa.

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The quest for arranging the elements in a logical manner started with French chemist-physicist Antoine Lavoisier in 1789 when he arranged the elements into groups of simple substances which will not decompose by any means. Following Lavoisier’s concept of chemical element, in 1808-1827, John Dalton, an English chemistphysicist, published his New System of Chemical Philosophy wherein he calculated the first relative masses of atoms and compounds. His idea was disputed, but, in the long run atomic masses would provide the key means of organizing the elements into the Periodic Table. Between 1817-1829, a German chemist, Johann Dobereiner, proposes the Law of Triads in arranging the periodic table. He noticed that the atomic mass of strontium (87.62) was halfway between the masses of calcium (40.08) and barium (137.33). These elements possessed similar chemical properties. But his law was not applicable to other elements. In 1862, a French geologist, Beguyer De Chancourtois arranged the elements by increasing atomic mass. He placed his arrangement in a cylinder and divided it into 16 parts, which was based on the atomic mass of oxygen. He called this as telluric screw. It was the first ever geometric representation of the periodic law. In 1863, an English chemist, John Newlands proposes the Law of Octaves in arranging the periodic table. He noticed that when the first 20 elements were arranged in increasing atomic masses, there will be similarities in the properties of the first and the eighth element in the period. But this law was no longer applicable after the element calcium. In 1869, Lothar Meyer, a German chemist, and Dmitri Mendeleev, a Russian chemist, published their closely identical versions of the Periodic Table independently. The two chemists are the precursor of the Periodic Table you have right now. They propose the Periodic Law which states that properties of elements are periodic function of their atomic masses. The periodic table of Meyer and Mendeleev has vacant elements which are yet to be discovered but Mendeleev had already predicted some physical properties of these missing elements. One good example of this is the missing element between silicon and tin, he predicted that the property of this missing element will be midway between silicon and tin so he named is as eka-silicon. The element eka-silicon was then renamed into germanium in 1886 because Clemens Winkler, a German chemist, discovered an element which actually matches the prediction of Mendeleev. In 1913, an English physicist, Henry Moseley, noticed a connection between the atomic number of an element and the frequency of X-rays resulting from the bombardment of an element with a high energy electron. He found out that atomic number increases in the same manner as the atomic masses with some few exemptions. He revised the Periodic Law in a new statement saying that properties of elements are periodic function of their atomic numbers. To date, the Periodic Table that we have is arranged in increasing atomic number. In 1951, an American chemist, Glenn Seaborg, discovered the transuranium elements with atomic numbers 94-102. The completion of the actinide series allows Seaborg to redesign the periodic table into it current form. Both the lanthanide and actinide series of elements were placed under the rest of the periodic table. These elements technically should be placed between the alkaline earth metals and the transition metals; however, since this would make the periodic table too wide, they were placed below the rest of the elements. All rights reserved. Copyright ©2008 by Allen A. Espinosa. 8

Hennig Brand

Antoine Lavoisier

John Dalton

Johann Dobereiner

Beguyer De Chancourtois

John Newlands

Lothar Meyer

Dmitri Mendeleev

Clemens Winkler

Henry Moseley

Glenn Seaborg

Figure 3.2 Great minds behind the Periodic Table

Application
Different scientists has he’s own model of the Periodic Table. Imagine you are a scientist and you are part of the great minds behind the Periodic Table. How would you arrange the elements in the Periodic Table? Draw your skeletal model of the Periodic Table below and explain.

All rights reserved. Copyright ©2008 by Allen A. Espinosa.

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Science Link
In the history of science, alchemy (from the Arabic ‫ الكيمياء‬al-khīmiyā' ) refers to both an early form of the investigation of nature and an early philosophical and spiritual discipline, both combining elements of chemistry, metallurgy, physics, medicine, astrology, semiotics, mysticism, spiritualism, and art all as parts of one greater force. Alchemy has been practiced in Mesopotamia, Ancient Egypt, Persia, India, Japan, Korea and China, in Classical Greece and Rome, in the Muslim civilizations, and then in Europe up to the 19th century—in a complex network of schools and philosophical systems spanning at least 2500 years. In alchemy, there are only four basic elements, namely, earth, water, fire and air so the idea of arranging the elements doesn’t come up to during these times.

Web Trips
How about testing your knowledge on the historical development of the Periodic Table? Try this site: http://www.docbrown.info/page03/3_34ptable/PThistoryQ.htm

Word Pad
 History refers to a recorded important fact about the past.

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Wrap It Up
Column A are list of contributions of scientists to the development of the periodic table while column B are the list of scientists who contributed to the development of the periodic table. Your task is to match column A with column B. Write your answer on the space before the number A Discovered transuranium elements Developed telluric screw. Discovered germanium. Proposed the law of octaves. Proposed the law of triads. Discovered phosphorus. Published New System of Chemical Philosophy. 8. Properties of elements are periodic function of their atomic numbers. 9. Arranged the elements into groups of simple substances which will not decompose by any means. 10. Properties of elements are periodic function of their atomic masses. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. B A. Glenn Seaborg B. Henry Moseley C. Clemens Winkler D. Dmitri Mendeleev & Lothar Meyer E. John Newlands F. Beguyer De Chancourtois G. Johann Dobereiner H. John Dalton I. Antoine Lavoisier J. Hennig Brand

Photo and content credits, lesson 2 http://cti.itc.virginia.edu/~meg3c/classes/tcc313/200Rprojs/lavoisier2/home.html http://www.bpc.edu/mathscience/chemistry/history_of_the_periodic_table.html http://scienceworld.wolfram.com/biography/Dalton.html All rights reserved. Copyright ©2008 by Allen A. Espinosa. 11

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glenn_T._Seaborg http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alchemy

Lesson 3

How Can We Use the Periodic Table to Predict the Chemical Behavior of an Element?

Do and Discover
Explore your Periodic Table of Elements! Complete the table below by supplying it with the group number, period and classification (e.g. metal, nonmetal, metalloid) of the element of the element. Element Rb Kr B Br K Group Period Classification

Whiz Quest
As you look at your Periodic Table, you are actually looking at a lot of information. We said in lesson 2 that the Periodic Table is arranged in increasing atomic number. Did you notice that in your Periodic Table? Other than the atomic number, your Periodic Table also gives you the atomic mass of the element. Of course, the name and symbol of the elements are incorporated in the Periodic Table also. Some other Periodic Table provides you with other information such as its physical properties. Exploring your Periodic Table again, you could actually notice that elements are arranged vertically and horizontally. The vertical column arrangement of the elements is called group or family, while the vertical row arrangement of the elements is called period or series. Each group of elements exhibits similarities in physical and chemical properties while each period of elements exhibits varying physical and chemical properties. Elements in the Periodic Table are also classified into Representative Elements, Noble Gases, Transition Metals, Lanthanides and Actinides. Representative elements are elements belonging to groups IA to VIIA. Noble gases are the elements belonging to group VIIIA. Transition metals are the elements belonging to groups IB to VIIIB. All rights reserved. Copyright ©2008 by Allen A. Espinosa. 12

Lanthanides are the elements with atomic numbers 57 to 71. Actinides are the elements with atomic numbers 89 to 103. Elements belonging to the A families actually has incompletely filled s or p subshells in their outermost energy level or highest energy level except for group VIIIA, in general, which has completely filled p subshells. Elements belonging to B families, however, have incompletely filled d or f subshells. Elements in the periodic table could also be classified into metals, nonmetals or metalloids. Metals dominate the Periodic Table. It is about three-fourths of the total known elements. You can find them at the left side and at the middle part of the Periodic Table. Nonmetals on the other hand, are a bit few compared with metals. There are 22 known nonmetals and 11 of it exist as gases, such as, oxygen (O) and chlorine (Cl). You can find them at the right side of your periodic table. Metalloids or semimetals are the smallest group of elements. You can find them at the zigzag border line between metals and nonmetals. Some examples of metalloids are germanium (Ge) and silicon (Si).

Figure 3.3 (a) metals, (b)

nonmetals, (1,3) representative elements (2) transition metals, (4) top-lanthanides, bottom-actinides

metalloids, (c)

Application
Graphic organizers are good aid in memorizing things. Figure 3.3 presents a sample graphic organizer of the parts of the Periodic Table. Your task now is to make your own graphic organizer of the parts of the Periodic Table artistically. Present your work in the class.

Science Link
Just like Group VIIIA is also called Noble Gases or Inert Gases, some groups in the Periodic Table are given special names due to its physical and or chemical properties. All rights reserved. Copyright ©2008 by Allen A. Espinosa. 13

Group IA is also called Alkali Metals. Group IIA is also called Alkaline Earth Metals. Group VIA is also called Chalcogens. Group VIIA are also called Halogens. Group IB are also called Coinage Group. Some other groups are named with the top most element in the group, just like group IIIA is named Boron group, IVA is named Carbon group and VA is named as Nitrogen group. In the preceding lessons we will be discussing the properties of each group of elements and why they are named as such.

Web Trips
Try practicing your knowledge about the parts of the Periodic Table on this site: http://www.mhhe.com/physsci/physical/tillery/tutorialtest/Elements/ElemFra.html

Word Pad
     Group or family refers to the vertical column arrangement of the elements. Period or series refers to the horizontal row arrangement of the elements. Metals are the elements in the left and middle part of the Periodic Table. Nonmetals are the elements in the right side of the Periodic Table. Metalloids are the elements at the zigzag border line between metals and nonmetals.

Wrap It Up
Complete the table below by supplying it with the missing information. Element Ca F IA O 7 Group IV A Period 3 Nonmetal Classification

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Photo and content credits, lesson 3 http://www.ncusd203.org/central/html/what/science/day/homework/ReviewCh45_files/image0 02.jpg

Lesson 4

How is the Valence Electron of Elements Related to their Group Number in the Periodic Table?

Do and Discover
Complete the table by supplying it with the atomic number, electron configuration, valence electron and group number of the element. Element S Mg Al I Na Atomic Number Electron Configuration Valence Group Electron Number

Whiz Quest
Elements in the Periodic Table are also arranged according to the type of block they belong. The blocks in the Periodic Table are classified as s-, p-, d- and f-blocks respectively. Figure 3.4 shows the locations of the blocks in the Periodic Table.

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Figure 3.4 The blocks in the Periodic Table As you can see from figure 3.4, groups IA and IIA belongs to s-block and groups IIIA to VIIA belongs to p-block. Groups IIIB to IIB belongs to d-block while the lanthanides and actinides belong to f-block. Recalling our lesson on electron configuration, we know that the required number of electrons to fill the subshell s is 2, p is 6, d is 10 and f is 14. Notice that the number of groups occupied by each block in the Periodic Table also shows the required number of electron to fill that subshell. Did you notice it? The table below shows electron configuration of selected elements from the representative elements. Examine it carefully. Table 3.4 Electron configuration of selected elements of the representative elements _____________________________________________________________________________ _ Element Symbol Atomic Electron Valence Group Number Configuration Electron Number _____________________________________________________________________________ _ Potassium K 19 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s1 1 IA 2 2 Beryllium Be 4 1s 2s 2 IIA Aluminum Al 13 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p1 3 IIIA 2 2 2 Carbon C 6 1s 2s 2p 4 IVA 2 2 6 2 3 Phosphorus P 15 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 5 VA Oxygen O 8 1s2 2s2 2p4 6 VIA 2 2 6 2 5 Chlorine Cl 17 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 7 VIIA 2 2 6 Neon Ne 10 1s 2s 2p 8 VIIIA _____________________________________________________________________________ _ All rights reserved. Copyright ©2008 by Allen A. Espinosa. 16

Notice that the atomic number of an element signifies its electron configuration. The underlined part in the electron configuration is called the valence electrons or the outer electrons. The valence electron of any element predicts the group number of that element. Elements belonging to the same group number also has the same valence electron. So therefore we can have a general formula for the valence electron of elements per group. The table below shows the general formula for the valence electron per group. The n symbolizes the principal quantum number or the energy level. You could also see that the highest principal quantum number of the element also predicts the period where it belongs. Table 3.5 General formula for the valence electron of element per group _____________________________________________________________________________ _ Group Number Valence Electron _____________________________________________________________________________ IA ns1 IIA ns2 IIIA ns2np1 IVA ns2np2 VA ns2np3 VIA ns2np4 VIIA ns2np5 VIIIA ns2np6 _____________________________________________________________________________ _ We can recall that groups IA and IIA belong to the s-block, where group IA has incompletely filled s subshells while group IIA has completely filled s subshells. On the other hand, groups IIIA to VIIIA belong to p-block, where groups IIIA to VIIA have incompletely filled p subshells while group VIIIA has completely filled p subshells. below. Let us now examine some of the elements from the d-block. Look the table

Table 3.6 Electron configuration of selected elements of the transition metals _____________________________________________________________________________ _ Element Symbol Atomic Electron Valence Group Number Configuration Electron Number _____________________________________________________________________________ _ Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Sc Ti V Cr 21 22 23 24 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d1 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d2 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d3 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s1 3d5 3 4 5 6 IIIB IVB VB VIB 17

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Manganese Mn 25 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d5 7 VIIB 2 2 6 2 6 2 6 Iron Fe 26 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d 8 VIIIB 2 2 6 2 6 1 10 Copper Cu 29 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d 1 IB 2 2 6 2 6 2 10 Zinc Zn 30 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d 2 IIB _____________________________________________________________________________ _ As you would see, d-block elements have different way of identifying their valence electron and they also follow a different pattern in predicting their group number but nonetheless, let us examine some of them. For groups IIIB to VIIIB their group number was predicted through the number of valence electrons on the highest principal quantum number which is 4 and the valence electron on the highest subshell which is d. Notice that Chromium and Copper have different electron configuration, it is because they could have two electron configurations but what is shown in table 3.6 is the one preferred because of its stability. For groups IB and IIB, their group number was predicted through the number of valence electrons on the highest quantum number which is 4. Let us now examine some of the f-block elements. Cerium, which is an element belonging to the lanthanide series has an electron configuration of 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 5s25p64f15d16s2. In addition, protactinium, which is an element belonging to the actinide series has an electron configuration of 1s22s22p63s23p63d104s24p65s24d105p64f14 5d106s26p67s26d15f2. You would notice that both elements has an incompletely filled f-subshells therefore showing that they belong to the f-block elements.

Application
Did you see the graphic organizer in figure 3.4? Do you think it will be a great help if you will be using graphic organizer to memorize the blocks in the periodic table? Your task now is to cut-out a skeletal framework of the periodic table and indicate the location of the blocks in the periodic table. You may use figure 3.4 as your guide in doing your graphic organizer.

Science Link

Web Trips
Let’s see how well you are familiar with the blocks in the Periodic Table, take the quiz at: http://www.softschools.com/manage/themes/knowledgetest;jsessionid=awOZ4n1CJf a4 .

Word Pad
All rights reserved. Copyright ©2008 by Allen A. Espinosa. 18

 Valence electron refers to the outer electrons.

Wrap It Up
Given the electron configuration of the element, identify the atomic number, valence electron, group number and also the symbol of the element. Element Atomic Number Electron Configuration 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p1 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 1s2 2s2 2p6 1s2 2s2 2p4 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d1 Valence Group Electron Number

Photo and content credits, lesson 4
http://www.info-mine.net/images/periodic/structure.jpg

Lesson 5

What are the Trends and Periodic Variation of the Elements in the Periodic Table?

Do and Discover
Observe your Periodic Table carefully across a period and within a group and fill up the table below with either increasing or decreasing. All rights reserved. Copyright ©2008 by Allen A. Espinosa. 19

From Top to Bottom Atomic Number Atomic Mass

From Left to Right

Whiz Quest
We have seen in the previous lessons how the elements in the Periodic Table are arranged. In this lesson we will be dealing with another set of ideas on how the elements in the Periodic Table are arranged, that is, with regards to trends and periodic variation of elements. Atomic Radius Atomic Radius is one-half the distance between the two nuclei in two adjacent identical atoms and is measured in terms of picometer (pm). Atomic radius could either be metallic radius or covalent radius. Metallic radius is a term used for the atomic radius of metallic elements while covalent radius is a term used for the atomic radius of nonmetallic elements. Figure 3.5 illustrates the concept of atomic radius.

Figure 3.5 Atomic radius (r) of

(Cl) atoms

sodium (Na) and chlorine

The atomic radius can be identified by the strength of attraction of the nucleus of an atom and the outermost or valence electrons. The strength of attraction is what we called nuclear charge and in general, the larger the value of the nuclear charges of an atom, the smaller is its atomic radius because larger nuclear charge indicates that the hold of the nucleus on the outermost or valence electrons is strong. Table 3.7 illustrates this concept. Table 3.7 Atomic radius of period 2 elements _____________________________________________________________________________ _ Element Atomic Radius Nuclear Charge Electron Configuration (pm) _____________________________________________________________________________ _ All rights reserved. Copyright ©2008 by Allen A. Espinosa. 20

Li Be B C N O F

152 112 85 77 75 73 72

+3 +4 +5 +6 +7 +8 +9

1s2 2s1 1s2 2s2 1s2 2s2 2p1 1s2 2s2 2p2 1s2 2s2 2p3 1s2 2s2 2p4 1s2 2s2 2p5

______________________________________________________________________________ As you can see from table, the larger the value of the valence electron (the underlined part of the electron configuration), the larger is the nuclear charge of the atom and the smaller is its atomic radius. In general, atomic radius increases from top to bottom of the Periodic Table or down a group and decreases from left to right of the Periodic Table or across a period. Figure 3.6 illustrate this trend.

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Figure 3.6 Trend in atomic radius Ionic Radius Ionic radius is the radius of a cation or an anion in an ionic compound. An atom tends to change in size as it becomes a cation or anion. Metals normally looses electron and become positively charged. Positively charged metals are called cations. Nonmetals on the other hand, normally gain electrons to form a negatively charged atom. Negatively charged atoms are called anions. An atom looses or gain electrons to be stable. Figure 3.7 illustrates an ionic radius.

Figure 3.7 Ionic radius As a metal forms a cation, its radius decreases because of the lesser electronelectron repulsion which is a result of the removal of electron. Therefore, a cation has a smaller size in comparison with anion. As nonmetal forms an anion, its radius increases because of the greater electronelectron repulsion which is a result of the addition of electrons. Therefore, an anion has a bigger size in comparison with a cation. Figure 3.8 cations and anions radius. shows some example and their ionic

All rights reserved. Copyright ©2008 by Allen A. Espinosa.

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Figure 3.8 Some cations and anions and their corresponding ionic radius Ionization Energy Ionization energy is the minimum energy required to remove an electron from an isolated atom or ion in its ground state and is usually measured in terms of kilojoules per mole (kJ/mol). One electron is removed from the atom one at a time. When we remove the first electron in an atom, the energy needed is called first ionization energy. Metals have low ionization energies compared with nonmetal that is why metals readily give up electrons forming a cation. Table 3.8 shows some elements with their corresponding ionization energies (IE). Table 3.8 Successive ionization energies for period 3 elements (in kJ/mol)

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In general, with some few exceptions, ionization energy increases from left to right of the Periodic Table or across a period. On the other hand, ionization energy decreases from top to bottom of the Periodic Table or down a group. Figure 3.9 illustrates this idea.

Figure 3.9 Trend in ionization energy

Electron Affinity Electron Affinity is the energy change when an atom in its ground state gains an electron forming an anion and is usually measured in terms of kilojoules per mole (kJ/mol). Nonmetals have high electron affinity that is why nonmetals always form an anion. Table 3.9 shows the electron affinities of some elements. Table 3.9 Electron affinities of some elements in kJ/mol IA H -73 Li -60 Na -53 K -48 Rb -47 Cs -45 VIIIA He <0 Ne <0 Ar <0 Kr <0 Xe <0 Rn <0

IIA Be ≤0 Mg ≤0 Ca -2 Sr -5 Ba -14

IIIA B -27 Al -44 Ga -29 In -29 Tl -30

IVA C -122 Si -134 Ge -188 Sn -121 Pb -110

VA N -7 P -72 As -77 Sb -101 Bi -110

VIA O -141 S -200 Se -195 Te -190 Po (-)

VIIA F -328 Cl 349 Br -325 I -295 At -270

In general, electron affinity increases from left to right of the Periodic table or across a period and from bottom to top of a Periodic Table or up a group. Figure 3.10 illustrate this trend. All rights reserved. Copyright ©2008 by Allen A. Espinosa. 24

Figure 3.10 Trend in electron affinity Electronegativity Electronegativity is the ability of an atom in a chemical bond to attract electrons toward it and is usually measured in terms of electronvolt (eV). Electronegativity is related to ionization energy and electron affinity. High electron affinity would mean a greater ability to pick up electrons easily while high ionization energy would mean a lesser possibility to loose an electron. Therefore, if an atom has a high ionization energy and high electron affinity it also has a high electronegativity. Table 3.10 shows some elements with their corresponding electronegativities. Table 3.10 Electronegativity of some elements

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25

In general, electronegativity increases from left to right of the Periodic Table or across a period and it decreases from top to bottom of the Periodic Table or down a group. Figure 3.11 illustrate this trend.

Figure 3.11 Trend in electronegativity Metallic and Nonmetallic Character Metallic character is a chemical property associated with those elements classed as metals. These are elements which have a tendency to loose electrons and form positive ion. In the Periodic Table, metallic character increases down any group and across a period from right to left. Nonmetallic character is a chemical property associated with those elements classed as nonmetals. These are elements which have a tendency to gain electrons and form negative ion. In the Periodic Table, nonmetallic character increases up any group and across a period from left to right. Figure 3.12 illustrate the trend in metallic character and nonmetallic character.

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26

Figure 3.12 Trend in metallic and nonmetallic character

Application
Learning trends and periodic variation in the Periodic Table requires memorization. On the other hand, graphic organizers are good memory aid. Your task now is to summarize the lesson by creating your own graphic organizer on the trends and periodic variation in the Periodic Table. See example below.

Science Link
Physical and chemical properties of elements are related to the trends and periodic variation discussed in this lesson. For example, the density, melting point and boiling point is related to the atomic radius. The larger the surface area exposed in an element, the higher is its density, melting point and boiling point. Could cite other physical or chemical property that is related to the trends and periodic variation of elements?

Web Trips
Let’s see how well you are familiar with the trends and periodic variation of the elements in the Periodic Table, do the quiz at: http://www.sciencegeek.net/Chemistry/taters/Unit2PeriodicTrends.htm

Word Pad
 Atomic Radius is one-half the distance between the two nuclei in two adjacent identical atoms and is measured in terms of picometer (pm).  Ionic radius is the radius of a cation or an anion in an ionic compound. An atom tends to change in size as it becomes a cation or anion. All rights reserved. Copyright ©2008 by Allen A. Espinosa. 27

 Ionization energy is the minimum energy required to remove an electron from an isolated atom or ion in its ground state and is usually measured in terms of kilojoules per mole (kJ/mol).  Electron Affinity is the energy change when an atom in its ground state gains an electron forming an anion and is usually measured in terms of kilojoules per mole (kJ/mol).  Electronegativity is the ability of an atom in a chemical bond to attract electrons toward it.  Metallic character is a chemical property associated with those elements classed as metals.  Nonmetallic character is a chemical property associated with those elements classed as nonmetals.

Wrap It Up
Supply the trends and periodic variation in the table below with either increasing or decreasing. From Left to Right Atomic Radius Ionic Radius Ionization Energy Electron Affinity Electronegativity Metallic Character Nonmetallic Character From Top to Bottom

Photo and content credits, lesson 5 http://wps.prenhall.com/wps/media/objects/1054/1079855/IMAGES/AAALUMZ0.jpg http://images.encarta.msn.com/xrefmedia/aencmed/targets/illus/ilt/1e67a7ad.gif

All rights reserved. Copyright ©2008 by Allen A. Espinosa.

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http://images.google.com.ph/imgres?imgurl=http://www.briandolezal.com/p_table_at_rad_tend.j pg&imgrefurl=http://www.briandolezal.com/periodic_table.htm&h=206&w=296&sz=9&hl=tl&star t=32&sig2=2ruLP3y8L1HN8Rkangklg&um=1&usg=__9qRJHDJcatfcCJmaiu6LBls54Dc=&tbnid=xAye dChh99gAM:&tbnh=81&tbnw=116&ei=6YBSc3KL5yAswKy7rmGDA&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dion% 2Bradius%26start%3D20%26ndsp%3D20%26um%3D1%26hl%3Dtl%26sa%3DN http://images.google.com.ph/imgres?imgurl=http://nanotech.sc.mahidol.ac.th/genchem/bonding 1/ea.jpg&imgrefurl=http://nanotech.sc.mahidol.ac.th/genchem/bonding1/index.htm&h=401&w=5 12&sz=56&hl=tl&start=5&sig2=Pj2RNXVo8nV9fEms45UgZw&um=1&usg=___vDcERTqxlzTjGlS4m kaKaGEU=&tbnid=ByZNHMni_APbM:&tbnh=103&tbnw=131&ei=3P8BSb63Oo6EsgLPuvmVDA&rv =/images%3Fq%3Delectron%2Baffinity%26ndsp%3D20%26um%3D1%26hl%3Dtl%26sa%3DN http://www.bbc.co.uk/scotland/education/bitesize/higher/img/chemistry/energy/patterns/fig0 5.gif http://images.google.com.ph/imgres?imgurl=http://grandinetti.org/Teaching/Chem121/Lectures /ChemicalReactivity/assets/MetallicTable.gif&imgrefurl=http://grandinetti.org/Teaching/Chem12 1/Lectures/ChemicalReactivity/index.html&h=326&w=574&sz=15&hl=tl&start=1&sig2=BJGoeECjh 1EsYYJc-s4V4w&um=1&usg=__PtGcg88LjmtRNieD1819q2imNx0=&tbnid=ooQ1NNseruajM:&tbnh=76&tbnw=134&ei=AwsCSbGmJZjyswLstdj0Cw&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dnon %2Bmetallic%2Bcharacter%26um%3D1%26hl%3Dtl http://cwx.prenhall.com/petrucci/medialib/media_portfolio/text_images/FG10_11.JPG

Lesson 6

What are the Properties and Uses of Each Group of Elements in the Periodic Table?

Do and Discover
Each element in the Periodic Table has its own properties and uses. Could you identify some elements that you use in daily life? Write it down on the table below. Describe it physically and give its uses. Element Description Uses

Whiz Quest
All rights reserved. Copyright ©2008 by Allen A. Espinosa. 29

We have been discussing much about the elements in the Periodic Table but have you ever wonder if these elements have uses to mankind? In this lesson, you will find out what are the importances of these elements to mankind. Metals: Properties and Uses Much of the elements in the Periodic Table are metals. We can see metals anywhere, everywhere. We use it in buildings, appliances, jewelries, and a lot more. Metals therefore are essential component of modernization and progress. Table 3.11 shows some properties of metals that determine their uses and some example metals. Table 3.11 Physical properties of metals Property Meaning Conductivity enables a metal to carry heat or electricity Density mass per unit volume Ductility ability to be permanently drawn, bent, or twisted into various shapes without breaking Durability ability of metal to resist corrosion Hardness the ability of a metal to resist abrasion, penetration, cutting action, or permanent distortion Luster the way light interacts with the surface of the metal; shiny Malleability ability of a metal to exhibit large deformation Melting Point temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid

Example Metals Cu, Ag, Au Pb, Ce, Hg Cu, Mg, Au

Zn, Al, Sb Mg, Fe, Zn

Cu, Au, Ag Cu, Au, Ag Hg, W, Ba

Properties of metals actually determine their uses. Metals such as copper are used in electrical wirings because of its high conductivity. Mercury, on the other hand are used in thermometers because of its expandability when heated and because of its high melting point. Copper is used is in electrical wirings not only because of its conductivity but because it is ductile or can be made into wires. Our kitchen utensils such as the fork and the spoon are usually made up steel alloy (a combination of metals such as iron, manganese, chromium, vanadium and tungsten) because of its durability or ability to resist corrosion. Foot bridges nowadays are made up of metals because of its hardness. Silver and gold, however, are used as jewelries because of its luster. Most of our cooking pans and other kitchen utensils are made up of metals because metals are malleable or can be shaped in different forms. Table 3.12 shows some elements and their corresponding property that is responsible for their uses. Table 3.12 Some metals and their uses in technology Metal Property Uses light weight, resist corrosion, aluminum foil, door knobs, Aluminum and strong kitchen utensils and air planes All rights reserved. Copyright ©2008 by Allen A. Espinosa.

30

malleable and ductile and has high electrical conductivity luster and resist corrosion (Gold is the most ductile and Gold & Silver malleable while silver has the highest electrical conductivity of all metals.) low density, high strength and Magnesium resist corrosion expands significantly and Mercury regularly when heated and it has high density resist corrosion, malleable, Tin ductile resist corrosion, ductile and Zinc malleable Copper Group IA: Alkali Metals

electrical wiring were used before in the manufacturing of coins and in jewelry

used for structural purposes in the transportation industry used in thermometers and barometers used for packaging food, oil and other substances used in making galvanized sheets of iron and steel making

The most familiar element in this group is sodium. Sodium has many uses, it combines with chlorine to form sodium chloride, NaCl, or salt, which is an essential component of foods. Moreover, salt is mixed with crushed ice to maintain the cold temperature for “dirty ice cream” or “sorbets.” Salt is also combined with 0.01% potassium iodide, KI, to manufacture iodized salt which is a common treatment for people suffering from iodine deficiency or commonly known as goiter. Other than that, it is used in the manufacture of sodium vapor lamps or commonly known as street lamps. Table 3.13 shows some properties of the alkali metals which is responsible for their uses. Table 3.13 General properties of alkali metals _____________________________________________________________________________ _ They are shiny, good conductors of heat and electricity, ductile and malleable. They are soft and can be cut by a knife. They have low density. They have relatively low melting points and boiling points compared to other metals in the Periodic Table. _____________________________________________________________________________ _ Group IIA: Alkaline Earth Metals Alkaline earth metals are very useful to mankind. It is usually combined with other metals to produce alloys or a combination of two or more metals. Alloys such as magnesium alloy are used in the manufacture of parts of airplanes and cars. Other than that, magnesium plays a vital role in the formation of chlorophyll, the green pigment in All rights reserved. Copyright ©2008 by Allen A. Espinosa. 31

plants that captures the energy from the sun to facilitate photosynthesis. In the absence of magnesium in the leaves of plants, the leaves turn yellow. On the other hand, compounds of barium, strontium and calcium are used extensively in fireworks because when heated, it turns the flame into different colors such as pale green, crimson red and brick red. Oxide of calcium is used in tiles and as a lining in high temperature furnace because of its capability to withstand high temperature. Aside from that, calcium oxide, CaO, is used to counteract highly acidic soils so that it can be used for gardening. Calcium in its cationic form, Ca2+, is very essential to bone health of animals as well. Table 3.14 shows some properties of alkaline earth metals which is responsible for their uses. Table 3.14 General properties of alkaline earth metals _____________________________________________________________________________ _ They are shiny, good conductors of heat and electricity, ductile and malleable. They are relatively hard. They have high density. They have relatively high melting points and boiling points. _____________________________________________________________________________ _ Transition Metals The most common metals in this group are what we called the coinage family, these are the elements copper, Cu, silver, Ag, and gold, Au. They are called coinage family because they are once used as a material for coins in the United States. But because silver and gold are way too expensive, at present it is only used as jewelries. Other transition metal which has importance in industry is nickel, Ni, which is responsible for the hardening of vegetable oil in the manufacture of margarine. Titanium, Ti, in the form of titanium chloride, TiCl3, is used as catalyst in the manufacture of plastics. Steel alloy (a combination of metals such as iron, manganese, chromium, vanadium and tungsten) are commonly used as stainless material. Aside from the industrial uses of transition metals, it also has biological importance such as the copper ion, Cu2+, in the blood, it interact with pain relievers such aspirin to relieve pain and fever. Cobalt, Co, is part of vitamin B 12 which cures Pernicious anemia because this vitamin has the ability to increase the number of hemoglobin molecules in the blood. Further discussions on the biological importance of some other elements will be dealt with in the next lessons in this chapter. Table 3.15 shows some properties of transition metals which are responsible for their uses. Table 3.15 General properties of alkaline earth metals _____________________________________________________________________________ _ They are good conductors of heat and electricity, ductile and malleable. They have high tensile strength. They have high density. They have relatively high melting points and boiling points. All rights reserved. Copyright ©2008 by Allen A. Espinosa. 32

_____________________________________________________________________________ _ Nonmetals: Properties and Uses Nonmetals are significantly different from metals in terms of properties. Nonmetals are usually gaseous in form and are brittle if solid. They do not exhibit properties such as luster and conductivity. Nevertheless, these properties dictate the numerous uses of nonmetals. Group IVA: Carbon Family Members of the carbon family are carbon, C, a nonmetal, silicon, Si, a metalloid, germanium, Ge, a metalloid, tin, Sn, a metal, and lead, Pb, a metal. This shows that the carbon family is far different from each other in nature. Carbon exists in two allotropes, namely, diamond and graphite. Diamond is the hardest material known on earth which is used as abrasive, drilling and cutting out other hard materials. Other than that, its most common use is as jewelry. Graphite, in contrast, can conduct electricity that is why it is used as electrodes in batteries or dry cells. Silicon, the second most abundant element on earth, and germanium are widely used as semiconductors in electronic devices such as computer chips. Additionally, silicon is now being utilized in cosmetic medicine as body part enhancer. Tin and lead metals are rare elements. Tin are used in the manufacture of tin cans which are used in the packaging of canned foods. Lead, alternatively, is commonly used as the marking material in pencils. Group VIIA: Halogens Members of the halogen family are fluorine, F, chlorine, Cl, bromine, Br, and iodine, I. Halogens are all nonmetal and they exists as diatomic molecules in gaseous state. Halogens can be branded as counterpart of alkali metals and alkaline earth metals. If those two groups of metals are said to be reactive metals, halogens, on the other hand, are reactive nonmetals. These three groups commonly combine to form salts. Fluorine, in the form of fluoride, F-, is utilized extensively in the toothpaste industry. It is used to prevent tooth decay and gingivitis. Other use of fluorine is that it is utilized to make polytetrafluoroethylene, commonly known as Teflon, which is usually used as a cooking utensil. Chlorine is commonly used as a disinfectant for swimming pools. However, it is also used in industry as a bleaching agent for paper and textiles. It is also an ingredient All rights reserved. Copyright ©2008 by Allen A. Espinosa. 33

in pesticides and insecticides. Chlorine is also a component of polyvinyl chloride or PVC which is used for pipes and ducts. Iodine in alcoholic solution or commonly known as tincture of iodine is widely used as antiseptic for wounds. Moreover, iodine is also being utilized in the production of photographic films such as silver iodide, AgI. Halides such as bromide, iodide, fluoride and chloride are also used in cloud seeding to catalyze the condensation of water vapor in the atmosphere.

Application
No one in this world can say that he has never used technology in his lifetime. Technology is a part of our daily routine, from the time we woke up until the time we fall asleep we, in one way or another, uses technology. During school days, we are awaken by the buzzing of our alarm clocks, our parents prepare our breakfast using gas stoves and oven toaster. To get to school, we ride in buses, jeepneys, tricycles or cars. Inside the classroom, we use electric fans or air conditioners to keep us cool all day long. Other than that, in schools, we also use lots of other technologies such as computers, overhead projector, LCD projector, and a lot more. When we get home we usually turn on the television to watch our favorite show and before we sleep we turn on the electric fans or air conditioners again to keep us comfortable all night long. You see, we just cannot escape from using technology. Why do you think it is important for us to know the properties of elements and their application to the environment and modern technologies? Report your answer to the class.

Science Link

Web Trips
Let’s see how well you are familiar with the properties and uses of some elements, do the quiz at: http://www.funtrivia.com/flashquiz/index.cfm?qid=135193

Word Pad
 Conductivity enables a metal to carry heat or electricity.  Density is mass per unit volume. All rights reserved. Copyright ©2008 by Allen A. Espinosa. 34

 Ductility is the ability to be permanently drawn, bent, or twisted into various shapes without breaking.  Durability is the ability of metal to resist corrosion.  Hardness is the ability of a metal to resist abrasion, penetration, cutting action, or permanent distortion.  Luster is the way light interacts with the surface of the metal; shiny.  Malleability is the ability of a metal to exhibit large deformation.  Melting Point is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid.

Wrap It Up
Enumerate five (5) properties of metals and nonmetals and describe or define them. Give (5) example of metals and nonmetals together with their uses. _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ __________ content credits, lesson 6
http://www.freewebs.com/sed4c/hoqlen.doc

Lesson 7

What are Some Elements that are Important to the Human Body?

Do and Discover
Could you give five (5) elements which are essential to humans? Write it down on the table below. Element Function

All rights reserved. Copyright ©2008 by Allen A. Espinosa.

35

Whiz Quest
In the previous lesson, we have tackled the importance of these elements to our daily living. Do you think these elements have any importance to our health? Let’s find out! The human body is actually composed of essential elements. Table 3.16 shows the list of these essential elements in the human body. Interesting in the essential elements is what we called trace elements; these are the elements cobalt, copper, iodine, iron and zinc. They actually comprises about 0.1 percent of the mass of a human body. The trace elements are actually necessary for biological functions like defense against sickness, transport of oxygen for metabolism and growth. The balance of the trace elements are actually delicate since too much or too little of those trace elements for a period of time could lead to serious illness, retardation, and it can even result to death. Table 3.16 Essential elements in the human body _____________________________________________________________________________ _ Element Percent by Mass* Element Percent by Mass* _____________________________________________________________________________ _ Oxygen 65 Sodium 0.1 Carbon 18 Magnesium 0.05 Hydrogen 10 Iron <0.05 Nitrogen 3 Cobalt <0.05 Calcium 1.6 Copper <0.05 Phosphorus 1.2 Zinc <0.05 Potassium 0.2 Iodine <0.05 Sulfur 0.2 Selenium <0.01 Chlorine 0.2 Fluorine <0.01 _____________________________________________________________________________
* Percent by mass gives the mass of the element in grams present in a 100-g sample.

Transition metal ions such as cobalt, copper, iron, manganese and nickel are also present in the human body. These metals aids in the catalytic activity of a variety of enzymes in the human body. Example enzyme is the cytochrome oxidase, which is responsible for the burning of foods that we eat. Cytochrome oxidase contains copper. Another example is the nonprotein molecule associated with insulin, which is responsible for the regulation of blood sugar contain the metal chromium. Iron, on the other hand, is essential to hemoglobin which carries the oxygen and dissolved foods to all parts of our body. All rights reserved. Copyright ©2008 by Allen A. Espinosa. 36

Application
When buying canned goods or other ready-to-eat foods, do you actually check the labels or the nutrition facts of the food that you are buying? The next time you go to the supermarket, try checking the nutrition facts of the canned goods or ready-to-eat foods before buying it. It’s time to be conscious with your health. Report your observation to the class.

Science Link
Health is wealth, a common notation that we always hear. This is actually true being healthy is being wealthy because you can do more things when you are healthy, things that will result to progress of your career. But where do good health starts? It starts within oneself, health consciousness, as they call it. Being health conscious is putting everything into balance - getting enough rest, exercise, and proper diet. Live longer, better, start being health conscious.

Web Trips
Enhance your knowledge about the essential elements in the human body. Try answering the quiz at http://www.health24.com/dietnfood/Whats_in_food/15-47-108.asp

Word Pad
 Trace elements are elements present in minute or small amount.  Essential elements are elements vital or important to human body.

Wrap It Up
At the beginning of the lesson, you have given five essential elements and their functions. These essential elements are familiar to you. Your task now is to complete the table below by supplying it with the essential elements you have learned on this lesson and their function to the human body. All rights reserved. Copyright ©2008 by Allen A. Espinosa. 37

Element

Function

content credits, lesson 7 http://users.netconnect.com.au/~astronet/elements/body.htm

All in All
1. Chemical symbols are used by chemists to represent elements in a shorter manner. Each element has its own unique symbol. The name of each element is derived either from the name of a scientist, the country where it was discovered, or words from early civilization languages. 2. The most significant scientists behind the periodic table are actually Lothar Meyer (1869), Dmitri Mendeleev (1869) and Henry Moseley (1913). Meyer and Mendeleev formulated the periodic law which says that properties of elements are periodic function of their atomic masses. This law was revised by Moseley by proposing that properties of elements are periodic function of their atomic numbers. To date, the Periodic Table that we have is arranged in increasing atomic number. All rights reserved. Copyright ©2008 by Allen A. Espinosa. 38

3. Elements in the Periodic Table are actually arranged in a logical manner where elements with similar physical and chemical properties can be found in the same group or family. Another basis of classification is if it is a metal, a nonmetal or a metalloid. Other than that, elements in the Periodic Table can still be classified as to representative elements, transition metals, actinides and lanthanides. With respect to the electron configuration of each element, metals belong to the s-block and d-block elements except for hydrogen and helium which are nonmetals. Nonmetals and metalloids, on the other hand, belong to the p-block elements. 4. Other than the blocks in the Periodic Table, the electron configuration also gives us the group number, period and family of the element. The group number is actually determined by the valence or outermost electrons. The period is determined by the highest energy level where the valence or outermost electrons are residing. The family of the element could either be A or B. It is family A if the last added electrons fall at s- or p- subshells while if it falls at d- or fsubshells it is now considered as family B. Moreover, the subshell where the last added electron is residing determines the block where the element belongs. 5. Atomic Radius is one-half the distance between the two nuclei in two adjacent identical atoms and is measured in terms of picometer (pm). Atomic radius increases from top to bottom of the Periodic Table or down a group and decreases from left to right of the Periodic Table or across a period. Ionic radius is the radius of a cation or an anion in an ionic compound. Ionization energy is the minimum energy required to remove an electron from an isolated atom or ion in its ground state and is usually measured in terms of kilojoules per mole (kJ/mol). Ionization energy increases from left to right of the Periodic Table or across a period and decreases from top to bottom of the Periodic Table or down a group. Electron Affinity is the energy change when an atom in its ground state gains an electron forming an anion and is usually measured in terms of kilojoules per mole (kJ/mol). Electron affinity increases from left to right of the Periodic table or across a period and from bottom to top of a Periodic Table or up a group. Electronegativity is the ability of an atom in a chemical bond to attract electrons toward it. Electronegativity increases from left to right of the Periodic Table or across a period and it decreases from top to bottom of the Periodic Table or down a group. Metallic character is a chemical property associated with those elements classed as metals. Metallic character increases down any group and across a period from right to left. Nonmetallic character is a chemical property associated with those elements classed as nonmetals. Nonmetallic character increases up any group and across a period from left to right. 6. Uses of metals and nonmetals are actually determined by their physical and chemical properties. 7. Some elements are vital to human body. Transition metal ions such as cobalt, copper, iron, manganese and nickel are present in the human body. These metals aids in the catalytic activity of a variety of enzymes in the human body.

All rights reserved. Copyright ©2008 by Allen A. Espinosa.

39

Chapter Test
I. Modified True or False Directions: On the space before the number, write T if the statement is true and F it is false. If the statement is false, underline the word or phrase that makes it incorrect. 1. As a metal forms a cation, its radius decreases because of the lesser electron-electron repulsion which is a result of the removal of electron. 2. Members of the carbon family are carbon, C, a nonmetal, silicon, Si, a metalloid, germanium, Ge, a metal, tin, Sn, a metal, and lead, Pb, a metal. 3. Each group of elements exhibits similarities in physical and chemical properties while each period of elements exhibits varying physical and chemical properties. 4. Nonmetals have low electron affinity that is why nonmetals form an anion. 5. The telluric screw was the first ever geometric representation of the periodic law. 40

All rights reserved. Copyright ©2008 by Allen A. Espinosa.

II.

Multiple Choice Directions: Choose the letter of the choice that answers the question or completes the statement. Write your answer on the space before each item. Use the hypothetical Periodic Table below in answering item numbers 1 to 3.
IA IIA A D IIIB IVB VB VIB VIIB G J VIIB H IB VIIIA IIIA IVA VA VIA VIIA B C IIB E F I K

1. Which element is the most nonmetallic? A. J C. F B. G D. C 2. Which of the following element would you expect to form cation? A. F C. C B. D D. B 3. Which element has the largest atomic radius? A. J C. K B. A D. H Use the information given in the table in answering item numbers 4 and 5.
Metal Aluminum Copper Gold Mercury Silver Density g/mL 2.7 8.9 19.2 13.6 10.5 Properties light weight, resist corrosion, and strong malleable and ductile malleable and ductile expands significantly and regularly when heated malleable and ductile Electrical Conductivity 0.382 0.593 0.420 0.010 0.620

4. Which metal will be best in making electrical wirings? A. Aluminum C. Copper B. Gold D. Silver 5. Which metal will be material for airplanes? A. Aluminum B. Gold III. Structured Questions Directions: Answer the question below. Determine the following information given this electronic configuration: All rights reserved. Copyright ©2008 by Allen A. Espinosa. 41 C. Copper D. Silver

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 No. of Valence Electrons: ____________ Highest Energy Level: _____________ Block: _______________ Symbol of Element: ______________ IV. Group: ______________ Period: ______________ Family: ______________ Name of Element: ______________

Subshell where the last added electron is residing: ______________

Free Response Directions: Answer the following questions briefly but completely. 1. The element bromine (Br) belongs to group VIIA of the periodic table. Would you expect it to form an anion? Why or why not? ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ __ 2. Zinc and iron are placed in the same period. Why do you think so? ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ __

Chapter 2

The Chemical Bond

All rights reserved. Copyright ©2008 by Allen A. Espinosa.

42

Look around you. Have you ever asked yourself how do those things exist? Life is full of mysteries you might say. But did you know that there is actually an explanation for this? That is chemical bonding. Everything that you see is actually a product of chemical bonding. The things that make your life easier are all products of chemical bonding. The things that you can see were made possible because atoms combine. Because scientists now understand how atoms combine, numerous useful products had been produced. The force that holds them together is what we called chemical bond. But you may ask why do atoms combine? In this chapter you will understand the reason why atoms combine and other occurrences accompanying it. We will find the answer to the following questions:

 How are ionic, covalent and metallic bonds formed?  How is the location of the element in the Periodic Table related to the type of bond that
they will form? produce?

 How is the electronegativity values of the element related to the type of bond that they will  How do we write and name chemical formulas of ionic and covalent compounds?  How do we distinguish between molecular and empirical formula?  What is the difference between polar and nonpolar covalent bond?  What are the forces of attraction that exist between molecules?  What are the shapes of molecules?  What are the types of solids?  What are the properties and uses of some ionic and covalent compounds?
Lesson 1

How is Ionic Bond Formed?

Do and Discover
Could you give five (5) ionic compounds that are familiar to you? Write it on the table below. All rights reserved. Copyright ©2008 by Allen A. Espinosa. 43

Chemical Formula

Chemical Name

Whiz Quest
We are familiar that metals tend to loose electron to form cation while nonmetal tends to gain electron to form an anion. The following sections will explain why metals and nonmetals behave as such. The Octet Rule Group VIIIA elements are the most stable atoms in periodic table because it complies with the octet rule. Examine the electron configuration of the group VIIIA elements in Table 4.1 below. Table 4.1 The group VIIIA elements _____________________________________________________________________________ _ Element Electron Configuration _____________________________________________________________________________ _ He 1s2 Ne 1s2 2s22p6 Ar 1s2 2s22p6 3s23p6 Kr 1s2 2s22p6 3s23p63d10 4s24p6 Xe 1s2 2s22p6 3s23p63d10 4s24p64d104f14 5s25p6 Rn 1s2 2s22p6 3s23p63d10 4s24p64d104f14 5s25p65d10 6s26p6 _____________________________________________________________________________ _ As you would notice, except for helium (which follows the duet rule that needs only two electrons to be stable), all the elements in the group VIIIA has eight electrons in their valence shells (underlined portion of the electron configuration). Meaning, their s and p subshells are fully filled. This electron configuration makes the atoms in the group VIIIA very stable. They do not form ions and generally they are unreactive under normal conditions. These gases have very high ionization energies, meaning, much energy is required to remove an electron from it. The observation that an atom tends to gain or loose electron until they are surrounded by eight valance electrons is actually explained by the octet rule, which was proposed by Gilbert Lewis. The octet rule says that atoms tend to combine in such a way that they each have eight electrons in their valence shells, giving them the same electronic configuration as a noble gas. Metals have low All rights reserved. Copyright ©2008 by Allen A. Espinosa. 44

ionization energy that is why it easily lose electron while nonmetals has high electron affinity that is why it easily gain electron. The reason behind the losing or gaining of electron is to attain the electron configuration of the noble gas which is stable. Refer to figure 4.1 for examples. Na = 1s2 2s22p6 3s1 + 2 2 6 11Na = 1s 2s 2p (like Ne)
11

Cl = 1s2 2s22p6 3s23p5 2 2 6 2 6 17Cl = 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p (like Ar)
17 -

Figure 4.1 Electron configuration of sodium and chlorine and their ions Figure 4.1 show that sodium atom loses one electron to achieve the electron configuration of neon while chlorine gains an extra electron to achieve the electron configuration of argon. The Lewis Electron Dot Symbol The Lewis electron dot symbol is a useful way to illustrate the octet rule. Lewis electron dot symbol represents the number of electrons in the outermost shell of the atom using dots. Figure 4.2 shows example of the Lewis electron dot symbols of some elements.

All rights reserved. Copyright ©2008 by Allen A. Espinosa.

45

Figure 4.2 Lewis electron dot symbols of the representative elements Ionic Bonding When sodium loses an electron because of its low ionization energy, it then becomes positively charged ion (cation). On the other hand, when chlorine gains an electron because of its high electron affinity, it then becomes negatively charged ion (anion). When these two particles come closer with one another, there will be an electrostatic attraction between the positive and the negative charges and will form an ionic bond or electrovalent bond. The compound formed by ionic or electrovalent bonding is called ionic compound. See figures 4.3 and 4.4 for the illustration.

Formation of sodium ion and chloride ion

Ionic bonding between sodium ion and chloride ion Figure 4.3 Formation of an ionic bond in sodium chloride, NaCl The formation of an ionic bond in sodium chloride, NaCl, can also be illustrated using the Lewis electron dot symbol. All rights reserved. Copyright ©2008 by Allen A. Espinosa. 46

Figure 4.4 Formation of an ionic bond in sodium chloride, NaCl

Application
Shown in figures 4.3 and 4.4 is the formation of an ionic bond in sodium chloride. Sodium loses only one electron and chlorine gains only one electron. As a research work, find out how ionic bonding occurs if a metal loses two or three electrons and if a nonmetal gains two or three electrons. Report your research work in class.

Science Link
Two of the most important elements in the human body are sodium and potassium. They are the key elements in the sodium-potassium pump, an enzymebased mechanism that maintains correct cellular concentrations of sodium and potassium ions by removing excess ions from inside a cell and replacing them with ions from outside the cell. The sodium-potassium pump is the key to functions such as cardiac and renal activity, as well as all general transport processes into and out of the cell. The pump thus forms the basis for our ability to absorb a considerable number of nutrients, excrete waste products from the kidneys and regulate the water balance in the cells. If this little pump stopped pumping sodium ions out of the cells, the latter would rapidly swell up because of the infiltration of water and finally burst.

Web Trips
Test your knowledge on ionic bond. Try answering the quiz at http://www.quia.com/quiz/258607.html

Word Pad
 Anion is negatively charged ion.  Cation is a positively charged ion.  Ionic Bond or Electrovalent Bond is the electrostatic attraction between positive and negative particles.  Ionic Compound is the compound formed ionic or electrovalent bonding is called  Octet Rule says that atoms tend to combine in such a way that they each have eight electrons in their valence shells, giving them the same electronic configuration as a noble gas. All rights reserved. Copyright ©2008 by Allen A. Espinosa. 47

Wrap It Up
Illustrate the ionic bonding for the formation of the following ionic compounds using the Lewis electron dot symbol. Use dot notation (·) for metal and cross notation (x) for nonmetal. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Magnesium oxide, MgO Sodium oxide, Na2O Silver chloride, AlCl3 Silver oxide, Al2O3 Calcium chloride, CaCl2

Photo and content credits, lesson 1 http://nanotech.sc.mahidol.ac.th/genchem/bonding1/lewis.jpg http://www.yenka.com/freecontent/item.action?quick=sn# http://pages.prodigy.net/sullydog/archives/qm/image6.gif

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48

Lesson 2

How is Covalent Bond Formed?

Do and Discover
Could you give five (5) covalent compounds that are familiar to you? Write it on the table below. Chemical Formula Chemical Name

Whiz Quest
Ionic bond is a bond occurring between ion of metal and nonmetal. If we have two nonmetals, would they also form a bond? The answer is yes, and the bond is called covalent bond. Covalent bond is formed by the sharing of electrons between nonmetals. One pair of shared electrons, or that is two electrons, is equivalent to one covalent bond. Covalent bonding also follows the octet rule with an exemption with the hydrogen atom which follows the duet rule, just like helium. The compound formed by covalent bond is called covalent compound. Let us take for example the formation of the gaseous hydrogen chloride, HCl. Hydrogen chloride is composed of two nonmetals which are hydrogen and chlorine. Hydrogen has an electron configuration of 1s1 and because it only has one subshell, therefore it follows the duet rule. However, chlorine has an electron configuration of 1s2 2s22p6 3s23p5 and because it has more than one subshell, therefore it follows the octet rule. During the formation of covalent bond between hydrogen and chlorine, the two nonmetals tend to share one pair of electron to become stable, forming a single bond. You would notice that hydrogen now has two valence electrons just like helium, therefore it is now stable. Chlorine, on the other hand, now has eight valence electrons just like argon, therefore it is now stable. The pair of electron that is shared is what we called bonding electrons. Bonding electrons are the electrons that actually participated in the formation of covalent bond. In this case one of the bonding electrons came from All rights reserved. Copyright ©2008 by Allen A. Espinosa. 49

hydrogen and the other one came from chlorine. As you would notice, some of the valence electrons of chlorine did not participate in the formation of covalent bond; these electrons are what we called nonbonding electrons or lone pairs. See figures 4.5 and 4.6 for the illustration.

Figure 4.5 Covalent bonding in hydrogen chloride, HCl Covalent bonding in hydrogen chloride can also be illustrated using the Lewis electron dot symbol. As you would see, one pair of electron shared is equivalent to one covalent bond.

Figure 4.6 Covalent bonding in hydrogen chloride, HCl One pair of electron is shared in the covalent bonding of hydrogen chloride; we call this bond as single bond. Another example of a molecule that forms a single bond is the diatomic hydrogen molecule, H2. See figure 4.7 for the illustration.

Figure 4.7 Single bond exhibited by hydrogen molecule, H2 When two pairs of electrons or that is a total of four electrons shared in a covalent bond, just like the diatomic oxygen molecule, O2, the bond formed is a double bond. See figure 4.8 for the illustration.

Figure 4.8 Double bond exhibited by oxygen molecule, O2 When three pairs of electrons or that is a total of six electrons shared in a covalent bond, just like in diatomic nitrogen molecule, N 2, the bond formed is a triple bond. See figure 4.9 for the illustration.

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50

Figure 4.9 Triple bond exhibited by nitrogen molecule, N2 During bond formation, certain amount of energy is given off or released to the environment. Amazingly, it requires the same amount of energy to break the bond apart. The energy required to break a bond is called bond energy. Bond energy is usually expressed in unit of kilocalories per mole (kcal/mol). Table 4.2 shows the bond energies diatomic molecules hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. Table 4.2 Bond energies of diatomic molecules hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen _____________________________________________________________________________ _ Molecule Energy (kcal/mol) _____________________________________________________________________________ _ 104 119 227 _____________________________________________________________________________ _ From the table above we see that hydrogen molecule has the lowest bond energy while nitrogen molecule has the highest bond energy. We can conclude that, the more electron pairs shared in a covalent bond, the higher the bond energy and the lesser the electron pair shared in a covalent bond, the lower the bond energy. This means that, the higher the bond energy, the more difficult to break the bond and the lower the bond energy, the easier it is to break the bond. In this case, hydrogen molecule is the easiest bond to break since it has the low bond energy. Bonds in nitrogen molecule, however, is the most difficult to break since it has a high bond energy. This explains why hydrogen molecule is more reactive than nitrogen molecule. Looking back at our examples again, hydrogen molecule, H2, oxygen molecule, O2, and nitrogen molecule, N2, are all made up of the same atom in a covalent in a covalent bond. Recalling our lesson on electronegativity, each atom has its own electronegativity value. The higher the electronegativity, the higher is the power of the atom to attract electrons toward it. In the case of hydrogen molecule, oxygen molecule and nitrogen molecule, there is equal sharing of electrons in a covalent bond since the bonded atoms are of the same kind and therefore have the same electronegativity value. The bond that exists between these atoms is what we called nonpolar covalent bond and the molecule they formed is what we call nonpolar molecule. On the other hand, hydrogen chloride, HCl, have different atoms in a covalent bond. It is composed of hydrogen atom and chlorine atom. Hydrogen has an All rights reserved. Copyright ©2008 by Allen A. Espinosa. 51

electronegativity value of 2.1 eV while chlorine has an electronegativity value of 3.0 eV. Therefore chlorine has more power to attract the shared electrons toward it forming now a polar covalent bond due to the unequal sharing of electrons in a covalent bond. The molecule that is formed by this kind of bond is called polar molecule. See figure 4.10 for the illustration.

Figure 4.10 Unequal sharing of electrons in hydrogen chloride molecule Due to the unequal sharing of electrons, the electron cloud is also unequal. Since the electrons are residing more on the chlorine atom, therefore, the electron cloud in chlorine is larger than the electron cloud of hydrogen. The unequal sharing of electrons also forms a partial positive (δ+) and a partial negative (δ-). In this case the partial positive is the hydrogen atom since the shared electrons are pulled away from it due to its low electronegativity. On the other hand, chlorine atom is the partial negative since the shared electrons are residing more on its side due to its high electronegativity. Therefore, the dipole moment (symbolized by a crossed arrow) is going toward the chlorine. See figure 4.11 for the illustration.

Figure 4.11 Dipole moment in hydrogen chloride

Application
In this lesson we have just discussed few examples of polar and nonpolar covalent molecules. Your task now is to research more on polar and nonpolar covalent molecules and their importance to daily living. Report your work to the class.

Science Link

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Most of the molecules essential to human body are linked together by covalent bond. Examples are water and oxygen gas. Water is very much needed by our body to catalyze biological reactions that are essential in keeping our metabolism in normal rate. Oxygen, on the other hand, is essential in maintaining the oxyhemoglobin in the blood which delivers dissolved foods and minerals all over the body. Can you think of other covalent molecules that are essential to the human body?

Web Trips
Find out if you’ve already mastered the concepts on covalent bond. Try answering the quiz at http://chemistry.about.com/library/weekly/blbondsquiz.htm

Word Pad
 Covalent Bond is formed by the sharing of electrons between nonmetals.  Covalent Compound The compound formed by covalent bond is called.  Bonding electrons are the electrons that actually participated in the formation of covalent bond.  Nonbonding Electrons or Lone pairs are valence electrons that did not participate in the formation of covalent bond.  Single Bond is formed when one pair of electron is shared in the covalent bond.  Double Bond is formed when two pairs of electrons are shared in a covalent bond.  Triple Bond is formed when three pairs of electrons are shared in a covalent bond.  Bond Energy is the energy required to break a covalent bond.  Nonpolar Covalent Bond is formed when there is equal sharing of electrons in a covalent bond.  Nonpolar Molecule is the molecule formed by nonpolar covalent bonding.  Polar Covalent Bond is formed due to the unequal sharing of electrons in a covalent bond.  Polar Molecule is the molecule formed by polar covalent bonding.

Wrap It Up
Illustrate the covalent bonding for the following molecules using the Lewis electron dot symbol. Indicate whether the molecule is polar or nonpolar. Draw partial positive (δ+), partial negative (δ-) and dipole moment ( ) if applicable. 1. 2. 3. 4. Water, H2O Hydrogen fluoride, HF Chlorine molecule, Cl2 Carbon dioxide, CO2 53

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5. Methane, CH4

Photo and content credits, lesson 2 http://www.yenka.com/freecontent/item.action?quick=tl http://dkreutz.basd.k12.wi.us/O2.jpg http://www.chem.uiuc.edu/clcwebsite/jpeg/N2.jpg http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/88/HCl_molecule_modelVdW_surface.svg/150px-HCl_molecule_model-VdW_surface.svg.png

Lesson 3

How is Metallic Bond Formed?

Do and Discover
Could you give five (5) examples of metal that are familiar to you? Write it down below. Give the name and symbol of the metal and where do we usually use it. Example: Gold (Au) – used as jewelry. 1. __________________________________________________________________________ _ 2. __________________________________________________________________________ _ 3. __________________________________________________________________________ _ 4. __________________________________________________________________________ _ 5. __________________________________________________________________________ _

Whiz Quest
We understand that that a metal and a nonmetal form an ionic bond while two or more nonmetals bonded together forms a covalent bond. Would there also be bonding if the given atoms are both metal? That is what we are going to find out in this lesson. All rights reserved. Copyright ©2008 by Allen A. Espinosa. 54

Metals, such as sodium, copper and aluminum, actually exhibit a special kind of bonding called metallic bond. Metallic bond occurs when the valence electrons of individual metal atoms are bonded loosely to the positive kernels of the atom rather than to the individual atoms themselves. This occurs because metals have low ionization energies and there are empty spaces in the last shell of the atom. Kernel refers to the nucleus of the atom and the inner electron shells surrounding the nucleus. This special bonding occurring in metals give them stability by attaining a closed configuration or a complete octet due to the delocalization or hopping of electrons from one metal atom to another forming a sea of electrons. Consider the metallic bonding occurring in sodium atom in figure 4.12 for the illustration.

Figure 4.12 Metallic bonding in sodium atoms The delocalization of electrons in metallic bond gives metal atoms its metallic properties such as hardness, malleability, ductility and conductivity. Metals are hard because of the close packing structure of metal atoms. Figure 4.13 illustrate this property.

Figure 4.13 Close packing structure in metal atoms Metals are malleable and ductile because when hammered into sheets, the loosely bound electrons permit the sliding past of the layers of atomic kernels with one All rights reserved. Copyright ©2008 by Allen A. Espinosa. 55

another and at the same time holding the layers of together as negative electrons attract the positive kernels. Malleable means can be shaped into different shapes while ductile means can be drawn into wires without breaking. Figure 4.14 illustrates these two properties of metals.

(a)

(b)

Figure 4.14 Metals are malleable (a) and ductile (b)

Metals are also good conductors of heat and electricity. Applying heat to the metal would result to acquisition of high vibrational energy by the kernels of the metal which in turn will be transferred to the delocalized electrons. By the collision of kernels and electrons, kinetic energy is transferred rapidly. On the other hand, when you apply electricity on a piece of wire, electrons coming from the electricity will promote the shifting of delocalized electrons toward the empty spaces in the valence shell from atom to atom. Electrons are free to move in that certain metal unless otherwise a new conductor is present.

Application
In this lesson, we have discussed metallic properties in relation to metallic bonding. As a follow up activity, cut out pictures that illustrates metallic property. Present your work artistically and impart it to the class.

Science Link
Aluminum is a metal used in making aircrafts such as air planes, rocket ships and helicopter. Its unique physical property that makes it suitable for aircrafts is being light weight and since it is light weight, lesser energy is needed for aircrafts to float on air. Other than that aluminum metals are strong and it resists corrosion. Aluminun metal is also used in the production and manufacture of aluminum foil, door knobs and kitchen utensils

Web Trips
Want to try your knowledge on metallic bond and metallic properties? Answer the quiz at All rights reserved. Copyright ©2008 by Allen A. Espinosa. 56

http://www.docbrown.info/page04/4_72bond5.htm#METALLIC

Word Pad
 Metallic bond occurs when the valence electrons of individual metal atoms are bonded loosely to the positive kernels of the atom rather than to the individual atoms themselves.  Kernel refers to the nucleus of the atom and the inner electron shells surrounding the nucleus.

Wrap It Up
Identify the property of metal being described by matching column A with column B. A 1. Malleable 2. Conductors of Heat 3. Ductile 4. Hard 5. Conductor of Electricity B A. can be drawn into wires without breaking B due to the close packing structure C. can be shaped into different shapes D. will promote the shifting of delocalized electrons toward the empty spaces in the valence shell E. result to acquisition of high vibrational energy by the kernels

Photo and content credits, lesson 3 http://www.chemguide.co.uk/atoms/bonding/metallic.html http://discover.edventures.com/images/termlib/m/metallic_bond/support.gif http://www.whimsie.com/14%20gauge%20copper%20wire.jpg http://www.tiscali.co.uk/reference/encyclopaedia/hutchinson/m0030538.html

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Lesson 4

How are the Electronegativity Values of the Element Related to the Type of Bond that they will Produce?

Do and Discover
By just looking at the combination of elements, predict whether the bond that exists between them is ionic, covalent or metallic. Chemical Formula HI Li2O Fe NH3 CaBr2 Type of Bond

Whiz Quest
By just looking at the elements that combine together and their location in the periodic table we can now predict whether the bond that exists between them is ionic, covalent or metallic. When atoms from Group IA or Group IIA combines with atoms from Group VIA or Group VIIA, we are certain that the bond that exists between them is ionic. This is because metals have low ionization energies and they easily give up electrons. Nonmetals, on the other hand, have high electron affinity and they easily accept electrons. In an ionic bond, there is a complete transfer of electrons from a metal All rights reserved. Copyright ©2008 by Allen A. Espinosa. 58

to a nonmetal. The same nonmetal can also form bond called covalent bond. In a covalent bond, there is sharing of electrons between nonmetals. When there is equal sharing of electrons, we cal this bond as nonpolar covalent and when there is unequal sharing of electrons, we call this bond as polar covalent. Moreover, the same metal can also form a special kind of bonding called metallic bond. It occurs because the positive kernel of the metal atom is attracted to the valence electrons of the neighboring metal atom and vice versa therefore resulting to the delocalization of electrons forming a sea of electrons. There is actually another way of predicting the type of bond that exists between atoms that combine together. This is by getting the difference in the electronegativity values of the atoms that combine together. Electronegativity is the ability of an atom in a chemical bond to attract electrons toward it and is usually measured in terms of electronvolt (eV). Go back to table 3.10 for the electronegativity values of some elements or you may refer to your Periodic Table. When the difference in electronegativity values (ΔEN) of the element is equal to or greater than 2.0 eV, the bond formed is ionic. When the difference in electronegativity values is equal to 0 eV, the bond formed is nonpolar covalent. However, when the difference in electronegativity values is greater than 0 eV but is less than 2.0 eV, the bond formed id polar covalent. See table 4.3 for the summary. Table 4.3 Electronegativity difference and type of bond _____________________________________________________________________________ _ Electronegativity Difference (eV) Type of Bond _____________________________________________________________________________ _ ΔEN ≥ 2.0 Ionic 0 < ΔEN ≤ 1.9 Polar Covalent ΔEN = 0 Nonpolar Covalent _____________________________________________________________________________ _ Let us look at some examples below. NaCl Cl 3.0 eV Na 0.9 eV ΔEN 2.1 eV - Ionic HCl Cl 3.0 eV H 2.1 eV ΔEN 0.9 eV – Polar Covalent H2 H 2.1 eV H 2.1 eV ΔEN 0 eV – Nonpolar Covalent

Application
As a way of memorizing the electronegativity difference and the type of bond that exist among bonded atoms, make a chart that contains the concepts in table 4.3. Share your work to the class. All rights reserved. Copyright ©2008 by Allen A. Espinosa. 59

Science Link
Just like using the electronegativity difference in predicting the type of bond, there are also a lot of instruments for predicting different phenomenon. An example is on the prediction of weather disturbance like typhoons is predicted by weather instruments used by scientists. Another example is on the prediction of the gender of the baby inside the mother’s womb using ultrasound technology. Could you give more examples?

Web Trips
Enhance your knowledge on predicting the type of bond using electronegativity difference. Try answering the quiz at http://cnx.org/content/m15205/latest/ (Report 5: Bonding 07)

Word Pad
 Electronegativity is the ability of an atom in a chemical bond to attract electrons toward it and is usually measured in terms of electronvolt (eV).

Wrap It Up
Determine whether the bond that exists among the following compounds and molecules is ionic, polar covalent or nonpolar covalent by computing their electronegativity difference (ΔEN). 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. H2O LiF Cl2 CO2 CaO

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Lesson 5

How Do We Write and Name Chemical Formulas of Ionic and Covalent Compounds?

Do and Discover
In our discussion of ionic and covalent bonding, you have met some chemical formulas and their corresponding chemical names. Do you recall some of them? Write it down on the table below. Ionic Compounds Chemical Formula Chemical Name Covalent Compounds Chemical Formula Chemical Name

Whiz Quest
You are familiar with some ionic and covalent compounds with their corresponding chemical names and chemical formulas, but, do you actually know how to write chemical formulas of compounds or why they are named as such? This will be our concern in this lesson. All rights reserved. Copyright ©2008 by Allen A. Espinosa. 61

Chemical formula is shorthand in chemistry to represent chemical compounds. It actually shows the kinds and numbers of atoms in the smallest representative unit of the substance. Examples of chemical formulas are H2O, LiF, Cl2, CO2 and CaO. Chemical formulas of ionic compounds are called formula units. Formula unit represents the smallest whole number ratio of ions in an ionic compound. From our examples, LiF and CaO are formula units since they are composed of cations and anions. Chemical formulas of covalent compounds, on the other hand, are called molecular formulas. Molecular formula shows the kinds and numbers of atoms present in a molecule of a compound. From our examples, H2O, Cl2 and CO2 are molecular formulas since they are covalent compounds. Molecular formulas are sometimes represented in terms of empirical formulas. Empirical formula gives the lowest whole number ratio of the atoms of the elements in a compound. Take for example hydrogen peroxide which as a molecular formula of H2O2, its empirical formula would be HO since if we divide all the subscripts, which represent ratios, with the smallest whole number subscript, the answer will be equal to 1. Another example is glucose. Its molecular formula is C 6H12O6. If we get its empirical formula then it will be CH 2O since the smallest whole number subscript is 6 so if we divide all the subscripts with 6, then we will be arriving at that answer. Could you think of some other covalent compounds which have an empirical formula? Writing and Naming Chemical Formulas of Ionic Compounds Ionic compounds are made up of ions. So we will begin our discussion with naming ions. Ions can be classified further as monoatomic and polyatomic. Monoatomic ions contain only a single atom which could either have a positive or a negative charge. Polyatomic ions, on the other hand, contains two or more atoms that behave as a single unit which could be positively or negatively charged. Cations are normally named with the name of the element as the root name and by adding the word “ion.” Example is Na+. Na+ is named as sodium ion. This rule in naming is applicable only to the representative elements but for the transition elements which has a varying or different oxidation numbers, which actually represents the total number of electrons that were lost in the formation of the atoms. Table 4.4 shows some common transition metals with varying oxidation numbers. Table 4.4 Common transition metals with varying oxidation numbers _____________________________________________________________________________ _ Element Cation Stock Name Classical Name _____________________________________________________________________________ _ Copper Cu+ Copper (I) ion Cuprous ion 2+ Cu Copper (II) ion Cupric ion 2+ Iron Fe Iron (II) ion Ferrous ion 3+ Fe Iron (III) ion Ferric ion Mercury *Hg22+ Mercury (I) ion Mercurous ion All rights reserved. Copyright ©2008 by Allen A. Espinosa. 62

Hg2+ Mercury (II) ion Mercuric ion 2+ Lead Pb Lead (II) ion Plumbous ion 4+ Pb Lead (IV) ion Plumbic ion 2+ Tin Sn Tin (II) ion Stannous ion Sn4+ Tin (IV) ion Stannic ion 2+ Chromium Cr Chromium (II) ion Chromous ion 3+ Cr Chromium (III) ion Chromic ion Manganese Mn2+ Manganese (II) ion Manganous ion 3+ Mn Manganese (III) ion Manganic ion 2+ Cobalt Co Cobalt (II) ion Cobaltous ion 3+ Co Cobalt (III) ion Cobaltic ion _____________________________________________________________________________ _
*A diatomic elemental ion

Anions, on the other hand, are named by getting the root name from the name of the element and replacing the ending with the suffix –ide. For example we are given the anion N3- . The neutral form of this ion is nitrogen, so we could name this anion by replacing the ending with –ide. Therefore, the name of this ion is nitride. Another example is O2-, its name would be oxide. Could you give some more examples? We are done discussing monoatomic ions; let us now proceed with polyatomic ions. You can recall that polyatomic ions are tightly bound group of atoms that behave as a unit and carry a charge. You may notice from table 4.5 that polyatomic ions are named differently from monoatomic ions but you may also observe that most of them ends with the suffix –ite or –ate. Some of the exceptions to this suffix are the ammonium ion (NH4+), the cyanide ion (CN-) and hydroxide ion (OH-). If the polyatomic ion contains hydrogen ion (H+), the name of the polyatomic ion will have a hydrogen name then the name of the remaining polyatomic ion. Example is the polyatomic ion HCO 3-. Its name will be hydrogen carbonate. Table 4.5 Common polyatomic ions _____________________________________________________________________________ _ 1– charge 2– charge 3– charge _____________________________________________________________________________ _ H2PO4HPO42PO33(dihydrogen phosphate) (hydrogen phosphate) (phosphite) 2C2H3O2 C2O4 PO43(acetate) (oxalate) (phosphate) 2HSO3 SO3 (hydrogen sulfite) (sulfite) ________________________ HSO4 SO421+ charge (hydrogen sulfate) (sulfate) ________________________ All rights reserved. Copyright ©2008 by Allen A. Espinosa. 63

HCO3CO32NH4+ (hydrogen carbonate) (carbonate) (ammonium) 2NO2 CrO4 (nitrite) (chromate) NO3Cr2O72(nitrate) (dichromate) CN SiO32(cyanide) (silicate) OH (hydroxide) MnO4(permanganate) ClO(hypochlorite) ClO2(chlorite) ClO3(chlorate) ClO4(perchlorate) _____________________________________________________________________________ _ Ionic compounds can be further classified as to binary or ternary compounds. Binary ionic compounds are compounds composed of two elements only while ternary ionic compounds are compounds composed of three different elements. In writing chemical formula of binary ionic compounds, we just have to write the formula of the cation first then the anion. After that, crisscross the charges of the ions wherein the charge of the cation will be the subscript of the anion and the charge of the anion will be the subscript of the cation. The net charge should be equal to zero since compounds are neutral. We could verify this by multiplying the subscript with the charge of the ion and getting the sum of the two ions. See figure 4.15 for the examples. K+ S2= K2S 0 Fe3+ O2= Fe2O3 0

(2)(+1) + (1)(-2)

(2)(+3) + (3)(-2)

Figure 4.15 Writing chemical formulas of binary ionic compounds In naming chemical formula of binary ionic compounds, write the name of the cation first followed by the name of the anion. In our examples at figure 4.15, we have formed two ionic compounds, these are K2S and Fe2O3. K2S is named as potassium sulfide while Fe2O3 is named as iron (III) oxide or ferric oxide. The same rule is applied in writing and naming chemical formulas of ternary ionic compounds. See figure 4.16 for the examples. All rights reserved. Copyright ©2008 by Allen A. Espinosa. 64

Al3+

SO42=

Al2(SO4)3 0

Sn2+

CO32=

SnCO3 0

(2)(+3) + (3)(-2)

(2)(+2) + (2)(-2)

Figure 4.16 Writing chemical formulas of ternary ionic compounds From our examples in figure 4.16, we have formed two ionic compounds, these are Al2(SO4)3 and SnCO3. Al2(SO4)3 is named as aluminum sulfate while SnCO3 is named as tin (II) carbonate or stannous carbonate. Take note that when the charges or oxidation numbers of both cation and anion are the same, they could cancel, just like in the case of SnCO3. Writing and Naming Chemical Formulas of Covalent Compounds Covalent compounds can be classified as to binary covalent compounds and acids. Binary covalent compounds are compounds composing of two nonmetals while acids are special group of covalent compounds that produce hydrogen ion (H +) when dissolved in water. In writing and naming binary covalent compounds, we should take note of the prefixes shown in table 4.6.

Table 4.6 Greek prefixes used in naming binary covalent compounds _____________________________________________________________________________ _ Prefix Meaning _____________________________________________________________________________ _ mono1 di2 tri3 tetra4 penta5 hexa6 hepta7 octa8 nona9 deca10 _____________________________________________________________________________ In naming binary covalent compounds, write the name of the leftmost element in the chemical formula first then the name of the second element. Replace the ending of the second element with the suffix –ide. Use the Greek prefixes to indicate the number of All rights reserved. Copyright ©2008 by Allen A. Espinosa. 65

atoms of each element. Take note that the prefix mono- is not used in naming the first element. Moreover, if the prefix ends in a or o, these letters are dropped if the second element begins with a vowel. For example, when there is only one oxide ion, we name it as monoxide instead of monooxide. See other examples below. CO CO2 N2O PCl3 SF6 carbon monoxide carbon dioxide dinitrogen monoxide phosphorus trichloride sulfur hexafluoride

Acids can be classified as to hydroacids and oxoacids. Hydroacids are acids formed by halogens. Hydroacids are named by adding the prefix hydro- plus the name of the halogen wherein its ending is replaced with the suffix –ic. See examples below. HF HCl hydrofluoric acid hydrochloric acid

Oxoacids, on the other hand, is recognized as a polyatomic ion with a hydrogen at the beginning of the chemical formula. It is commonly named with –ous and –ic suffix. The suffix –ous is used for acids with more oxygen atoms while –ic is used for acids with less oxygen atoms. Furthermore, the suffix –ous is used to replace the name of the polyatomic ion ending in –ite while the suffix –ic is used to replace the name of the polyatomic ion ending in–ate. See examples below. HNO2 is nitrous acid from base polyatomic ion NO2-, nitrite HNO3 is nitric acid from base polyatomic ion NO3-, nitrate

Application
Shown in tables 4.4, 4.5 and 4.6 are important facts in naming ionic and covalent compounds. Your task now is to make a separate chart for each table. This will be will be helpful reference sheets in naming ionic and covalent compounds. Share your work with the class.

Science Link
The binary covalent molecule carbon monoxide, CO, is an ordorless, colorless, flammable gas used in the manufacture of numerous organic and inorganic chemical is also very harmful to humans. Carbon monoxide is usually produced by automobiles. When inhaled by humans, carbon monoxide binds with hemoglobin molecules replacing oxygen. Carbon monoxide is more effective in binding with hemoglobin in comparison with oxygen. When this happen, oxygen supply of the body will be lessened and could result to serious illness or even death. All rights reserved. Copyright ©2008 by Allen A. Espinosa. 66

Web Trips
Test your knowledge in naming ionic and covalent compounds, try answering Cation Anion Formula Name
Magnesium bicarbonate

Fe3+

NO2Manganese (II) chlorate

SnBr4 Co2+ PO43CuCO3
Lithium nitride

the quiz at http://www.mpdocker.demon.co.uk/as_a2/topics/ionic_and_covalent_bonding/quiz_2.html

Word Pad
 Binary compounds are compounds composed of two elements only.  Chemical formula is shorthand in chemistry to represent chemical compounds. It actually shows the kinds and numbers of atoms in the smallest representative unit of the substance.  Empirical formula gives the lowest whole number ratio of the atoms of the elements in a compound.  Formula unit represents the smallest whole number ratio of ions in an ionic compound.  Molecular formula shows the kinds and numbers of atoms present in a molecule of a compound.  Monoatomic ions contain only a single atom which could either have a positive or a negative charge.  Polyatomic ions contains two or more atoms that behave as a single unit which could be positively or negatively charged.  Ternary compounds are compounds composed of three different elements.

Wrap It Up
1. Fill in the blanks in the following table:

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67

2. Fill in the blanks in the following table: Formula H3PO4 Carbonic acid HNO3 Nitrogen monoxide NCl3 Dinitrogen tetroxide P4O6 Name Sulfuric acid

Lesson 6

What are the Forces of Attraction that Exist Between Molecules?

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68

Do and Discover
You are already familiar with the three types of chemical bond that we have discussed. On the space below, describe briefly each type of chemical bond. 1. __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __ 2. __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __ 3. __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __

Whiz Quest
We know that a chemical bond or intramolecular force is a force that holds together two atoms in a molecule. Do you think there will also be attraction among molecules as they come closer with each other? The answer is yes, and these forces of attraction among molecules are what we called intermolecular forces. Intermolecular forces are forces that hold molecules together which can be attractive or repulsive. Table 4.7 shows the intermolecular and interionic forces. These intermolecular forces are accountable for the properties of substances. Moreover, intermolecular forces also explain why substances exist as solid, liquid or gas at room temperature. Table 4.7 Intermolecular and interionic forces of attraction _____________________________________________________________________________ _ Type of Interaction Interacting Particles _____________________________________________________________________________ _ Dispersion Polar and nonpolar molecules Dipole-dipole Polar molecules Ion-Dipole Ions and polar molecules Ion-Ion Ions (cations and anions) Hydrogen bond N, O or F bonded with H atom _____________________________________________________________________________ _ Dipole-dipole, dipole-induced dipole and dispersion forces are collectively known as van der Waals forces, after the Dutch physicist Johannes van der Waals. IonAll rights reserved. Copyright ©2008 by Allen A. Espinosa. 69

dipole forces are not a van der Waals force. Hydrogen bonding is a special type of dipole-dipole interaction. Dipole – Dipole Forces Dipole-dipole forces are attractive forces existing between polar molecules, that is, molecules that exhibit dipole moment, such as hydrogen chloride, HCl. Since there is unequal sharing of electron between H and Cl atoms, there exists a partial positive and partial negative particles or referred to as dipole. The more electronegative atom becomes partially negative and has the most electron density while the least electronegative atom becomes partially positive and has a lesser electron density. See figure 4.17 for the illustration.

Figure 4.17 Dipole-dipole interactions in hydrogen chloride, HCl Ion-Dipole Forces Ion-dipole forces are the attraction between an ion, which can be cation or anion, and a polar molecule. A very good example of this is hydration, or the interaction of water molecules with the cations and anions of an ionic compound dissolved in water. For example, we dissolve sodium chloride, NaCl, in water, H2O, the NaCl will dissociate into Na+ and Cl- in the process of hydration. Since water is a polar molecule and has a partial negative and a partial positive poles, the Na+ will form an ion-dipole interaction with the partial negative part of the water molecule while the Cl- will from an ion-dipole interaction with the partial positive part of the water molecule. See figure 4.18 for the illustration.

Figure 4.18 Ion-dipole interaction between sodium chloride, NaCl, and water, H2O Dispersion Forces or London Forces Dispersion forces or London forces are attractive forces that are formed due to the temporary dipoles induced in atoms or molecules. Dispersion of London forces is known to exist among nonpolar molecules. All rights reserved. Copyright ©2008 by Allen A. Espinosa. 70

Let us take for example an ion or a polar molecule near an atom or a nonpolar molecule. There will be distortion in the electron clouds of the atom or the nonpolar molecule due to the force exerted by the ion or the polar molecule. This distortion will result to temporary dipoles in the nonpolar molecule called induced dipole. Induced dipole is the separation of the positive and negative charges in a nonpolar molecule due to the nearness of an ion or a polar molecule. When the induced dipole is due to the interaction between an ion and a nonpolar molecule, the interaction is called ioninduced dipole interaction and when the induced dipole is due to the interaction between a polar and a nonpolar molecule, the interaction is called dipole-induced dipole interaction. See figure 4.19 for the illustration.

Figure 4.19 Formation of (a) ion-induced dipole interaction and (b) dipole-induced dipole interaction Hydrogen Bond Hydrogen bond is a special type of dipole-dipole interaction between the hydrogen atom in a polar molecule and the highly electronegative atoms nitrogen, N, oxygen, O, and fluorine, F. Water molecule is a very good example of substance that exhibits hydrogen bonding. See figure 4.20 for the illustration.

Figure 4.20 Hydrogen bonding in water, H2O

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Application
As a group project, make molecular models for each type of interaction using any material which you think will better represent each type of interaction. Present your work to the class.

Science Link
Knowledge on the intermolecular forces of attraction is essential in the pharmaceutical industry for designing drugs. Pharmaceutical chemists must take into consideration the type of interaction that will exists between the drug and the human body or the targeted area in the human body. Solubility or dissolution of drugs is also an important factor which can be explained by the type of interaction existing between the drug and the targeted area in the human body.

Web Trips
Test your knowledge on intermolecular forces of attraction. Try answering the quiz at http://wps.prenhall.com/esm_tro_chemistry_1/77/19899/5094337.cw/index.html

Word Pad
 Dipole-dipole forces are attractive forces existing between polar molecules, that is, molecules that exhibit dipole moment.  Dipole-induced dipole interaction term used when the induced dipole is due to the interaction between a polar and a nonpolar molecule.  Dispersion forces or London forces are attractive forces that are formed due to the temporary dipoles induced in atoms or molecules.Intermolecular forces are forces that hold molecules together which can be attractive or repulsive.  Hydrogen bond is a special type of dipole-dipole interaction between the hydrogen atom in a polar molecule and the highly electronegative atoms nitrogen, N, oxygen, O, and fluorine, F.  Induced dipole is the separation of the positive and negative charges in a nonpolar molecule due to the nearness of an ion or a polar molecule.  Ion-dipole forces are the attraction between an ion, which can be cation or anion, and a polar molecule.  Ion-induced dipole interaction term used when the induced dipole is due to the interaction between an ion and a nonpolar molecule.  van der Waals forces is the collective name of Dipole-dipole, dipole-induced dipole and dispersion forces.

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Wrap It Up
Predict the type of interaction that may be existing in the following compounds and molecules. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. HF Cl2 and HBr HI MgCl2 and H2O H2 and KCl ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________

Photo and content credits, lesson 6 http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/dissolNACL.gif http://www.cofc.edu/~martine/111Lectweek14_files/image002.jpg http://www.daviddarling.info/images/hydrogen_bonding_in_water.gif

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Lesson 7

What are the Shapes of Molecules?

Do and Discover
Bonding electrons are the electrons that actually participated in the formation of covalent bond. Identify the number of bonding electron pairs in the following molecules. Example: SnCl2 has two bonding electrons 1. CH4 2. NH3 3. BeCl2 4. H2O 5. SF6 _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________

Whiz Quest
The shape and the arrangement of atoms in a compound affect the physical and chemical properties of molecules. This arrangement of atoms in a molecule is collectively known as molecular geometry. The geometry of molecules can be simply predicted by identifying how many electron pairs in the central atom and in the bonded atoms actually participated in the formation of the covalent bond and how many electron pairs in the central atom did not participate in the formation of the covalent bond. As we can recall, electrons that participated in the formation of the covalent bond is called bonding electrons and the ones that did not participate is called nonbonding electrons. Predicting the geometry of molecules using the idea that electron pairs in a molecule undergone electrostatic repulsion can be clearly be illustrated using the Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) Theory. Study table 4.8 for the list of shapes of simple molecules with their corresponding description. Note that the symbol A represents the central atom, B represents the attached atoms and E represents nonbonding electrons or lone pairs.

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Table 4.8 VSEPR models _____________________________________________________________________________ _ Number of Electron Pairs Type Bonding Nonbonding Shape Example _____________________________________________________________________________ _ Molecules in Which the Central Atom has No Nonbonding Electrons / Lone Pairs AB2 2 0 Linear BeCl2 AB3 3 0 Trigonal Planar

AB4

4

0

Tetrahedral

BF3

CH4 AB5 5 0 Trigonal Bipyramidal

PCl5 AB6 6 0 Octahedral

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SF6 Molecules in Which the Central Atom has Nonbonding Electrons / Lone Pairs AB2E 2 1 Bent

SO2 AB3E 3 1 Trigonal Pyramidal

NH3 AB2E2 2 2 Bent

H2O AB4E 4 1 Distorted Tetrahedron (Seesaw)

AB3E2

3

2

T-shaped

SF4

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76

ClF3 AB2E3 2 3 Linear

XeF2 AB5E 5 1 Square Pyramidal

BrF5 AB4E2 4 2 Square Planar

XeF4 _____________________________________________________________________________ _ The shapes of molecules can be predicted by the following steps. Step 1. Draw the Lewis Electron Dot Symbol for each atom in the molecule. Step 2. Identify the total number of electron pairs in the central atom and determine which electron pairs are the bonding electrons and which are the nonbonding electrons or lone pairs. Step 3. Refer to table 4.8 for the geometry of the molecule.

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77

Example: Predict the molecular geometry of PF3. Step 1. Lewis Electron Dot Symbol of PF3

Step 2. Bonding and Nonbonding Electrons in PF3 Shown in central electrons. electron the red box are the nonbonding electrons in the atom while shown in the blue box are the bonding Therefore we can say that there is one nonbonding pair and there are three bonding electron pairs.

Step 3. The general form would be AB3E and the molecular geometry is trigonal pyramidal

Application
There are actually a lot of computer applications involving the shape or geometry of molecules. One of the free computer applications on the geometry of molecules is the ChemSketch®. Download your free ChemSketch® at http://www.acdlabs.com by clicking the button Download Free ACD/ChemSketch 11 at the bottom part of the website. The application is user-friendly. Explore it and share it to the class.

Science Link

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Molecular geometries of molecules are essential for pharmaceutical chemists in the design and development of drugs. Because of the widespread technology of molecular modeling on computer programs, pharmaceutical chemists were now able to see the three-dimensional structures of complex molecules in the computer monitor. Chemists can also control the molecular structure, that is, they can rotate it in any angle they wish to, they can see the backside of the molecule and they can shrink or cut it. This is possible because of the computer technology called virtual reality. There are also technologies in determining molecular geometries experimentally such as X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometer, combination of gas chromatograph and mass spectrometer (GC-MS) and the Fourier transform infrared and Roman (FTIR) spectrometer.

Web Trips
Try answering the quiz on the geometry of molecules at http://www.chem.ox.ac.uk/vrchemistry/vsepr/intro/vsepr_splash.html

Word Pad
 Molecular Geometry is the arrangement of atoms in a molecule.  Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) Theory is a theory in predicting the geometry of molecules using the idea that electron pairs in a molecule undergone electrostatic repulsion.

Wrap It Up
Predict and draw the shape or molecular geometry of the following molecules. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. SH2 CO2 SnCl2 ClF5 SBr4

Photo and content credits, lesson 6 http://www.chemvc.com

Lesson 8

What are the Types of Solids?
All rights reserved. Copyright ©2008 by Allen A. Espinosa. 79

Do and Discover
The type of atoms or elements bonded together predicts the type of chemical bond that they will form. Identify the chemical bond existing in the following bonded atoms or elements. 1. LiF 2. CO2 3. Mg 5. SO2 ________________________________

________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________

4. CaCO3-

Whiz Quest
Structure and properties of solids such as melting point, density and hardness are dependent on the forces of attraction acting on them. Could you recall these forces of attraction that we have discussed in lesson 6? Solids can actually be divided into two categories; these are crystalline and amorphous solids. Crystalline solids are solids that have orderly arrangement of particles such as atoms, molecules or ions. It also has a unit cell which is a basic repeating structural unit. Crystalline solids can be further classified into ionic, covalent, molecular or metallic. We will be discussing each type as we move further in the lesson. Amorphous solids, in comparison, lacks a three-dimensional structure of particles. An example of this is the glass, which is a fusion product of inorganic materials such as silicon dioxide (SiO2), sodium oxide (NaO) and boron oxide (B2O3) that has been cooled to a rigid state without crystallizing. Ionic compounds such as sodium chloride (NaCl) have an ionic crystal structure. Ionic crystals have two important properties; it is composed of anions and cations and the size of these charged particles differ from one another. The ions form threedimensional structure or repeating unit cells called crystal lattice. This explains why sodium chloride and ionic compounds, in general, have relatively high melting point. Figure 4.21 illustrates the crystal lattice of sodium chloride. All rights reserved. Copyright ©2008 by Allen A. Espinosa. 80

Figure 4.21 Crystal lattice of sodium chloride (NaCl) A covalent crystal has true covalent bonds between all of the atoms in the crystal. You can think of a covalent crystal as one big molecule. Many covalent crystals have extremely high melting points. Examples of covalent crystals include diamond and silicon dioxide (SiO2). Diamond is made up of carbon atoms only and is bonded by covalent bond. Four covalent bonds are formed in diamond crystals forming a tetrahedron or tetrahedral arrangement of atoms. This repeating tetrahedron unit cell forms a covalent network structure, this account for the hardness of diamond, making it suitable in cutting glasses. See figure 4.22 for the illustration of the covalent network in diamond.

Figure 4.22 Covalent networks in diamond Molecular crystals contain recognizable molecules within their structures. A molecular crystal is held together by non-covalent interactions, like van der Waals forces or hydrogen bonding. Molecular crystals tend to be soft with relatively low melting points. Rock candy, the crystalline form of table sugar or sucrose, is an example All rights reserved. Copyright ©2008 by Allen A. Espinosa. 81

of a molecular crystal. Figure 4.23 illustrates the crystal structure of table sugar or sucrose.

Figure 4.23 Crystal structure of table sugar or sucrose Metals can also form crystals called metallic crystals. Individual metal atoms of metallic crystals sit on lattice sites. This leaves the outer electrons of these atoms free to float around the lattice. Metallic crystals tend to be very dense and have high melting points.

Application
As a class activity, make ball-and-stick models for sodium chloride crystal lattice, diamond covalent networks and sucrose crystal structure. Present your work to the class.

Science Link
The difference between an amorphous and crystalline solid is very important in drug making. When making a drug in solution, the drug is added to the other chemicals to prolong the shelf life. When the drug is crystallizing, if it forms a crystalline solid, there is space in the crystal for the ice to come out leaving the drug and the components. This process only takes about two or three days. If the drug forms an amorphous solid during the crystallizing phase then it takes about seven days. This is because amorphous solids do not have space for the ice to come out during the freezing therefore the ice must diffuse out. Therefore it is preferable to have crystalline solids in drug making. See illustration below.

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Web Trips
There are a lot of practice exercises regarding types of solids in the internet. Try answering one of the quizzes at http://www.chemistry.nmsu.edu/studntres/chem115/resources/quiz_phasedi agram.html

Word Pad
 Crystalline solids are solids that have orderly arrangement of particles such as atoms, molecules or ions.  Unit cell is a basic repeating structural unit.  Amorphous solids are solids that lack a three-dimensional structure of particles.  Ionic crystals have two important properties; it is composed of anions and cations and the size of these charged particles differ from one another.  Covalent crystal has true covalent bonds between all of the atoms in the crystal.  Molecular crystals contain recognizable molecules within their structures and are held together by non-covalent interactions.  Metallic crystals are crystals formed by metals.

Wrap It Up
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Complete the table by supplying it with the needed information.

Type of Crystal Ionic Covalent Molecular Metallic

Force(s) Holding the Units Together

General Properties

Examples

Photo and content credits, lesson 6 http://www.cartage.org.lb/en/themes/sciences/physics/SolidStatePhysics/AtomicBonding/Cryst alStructure/StructuresSolids/nacl.gif http://media-2.web.britannica.com/eb-media/15/7515-004-B7F0EB3B.gif http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/7d/Sucrose-rodmodel.png

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Lesson 9

What are the Properties and Uses of Some Ionic and Covalent Compounds?

Do and Discover
Surely there are ionic and covalent compounds that you are familiar with. Give at least five (5) ionic compounds and their uses and five (5) covalent compounds and their uses. Ionic Compounds Uses

Chemical Formula

Chemical Formula

Covalent Compounds Uses

Whiz Quest
Ionic compounds are formed by a chemical reaction between the neutral forms of the elements that make it up, in which one or two electrons jump from the nonmetallic to the metallic element. After the reaction, the two elements attract one another because of their difference in charge. Ionic compounds have high melting and boiling points and good electrical conductivity when they are melted or in solution. Most ionic compounds All rights reserved. Copyright ©2008 by Allen A. Espinosa. 85

dissolve

readily

in

water.

When

solid,

they

typically

form

into

crystals.

Ionic compounds have hundreds of different uses. All salts are ionic compounds, as are many substances that promote life processes. Sodium chloride is the most common ionic compound. It is very important to diets of human beings since it aids in the absorption of dissolved foods in blood. Other than that, it is also used in preservation and flavoring of foods. Other familiar ionic compounds are magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2) and sodium bicarbonate or sodium hydrogen carbonate (NaHCO3), which is used as antacid or for the relieve of acid indigestion. Potassium bromide (KBr) is used in medicine and in photography, potassium chlorate (KClO3) is used in fireworks and explosives, potassium hydroxide (KOH) is used in making soft soap and potassium nitrate (KNO 3) is used in meat preservation and as an ingredient in gunpowder. Ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH) is used as a cleaning agent, calcium carbonate (CaCO 3) is a component of cement and copper (II) sulfate pentahydate (CuSO4 5H2O) is used in making certain pesticides and in copper plating. Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) is used for cleaning clogged drains, sodium nitrate (NaNO3) is used in fertilizers and sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) is used as a water softener for hard water. A covalent compound is a compound in which the atoms that are bonded share electrons rather than transfer electrons from one to the other. Covalent compounds generally have low melting and boiling points, are soft and squishy, are flammable compared with ionic compounds, don’t conduct electricity in water and aren’t usually very soluble in water. Water is a very familiar covalent molecule; it is very important to biological processes as a catalytic agent. It is also used by mankind in his daily life and in the industry. Other familiar covalent compounds and molecules are carbon in the form of diamond and carbon in the form of graphite. The former is used as jewelry and in cutting glasses while the latter is used as “lead” for pencils. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is an ingredient is fire extinguishers, carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is used for dry cleaning, molecular chlorine (Cl2) is used as disinfectant in pools and as a bleaching agent and molecular iodine (I2) is used as an antiseptic and in making iodized salt. Molecular nitrogen (N2) is used in explosives and in fertilizers, nitrous oxide (N2O) is used as an anesthetic in dentistry and molecular oxygen (O2) is used in welding torches and oxygen tents and as a rocket fuel in its liquid form.

Application
Mentioned in this lesson are just few applications of ionic and covalent compounds. As a research work, find as many as you can ionic and covalent compounds and their uses. Report your research work to the class. All rights reserved. Copyright ©2008 by Allen A. Espinosa. 86

Science Link

Web Trips
Find out how well you are familiar with the uses and properties of ionic and covalent compounds, try the quiz at http://www.elmhurst.edu/~chm/vchembook/145Areview.html

Word Pad
 Properties are a characteristic trait or peculiarity.  Uses refer to purposes.

Type of Compound Ionic Covalent

General Properties

Example

Use(s)

Wrap It Up
Complete the table by supplying it with the needed information.

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87

All in All
1. When these two particles come closer with one another, there will be an electrostatic attraction between the positive and the negative charges and will form an ionic bond or electrovalent bond. 2. Covalent bond is formed by the sharing of electrons between nonmetals. 3. Metallic bond occurs when the valence electrons of individual metal atoms are bonded loosely to the positive kernels of the atom rather than to the individual atoms themselves. 4. By getting the difference in the electronegativity values of the atoms that combine together, you can predict the type of bond that formed. 5. In naming chemical formula of binary and ternary ionic compounds, write the name of the cation first followed by the name of the anion. In naming binary covalent compounds, write the name of the leftmost element in the chemical formula first then the name of the second element. Replace the ending of the second element with the suffix –ide. 6. Intermolecular forces are forces that hold molecules together which can be attractive or repulsive. 7. Predicting the geometry of molecules using the idea that electron pairs in a molecule undergone electrostatic repulsion can be clearly be illustrated using the Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) Theory. 8. Solids can actually be divided into two categories; these are crystalline and amorphous solids. Crystalline solids have three-dimensional structure while amorphous solids don’t have. 9. Ionic and covalent compounds has many application and uses to the industry and to daily living as well.

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88

Chapter Test
I. Modified True or False Directions: On the space before the number, write T if the statement is true and F it is false. If the statement is false, underline the word or phrase that makes it incorrect. 1. A molecular crystal is held together by non-covalent interactions, like van der Waals forces or hydrogen bonding. 2. The octet rule says that atoms tend to combine in such a way that they each have eight electrons in their valence shells, giving them the same electronic configuration as a noble gas. 3. This special bonding occurring in metals give them stability by attaining an open configuration or a complete octet due to the delocalization or hopping of electrons from one metal atom to another forming a sea of electrons. 4. When the difference in electronegativity values (ΔEN) of the element is equal to or greater than 2.0 eV, the bond formed is polar covalent. 5. Empirical formula gives the lowest whole number ratio of the atoms of the elements in a compound. II. Multiple Choice Directions: Choose the letter of the choice that answers the question or completes the statement. Write your answer on the space before each item. 1. Refer to the figure below. Mg I B II H III C. III and IV D. I and II F IV

Which pair will form an ionic bond? A. I and IV B. II and III 2. Refer to the table below. VSEPR Notation AB2 AB3 AB4 AB5

Number of Electrons Pairs Bonding Nonbonding 2 0 3 0 4 5 0 0

Predicted Shape Example Linear HgCl2 Trigonal BF3 planar Tetrahedral CH4, NH4 Trigonal PCl5 bipyramidal 89

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AB6

6

0

Octahedral

SF6

What is the predicted shape of Beryllium chloride? A. Linear C. Trigonal planar B. Tetrahedral D. Octahedral 3. Which of the following molecules will have a dipole-dipole interaction and at the same time would exhibit hydrogen bonding? A. Cl2 C. CO2 B. HCl D. CF4 4. Some of the molecules found in the human body are NH2CH2COOH (glycine), C6H12O6 (glucose), and CH3(CH2)16COOH (stearic acid). The bonds they form are A. Nuclear C. Ionic B. Metallic D. Covalent 5. Which element is capable of forming stable, extended chains of atoms through single, double, or triple bonds with itself? A. Carbon C. Nitrogen B. Oxygen D. Hydrogen III. Structured Questions Directions: Answer the following questions. An atom of the element X has an electronic configuration of 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p3. 1. Would element X be a metal or a nonmetal? Explain your answer. ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ __ 2. How many hydrogen atoms would combine with one atom of an element X? ___________________________________________________________________________________ _ 3. What type of bond is formed between hydrogen and element X? ___________________________________________________________________________________ _ 4. Suggest the chemical formula of the molecule formed between hydrogen and element X. ___________________________________________________________________________________ _ IV. Free Response Directions: Answer the following questions briefly but completely. All rights reserved. Copyright ©2008 by Allen A. Espinosa. 90

1. The melting points of magnesium oxide (MgO) and sodium chloride (NaCl) are 2800°C and 801°C respectively. Explain why MgO has higher melting point compared with NaCl. ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ __ 2. Given the species SF4 and NH4+, which interaction will have greater electron-electron repulsion? Explain your answer. ___________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________ __

REFERENCES _________________ (2007). Chemistry Conceptual Learning Level 0. Singapore: GLM Pte Ltd. Chang, Raymond (2005). Chemistry 8th Edition. Singapore: McGraw Hill. Deauna, Melecio C., et. al. (2003) The World of Chemistry Laboratory Manual. Quezon City: SIBS Publishing House. Mapa, Amelia P. and Trinidad B. Fidelino (1999). Science and Technology III: Chemistry. Quezon City: SD Publications. Mapa, Amelia P. and Trinidad B. Fidelino (1999). Science and Technology III: Chemistry (Teacher’s Manual). Quezon City: SD Publications. Mendoza, Estrella E. (2003) Chemistry. Quezon City: Phoenix Publishing House, Inc. Mendoza, Estrella E. (2003) Chemistry Laboratory Manual. Quezon City: Phoenix Publishing House, Inc. Nueva España, Rebecca C. and Joy A. Apostol (2008). Science and Technology III: Chemistry. Quezon City: Abiva Publishing House, Inc. Nueva España, Rebecca C. and Joy A. Apostol (2004). Science and Technology III: Chemistry (Teacher’s Guide). Quezon City: Abiva Publishing House, Inc. Padolina, Ma. Cristina D., et. al. (2006) Conceptual and Functional Chemistry Modular Approach. Metro Manila: Vibal Publishing House, Inc. Wilbraham, Antony C., et. al. (2000). Chemistry 5th Edition. Singapore: Pearson Education (Asia) Pte Ltd.

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