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Xncpsamgn

]{Xm[n]v ]dbm\pXv

atX-X-c-Xzw, am\-hn-IX, Ckvemw

21

Am^v Am-n-pv

Krl]cn-]m-e\w ]cn-Wmahnizm-ks
\ymbo-I-cn-p-pthm?

Xkv\ow ^ukn
36

Aen sNmSv

IqSn-mgvN

48

hnip]mX

50

hnthIm\\pw khaX kXyhmZhpw

Xnsev?

]n.hn.F {]nwtdmkv

Internet Edition: www.snehasamvadam.com


Email: editor@snehasamvadam.com
For Online Booking: www.islamicbookshelf.com

2013 tabv

Printed Published and owned by M.Mohammed Akbar. Printed at Screen Offset printers,
Cochin-18. Published at Cochin-18. Editor M.Mohammed Akbar, Niche of Truth,
PB No:1981, Vyttila, Cochin-19, Tel: 0484 2301275, Fax: 0484 2301175

hm-b-\-m-cp-sSkw-hm-Zw-

hopw Nne eu PnlmZv


"IYI'
""Ncn{Xnse GsXmcp kw`hhpw
c-v {]mhiyw Bhnpp, hkvXp-XIfmbpw IYIfmbpw'' FXv GtXm {Kov Zmi\nIs hmNIfmWv.
tI-cfnse Nne kw`h FSp-pt\m-nbm ta hmNIs "If-hmbpw IYbmbpw' Fv amn hmbn-m-sav tXmpp.
eu PnlmsZ "Atd_y `qXw'
s]-IpnIsf IqtmsS hioIcnv
sImpt]mbn Cu\ apIfn shv
]pw \Jhpw apSnbpsamgnsI asmw
XnpXov A ^lw Nns Fp-Ifpt]npXpt]mse acp`q-an-bn sImpt]mbn Xnb IY \msamw
`o-XntbmsS hmbnv XoXmWv. {]-kvXp-X IY hmbnv t]Snv ]\n]nSnp
N-pt]mb Hcp]mSv lX`mKycpsS Ipgnam-Sfn Fpw aecpw t\Znv sImm-Wv ]e kwLv]cnhm imJIfn
C-v {]`mXt`cnI XpSmdv Xs.
Akm[yamb a\cpv sImv ac-Ws AXnPohn Nne AXnImbm
C-pw IpXnchpw ]qpfbnepw am\-knItcmKn\v ASnaIfmbn Ccp-n-\pn Pohnpp.
]dphcpXv asmpa, tI-cf-kaqlw klXm]tmsS hmbn-p-Xo {]kvXpX CmkpI IYIfmbn

amXr`qan BgvN]Xnn hopw {]-kno-Icnv sImncnpp. Poh tPm_v tXmakns Nne C\mjW
"]cn-Wma_UmbnI' Hgnv \n-n-bm XmcXtays\ aebmfn \nehmcw
]pep B\pImenIamWv amXr-`qan BgvN]Xnv. X\nv hgm Nne
Cwojv sSant\mfPnI HgnsI _mnbp-sXmw ASn {Smkvtev sNbvXv
kz-w t]cn {]knoIcnp Po-h tPm_v tXmakns teJ\ns
sam-w t]PpI Iqnngv, AsXmgn-sIbp t]PpImWv Xm hne\-InbsX kzbwIrX \nh-rX
- n-tbmsS amKkn\pambn aSntmIp amXr`q-an hmb\mcn\n t]SnWw. Nne
A-]-kI IYIfpsS t]PpI IqSn
C-\n Cu KWn F-npSt-nbn-cnpp.
IjvSamWv amXr`qanbpsS Imcyw! B.-Fkv.Fkpw ImtmenIv _njv Iu-knepaSnb Nne Beq ImI sImnsdpn hngpm {ianv,
sXm-bn XSpt]n eu PnlmsZ- {Iqc^enXw IYmcq]n {]kno-Icnm am{Xw XcwXmgvXmtWm
sI.-]n tIihtat\m \mbIXzw hl-n amXr`qan BgvN]Xnv?
Ignamkw {]knoIcn C-pta-t\ms "acWth' F IY hmbnpXo-m Ignbmhmbn AXns
Bibsamv ]Is.

2013 tabv

B.Fkv.Fkv IpSpw_n P\n kpawKe F s]Ipnsb ap-kvenw-\ma[mcnbmb _jo {]Wbnv,


HfntmSn hnhmlnXcmbn IpSpw_Po-hnXw \bnpp; tkm\p F aI
P\npp. AXn\nSbn A_pZ-tcmKn-bmb _jo thZ\ G-]n- \ncmi-bn BlXy sNpp. Cusbmcp
XeapdtbmsS IY Ignsv I-cp-Xnb-hv sXn. Hntesd XeapdIfpsS
Ncn{Xw ]dbp "CXnlmksf t]mse IY XpScpIbmWv. "atXXc\mbn'
h-f tkm\p {ItaW B.Fkv.Fkv
NnmKXnmc\mbn amdpp. am{Xa,
Xs ]nXmhns eu PnlmsZ NXn
tkm-\p Asb t_m[ysSpm {ian-pp. CXns\ {]Xntcm[np \npXn\nsSbmWv kpawKebpw tcm-Ke-W {]ISnnp XpSpXv.
X--s `mhns\ NnInkn tUm-IvS-sd Xs A_pZNnI-n
- k
-
- m-bn kpaw-Kebpw kao]npp. AtmgmWv
Ahv Iykd FbvUvkmsW
kXyw t_m[ysSpXv. `m-hn-s\mgn-sI amscbpw kao]nm kpawKe
CXns\Xnsc s]mnsdnpp. Atm-gmWv `mhn\pw A_pZa FbvUvk
- mbncpp tcmKsapw Amcyw Xpdp]dbm aSnmWv _jo B-l
- Xy sNbvXsXpw tUmIvS shf-ns
- -Spp-Xv. am{Xa, Xs kplrpw
Abmcnbpamb Fenk_v Fv.sF.-hn _m[nv acnm ImcWhpw _jo-dmsWpw Xs aI ]d eu
Pn-lmZv IYIsfmw kXyamsWpw
kpa-wKe Xncndnbpp.
tkm\phns kn^npIfn Ah-\v "PmXnbn aXan' FsgpXnbXv
Xncpn lnpdUym FmW-sap-w aIs\, eu PnlmZSap NXnI-sXnsc t]mcmSp B.Fkv.F
-
- ns imJbntev AbWsapap
kpawKebpsS {]XnImcNntbmsS-bmWv IY Ahkm\npX.v Cptat\m I-Ybhkm\nnsnepw amXr`qan
Xp-ScpIbmWv, sXmp]ndsI {]kn-o-Icn- kpkvtajv Nt{mns "Fs
aI HfntmSpw apv' F IYbneqsS;
C\nbpw AXv A`wKpcw XpScpI Xs
sNpw...
ChnsS amXr`qanbSap ap-Jy-[m-

cm- am[ya a\nemtXv aebm-fnhmb\m icmicnp apIfn-emsW- hkvXpXbmWv. P`qanbpw,


]pWy`qanbpw, IemIuapZnbpw l-t-epbm amKkn\psamw hnfnb ]gInb
eu PnlmZv hov, ioXf]m-\ob-Ip-nI-fn hnXcWw sNpXv sImv kaq-ln\v bmsXmcp KpWhpw {]-Xo-nm-\-n; amXr`qanpw.
A\mhiy IWpIfpw A\mZriy
IfhpIfpw tNv tIcfn a-X-kv]-Z hfm {ianXn\memWv sI.kn.-_n.knbpw B.Fkv.Fkpw AXn\v
Acp \n t]meokv Unmvsapw PpUo-jydnbnse Nne ]qWq [mcnIfpw
tatmSXnIfm hnainsXv;
iamb `mjbn XmoXv sN-s-Xv. Acsamcp hKob{[phoIcWw
apn IpsImv XsbmWv a-eb
- mf
- nse apJy[mcmam[ya Ccw
{]Wb aXwamIYIsXnsc cq-ambn {]XnIcnXv. CsXmw adv ]pXp-Xmbn ISph GXm\pw "Zp-\-Sp-Imcp'ambn klib\w \SpXv
a-ebmfnse XesbSppsmcp {]kn
- oIcWn\v \mWtSmWv. am{Xa
amXr`qanbpsS Ncn{Xhpw ss]XrIhpw
Adnbp {]_ptIcfw amXr`qanbn
\nv CXntesd {]Xonppv. AXp-sImv Zbhmbn...
C_v\p sslZ

aymam hne]npp...
tdmlny, Imam apkvenw-I-sXn-sc aymamdnse AdmIm {]hniybn- \SpsImncnp {Iqcamb hwi-lXybpsS hnhc temI a\pjymhImi kwLS\bmb lqa ssdvkv
hmv shfnp sImp-hn-cn-p-Ib
- mWv. t^kv_pneqsSbpw tmKneq-sSbpw anXc tkmjy s\vhpI-fneqsS-bpw "ssev'"ss^v' hmZ{]Xnhm-Z-fn am{Xw Xes]mnbncp aym-am-dn-se `oIcIqsmebpsS sRnp hmI Gsdpsd Fv B.U-nbpsS hniZoIcWneqsS ]pdw
temIw Adnncnpp.
aymamdnse ssk\nI PIfpsS
B-iohmZtmsSbpw _paX t\-XrXz-ns ]npWtbmsSbpw IqSn sXq-dpIfn Bcw`n Iem]w hyXykvX

_paX {KqpI GsSppIbpw


kw-LSnXamb Dqe\n\v t\XrXzw
\IpIbpamWpmbXv.
Ign hjw Pq amktmSp
Iq-Sn Xs apkvenwIsf Ducphnem\p-w {]Xntcm[w Xom\pw Nne _p-kw-LS\I {ianncpp CXn\v kmbp-[cq]w ssIhcnIbmWv Ctmgs
\oneqsS \SXv. `cWIqSns
\ncc ]oU\n-\n-cbmb-a\
- pjym-hIm-i kwLS\IfpsS CSs]S aqew
tamNnXbmb{]Xn] t\Xmhv bmMv
km kqNn hsc Cu Icmf kw`h-sXncn {]XnIcnpn FXmWv Gsd sRnpXv. A\oXnbpw Ak-aXzhpsamw Xs sXmenpdv
kv]inptm am{Xw {]kam-Ip HmsW Xcnse temIamZcnp-b
- mfpI hsc amdn Nnnp-tm, temI kam[m\n\mbn aXkmwkv-Imcn-Icmjv{Sob _ZepIsf Ipdnv
B-temNntnbncnpp.
aymadnse CcIfpsS A`bmYn
Iym-pIfn hsc \nyamb a\pjy-mh-Imi ewL\fmWv \SpsImncn-pXv FXmWv Fv.B.Uyp
IsnbncnpXv. `qcn]w t]cpw
]-Ihym[nIfpw apw ]nSns]v ac-Wh{nemWv. AXntesd `oIcamWv
tdmlny IympIfpsS kao]mWv,
ssk-\nIhml\fn sImphcp
sImshcpsS arXtZl kw-kvI-cnpp FXv.
Iem]w \nb{nm _m[ycmb `cWIqSns {]tXyI tk\bmb
temsXbv, \kmI {KqpIfpw ssk\y-A[ssk\y hn`mKfpw Iem-]Im-cn-Iv Hmi sNbvXp sImSpp hnhcfpw Fv.B.Unbp dntm--n ]cmainppv.Cmcyw
a\pjymhImin hnizkn-p-h
- c
- n Gsd sRepfhmpXv. A{I-a-pw A\oXnIpw aXhpw hKhpw
PmXnbpan. GXv cmPypw ]oUnXsc
klmbntXpv.
aymamdnse apkvenwIfpw {ioe-bn-se Xangv hwiPcpsamw \oXn A-ln-phcmWv. BtKmf hym]Iambn
kam[m\ImwnIfmb `cWm[n-Im-cn-I \Sp kwbp Xocpam\
Ccw kabv KpWIcamhpw. AXn-

2013 tabv

\m-bn temIw apnndWsa A-t]-tbmsS.


Xkolv Xr\n

atXXcXzns t]cn
"kmwkvImcnI ]cZqjW'tfm?
tIcfnsemcmv "atX-Xc
- '-\m-hW-san F{X hsc Xcw XmgWw? kz-w aXn A\y hnainp apgph- Imcyfpw icnbmsWv k-Xnp-Itbm AhcpsS "icnI'\pkcnv
kzw hnizmk{]amW "icnbm-n'sb-SppItbm sNbvXm aXntbm? AtXm kzw aXnse "sXpI' s]mXp ]cnkcv shv hkv{Xmt]w sNbvXv kXn t\SnsbSpt-Xp-tm?
BcyNnfmbn ]cnWan-t ta tNmZyNn Dbphcp-Xv aebmfnse Nne B\pImenI- ImWptmgmWv. kzw ]nXmhv
kaqlw BZcnncp kmlnXy-Imc-\mbn FXv Hcp sXsmpa. AtX kaql-w Xn kmlnXyImcs\ ImWm
hn^e{iaw \Sn FXpw sXmsWv IcpXm \nhmlan. ]s, kaql-w {]XonXv Xncnv sImSpm Ign-bm-Xns t]cn kapZmbw BZcnp-Xns\ XnIv "thdn-v tIp-thm Fsm' Fv Xe shnv t\mp-h sXpImc\sv GXv atXXc a\xkmnbmWv kXnp XcnI!
G{]n ew ]pXnc amkn-Ibn-se Hcp s{]m^kdpsS atXXc {Sokp-I ImWptm klXm]amWv
tXm-pXv. _lp`mcyXzw Ckvemw
tem-In\v kw`mh\ sNbvX kmaql-nI \nbasampa. temIv Ignv
t]m-b GsXms aXfpw \mKcn-I-XI-fpaptm Ahsbmw kwibte-i-as\y AwKoIcnXmWv _lp`mcyXz-sa-Xv. AXns {]mtbmKnIXbpw {]m-amWn-IXbpw t_m[ysSm apkvenw kapZm-bns AIt ]nbn P\nt- Imcyan. Aapkvenw _pn-Pohn-IfSw \nch[n t] AwKoIcn
C-u hkvXpX hniZoIcnm Chn-sSbp-t-inppan.
]s, Acw hnhmlfpsS ]m-ehpw AXnse tKmknpIfpw IqSn NnIsSpsgpXp "`qX-m-Sn(_mn t]Pv 47)

Xn-cp-sam-gnA_q AZo_v

A[zm-\hpw bmN-\bpw
kpss_ C_v\p Aman\nv \nth-Z\w: \_n ]dp: \n-fn-sem-cm Ibsd-Spv ae-bn t]mbn Xs apXp-In Hcp sIv hndIp Npav sImp-hv AXv
hnp Inp Imip-sImv Abm-fpsS A`n-am\w Amlp kwc-n-p-p-s-n
AXmWv P\--tfmSv bmNn-p--Xn-t\-m Abmv D-aw. P\- Abmv
\Ip-Itbm \ntj-[n-p-Itbm sNmw. (_p-Jm-cn)

bmN\ Hcp sXmgn-em-bn amdn-bn-cn-pI-bm-Wv. sshIm-sX Xs bmN-InS-bn sXmgn-emfn kwL-S-\-Ifpw Atkm-k n--tb-j-\p-Ifpw cq]-s-t-mw.
_-kv-m-p--If
- nepw sdbnth-t-j\
- pI-fpw D-h
-
- d
-
- p-Ifpw tI{o-Ic
- nv sNdn-b Ipn-I-sfbpw AwK-ssh-I-ey-ap-h-scbpw D]-tbm-Kn-p h bmNI
dm-p--I {]h-
- n-p-p-sh-Xv CS- b v -n-sS hm-I-fm-hm-dp-v. hgn-b-cnIn ac-Ws
- -p-In-S Nne bmN-Ic
- psS
`m-f
- n\nv ]Xn-\m-bn-c
- W
-
- n\v
cq-]-b-S-p ]gvkpw e- _me-kp _mv ]mv_ppw Is-Spp-sh-Xv hniv amp-hmt\m A\n-hmcy-amb av Poh-k
- m-cW
-
- tm thn-b- ]ecpw bmN-\-bp-ambn \S-p-Xv FXv t_m[y-s-Sp-p-p. XfpsS ncw Gcn-b-bn-tev av bmN-I {]th-in-p-Xv AwKo-I-cn-m Ignbm-Xv sImp hg-p-I t]mepw
tIc-f-nse Nne \Kc ImgvN-I-fm-Wv.
hoSp-I tXmdpw Ib-dn-bn-dn ssI\o-p-tXm hgn-b-cn-In XpWn hncn-ncn-p-tXm s{Sbn\p-If
- n ImUp-If
- pambn hcp-tXm am{X-a; {]XypX X\n-l-X-bn-m ]Wtam av hkvXptfm Xncn-p-sIm-Sp-m-sa hyh-bn-msX Bh-iy-s-Sp-s
- Xmw HcY-n bmN-\-bpsS ]cn-[n-bn s]Spw.

Hcn- km-nI sNe-hp Hcp kn--bpsS D-ch


- m-Zn-t- a-s-Sp J-_ok klmbw Bh-iy-sv \_nsb
k-ao-]n kml-N-cy-n {]hm-N-I
]dp: J_ok, aqv Bfp-Im-s-X Hcmpw `nm-S\w A\p-h-Z\o-ba
-
- . 1. D-ch
- m-ZnXzw Gs-Sp hyn. AXv \nd-th-p-Xv hsc A-bm-v
bm-N\ A\p-hZ- \
- o-ba
- m-Wv. tijw A-Xn-\nv ]nam-d-Ww. 2. Hcp AXym-ln-Xns]v kv \jvS-s hyn.
Po-hn-Xa
- mKw kzmb-a
- m-p-Xv hsc
klm-b-a-`yYn- Ah\pw A\p-h-Z\o-ba
- m-Wv. 3. ISp Zmcn-{Zy-n AIs- hyn. Xs P\-Xb
- n\nv hnthI-im-en-If
- mb aqv t] Abm ISp
Zmcn-{Zy-n-em-sWv kmyw hln-pIbpw sNbvXn-cn-p-p. Abmpw Pohn-X-amKw ssIh-cp-Xv hsc bmN\
A\p-h-Z-\o-b-am-Wv. J_ok, CX-m
asm klm-b`yY-\-Ifpw \njn--amWv. AXn-eqsS Abm `n-p-Xv \njn--hp-amWv.'' (ap-kvenw)
hndIv tiJ-cnv hnn-m-sW-nepw bmN-\ Hgn-hm-W
- s
- av ]Tn-n \_n ,
Btcm-Ky-ap-m-bn-cns sXmgn sNW-sapw bmN\ ]mSn-s-p-ap kti-amWv \Ip-Xv. A\ym-ba
- mbn bmNnp-h
- apJv amwk-an-m-sX-bm-bncnpw \msf ]c-tem-Iv lmP-cm--sSp-I-sbv lZoYp-I-fn ImWmw. k--

2013 tabv

v h[n-m thn bmNn-p--h


Xo-\
- e
- mWv tNmZn-p-hm-p-s
- Xpw
P\-t- fmSv Hpw tNmZnv hmn-sv
D-dv Xcp--hv kzKw Dd-p-X-cm-sa-pw Ahn-Spv ]d-bp-I-bp-m-bn.
A[zm-\nv `Ww Ign-p-X
- ns
a-lXzw \_n {]m[m-\y-]qhw ]Tn-np. Hcp-thf Atlw ]dp: ""kzw
ssI-sImv sXmgn sNbvXv `n-p-Xn-t\-m hnin-jvSa
- mb Blmcw Hcmfpw Ign-n-n-.'' (_p-Jmcn)
ap {]hm-NI
- am-cpsS khn-ti-jX
- I ]Tn-n-p-tm FSp-p-]d
- Hcp Imcyw Ah-c-[n-Ihpw A[zm-\nv `-Ww Ign-p-h
- c
- m-bn-cp-p-sh--XmWv.
"ZmhqZv {]hm-NI
- kzw Icw sImp- A[zm-\-^-e-n\n-m `-Ww Ign-n-cp-n-spw' (_p-Jmcn)
"k-I-cn \_n Bim-cn-bmbncppsh-pw' (apkvenw) lZoYp-I-fn-ep-v.
bmN-Isc Ifn-bm-tem Hpw \-Im-Xn-cn-tem hgn-b bmN-\sb \ncpm-ls
- -Sp-t-X
- v. \ \ne-bn Ah-sc ]p\-c-[n-h-kn-n-m {ian-p-IbmWv Ic-Wo-bw. DXv]m-Z\
- m-[n-jT
v n-Xa
- mb
sNdp-InS sXmgn kwcw-`--fp-mn
A-h-scbpw {Inbm--I-ambn kaql ]ptcm-KX
- n-bpsS `mK-am-m-\mWv kmcpw
CXc aX k
- m-aqly klmb tI{-fpw
{ian-t-X
- v.

]-{Xm-[n-]-v- ]-d-bm-\p--Xv-

hnai-\-sf a[p-c-ap--Xm-n-opI
"Bfp-I-fpsS hnai-\--sfbpw \n-sbbpw ]qW-ambn Cm-Xm-m-\m-Ip-sav Icp-Xp-h _pn-iq-\y-cm-Wv. hkvXp-Xm-]-c-ambn Imcy-sf hne-bn-cp-p-Ibpw kzs AXn-\-\pkr-X-ambn ko-I-cn-p-Ibpw sNp--h, P\- ]pI-gvp--Xn-t\-m Bkz-Zn-pI
hnain-p-X
- n-s\-bm-Wv. P\- \ymb-amb coXn-bn-emWv {]iw-kn-p-s
- X-nt]mepw AXv
Xm Adn-bp--Xp-aqew X\nv Xspdn-p -Xs aXnv h[n-np-Ibpw AXv Xs \I-fpsS aqeyw Ipd-bvp-Ibpw sNbvtXmw F-Xp-sIm-m-Wn-Xv. P\- A\ym-b-amb coXnbn, Al-X-s-Sm Imcy-n-emWv {]iw-kn-p--sX-n AXv Xm Adn-bp--Xp-aqew
bYmY-a-m Hcp Imcy-s-smn X\nv A\ym-b-amb ktm-j-ap-m-hp-Ibpw AXv Hcp
henb Xn-bmbn Xocp-Ibpw sNp-sa--Xp-sIm-p-Iq-Sn-bm-Wn-Xv. AtX-k-abw P\- \ymbambn hnain-p-Ibpw Xm AXv Adn-bp-Ibpw sNp--Xp-aqew Xs sXpIsfdnv kzbw
a\nemphm\pw Xm hnainsSp Imcyfn \nv Hgnv \nphm\pw Hcmv
km[npw. CXv Xobmbpw almb `mKyw XsbmWv; sXpImc\msX B `mKyw
Dt]nm\mhpIbn. A\ymbamb coXnbn hnainsSpIbpw AXv Xm AdnbpIbpw
sNbvXnpw a Ah-ew-_n-p-I-bm-sW-n abpw kl-\hpw hgn IqSp-X {]Xn-^ew e`np--h-\m-bn-o-cp-hm X\nv Ign-bp-a-tm. A\ym-b-ambn hnain-p--h-cpsS Nne \
{]h-\--fpsS {]Xn-^-ehpw Abmv e`n-p-a-tm. G-hp-a-[nIw c Bh-iy-ap
\ymb-hn[n \mfn Ch Abmp kIa-f
- mbn F-s-Sp-Ibpw sNpw. Xm {]hnp-Itbm {]hn-m-\mbn {]bm-ks
- -Sp-Itbm sNm \-bpsS {]Xn-^ew e`n-pIsbXns\ sNdp-Xmbn ImWpI hnUvV
- n-I am{X-am-Wv. P\- Abm-sf-p-dnv {]iw-kn-mepw
Cs-nepw AXv Abm Adn-bm-n-St- m-fw-Imew Abmv AXp-sImv KpWtam tZmjtam
D-m-hp-Ib
- n-. Fm hnai-\
- ns nXn AX-. AXv Abm Adn-mepw Cs-n-epw
Abmv KpW-Ic
- a
- m-Wv. F-s\-bm-sW-nepw AXv Abmv {]Xn-^ew t\Sn-sm-Sp-p-p.'
lnPvd Amw \qm-n Pohn {]kn A-eq-kn-b apkvenw _pn-Pohn Camw A_q
apl-Zv C_v\p lk-ans Inm_p AJvemJp hkvk
- n-bm ^o apZm-hmp \p^qkv F-
{K-nse, "A AJvep hdml' F `mKv {]iw-ks
- bbpw hnai-\s
- -bpw-Ip-dnv ]-cmain-p-tm Camw ]d apI-fn-es hcn-I Fm-e
- p-ap {]t_m-[I
- v shfnw
\Ip-h
- b
- m-Wv. {]iwk CjvSs
- -Sp-Ibpw hnai\w shdp-p-Ibpw sNp-Is
- b am\p-jn-Ia
- mb kzm`m-hn-IX a\pjya\-p-Isf Akz-hpw Aim-h
- p-am-p-X
- m-sWpw {]kvXpX Aim-n-bn\nv c-s-Sp-hm-\p Ghpw \ acpv Am-lp-hns Xr]vXn-p-thn Po-hn--pI-bm-sWpw kaYn-p-sIm-mWv Camw C_v\p lkw apI-fn ]d \nco-W
-
- \-Sp-X
- v. P\-fpsS {]iwk B{K-ln-p-Ibpw hnai\w `b-p-Ibpw sNp-h
- v A-h
Adn-bmsX kzw kIa- \jvSs
- -Sp-Ib
- m-Wv sNp-s
- Xpw A-c
- m-
- v B-m-Yambn Am-lp-hns Xr]vXn am{Xw Imwn-p-sImv Ia- sNp-hmt\m A-s\ kz-PohnXw {]Im-ia
- m-\a
- m-p-ht\m Ign-bn-s hkvXp-Xb
- n-te-mWv Camw ChnsS sh-fnw hoip-X
- .v
Am-lp-hns aXw ap--hv Fn-p-sIm-Sp-p-Ibpw Ah-cp-ambn kwh-Zn-p-Ibpw
sNm ]cn-{i-an-p--hsc kw_-n-n-S-tmfw Ah sNp {]h-\--sfmw Amlp-hns {]oXn am{Xw Dt-in-p-sIm-m-sWv Dd-p-h-cp-t _m[y-X-bp-v. Bfp-I-fpsS
{]iwk B{K-ln-p-Ibpw Biw-k-I Imwn-p-Ibpw ISn {]Xo-n-p-Ibpw sNp-2013 tabv

hv ]e-tmgpw kXyw Xpd-p-]-d-bm Ign-p-sIm--W-sa-n-. Amlp am{X-amWv Bcm-[ys\v {]t_m-[\w sNp-h


- sc kw_-n-n-St- mfw krjvSn-]q-Pb
- psS \ncY-IX t_m[y-s-Sp-tn-h-cnI kzm`m-hn-I-am-Wv. krjvSn]qP-I-cp-sSbpw AXns\ \ymbo-I-cn-p--h-cp-sSbpw BZi-]-c-amb
sh-dpv km-Zn-p-sIm-
- msX kXy-k
- a
- mbn kXy-aX {]t_m-[\w \nh-ln-p-hm-\m-hp-Ib
- n-s-Yw. {]t_m-[n-X-cpsS \ Imwn-p-sImpw tamw B{K-ln-p-sIm-p-amWv kXy-n-tev A-hsc Wn-p-s
- X-nepw {]iw-kb
- m-hp-Ib
- n-, A`n-iw-kbmbncnpw {]t_m-[I
- v t\cn-tS-n-hc
- n-Isb-v {]hm-N-I-m-cp-sS-sbmw Ncn{Xw hy-am-p-p-v. {]hm-N-I-m-cpsS hynPo-hn-X-n aXnp-h
- c
- m-bn-cp-p-sh-nt]mepw Ahsc hnain-p-Ibpw \nn-p-Ibpw sNm-\mWv {]t_m-[nXkaqlw
sam-n XmdmbXv F hkvXpX \Ip ]mTw hne-s-Xm-Wv. hyn-]c
- a
- mbn F{X-Xs \-I Dsm-p-h
- c
- m-sW-nepw kXyw ]d-bm Nqw ImWn-p-h
- v hnai-\
- fpw \nbpw
t\cn-tS-n-h-cp-sa ]mTw; Cu ]mTw bYm-cq-]-n- Dsm-m--Xp-sIm-mWv {]iw-k-I am{Xw
B-{K-ln-p-Ibpw hnai-\- shdp-p-Ibpw sNp Ah--bp-m-Ip--Xv. {]iw-k-I-f-, hnai\--fmWv bYmY-n Am-lp-hns Xr]vXn- Imw-n-p--h B{K-ln-p-I-sb C_v\p lk-ans \nco-Ww {]k--am-Ip-Xv Chn-sS-bm-Wv.
{]iw-kI
- tIm B{K-ln-m-Xn-cn-p-Ibpw hnai-\
- sf `b-m-Xn-cn-p-Ibpw sNp-h
-
- v am{Xsa bYm-cq-]-n Ckv-em-ans\ {]Xn-\n-[o-I-cn-p-Ibpw If--te-i-an-m XuloZv {]t_m-[\w \S-p-Ibpw sNm-\m-Iq-sh-mWv {]hm-N-Iam-cpsS Ncn{Xw \Ip ]mTw.
kz-mcpw CjvSs
- -h
- c
- p-amWv _lp-ssZ-hm-cm-[\
- bpsS hm-fpw {]tbm-m-fpw \ymbo-Ic
- np-hcp-sa-s
- Xmpw Xs {]t_m-[\
- h
- o-Yn-bn Nq-t- msS \ne-\np-hm {]hm-NI
- amv
XS--am-bn-n-. Fm-e-sbpw XuloZn{]t_m-[-Iv amXr-I-bmb C{_mlnw \_n -bpsS i\m-b hnai-I\pw FXn-cm-fnbpw kzw ]nXm-hp-X-s-bm-bn-cp-p-h-tm. kzw _oP-n ]nd ]p{X- FXn-cm-fn-bm-bp-s-Xv \qlv \_n -sbtbm kz-tm-sSmw InS-d ]n-Sp--h Xn-bpsS
]-p-s-Xv eqXzv \_n -sbtbm BZi {]t_m-[\cwK-p-\nv ]nn-cn-n-n-n-. ]nXr-hy\m-b A_q-e-l_v i-amb hnai-\--fp-ambn cwK-p-m-bn-cp-Xpw Xs kwc-n-p-Ibpw Xmm-bn \np-Ibpw sNp-tXmsSmw Xs Xs hnai-I-tcm-sSmw Bi-b-m-b-bn InS-p-h-\mWv Xs asmcp ]nXr-hy-\mb A_q-Xm-en_v FXpw Ana {]hm-N-I-s\ Gsd ZpxJnn-n-cpp-sh-nepw BZi-{]-t_m-[\cwKv A]-sa-nepw hnphogvN sNp-hm {]tNm-Zn-n-n-n-. Xs
\m]Xv hb-p-hsc Xtm-sSmw Dm-hp-Ibpw Xs A--A-ao Fv hnfnp {]iw-kn-p-Ibpw
Xs hnain-p-hm Bscbpw A\p-h-Zn-m-Xn-cn-p-Ibpw sNbvXn-cp--h X-s-bmWv Xm kXyw
Dds ]d-p-sh--Xn-\m Xs \n-Icpw hnai-I-cp-am-bn-o-sX Imcyw, kXyw ]d-bp-Xn sNdn-b -tXm-Xn-se-n-ep-ap hnp-hogvN sNp-hm apl-Zv \_nsb t{]cn-n-n-n-. {]iw-k-I B{K-ln-p-Ibpw hnai-\-sf `b-s-Sp-Ibpw sNp--hv {]hm-N-IamcpsS ]nap-d-m-cm-Im Ign-bp-I-bn-sv hy-am-p--XmWv {]hm-N-Iam-cpsSsbmw {]t_m-[\Ncn-{Xw.
Ckve
- m-an-Im-Zi-n-s\-Xn-sc-bp hnai-\
- v {]am-W_
-
- hpw hkvXp-\n-jvTh
- p-amb adp-]Sn \Ip-hm Nqw ImWn-p-tmgpw X\n-s-Xn-sc-bp hyn-]c
- a
- mb hnai-\
- sf Bkz-Zn-p-Ibpw
kzmK-Xt- am-Xp-Ibpw sNp-h
- \
- m-bn-cnpw kXy-hn-izm-kn-sb C_v\p-lk
- a
- ns \nco-Ww Gsd {itb-am-Wv. X\n-s-Xnsc \S-p hnai-\
- Xm Adn-mepw Cs-nepw X\nv Kp-WI
- c
- a
- m-sWv
a\-n-em-p-b
- m Hcn-epw Xs hnai-\
- v apn Icn-p-t]m-hp-Ib
- n-. hnai-\
-
kXy-k
- a
- m-sW-n, Xs Xncp-p-hm-\p kphWm-hk
- c
- a
- m-bmWv Abm AXns\ ImWp-I. Xm\dn-bmsX h-p `
- h
- n sXp-Isf Nqn-m-Wn-p-hm k-\v ImWn-b
- m-fmbn hnai-Is\ ImWp-Ibpw, sXp-I ]c-ky-am-msX KpW-Imw-t- bmsS Xs Xncp-n-bn-cp-s-n Fv B{K-ln-p-Ib
- pamWv A-cw hnai-\
- tIp-tm kXy-hn-izm-kn-I sNp-I. hnai-\
- kXy-k
- a
- s
- n, Xs \nn-p-Ibpw A]-Ion-s-Sp-p-Ibpw sNp-X
- n-\p-thn am{Xw ]S-s
- -X
- m-sWnt]mepw Ah-tbmSv {Inbm-I
- a
- mbn {]XnIcnp-h
- \
- m-bn-cnpw kXy-hn-izm-kn. Xm Hcn-epw
{]Xo-n-m Xc-n {]Xo-n-m-h
- c
- n\nv {Iqc-amb \nbpw A`n-iw-kb
- p-ap-m-Ip-tmt]mepw
Ah-tbmSv kwlm-cm-I
- a
- mbn {]Xn-Ic
- nv Xs Ckve
- m-anI hyn-Xzs If-s
- -Sp-m-sX, kwb-a\hpw abpw ]menv Ah-bvp- Am-lp-hns {]Xn-^ew Imwn-p-Ib
- mWv hnizmkn sNp-I.
AtXmsSm-w-Xs
- , Xm sNm sXn\v Xs {Iqin-p-h Pohn-X
- n Ftm-sg-nepw sNbvXnp kIa-t]mepw X\nv KpW-Ic
- a
- m-bmWv `hn-p--I F Xncn-d
- nhpw hnain-s
- -Sp-X
- ns\
a[p-cX
- c
- a
- mb A\p-`h
- a
- m-n-op-Ib
- mWv sNp-I. {]iw-kI
- B{K-ln-p-Itbm hnai-\
- sf `bp-Itbm sNmsX kXy-aX {]t_m-[\
- s
- a ZuXyw \nh-ln-p-h
- mWv Am-lp-hns Xr]vXnv
]m{Xam-Ip-hm Ign-bpI. AXn\v Amlp A\p-{K-ln-s
- -. (B-ao)
2013 tabv

hnthIm\\pw khaX kXyhmZhpw

Xnsev?

]n.hn.F {]nwtdmkv
""\mw kXy\njvTcmbncnWw. \psS ]n HXv `mKw
D-uPhpw sNehgnsSpXv \mamXv \mamsWv
P\sf hnizknnm thnbmWv. \mw BtIXn\v thn- B DuPw sNe hgnsm AXmWv t\cmb hgnp
sN-ehnS.'' (kzman hnthIm\)(1)

""Bscbpw shdpcpXv; Xnsb FXncpXv Fv ]dbm


h-fsc FfpamWv. Fm B D]tZiw km[mcWbmbn {]tbm-Kn Fs\bncnpsav \apdnbmw. P\-k-ap-Zm-bn-s Zrn \psS ta ]Xnncnptm, \mw ]pdsa
Xn-Xn \Snpshv hcmw. Fm B kaba{Xbpw \psS
lr-Zbw \odpIbmbncnpw. CXv Im]SyamWv, {]tbm-P-\-an-m-XmWv.'' (kzman hnthIm\)(2)

2013 tabv

kzmanhnthIm\s 150mw Phm-jn-ItmSp\p_nv Hcp hjw \op-\np hnhn[fmb ]cn]m-SnI- `mcXsamppw \SpsIm-n-cn-pI-bmWv. PhmjnInse Afp-sS khntijXtbmtfsd hnthIm\-s PhmjnIs cmPyv Pzenn-v \np {][m\ LSIw B-k-amb ]mesa v XncsSpmWv. AS-pnsS \S Nne `cW\-S]-Sn-I-fn-eqsS XfpsS atXXc {]XnOmbt
I-f
- w ambvp Ifbm `cWInbpw,
Ip-dpImeambn ]v {]ISamhp X-fpsS PsshIrXamb Xo{hln-p-Xzs adp ]nSnm {]Xn] Inbp-w kzmanbpsS PhmjnIs Iqp]n-SnpXp sImv Xs CtXm-S\-p_-np _lphn[]cn]mSnIfm
kamWv `mcXns aXcmjv{Sob-kmaqln-IkmwkvImcnI ]cnkcw.
khaX kXymhmZns khIme
h-mhmbn Hcp Iq kzmansb ]pIgv
- p-tm adp]v atXXchmZnbpw
arZplnpXzhmZnbpambmWv Dbn-mp-Xv.
hKobatXXc apWnIv ]pdsa hKob hncp FgppImcpw CSXp]- klbm{XnIcpw hsc hnthIm-\-s\ kh aX kvt\lnbmbnmWv hnebn-cpmdv. "Fm aXfpw Xpey ]cnKW-\-blnpXpw' "]ckv]c kaXzam-Wv aXnSbn thsXpw'
hn-iz-knbmfmbncpp kzman hnthIm-\- FmWv Ncn{XcN\bn ]etm-gpw heXp]s hnainp-Ibp-w amIvknv NnmKXn {]NcnnpI-bpw sNp Ncn{XImc\pw ap sP.F-.-bp Ncn{Xhn`mKw A[ym]I\pamb
sI.F ]Wn Zn lnp Zn\]-{X-n CubnsS FgpXnbXv. "kwLv]cn-hmdn-s {]Xybimkv{Xw aXkv]Zbn
\nesImXmsWn, hnthIm-\
- t- Xv sFIyn\pw kaXzn-\pw th-nbp-XmsWpw'(3) At-lw hy-amp-p.
bYmYn, hnthIm\ Pohn-Xs ka{KamsbSpp t\mnbm, At-lns cN\IsfSpv ]T\w \-Sn-bm khaXkXyhmZstbm
arZp-lnpXzhmZstbm PohnX-n-semcn-epw Atlw BZiambn sImp\-S
- ncpn Fv hyamWv. Dn

Dn auenIhmZs ]qPn-pIbpw ]pdtav atXX-cXzs ]pIpIbpw


sN-p-h k`hpw kml-Ncyhpw ]cnKWnmsX
hnthIm\s hN-\-sf ASn-sbSp-m-Wv
]etmgpw, khaX-kXyhm- Z ns hmhmbn
Atls AhX-cnn-mdv. ChnsS {]tXyIw {int- hkvXpX Xm Hcp
k-haXkXyhmZnbmbn Adn-bsSWsav Atlw
F-tmsgnepw A`ne-jnn-cptm FXmWv.

2013 tabv

10

auenIhmZs ]qPnpIbpw ]pdtav a-tXXc-Xzs ]pIpIbpw sNph k`hpw


kmlNcyhpw ]cnKWnmsX Atlns
hN\sf ASnsbSpmWv ]etmgpw, k-haXkXyhmZns hmhmbn Atls
AhXcnnmdv. ChnsS {]tXyIw {int
hkvXpX Xm Hcp khaXkXyhmZnbmbn Adn-bsSWsav Atlw Ftmsgnepw A`nejn-ncptm FXmWv. t{ImUoIcns cN\-Ifpw {]`mjWfpw ]cntim[nm Xobm-bpw ]dbm Ignbpw Acsamcp Btcm]n-X hnipnbnbn A`ncanm B{K-ln-ncp- Bfmbncpn hnthIm\ Fv am{Xa- adnv, AsXmcp Im]SyamsWv t]mepw
hn-iz-knncppshmWv Atlns cN-\I- \Ip kmyw.
khaX kXyhmZw FXv Hcp ip-I-fhm-Wv. ]qW I]S\m Hcmpw kh-aX-kXyhmZs ]npWm\mhn. Hpw Hpw Iqnbm HmsWpw cmsWpw Am-sWpw hnizknm\pw hmZnm\pw Hcm-v AhImiapv. Fm, Hpw cpw Apw AXns icnbpcsfv ]dbph
H-pIn X\n I]Smtcm Asn \ne]mSp-clnXtcm Bbncnpw. CXv XsbmWv aXZ-i\sf Ipdnp ]T\neqsS hnthIm\-\pw FntnpXv.
Ahn` Cysb Ghpw IqSpX kzm[o-\n Zmi\nIcn {]apJ\pw {]mtbmKnI
Po-hnXamXrIsf IrXyambn \nhNnhcn {][m-\nbpamWv kzman hnthIm\. arX-{]m-bam-b sslhZi\sf Xs DPzeamb {]`m-jW]mShw sImv ]p\cpohnnpIbpw
Hcp thf ctWmpI lnpXzn\v awKf]{Xw

\IpIbpw sNbvX kzman hnthIm-\-s\, AXpsImv Xs kh-aX-kXy-hmZns hmhmbn "XcwXm-g


-v p-X'v A]Iam\IcamWv. apaX X-fpsS Zi\fmWv icnsbpw,
ASnm\mibfn _m-n-bp--hsb-mw s]mbmsWpw ka-Yn-p-Xv aX{]t_m[\ns `mKam-sWn- kzmanhnthIm\pw AXn\v A[nIm-capv. AXtlw kaYambn \nh-lnnpapv. khaXk-Xyhm-Zns- "{]iwkm Xpp\ocn' apntmb
A-tlns Zi\sf apnsbSpv P\kaw kanm {ianpI-bmWv Cu teJ\neqsS.
hnthIm\s "amXmhpw' "ktlmZco-ktlmZcmcpw'
`uXnIXbpsSbpw ]utcmln-Xy-ns-bpw AntdpISnbn s]v Du-izmkw henncp 19mw \qmns
]cZiIfnse lnp \thmm\-n\v arXkRvPohn\nbmbn hnXv hnth-Im\mbncpp. Htckabw ss{IkvX-h anjWdnam lnpXzn\v t\sc
\Snsmncnp hnai\sf
^e{]Zambn {]Xntcm[npIbpw A-tXms-- Smw Xs kzw aXnse {]mtbmKn-I {]iv\sf cw s]mSnbmsX
ikv{X{InbsNbvXp t\scbm-p-Ib
- p-ambn-cpp Atln\v apnep `mcn
DchmZnw.
1895 s^{_phcn 15\v \yqtbmnse
sl-b
v ZXnamb IhnXm--cq-]
- ne-p In AssZzX thZmn

kzmanhnthIm\s\ k-h- a XkXyhmZns hm-hmbn "Xcw-Xm-gv-p-Xv ' A]Iam\IcamWv. a-pa-X XfpsS Zi\-fmWv icnsbpw, ASnm-\mibfn _mnbp-hsbmw s]m-bmsW-pw kaYnpXv aX-{]t_m[\ns `m-K-a-msW-n kzmanhnthIm-\p-w AXn\v A[nImcapv.
AXtlw kaYambn \nh-lnnpapv.

2013 tabv

11

DZmm-h- {]m]nh\msWv Xms\v At-lw Xp-d-v ]dbppv. Cu ey]q-oI-c-W-n-\m-Wv {io cmaIrjvW ]calwksc
Xs Kp-cphm-bn kzoIcnpXpw {InkvXphpw
t]m-fpw t]m-se "{]Imiw ]cp CSnap-g-m-c\mbn' kzbw AdnbsXpw. AssZzX thZmn DtN Zi\hpambmWv Atlw
lnpXz-s kao]nXv. lnpaXw k-h-a-X-fn \n-v `nhpw Ghpw DZm-hp-amsWm-bncpp Atlw hnizknncpXv. 1853 sk]v-Xw_ 11\v NnmtKmbnse temI aX-]m--esa- n shv "Atacnbnse ktlm-Z-co-ktlm-ZcmtcmSv' \Snb Ncn{X{]knamb {]kw-Knt]mepw "lnpaXw kh-aX
-
- f
- p-sSb-pw amXmhv' F hntijWtmSv IqSnbmWv
A-tZlw {]`mjWamcw`npXv. Xs.
""lnp aXamWv temIs klnjvWpXbpw
kmheuInIamb kzoImckz`mhhpw ]Tnn,
Ctmgpw ]Tnnp sImncnp aXw F
h-kX
v pXbntemWv {]mamWnIXsb sNmn-bp Cu AhImihmZw sInbncnpXv. lnpaXw klnkjvWpXbn hnizknpI am{Xa
F-m aXfnsebpw kXys AwKoIcn-pIbpw sNpp. hmfpsImtm XqenIsImtm
A-Xv Hcnepw Bscbpw thbmSnbnn. hmkvX-hn AXv thbmSs hn`mKv
A`bw \IpIbmWv sNbvXnpXv. AXns
k-tiw hn`mKobXbvpw aX{`mn\pw aX-auenIhmZn\pw ]nb adpacpmWv.''(4)
"apaXkhaXfpsSbpw amXmhmb
lnpaXhpambn XmcXayw sNbvXm inip
am{Xw. Ahscmw Hcp Aamb skan\mdn
]mfnIfmWv. AXn lnpaXamWv BNmcy
(Syq); asm aXfpw injycpw (Syqokv).'
F-mWv Atlw {]kvXpX {]kwKneqsS
k-aYnm {ianXv.
1893 sk]vXw_ 19\v \Snb aX]m--esa- v {]kwKnepw CtX Bibw XsbmWv
ImWm IgnbpI. "ag Xcm\pw As Aw Inm\pw {]mYnpXn `uXnIhmZw Nph-bvpp' Fv ]d hnthIm\ apaX-fpsS apn Xs aXw PmPzeamsWp
am-{Xa aphsbmw `uXnI{]aX _m[n-XmsWpw kaYnm {ianp.
""lnpaXw HgnsI asm aXfpw A-hbp-sS m]IcpsStbm {]hmNIcpsStbm N-cn{X-]camb Dsb B{ibnncnpp. CXv A\n-hmcyambpw kwL\ntev \-bn-p-p''(5)
""{]hmNI]mccys \ntj[n hn-th-Im\- {]hmNImcpsS eys Xs Ifnbm-pp. ""Fm {]hmNImcpw ]pdv \nv,

cn-p-Xv XsbmWv \sXnepw AXy-nI-ambn XncnSnnsn AXmWv ]m]n\v


Im-cWamIpI Fv cmjvSkpcbpsS B-\pIq-eyn, a\pkvarXnbpsS AISntbmsS hy-amppv Atlw

AXmbXv `uXnItemIv \nv, {]Xn^-ew Imwnm _mlyamb Dt-iyfm- t{]cnXcmbncpp. AhcpsS `mj AXnKw`ocambncpncnmw; ]t,
A-hcpsS Dtiy AXy[nIw kw-ib-Icambncpp.''(6)
Hcp thf Cu kwibIcamb DtZiy-sf {]Xntcm[nt Xe-n-tev Atlns Zi\ hg-n-am-dpp-v.
"\nv sXp]nsbv F\nv
tXm-nbnpw Rm \nsf Pohnm-\\p-hZnpp FpXmWv klnj-WpX'(7)sbv hymJym\n, "ap aXns
Cuizcs\ tamimc\mpXv kzw
Cuizcs\ tamimc\mpXn\v Xpey-amWv' Fv ]d, "apIme aX-fn-se Cuizcs\ Rm ]qPnpp
A-h Fns\ ]qPnppthm, B cq]-n'(8) Fv hnizkn hnthIm-\-s hnimea\kvIX ]Xps kl\-ns AXncpI \nbnp-XmWv ]noSv ImWpXv.
""]t, BfpI hv "CXpam{Xam-Wv hgn' Fv ]dv Cybn \ap-p-ta AXv ASnt]nm {ianp-tm \apv Hcp hmv ]dbm\pv-. \mw Ahsc t\mn Nncnpp.
Cu-izc\ntev Hcp hyXykvX amKn-eqsS kcnpXmbn ImWpp
F ImcWm XfpsS k-tlm-Zc-msc \innWsav B-{K-ln-p-hAcm t{]asn kwkm-cnpXv Akw_amWv.''(9)
Ccw kabfn Xn sNmXn-

""lnp {K ]dbpp: ""\n-w-i-b-ambp-w tamw [asm DXvIrjvSw Xs;


]-t, BZyw [aw \ndthWw. AhnS-s
- bm-Wv _pm\pbmbnI Bibpg-nembX-pw ]e hnIrXnIfpw ImWnXpw. \ncp]{ZhXzw
i-cnbmWv "Xn sNmbvI' Hcp almb Imcyw
Xs. Chsbmw henb XzfmWv. ]t,
imkv{X ]dbpp: ""\o Hcp Krl\mWv,
\n-s Bscnepw IhnfSnm \o In\p
I-v, ]n\p ]v F \ymtb\ Xncnp \-In-bnsn \o ]m]nbmIpw Fpdv.'' a\p
]d-bpp: ""Hcph \nssmm hm
Ahs\, Ah {_mW\msWn t]mepw
sIm-pXv ]m]a.''(a\p 8:350) CXv hfsc icnbmWv CXmWv adcpXm Imcyhpw.''(10)

arX{]mbamb ssl-hZ-i
- \-sf Xs DPzeamb {]`mj-W]mShw sImv ]p-\cp-ohnnpIbpw Hcp
thf ctWmpI lnpXzn-\v awKf]{Xw \IpIb-pw sNbvX kzman hnthIm\-s\, khaXk-Xyhm-Zn-s hmhmbn AhXcn-npXnse cm{obw
XncndntbXpv.

2013 tabv

12

Cmcyw DunbpdnpIbpw Ccn-n-c-nbm-bn {]XnImcw sNWsapw Atlw A\pim-knpp. ""Hcph\v HcSn Innbm Ah\Xv
C-cn t{Im[tmsS ]sambn Xncnp-sImSp-Ww. Fnse Ahs\mcp ]pcpj\mIq... `ocp klXm]m{Z\mb Hcp hkvXphmWv.''(11)
Cusbmcp Imcykm[yn\v imcocnI Zu-_-eyw adnISm thnbmWv "KoXm-]T-\
- neq-sS FXnt\m IqSpX Hcp ^pSvt_m
acneqsS ssZhnteSppw'(12) Fpw
"\n-fpsS Imhbnse t]inIv Ipdv
Iq-Sn inbpsn \nv KoX Iptdq-Sn \mbn a\nemIpsapw'(13) "hrmh\n- thWphqXn tKm]nIamcpsamv cmkeoe-If
- n Gs IrjvWk]s XakvI
- cn-v alm`mcXn knwl\mZapbn KoXmK-P\w \Snb IrjvWs\ ]npS-cW-sa-psa-mw'(14) I]nXv. adnp t{]a`n {]N-cW-ns ^ew cmPyv AhtijnnXv
F-msWv hnthIm\ hyamppv.
""Cu cmjv{Ss t\mq, Acsamcp {i-an-s ^esamsWv ImWq. Acsamcp
t{]-aw {]NcnnXp ImcWw Cu cmjv{Ssamms
- I kvss{XWambncnppkv{XoIfpsS Hcp h-Kw! Hdok apgph `ocpfpsS \mSmbn. Ign \m\qdv hjambn cm[mt{]an\p ]ndsI
]m-p \Sv _wKmfn\v ]ucpjt_m[w ]-q-W-ambn \jvSspIgnp. P\ Icbm\pw
\nehnfnm\pw am{Xw sImphcmbn; A-Xh-cpsS tZiobkz`mhambn amdn. AhcpsS kmlnXy-w t\mq. AXmWtm Hcp cmjv{Sns

NnIfpsSbpw BiIfpsSbpw Ddp


Hc-Sbmfw. Ign \m\qdp hjambn
_wKmfnkmlnXyhpw Icnepw ]ngn-ne-pw tXepw XsbmWv. AXv GsXn-epw Xcnep Hcp IhnXbvv bYm-Y
- n hockz`mhw izknp Ihn-Xbvv, Pw \IpXn ]cmPbs-ncnpp''(15)
Acw hnem]Imhyfn \nv
am-dn hockz`mhntev BfpI Fn-btXmsS aXnsbpw tZiob-Xb
- psS-bpw ImnteSpm i{Xpv
IgnbmsXbmbn Fv A`nam\w sIm-pp-apv kzmanPn.
""hmfpw Anbpambn h _--cm-, _c aX sImph _-cm, Ahcnsemcmpw Imv sXmSm-\mbn "apSnaIpScXv\w' sXmSm\m-bn, hKns Bmhv IpSn]m
"]-n'sb sImm\mbn. AXpsImv
C-XmWv B hKns hocyw, AXv
\-ne-\npnStmfw Imew Cu h-Ks sImm kqcy\p Xmsg Hcp
i-nbpan.''(16)
Npcpn, Fm aXfpw ic-nsb-tm Bscbpw hnain-t-X
- n-stm hnai\ap kmlNcyneqsS
am{Xta kmtlmZcyne[njvTnXamb
cm-jv{Sk]w IcpnSnnm km[nq Ftm hnthIm hmZnnn,
adnv Xs \ne]mSpXdIfn Ddv \nv CXc Zi\sf t\mn-m- W
- p-Xn-eqsS am{Xta auenIamb BZ-inte-v aSm Ignbq FXmbncpp
A-tlns aXw. Cusbmcp \bw Xs-bmWv Atlw ap aXsf hnain-p Imcynepw kzoIcnncpXv.

hrmh\n thWphqXn
tKm]nIamcpsamv cmk-eoe-Ifn Gs Irjv-Wk-]s XakvIcnv
a-lm`mcXn knwl\m-Zap-bn KoXmKP\w \Sn-b IrjvWs\ ]np-Sc
W-samWv hnthIm-\-s
A-[ym]\w. adnp t{]a`n {]NcWw aqew cmjv-{SsammsI kvss{X-Wam-bncnpp Ftlw
Bt]npp.

Hcp In hmfpw adpIn "sImdm\p-'ambn Ckvemw


Ckvemsam kmtlm-Zcyn-s
b-pw klhnXznsbpw ]q-oI-cWamsWpw aplZv \_n k-aXz-ns ktihm-lIs\pamWv FXn XpSn AXn Xs A-h-km\n-pXmWv hnthIms ImgvNmSv
F-XmWv `qcn]w NnIcpsSbpw
apkvenw _pnPohnIfpsSbpw hniz-mk
- w- .
hnthIm\s ]e IrXnIfnepw CtXm
C-Xnt\mSv kam\amb hmNI sImtm Ckvemapw Ay{]hmNI\pw {]iw-knsnpv. Fm Cy-bn-te2013 tabv

13

v IpSntbdn h Hcp sshtZinI aXsa \ne--bvv Ckvemant\mSv F{Xam{Xw klnjvWpX


]petXpv Fv hnthIm\ Ir-Xyambn \nhNnpshncpp Fv thWw a\nem-m
aplZv \_nsb hmt\mfw ]pIgvn sImp- Atlns \nch[n DcWnI
ImWmw. Fm ]qh]c `mK hmbnm
CXnse Hfnbv t_m[ysSpIbpw sNpw. XnI-pw `uXnIamb ImgvNmSneqsS am{XamWv
A-tlw aplZv \_nsb alXzh--I-cn-ncp-sXv Acw DcWnI hmbnm a\n-emm km[npw.
""K{_nb amemJ Hcp Znhkw Kplbn
sh-v Xs ASptv hcnIbpw lcv F
Hcp kzKobmiznt Ccpn Xs kz-K-ntev sImpt]mhpIbpw sNbvXp; A-s\ Xm kzKw kinp, Fv aplZv
A-hI
- misp ], A\sbm-sbms-W
- nepw aplZv Nne Hmcw kXy Ahn-izmkfpambn Iqnpgv AhXcnn-n-cnp-Xmbn \nv a\nemmw. A-sX-s\ hniZoIcnpw? B a\pjy Xobm-bpw
{]-tNmZnX\mbncpp. ], B {]tNmZ\-n\p-ta Abm AdnbmsX XnXSXmWv. Abm- ]cnioe\w e`n tbmKnbmbncpn. Xm
sNp {]hnbpsS ImcW Abm a\-nemnbncppan. aplZv temIn\v sNbvX \sb Ipdnv BtemNnp t\mq. Abm-fpsS aXauenIhmZw sImv Abm sNbvXp
sh henb Xnsb Ipdnpw BtemNnp t\-mq!''(17)
1900 amv 25\v km{^mknkvtImbn shv aplZv \_nbpsS hnhmls Ipdnv
hn-thIm\ \Snb {]kwKn ]-dbpp:

""bphmhmbncns aplZv aXs]-n {imephmbncppshv (tXmpn-). \ Hcp bphmhv, kp`K-. k-bmb Hcp hn[hbpmbncpp. Cu
bp-hm-hnt\mSv Ahv t{]aambn. Ah- hnhmlnXcmbn. aplZv temIns hensbmcp `mKns N{Ih-nbm-btm tdma, t]jy km{amPy
A-bmfpsS ImIognembn. Abmv
\n-ch[n `mcyamcpmbn. Hcp Znhkw
A-bmv GXv `mcysbbmWv IqSpX
C-jSv w F tNmZyapbtm Abm Xs BZy`mcysb NqnmWnp.
Im-cWw AhfmWv BZyw (Fn) hniz-knXv.''(18)
CXp ]dXn\p tijw Atlw
Fntcp \nKa\w Cns\bmWv:
""a-lmmv Ccp\qdv `mcyamcmImw. Ah-cpsS kz`mh khntijXI \nKqU-amWv. AhcpsS ta \mw hn[n I-]n-p IqSm.''(19)
\_n s]mSnbn InSp Dcppsh-pw ITn\thZ\ sImv ]pfpsh- p- s amsbp ]cmai
s]mXpsh A]kvamctcmKn-Ip-mIp- AhIfmWv Fv(20) bpn-hmZo hnaiI ]dbpXv t]mse ]dbm
hsc Hcpthf Atlw [rjvS\mbn.
aplZv \_nsb hmt\mfw ]pIgv
- pIbpw Atlns `uXnIKp-W-sf {]iwknpIbpw AtXkabw
Atln\v e`n ssZhnIt_m[-\s kaYambn \ntj[npIbpamWv
hn-thIm\ sNpXv. CXc aXZi-\sfbpw AXns {]NmcIscbpw
\ntem`amb A]Zm\ sImv aqSpI-bpw AtXmsSmw Ah {]t_m[\w
sN-bvX BZis hnebnSnp ImWnm- hcnIpw hmNI-p-an-Sb
- neq-sS kabw IspIbpw sNp-Xm-Wv Atlns ssien. aplZv
\_nsb ]cnNbsSppXn Cu
C-cmv \mw Zinp. Atln-eqsS ]qoIcn ]cnip Ckvemans\
]-n ]dbptmgp Atlns coXn IqSn t\mpI.
""ssZhw ssZhamIpp. AXn Xz-tam koWtam ss\XnI-kwln-Xtbm Hpan. RfpsS ssZhw GIam-Wv, cmasXmn, aplZv {]hmNI-' aplZv a---- m sXcphpIfn {]-Nm--

Fm aXfpw icnsb-tm
Bscbpw hnaint-Xns-tm hnai\ap kml-NcyneqsS am{Xta kmtlm-Zcyne-[n-jvTn-X-am-b
cmjv{Sk]w IcpnSnn-m km[nq Ftm
hnthIm hmZnnn, a-dnv Xs \ne]mSpXdIfn
D-dv \nv CXc Z- i
- \-sf t\mnmWpXn-eqsS am{Xta auenIamb BZ-intev aSm Ignbq FXmbncpp A-tl-ns aXw.

2013 tabv

14

cWw XpSn. Ah Atls thbmSn. At-lw (aZo\) \Kcntev ]emb\w sNbvXp.


A-tlw t]mcmSn XpSn. As\ B hKw
ap-gp-h GIoIrXambn. {]`phns \man
(ap-lZ\nkw) temInemsI ]Sp. AXns -IogS in A]mcamWv''(21)
A\pIqentm {]XnIqentm Fv hy-am-Im Ccw ]cmaifneqsS am{Xa,
iamb `mjbn Xs Ckvemans\bpw apkv-enwIsfbpw Atlw hnainppv.
""C\n aplZob Cmcyn Ghpw Akw-kvIrXNncpw Gha[nIw hn`mKob {]hW-XbphcpamWv. AhcpsS ap{ZmhmIyw, "Hscm- ssZhta Dp aplZmWv Ahs {]-hmN-I' FmWv. AXn\pdw Fmw No-bmsW-p am{Xa, DSs\ \inn--s-tS--Xp-amWv. Hcp \nanjns apdnbnn Cu Bcm-[\m{Iaw A\pkcnm kIe kv{Xo-Isf-bpw ]pcpjmscbpw Dqe\w sNWw; ass-nepw ]Tnnp GXp {Khpw Npp-Icn-Ww. imkap{Zw apX AvemnIv k-ap{Z-w hscbp CSfn temIamsI Aqtdm-fw hj tNmcsbmgpIn. AXmWv apl-Z\nkw.''(22)
Ckvemans Dqe\ knmn\v Xmzn-I ASnd \Ip IzpB\mWv FmWv hnthIm\ ]dbpXv. CXn\v sXfnhmbn
A-tlw DcnpXmIs bmsXmcp Xz-Zo-bpw KpWImwbpanm Xo{h Ckvemw
hn-aiIcpsS aphn[nIfpw!
""sImdm\n hyambn FgpXsncnpp,
A-hnizmknIsf, Ah aplZobcmsWn
t]m-epw, sImpI.' Ahsc Anpw hmfn\pw Cc-bmWw. Hcp aplZt\mSv CXv sXmWv Fv \mw ]dm Ah kzm`mhnIambpw tNm-Znpw: "\nXv Fs\ Adnbmw? F-s
{Kw ]dbpXv AXv \XmWv F-m-W-v.''(23)

Ckvemw hnaiI CXn\v sXfnhmbp-cnmdp kqd: A^mense Ipd- hN\ hmbnm t]mepw a\-nemmhp CXns Bibhpw {]mtbmKnIXbpw sXp w Ku\nmsX Ckve
- mw hncp cN\Isf am{Xw B[m-ca- mnbmWv Ccsamcp ]cmaiw hn-thIm\ \SnbsXv a\n-em-hp-w.
Ckvemw Gsd "kzbw _am-sW-p-w'(24) AXns ]Stbmw "Hcp In
hm-fpw adpIn sImdm\pw ]nSnm-sWp-w'(25) hnthIm\ hnizknpIbpw
Xp-dp]dbpIbpw sNbvXp.
""Atd_ybnse {]hmNI m-]n aXtmfw Cu ssZzXn ]nSn-pXq-n\n asmcp aXhpw Dmbnn.
C-{Xb[nIw tNmc NnpIbpw a\pjyt\m-Sv C{Xb[nIw {IqcX ImpIbpw sNbv-X asmcp aXhpw Dmbnn. Cu D]-t-Zi hnizknmhs\ sIm-Wsav sImdm DZvt_m[nnpp;
Ahs\ sImpXv Hcp Imcp-Wy-{]-hnbmsWv! kpcnamcmb lqdnamcpw
av sF{nbmkzmZ\fpw D kz-Kn- Fm\p Ffphgn Cu Ahnizm-knIsf sImemWv. Ccw hnizmk-fpsS ^eambn Dmb csm-cnnens\ Ipdnv BtemNnp t\m-q!.''(26)
aXtfmSp "aplZob'cpsS Cu
c]ne {]Xntcm[n tI{-m\-v \nnbXv lnpaXambncpp
F-mWv Atlw hnebncppXv. AXn-\v {][m\ ImcWw Ah Im^nd-p-Ifpw hn{Klmcm[Icpambncpp Fpw
C-u {]Xntema NnI `mcXns
]p-tcmKXnsb XSp \nn Fpw
A-tlw hnizknp.
""lnp Ahv shdp--s-tS Im^ndpIfpw hn{Klmcm[-Icpam-bncp-p. Ah Iimp sNsSWw. Ah-cp-sS t{Im[w {]tXyInv ]ptcmlnX
PmXnmtcmSmbncpp. ImcWw A-hc
- mWv Im^ndpIfpsS Bob Kpcpm.
H-cp apkvenw `cWm[nImcn AXn-`-\m-sWn, BXynI^ew "Im^n-dpI-sf Iimp sNp Hcp alZvb
-
'am-bncnpw. apkvenw `cWImev Cy--bpsS ]ptcmKXn \nep. ]ptcmK-XnbpsS tNmZyta DZnncpn. ImcWw,
ln-pfpsS DuPw apgph Bc-bntev Xncnncpp.''(27)

Ckvemsam kmtlm-Z-cynsbpw klh-n-Xznsbpw ]qoIc-Wam-sWpw aplZv \_n


kaXz-ns ktihm-lI-s\pamWv FXn XpS-n AXn Xs A-hkm-\npXmWv hnthIm-s ImgvNmSv FXmWv
`qcn]w NnIcpsSbpw
apkvenw _pnPo-hn-I-fp-sSbp-w hnizmkw.

2013 tabv

15

Cu XSbs ]ptcmKXnsb XncnsI sImp-hcm\mWv hSt Cybn cq]w sIm


`-n{]m\sapw lnp_lpP\sf Ckvem-antev aX]cnh\w sNpXv XSbm\m-bn cq]w sIm Ccw kwLS\Ifn X-fpsS DuPw sNehgnXp sImmWv cmam\-, I_o, ZmZp, ssNX\y, \m\mIv XpSnb-hv lnpaXn\v ]pXnb BiIpw
B-ibpw Pw \Im Ignbm-Xn-cp-Xv(-26) FpamWv hnthIm\s Is
Npcpn, AssZzXthZmnbpw ]cn-jvI-mhpsa \nebn kzman hnthIm\\v
Ckvemans BcnI\sb Ipdnv Gsd ]d-bm-\pmbncpsnepw kh aXfpsSbpw
amXmhmbn Xm hnizknp lnpaXns
{]t_m[\ {]NmcWv thn ap a-X-sf \ninXambn hnainm bmsXmcp ssha-\kyhpapmbncpn; AXn ]eXpw ip
A-kw_amsWn t]mepw!
"Al'n AnnSn {InkvXpaXw
"kh aXfpsSbpw Kpcpm\n'bmb sslh aXns hoWtImWneqsS t\m-nbm Ckvemant\m Ipdv IqSn t`Zs
in-jy\mWv {InkvXpaXw Fmbncpp hnthIm\-s ImgvNmSv.
tbiphns\ Hcp ipmmhpw ipamb {InkvX
- p- aXs thZmns ]Ipambn(28) I Atlw Cybnse {InkvXy ]mXncnam
tb-iphns Zi\n shw tNpshv
Xpdp]dp. Fm AkwkvIrXamb Bi-b XncpInbpI hgn Atd_ybnse
{]-hmNIs aXtm Hpw sa-s-X-mXm-IpIbmWv(29) AXv sNbvXXv FmWv hnthIm-\ IsnbXv.
`uXnItemIs PohnXhnPbn\mbn
ss{I-kX
v h k`mta[mhnI thZ{Ksfv

hn-izknp XfpsS {]amWfn


]-c-am-h-[n hnphogvN sNbvXp F--t-l-w Btcm]npp. Alw F Nn
]-msS Dt]np sImv sF-ln-I-{]-]-n\pdap temIs Ipdnp
kz-]\
v fmbncpp tbiphns DZvt_m[-\ apgph. AXns `mKambn X-fpsS temIpw ssZh`cWw ]p-ecp-sambncpp tbiphns hnizmkw.
F-m hnizmknI Cu Nnbn \n-v _lpZqcw ]nmw t]mbn. Xm-\v XfpsS CIv AanX{]m-[m\yw \IpIbpw sNbvXp. ""AXv
A]cnjvIrXambncpp. A\]amb
Aln\p thnbp ]mn. "Rm' FXn ISnpXqn InS. Cu
Po-hnXn am{Xa, acWm\chpw
Xp-Scp AnnSpw.''(30) Fm-bn-cpp hnthIm\ CXns\ Ipdnp ]d-X.v
{InkvXym\nkw ssZht{]m krjvSn-bmsWpw kao]`mhnbn temIv
ssZhns `cWw ]pecpsapw ]-d-Xn hnizknmWv AXntev Bfp-I BIjnsXv FXm-bncpp hnthIm\s \ncoWw. {Ko-knse-bpw tdmansebpw ASnaIfmbncpp
B-ZyImev tbiphn hnizkn-n-cpXv. AtXt]mse Cybn Gsdbpw
Xm-g
v PmXnmcmWv {InkvXpaXn
hnizknm kcmbXv. ""tbip-hns A[ym]\ apgph Ai-c-Wtc-bpw Bew_lo\scbpw D]Po-hn-mbn-cpp sInSpXv. Fm Cu coXn-sb ]msS AhKWnv `mcXnse
{In-kvXym\nI BUw_cnepw tkzm-{]aXbnepw A`ncanm\mWv Cjv-SsXv. AXvsImv Xs ]uc-kvXy-aXsa \nev tbiphns\ Bcm[n--m\p Htcsbmcp hgn Atls
Cu-izc\mbn ]qPn am{XamWv, asmp-a.''(31) Atlw \nconp.

\mkvXnIcmb _pm
apaXtfmsS t]mse tbmPnmhp
taJesb ]camh[n ]pIgvnbpw hntbmPnv
i-ambn {]ISnnpamWv _paXtbpw hnth-Im\ t\cnXv. "XmfntbmeIfn Anbp-d
- nbncp aXs {]mtbmKnI Xen-tev sImph [oc\mbnmWv'(32) BZyn
A-tlw _ps\ ]cnNbsSppXv. P\-v \Im\mbn knwlmk\w t\SnsbSp
tPm-P
- v hmjnwKvSWmbmWv(33) HcnStlw _p-s\ Nn{XoIcnpXv.

CXc aXZi\sfbpw
A- X ns {]NmcIscbpw
\n-tem`amb A]Zm\
sIm-v aqSpIbpw AtXmsSm-w Ah {]t_m[\w
sN-bvX BZis hnebnSn-p ImWnm hcn-I-pw hmNI-pan-Sbneq-sS kabw Isp-Ibpw sNpXmWv hnth-Im\-s ssien.

aqlZv \_nsb {]Xnm\v


\nn Ckvemans\ hnainpXp
t]m-sebmbncpn hnthIm\s
ss{I-kvXh hnai\coXn. adnv tb-iphn-s\ ]camh[n kwcnp sImpw
ss{I-kvXhZi\s hnainp sImpw tbiphns ]nKmanIsf IW-n\v `np sImpambncpp AXv \nh-lnsXv.
2013 tabv

16

1893 sk]vXw_ 20\v \S aX]me-sanem-Wv Atlw Xs _p\ne]mSv hyambn


A-hXcnnpXv. _p bmsXmpw ]pXpXmbn DZvt_m[nnnn(34) adnv {InkvXphns\ t]mse _p\pw \ndthm\mWv hXv; \innm-\. \ndthpXmIs icnbmb lnpaX
k-Xyfpw. AXmbXv lnpaXns bpnk-lamb XopI bYmhn[n \ndthm\mWv
_p- {ianXv. AXpsImv Xs Hcnepw
ln-paXn\v _paXs IqSmsX Pohn-m Ignbn.
""lnpaXn\v _pnks IqSmsX Pohn-m Ignbn; _pnkn\v lnpaXs
IqSmsXbpw. AhbpsS th]mSv FmWv \apv ImncpsXv a\nempI, _pn-pI-v {_mWcpsS akvXnjvIhpw Xz-imkv{- Xhpw IqSmsX \ne\n]n. {_mW\v _pn-pIfpsS lrZbw IqSmsXbpw. _pnpIfpw
{_mWcpw Xnep th]mSmWv CybpsS
]X\n\v ImcWw.''(35)

_paXns kzX{m-kv-Xn-Iys A\phZnv sImSpm hnth-Im\- BZyImefnsempw Xmdmbncp-n. Fm AXns CuizcNn-bpw ssZhhnizmknse AncXbpw
th-dnp ]Tnm aph Xmdm-btm- hnthIm\ Xs \ne]mSn
A-bhp hcpn. XpSv sshZ-n-I-a-Xn-s BNmcm\pjvTm\fnepw PmXob-Xbnepw a\waSpmWv KuXa-_p- Ans\sbmcp Zi\w ]Sppb-nbXv Ftlw hniZoIcnp.
""Xs Imes Aanm B[n-`uXnIXm NIfnepw \o A\pj-T
v m\fnepw PmXnhyhbnepw a\wa-Sp KuXas\ Hcp alm\mWv AXv m]nXv. \msamw Hcp {]tXyI
A-hbntev P\np hogpp. AXn\m- As\ P\nmhscm DXv-IrjvScmWv X Fv Nne IcpXp-p. Atlw Amev AXni-am-bncp ]utcmlnXyn\v FXncm-bncp-p. tNmZIinbnm B[n`uXn-IX, Cuizcs\pdnp knm-- FnhbpsS Imcyn \mkvX
- nI-amb Hcp aXamWv Atlw {]Ncn-n-X.v Cuizc\ptm Fv At-lt- mSv ]ehw tNmZnsp. X\ndnbn
F-tlw adp]Sn ]dp. icnbmb
s]-cpamspdnv AtltmSv tNmZn-m Atlw ]dbpw: \ sNpI,
\-h\mbncnpI.''(36)
]t Cu cwKv _p\v ]q--Wam-bpw sXp]nsbv Atlw hniz-kn-p. ""_p PmXnsb Hcp aX-m-]-\am-bn Iv AXns\ \innm {i-anp. AXv sXmbncpp. _pnkw {Xn-bcpw {_mWcpw Xn {]mNo-\Im-ew apX \ne\npt]m kpenXm-hsb XInSw adnp. Atbw
E-WmIamb Hcp hn{Kl`RvPIXzw
A-hXcnnXnepw _p\v sXp]n.
A-Xv ]noSv ic\pw am[z\pw cmam-\-pP-\pamWv XncpnbXv.''(37)
"kwkvIrX]T\n\pw {]NcW-n\pw ]Icw P\{]nb `mjI D]tbmKn-Xv Cu sXpIv Bw Iq-nsbpw'(38) "sImmXncn ]caamb Hcp
\-bmsWv {]NnnpI hgn _pa-Xw Cybvv \miw hcpn-sh-p'-(39)sh-pamWv hnthIm\ ]no-sS-nt- \nKa\w.

Ckvemans Dqe\ knm-n\v XmznI ASn-d \IpXv IzpB-\mWv FmWv hnthIm\


a-\nemnbXv. CXn\v sXfn-hmbn Atlw Dcn-p-XmIs bmsXmcp XzZobpw KpWImw-bp-anm- Xo{h Ckvemw hn-a-i-IcpsS aphn-[n-Ifpw!

2013 tabv

17

Cuizcs\ Ipdnp hnizmknemWv KuX-a_p Gsd ]ngp t]mbsXpw AXmIs Hcnepw Hcp lnp klnpIbnspw
hy-amnb hnthIm\, _pZ-i-\
- f
- pam-bp hntbmPnns \mcmbthcv Isp-Xv Cu hnizmkcwKmWv.
""lnpv AhcpsS Cuizcs\ HgnsI
asmns\bpw XyPnmw. Cuizcs\ \nt-j[n-pI Fm `nbpsS Imognse apX-s CSnpIfbpXn\v XpeyamWv. `n-sbbpw Cuizcs\bpw lnp hnSmsX ]nSn-W-w. Ahv Ahsb Dt]nm Hcnepw
I-gnbn.''(40)
Fm Cu cwKv hsc _p sslhZ--i\sf AhaXnv kzbw Zi\--fp--mn-sbpw AXp sImv Xs ip \ncoizchm-Zn-bmWv _ps\pw kzman hy-am-p-pv.
""_p Cuizcs\ kw_nv XnIpw
\m-kX
v- nI\mWv, ]t, \psS aXn Fmbn--S pw Cuizc\psmWv {]Ncnn-sSp--Xv. thZ Cuizcs\ Ipdnvhyn
ssZhspdnpw \nhyn ssZh-s-p-dnp-w]Tnnpp. KoXbn apgph Cuiz-cs\-pdnv ]Tnppv. lnpaXw Cu-iz-c-\-msX Hpa. thZ Ah\nmsX Hpa.
AXpam{XamWv tamn\p hgn. kymkn-am C\n Rm ]dbpXv Bh-n-p-d-n-Ww. Rm apn Imwnp sImv temI{k-jvSmhmb, izmkwhgn thZ ]pdphn,
Cu-izc\n A`bw {]m]npp.''(41)
Npcpn, lnpaXs \ho-Icn-p-Xn- {itbamb ]phlnpshv hnizknp-tXmsSmw hnizmknIsf apgph \ncoizchm-Zntepw A\mhiy NIfntepw B-

]--Xnnm _paXw ImcWambn Fm-Wv hnthIm\ Btcm]npXv.


AXpsImv Xs _paXns Cu
BcnI\yq\XI Hcp kaql-s-bmI-am\w aqeyclnX hyhbntev Iqp-Ipnm CSbmnsbmWv A-tlw ISp`mjbn Bt]-n
- p-X
- .v
""As\ arKtfmSv ImcpWyw ImWn-Wsav DZvt_m[n-n-pshnepw,
DZmamb ss\XnI aXambn-cp-s-nepw, \nXymmhv Dspw Cspw
X-e\
- mcng Iodn N sNbvsXnepw _pn-kns kvXq]fmsI XI-pXcnWambn. B XI _o`-am-bncp-p. _pnks-p-S--v Dmb
_o-`X hnhcnm F\nv kabtam Xm]cytam C. Ghpw _o`am-b BtLmj, a\pjyl-kv-X- FgpXnb, a\pjyakvXnjvIw BhnjvI
- cn, Ghpw `oIcamb, Ghpw Ao-eamb ]pkvXI, aXns t]c-n
-- hneknb Ghpw arKobamb cq]-, Chsbmw A[x]Xn _pnkn-s krjvSnIfmbncpp.''(42)
PmXnhyh: kw`rX kwkvImcn-s
kqnv!
`mcXn \ne\nncp {Iqcamb
thXncnhmbncpp PmXobX. ]c-k-v]cw sXmpIqSmbvabpw XoepaSw \mev hKfpw At\Iw D]hK-fpambn Cu Akv]riyX kaqlsbm-Iam\w shnapdnp. a\pkvarXnbneqsS temIw {ihn Cu Zpjn kmaqlnI hyh-sb `mcXnse Hpan aXkmaq-lnIcmjv{SobkmwkvImcnI \mbIm-cpw FXnp t]mnpv. CXn
G-hpw {][m\nbmbn hnebn-cp-m-dp-Xv kzman hnthIm\s\bmWv.
PmXntIcfs t\mn {`mm-ebsa-v hntijnn, "RfpsS aXw ASp-fbnemWv, Cuizc shbv-]p-I-ehpw' Fv ]d, hnthIms hm-pIfpw {]hrnIfpw Ccw hmZKX-nI
- -v Dt]m_eIambn FSpp-cnm-dpapv. Fm aphcn \npw
hyXykvXambn XnIpw XmznIamb
A-Sndbn \npsImv PmXobX XpS-cWsapw ]cnjvIcnWsapw AXn-eqsS am{Xta `mcXw tamNnnsSq
Fpw hmZnbmfmWv hnthIm\
FXmWv hmkvXhw.

aXtfmSp "apl-Zo-b'cp-sS c]ne {]Xntcm[-n tI{m\v \n- X v lnpaXambncpp


F-m-Wv hnthIm\ hnebn-cppXv. AXn\v {][m-\ ImcWw Ah Im^ndpIfpw hn{Klmcm-[-I-cp-ambn-cpp Fpw. Cu {]Xntem-a NnI `mcX-ns-
]ptcmKXnsb XSp \nn Fpw Atlw hn-izknp.

2013 tabv

18

Cy ]pWy`qanbmsWpw "im-ln-p'-hnt\m-Sv temIw ISsncnpp Fpw ]d


A-tlw khsd t]mse Xs Bibw cq]h-cnXv Bcymcpsmp k\mX\
kwkvIrXnbn ]SppbnbXmWv `mcXw
F BibnemWv. a\phns Zi\sf
s]m-fnsgpXpIb, Ad Nnd ]cnjvI-c-W-fneqsS cmjv{Ss kPmXobamb hK-ns ASnm\n \nhlnWsav I-s-nb Atlw ""Cy apgph BcyamWv asmp-a''(43) Fv ]dbm ss[cyw ImWnp. A-tls kw_nnStmfw Cy PmXn hyh- ""{]`p a\pjy\v \Inb Ghpw al-m-b kmaqlnIm]\fn Hm-bn-cp-p.''(44)
iphKsa k]w bpnkla F-pw IenmXmbn HpapmInspw
]-d hnthIm\ Bcymv ]pXnsbmcp
s]m-XphK ]mew Is-p-Ibm-bn-cpp. CXmIs cntX `mjbptSXmWv.
""Bcyi_vZw Cybnse "alZvhKfmb'
kw-kI
v rXw kwkmcnp lnpsfbpw Xangv
kw-kmcnpp lnpsfbpw Ipdnpp Fp-w Atlw ]dp. AYhm Bcy{ZmhnU
hn-`nX `mjbpsSXmWv, cntX Fv.''(45)
Cu thXncnhv BXynIambn Cysb
hn-ipoIcnsp Fpw CXn t\XrXzw
Pm-XobXbnse DXvIrjvScmb {_mWmWv
Fpw Atlw hnizknp.

""AXv (PmXnhyh) ssk\mnI-am-sbnepw Cysb apgph k-n-stbm hmfnstbm A, _pnbp-sSBobXbn hnipoIc-n


- s
- , \nb{ns _pnbpsSam\n-tin Iogn sImphp. Cybn-se PmXnIfn t\Xrm\w Bcym-cn Ghpw Dbhp X-s-{_m-Wv.''(46)
AXpsImv Xs "PmXobX, `m-cX
- n ApX krjvSn-p-sh-pw'(47)
Hcp ]SnIqSn ISv "AXns Nnm-iq\y-amb XnckvImcamWv CybpsS ]X\-n\v ImcWsav' IqSn hnth-Im-\
- ]dpshp.
""AXpsImv cmPymsc, F\nv
\ntfmSv ]dbm\pXv CXm-Wv- C
-
- ysb XIXv \n PmXnsb Xg-bpI-bpw CmXmpIbpw sNbvXXp sImm-Wv. PmXnv AXns m\w \-Ip-I, PmXnp XSw \np Fm-ns\bpw XIpI; Fn \mw ho-pw Dbcpw.''(48)
Ans\bp B PmXn k{Zmbw
\innpXv {IqcamsWpw adnv Hcp
hn`mKw CXccpsS ta IpXncIbdpXv
am-{Xw {inm aXnsbpamWv A-tl-ns \ntZiw.
""As\ PmXn Hcp kz`mhnI-{I-aam-Wv; PohnXw {IaoIcnm\p Hcp
kz`mhnIamKw. Hscm Imcyn-s\-Xnsc am{Xta \mw Pm{KX ]pet-Xp-pkhntijmhImiw F B-ibn-s\Xnsc. DXPmXnm Io-gP
v- mXn-mcpsS ta IpXnc IbdcpXv. B[p-\nI Cybn PmXn "Hcp kv^Sn-Ih-XI
v rX kmaqlym]\ambn' amdn-gn-ncnpp. AXv ]ptcmlnX hKn-s IpSneXbpsS XShnemWv. P\-fpsS kmaqlyhynXzw hfpI
FXmbncpp PmXnbpsS bYmY e-yw. Ctm AXv "CybpsS A-co-n AXns ZpKw \nd-ncn-pp.''(49)

lnp_lpP\sf C-kvema-ntev aX]cnh\w


sNpXv XSbm\mbn cq]w sIm kwL-S-\-Ifn
XfpsS DuPw sNeh-gnXp sImmWv cm-am\,
I_o, ZmZp, ssN-X\y, \m\mIv XpS-n-bh
- - v lnpaXn\v ]pXn-b BiIpw Bib-
- pw Pw
\Im I-gn-bm-XncpXv
F-mWv hn-th-Im-\s Is-.

]gb PmXnbXbntev XncnsI t]mhp-I am{XamWv Cymv IcWo-bsa-pw, "Cyv apmsIbp ISa
ln-p-P\Xsb \mev {][m\ PmXn-I-fmbn-{_mW, {Xnb, sshiy, iq{Z-c]p\hn`PnpI'(50) FmsWpw
Atlw Nqnmn. AXn {_m-W
- 2013 tabv

19

m- XsbmWv DXhKw Ftlw nco-Icnp.


""Cybnse am\hhwins BZiw
{_m-WXzw Xs, KoXmhymJym\ns XpS-n Xs icmNmcmcy aptm-p-sh-p-Xp t]mse. CXn Atlw {_mWXzw AY-hm {_mWXv kwcnm Hcp {]Nm-c-Is\- \nebn IrjvW hXns Imc-Ws-pdnv kwkmcnpptm''(51)
{_mWsc "bpKfpsS kw`rX kw-kvI
- mc-ns kqnpImc'(52) Fv hntijnn
Atln\v B[p\nI {_mWsc Ipdnv Xosc aXnnmbncpp. "IenbpKnse {_m-W- cmkmv XpeycmsW'(53) A-t-ln-s hnhmZ ]cmaisamw DSseSpXv Cu
AhkcnemWv.
IogvPmXnmv Dbcm a\phn \nv hn`n-ambn kwkvIrX`mj ]Tnm DZvt_m[\w
\In(54) FXv am{XamWv Atlw PmXo-b-X-p \Inb KpW]camb D]tZiw. CXv ad-psh-p FXmWv cmam\pP\pw ssNX\ybpw I_o-dpw _p\pw sNbvX sXv Fpw Atlw
D-dp hnizknp.
Npcpn khaXkXyhmZs k-Xys-Spp Npcpw Nne DcWnI hnthIm-\s {]`mjWfn \npw cN\Ifn
\n-pw IsSpmsanepw BXynIambn At-lw lnqbnkw GIkXyaXambpw Cy ]pWy`qanbmbpw XsbmWv hnebncpnbXv. B
`qXImen \nv thdnv ]pXnb kzXzw Bhn-jvIcnm {ianXmWv `mcXns ap-gph- ZpcnXpw ImcWw.(55) Fv X-s-bmWv Atlw Fmepw hnizknXv. AXn\v

hnLmXambXv ]pdv\np i-nI-fmWv. Acw "IfnaII'(56) sImv ]Sppbnb Cy shdpw "Dcpf-IpI'v(57) kam\amsbpw, CXpsI-mv Xs `mcXw "an Cgbp'
ap-qdv Ziew ancIfmbn(58) amdnsb-pw Atlw ]cnX]npp. Cu
I-Sp AhKW\aqew "Xpnb DSp-pI- [cnm t]mepw apkvenwI' ]Tn-nt KXntISv Cy-m-
- p-mbn'(59) Fpw hnthIm hne]n-pp-v
Fsms \I eyw sh-msW-nepw kzw aXnsbpw kzw
h-Knsbpw kzw kwkv-Im-c-ns-bpw Da\n\mbn ]cn{ian, B
b-n CXcsc ISp `mjbn
hn-ain, Nne thfIfnsenepw Akln-jvWphmIpIbpw A]csc `n-pI-bpw sNbvX kzman hnthIm\s\,
k-h
- aXkXyhmZnbpw aXmXoXamb am\-hnIXbvv {ian \thmm-\\m-bI
- \p-amn Dbnmm\p {ia
\oXoIcnm IgnbpX; \t Npcp-nbXv kzman hnthIm\s B-mhn-s\nepw.
Ref:

AssZzXthZmnbpw ]-cnjvImhpsa \nebn


kzman hnthIm\\v Ckvem-ans BcnI\sb
Ipdnv Gsd ]dbm\pmbn-cpsnepw kh aX-fpsSbpw amXmhmbn Xm hnizknp lnp-aXn-s {]t_m[\ {]NmcW-v thn ap aX-sf \ninXambn hnainm- bmsXmcp ssha-\k
- yhpapmbncpn.

1. kzman hnthIm\: PohnXhpw


D]tZifpw, kzman hnthI\s 150mw
P hmjnI {]knoIcWw, cmaIrjvW
aTw & anj, t_eq aTw t]Pv:111
2. Ibid:t]Pv 100
3. The Hindu: 2013 April 10
4. The Complete works of Swami Vivekananda hmeyw 1, ]pdw 3, AssZzXm{iaw,
sIm (tPymXnab iabpsS
lnpXzw F IrXnbn \npw FSpp
tNXv)
5. Ibid: hmeyw 3, ]pdw 249
6. Ibid: hmeyw 1, ]pdw 117
7. Ibid: hmeyw 2, ]pdw 372
8. Ibid: hmeyw 1, ]pdw 3
9. Ibid: hmeyw 3, ]pdw 132
10. Ibid: hmeyw 5, ]pdw 351

2013 tabv

20

11. Ibid: hmeyw 8, ]pdw 481


12. Ibid: hmeyw 3, ]pdw 242
13. Ibid: hmeyw 3, ]pdw 242
14. Ibid: hmeyw 5 ]pdw 304
15. Ibid: hmeyw 5, ]pdw 260
16. Ibid: hmeyw 3, ]pdw 370
17. Ibid: hmeyw 1, ]pdw 184
18. Ibid: hmeyw 1, ]pdw 481
19. Ibid: hmeyw 1, ]pdw 482
20. Ibid: hmeyw 8, ]pdw 202
21. Ibid: hmeyw 1, ]pdw 482
22. Ibid: hmeyw 4, ]pdw 122
23. Ibid: hmeyw 2, ]pdw 333
24. Ibid: hmeyw 2, ]pdw 350
25. Ibid: hmeyw 2, ]pdw 368
26. Ibid: hmeyw 2, ]pdw 350
27. Ibid: hmeyw 4, ]pdw 318
28. Ibid: hmeyw 2, ]pdw 351
29. Ibid: hmeyw 2, ]pdw 351
30. Ibid: hmeyw 2, ]pdw 351
31. Ibid: hmeyw 4, ]pdw 143
32. Ibid: hmeyw 7, ]pdw 116
33. Ibid: hmeyw 7, ]pdw 57
34. Ibid: hmeyw 7, ]pdw 116
35. Ibid: hmeyw 1, ]pdw 23
36. Ibid: hmeyw 14, ]pdw 131
37. Ibid: hmeyw 4, ]pdw 272
38. Ibid: hmeyw 4, ]pdw 273
39. Ibid: hmeyw 4, ]pdw 273
40. Ibid: hmeyw 8, ]pdw 99
41. Ibid: hmeyw 6, ]pdw 86
42. Ibid: hmeyw 7, ]pdw 264
43. Ibid: hmeyw 3, ]pdw 282
44. Ibid: hmeyw 4, ]pdw 245
45. Ibid: hmeyw 4, ]pdw 245
46. Ibid: hmeyw 4, ]pdw 243
47. Ibid: hmeyw 4, ]pdw 245
48. Ibid: hmeyw 4, ]pdw 317
49. Ibid: hmeyw 5, ]pdw 19
50. Ibid: hmeyw 5, ]pdw 322
51. Ibid: hmeyw 3, ]pdw 293
52. Ibid: hmeyw 3, ]pdw 298
53. Ibid: hmeyw 6, ]pdw 224
54. Ibid: hmeyw 3, ]pdw 290
55. Ibid: hmeyw 4, ]pdw 270
56. Ibid: hmeyw 4, ]pdw 423
57. Ibid: hmeyw 3, ]pdw 187
58. Ibid: hmeyw 5, ]pdw 12
59. Ibid: hmeyw 4, ]pdw 313

zw
X
c
atX-X n-IX
h
\
m
a
w
m
e
v
Ck
Am^v Am-n-pv
atX-Xc
- Xzw: D-hw, hnImkw, ]cn-Wmaw
atX-X-cXzw F at\m-l-camb hmv Hcp-h--sa-nepw D]-tbm-Kn-m-h-cmbn B[p-\nI temIv Bcpw Dm-Im-\n-S-bn-. B[p-\n-I-amb
km-t-Xn-I-i-_vZ--fn Cu ]Z-n\v A{X ta kzoIm-cyX ssIhn-cn-p-p. hnhn[ aX-hm-fpw aXm-\p-Iq-en-Ifpw aX-ap-cpw aX\n--tj-[n-Ifpw ssZh-\n-tj-[n-I-fp-amb hyXykvX cmjv{Sob t\Xm-amcpw X-fpsS hmn-eqsStbm {]h-\--fn-eqsStbm \jvS-s-Spnb kln-jvWp-Xbpw klm-\p-`q-Xnbpw Xncnv ]nSn-p-Xv "R-
a-tX-X-cXzw apdpsI ]nSn-p--h-cmWv' Fv Ah-Im-i-s-p-sIm-m-Wv.
1851- hnJymX {_nojv Nn-I-\mb tPmPv tlmfn-tbm-mWv (George Holyoake) BZy-ambn temI-n\v apn Ah-X-cn-n--Xv. F-ssk--tm-]o-Unb {_nm-\n Atheism (\nco-iz-c-hm-Zw) F Xe-sn Ds-Sp-n-bmWv skIyp-en-dn-ks
- -p-dnv {]Xn-]m-Zn-p-Xv. \ncoiz-c-hm-Zs hni-Zo-I-cn-v Fssk-tm-]o-Unb {_nm-\n ]d-bpp:
""{]m-tbm-Kn-I-\n-co-iz-c-hmZw {]tbm-K-n ssZh-\n-tj[w Xs-bm-Wv.
A-cw Hcp Zi-\s kw_-n-n-S-tmfw ssZh-aptm F tNmZyw Pohn-X-ns AYhpw a\p-jym-kvXn-Xz-ns \ne-]m-Sp-I-fp-ambn
_--s-Sp-p-tm A{]-k--am-Wv. apv {]IrXnin-I-tfmSv tNv ]d {]Xn-`m-k-v imkv{Xob hni-Zo-I-cWw Is-n-btXm-sS B[p-\nI a\p-jys "t{]X_m[-sbm-gn temIw' ]nd-p-hoWp. AXvt]mse Xs sshZy-im-kv{Xw, hnZym-`ymkw, Ie XpS-nb
ta-Je
-- -I-fn kwL-SnX aX--fpsS kzm[o\w Ah-km-\n--tXmsS ssZh-n\pw ]c-tem-I-n\pw Imcy-amb ]n-m Hcp Pohn-X-ho-Ww hf-n-sb-Sp-m a\p-jy DZyp--\m-bn. Ccw Hcp PohnX Zi-\2013 tabv

21

s-p-dn-m-\mWv 19-mw \qm-ns a[y-n skIyp-en-dnkw F hmv \nan--s--Xv.''(1)


tbip-hns A\p-bm-bn-I-sfv
A-h-Im-i-s-Sp bqtdm-]y]mm-Xy cmPy--fnse P\X tbiphn-\m ]Tn-n-s
- thZ-]m-T
-
hnkv a - c n- p- I bpw Xm- \ v
]ptcm- l n- X am- c p- s S kzbw- I rX
Bi-b- ssZhnI\nb-a--sfv
IcpXn BN-cn-p-Ibpw sNbvXp.
tb-ip-hn-\m ]Tn-n--s aX-\nb-a- \qdp-i-X-am-\hpw ssZhn-Ihp-w AXp-sIm-p-Xs am\-hn-I-hpam-bn-cp-p. ]s k`m]mXn-cn-am-cm \nan \nb-a- a\p-jy-\nanX--fm-bXpsIm-p-Xs km[mcW ]ucamsc AXv Gsd _pnap-n-n-cp-p. a[y-Ime bqtdm-nse
`-cWtI{--fn Nn\pw ]ptcmln-Xamp-ap-m-bn-cp kzm-[o\w Ghpw Adn-hp--Xm-W-tm.
k`-bpsS kzm[o\w D]-tbm-Kn-psIm-v ]e Zmi-\n-Iam-scbpw
im-kv{X-Im-cam-scbpw Pbn-en-e-S-pItbm h[n-p-Itbm \mSv ISp--Itbm sNbvXp. Keo-en-tbm, tSmf-an XpS-nb {]Xn-`m-im-en-I hsc ]oUn-n-s
- -p. ]s, k-`t
- m
k-`m-[n-jvTn-Xa
- mb `c-WI
- q-S
- nt\m
am-dnb kmaq-lnI apt--sXn-sc BPo-hm-\w ]nSnp-\nm\m--bn-. imkv{Xob kXy- shfn-v h-tm X-fpsS ]ptcmK-Xn-bpsS XS--pw \nc-]-cm[n--I - f mb imkv { X- am- c psS

aX-ap-hpw aX-hn-cp--hpamb atX-X-c-Xz-n\v Hcp


aX-tmSpw kln-jvWp-Xm]qhw hn-pI km[ya-. \nco-iz-c-hmZ {]Imcw
F-m aX-fpw Ah-bpsS
hn-izm-k-fpw Aim-kv{Xob-hpw Adp-]n-n-cn--\p-amWv. GsX-n-ep-samcp aXw
im-kv{Xo-b-am-sWtm {]IrXn-]-c-am-sWtm \nco-iz-cXzw AwKo-I-cn-p-n-. AXp-sIm-p-Xs aX--tfmSp \nco-iz-c-hm-Zn-I-fpsS
kao-]\w i{Xp-Xm-]-chpw D-aq-e-\m--Ihpw Bbn-cnpw.

2013 tabv

22

]oUm-\p-`-h-pw ImcWw k`bpw k`m-\n-b-a-fpamsW--h a\-n-em-n. `qcn-]w hcp P\- kzm`m-hn-I-ambpw


N-n-s\-Xn-cmbn \ne-sIm-p. a[y-Ime
ss{I-kvXh aX-tm-Sp FXnv IqSn
h-cn-Ibpw BZyw ss{IkvXh\ntj-[-ambn
cq-]w sIm Nnm-[mc ]noSv ssZh-\ntj-[-ambn cq]w {]m]n-p-I-bpam-Wp-mb-Xv.
ASn-bp-d {Inkv{Xob hnizm-kn-bmb
A-tUm^v lnve-dpsS {Iqc-XIfpsSbpw,
Nn-sbpw Imcp-Wy-ns aIp-tSm-Zm-lc-W--fmbn Ah-X-cn-n--s-Sp k`m ]nXm--am-cpsSbpw Biohm-Zt
- msS temI-v Ac-t-dnb Ipcniv bp--fp-I-fpsS-bpw, XpSv \S aX-Ip hnNm-c-WI-fpsS-bpw ^-e-ambn \S Iq a\p-jyp-cp-Xn-Ifpw P\--fnse \nco-iz-c-hm-Z-{]h-W-X-Iv Bw Iqn. C-c-samcp
km-l-N-cy-n-emWv atX-X-cXzw F Bi-bw DS-se-Sp-p--Xv. Cusbmcp ]m-e-n atX-X-c-Xz-n\v I]n--s-n-cp AYw aX-\n-cm-khpw ssZh\ntj-[hpw
Xs-bm-bn-cp-p. ]noSv atX-X-c-Xzw (Secularism) F kmt-XnI {]tbm-K-n\v
tem-I-sa-mSpw {]Nmcw knn-p. Fm
ss{IkvX-h-cn\nv kzw P\X t\cn
A\p-`-h--sf- t]msebmbn-cp--n av cmPy--fnse Ah-. hy-amb aX-\ntj[--nt\m \nco-iz-c-hm-Z-nt\m t{]cn-np Xnm-\p-`-h- ]e-bn-S--fnepw
Cm-bn-cp-p. AXvsImv Xs atX-X-cXzw (Secularism) F hmZ-ns\ bqtdm]y- ]m--e-n\nv ASn kz-w cmPy-ns{]-tZ-i-ns `qan-im-kv{X-hpw kmwkvIm-cn-I-hp-amb ASn-m-\n- hymJym-\n-m Xz-Nn--Icpw Zm-i-\n-Icpw \n_-n-X-cm-bn. AXpsImp--Xs atX-X-cXzw (Secularism) F
]-Z
- n\v ]c-kv]c hncp-a
- mb AY-fpw
B-i-b-fpw ssIh-p.
Cs\-nse kzX{ hnm-\-tImi-amb ae-bmfw hno-]o-Unb atX-X-c-Xzs-p-dnv hymJym-\n-p-Xv ImWpI:
""a-tX-X-cXzw sImv Dt-in--s-Sp ko-Whpw hnhn-t[m-t-iy-]-c-hpamb \ne]m-Sp-Isf efn-X-amb Hcp \nh-N-\-ntem
Npcp-nb Nne hmp-I-fntem Dsm-np-I {ia-I-c-am-Wv. ]qhIme atX-X-c-Xzhpw B[p-\nI atX-X-c-Xzhpw coXn-I-fnepw
\n-e-]m-Sp-I-fnepw Nne kmay-X-I Zin--m-hp--Xm-sW-nepw C-dn-b-s-Sp a-

tX--X-cXzw apJy-ambpw B[p-\nI ]Sn--m-dns sXmn-en ]nd-Xpw


]noSv ]e kaq-l--fn-ep-ambn hf-v hnI-kn--Xp-am-Wv.
a\p-jys bpnbnepw `mjbn-epw aXhpw AXn-`u-XnI im-kv{X-hpw sNep-p \nb-{-W-fn- \np tamN\w F \nebn--emWv BZyw atX-Xc
- Xzw \nhNn-s--Xv. ""kmwkvIm-cntImZv{K-Y-\n-s {]Xo-I-sf aXw \nWbn--p-Xv XS-bpI F-XmWv AXn-s eyw.
kaq-l-nse Fm Xe-nep-ap N]-e-amb AwKXzw AXv
\o-n--f-bp-p. AXv ]qW- hf--sb-epw D-c-hm-ZnXzw GsSp---ep-am-Wv. AXv aX-]-chpw Bo-b-]-c-hp-amb Xmv \ow sNp--Ibpw a\p-jys\ kzw Imen
\np-I-bp-amWv sNp-Xv.
""{]Ir-Xnsb aX-Iob A[n-kz\--fn\nv tamNn-n--em-WXv.''
am-Ivkv sh F Pa kmaqln-I imkv{X- ]d-bp-p.
AXo-{nb Bi-bs {]mtbmKn-I ]cn-m-\-n ]cn-an-X-sSp--p-Ibpw [man-Ihpw AkvXnXz
kw_--nbp-amb Adn-hp-Im-[mc-ambn ]cn-K-Wn-p--Xn-s\-Xnsc atX--Xc Nn-Iam \nc-cw kacw \S-n. `c-W-IqSw GsX-nepw
a-X-hn-izm-k-stbm {]tXyI aXaq--ey--sftbm t{]mm-ln-n-pItbm `c-W-kzm-X-{yw D]-tbm-Knv aX-sf ]oUn-n-p-Itbm sNn- F apJy e-tm-sS-bp
H-cp Iqw Bi-b--sfbpw aqey-sf-bp-amWv atX-X-cXzw F ]Zw
kq-Nn-n-p--sXv epAbv A`n{]m-b-s-Spp.''(2)
atX-Xc
- Xzw: Bi-bhpw {]tbm-Khpw
aX-kzm-X-{y-w, aX-ku-lmZw,
\n-co-iz-c-hm-Zw, aX-ap cmjv{So-bhmZw XpS-nb Fm-cw sshcp[ym-[n-jvTnX hmZ-fpw Ah-X-cn-n-s-Sp-Xv "atX-X-cXz'ns tahn-em-k-nepw \ymbo-I-c-W-nep-am-Wv. Fnepw atX-X-c-Xz-n
hn-iz-kn-p--hsc aqmbn Xncnm-hp--Xm-Wv.

a\pjyscmw Hcm-Wn-\npw s]n\npw DS-seSp--Xm-sWpw Idp-h\v shfp--h-t\-mfpw


shfp--h\v Idp--h-t\mfpw Ad-_ntm A\-d_ntm P-n-stbm hwi-n-stbm hK-n-stbm tZi-n-stbm `mjbp-tStbm ASn-m-\-n
Hcp-hn[ t{ijvT-X-bp-an-smWv Ckvem-ans A[ym-]\w. GXv aX-hn-`m-K-m-c-\mbmepw Ah Xs ktlmZ-c-\m-sW-mWv Ckvem-anI
hnizmkw.

2013 tabv

23

1. {]]{kjvSm-hns AkvXn-Xzs
\ntj-[n-p--h
teJ-\-ns XpS--n kqNn-n-Xv t]mse a[y ss{IkvXh bqtdm-n-t\mSp- {]Xn-tj-[-am-bmWv Cu hn`m-K-ns] atX-Xc
- h
- m-Z
- ns XpS-w. ]noSv
atX-Xc
- X
- z-n\v ]cn-Wmaw kw`-hnv Ahm-c-hn-`m-K- DS-se-Sp-s-nepw `mjmim--kv{X-]-c-ambpw Bi-b-]-c-ambpw auenIambpw atX-X-cXzw Cu hn`m-K-hp-am-bmWv
_-s-n-cn-p--Xv. \oXvsj ]d-bpp:
""B-[p-\nI Xz-imkv{Xw hnm-\-{]Zamb kt-i-hm-Z-sa \nev {]Xy-ambpw ]tcm--ambpw ss{IkvXh hncp-amWv.'' djy-bn DZbw sNp-Ibpw ]n-oSv temI-ns hnhn[ `mK--fn Bib--]-c-ambn kzm[o\w sNep-p-Ibpw sNbv-X- Iayq-Wnkw ssZh-\n-tj[w apJy-ap{Z-bpw ap{Zm-hm-Iy-hp-am-n-b-Xm-Wv. Imd
amIvkns kmln-Xy--fn {]Xn-m-\v \n-s ssZh-k-]w ss{IkvX-h k]--fm-bn-cp-p Fv amIvknb kmln-Xy- hmbn-m a\-n-emIp-w. ]s, [nj-Wm-im-en-bmb amIvkv
AXv tIhe ss{IkvXh hnai-\--fmm-sX temI-sa-m-Sp-ap ssZh-hn-izm-kn-s\-Xn-cmbn kmam-\y-h-cn-p-I-bmWp-m-b-Xv. aX-sf apgp-h-\m-bn-sm-p At-l-ns kmam-\y-h-Xv-cWw
tem-I-ns hnhn[ `mK--fn amIvknb Bi-b-v A\p-bm-bn-I-sfbpw
A\p-hm-N-I-scbpw t\Sn-sm-Sp-p. Fm
a-X--fn-ep-ap-m-bn-cp ]utcm-lnXyambncp-p CXn\v Imc-Ww. Fm aX--fn-sebpw ]utcm-ln-Xy-n\v kam-\-X-I-fp-v.
ssZ-h-h-N-\-sf hf-sm-Snv ]ptcm-ln-X-ampw Ah-cpsS kp`n--amb Pohn-X-

n\pw A\p-Iq-e-amn amn-sb-gpXp-I-bmWv Fm-e-sbpw ]ptcmln-X sNbvXn-cp--Xv. X ssZh--ns a[y-hn-Ifpw ip]m-iI-c-p-am-bmWv Ah kzbw ]cn-N-bs-Sp-n-b-Xv. bYmY-n {]hmN-Iam ]Tn-n Xz--fp-ambn
]ptcm-ln-Xam-cpsS Bi-b-v
bmsXm-cp-hn[ _-hp-ap-m-bn-cpn-. Ccw Nqj-W-s--Xnsc i-ambn {]Xn-I-cn--hcpw ssZh--tmSv {]mYn-m a[y-hnI Bh-iy-an-sv ]Tn-n--h-cp-ambn-cpp {]hm-N-Iam. {]hm-N-I-am-cpsS A\p-bm-bn-Ifpw ssZh-ns {]Xn-]p-cp-j-mcpambn Na-v
P- \ - sf NqjWw sNbv X n- c p
]u-tcm-ln-Xy-ns Xnv A-`y--kvX-hn-Zysc aX-n\nv AI-m
Imc-W-am-bn. ss{IkvXh k`m hncp-amb Iayq-Wn-k
- n\v A-s\b
- mWv av aX--fn A\p-bm-bn-I Dm-b-Xv.
an temI-cm-Py--fnepw sXcs--Spv \ne-hn hcn-Ibpw thms--Sppw XZ-\p-kr-X-amb cmjv{Sob
{]h-\-fpw `c-W-ns kzm`m--hnI \S-]-Sn-bm-hp-Ibpw sNbvXtm- ip-\n-co-iz-cXzw X-fpsS
cmjv{Sob \ne-\n]ns\ _m[npsapw _mev s]-n-bn thmns
`q-cn]w Ipd-bp-sa-pw Cy t]mep- cmPyfnse IayqWnv h-m-v \ t_m[y-ap-m-bncp--p. AXp-sIm-p-Xs `qcn-]w hcp hnizm- k n- I v apn \nco-iz-ch
- mZw, ssZh-\n-tj[w
Xp-S-nb ]Z-v ]I-c-ambn "atX--X-cXzw' (Secularism) F kmt--Xn-I-kw kzoI-cn-p. CXn-^--e-ambn BZim-i-b--fpsS kwc-Whpw {]mtbm-KnI cmjv{So-bn-se \ne-\n]pw Hcp-t]mse kw-c-n--s-p.
aX-hn-izm-kn-IsXn-cn-ep
aX-\n-tj-[n-I-fpsS Btcm-]-W-
]e-Xm-Wv. aX- ImcWw a\pjy- Xn-e-I-ep-Ibpw Ie-ln-pI-bpw ]c-kv]cw sImsm-Sp-p-Ibpw sNp-p. AXn-\m aX-ap-am-b Hcp kaq-l-kr-jvSn-n-eqsS am{X-sa AXv km[y-am-Iq Fp-amWv

ssZh-\n-tj-[-]-c-amb atXX-c-Xzw-sImv A\ym-b-amb


bp-fpw \oXo-I-cn-m\m-hm sIme-]m-X-I-fpw Ah-km-\n-pI t]m-bnv Ip-d-bp-I -t]m-ep-an-. adnv AsXmcp KpW-\{- I-am-\p]m-X-t{i-Wn-t]mse A[n-Icn-p-I-bm-Wp-m-b-sX-mWv Ncn{Xw \tmSv ]d-bp-X
- .v

2013 tabv

24

ssZh-\n-tj-[n-If
- psS Btcm-]W
-
- f
- n-semv. Fm Xsf t]mse aX-\n-tj-[h-pw ssZh-\n-tj-[hpw kzoI-cn-m a\p-jyl-Xy-Ifpw bp-fpw Ipd-bp-I-b h[np-I-bmWv sNpI F-XmWv ssZh-\ntj[ atX-X-c-hm-Zn-I-fpsS CXx-]-cy--ap
N-cn-{X- \tmSv ]d-bp--Xv.
Iayq-Wnv djy-bnse aX--tfm-Sp
k-ao-]-\--sf-p-dnpw `qan-bnse kzKs--p-dn-p-amWv AXns hm-v
]d-bm-\p--sX-n AhnsS \ne-\n-n-cp atX-X-c-Xz-s-p-dnv _lp-`mjm ]n--X\pw Ncn-{X-Im-c-\p-amb "khXv kue-Xv' Fgp-Xp-Xv ImWpI:
""...djy-bn-sebpw at[y-jy-bn-sebpw apkv-enw-Iv hnI-k-\-ns t]cn I\ hne-bmWv \tIn h-Xv. Ah-cpsS AkvXnXzw am{X-a Cm-Xm--s--Xv.
am-\-hn-I-ambpw imco-cn-I-ambpw Ah {]m-f\w sN-s-p. tkmjy-env km{amPy--ns ASn-aw Fv ]d-bp-Xv cmjv{-So-bhpw km-n-I-hp-amb ASn-aw
am-{X-a-. AXn-tesd am\-kn-Ihpw Bob-hp-amb ASn-a--am-W-Xv. Ahn-sS tk-mjy-en-p-I ssZhs \ntj-[n tijw
kz-bw ssZh-ambn Na-bp-I-bmWv sNbvXncn-p--Xv. tkmjy-env X-z--fp-ambn
tb-mPn-m--sXmw sXm-sW-m-bn-cpp Ah-cpsS shbv]v. X-fpsS Bi-bmZ--i--fp-ambn s]mcp--s-Sm Fm
kw-kvIm-c--sfbpw XpS-p-\o-m Ah
B{K-ln-p. djy-bn tkmjy-env hnh-s XpSv Ncn-{X-n Xpey-X-bn-m- c-sm-cn-n Ac-t-dn. ]m-f-m
am{X-a AXn h[n--s--Xv. F-a
kn-hn-en-bamcpw h[n-s
- -p. hn-hm-\
- -

cw tkmjy-env Imjn-Ihyh
\nZbw ASn- t ]n- Xv aqew
cmPys ]e-hw ISp maw
]nSn-Iq-Sp-Ibpw AXn e--Wn- \ m- f p- I ac- W - a - S - b p- I bpw
sNbvXp. e--W-n-\m-fp-Isf
tkmjy-env hn-h-ns i{Xp-fmbn ap{Z-Ipn h[n-p-I-f-bpIbpw tImkt{S-j IympI-fn-tev Ab-p-Ibpw sNbvXp.
]noSv nXn-K-Xn-I GXmv
im- a m- b - t m tkmjy- e nv
t\Xm-am ]c-kv]cw Gp-apn
acn-p. hn-h-n kPoh ]v
hln t\Xm- Xs hntZi
GPp-I-fmbn ap{Z-Ip--sv \nc\n-c-bmbn h[n--s-p.'' ""...-ap-kvenwI- s fbpw CXc aX- h n- i zm- k n- I sfbpw aX- { `- j vS- c m- p- - X n\v
thn- b mWv djy `c- W - I qSw
{ian-p-sIm-n-cn-p-X
- v.'' ""...bqtdm]y cmPy- Ah-bpsS tImf\n
cmjv{S- sf km- n- I - a mbn
At- b w NqjWw sNp- I - b pm- s b- nepw am\- k n- I - a mbpw
Bo-b-ambpw
A{X-Xs
NqjWw sNbvXn-cp-n-. AXp-sImp-Xs bqtdm-]y km{am-Py-Xzi-n-I-fpsS B[n-]-Xy-n Iognem- b n- c p B cmPy- - s fmw
Ctm kzX{ cmjv{S--fmbn
amdn-bn-cn-p-I-bm-Wv. Fm djybnse tkmjy- e nv km{amPyw
km-nI NqjWw A[n-Isampw \S-p-Ib
- p-m-bn-. AtXk-abw am\-kn-Ihpw Bo-bhpw
kmaq-ln-I-hp-amb Nqj-W- ]c-

\mw A-c- tNv


hv `mh-\m-I
- a- mbn a\-nem-nb atX-X-c-Xz-hp-ambn
Hcn- epw s]mcp- - s SpI t]mbnv tIh-e-samcp
Xmc-X-ay-n\v t]mepw ]gpXn- m aX- k - a o- ] - \ - fmWv atX-X-c-Xzhpw \m\mXz-n GI-Xzhpw AhIm-i-s-Sp--h-cn\npw
A[n- I m- c n- I - f n\npw
]etmgpw Dm-bn-sm-ncn-p-Xv.

2013 tabv

am-h-[n- Iv \S-p-Ibpw sNbvXp. AXpsIm-p-Xs bqtdm-]y cmPy--fpsS


ASn-a--n Ign apkvenw kaq-lv ]noSv Bkz- Z n- m km[n
kzmX-{y-ns kpJm-\p-`q-Xn-I at[yjy-bnse apkvenwIv Ctmgpw Ignn- n- . ]mmXy km{am- P yXzhpw
tkmjy-env km{am-Py-Xzhpw Xn-ep
hyXym-k-an-XmWv: ]mmXy km{am-Py-Xzn\nv P\- v apn t\Sm
Ignbpw. Fm tkmjy-env km{am-PyXz-n\nv apn t\Sp-I-sb-Xv hfsc
hnZq-c-amb Hcp km[yX am{X-amWv.''(3)
aX-ap-hpw aX-hn-cp--hp-amb atX-Xc-Xz-n\v Hcp aX-tmSpw kln-jv-Wp-Xm]q-hw hn-pI km[y-a-. \nco-iz-chm-Z {]Imcw Fm aX-fpw Ah-bpsS
hn-izm-k-fpw Aim-kv{Xo-bhpw Adp-]nn-cn--\p-am-Wv. GsX-n-ep-samcp aXw imkv-{Xo-b-am-sWtm {]Ir-Xn-]-c-am-sW-tm
\nco-iz-cXzw AwKo-I-cn-p-n-. A-Xp-sImp-Xs aX--tfm-Sp \nco-iz-c-hm-Zn-IfpsS kao-]\w i{Xp-Xm-]-chpw Daq-e-\m--Ihpw Bbn-cn-pw. Fm Ckvem-ans nXn adn-m-Wv. Fm aX--fpw ASnm-\-]-c-ambn Ckvem-an\n-mWv Dhn---Xv Fv Ckvemw ]Tn-n-p-p. ssZhn-Im[ym-]-\-v ]Icw ]ptcmln-Xam--cm \nan--s \nb-a--fmWv a\p-jyk-aq-l-ns `nXv Imc-W-sapw Izp-B \nco-n-p-p.
aX- ]c-kv]-c-ap `n-X amm
A-hv apIm-e--fn \I-s auenIm-[ym-]-\--fn-tev aS-n-h-c am{XamWv GI t]mwh-gn. {]hm-N-Iam ]Tnn-- auen-I-amb A[ym-]-\- Fmw Hm-bn-cpp Fv hyXykvX aX-k-aq-l-sf Izp-B Hma-s-Sp-p-p.
a\pjyscmw Hcm-Wn\npw s]n-\npw DS-se-Sp--Xm-sWpw Idp--h\v shfp--h-t\-mfpw shfp--h\v Idp--h-t\-mfpw Ad-_ntm A\-d-_ntm
P-n-stbm hwi-n-stbm hK-ns-tbm tZi-n-stbm `mj-bp-tStbm ASn-- m- \ - n Hcp- h n[ t{ijv T - X - b p- a nsmWv Ckvem-ans A[ym-]-\w. GXv
a-X-hn-`m-K-m-c-\m-bmepw Ah Xs ktlm--Z-c-\m-sW-mWv Ckvem-anI hn-iz-mkw. AXp-sIm-p-Xs CXc aX--sf]--n-bp hoW hyXym-k-fpw hnai\-fpw Hcp KpW-Imw F \n-e
-- mWv

25

Izp-B ]v shp-X
- v.
aX-n Hcp _e-{]-tbm-Khpan, kamKw ZpamK-hp-ambn th-Xn-cn-n-cn-p-p. (Izp-B 2:-255)
FmWv Izp-Bs A[ym-]-\w.
C-kvem-anI cmjv{S-f
- n Izp-B
ap-kvenw-I-f-m--hv \n_
]mTy-]--Xn-b-. \nco-iz-c-hmZw HutZym--KnI aX-ambn AwKo-I-cn cmjv-{S--fn-em-Is \nco-iz-c-hmZw \n_--a
- mbn ]Tn-n-p-Ibpw sNp-p.
Ckv e m- a nse amXr- I m- t bm- K yamb `c-W-kw-hn-[m-\-sf Ah-KWnv Xn-jvS-{]-Imcw `cn tkzOm--[n-]-Xn-Ifpw Ncn-{X-n-eqsS IS-v t]mbXv hnkva-cn-p-n-. Fm- Acw `c-Wm-[n-Im-cn-I
C-kvem-anI aqey- ]men-m-hcpw A[n-Imctamln-I-fp-am-bn-cpp. Ch sNbvX A{I-a- Ckv-em-ans Au-n hchv shp---Xn\v apmbn Ch-cpsS Ncn-{X am\y-hm-b-\-m ]T-\-hn-t[b--am--Ww. cv Imcy- A-tm \apv {Kln-m-hp--Xm-Wv. 1. apkv-enw \ma-[m-cn-I-fmb tkzOm-[n-]Xn-I-fpsS A{I-a-n\v apkvenw-Ifpw hnt[-b-am-bn-cp-p. 2. Ahsc A{I--a-n\v t{]cn-n Imcy-v
aX-]-c-amb am\-ap-m-bn-cp-n-.
asmcp Imcyw Ckvemw hntcm[n--I \-h-cmb apkvenw `c-W-I-m-s
- f-Ip-dnv Zpcm-tcm-]W
-
-
D--bn-p-p-sh-Xm-Wv. CXv XpSn-sh-Xv {_no-jp-Im-cm-bn-cp-p.
{_ns tImf-\n-hm-gvNsb apkvenw
`c-Wm-[n-Im-cn-I FXn-Xmbncp-p AXn\v Imc-Ww. Ctm \pW Ncn{Xw Fgp-Xp tPmen GsSp--n-cn-p-Xv Xo{h ^mjnv kwL-]-cn-hm-c-am-Wv.
ssZh-\n-tj-[-]-c-amb atX-X-cXzw--s Imv A\ym- b - a mb bpfpw \oXo-I-cn-m-\m-h sIme]m--X-I-fpw Ah-km-\n-pI t]mbn--v Ipd-bp-I -t]m-ep-an-. adnv AsXm-cp KpW-\-{I-am-\p-]m-X-t{i-Wnt]m-se A[n-I-cn-p-I-bm-Wp-m-bsX-mWv Ncn{Xw \tmSv ]d-bp--Xv. h-am\ Imes \nco-izc-a-tX-X-cXz hm--fpsS Iman-

kp-c-amb hmp-I D]tbm-Knv P\-sf sXp-[cn- n- p- I bpw {]tbm- K n AXn\v FXncv {]hn-p-Ibpw sNp kao-]\w Ckvem-an-\n-. C-kvemw bmYmYy- aqSn-shp-Itbm hf-sm-Sn-p-Itbm sNmsX \ne-]mSv hy-am-p-p. Fm aX-fpw HmWv Ftm GXv am-Kw kzoI-cn-mepw kzKn- t]mIm-satm Ckvemw ]Tn-n-p-n-.

2013 tabv

26

I-Xz-n \S--s-Sp cmjv{Sob sIme]m-X-I-fpw apw hyam-p-Xpw \ncoiz-cXzatX-X-cXzw am\p-jnI aqey--sfb-pw a\p-jym-h-Im-i--sfbpw kwc-n-p--Xn ]cm-P-b-sp Fp-am-{X-am-Wv.
2. {kjvSm-hn hniz-kn-p-p-s-n-ep-w
a\p-jys kmaq-lnI Pohn-X-n-tev
ssI-I-S-m ssZh-nt\m aX-nt\m
A-[n-Im-c-an-sv hniz-kn-p atX-X-chm-Zn-I.
Cu ImgvN-mSn-ep atX-X-cXzw {]Xy-n am\p-jnI aqey--tfmtSm a\pjy-mh
- I
- m-i
- t
- fmtSm Gp-ap-p-n-. F-m aXw hyn-bpsS kzIm-cy-Po-hn-X-n
]cn-an-X-s-Sp--s coXn-bn-ep atX-Xc-Xz-ns {]mtbm-Kn-IX F{]-Im-c-am-sWv hni-Zo-I-cn-m-\m-hm-n-S-tmfw Cc-n-ep atX-X-c-Xzs \nhNn-pI
km[y-a-. hnizm-kw, kvt\lw, Icp-W, KpW-Imw XpS-nb KpW- BPn-W-sapw If-hv, NXn, h-\, Zpcm-{K-lw,
Al-m-cw, kzmYX XpS-nb Zqjy-
shSn-b-W-sapw Fm aX-fpw AXns
A-\p-bm-bn-I-tfmSv D]-tZ-in-p-p. CXn
hnizmkw am{X-amWv am\-kn-I-amb Hcp I-aw. asm \-Ifpw Xna-Ifpw a\p-jys `uXnI Ia-fpw kmaq-lnI_m[yX-IfpsS Btcm-Ky-I-c-amb ]qo-I-c-Whp-am-Wv. bYmY-n a\p-jy\v hyn]-c-am-bn-p Hcp Imcyw C F-XmWv
h-kvXp-X. a\p-jys P\-\-s-Xp-S-p- Hmtcm \nan-jhpw Ah kaq-l-hp-ambn IqSp-X CS-]-g-Ip-Ibpw kaq-l-hp-ambn
Cgp-In-t-cp-Ibpw sNp-p. "hy-n'Ifps-S hynXz cq]o-I-cWw hsc \S-p-Xv
k-aq-l-n \ne-hm-c-n\pw G-p-d-nep-Ipw A\p-kr-X-am-bn-cn-p-saXv

hy--amb Hcp bmYmYy-am-W-tm.


Hcp hyn X\n-m-Ip-tm aXim-k-\-b-\p-k-cnv kXy-k-X ]pe-p-Ibpw kaq-l-n hv av
a\p-jy-cp-ambn \S-p CS-]m-Sp-Ifn h\ ImWn-p-Ibpw sNm Ign-bptam? hyn-]-c-ambn kam--Kn-bm-Im\pw kaq-ln-I-ambn Zp-am-Kn-bm-Im\pw a\p-jy\v Ign-bptam? kmaq-ln-I-Po-hn-X-n aXw
I-Sv hccpXv FXv sImv F-mWv Dt-in-p-Xv Fv AXns
h-m-v Xs Adn-bn-. kXy-w, [aw, \oXn-]m-e-\w, B--m-Y--X, XpS-nb kXvhn-Im-c- kaq--l-n {]I-Sn-n-p--Xns\ aXw kaq-l-n CS-s]-Sp--Xmbn
hy-mJym-\n-m Ign-bn FmWv
adp-]-Sn-sb-n ]ns kaq-l-tmSv Rm C aX-m-c-\mWv Fv
]d-bp-X
- n-s\tbm aX-ns Nn D]-tbm-Kn-p--Xn-s\tbm BtWm Dt-in-p-Xv? An-s\-sbn- {]kvXpX atX-X-cXzw ]menp- Bcpw Xs-bn-sv ]d-tbn hcpw. hyn-]-c-ambn sslh--hn-izm-k-ap--bmfpw Ckvem-anI
ho--W-ap--bmfpw {InkvXp-aX hnizm-knbpw kaq-l-n Adn-b-sSp-Xv Ahs aX-ns te_tem-Sv IqSn Xs. ]c-ky-ambn \ncoiz-c-hmZw {]Jym-]n--bm t]mepw
C-Xn\nv ap-\
- . ImcWw ssZh hnizm-knv hnizm-k-ns ASn--m-\-n kwkm-cn-m AhIm-ia
- n-s-n \nco-iz-ch
- n-izm-knv
Abm-fpsS hnizm-k-n hn[n ]dbm\pw Ah-Im-i-an-. ImcWw atXX-cXzw sImv kmm-XvIr-X-am-Ip ka-Xz-n\v FXn-cm-W-Xv. CXm- asmcp cq]w aXw "kmaq-lnI--Po-hn-X
- n-en-Ss
- ]-Sc
- pXv' Fv hymJym--\n--s-Sp atX-X-c-Xz-n-\ps--n AXns hm- Nqn--m-Wn--W-sav Xm]-cy-sSp--p. aX-ap--cmb cmjv{So-b-]mnI- t]mepw m\mYnsb \np--tm {]tZ-iv `qcn-]--ap- aX-msc PmXn-bpsS ASn-m\-n Xs \ma-\ntZiw sNpXv Nncnv hI \Ip-p.
3. Fm aX hnizm-k-pw

GI- \ mb Am- l p- h ns\


am{Xw Bcm-[n--W-sav
]Tn- n- p Ckv e mapw,
]nXmhpw ]p{X\pw ]cn-ipm-m-hp-amb aqv ssZhsf Bcm-[n--W-sav
]d-bp {InkvXp-a-X-hpw,
ap-n-ap-tmSn ssZh-fp lnp- a - X hpw Htc
t]mse kXy- a m- h p- - s Xs\?

2013 tabv

27

Xp-ey {]m[m\yw \Ipp Fv Ah-Imi-s-Sp atX-X-cXzw.


Cy atX-X-cXzw Cu aqmw hn`mK-n s]Spp FmWv Ah-Im-i-sSp--Xv. 1950 P\p-hcn 26-\v AwKo-I-cn--s
Cy `c-W-L-S-\-bn skIyp-e-dnkw
F hmv BI-kvan-I-ambn D]-tbm-Kn-psh--msX Hcp `c-W-L-S\m Bi-b-ambn
Dsm-n-n-cp-n-. tImn-yp-j\
- m-bXn-\p-ti-jhpw skIyp-e-dnkw F `c-WL--S\ Bibw Cy P\- Hcp s]mXp N-bn-eqsS a\-n-em-n-bn-n-. Hcp
dn--n-mbn 26 hj-v tijw 1976-emWv \m]-n-cmw `c-W-L-S\m t`ZK- X n- b n- e qsS skIyp- e - d nkw BZy- a mbn
Cy `c-W-L-S-\-bn D-Sp-n-b-Xv.
F-nepw ]Sn-m-d temIv hnh-n-s-Xv t]mse aX-hn-cp--amb Hcp Pohn-X ]-Xn-bm-b Cy atX-X-c-Xzs s]mXpsh a\-n-em--s-Sp--Xv. Cy-bpsS _lp-aX kwkvIm-c--fn\nv
Dcp-n-cn-bp cmjv{Sob kmaqly ImgvNm-Sp-I-\p-kr-X-ambn Hcp aX-tmSpw
{]tXy-I-amb aa-Xtbm hnth-N-\tam ]p-e-m-Xn-cn-p-I FmWv ]e tZiob t\Xm--amcpw apv hni-Zo-I-cn-n-p--Xv. Fm Cy atX-X-c-Xz-n\v Jn-Xam-b Hcp \nhN\w \mfn-Xp-hsc \Is--n-n- FXv sImp-Xs Hmtcm-cpcpw kzw am\-knI \ne-hm-c-n-\-\pk--cnv sImv Cy atX-X-c-Xzs hnh--n-p-p.
atX-X-c-Xz-n\v Hn-e-[nIw `mjy- \Ip-Xv bpn-lo-\-am-sWpw Fm aX--sfbpw _lp-am-\npw F-coXn-bn-ep atX-X-c-Xz-ns \nhN\w a-

X -]]mXn-Xz-amWv Fpw tPmPv tlmfn-tbmv atX-X-c-Xz-n\v \-Inb \nhN-\-amb "`c-W-Iq-Sn-\v aX-an' F \nhN\w am{X-sa AXn-\pq Fpw kaYnp--sIm-s-gp-Xnb ae-bmfw hnn]o-Un-b- teJ-\-n ]d-bpp:
"djy Du-P-X-{hpw Ata-cn- _tbm-f-Pnbpw Cm-Xv t]mse Cyv am{X-am-sbmcp atX-Xc-Xzhpw bpn-lo-\-amWv'(4)
imkv{X-sbpw knm--sbpw Hmbn D]-an teJ-Is bpn-lo-\X {]kvXpX teJ-\-n
\n- g - e n- p- p- s - nepw Cy
atX- X - c - X zw hyXy- k v X - c o- X n- b n
hymJym-\n-m Hcp-]mSv ]gp-Xp-Ifp-sv {]kvXpX teJ\w \s
t_m[y-s-Sp-p-p. am{X-hp-a,
lnp Xo{h-hm-Zn-I-fpsS tat\m--nepw Iman-IX
- z-nepw \S-p
t_mw_v kvt^mS-\-fpw hwi-lXy-Ifpw \s Hman-n-p--Xv `cW-IqSw Xpey-]-cn-K-W\ Fm aXpw \Ip-p-s-nepw `qcn]w hcp kaqlw AXv AwKoI-cn-p-n F-Xm-Wv. {]kw-K
- fnepw {]kvXm-h-\-I-fnepw kp-c-amb Cy atX-X-c-Xz-s-p-dnv
{]-kw-Kn-p--h-cpsS Iap-n
Xs-bmWv _m_dn akvPnZv X-I--s-Xpw Hcp hymg-h--mew Ign--npw km AXv ]p-\-\n-a-n-m--Xpw.
kp-c-amb Bi-b-ns {]Nmc-I-cmbn amdp--h Xs {]mtbm-

{_m-W-s\tbm iq{Z-s\tbm Nm-f-t\tbm Ipdn- Ckvemw ]d-bp--Xv. Cu


temIs lnphpw {In-kvXym-\nbpw blq-Z\pw ssP\-\pw _p\pw knp-Imc\pw ]mgvknbpw Fp-th aX-ap--h\pw Cm-h\pw Cuiz-cs\ \ntj-[np \mkvXn-I\pw BcmI-s Fm-hcpw Hcm-Wn-\n-pw s]n-\
- n-pw Dhn--XmWv FmWv Ckv-emans- {]Jym-]-\w.

2013 tabv

28

Kn--I-ambn FmWv atX-X-cXzw Fv sXfnbn-p--Xn ]cm-P-b-s-p. kXy-n CXn henb Ap-X-sam-p-an-. PmXo-bXbpw D-\o-N-Xz-fpw hnsm-gn-bm Hcp
kaq-l-n a\p-jys\ P\m Xmgv-h\mbpw Db-h-\mbpw hne-bn-cp-p-p.
a-tX-X-cXzw F ]Zw hym]-I-am-bnpw PmXo--b-amb Cu hnth-N\w Cpw \ne-\n-p-p.
hmp-I-sfbpw hmN-I--ssfbpw h-fsc kp-c-ambn tImn-Wnbpw hnImcm-[o-\-X-tbm-sS-bp-amWv Cy atX-X-cXz-s-p-dnv \oXn-]m-e-Icpw kmwkvImcn-I \mb-Icpw cmjv{Sob t\Xm-amcpw
\apv apn Ah-X-cn-n-p--Xv. F-m \mw A-c- tNv hv `mh-\m--Ia
- mbn a\-n-em-nb atX-Xc
- X
- z-hp-ambn
Hcn-epw s]mcp--s-SpI t]mbnv tIhe-samcp Xmc-X-ay-n\v t]mepw ]gp-Xn-m aX-k-ao-]-\--fmWv atX-X-c-Xzhpw \m\m-Xz-n GI-Xzhpw Ah-Im-i-s-Sp-h--cn\npw A[n-Im-cn-I-fn\npw ]-etm-gpw Dm-bn-sm-n-cn-p-Xv.
""km hnZym-`ymk kwhn-[m-\-n\v
Io- g n- e p _rl- mb kam- - c - h n- Z ym`ymk kwhn-[m-\-fpw IqSp-X in
{]m-]n-p-p-v. 1977- B.Fkv.Fkv
m]n hnZym- ` m- c Xn (hn- Z ym- ` m- c Xn
AJn `mc- X ob in kkv X )
lrZ-b--fn- hKo-b-X-bp-sSbpw lnp
tZio- b - h m- Z - n- s bpw hnj- h n- p- I
]mIp-p-v. C-h-cpsS 28000tmfw hcp
hnZym-e-b--fn GXmv 1,60,000-tmfw
A[ym-]I
-
- tPmen sNp-p. antkm-dm-an
HgnsI C-y-bn Fm kwm-\pw
hnZym-`m-c-Xn m]-\--fp-v.
lnpXz {]Xybimkv{X-tmSpw tZiob-X-tbmSpw AW at\m-`m-h-ap Hcp
Xe-ap-dsb hms-Sp-p Xc-n Hcp
tZiob hnZym-`ymk kwhn-[m\w hfnsb-Sp-p-I-bmWv X-fpsS ey-sav
hnZym-`m-cXn AY-i--n-S-bn-m--hn[w
hy-am-p-p. hnZym-`m-c-Xn-bpsS hyhm--]n-X-amb hf hnZym-`ymk taJ-ebn ]nSn-ap-dp-p--Xns\ kwL-]-cn-hmcw
F-p-am{Xw Kuc-h-n-emWv ImWp-Xv
F-Xn\v hy-amb sXfn-hm-Wv. hnZym-`mc--Xnsb IqSmsX Hmtcm kwm-\-n-sbpw {]tZ-i-n-sbpw kmaq-lnI cm-jv-{Sob khn-ti-j-X-I\p-k-cnv hyXy-kvX\m-a--fn ]cn-hm-c-ns hnZym-e-b-
{]hn-p-p-v. kc-kzXn inip-a-n,

`m- c - X ob hnZym- \ n- t I- X , KoXm


hnZym--e-b, kc-kzXn _me-hn-Zym-eb
XpS-n-bh DZm-l-c-Ww. 1966--Xs hnZym-`m-cXn ]mT-]p-kvX-I-sf--p-dnv F.kn.C.B.Sn \Snb Hcp ]T-\-n, {]kvXpX
kw-kvIm-cs
- -p-dn-p hnZym-`ym-kw F t]cn ]c-aX hntZz-jhp-w aX-{`m-p-amWv hnZymYn-I-fnte-v ]Ip-sIm-Sp-p--sXv
Nqn--m-Wn-n-cp-p. 1528-\pw 1914\pw CS-bn "cma-P--`qan' Ip-d-Xv 77 Xh-W-sb-nepw It-d-s-p.
CXn-\n-S-bn aq-c-e--tmfw `-m CXv {]Xn-tcm-[n-m-\mbn
kz-Po-hn _en-I-gn-p XpS-nb
A-k-Xyhpw aX-hn-tZzjw hfp-Xp-amb `mK--sf-p-dnv Av
Xs Btcm-]-W-ap-m-bn-cp-p. cmPy--p-S-\ofw Cu kvIqfp-I-fn GIo--IrX kne-_k
- mWv D]-tbm-Kn-p-Xv. \nc--cX Cm-Xm-m thn-bp km- {KmtmSv IqSnbp- A\u-]-Nm-cnI GIm-[ym-]I
hnZym-e-b--fnepw kwL-]-cn-hm-cn\pw Ah-cpsS hKob AP-I-pw Imcy-amb kzm[o-\-ap-v.
a-[y-{]-tZ-iv, Oo-kvKUv XpS-nb
kwm-\--fn-enXv GXm ]qW-a-m-Wv. Ccw hnZym-e-b--fn
"k-c-kzXn h-\hpw' av ssl-htm--I-fpw b-fpw \n_n-X-ambn ]Tn-n--s-Sp-p. a[y{]--tZ-in 2007s XpS--n--Xs "kqcy-\-a-kvImcw' \n_--amn-bn-cp-p. ]noSv 2009- D-`-W--n\v apv hnZymYn-I kw-kvIr--X-tm-I-amb "t`mP-\-a{w' Dcphn-S-W-sapw \ntZ-in--s-p. C--gn G{]n-en Nulm k--m Fm hnZymYn-Ifpw \n_--ambpw "KoXm-kmcw' ]Tn--W-sav D-c-hn-p. CXn-s\-Xnsc Nne
kw-L-S-\-I tImSXnsb kao-]ns--nepw Hcp GImwK _v km- D-chv icn-h-p. ChnsS kwm\ khI-em-im-e-I kwL]--cn-hm-c-ns {]Nm-c-W--fp-sS
]co- - W - i m- e - I - f m- s Wp a\pjym-h-Imi {]h-I Btcm-]W-ap--bn-pp.''(5)
Cy atX-X-cXzw t\cn-Sp {]-

A\o- X nbpw AXn- { I- a - fpw Ah-km-\n-n-m-\mbn


am{Xw A\p-h-Zn--s Ckv-em-anI bp--fn-t]mepw ]c-aX klnjvWpX hy-ambn {]I-S-am-bn-cp-p.
Bcm-[\
- m-eb
-
- XIcp-sXpw Bcm-[\m\na-cm-b-hsc D]-{Z-hn--cp-sXpw Ckvem-ans bp-\n-ba--fn {][m-\-s--Xm-Wv.

2013 tabv

29

[m-\ shp-hn-fn-I-fn-sem-mWv \mw hm-bn-Xv. hKo-b-hm-Zn-I-fpsS am{Xw Au-n tNm-hp--XmWv CsX-n Biz-knm-am-bn-cp-p. ]s \nba`-c-W-kw-hn[m-\
- hsc Cy atX-Xc
- X
- zs tNmZyw sNp coXn-bn F-s-p-sh-n
Cy atX-X-c-Xz-ns AYhpw bmYmYyhpw Fv F tNmZyw ]ns-bp-w
Ah-ti-jn-p-p.
Ckvemapw atX-Xc
- X
- zhpw
atX-X-cXzw F hmn-\-p-dv aX--fp-sSbpw Zi-\--fp-sSbpw ]c-kv]-cap kao-]-\-co-Xn-I-sf-p-dn-mWv \mw CXp-hsc N sNbvX-Xv. Ckvem-ans ]ca-X kao-]-\--sf-p-dn-p N-Iv
apmbn Ckvemw Fm FmWv Fv
km-am-\y-co-Xn-bn Adntb-Xp-v. F-m am{Xsa atX-X-cXz N-I A[-c-hymbm-a
- f
- n\nv ap-ambn {]mtbm-Kn-IP
- ohn-X-n ImWm Ign-bq.
{]]--nse kI-e-N-cm-N-c-pw
Ir-Xy-amb hyh-bpw Ia-fpw \nbn- {]] {kjvSmhv a\p-jys\ Cu `qanbn Pohn- m \ntbm- K n- - X p- ap- X
]men-t-p \nb-a- \In-sm-ncp-p. a\p-jyv ssZhn-I-k-t-i- \-Ip-X
- n\v thn Amlp a\p-jy-cn\np Xs-bmWv amK-Zin-Isf Xnc-sSp--Xv. BZys a\p-jys\ AYhm apgph a\p-jy-cp-sSbpw ]nXm-hn-s\-bmWv Hmas amK-Zin-bmbn Amlp \ntbmKn--Xv. a\p-jy-hw-i-ns hnImk ]cnW-ma L--fn-semw Amlp A{]-Imcw
Hmtcm amK-Zin-Isf \ntbm-Kn-p. B am-K-Zin-I-fm-bn-cpp \_n-am AYhm {]hm--N-Iam. ]e tZi--fn, kaq-l--

fn- ]e Ime--fn e-n-]-cw {]hm-NI


- h
- c
- yam Pw-sIm-p.
{]hm-N-I \ntbm-Kn-X-cm-hm
Hcp kaq-lhpw Ign-p-t]m-bn-n-sv Izp-B {]kvXm-hn-p-p (Izp-B 16:36). {]hm-N-Iam Fmw
]Tn-n-Xv Htc kt-i-am-bn-cp-p.
{]- h m- N I In- b nse Ah- k m- \ s {]hm-N-I-\mWv apl-Zv \-_n. At-l-n\v {kjvSm-hmb Am-lp Ah-X-cn-nv sImSp {K-am-Ipp Izp-B. a\p-jyv
icn-bmb hnizm-khpw h{I-X-bn-m Ia-fpw a\pjy{]Ir-Xnv
A-\p-tbm-Py-amb \nba \ntZ-i-fpw Izp-B\
- n-eqsS a\p-jy-hw-i
- n\v Amlp \In. Izp-B-\nse
h-N-\-v {]mtbm-KnI cq]w kzw Pohn-X-n-eqsS apl-Zv ImWn--p-sIm-Sp-p. apl-Zv \-_n-p
tijw C\n-sbmcp {]hm-N-I hcm\n-m-XpsImv At-l-n\v
A-h-XoW-amb {Kw Hcp amn-cp-e
- p-an-msX temIm-hk
- m\w
hsc \ne-\np-sav Izp-B-\neqsS Amlp Adn-bn-p. CXmWv
C-kvemw. Ckvemw apl-Zv \_n
m]n aX-a--. adnv a\p-jym-cw`w apX \ne-\n-p-t]m ssZhnI
am-K-Zi-\-amWv Ckvemw. A-mlp ]d-bpp:
""\qln-t\mSv A\p-im-kn-n-p-mbn--cp-Xpw Znhy-kt
- iw hgn C-tm Xm-fn-te--b-n-p-Xpw C_vdm-low, aqk, Cuk Fn-h-tcm-S\p-im-kn-n-cp--Xp-amb AtX kXyk-cWn Xs \nv \nb-anv
Xn-cn-p-p. Cu kXy-aX
- s \ne-\np-I. CXn `nn--cpXv.''(6)
Ckvemw ssZh-t{]m--amb aXam-bX
- p- s
- Im-p-Xs
- AXnse Bib- kpXm-cy-am-Wv. ""CXm-Ip
{K-w CXn kwi-bta C. kqv-am-ep-v amK-Zi-\-am-WnXv.''(7)
kp-c-amb hmp-I D]-tbmKnv P\-sf sXp[cn-n-p-Ibpw
{]tbm- K - n AXn\v FXncv
{]hn-p-Ibpw sNp k-ao]\w Ckvem-an-\n-. Ckvemw bmYm-Yy-- aqSn-sh-p-Itbm hf-sm-

A`n-{]mbkzmX{yw Fv
]d-bp-tm shdpsX hmb
sImv ]d-bm-\p kzmX{y-am-sW-mWv AY-amp--sX-n AXv alm-sbmcp Bi-b-sam-p-a. A`n-{]mbw \ymb-sa-n
AXv \S-n hcp-m k--X-bp-n-Sv am{Xsa
A`n-{]m-b-kzm-X-{yw AwKoI-cn--s-Spp Fv ]dbm- Ign-bq.

2013 tabv

Sn-p-It
- bm sNmsX \ne-]mSv hy-am-pp. Fm a-X-fpw HmWv Ftm GXv
amKw kzoI-cn-mepw kzK-n t]mImsatm C-kvemw ]Tn-n-p-n-. Izp-B
]d-bp-p: ""Am-lp-hn kzoIm-cy-amb
aXw C-kv-emw am{X-am-Ipp.''(8) P\--fpsS
I-Sn-bpw ]qam-ebpw e`n-p--Xn\v thn
khaX kXy-hmZw {]kw-Kn-p aX-t\X-m- hsc Ah-cpsS {]h-\- hgn Ah-cpsS Ah-Im-i-hm-Z-sf \ntj-[np---h-cm-Wv. kha-X-k-Xy-hm-Z-ns
hm- Ah-cpsS aX-n XpS-cp-Xpw AXn A`n-am-\n-p-Xpw AXns
A\p-bm-bn-Isf BIjn-p-Xpw Ah
kzw aXs D-Xhpw al--c-hp-ambn
ImWp--XvsIm-m-Wv. As-n--X-s
GI-\mb Am-lp-hns\ am-{Xw Bcm-[n--W-sav ]Tn-n-p Ckvemapw, ]n-Xmhpw ]p{X\pw ]cn-ip--m-m-hp-amb aqv
ssZ-h-sf B-cm-[n--W-sav ]d-bp
{In-kv-Xp-a-X-hpw, ap-n-ap-tmSn ssZh-fp lnp-a-Xhpw AXnXs Pohm-mhpw ]c-am-mhpw Hm-sW-v knm-np- AssZz-X-hpw Cuiz-ct\ Csv hniz-kn-p- IWmZ Zi-\hpw (Nmhm-Iw)
H-tc t]mse kXy-am-hp--sX-s\?
Ckvemw am{X-amWv bYmY tam-a-- m-K-sav {]kvXm-hn-p Izp-B-\n-Xs CX-c-k-aq-l-tmSv kln-jvWp-X-tbmS-pw kmtlm-Z-cy-tm-sSbpw hn--Wsa-p-IqSn ]Tn-n-p-p.
""a\p-jysc \n-fpsS \mYs\ kq-n-

30

p-I. Hscm Bm-hn-\n-v \n-sf krjvSn-p-Ibpw AtX Bm--hn\n-p-Xs AXns C-Wsb krjvSn-p-Ibpw Ah cn-\n--p-ambn [mcmfw kv{Xo]p-cp-j-am-sc temIv hym]n-p-I-bpw sNbv-X-h-\s{X Ah.''(9)
a\p-jy-cn Db-h-\m-b {_m-W-s\tbm Xmgv-h-\mb iq{Zs\-tbm a\p-jyt\ Am N-mf-t\tbm Ipdn- Ckvemw ]d-bp--Xv. Cu temIs lnphpw {InkvXym-\nbpw blq-Z\pw ssP-\-\p-w
_p\pw knp-Im-c\pw ]mgvk
- n-bpw
Fp-th aX-ap--h\pw C-m-h\pw Cuiz-cs\ \ntj-[n-p \mkvXn-I\pw Bcm-Is Fm-hcpw Hcm-Wn\npw s]n\npw Dhn--Xm-Wv F {]Jym-]-\w.
Ccp-]-n-sbmmw \qm-nepw
a\p-jy-s\ Xp-I-fmn hn`-Pn-p
Pm-Xo-b-X-pw hWm-{ia [a-n\pw atX-X-c-Xz--ns tae-n-b-Wnbn-XpsIm-p-am{Xw D-\o-NXzw
Ah-km-\n--n-. sh-m-cs apnb tlm-ep-I-fn Idp hKm--c-\v {]th-i-\m-\p-aXn \ntj-[np \mK-cnI ]mm-Xy kwkvIm--cs ]cn-h--n--n-m \ncoiz-c atX-XchmZ-n\v I-gn--Xpan--. ]s ]Xn-\mev \qm-p-I-p-apv Izp-B-\n AXv {]Jym]n--sp Fv am{X-a kmmXvI-cn--s-p. FtXym-]y-m-c-\mb
I-dp _nem D-X-Ip-e-Pm-X\m-b A_q-_-, t]jy-m-c\mb kam Fn--s\ F{X-

a[y-]qh tZis {In-kvXp-aX hnizm-kn-I ap-kvenw `c-W-n\v Iogn kq-W kzmX-{yw A\p-`hn-n-cp-p. AXp-sIm-pXs tdma-m-cpsS aZI
`c-W-t-m \Xv C-kvem-ans B[n-]-Xy-amWv Fv Xpdv ]d-bm\pw Ah-cnse D-c-hm-Z-s--h a-SnIm-Wn-n-.

2013 tabv

31

sb{X a\p-jy hyXykvX kw-kvImcw ioen---h, {Kmao-W, \K-c-hm--kn-I Hcp


hyXym-k-hp-an-msX D-\o-N-Xz--fn-msX
AXm-bn-cpp Izp-Bs B-ibw kaq-ln- Bhn-jvI-cn-p-sIm-v {]hm-N-I
h-fn-sb-Sp kaq-lw. {]hm-N-I Xs a\p-jy-k-aq-ls D]-an-Xv No--ns ]p-I t]mse Xpey-cm-Wv Fm a\pj-ycpw Fm-Wv.
{]hm-N-Is Imev am{Xw Dm-tI Hcp Ah--bm-b Ckvemw AXns\
I--Xv adnv Ah-km\ \mfphsc Ckvemans kmaq-ln-I-Im-gvN-mSv A-c-n-ep-Xmh-Ww. Fm-hcpw Htc-hK-m, Hcp
Ip-Spw-_-nse AwK-. {]hm-N-I ]d-p: ""\nbw \n-fpsS ssZhw GI\m-Wv \n-fp-sS-sbmw ]nXmhpw Hcm
Xs. Fmhcpw BZ-an\n-p-h
- c
- mWv;
B-Z-am-Is an\npw. AXn-\m shfp--h\v Idp--h-t\-mtfm Ad-_nv
A-\-d-_n-tb-mtfm bmsXmcp t{ijvT-Xbp-an; ssZh-`-n-bpsS ASn-m-\-n-emsX.''(10)
{]hm-N-I GI-ssZ-hm-cm-[-\-bpsS kt-iw P\--tfmSv {]t_m-[\w sNbvXtm- At-l-ns P\X At-ls
h-[n-m KqVm-tem-N\ \S-n. CXv a\n-em-nb {]hm-N-I ssZh-\ntZim-\pk-cWw P\n \mn\nv ]mem-b\w sNbvXp. i{Xp- At-ls hnSm Hcp--a-m-bn-cp-p. ]pXnb Xma-k--epw
A--h {]hm-N-Is\ D]-{Z-hn-m-s\-n. kXy--hn-izm-kn-Iv BZi kwc--W-n\v thn bpm-\-paXn \I-s-p. kXy{]-hm-N-I\v {]] {kjvSm-hns Dt-iy-a-\p-k-cnv hnPbw e`n-p. 10 hj-ptijw Xs tZtlm-]{- Z-ht
- a]n-p-Ibpw
A-]-am-\n-p-Ibpw h[n-m {ian-p-Ibpw sN-bv-X \mp-Im {]hm-N-Is cm-jv{So--bm-[n-Im-c-n Iogn-em-bn. H-Sw
Ahsc Daq-e\w sNm-am-bn-cp-n-pw {]hm--N-I AXv sNbvXn-. {]-hm--N-Is aX-s FXn-h {]-hm-N-I ITn-\ambn shdp-p-Ibpw Ghpw A[nIw hn-a-in-p-Ibpw sNbvX BNm-c-amb hn{K-lmcm-[\ kzo-I-cn--h. {]hm-N-I Am-pIm-v s]mXp-amv \In. Ncn-{X-n
Xp-ey-X-bn-m DZm-c-amb k-ao-]-\w- ssIsmv Ay-\m h-sc-bp kIe a\pjy-pw am-Xr-I ImWn-p. Cu HuZm-cy-n\v \-_nsb t{]cn-n-Xv atX-X-cXzw
F- Bi-b-am-bn-cp-n-. aXw X-s--bm-

bn-cp-p. AsX Ckvemw aX-ns Ah-km-\s {]hm-NI


- Ahk-m\ thZ-{K--amb Izp-B-\n-I
kq--v Pohn-Xw-sImv `mjy-w cNn-p-I-bm-bn-cp-p.
`qcn-]w hcp _lp-ssZh-hnizm-kn-I apkvenw-Isf ssZhn-I-\nb-a--f-\p-k-cnv Pohn-m kXn-n-cp-n-. Fm apkvenw-I-v B[n-]Xyw e`n--tm Fm
a-X
-- mpw Bcm-[\m kzmX{yw
A-\p-h-Zn-p. Ckvem-an\v \qdv iXam--\w B[n-]X
- y-ap Hcp cmjv{S-nse \nb-a-v ASn-m-\-amb
Izp--B-\nse hN-\- {in-p.
""aX-n Hcp hn[ \n_-hp-an-. kamKw ZpamK-fn
\n-v thXn-cnv Ign-n-cn-pp.''(11)
""Xm hnfw-_cw sNpI: CXv
\n---fpsS cn-Xm-hn\n-p kXy--am-Ip-p. CjvSa
- p-h
- nXv kzoI-cnmw CjvS-ap--hv \ntj[nmw.''(12)
{]hm-N-I\v t]mepw ssZhn-I-kt-iw Fn-pI F-Xn Ihnv P\-sf \n_-nv aXw
kz-o-I-cn-n-m A\p-hm-Z-an-spw
Izp--B AY-i--n-S-bn-m
hn-[w {]Jym-]n-p-p.
""ssZhnI ktiw kv]jvSa
- mbn
Adn-bn--e-msX as-s-nepw
ssZh-Zq-Xam-cpsS _m[y-X-bn-eqtm?''(13)
""AYhm Ah ]nn-cn-p-t]mhp-I-bm-sW-n \ns Ah-cpsS
tat\m--m-c-\mbn \mw \ntbm-Knn--n-. ktiw Fn-t- _m[y-X am{Xsa \n\-pq.''(14)
""ktiw hy-ambn Fn-pX--cp D-c-hm-ZnXzw am{Xsa \-psS ZqX-\p-q.''(15)
""P\- hnizm-kn-If
- m-hm Xm Ahsc \n_-n-p-I-tb-m?
Amlp Dt-in-m-e-msX Bcpw
hn-iz-kn-n.''(16)
""\_ntb Xm DZvt_m-[n-np-sIm-n-cn-p-I. Xm DZvt_m[-I am{X-am-Wv. Ahsc \n_nv t\amK-n-em--phs\m-

Ckvem-an-s\bpw AXns
t{kmX-p-I-sfbpw kXy-k-amb Ncn-{X-am]n-\n-I
D]-tbm-Kn-p-]Tn-m C-kvem-ans kXy-Xbpw ssZhnI-Xbpw ku-cyhpw a\-nem- I pw. Ien- m Pehpw ip-amb hmbphpw
kpXm- c y- a mb shfn- hpw
\mw Xnc- s - S p- p- Xv
t]mse Ien-m hnizmk-hpw \mw Xnc-s-Sp-t-Xm-Wv FmWv _pn \tmSv Bh-iy-s-Sp--Xv.

2013 tabv

32

p-a Xm.''(17)
CX-c-a-X--tfm-Sp Ckvem-ans kao]-\-v cq]w sImSp-p Izp-B-\nI
hN-\--fn Nne-XmWv apI-fn-ep--cn--Xv.
a-\pjy GXmv GXv hnizm-km-Zi- ssIsm-p--Xn\pw ASn-m-\-Im-cWw Am-lp-hns \n-b-am-sWv IzpB- a\p-jy-sc ]Tn-n-p-p. AXp-sImp--Xs am\p-jn-I-amb CS-]m-Sp-I-fn
sImSp- hm-ep-I-fn kl-I-c-Whpw
hnp-ho-gvNbpw AXy-m-t]-n-Xa
- m-sW-p- w
hn`m-Kob Nn-Iv AhnsS m\-an-sp-amWv Izp-B \Ip ktiw. Gsd ]mSn ]pI-gv-s-Sp atX-X-c-Xz-ns hm--fpsS atX-X-cXz kao-]\w hntZz-j-pw Daq-e\ {]{In-b-Ipw
Imc-W-am-b-tm Ckvem-ans aX-k-ao-]\- kln-jvWp-Xm-]-c-am-bn-cp-p.
CXn\v Imc-Ww hyn-]-c-ambn B-tcmSpw i{XpX ]pep-n F--Xm-Wv. Xn--I-tfmSv am{X-amWv C-kvemw i{XpX ]pe-p-X
- v. i-{Xp- hsc B-an-{X-fm-I-W-sa-mWv Ckvemw B{K-ln-p-Xv. "Xnsb \--sImv {]Xn-tcm-[n--pI
A-tm- \ns Ghpw henb i{Xp \ns B-an-{X-ambn Xocpw' F-m-Wv IzpB\ns A-[ym-]-\w. {]hm-N-Is I-Sp
F-Xn--cm-fnbpw At-ls hI-h-cp-m
]pd-s--h-\p-am-bn-cpp Da. D-a-dns am\km--c
-- n\v thn-bmWv {]hm-N-I Am-lp-hn-t\mSv {]mYn-X
- v. ITn-\i
- {- Xp-hmb
D-a ]n-oSv {]hm-N-Is ASp A\pN-c-\mbn amdn-bXv N-cn-{Xw.
apkvenw hntcm[w {]kw-Kn-p-I-bp-w ]n--I XIm AWn-I-sf Blzm\w
sNp-Ibpw hwi-l-Xy--Isf \ymbo-I-cn-p-

Ibpw sNp- F{Xtbm lnpXz


t\-Xm--fp-v. \tc{ tamUn, {]ho- sXmKm-Un-b, A[zm\n Xp-Sn tIc-f-n-se iin-Ie So hsc CkvemwaX hntZzjw ]c-ky-ambn {]Jym-]n-p-I-bpw X]-c-I-nI- AXv C--s\-n-eqsS {]N-cnn--p-Ibpw sN-p--p. kzm`m-hn-I-ambpw Ccw B-fp--I-tfmSv Rm\-S-ap apkvenw-Iv hntbm-Pnpw
F-Xnp-apv; hf-sc-b-[n-Iw. Fm- Ckvem-an-s\--p-dnv \njv-]-ambn ]Tnv kXyw a\-n-emn
ssZh-amK-n-tev Ch IS-ph-m apv sN-bvX A{I-a-
Im-cWw R A-h-cpsS Ckvemam-t-j-W-n\v Hcp {]Xn-_--amIp-I-bn-. Fpam-{X-a kzw ktlm-Z-c--sf-t]m-se R kzoIcn-pw. CXv ]d-bm--\p ImcWw
apkvenw-I \yq-\-]--am-b-Xp-sIm-, Ay-{]-hm-N-Is ]mT-
Dsm--Xn-\m-em-Wv. Atd-_ybn Ckvem-an\v Bo-bhpw cmjv-{So-b-hp-amb A[n-Imcw ssIh-tm {]hm-N-Is ]n-Xr-hy\mb
lwksb Hfn-b-s-bv-Xv NXn-bn
sIm-es
- -Sp-nb h-lvi
- n F-bm
C-kvemw Bt-jn-p-. ]qhIme apkvenw-Ipw {]hm--N-I\pw Hcn-epw ad-m-\m-hm- \jvS-pw
Zpx-Jpw Im-c-W-amb hlvin
Apap-X Ckvem-anI kaq-l
- nse Fm-h-cmepw BZ-cn--s-Sp
hyn-bmbn amdn. temIm-h-km\w
h--s c- b p apkv e nw- I fpw hlv i nbpsS t]-cv tIm At-l-n\v
A\p-{Klw sNmcn-bm {]mYn-m A\p-im-kn--s-Sp-amdv kzlm_n-I-fn Hcm-fmbn Atlw amdn.
Hcn- Hcp blq-Zs
- ih-a
- w
hln-p-sIm-p-t]m-Ish {]hm-NI _lp-am-\]
-- p-c-cw Fgp-t-p\n--p. blq-Z A-m-e--fn Ckve
- m-ans ISp FXn-cm-fn-If
- m-bncp--Xn-\m A\p-N-cam {]hm-NI-t\mSv tNmZn-p: "Atbm {]hmN-Isc A-Xv Hcp blq-Zs arX-tZl-as?
{]hm-N-I adp-]Sn ]d-p: AsX, F-n-epw Atlw Hcp a\p-jy]p-{X-\s?

{]kw-K--fnepw {]kvXm-h\-I-fnepw kp-c-amb C-y atX-X-c-Xz-s-p-dnv


{]kw-Kn-p--h-cpsS I-ap-n Xs-bmWv _m-_vdn akvPnZv XI-s-Xpw
Hcp hymg- h - - mew Ignn-pw km AXv ]p\-\nan-m--Xpw.

2013 tabv

33

A\o-Xnbpw AXn-{I-a-fpw Ah-km-\nn-m-\mbn am{Xw A\p-hZ


- n-s
- Ckveman-I bp--fnt]mepw ]c-aX klnjvWp-X hy-ambn {]I-S-am-bn-cp-p. Bcm[-\m-eb
-
- XI-cp-sXpw Bcm-[\
- m-\na--cm-b-hsc D]-{Z-hn--cp-sXpw C-kvem-ans bp-\n-ba
-
- f
- n {][m-\s
- -X
- m--W.v
hnizmkkzmX{yw Ckvem-anIcmjv{Sw
Aapkvenw ]ucamv Dd-p-sIm-Sp-p-p. AXv tIhew am\-kn-I-ambn Ah
G-Xv aX-nepw hniz-kn-p-Itbm Bcm[\ \S-p-Itbm sNbvXp-sIm-s F
\ne--. hyn-]-c-ambpw IpSpw-_-]-c-ambpw kmaq-ln-I-ambpw DS-se-Sp-p kn-hn, {Inan-\ {]iv\--fnt]mepw A-apkv-enwIv Ah hniz-kn-p thZ-{K--fnse \nb-a- A\p-k-cnv hn[n
]-d-bm\pw As\ Ah-cpsS kaq-l-a-\n-s Xr]vXn-tbm-Sp-Iq-Sn-bp aX-\n-b-a-fpsS shfn--n Bo-bhpw cmjv{Sob-hp-amb kzmX-{y-n Pohn-m-\p-
A--h-Im-ihpw Ahv \I-s-p. A-cw Imcy--fn-sempw C-kvem-anI `c-WIq--Shpw \nb-a-hn-im-c-Zamcpw ssI IS-nbn-cp-n-. cmjv{S-ns s]mXp-hmb {]iv-\--fn Ckvem-anI \nb-a--f-\p-k-cnmWv hn[n- n- c p- - X v . AXm- I s Aapkvenw-I am{X-a ap-kv-enw-Ifpw Hcp t]mse _m[y--am-bn-cp-p. temIv C-kvem-anI \nb-a
-- am{X-amWv Aap-kvenwIv knhn {Inan-\ {]iv\--fn Ah-cpsS aX-{K--a-\p-k-cnv hn[n ]d-bm-\pw
\-S-m-m\pw kzmX{yw \--In-b-Xv. ]ucm-Wn-Ihpw B[p-\n-I-hp-amb Hcp cmjv{Snepw aX-]c
- a
- mb hnime kzmX{yw C-u
A--Y-n \I-s-Sp-n-.
A`n- { ]mbkzmX{yw Fv ]d- b p--

tm shdpsX hmb sImv ]dbm-\p kzmX-{y-am-sW-m-Wv


AY-am-p--sX-n AXv a-l-m-sbmcp Bi-b-sam-p-a-. A-`n-{]mbw \ymb-sa-n AXv \S-n
hcp- m k- - X - b p- n- S - v
am{Xsa A`n-{]m-b-kzm-X-{yw AwKo-I-cn--s-Spp Fv ]d-bm
Ign-bq. A`n-{]m-b-{]-I-S-\-n-\p-tij-w A\ym-b-ambn Bhiyw XS-s--Sp-m {ian-p-tm `c-W-IqS-ns ]c-ky-amb Nmc-{]-h\-ambn am{Xsa AXns\ ImWm
I-gn-bq.
C-cp-W-n \mw Imcy-sf bpn-]qhw A]-{K-Yn-p-tm \apv a\-n-em-Ip Hcp bmYm-Yy-ap-v. aX-k-ln-jvWp-X, hnizm--k-kzm-X-{yw, A`n-{]m-b-kzm-X{yw Fnh bYmY-n km-mXvI-cn--s-Sp-Xv Ckvemw hn`m-h\w sNp aX-k-ao-]-\--fn am{X-amWv Fp--Xm-Wv.
a[y-]u-ckvXy \mSp-I-fn `oIc-hn-cp-b
- p-s
- a t]cn Iq-sme-]m-X-I-v t\XrXzw sImSpp- ]mmXy ss{IkvXh cmjv{S-t\Xm-amcpw Ahsc sh ]q-ip am[y-a-fpw Ah-tcmSv A\p`m-hw {]I-Sn-n-phcpw Ah-cpsS
A- { I- a - sf aX- h n- i zm- k - ns
t]cn \ymbo-I-cn-p--hcpw Xfp-sS apKm-an-Ipw aX-t\-Xm-pw apl-Zv \_n sNbvX HuZm-cyhpw kln-jvWp-Xbpw Hmanm- {]Xn-m-_--am--Wv. apkvenw-Is-Xn-cn ^mjn-p-I-fp-sS
B{I-aWw Ac-t-dp-tm IpI--c-ambn au\-n-em-bn-cp--h \-Ip ktiw a\-n-em-m Ahcp-sS au\w-Xs [mcm-fw. Fm
C-kvem-ans {]-hm-N-I-t\mSv AhcpsS aXhpw hyn-Xzhpw IS-s-ncn-p-p. Ah AXv hnkva-cn-sn-epw. k tXmakv B-tWmUv
F-gp-Xpp: ""apl-Zv Xs ]e Ad-_v ss{I-k-vXhtKm{X--fp-ambpw
kn-bn-tes-n-cp-p. Ahv
A-t-lw kwc--Whpw kz-w aXam-N-cn-m-\p kzmX-{yhpw D-dp--h-cp-n. Ah-cpsS ]ptcm-ln-X-p-m--bn-cp khn-ti-jm-[n-Im-c-

- ]g-b-t]-mse \ne-\nn.''(18)
{]hm-N-Is D-cm-[n-Im-cn-Ifpw {]hmN-Is ]mX Xs-bmWv Cu hnj-b-n ]np-SXv. {]hm-NI]mX ]np-S-tc-Xv CkvemanI hnizm-k-ns ASnm-\ine-I-fn-sem-m-Wv. {]hm-N-Is hntbm--Km-\-cw Ckvem-anI kaq-l-ns
`c-W-km-c-Yy-ta-s-Sp `c-Wm-[n-Imcn Jen-^ A_q-_- lodm hmkn-I-fp-ambn
sN-bvX Icm-dn "Ah-cpsS Bcm-[m-\m-eb-fpw I\o-kbpw i{Xp-f
- n\nv ct\-Sm-\p tIm-Ifpw s]mfn--s-Sp--X. aWn-b-Sn-p-tXm s]cp-m-fn\v Ipcniv
F-gp--n-p-tXm XS-b-s-Sp--Xp-a.'
Fv tcJsSpnbXmbn Ncn{Xtc-J-Ifn- ImWmw.

Imcy--sf bpn-]qhw
A]-{K-Yn-p-tm- \apv
a\-n-em-Ip Hcp bm-YmYy-ap-v. aX-k-ln-jvWp-X,
hn-izm--k-kzm-X-{yw, A`n-{]mb-kzm-X-{yw Fnh bYmY-n km-m-XvI-cn-s-Sp-Xv Ckvemw hn`m-h\
- w
sNp aX-k-ao-]-\--fn am-{X-amWv Fp-X
- m-Wv.

2013 tabv

34

Ckvem-ans Cu \ne-]m-Sp-I Im-cWw


ss{IkvXh ktlm-Z-c---v ss{IkvXh
`-c-Wm-[n-Im-cn-I-tf--m A\p-`m-hhpw Nmbv-hpw ap-kv-enw-I-tfm-Sm-bn-cp-p. a[y-]qh
tZ-i-s {InkvXp-aX hnizm-kn-I ap-kvenw `c-W-n\v Iogn kq-W kzmX{-yw A\p-`-hn-n-cp-p. A-Xp-sIm-p-Xs tdma-m-cpsS a--ZI `c-W-t-m
\-Xv C-kv-em--ans B[n-]-Xy-amWv Fv
Xp-d-v ]d-bm\pw Ah-cnse D-c-hm-Z-s-h aSnImWn-n-. ]{mw \qm-ns
cmw ]Ip-Xn-bn A-t-mIy-bnse bmtm--_mb ]m{Xn-bm-o-km-bn-cp ssa-, tdmam `c-Wm-[n-Im-cn-bm-bn-cp lndmn-b-kn-s aZI IY-I hnh-cnv sIm-v Fgp-Xpp: ""C-s\-bmWv k--h-i--

X-cn-n \nb-a--fn ]-t`Zw ImWmXv kzm`m-hnIw am{Xw. Ien-m


P-ehpw ip-amb hmbphpw kp-Xm-cy-amb
sh-fn-hpw \mw Xnc-s-Sp-p-Xv t]mse
Ien-m hnizm-khpw \m-w Xnc-sSp-t--Xm-Wv FmWv _p-n \tmSv
B-h-iy-s-Sp--Xv.

\pw a\p- j y- c psS km{am- P y- -


Xs lnX-n-\-\p-k-cnv am-n adnp--h\pw Xm Cn-p--hv
km-{amPyw \Ip--h\pw ]m-h-sf D-cn-p--h-\p-amb {]-Xn--Im-cns ssZhw Civa-tb-ens km-\
- sf, tdma Ic-f
- n-\
- nv
\s cn-m-\mbn, sX-v \nv
sImp-h--Xv. tdmam-m \-psS
Np-Ifpw aT-fpw Ih-- sNp-Xpw \s \nZbw aZn-p-Xpw ssZhw t\mn-Im-Wp-I-bm--bn-cpp. bYmY-n \ap----w \jv-Sw kw`-hn-n-p-s-n A-Xv Im-kn-tUm-Wn-b ]v \n-v G-]n--s Np-I Ah-cp-sS In- Xs tijn-p-Xv sIm-v
Dm-bXv am{X-am-Wv. Ad-_-n-I \K-c- A[o-\-s-Sp-n-b-tm
Hmtcm-cp--cp-sSbpw ssIh-i-ap
Np-I As\ Xs \ne-\n-n. GXm-bn-cp-mepw tdm-am--mcp-sS {Iqc-X-bn\npw \oN-Xz-n-\npw tcmj-n\npw aX-mth-i-n\npw c {]m]n--pI-bpw \mw kam-[m-\-n Ign-bp-I-bpw sNp-p-sh-Xv Hpw \n-m-c-Im-cy-a.''(19)

"cp{Zm--ame Igp-nepw
asmv a\-nepw' F ]gsam-gnsb Hm-an-n-p-amdv
t]- c nepw hni- Z o- I - c - W nepw kp-chpw {]m-tbmKn- I - X - e - n AXp- s Imp-t-in--s- -Sp- - ^ew e`n-m--Xp-amb "atX-X-cXzw' Ckvem-an-en-.

Ckvem-an-s\bpw AXns t{kmX-p-I-sfbpw kXy-k--amb Ncn{X-am]n-\n-I D]-tbm-Kn-p-]Tn-m


Ckvem-ans kXy-Xbpw ssZhn-IX-bpw ku-cyhpw a\-n-em-Ipw.
hm--bphpw shfn-hpw shhpw PmXn a-X-t`-Zw t\mmsX kh-a-\pjy-pw \--Ip- Amlp Ah2013 tabv

35

"cp{Zm--ame Igp-nepw asmv a\nepw' F ]g-sam-gnsb Hm-an-n-p-amdv


t]-cnepw hni-Zo-I-c-W-nepw kp-chpw
{]m-tbm-Kn-I-X-e-n AXp-sIm-p-t-in--s-Sp ^ew e`n-m--Xp-amb "atXX-cXzw' Ckvem-an-en-. Ckvem-an atXX-c-Xz-an; aX-amWv, aXw am{X-am-Wp-Xv. AXm-Is ]mm-Xyhpw ]uc-kvXy-hpam-b atX-Xc ImgvN-m-Sn-t\-m kp-chpw {]mtbm-Kn-I-hpw DZm-hpw D-X-hpam-Wv. AXp-sIm-p-Xs am\h kmtlmZ-cyhpw aqey--fpsS ]p\x-m-]-\hpw B{K-ln-p-h
- aX-\n-cm-k
- n\npw, aX\n-tj-[-n\npw kp-NnX hwiob
tZiob Nnm-[m-c-I-fn\npw a\p-jy-\n-anX aX--fn\npw tamNn-X-cm-hp-I. Ckv-em-an-tev hcn-I. a\p-jys sFln-Ihp-w ]mc-{Xn-I-hp-amb tamw Ckvem-an-eqsS-bmWv ]qo-I-cn--s-Sp-I.
Ref:
1. Fssk-tm-]o-Unb {_nm-\n `mKw
cv, t]Pv 668
2. hnn]oUn-b kzX{ hnm-\-tIm-iw
3. C-kvem-anI Ncn{X kw{Klw: `mKw 3, t]Pv
273275, khXv kuev, sF.]n.Fv
tImgntmSv
4. ae-bmfw hnn-]o-Un-b5. tX-Pkv ssZzhm-cnI 2012 amv 115, t]Pv
16,17
6. Izp-B 42:13
7. Izp-B 2:2
8. Izp-B 2:2
9. Izp-B 4:1
10. apkvenw, A_q-Zm-hq-Zv
11. Izp-B 2:256
12. Izp-B 18:29
13. Izp-B 16:35
14. Izp-B 42:48
15. Izp-B 5:92
16. Izp-B 10:99
17. Izp-B 88:21,22
18. Ckvemw {]t_m-[-\hpw {]Nm-chpw: t]Pv
60
19. Michael the Editor, Vol II, p.p: 412, 413, DcWw: Ckvemw {]t_m-[-\-hpw, {]Nm-chpw
k, tXmakv B\Uv t]Pv: 67

`mKw: 2

Krl]cn-]m-e\w ]cn-Wmahnizm-ks
\ymbo-I-cn-p-pthm?

dnmUv tUmnkns `qan-bnse Ghpw almb Zriy-hn-kvabw: ]cn-Wm-a-ns sXfn-hp-I


F ]pkvXIw hne-bn-cp--s-Sp-p

Aen sNmSv
""a\p-jy-hw-is kw_-n Kth-j-W-n Adn-b-s- BZys "a\pjy' \nbm-mIm-c-\mWv''(29) a\p-jy-N-cn-{X-n Hm-a \nbmmm-c-\m-sWv ]d-bp-Xv ae-bmfn bpn-hm-Zn-I-fpsS "]mT-]pkvXIhpw, ASn-m-\{- K-hp'amb bpn-Zi-\a
- mWv.(30) \nbm-m a\pjy Pohn-Xv aq-c-ew apX Bdv ew hj-v apm-bn-cp-p-shmWv(31) hon-]o-Unb ]cn-tim-[n-m a\-n-em-hp-I.
Bdv ew hjw {]mb-apv \psS {]]n-Xm-a-l-s\ Ah-Im-i-hm-Znse icn-sX-p-I hni-Ie
- \w sNm-\ \nbm-m a\p-jys\ ChnsS
sImp-h--Xv. tUmnkns ]pkvX-I-ns cmw A[ym-b-ns BZy`mKw N sNp-Xv ]cn-Wma aX-s-p-dnpw hnizm-ks
- -p-dnpw Umhn\p-apv FvsIm-v Bcpw Nnn-m Xm-dm-bn- F-Xm-Wv. Atlw XpSp-X
- n-s
- \.
2013 tabv

36

""Umhn cwK-s-m FvsImmWv C{Xbpw sshIn-bXv? At-l


- ns cp Xe-ap-d-Iv apv sFkv
\yq cq]w \Inb KWnX knm- cv kl-{km_vZw apv Bsa-Uokv Ah-X-cn-n ]p Bi-bC-hsbmsfms Zo]vXhpw efnX-hp-amb Hcp Bi-b-n-tev Fnt-cp--Xn\npw a\p-jy-cm-insb A{X-bpw-Imew XS-p-\n-dp-n-bXv F-mWv?''(32)
a\pjyNcn-{X-n\v \Inb Bdv e-w hj-nS-bn\mK-cn-IX a\pjys Ncn-{X-nv Xs Ggm-bn-ctm-ftam AXn-e[
- n-Itam hj-f
- psS
{]mb-ap-v tIhew 153 hjw apv hsc
Hcmpw ]cn-Wm-a-sa Bibw tXmn--bn FXv bmZrn-I-a-. AXpt]mse Umhn\v ]cn-Wm-a-sa B-ibw tXmn-bXpw bmZrnIamhm hgnbn--. a\pjyss\kKnI-Xb
- n A-cw Bi-b
- v m\-an FXv Xs-bmWv C{X hnim-ea
- mb Ime-bf
- hn
t]mepw a\p-jy\v C-c-samcp Nn hcm--X n-cn-m Imc-W-am-bn-cn-p-I. tUmn-k
- v ]d-bp-Xv Umhn\papv C-cw Bi-b- Bcpw ]d-bm-Xn-cn-m
ImcWw (Umhn-\p-apv emamn-b
Nn-I
- Dm-bn-cp-p-sh-Xpw B Nn-If
- p- sS kzm[o-\a
- mWv Umhns HdnPn Hm^v kv]ojn-kn-tev \bn-Xv Fp-ap Imcyw ad-p-n-. tUmnkv
Am-cy-an-hnsS kqNn-n-mXncnp-X
- v
sImp-Xs AXn-tev N \ot-Xn-). {Kov Xz-Nn--I ttmbpsS km-hm-Z-ns kzm[o-\-amWv
Ncn-{X-n Hcp Umhn Dbp-hcm-Xn-cn-m Imc-Wa
- mbn ]d-bp-X
- v.
tUmnkv \h Umhn-\n-k-ns- Ipe-]-Xn-bm-bn-cp GWv sab-dns\ D-cnv ]d-bp-p: ""At-l-ns
A-`n-{]m-b
- n km-hm-Zw AYhm F-jy-enkw Fp \mw hnfn-p {]mNo-\ Xz-Nnm ]-Xn-bm-bn-cpp Cm-cy-n apJy-{]-Xn-_--ambn \nesIm--Xv. ]cn-Wmaw Ip-]n-Sn-p-Xv
ttmbpsS arX-I-c--fm XS-b-s-SpI-bm-bn-bp-cpp''(33) XpSv ttm-bpsS
k-m-hm-Zs
- a-s hni-Zo-Ic
- W
-
- n-tev t]mIp-p. `qan-bnse apb-ep-I bYm-Y apb-ep-If
- s
- pw bYmY BImi apb-ens tIhe ]Xn-p-If
- mWv `qan-

]cn- W m- a - k - ]w a\p- j ys
_pnpw bpnpw tbmPnp-n F-XmWv hkvXp-X.
Bdp- Z - i - e w (?!) hjs
a\p-jy-N-cn-{X-n tIhew 153
hjns hnesb{Xbm-Wv.
\mK-cnI a\p-jys 7000-n
IqSp- X hjs Ncn- { Xn 153 hjs m\-sam-Wv? Ncn-{X-n-se-hn-sSbpw
a\p- j y\v `mh- \ - b n t]mepw
ImWm Ign-bm, `uXn-I-XbpsS AXn-{]-k-c-n \ncq-]ns-Sp k]w am{X-amWv
]cn-Wm-a-hn-izm-kw.

bnse apb-ep-I-sfpw ap-ap ttmWn-b hmZ-s


- f-sv \nc-p-p. A-cw hmZ-ap--h Cn F-Xv-sImp-Xs B N A\m-hi
- yam-Wv. AXp-sIm-p-Xs \ap-X
- h
- K
- W
- n-mw.
]s ]cn-Wm-a-sa Bibw ttm-bpsS km-hmZw XSp F
tUm-nkn-sbpw sab-dn-sbpw AhIm-i-hmZw bmsXm-c-Sn-m-\-hp-an-m

2013 tabv

37

anYym-hm-Z-am-Wv. ttm-bpsS Ime-Lw


_n.kn 423-348 BsWv hnn-]o-Unb
]-db
- p-p.(34) {Kon Pohn-n-cp ttmbpsS app- X s temI- ns
hyXykvX `mK-f
- n CuPn-]vXv, saksm-t-an-b, bq{^-o-kv, ssS{Knkv(35),
CUkv hmen(36) bqtdm-]y kwkvImc-(37) \ne-\n-n-cp-p. am{X-a ttm-bpsS Ime-L--n-\p-tijhpw ttm-bpsS Bi-b--f-dn-bm kwkvImc-fpw P\-hn-`m-K-fpw `qan-bpsS hyXy-kvX `mK-f
- n Pohn-n-cp-p. Aq-n bpnhmZ ho-W{- ]-Imcw tIh--e\
- n-co-iz-c
- ne[n-jvTn-Xa
- mb Zmi-\nI-Nn-Ifpw \ne-\n-n-cp-p.
`mc-Xob Zmi-\n-I-Xsb kw_-np Iayq-Wnv bpn-hmZ hoWw
Ah `uXn-Ih
- m-Z
- n-e[
- n-jvTn-Xhpw \ncoiz-c-hm-Z-]-c-hp-am-bn-cpp F-Xm-Wv. C-cw ]T-\
- f
- mWv Un.Un tImkmw_n,
]n. Zmtam-Zc
- XpS-n-bh
- c
- psS `mc-Xob
Zi-\--sf-p-dn-p ]T-\-.
Cmcyw bpn-hmZ ASn-m-\-{]am-Wa
- mb bpnZi-\hpw hy-am-pp-.v ""Cy Zmi-\nI ]mc-c
- y-n Hcp sNdnb \yq\-]--n-s\m-gnsI
kz-w Zi-\
- ns \ne-]m-Sp-Isf hniZo-I-cn-p-Xn\v Cuiz-cs Bhiyw
A\n-hm-cy-am-bn-. Cu khn-ti-jX {]tXyIw {in-s
- -tS-X
- m-W.v GsXmcp
`uXn-Ih
- m-Z
- nsbpw ap D]m-[n-bmWv
\nco-izc k]w. \nco-izc Zi-\
- n
- A[n-jT
v n-Xa
- mb {]mNo-\`- m-cX
-
- nse
apgp-h Zmi-\nI[mc-Ifpw `uXn-I-Xbn Nph-Sp-]n-Sn-p-sIm-mWv hnImkw

{]m-]n-X
- v Fp ]d-bmw. Bk-Iew `uX-nI Nnm-[m-cs
- bv {]knamb temI-mbX Zi\w am{Xa kmwJyw, \ymb-w, sshti-jn-Iw, aoamw-k, ssP\w,
_u-w Fn-h-sbmw Cu Iq-n
D-s-Sp-p. C{]-Imcw BsI-bp {][m-\s
- HXp Cy Zmi-\nI ]Xn-I-fn Ggpw ]qW-ambn Cuiz-cs\
\n-tj-[n-p-sImv `uXn-IX
- t- bmSv Iqdp
{]Jym-]n-p-sh-n BXy-n-IX
- e
-
- n AssZzX thZm-hpw Cuiz-cs\ \ncm-I-cn-n-cn-p-p.''(38)
Cu {]kvXm-h-\-bnse AXn-i-tbmn Ah-K-Wnp bpn-Zi\ teJ-Is hmp-I apJ-hn-e-s-Spv tUmn-kn-sbpw tab-dp-sSbpw Ah-Im-ihm-Z
- hni-Ie
- \w sNbvXm ttmbpsS km-hm-Z
- n\v a\pjyIp-es
sam-n kzm[o-\n-m Ign-n
Fv hy-am-hpw. AXp-sIm-p-Xs
]cn-Wm-a-Nn-sb Bi-b-hmZw XS-pF `mh\ A]w AXn-cp-I-S A[n-I{- ]-kw-Ka
- msWv t_m[ysSpw.
bYmYn, ]cn-Wm-ak
-
- ]w a\p-jys _pnpw bpnpw tbmPnp-n F-XmWv hkvXp-X. Bdp- ew (?!) hjs a\p-jy-Nc
- n-{X-n
tIhew 153 hjns hnesb{XbmWv. \mK-cnI a\p-jys 7000-n IqSpX hjs Ncn-{X-n 153 h--js m\-sa-m-Wv? Ncn-{X-n-se-hnsS-bpw a\p-jy\v `mh-\b
- n t]mepw ImWm- Ign-bm, `uXn-I-X-bpsS AXn{]-k-c-n \ncq-]n-s-Sp k]w
am{X-amWv ]cn-Wm-a-hn-izm-kw. apv kqNn-n--t]mse ]cn-Wmaw AsXmcp hnizm--k-ambn \ne-\n-s. ]s A-Xns\ imkv{Xo-b-ambn sXfn-bnpw F
ho-p ]d-nepw AXv imkv{X-am-sW
A-h-Im-i-hm-Zhpw AwKo-I-cn-m Ignbn-.
]cn-Wmaw Ncn-{X-nsehnsSbpw Bsc-bpw kzm[o-\n-n Fp tUmn-kp-w tabdpw {]kvXm-hn-p. AXn-t\mSv
bpn-Zi-\
- ns BZy-t]-Pnse shfns-Sp-epw tNv hmbn-t-X
- p-v.
""a\p-jy-hw-is kw_-n Kthj--W-n Adn-b-s BZys a\pjy- "\nbm-Xm'Imc-\m-Wv. 1856-
P-a-\n-bnse \nbm- Xmgvhc
- b
- n\nv
Ip-In-nb Ah-in-jvS
- f
- mWv Cu t]-

cn-s Imc-Ww.
Cbm Kpl-I-fnse h\y-arK--sf,
hn-ti-jnv Ic-Sn-Isf sIm-Xmbpw KplI Xma-k
- n-\mbn kzoI-cn-X
- mbpw Icp-Xp-p. Cs\ h[n-m-\n-S-bmb IcSn-If
- psS Xe-tbm-Sp-I Kpl-I-Iv
Hcp {]tXy-I coXn-bn ASp-n-sh-ncp-p-h-s{X.
acn--hsc Imap-p-I aSn C-cp \ne-bn Kpl-bn ad-hp-sN-bvX-Xmbn shfn-s-n-p-v. CXv Fs-nepw hnizm-k
- ns ^e-amtWm? hy-a
- . C-s kam[n kwkvImcw CXn-t\mSv
GXmv ASp-p-\np--Xmbn tXmp-p.
Ic-Sn-bpsS Xe-tbm-Sp-I kqn-ph-X
- nepw Fs-nepw hnizm-k
- ns
\n-d-aptm? AtXm Xs hoc-]-cm-{I-a-fpsS kvac-Wb
- mbn kqn-tXm?
Hcp {]tXyI C\-n-ep arK-fpsS Xe-tbm-Sp-I am{Xw kqn-p-hm Abmsf t{]cn-n-s
- X-mWv?''(39)
a\pjyNcn-{X-nse alm-`q-cn-]

tUmnkv ]d-bpXv t^UpI CW-Isf {_oUv sNbvsXSp-p-Ibpw XpSXv a\p-jy


Gs-Sp-p-Ibpw ]ptcm-K-Xn-bntev \bn-p-Ibpw sNbvsXmWv FmWv Acw Hcp
h-am-\-n\v At-l-ns
]-ep sXfnhv Fv ]d-bmXv sImv AXpw tIhew
Dulw Xs.

2013 tabv

38

Ime-L-
- nepw ]cn-Wm-as
- -p-dntm
AXmsbn kzbw`q Xz-s-pdntm Bcpw Nnn-n-cp-n Fn,
B-Zy-a-\p-jy Ah-s Hmw XobXn
ap-X ]c-tem-Ih
- n-izm-kn-bm-bn-cpp F-p hnfn-p-]-d-bp-p bpn-hmZn Zmi\n-I\
- m-bn-cp Fw. _n.sIbpsS Cu {]Jy-m]
- \
- w.
AsX a\p-jy Fpw ssZhacW-m-\-c hnizmkn-bm-bn-cp-p; Bbn-cnp-Ibpw sNpw. AX-hs ss\kKnI-Xb
- psS `mK-am-W.v a\-n-sbpw _pnbp-sSbpw bpn-bp-sSbpw tX-amWv.
Cmcyw tUmnkpw hy-am-pp-v. Xs Gsd {]i-kvXa
- mb Zn tKmUv sUeyqj F IrXn-bn\mw N- sNp "`qan-bnse Ghpw al-mb Zriy-hn-kvabw ]cn-Wm-a-ns
sX-fn-hp-I' F Cu ]pkvXI
-
- ns
ap-I-h t]Pn tUmnkns\ ]cnN-bs
- -Sp-p-Xv Zn tKmUv sUeyq-j
F hnJymX IrXn-bpsS Imhv F-mWv. tUmnkv ]d-bp-p.
""krjvSn-hm-Zt- mSv kl-Pa
- mb B`nap-Jyw tXmp coXn-bn-emWv (Innately
predisposed to creationism) a\p-jy-cpsS
Xe-tm {]hn-p-s
- X-mWv -qa-ns
- A`n-{]m-bw. AXm-bXv "Fmw Btcm Dm-n-hp' Fv k]n-m\p- ssZzX-t_m-[a
- mWv an a\p-jy-p-ap-X
- .v AssZzX hmZn-If
- n t]mepw
Cu `mh\ i-am-Wv.''(40) Xs B {K-

-- n 28-mw A[ym-b-n\v tU-m-n-kv \Inb Xe-sv Xs "aX-hnizm-ks


- XpWp am\-knI LS\'
F-m-Wv. B A[ym-b-n {]apJ a\x-im-kv{X- t]m qans\ A[nI-cn-v ]d hmN-Ia
- mWv \mw hmbn-Xv.-thsd-bp-apv Ccw {]kvXm-h-\I.
""Ipn-I-fpsS a\-n kl-P-amb Hcp ssZzX-`m-h-ap-sv Atlw (qw)
]-db
- p-p. cmbn ImWm-\p a\p-jya-\-ns kzm`m-hnI Xzc-bmWv ssZzX`mhw (Dualism) F-XvsImv Atlw
AY-am-p--Xv. aXw Acw ssZzX`m-h
- n\n-mWv cq]w-sIm-p-Xv.''(41)
A-sX ssZh-aX hnizm-khpw ssZh-krjvS- n hnizm-khpw a\p-jys kl-Phpw
ss\-kKn-I-hp-amb tNmZ-\bpw tX-hpam-Wv. Fm ]cn-Wm-ah
- n-izm-khpw \nco-izc hnizm-khpw a\p-jy-ss\-kKn-IXpw kl-Ph
- p-amb tNmZ-\pw Bmhns tX-n-\p-sa-Xn-cpw. Fn-p-sa-t
tUm-nkpw ]cn-Wma \nco-izc hnizmkn-Ifpw AXn hniz-kn-p-Ibpw {]Ncn-n-p-Ibpw sNbvXp-sIm-n-cn-p-p.
AXvIqSn tUmnkn\np Xs ]Tn-p-Xv auen-Ia
- m-bn-cn-pw. ""BZy-w kzbw hn-m ap--hsc hnm- Ffp--am-bn-cn-pw. t_m[-a-\-n-\nv kXys AI-n-\nn-bm
ap--h-tcmSv Iw ]d-bp-tm DmIm-\n-Sb
- p hnj-aX
- I
- Hgn-hm-mw. km-[m-cW a\p-jyv \pW ]d-bp-tm
Ip-Nn-p-I, ssIew \\-bp-I, lrZb-an-Snv IqSpI XpS-nb imco-cnI Akz-XIfp-m-Im-dp--tm. kXy-a-dn-

]cn-Wm-a-sa Bibw ttmbpsS km-hmZw XSp F


tUmnkn- s bpw sab- d nsbpw Ah-Im-i-hmZw bmsXm-cSn-m-\-hp-an-m anYym-hm-Z-amWv. {Kon Pohn-n-cp ttmbpsS app-Xs temI-ns
hyXykvX `mK--fn kwkvIm-c \ne-\n-n-cp-p. am{X-a
ttm- b psS Ime- L - - n- \ ptijhpw ttm-bpsS Bi-b-f-dn-bm kwkvIm-c-fpw P\hn-`m-K-fpw `qan-bpsS hyXykvX
`mK--fn Pohn-n-cp-p.

bp-Xv a\x]qhw Hgn-hm-n-bm- C-c-w _pn-ap-p-I Xms\ A{]-Xy--ambn-sm-pw.''(42)


ssZhw krjvSnp \nb-{np h-f-n-sm-p-hc
- pp F hnizmkw a\pjy-kl
- P
- a
- m-sWpw ss\kKn-Ia
- m-sWpw \mw Ip. B ss\kKnI Kp-Ws \ntj-[n-m kzw a\-ns\
]o-Un-npw B-h-\ \S-n-bp-am-

2013 tabv

39

Wv \nco-iz-c, ]cn-Wma hnizmkw A-Xns hm- Dsm-p-X


- v. A-s\ B-h-\ \S-n-bm Acw
Ifhv Xs kl-Po-hn-I-tfmSv ]d-bp-Xn-t\m {]N-cn-n-p-X
- nt\m a\-m-np-tm am\-knI imco-cnI ]ncn-ap-dp-tam A-c-mp-m-hn-. Ah-cpsS _pnpw a\-n\pw kXyw Dsmm- Ign-bm coXn-bn ap{Z-h
- n-cn-pw.
tUmnkv Xs ]pkvXI
-
- n ]cn-Wma hnizm-k-n\v sXfn-hp-I \ncm Bcw-`n-npv. cmw A[ym-bn AXn-\t- lw Hcp ]co-Ww AhX-cn-n-p-p. ""Fm arK--fntepw
Cu- Ne \ofp-p. C-c-n Xn-I-pw A-c-n-p Hcp ^ew ]cn-Wma-n A[n-jvTn-Xa
- mb temI-ho-W
- n\nv am{Xta Dcp-n-cn-bp-Ib
- pp
F-v Rm \n_-n-m-\p ImcWw
\nv t_m[y-s-n-p-m-hpw. Fmbmepw Rm\Xn\v Hcp t]cp sImSp-pI-bm-Wv. "slb ]n Nn F ]coWw' (The hairpin thought experiment)''(43)
Cu ]co-W
-
- ns t]cv kqNn-np-X
- p-t]mse tIhew Nnm(-`m-h\
- m)]c-amb ]co-Ww am{X-am-W.v apv tI
Hcp ]g-smv km`n-Ia
- m-W.v "G-n-se
- - -]ip - - ]pp-Xn-n'-A
- Xp-t]mse tUm-n--kns am\-knI hym]m-c- Hp-w sXfn-bn-n-. (tUm-Inkns\ B-Zy`m-Kv ]cn-Nb
- s
- -Xv ad-m-Xn-cn-p-I)
FmWv Cu ]co--W-ns ImX- Fp-IqSn a\-n-em-mw. GsX-nepw Pohn-n-cn-p Hcp Pohn, AXns
apKman, AXns sXmp-ap-s ap-Kman... Ans\ Ipsd aptm-p-t]mb-m Cp Pohn-n-cn-p Pohn-bn-\npw hf-sc-tbsd hyXym-ks
- -n-cn-m km[y-X-bp-v. Hcp ]s B ap-Km-an Cv Pohn-n-cn-p Pohn-hKw
X-s Bbn-cn-m km[y-Xb
- n Fn-s\ t]mIp hni-Zo-I-c-Ww...
""XnI Ah-[m-\X
- t- bm-Sp-IqSn {Iaambn ]ntm-p-k
- c
- n-m ]no-St- mv
ImW-s-Sp Pohn-Iv BZys apbep-am-bp kmayw {ItaW Ipd-p-hcp--Xmbpw jvdqhp-am-bp (Shrew)
kmayw (i-cnpw jvdq BsWv Icp-Xcp-Xv) h[n-p-hc
- p-Xpw A\p-`h
- s
- -Spw.
s]Ip-n-I Xe-apSn HXp-n-sh-m

D]-tbm-Kn-p Hcp slb]n-ns


(hairpin) BIr-Xn-bn-em-bn-cn-pw. Cu ]cn-Wm-a{- Iaw hn\y-kn-s
- -Sp-X
- .v AXmbXv Cwojv Acw "U' Xe-Xn-cn-n
B-Ir-Xn-bn. Nne {]I-S-amb khn-tij-X-I-fpsS ASn-m-\-n Cu slb]n hnX-c-W-{I-a-nse Hcp Pohn
IrXy-ambn slb]n-ns hf-hn-em-Wp-sXv (bend) Rm ]d-bpw. Cu Pohn
apb-ep-Ipw ]pn-p-en-Ipw ASpn-sS-bp-m-bn-cp Hcp s]mXp-]qhnI-\m-Ipp. (i-cnpw ]d-m A
hgn-bn. ]s hgnv {]tXy-Inv {]m[m-\y-sampw sImSp-t--Xn-) B
Pohn IrXy-ambpw F-s\-bm-bn-cpp Fv \ap--dn-bn-. AsX-m-bmepw ]cnWm-a]
- c
- a
- mbn Nnn-m A-s\-sbmcp
Pohn Dm-bn-cn-t-X
- p-.v Fm PohnI-sfbpw t]mse AXpw Xs amXm-hns\-bpw aI-sfbpw t]mse kzw hKn-se (Species) Hcw-Ks t]mse-bmhp-w Pohn-n-p-m-hpI.''(44)
Cu ]mc-{Km^v slb]n FIvkvs]-cn-sans cq]w GI-tZiw hy-amp-p. CXn-se-hn-sSbpw ]co-W
- a
- n-.
tUmnkv Hmw A[ym-b
- n AhIm-i-s t]mse Cu ]co--W-n-\p \S-]S- n-{I-a
- "]cn-Wm-amX _m[n- tcmKm-Xpc a\-ns A\p-am-\-fpw Dul-fpw am{Xw. Cu slb ]n
]-co-W
- s
- -p-dnv tUmnkv hniZ-ambn N sNp-p-v. AsXmw tIhew Dulm-[n-jT
v nXw am{X-am-W.v kzw
`m-h-\-bn hncn-bp k]-v
im-k{v X-sa t]cn-m-cm-[n-p ]cn-Wma hnizmknbmb tUmnkv XpS-cp-p.
""]ntm-p Cu `mh\m kmcw
\apv XpS-cmw. \Sp \Sp slb
]nns hfhpw ]nn-m ]noSv t]mIp-Xv aptm-m-Wv. AXm-bXv ]pnp-en-bn-tev (sl-b]n-n\npw hyXykvX kz`mhLS-\b
- p Pohn-If
- psS
\nc-h[n imJ-I DS-\ofw s]mn-ap-f
- pp-m-Ipw. CXnse Hcp imJbn \nm-bncnpw ]pnpen ]cnW-an-n-pmbXv.'' ""slb]n-ns hf-hn-eq
Xpc- Pohn-bpsS ]p{Xn-am-sc-bmWv ]no-Sv \mw ImWp-I. kmh-[m\w AsX
k-abw s]sv {Kln-m-\mhm coXnbn B Xpc- Pohn sas ]cn-W-anp-p. B am \nc-h[n a[y-cq]
Po-hn-I hgn-bm-bn-cn-pw. Ccw a-[y-

cq-]sms ]ckv]cw \ kmay-apmbncnpw. Fp IcpXn, Ahb-v Cp \mw ImWp GsX-nepw


Pohn-bp-am-bnv kmayap-m-IW
- s
- a-n-.
GI-tZiw sNo-cn-sb-t]mse tXmp
a[y-cq-]
- f
- n-eq-sS-bmhpw ChnsS \psS
{]bm-Ww. Cu km-c
- n-\n-Sb
- n A{]Xo-nX {ZpX-hy-Xn-bm-\
- s
- fmpw DmImsX Xs, GsX-n-ep-samcp Ln {in--s-Sm hn[w {Iahpw
kqva-hp-amb ]cnWmaw hgn \mw ]pn-p-en-bn Fn-tcpw.''(45)

ssZh- a X hnizm- k hpw ssZhkrjvSn hnizm-khpw a\p-jys


kl-Phpw ss\kKn-I-hp-amb
tNmZ-\bpw tX-hp-amWv. Fm-
]cn- W m- a - h n- i zm- k hpw \nco- i zchpw a\p-jy-ss\-kKn-I-Xs-Xn-cpw. Fn-p-sat tUm-nkpw ]cn-Wma \nco-izc hnizmkn- I fpw AXn hniz- k n- pIbpw {]N-cn-n-p-Ibpw sNbvXp-sIm-n-cn-p-p?

2013 tabv

40

Cu D-c-Wnbpw Hcp ]mc-{Km^v ]q-Wa


- mbn tNXmWv. ]cn-Wmaw sXfnbnpw Fv \qsm-m-hnpsImn-cn-p tUmnkns ]pkvX-Inse sXfn-bn-e
- ns hy-amb cq]amWv \mw ChnsS I-Xv.
BZy-`m-Kv imkv{X-ns hy-Xykv-X \nh-N-\- a\-n-em-n-bn-cpp. Ah-bn hyhpw kv]jvSh
- p-amb
hn-iZ- o-Ic
- Ww sI. ssh. Fkv kwm\
{]kn-U v bp. Iem-\m-YtXm-Wv. At-lw hni-Zo-I-cn t]mse Btdgv ]Shp-If
- p imkv{Xob coXn-bn Hcp Ah-bnepw `mh-\m-hn-em-k-pw Dul--n\pw bmsXmcp m\-hp-an-. ]s tUmnkns ]pkvXI
-
- n Gdnb Iqdpw t\cs {]Jym-]n-Xv t]mse At-l
- ns Dulm-[n-jvTnXpw `mh-\m-]qW-hp-amb A\p-am-\--fn-eqsSbmWv ]cn-Wmaw imkv{Xo-ba- mbn sXfnbn-p-X
- v(?!)
`mh-\m-]qW-amb kbkv ^n-Ij
v- \m-Wv tUmnkv Ah-X-cn-n-p--Xv
Fn AXv hmb-\-m-cs\ k]
tem-I-tv B\-bnv Bkzm-Z-\-ns sImSp-ap-Sn-bn Fn-t-s\. k-b-kv ^nIvj\v ]Icw at-sXmcp kmln-Xy ^nIvj-\m-bmepw AXpw hmb-\m Bkz-Zn-pw. ChnsS ^nIvj F-hI
- m-is
- -Sm, imkv{X-sapw sXfnhp-spw Ah-Im-is
- -Sp, `mh-\m-hnem-k
- Ah-Xc
- n-n-p-Ib
- mWv ]pkvXI-n-e[
- nI `mK-hpw. tUmnkv Xs
]pkvXI
-
- n sXfn-hp-I kaYn-pI-bm-bn. BZy-ambn Ah-Xc
- n-n sXfnhv
Umhns\ Xs knm cq]o-I-c-W-

n-tev \bn hfp-Po-hn-If


- n Krl ]cn-]m-e-\-n-eqsS hcp amhpw
Im-jnI Kth-jW
-
- f
- n-eqsS kky-fn hcp am-hp-amWv. Cu hnjbw
]p-kvX-I-n Fgp-]-n-b-n IqSpX- t]Pp-If
- n hni-Zo-Ic
- n-npv. Ahtbm-tcmpw ]cn-tim-[n-s
- -tS-X
- n-.
Fnepw A]w N sNmsX AhK-Wn-pXv \oXn-b-.
Cu `mK-f
- psS XpS-a
- n-s\ ""arK-fp-sSbpw kky--fp-sSbpw {]P-\-\s-]n Umhn\v \ m\-ap-mbn--cp-p. {]mhv I-m-cp-ambpw tlmnI-dn-p-If
- p-ambpw khntij _w
kqn-n-cp At-l-n\v \mb-I-sf
Gsd CjvS-hp-am-bn-cp-p. Hdn-Pn Hm^v
kv]ojn-kns {]Ya A[ymbw hfpar-K
- f
- nepw kky-f
- n-ep-ap `n PmXn-Isf Ipdn-m-bn-cp-p-shv am{X-a
B hnj-bs ]n ]noSv Hcp ]p-kvX-Iw Xs cNn-n-p-ap-v. "a\pjy ]cn]m-e\w aqew arK-pw kky--pw kw`-hn-p sshPm-Xy-' (The
variations of animals and plants under domestication) F ]pkvXI
-
- n \mbbpw
]qbpw, IpXn-cbpw Igp-Xbpw, ]n-I,
I-p-Im-en-I, BSpI, apb-ep-I,
{]m-hp-I, tImgn-p-p-, IuXpI--ap-Wp Imt_-Pns\ t]msebp sNSn-I, hnhn-[-bn\w ]d-h-I,
Nn-e kky- Fn-h-sb-p-dn-sms {]tXyIw A[ym-b- Xs B
]pkvX-I-n-epv.''(46)
Umhns\ Krl-]-cn-]m-e\w Xs
knm cq]o-I-c-W-n F{X-am{Xw
kzm[o-\n-n-cp Fv CXn\nv hy-am-hpw. AtX Bibw tUmnkns\bpw Gsd Bthiw sImn-p-pv. AXv sImmWv Cmcyw C{X hniZ-ambn tUmnkv N sNp--Xv.
tUmnkv XpSs-gp-Xpp ""km-hm-Z
- n\pw Pohn-hK-f
- psS ncXm-hm-Z-n\pw FXn-sc-bp Bi-b-]c-amb IS-m-{I-a-W-n\v Gsd klmbIamb Hcp ]-dn C\-amWv Imt_Pp-I.''(47) tUmnkns Bthiw hy-am-W.v Xs `uXnI aX-hn-izm-ks
Bi-b-]-c-ambn tNmZyw sNp ssZh
hnizm-ks B-Sn-m Zp_-ea
- mb Imt_Pp thcp-Ifpw Xpw D]-tbmKn-mw F (A)ip`m]vXn hnizm-k-am-

ssZhw krjvSnp \nb-{np hf-n-sm-p-h-cpp F hnizm-kw a\p-jy-k-l-P-am-Wv-ss\kKn-I-am-Wv. B ss\k-Kn-IKp-Ws \ntj-[n-m kzw


a\-ns\ ]oUn-npw B-h-\ \S-n-bp-amWv \nco-iz-c, ]cn-Wma hnizmkw AXns hm- Dsm-p--Xv. A-cw Ifhv Xs kl-Po-hn-Itfm-Sv ]d-bp--Xnt\m {]N-cn-np-X
- nt\m a\-m-n-ptm
am\-knI imco-cnI ]ncn-ap-dp-tam A-c-mp-m-hn-.

WXv.
XpS-cpp: ""Imp Imt_Pv {_kom
He-tdjy (Brassica oleracia) F t]cne-dn-bs
- -Spp. Cv \apv ]cn-Nn-Xa
- mb
Imt_-Pp-ambn Xn-p-t\m-n-bm ImpIm-t_-Pns\ Xncn--dn-bpI A{X Ffp-am-hn-. \apv ]cn-Nn-Xa
- mb Imt_-Pns

2013 tabv

41

Hcp "If ]Xnv' (Weedy version) Fp


th-W-sa-n AXns\ hnfn-mw. G-Xm\pw \qm-p-IsImv kc {]P-\\
- ns ]Wn-bm-bp-[--fpsS klm-btmsS tlmn-I-dn-p-I ]d-b {]tXy-IX
- s
- bm-p-an-m Cu Imp-sN-Snsb Hm-cw ]-d- n-bmn ]cph-s-SpnsbSp-p-I-bm-bn-cp-p... ]ckv]c sshPm-Xy-ap \nc-h[n C\-sf-bmWv B ]qhn-I\
- n\npw tlmnI-dn-p-I krjvSn-s-Sp-p-X
- v.
asmcp ]cn-NnX DZm-lc
- Ww sNmbv
- f
- psS ]cp-hs
- -Sp-e
- m-Wv. Im\nkv
epkv (Canis lupus) Fdnb-s-Sp
Imp-sN-m-bb
- n\npw Cv {_nojv
sI _v hyXn-cn C\--fmbn
AwKo-I-cn-n-p Canis familiaris F
hn-`m-K-ns] Ccp-q-dn-e-[nIw C\-fmWv Ir{Xna {]P-\-\-n-eqsS a\pjy- krjvSn-s-Sp-n-p-X
- v.''(48)
Cu hnj-b
- n C{Xbpw ZoLamb
apJ-hpc Fgp-Xm tUmnkns\ t{]cn-n-Xv hnj-b-n tUmnkn-\p Aan-Xm--hn-izm-k-am-Wv. XpSv
tUm-nkv Krl-]-cn-]m-e-\-n-eqsS
Ir-jn-bnepw hfp-P-p--fnepw \Sp- \nc-h[n DZm-l-c-W- ]d-bpp-v. B DZm-l-c-W- hnh-cn tij-w C-s\-bp am-s-Sp--ep-I
{]IrXn kzbw sNp-sapw AXn-eqsS
]pXnb Pp kky hK- cq]-sSp--sapw A\p-am-\n-p-p. At-l-nsbpw Umhn-s-bpa-Sw A-cw A\p-am-\- ]cn-Wm-a-hn-izm-k-n-\-p sXfn-hmbn Ah-X-cn-n-p-Ibpw sNp-p.

tUmnkv hni-Zo-Ic
- n-pp ""sUma-n-t-j\v h\y-ar-K
- f
- n Dm-m
Ign-bp sRn-n-p tXmXn-ep
cq] kz`mh hyXn-bm-\--fmWv Rm\nhn-sS {][m-\a
- mbpw ]d-bm-\p-t-in-p-Xv. F{X thK-n-emWv AXv arK-sf
amn adn-p-s
- Xv \s A-c
- n-pw.
kc {]P\\ hnZ-Kv[ ({_o-Uam)
Ifn-a
- n tamU-ep-I Dm-p-hsc
t]msetbm In IpXn-c, \mb, ]q,
]ip, Imt_-Pv... XpSn Xn-jvSs Nn{X- Dfn sImv sImn-bpm-p--hsc t]msetbm BWv. Cu
hmMvab Nn{X-n-tev Rm\p-Ss\ Xncnp-hc
- mw. CXn\v {]IrXym \S-p ]cnWm- a - h p- a m- b p _- s a- s - m
ChnsS sXc-s-Spv \S-p-Xv a\pjy-\mWv adnv {]Ir-Xn-b Fp-X
- mWv. Fnepw \S-p {]{Inb Gsdpsd Hp-X-s. AXp-sImv XsbmWv sUma-n-t-j\v Umhn HdnPn Hm^v kv]ojokns XpS--n
henb {]m[m\yw \In-b-Xv. Ir{Xna
\n--[m-c-W-n-eqsS kw`-hn-p ]cnWm-aw Bpw a\-n-em-Ip Hm-Wv.
{]IrXn \n[m- c - W hpw As\
Xs.''(49)
Ir{Xna k-e\
-
- n-eqsS k-cb
- n\w
hfp-ar-K
- sf DXv]m-Zn-n-p coXnbn {]Ir-Xn-bnepw aney IW-n\v
h-j--sf-Spv am kw`-hn-tmw F A\p-am-\
- n-eq-sSbmWv Umhn Xs knmw cq]o-I-cn--Xv. Cv tUmnkpw AsX A`n-{]m-b
- n
X-s-bm-W.v
tUmnkv {]kvXm-hn-p-p. ""\m-

Ir{Xna k-e-\-n-eqsS k-cbn\w hfp-ar-K-sf DXv]mZn- n- p coXn- b n {]Ir- X nbnepw aney IW-n\v hj- s f- S pv am kw`- h ntmw F A\p-am-\-n-eqsSbmWv Umhn Xs
knmw cq]o-I-cn--Xv. Cv
tUmnkpw AtX A`n-{]m-bn Xs-bm-Wv.

b ]cn-]m-e-\-n \npw icnpw \msa-mWv ]Tn-p-Xv? Hm-aX


- mbn, kc-bn\w \mb-I-fn-se \smcp iX-am-\n-epw, t{Kv sUbn apX tbmnI hsckvtIm-n-I apX Fb sUbn-ep-I hsc dnUvPv _mIvkv apX
Um-jv lp-I hsc, hn-p-I apX sk v s_WmUv hsc, \nb-X-amb
sX-c-s-Sp-p-I-fn-eqsS Po ]q I-S kv^pSw sNbvXpw icoc LS-\-bnepw s]cp-am coXn-bnepw \mS-Iob am Dm-m A\m-bmkw km[n-psa-v Imn--cp-p. AXn-i-b-sav ]db-s, GXm\pw Nne Po\p-I am{Xsa

2013 tabv

42

Ds-n-p-p-sh-nepw Dm-p amw Xopw \mS-Io-b-am-Wv. AXn-th-Knepw GXm\pw \qm-p-I-f adnv


Z-i-e---W-n\v hj- thn
hn-p-mhmw Fp tXmn-n-p
hn-[w \mS-Io-ba
- mWv Cu am-. C{Xb-[nIw ]cn-Wm-aa
- m-
- GXm\pw ZiI-f
- ntem \qm-p-If
- ntem kw`-hn-msa-n ]tm \qtdm Zi-e-w hj- sImv kw`-hn-m-\n-S-bp am-sf ]n Hm-temNnp t\mq.''(50)
{]Ir-Xn-bn Hcp Pohntbm Po-hn-h
- K-tam asmcp PohnhK-ambn amdn-bX
- nv
As-n ]cn-Wa
- n-X
- n\v hyhpw kv]jvShpw hkvXp\njvTa
- mb sXfn-thXpw
e`y-a
- m-Xv sImv Xmc-Xay ]T\ kt--X-ap-]-tbm-Knv ]cn-Wm-a-n\v sXfnhp-sv tXmn-n-m-\p {ia-am-WnXv. ssPh kky temIs Krl]cn]m-e-\-n\v \nc-h[n DZm-l-c-W-
]pkvXI
-
- n \nc-p-p-.v Ah-bn
NneXv ]cn-N-b-s-Sp--Xn\v apv tUmn-kv Gsd Bth-i-]qhw Ah-X-cnn- Krl-]-cn-]m-e\w hne-bn-cpn aptm-p-t]m-Imw.
Cu Xmc-X-ay-n-eqsS tUmnkv
]d-bm {ian-pXv X am- kw`hn-p-Xv \mw ImWp-p. AXp-sImv
Yepw am- hn-cn-mw. Fm X
h am- bmZrn-I-amtbm kzm`mhn-I-amtbm ss\kKn-I-amtbm kw`-hnp-n-. AhnsS am- kw`-hn-pXv tUmnkv hy-am-nb t]mse
"\n-bX
- a
- mb Xnc-s-Sp-p-If
- n-eqsS Po
]q IS kv^pSw sNbvXpw' hcp-p am--fmWv. AsX X hcp am- a\p-jy-s\ FIvt-W G-Pns IrXyhpw t_m[-]qhhpw _pn]qh-hp-amb Bkq-{X-W
- n-eq-sS-bp
CS-s]-S-ep-I aqe-am-Wv.
Krl-]c
- n-]m-e\
- s Xmc-Xayw sNp-Xn-eqsS kwPm-Xa
- m-Ip-Xv Y Fsnepw amw kw`-hn-W
- s
- a-p-s-n
{]-IrXn IrXyhpw t_m[, _pn-]qhamb Bkq-{X-W-n-eqsS CS-s]-Sp
aqmw In (Third party)bmbn hnm _pnbpw t_m[-hp-ap hy-ntbm hkvXpthm {]Xn-`m-ktam Bth-Xp-v. krjvSn, Bkq-{X-W-hm-Z-sf
\ymbo-Ic
- n-p-X
- n-tepw AwKo-Ic
- n-p-Xn-tepw tUmnkpw ]cn-Wm-ah
- nizm-kn-Ifpw kzm`m-hn-I-ambn ]cn-W-an-

p IuXpI ImgvNb
- m-Wn-Xn-eqsS ImWp--Xv. (Bkq-{X-W-hm-Z-s-p-dnv
tUmnkv ]pkvXI
-
- n N sNpp-v. hnjbw AhnsS N XpScmw).
tUmnkpw ]cn-Wma hnizm-kn-Ifpw
kaYn-p-X
- ,v {]IrXn\n[m-cW
- s
- a
]cn-WmatZh\v YbpsS Poh-\-co-Xn-I
Xo-cp-am-\n-m\pw, AXn-en-S-s]-Sm\pw
AXns h-am-\hpw `mhnbpw \nWbnv Bh-iy-amb \S-]S- n-{I-a
- kzoIcnv Ysb amn-a-dnv ]pXnb Pohn hK-fmn ]cn-hn-n-m\pw hym]n-nm\pw \ne-\nm-\p-ap `mcn Dc-hm-Zn-hpw Ign-hp-ap Bkq-{X-I\
- mbn amdp-I-bmWv {]IrXn!
Krl]cn-]m-e-\-s kw_-nv
tUmnkv ]cn-N-b-s-Sp-p Nne
DZm-lc
- W
-
- \appw ]cn-Nb
- s
- -Smw.
""Cu taJ-e-bnse I-ap--h (Funciers) sa-s kzchpw cq]-`w-Knbpw Inm\mbn ssa\m ]n-Isf (Canaries) {_oUv sNm-dp-v. Imp-ssa-\-I Xhnp
Ie a \nd-ap Ipcp-hn-I-fm-Wv.
(Finch) ImWm A{X sa-sam-p-an
Xm\pw. {_oUam B ]n-bn kw`hn-p `n D-cn-h-\ hcpp hW hyXn-bm-\- kkq-vaw ]np-Sc
- p-Ibpw B \nd-q-n\npw
ssa-\m ]n-bpsS t]cn Adn-b-s-Sp Hcp khn-tij a-\ndw sXc-sSp-p-Ibpw sNbvXp. AXns\ "ssI\dn
a' (Canary yellow) F-dn-bs
- -Sp-p.
CsXm-s-bm-sW-nepw ssa\m-
- nv
B t]cp hoWXv sIbv\dn Zzo]p-If
- psS
t]cn\n-m-Wv. AmsX Kme-t- Kmkv
Zzo]p-I-fpsS (Galapagos Islands) Imcyn kw`-hn-X
- p-t]mse sIbv\d
- n-If
- n\n- {]kvXpX Zzo]n\v B t]cv hoW-Xv. kv]m\njv `mj-bn Ba-bvp
]Z-n\nmWv Kme--tKm-kn\v B
t]-cv h-Xv. ssa\m ]n-I IqSp-Xepw Adn-bs
- -Sp-X
- v Ah-bpsS ]mns
t]cn-em-Wv. Cu Ignhpw kp-jvSa
- m-p-Xnepw a\pjy {_oUam \ ]v
hln-n-p-.v Npv AS-p-]n-Snp ]mSm
Ign-bp tdmf-dp-I (Rollers) DssS
\nc-h[n ]mp-Imsc ]n-In-S-bn-\npw \mw hfn-sb-Sp-n-p-v.'' (51)
CXp-t]mse hen-p-\o-nb Ccw
hmN-I--fm kp-jvS-amWv ]pkvXIw. a\p-jy ssa\-Isf {_oUp sNbvXnpv Fv ]d-bp-Xv sImv AXv ]cn-

Wm-a-n-\p sXfn-hm-Ip kq{X-hmIyw Fsv IqSn hni-Zo-Ic


- n-t-n-bncn-p-p. Acw {ia-fpw ]pkvX-In-ep-v. ""DZym\ ]pjv]
- f
- psS Imcyn-se t]mse Xp-apv s]
t^-kp-IfpsS {_oUp sNbvsXSp
B t^kp-Isf IqSp-X ]cn-jvIcn-p-Ib
- mWv t^Up-Isf {_oUp sNp- a\p-jy sNbvXX
- v. AXv hgn tKmU t^kp-Isf Innp

{]Ir-Xn-bn Hcp Pohntbm Po-hnhKtam asmcp PohnhK-ambn


amdn-b-Xnv As-n ]cn-W-an-Xn\v hyhpw kv]jvShpw hkvXp\njvT-amb sXfn-thXpw e`ya-m-Xv sImv Xmc-Xay ]T\
kt-Xa- p-]t- bm-Knv ]cn-Wm-a
- n\v sXfn-hp-sv tXmn-n-m\p {ia-am-Wv- Cv \S-p-h-cp-Xv.

2013 tabv

43

amXr-I-I Dm-p-Ibpw sNbvXp. AXm-bXv s] t^kp-I \Snb


{_o-Un-ns XpS-bmWv a\pjy {_oUam \S-n-b-Xv. ChnsS GXm\pw
Nne D-cn-h-\- hgn-bp
hyXn-bm\w ]np-SmWv CXv km[ns-Sp--Xv.(52) ChnsS tUmnkv ]dbpXv t^kp-I CW-Isf {_oUv
sNbvsX-Sp-p-Ibpw XpSXv a\p-jy
Gs-Sp-p-Ibpw ]ptcm-KX
- n-bn-tev \bnp-Ibpw sNbvsX-mWv FmWv A-cw Hcp h-am-\
- n\v At-l
- ns ]-ep sXfnhv Fv ]d-bm-Xv
sImv AXpw tIhew Dulw Xs.
Ir{Xna {_oUn-n-s\-p-dnv hmNme-\m-Ip tUmnkv ]e kky-fpw
P-p-fpw CWsb {_oUv sNp-ps-m-Wv- ]dbpXv. Ghpw BIjI-amb B abn-ep-Isf CW tNc-en
s] abn-ep-I sXc-s-Sp-p-Xp
Imc-Ww, Ghpw ku-cy-ap B
a-bn-ep-I am{Xw AXn-Po-hn-p-sapw
BIj-I-amb ]qhp ]qh tImgnI-sf ]nS-tmgn Xnc-s-Sp-p--Xv aptJ\ ]qham-cnse ]qhns kucyw
h[np h[np hcp-sapw Atlw
]-d-bp-p-v. Acw sXc-s-Sp-p-Ifn-eqsS kucyw IqSp-X-ep B abn-ep-If
- p-sSbpw ]qh tImgn-If
- p-sSbpw
Xe-ap-dI
- \ne-\np-Ibpw Am-h CmsX BIp-Ibpw sNp-sapw Fgp-Xp-p.
AXv t]mse a\p-jy Pp--fn
CS-s]v kz`mham- hcp-p--Xns\-p-dnpw tUmnkv Fgp-Xp-p-v.
Ip-dp-am-cnepw Knn ay--fnepw

A-cw am- {]I-S-am-bXpw A-tlw DZm-lc


- n-p-p. tUmnkns hm
- p-I
""sacpw (Tameness)AX-s-n
AXv t]mse as-s-nepw Ign-hp-I
{]IrXn]c-amtbm Ir{Xn-aa- mtbm Fs\
hms-Sp-m-sa-X
- n-s\-n B[p-\nI
Imev Bth-iI
- c
- a
- mb Hcp ]co-Ww
\S-n-p-v. tcma hym]m-c
- n\v D]-tbmKn-m-\mbn djy knh Pw_pIamn-Sb
- n (Russian silver foxes) \Snb Hcp ]cn-io-e\
- ]
-
- X
- n-bm-WX
- .v \app ]mTw ]cn-K-Wn-p-tm Cu ]co-Ww {]Zm\w sNp Bthiw Ccn-p-p. KmlnI ]cn-]m-e\w, {_o-Unv sXc-s-Sp-ns ]miz-^-e-,
{]IrXn \n[m-c-Whpw Ir{Xna \n[mc-Whpw Xn-ep kam-\-X-I Fnh-sb-n Umhn Adn--Xnpw a\n-em-n-b-Xnpw D]-cn-bmb Imcy-fmWv Cu ]mTw \apv e`y-am-p-X
- .v (53)
Cu ]co-Ww \apv ]cn-N-b-sSmw.
""hkv hkv (Vulpes vulpes)
F-dn-b-s-Sp ]cn-Nn-X-amb Nph-
Ipdp-am-cn \nd-ssh-Pm-Xy-ap Hcn\-amWv djy knh Ipdp-. at\ml-c-amb tcma-amWv AXns aqeyw h[n-n-p--Xv. djy P\n-XI imkv{X-\mb Znan{Xn _teyhv (Dimitri Balyaev) 1950 Ifn Hcp Ipdp- ^m-ans(Fox farm)\S-n-p-Im-c\
- mbn tPmen
t\mn-bn-cp-p.''(54)
Znan{Xn _teyhv Ipdp-\cn ^man
(Fox farm) tPmen sNp--Xn-\n-S-bn
Is-nb Imcy-s
- f-m-bn-cpp Fv
IqSn a\-n-em-p-Xv DNn-Xa
- m-bn-cn-pw.

""h-\y-X-bn Ign-bp Ipdp-amsc


ssI-Im-cyw sNpI A{X Ffp-a
-
- . sacp-w ey-anv Ahsb t_m[-]qhw
{_oUv sNm-\mWv _teyhv BZyw ]cn{i--an--Xv. Am-es GsXmcp k-ky-Pohn {_oU-sdbpw t]mse sXc-sSp-n-\mbn {]Ir-Xn-Z--ambn Xs e`yam-Ip hyXn-bm-\
- NqjWw sNm\mWv Atlhpw Xp\n-Xv... Ipdp--

A{I-a-Im-cn-b-m a\p-jys\
t]Sn-p Ipdp-s\ CW-nsb-SpXv hnh-cnv t]Pp-I
\nd--Xp-sImv am{Xw ]cn-Wm-an\v sXfn-hm-In-. kl-{km-_vZ-fmbn ImparK-amb B\ a\pjys hml-\hpw `mc-hm-lI
- \pw
bp-ap--Wn-bnse t]mcm-fn-bpam- W v . AsXmpw bmsXmcp
Xcnepw ]cn- W m- a - s bpw
{]IrXn\n[m- c - W - s bpw
\ymbo-I-cn-p-Ibpw sXfn-bn-pI-bp-an.

2013 tabv

44

-Ip-n\v ssIbn Blmcw hv amSn hnfn-p-Ibpw Ah hv Xnp-tm


tXmfpw ]pd-p-sams Xn emfnp-I-bm-bn-cpp AXn-semcp ]co-Ww...
sacpw ey-anv tIhew Bdv Xe-ap-d-I {_oUv sNbvX-tm-tgpw Ipdp-am icnpw amdn-g
- n-n-cp-p.
AtXmsS {_oUam B ]pXnb ImK-dnv "Krl ]cn-]m-e-\-n\v hnt[-bam-b Ipeo-\' (Domestical elite) F-smcp {]tXyI t]cpan-p. apdp-ap-dpv {ibm-Ijn-m Ah ioen-p. ]co-Ww
\S-p--hsc \mb-Isf t]mse aWn-m\pw \m-\p-sams X]-cc
- m-bncp Cu hn`m-K-n\v s]mXpsh a\pjy-cp-ambn ASp-m \ Dkm-l-ambn-cp-p.''(55)
hfsc Bkq-{Xn-Xa
- mb ]co-W
-
- fn-eqsS hfp Ipdp-amsc CW-ap--Xm-m Ignp F-XmWv
Cu ]co--W--fnse BsI-p-I. a\p-jys\ Im HmSn-bI
- e
- p a\p-jyZrjvSn ]cn-[n-bn hcmsX ]em-b\ Zqcw(Flight distance) ]men-p Ipdp-amsc AXns tcmaw DXv]m-Zn-n-pI
F ey-tmsS sacpn hfp
^man-emWv Cu ]coWw. `-Wm-hiy-n\pw apw a\p-jy-cp-ambn CW-an-m \mb, ]q, Im XpS-nb Pp- a\p-jy-\n\nvA-hs A{Ia-n\nvHmSn-c--s]-Sm am{Xw
AIew {inv {i-tbmsS CS-s]-SpI-bpw `Ww tXSp-Ibpw sNp-p.
CXv a\p-jy-tcmSv am{X-a ap Pohn-Itfm-Spw ]men-p-p. adp]-v \nv
{]-Xn-Ic
- W
- a
- n-s-n IqSp-X IqSp-X
ASp-v hcp-p. Ahv `-Whpw {]mY-anI Bh-iy-fpw (C-W-tN-cm\pw
{]k-hn-m\pw km\ ]cn-]m-e-\-n\pw apap) Bh-iy- \nh-ln-pXpw a\p-jy Xs. Ah--I-fn Nnehsb t_m[-]qhw CW-n-sb-Spp.
AXns\ ]cn-Wm-a-n\pw {]IrXn \n[-m-c-W-n-\p-ap sXfn-hmbn Ah-X-cnn-p-I-bmWv tUmnkv ChnsS sNp-X
- .v a\p-jy-Zr-jSv n-bn hcmsX ]emb-\-Zqcw ]men-p Ipdp-am a\pjy-\p-ambn CWn F-Xm-Wtm sXfnhm-sb-Sp-p--Xv. Ipdp-\v a\p-jys\
B-{I-an-pI, sIme-s-Sp-pI F kz`mh-w C FXv {]tXyIw ]cn-K-W-

\o-ba
- m-W.v Fm Xw Inn-bm a\pjys\ B{I-an-p-Ibpw sImp XnpI-bpw sNp knwlw, ISp-h, ]pen
Xp-S-nb lnw{k Pp-sf ]cn-K-Wnp-I. a\p-jy t_m[-]qhw Ah--Ifn kpc-nX ]em-b\ Zpcw (Safe Flight
distance) ]men-p-Xn {in-p-p.
A-cw A{I-aI
- m-cn-If
- mb lnw{k arKsf a\p-jy Xs Xs {]b-Xv\n-eq-sSbpw ]cn-Nc
- W
-
- n-eq-sSbpw ]cnio-e\
-
- n-eq-sSbpw CW-n sacpn FSp-pp Fv am{X-a Ah-I
- sf XfpsS sNm]Snv \nn ASn-a-the
sN-n-pp FXv GsXm-cmpw
Adn-bm-hp--X-s. GsXmcp kkv
Iq-Sm-c
- f
- n-sebpw apJy BIjWw Ccw lnw{k Pp--fpsS A`ymk {]I-S\
-
- f
- mWv Ccw lnw{k arK-f
- psS A`ymk{]I-S-\- ImWm\pw Bkz-Zn-m\pw a\p-jy-cnse `ocp--fn
`ocp t]mepw Xm-dm-hp-p. 2000 Zp_mbn Hcp sibvJns hon Ahn-Sps
Poh-\
- m-c\
- mb kplr-ns\ ImWm
t]mbXv ad-m-\m-hn-. Ahn-Sps ASp-fbpw m^v Atm-a-tU-j\pw tN tmn-emWv t]mb-X.v AhnsS sXm-gn-em-fn-I-fpsS IqsS asmcp Xma-k-mc-\pw Dm-b-cp-p. B At-hm-knsb
]cn-Nc
- nm Cym-m-c\
- mb Hcp ]cnNm-cI
- \pw. B At-hmkn Ahn-Sps
a\p-jy-cpsS IqsS Ah-cpsS s_Uvdq-apI-fnepw kzoI-cW
- a
- p-dn-bnepw ASp-f kap--b
-
- nepw Hcp IpSpw-_mw-Ks t]mse kzX-{-ambn \S-p-p. Fm-bt-v mgpw ]cn-Nm-cI
- Iqn-\p-m-hn-. B hn.
sF.- ]n am-cp-a kmm ]pn-pen-bm-bn-cp-p. BZy ImgvNb
- n A]w
`bw tXmn Fnepw ]noSv IuXp-Ihpw hmk-ey-hp-ambn ]cn-Wa
- n-p AXnt\m-Sp hnIm-cw.
Ccw A{I-aI
- m-cn-If
- mb lnw{k Pp- t]mepw a\p-jy-\p-ambn C-Wn kl-hn-tmsS Pohn-p
ImgvN-I H-s--X-. A{I-a-Im-cn-bm a\p-jys\ t]Sn-p Ipdp-s\
CW-n-sb-SpXv hnh-cnv t]Pp-I
\nd-X
- p-sImv am{Xw ]cn-Wm-a
- n\v sXfn-hm-In-. kl-{km-_Zv
- f
- mbn ImparKamb B\ a\p-jys hml-\hpw `mchm-lI
- \pw bp-ap-W
- n-bnse t]mcm-fnbp-am-Wv. AsXmpw ]cn-Wm-a-sbpw
{]IrXn \n[m-c-W-sbpw \ymbo-I-cn-

p-Ibpw sXfn-bn-p-Ib
- p-an Fv Xncn-dn-bm hI-Xn-cn-hn-m-h
- c
- mtWm tUmnkpw ]cn-Wma aX hnizm-kn-I-fpw!
asm-cp-Zm-l-cWw tUmn--kn--\nv """\mb' Fv \manv hnfn-p arKw
a\p-jy Krl-]c
- n-]m-e\
-
- n-eqsS amna-- d---- ----- n sNmb BsWp Rm ]dp. ]s, Cu hnjbw \mb-bpsS
]cn-Wm-as kw_-n Bth-i-I-camb knm-
- ns shfn-
- n hnebn-cp-t _m[yX IqSn F\n-p-v.
Chn-sSbpw tdm_v tIm]nw-K-dmWv
hy- a m- b n Imcy- \n[m- c Ww
sNbvXn-p--Xv. \mb ]cn-Wm-a-sa
Bibw tI-he
- w Ir{Xna ]cn-Wm-a
- n
am{X-ambn ]cn-an-X-s-Sp-m-\m-hn-.
sNmb a\p-jys Bh-iy--\pk-c-W-ambn {]IrXn\n[m-c-W-ns
hgn-m-c-bn-eqsS kzbw ]cp-h-s--

\mb]cn-Wm-as Ipdnv Hcp-]msS- gp- X n- b n- p- v tUmn- kv .


AXv ]cn-Wma aX ^en-Xa- mbn Bkz-Zn-p-X
- n bm-sXm-cp ssha\kyhpw th. \mb {]-Ir-Xn \n-[m-c-W-n-eq-sSbpw Ir{Xna \n[m-c-W-n-eq-sSbpw Krl-]-cn]m-e-\-n-eq-sSbpw \mb-bmbn
Xs ]cn-W-an-p Fv Kth-jWm-I ]co--W-n-eqsS sXfn-bn-p-I-bmWv tUmnkv ChnsS \nh-ln--Xv. C\n-bp-apv
C--cw ]cn-Wmasfn-hp-I.

2013 tabv

45

Xns hnj-bhpw Ahn-sS-bp-v. AXmbXv \mw Nne sN-m-b-Isf \mb-I-fmn-bXv t]mse ap Nne sNm-b-I
t_m[-]qh-a-msX kz-bw \mbbmbn
]cn-W-an-n-p-v. \mb-bpsS BZy Krl]-cn-]m-e-\-n ]e-Xpw sNm-b-I
kzbw kzoI-cn Krl-]-c-n-]m-e-\-amWv
(Self-domestication) Ir-{Xn-a \n[m-c-Wa adnv \n[m-cW
- a
- m-Wn-hnsS a[y-X hlnXv. Ir{Xna \n[m-c-W-ns
D]-I-c-W-s-n-bpsS ta \mw ssIshp--Xn\v hfsc apv Xs bmsXm-cphn-[ a\pjy CS-s]-S-ep-an-msX Xs
sN-m-bI
- "\mp-\mb' (Village dog) Bbn kzbsa Krl-]-cn-]m-e-\-n\v hnt[b--am-n-bn-cp-p. Cu L-n-\p-ti-ja
- mWv a\p-jy Cu \mp-\m-bI
- sf Hmtcmm-bn kzoI-cnv XpS ]cn-]m-e\
-
- n-eqsS Ah-bpsS cq]-`m-h
- amn-ad- n-X
- .v (56)
\mb ]cn-Wm-as Ipdnv Hcp]msSgp-Xn-bn-p-v tUmnkv. AXv ]cn-Wma
aX ^en-X-ambn Bkz-Zn-p--Xn bmsXm-cp ssha\kyhpw th. \mb {]Ir-Xn \n[m-c-W-n-eq-sSbpw Ir{Xna
\n[m-cW
-
- n-eq-sSbpw Krl-]c
- n-]m-e\
- n-eq-sSbpw \mb-bmbn Xs ]cn-Wa
- np Fv Kth-jW
- m-I ]co-W
-
- neqsS sXfn-bn-p-I-bmWv tUmnkv
ChnsS \nh-ln-X
- v. C\n-bp-apv C-cw ]cn-Wmasfn-hp-I. thW-sa-n
_kv, _kmbpw hnam\w hnam-\-ambpw
sX-v sXmbpw Ddpv Ddp-mbpw ]-

cn-W-anXns sXfn-hp-I Ah-X-cn-np-Xv GsX-nepw \nkm-c-m-c-\-.


C-v temIv Pohn-n-cn-p--Xn Ghpw D-X\pw HmIvkvt^mUv bqWnth-gvknn ap s{]m^-k-dp-amb ]cn-Wma-hpw \nco-iz-c-hm-Zhpw sXfn-bn-m\pw
kaYn-m\pw m]n-m\pw Xs kabw ]cn-]qW-ambn \on-h dnmUv
tUmnkv F \s-p Pohn-bmWv.(57)
- FXv Gsd Bthiw ]I-cp-XmWv. temIv Pohn-n-cn-p--h-cn
A-Xyp-X
- \
- mb ]cn-Wma aX {]t_m-[Is ]\nv Ccw Hcp ^enXw
te-mIw Bkz-Zn-t-X
- p-v.
Krl-]c
- n-]m-e\
-
- n-eqsS kky-f
- nepw sNSn-I-fnepw amw kw`-hn-p-p.
F--Xm-Wtm {]IrXn \n[m-c-Wn\pw AXp-hgn ]cn-Wm-a
- n\pw sXfnhmbn ]pkvX-I-ns BZy-`m-Kv Ah-Xc
- n-n-p-X
- .v Krl ]cn-]m-e\w Ppkky temIv F{X-tmfw amw hcp-pw Fv IqSn hne-bn-cp-mw. DZml-c-W-n\v Db tXmXn a[pcw
e`n-p Icnv Xnc-s-Spv h-f-nsbSpm a[pcw ]cn-[n-I-tf-Xp-anmsX h[n-p-sIm-t-bn-cn-ptam? AXvt]mse F-p-cp-hmb tNmf-n-s
F-bp-Xvm-Z\ tijn h[nv tNm-fp-cp-hnse F-bpsS Afhv 100 iXam-\
- ntem \qdp iX-am-\
- n-\S- ptm
Fp-tam. Cs-m-Wv hkvXp-X. GXv

k-ky-s-bm-bmepw AXns Izmfnn h[n-n-m-\p {iaw Hcp ]cn-[n-bn-sen-bm \npw. GsXmcp PohnbpsS
Ahbpw AXpt]mse Xs. DZm-lc-W-n\v Hcp {]tXyI tcmK-n-s\Xnsc {]Xn-tcm[w t\SpI As-n {]tXy-I Imbn-It- ijn hfn-sb-Sp-pI
Xp-S-nb coXn-bn Hcp Pp-(hKw)
]p-tcm-KXn t\Sp--Xn\pw CXp-t]mse
]cn-[nbpw ]cn-an-Xn-bp-ap-v. tUmnkv
CXv hy-am-p-p.
""Cn-t\mbn FIvkv]n-cn-sa v tj\nse Irjn imkv{X- hfsc ]t,- AXm-bXv 1896 apX sNbvXp-h-cp Hcp ]co-W
- a
- m-Wn-Xv... BZy {Km^n-

_kv, _kmbpw hnam\w hnam-\ambpw sX-v sXmbpw Ddpv


Ddp- mbpw ]- c n- W - a nXns
sXfn-hp-I Ah-X-cn-n-p-Xv
GsX-nepw \nkm-c-m-c-\-. Cv temIv Pohn-n-cn-p-Xn G- hpw D- X \pw
HmIvkvt^mUv bqWn-th-gvknn
ap s{]m^-k-dp-amb dnmUv
tUmnkmWv.

2013 tabv

46

Iv Nn{X-n tNmf hnp-If


- nse FbpsS Af-hns\ kw_-n IW-p-I cv Ir{Xna tcJ-I-fpsS klm-btm-sS Nn{Xo-Ic
- n-n-cn-p-p. Hcp tcJ
IqSnb FbpsS kmn-[yhpw atXv
Ipd kmn-[yhpw {]Zm\w sNp-p.
CXv icn-pw \S--s ]co-Ww Xs-bm-Wv. t_m[-]qh-ap cv CSs]-Sep ^e-amWv \man-hnsS Xmc-Xayw
sN-p--Xv. hyXymkw hfsc \mS-Io-bam-sWv am{X-a AXv {ItaW h[np-h-cn-Ibpw sNp-p. apI-fn-te-p
t]mpw Xmtg-p t]mpw Ah-km\w Hcp ka-Xp-e-\m-hbn-embn CmXm-Ip-Xpw ImWmw. ImcWw Ipd
F- kmn[yw ]qPy-n t]mIm
km-[y-a-. IqSnb kmn[yw hfsc kv]jvSa
- mb Imc-W
- f
- m A-s\-bm-IpI-bpan.''(58)
Cu {]kvXm-h\
- b
- n\nv sNSn-Isf
Krl-]c
- n-]m-e\
-
- n-eqsS hfsc Hu-Xyn-tepw AXp-t]mse Gsd A[-aXz-n-tepw \bnm km[y-a Fv
]Tn-n-p-p. AXp-t]mse Fen-I-fn
\-S
- nb Hcp ]co-W
- h
- p-w IqSnb tUmnkv hni-Zo-I-cn-p-p.
""Ir{Xna \n[m-cW
-
- ns bYmY
in shfn-hm-p asmcp et_m-d-dn ]co-Ww IqSn t\mmw. asm-cp-Xc-n \s ]eXpw ]Tn-n-p Hcp
]co-Ww Xs-bm-WX
- v.'' ""...Z-b
- n-s\-Xnscbp {]Xn-tcm-[t- i-jn-bpsS
A-Sn-m-\-n GXmv 17 Xe-ap-dI-fn Fen-Isf sXc-s-Sp-p-Xv
k-w_-n IW-m-Wv. F{X-Imew As-n F{X Znhkw Fen-I Z-b-n\nv ap-cm-bn-cpp F-Xns\ Bkv]Z- a
- m-n-bmWv ChnsS k-ab
- w
{Iao-Ic
- n-n-cn-p-X
- v. ]co-W
-
- ns
XpS--n Z-b `oj-Wn-bn-m-Xncp icm-icn Ime-Lw 100 Znh-ka
- m-bncp-p. GI-tZiw 12--Hmfw Xe-ap-d-I-fn
\S-nb sXc-s-Sp-n-eqsS Z-b
- an-m Ime-Lw GXmv \men-c- ntbm
AXn-e-[n-Itam Bbn ZoLn-n-m-\mbn. hopw CXn\v hn]-co-X-ambn Z-bw ]nSn-s]-Sp-Xv F{Xbpw t\c-sbm-m-\mbn sXc-s-Spv \S-nb Fen-Isf {]Xn-\n-[o-Ic
- n-p asmcp tcJbpw hc-n-pv.''(59) Chn-sS aqjn-Iamcp-sS Z-bw Xosc Cm-Xm-m\pw
Ghpw ]mc-ay-n-se-n-m-\p-ap ]-

co--W-nepw ^e-{]m]vXn a[y-am-h-bn \np-I-bmWv FXv Gsd


{it-ba
- m-W.v
Cu cp et_m-d- dn ]co-W
-
- fn\npw Hcp Imcyw hy-am-hp-p.
B-kq-{Xn-Xhpw t_m[-]qh-hp-ambn kky-tem-Ipw Pp-tem-Ipw \S-nb ]co--W--fn \nv Pp-hm-bmepw kky-am-bmepw Ahbvv ]cn-[nbpw
]-cn-an-Xnbpw adn-I-Sp Hcp amhpw km[y-as
- -m-Wv. Cu ]co-W ^e-
IqSmsX C-c
- n-ep am-f
- psS ]cn[nsb hni-Zo-Ic
- n-p DZm-lc
- W
-
- fpw
tUmnkns ]pkvX-I-n Gsdbp-v. AXn-tev t]mIp-n-. Ir{Xna
\n[m-c-W-n-eq-sSbpw Krl ]cn-]m-e\-n-eq-sSbpw Bkq-{Xn-Xhpw _pn-]qhhpw \nb-Xa
- mbn CS-s]-np ^ew a[yam-h \ne-\np-p F-Xn \nv
Hcp Pohnpw Hcp kv]ojn-kn\pw asmcp Pohntbm kv]ojntkm Bbn ]cn-Wan-m km[y-as
- v sXfn-bn-pp Cu
]co-Ww Bkq-{Xn-Xhpw t_m[-]q-hhpw \nb-X-amb amK--fp-]-tbm-Knv
\Snbnpw hnti-jnv am-s
- fm-p-apm-Ip-n Fn {]Ir-Xn-bn ss\k-Kn-Ia
- mbn bmsXmcp _mly CS-s]-S-

ep--an-msX GsX-nepw Pohntbm ssPh-hKtam F-s\-bmWv asmcp Po-hntbm ssPh-hKtam Bbn ]cn-Wa
- n-pI
Fp sXfn-bn-pI t]mbnv hniz-kn-pI?! ]s ]cn-Wma hnizm-kn-I As\ hniz-knpw {]N-cn-npw sImtbn-cn-pw. ImcWw ssZh-krjvSn Fh-v Nnn-m t]mepw Ah-cpsS Al-m-c-a-\p-h-Zn-n-.
Ref:
29 bpnZi\w (]-cn-jvI-cn ]Xnv)
No-^v FUn- bp. Iem-\m-Y, F. Sn tImhq {Sv, tImgn-tm-Sv, t]Pv 1
30 AtX ]pkvXIw apJ-hpc t]Pv 5, ]pdw-N
31 www.en.wikipedia.org/niyandarthal
32 `qan-bnse Ghpw al-mb Zriyhn-kvabw ]cn-Wm-a-ns sXfn-hp-I: Un.
chn-N-{ Un. kn _pIvkv, t]Pv 49
33 AtX ]pkvXIw t]Pv 49
34 www.wikipedia.org/plato
35 www.wikipedia.org/anceanteagypt
36 www.wikipedia.org/indus_wally-civilization
37 www.wikipedia.org/neolithic_europe
38 bpn-Zi\w t]Pv 93
39 AtX ]pkvXIw, t]Pv 1

40 \mkvXn-I-\mb ssZhw: dnmUv


tUmnkns temIw, kn. chn-N{- , Un.
kn. _pIvkv, t]Pv 202
41 AtX ]pkvXIw, t]Pv 200
42 AtX ]pkvXIw, t]Pv 209
43 `qan-bnse Ghpw al-mb Zriyhn-kvabw: ]cn-Wm-a-ns sXfn-hp-I:
t]Pv 52, 53
44 AtX ]pkvXIw t]Pv 53, 54
45 AtX ]pkvXIw t]Pv 54
46 AtX ]pkvXIw t]Pv 56, 57
47 AtX ]pkvXIw t]Pv 57
48 AtX ]pkvXIw t]Pv 57
49 AtX ]pkvXIw t]Pv 58
50 AtX ]pkvXIw t]Pv 68
51 AtX ]pkvXIw t]Pv 91, 92
52 AtX ]pkvXIw t]Pv 91
53 AtX ]pkvXIw t]Pv 112
54 AtX ]pkvXIw t]Pv 112
55 AtX ]pkvXIw t]Pv 112, 113
56 AtX ]pkvXIw t]Pv 108,109
57 AtX ]pkvXIw t]Pv 7
58 AtX ]pkvXIw t]Pv 104, 105
59 AtX ]pkvXIw t]Pv 105
(XpScpw)

(7mw t]Pn \nv XpS)


b teJ\' aebmfn A]qham-W.v IuknenwKv skdnsenb
hnhmltamNnXbpsS kzImcyhn-jbtfm-sSmw Xs hnjbmkn IqSn ]pds-Spmsav IcpXp aqmwInS Iu-kneamcpsS "NnIpt\mv AkpJw' t]msebmhWw kzw teJ\-ns DSw Fv IcpXphsc Ipdn-v Fv ]dbm!
Acw kmwkvImcnI ]cZq-jWv adp]Snsbns\bmhWsav
Hntesd {]mhiyw A\p`hndnbm
Hcmv IgnpsImW-sapantm. aX]nX apX kmlnXyImc-m- hsc hnhmlnepw hynPohnX-nepw \Snb ]e "ssI{InbIfpw'
A-mSnmmWv. \qdv IfhpIfpw tNv ImtXmSpImtXmcw ssIamdp Ccw shfn]mSpIv enJnXcq]w sImSpp-Xv Fv BhnjvImckzm-X{y-ns B\pIqeynembmepw \oXoI-cnm-hX.
aplvkn ssa{X

UqWns Ckvemamtjw
\Ip ]mTw
Ckvemans\ hfsctbsd tamiamb
`mjbn `nv temIhym]Iambn hnai\tfphmnb Uv kn\nabpsS
\n-amXmfn Hcmfpw tlmfnse
{][m\ cmjv{Sob Inbmb {^oUw ]mnbpsS t\Xmhpamb AtWmUv hm UqWns CkvemaXmtjw Gsd D-]pfItmsSbmWv {ihnXv.
Xs kn\nasXnsc h i-am-b {]Xntj[w, B aXns Ak-sb Ipdnv IqSpX ]Tnm t{]c-Iamsbpw AXneqsS aplZv \_nbpsS Zi\w hyambn t_m[y-ss-pw Uq ]dbptm, sXp[-cnp-hv ]cnip aXns k-ti-sfnp sImSppXn \mw
IrXyhntem]w \Snbmepmhp
{]XymLmX Hmpt]mhpIbmWv.
Ckvemw BtjWn\v tijw aZo-\ ]nbnsepIbpw Camw ip-ssd-

2013 tabv

47

ap-ambn IqSnmgv \SpIbpw A


Pkod Nm\en\v A`napJw \IpIbpw
sN-bvX Atlw, aXmtjWn\v
tijw Innb {]XnIcWsf Ipdnpw
kw-kmcnp. ]mn t\Xmfpw ]cn-Nb-mcpw cmPyt{Zmlnsbpw FSp-N
- mmcs\pw ]cnlknptmgpw Xm Gsd Imeambn \Snb ]T\--fpsS-bpw a\\fpsSbpw ^eambn {kjvSmhv \Inb km\amWv Ckvemsa
hnizmkn Ddp \npp.
icnbmb cq]n Ckvemans\ {]t_m-[\w sNbvXm, ]Izamb cq]-n hnai\tfmSv {]XnIcnm Bfp-I CXns\ ASpdnbpsapw s\t-psapamWv UqWns Ckvemw Btjw {]t_m[Iv \Ip ]mTw.
E-Pphmb amKn, Ignhns ]camh-[n ]cnip {]t_m[\w sNm {ian-pI; AXn\p \mY XpWs F {]mY\tbmsS.
\nPn K^mkv ]n.hn

IqSn-mgvN
""Poht\msS `qanbn Ccnptm aZyw IgnmXncnp a\pjy acnv Acq]nIfmbn
sNptm BtLmjnm aZypgI HgpIp A_vImcn tIm{SmdpsS Xentev
Amsb Xcw Xmgvp samlZmWv, A\pbmbnIv BZcWob\mb hyn. ChnsSbpw
sam-lZns Akw_w AmbpsS Xebnembn. Cu hmpI samlZv aZy-e-l-cn-bn-em-bncn-mw FgpXnbXv.'' aebmfnse Hcp {]apJ tmKdpsS IamWnXv. IqSnmgvbneqsS Dcw
{]-Xonpp.
kPo sI, FSh

sXn Iv F hmv el-cn-bp-m-p Ins\-Ip-dn-m am{X-a


- , sXn\nv t\cnv e`n-p Hpw
el-cn-bp-m-m a[p-c-]m-\o-b-s-Ip-dn-m\pw {]tbmKn-m-dp-v. Ad_v \mSp-I-fn _nb F t]cnXs
Hpw el-cn-bp-m-m ]m\obw e`y-am-Wv. Jwdv F
A-d_n ]Zw apn-cn-bn\n-p-m-p aZy-s-Ip-dn-m\pw el-cn-bp-m-m a[p-c]
- m-\o-bs Ipdn-m\pw {]tbm-Kn-m-dp-v. Jwdv (ho-v) apn-cn-bn\nv ]ngn-s2013 tabv

Sp-p-X
- n-s\-Ip-dnv Izp-B\
- n (12:36) ]cm-ai-ap-v. ]ngns-Sp-p-tm AXv el-cn-]m-\o-ba
- m-bn-cn-p-Ib
- n-t- m.
kzK-nse ]m\o-b- el-cn-bp-m-m--Xm-bn-cn-psav Izp-B-\nse 37:47, 56:19 Fo kq--fn hyam-n-bn-p-v. kzK-n Jwdns (a-Zy-n-s) Acp-hnI-fp-m-Ip-sav ]d 47:15 kq-n AXv elcn
{Zmh-Ia
- m-bn-cn-p-sav ]d-n-n.

48

Amlphns {]hmNI\pambn clkykw`mjWw \SpIbmsWn \n


A-tln\v ssIaSv sImSpWsamWv IzpB 58:12s Xm]cyw. hdpXnbpsS am\mfpIv tijw aZo\bnsenb \_n kpJtemep]\msbpw
AXn\v ssZhs Iqp]nSnv kzw Xm]cy kwcnp hN\
CdnsbpamWv CXn \nv a\nemhpXv. adnsmc`n{]mbw \nv
Ism Ignbptam?
{ioPnv Xncp\mhmb

-d-bm AsXmcp aXn-bmb \ymb-am-Ip-am-bn-cp-p. hnip


Izp-B-\nse 58:12 kq-n Amlp In-n-p-Xv,
dkq-ens s]mXp-k-Z-nshv At-l-tmSv kwkmcn-p-X
- p-sImv Xr]vXn-s-SmsX cl-ky-kw-`m-jWw \S-W-sav \n_--ap--h AXn\v apmbn ]mh-s-hv h Zm\hpw \I-W-sa-mWv. Av hnizm-kn-Ifn A[n-I-t]cpw Zcn-{Z-cm-bn-cp-p. {]hm-N-I-t\mSv cl-kykw-`m-jWw \S-m Ah-kcw e`n-p-Xv Hcp _lp-aXn-bmbn ]e {]ap-Jcpw IW-m-m XpS-n-b-tm Ah-sc ]co-n-m\pw Ah-cpsS Fw \nb-{n-m\pw thn--bmWv Ah AXn\v apv ]mh-s--hv h Zm\hpw
\I-W-sav Amlp In--Xv. CXv Hcp \n_
_m[y-X-bmbn \n-bn-n-cp-n-sv 58:12, 13 kq-fn\npXs {Kln-m-hp-XmWv.

Pohn-X
- n Hcn-epw apl-Zv \_n Bcn\npw
kzw Bh-iy-n\v Zm\w kzoI-cn-n-n-. kIm-v, kZJ
(\n_-hpw sFn-I-hp-amb Zm\-) Fo hIp-p-Ifn s] bmsXmpw Xmt\m Xs IpSpw-_mw-K
- tfm A\p`-hn-m ]mSn F \ne-]m-Sn Atlw BPo-h\
- mw
Dd-p-\np-I-bm-Wp-m-b-Xv. \_nbpsS ]u{X Zm\kz-ns] Hcp Cu-gw FSpv hmbn-en--tm
Atlw AXv Xpn--f-bm Bh-iy-s-p-sIm-v ""\mw
Zm\w `pPn-m ]mSns v \n\--dn-p-IqsS?'' Fv
tNm-Zn-p-shv _pJm-cnbpw apkvenapw dntmv sNbvXn-pv. ""CXn-s- t]-cn \n-tfmSv Rm bmsXmcp {]Xn-^ehpw tNmZn-p-n-sv \o ]d-bWw'' Fv Amlp \_ntbmSv I]n-X
- mbn hnip Izp-B\
- nse 25:57 kqn ImWmw. CXn\v hncp-a
- mbn \_n P\-f
- n\nv
Zm\w kzoI-cn-n-cp-s-n i{Xp-v At-ls Xn-

temIv \Sp kv{Xo]oU\n\p apgph ImcWw icoc`mK ]pdv ImWp h-kv{X[mcWcoXnbmsWmWv kvt\lkwhmZw amknI hmbnm tXmpI. As\n A-]
hkv{X[mcnWnIfmb BZnhmkn kv{XoIft Ghpw IqSpX ]oU\a\p`hntXv? am-{Xa,
Cybnse ]oUnXcn `qcn]hpw s]mXpev sh, hontem tPm-en-e
-
- fntem BWv
]oUnnsSpXv. ChnsS hkv{Xns {]knsbv? {]iv\fpsS ImcW NnI-bpnSv A\mhiyhniZoIcW \IpXv bYmY {]iv\sf XakvIcnmt\ CS hcpq.
a\oj sNdphq

Fm ]oU-\-n\pw ImcWw A]-h-kv{X-[m-c-W-amsWv kvt\l-kw-hm-Z-n Fgp-Xn-b-Xmbn tXmp-Xv


hcn-Isf hkv{Xm-t-]w sNbvX-Xp-sIm-m-bn-cn-mw.
ssewKnI ]oU-\
- n\v _lp-hn[ Imc-W
- f
- p-m-Ipw. AsX-mw ChnsS hni-Zo-I-cn-t--Xn-. am\y-ambn hkv{Xw
[-cn-
- p kv{XoI hfsc Ipd-p- am-{Xsa ssewKnI It-n\v Cc-bm-Ip-p-q-shv am[ya dntmp-I Ahtem-I\w sNbvXm hy-am-Ipw. BZn-hmkn kv{XoI
ssew-KnI Nqj-W-n\v [mcm-f-ambn Cc-bm-Ip--Xmbn
2013 tabv

dntmv sN-s-n-p-v. ]pI-bn-eb


- p-sSbpw aZy-n-sbpw
a-b-p-a-cp-n-sbpw {]tem-`-\-n Ah thKw hogp-Xp-sIm-m-bn-cn-mw _emmcw Hsms Hgn-hm-Ip-Xv. hoSp-If
- n \S-p ]oU-\
- v {][m-\I
- m-cWw c_--p-f-m kv{Xo ]p-cp-jamv hfsc ASpv
CS-]g- I
- m Ah-kcw e`n-p-X
- m-W.v s]mXp-e
-
- f
- nepw
s]mXp-hm-l\
-
- f
- n-ep-sams ]oU-\
- \S-p-p-.v AwK-em-hWy {]I-S\w Fhn-sSbpw AXn-s\mcp t{]c-Ia
- m-Imw.

49

kmKw hnv ZpamKw hmp--h


A-_q-A-aoAmlp Ah-X-cn-n, thZ-{K--n-ep Imcy- adpshp-Ibpw, AXnp hne-bmbn Xp-amb
t\- t\Sn-sb-Sp-p-Ibpw sNp-h
- c
- mtcm Ah X-fpsS hb-dp-If
- n Xnp \nd-p-Xv \c-Im-n-bmsX asm-p-a-. Dbns-gp-t]ns \mfn Amlp Ah-tcmSv kwkm-cn-pItbm (]m]--fn
\nv)Ahsc kwipcm-p-Itbm sNp-Ib
- n-. Ahv thZ-\t- b-dnb in-bp-m-bn-cn-p-Ibpw sNpw.
kmK-n\v ]Icw ZpamKhpw ]m]-tam-N\
-
- n\v ]Icw inbpw hmn-bh
- cm-Ipp Ah. \cIin
A\p`-hn-p-X
- n Ahs-smcp a-bmWv! (2:174,175)

temI-c-n-Xm-hmb Am-lp-hns
amK\ntZ-i
- A\p-kc
- nv Pohn-m\p- A\p-{Klw al-mb ku`m-Kyam--Wv. kXy-ns ]v Ddv \n-m-\pw ssZhnI amKZi\w e`n-m\pw B{K-ln-p-Ibpw {]mYn-p-Ibpw
sNp-t- Xm-sSmw kmK-n \nv
Zp-amK-n-tev hgpXn t]mIm-Xn-cnm- Pm{KX ]ment-Xpapv. \_n- hgn-tI-Sn \nv ctXSp-Ibpw
k-mK-n-\mbn {]mYn-p-Ibpw ]Wn--sb-Sp-p-Ibpw sNbvXn-cpp.
kXyw Adnp F-XvsImv am{Xw GsXm-cmpw kzoI-cnp sIm-W-sa-n-. tZtl-Ifpw `uXnIkpJfpw Hcm-fpsS a\-n m\w ]nSnp-tm- kXy-n\v t\sc Hcp-Xcw
A-X
- b
- m-bn-cnpw Abmp-m-hp-I.
A--c-m-cpsS Ipw ImXpw lrZ-bhpw kmKw kzoI-cn-m klm-bnm- hn[w D]-tbm-Ki
- q-\y-am-bnt]mIp-XmWv. Amlp ]d-bpp: ""Fm
Xs ssZhs Xn-jvS-am-n-b-hs\
\o Ipthm? Adnv sImv Xs
A-mlp Ahs\ ]ng-hn-em-p-Ibpw, Ahs ImXn\pw lrZ-b-n\pw ap{Z-shp-Ibpw, Ahs In\v ta Hcp aqSn
Dm-p-Ibpw sNbvXn-cn-p-p.''(45:23)
{]hm-NI
- s ]nXr ktlmZc-\mb A_q--Xzmen_n\pw tdmam N{I-hn ln--en\pw kXyw t_m[y-s-n-pw AXv
kzo-I-cnv t\cns ]v \nebp-dn-m km[n-msX t]mbXv Xv
Inn-sm-n-cn-p P\-]n-pWbpw
m\-a
- m-\
- fpw \jvSs
- -Sp-sa Nn-

bmbncp-p-shv Ncn{Xw \s Hmas-Sp-p-p. Ahn-izm-kn-If


- psS kz`mh-am-bn-mWv Ccw `uXnI {]a-Z hnip- Izp-B (14:2,3) ]cn-Nb
- s
- -Sp-pXv.
kXy-hn-izm-kn-If
- m-Is `uXn-ItemI--ns hne-bpw ]mc-{XnI temI-ns al-Xzhpw Xncn--dn--h-cm-bn-cnpw. \_n ]d-bp-p. ""Cu `uXn-Item-Iw Am-lp-hns ] Hcp sImXp--Ins Nnd-In-t\m-fs
- a-nepw m\-ap-Xm-bn-cp-s-n Ahn-izm-kn-bmb
Hcmv ChnsS \nv Hcn-dv shw
t]mepw IpSn-m km[n-p-am-bn-cp-n.''(Xnap-Zn,- C-_v\p-amP)
`uXn-I-X-bpsS ]f-]-f-n hn-Xcmbnt]mIm-Xn-cn-m \mw \nc-cw {]m-Yn---Xpv. A{]-Imcw Xs km-Kw kzoI-cn-p--Xn \nv a\pjy-s\ XS-bp Hcp Zpxkz`m-ha
- mWv Al--bpw Al-m-chpw. Al-m-cn-If
- psS
hmk--e-amWv \c-I-sav Izp-B
]e-bn-Spw Bhnv ]d-n-pv.
Al-sb hni-Zo-Ic
- nv sImv \_n
]-Tn-n-Xv C-s\-bm-Wv. ""Al-m-cs
- am- kXys Ah-aX
- n-epw ap-hsc ]pOn--ep-am-Wv.''(apkvenw)
A-amb A\p-I-c-W--p-d-v kXyt\zjWXrjvW-tbm-sS-bp
]-T-\-ns A`mhw sImpw km-K-w \jvS-sv t]mtbmw \c-I-hm-knI--f psS hnem-]-am-bn Izp-B Hmann-p-Xv ImWp-I. R tIpItbm Nnn-p-Itbm sNbvXn-cp-s-n R Pzen-p \c-Im-n-bpsS

2013 tabv

50

A-h-Im-in-I-fpsS Iq-n-em-Ip-am-bn-cpn Fpw Ah ]dbpw.''(67:10)


A-amb \c-I-n-ep-sS hgn-sX-n--s Hcp hn`m-K-ns sImSpw tJ-Zhpw hnem-]hpw hnip IzpB Hmas-Sp-ppv (2:166,167).
{]hm-NI
- ]Tn-n kmK kti- kzoI-cn-m-Xn-cn-m ]eXpw ]d "\ymbw' IzpB \apv ]dv
Xcp-Xv ImWpI. ""Amlp Ah-X-cnn-Xv \n ]n]n Pohn-pI Fv
Ah-tcmSv Bsc-nepw ]d-m, A,
R-fpsS ]nXm- kzoI-cn-X
- mbn I-tX R ]n]-p-I-bpp Fmbn-cnpw Ah ]d-bp-Xv. Ah-cpsS
]nXm- bmsXm-p-w Nnnv a\-nem-m--hcpw t\hgn Is-m-h-cp-am-bn-cp-s-n t]mepw Ahsc
]n]-p-Ib
- mtWm?''(2:170)
]nim-Nns ]e-Xcw sIWn-Ifpw km-K-n \nv sXnp If-bmXhn-[-n Ah Hcp-n-bn-p-spw
A-hsb Ipdnv Pm{KX ]menv ]S--ht\mSv {]mYnv apt-dm {ian-p-Ib
- mWv hnizm-kn-I th-sXpw Izp-B sXcy-s-Sp-n-bn-pv.
""Xo-bmbpw ]nimNv \n-fpsS i{Xp-hm-Ip-p. AXn-\m Ahs\ \n- i{Xp-hm-bn-s KWn-p-I. Ah
Xs ]-msc Wn-p-Xv Ah
\c-Im-hI
- m-in-If
- psS Iq-n-em-bn-cp-phm- thn am{X-am-Wv.''(35:6)
kXy-]m-Xb
- n ASn-bp-dv apt-dm
k-h-i--\mb Amlp \s A\p{K-lns! Bao