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შაჰ-ნამე

შაჰ-ნამე

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Published by tina landia
შაჰ ნამე
შაჰ ნამე

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Published by: tina landia on May 12, 2013
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02/18/2015

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Sah-name

firdousis Sesaxeb mcire cnobebi mogvepoveba; firdouso dabadebula 934/935 Tu 935/936 wels, tusis olqSi, qalaq Taberanis maxloblad mdebare sofel baJSi. gardacvlila 1020-1027 wlebSi. dasaflavebulia qalaq tusaSi. firdousis Sah-names wera dauwyia 964-969 wlebSi, dausrulebia 99 wels, misi ukanaskneli redaqcia ki 1010 wels daumTavrebia. firdousis namdvili saxeli ar viciT. “SahnameSi” igi ixseneba abul-yasimad, magram es metsaxelia. firdousi ki poetis literaturuli fsevdonimia da niSnavs ”samoTxels”. poema Sedgeba 60 000 beiTisgan. igi dawerilia moTeyarebiT – zomiT, romelic arabuli poeziidan ki araa gadmoRebuli, aramed iranul niadagzea aRmocenebuli da warmoadgens nacionalur zomas. firdousim ”Sah-names” wera daiwyo samanidebis dinastiis batonobis dros (875-999). aRsaniSnavia, rom Taheridebisa da safaridebis warmomadgenlebTan SedarebiT isini iranis nacionaluri warsuliTa da mSobliuri mwerlobis ganviTarebiT ufro iyvnen dainteresebuli. firdousis hyavda winamorbedi es iyo dayiyi, romelsac iranuli sagmiro Tqmulebebis galeqsva dauwyia, magram udrood daRupul poets aRniSnuli krebulis mxolod mcire nawili gauleqsavs. Znelia imis garkveva firdousisTan SedarebiT ra Taviseburebani axasiaTebda dayiyis mier galeqsil ”Sahnames” nawilebs, radgan ueWvelia, rom firdoisi maT garkveuli cvlilebebis gareSe ar Seitanda. dovlaTSahi Tavisi ”poetebis mimoxilvaSi” saerTod ar ixsenebs dayiyis. oufi Tavis ”lobab-olalbabSi” sadac igi calke Tavs uZRvnis dayiyi tuselis Semoqmedebas arafers ambobs imis Sesaxeb, rom mas wvlili miuZRvis ”Sah-names” SeqmnaSi, xolo roca igive oufi firdousis Semoqmedebaze saubrobs acxadebs, rom ”Sah-name” daiwyo dayiyim da 20 000 beiTi im krebulidan dayiyis mieraa naTqvami 60 000 da sxva ki firdousis miero. firdousi ki dayiyiseulad mxolod 10 000 beiTs aRiarebs:

”goSTasfisa da arjasfis Sesaxeb aTasi beiTi vTqvi da dasrulda Cemi sicocxle.”
”Sah-nameSi” aris iseTi adgilebic sadac gakritikebulia dayiyis poeturi Semoqmedeba:

”misi leqsebi susti iyo, man ver gaacocxla Zveli epoqebio”.
firdousi iZleva cnobebs misi poemis wyaroebis Sesaxeb. ”uZvelesi droidanve arsebobda erTi wigni, Semcveli mraval TqmulebaTa. misi nawilebi gavrcelebuli yofila mobedTa Soris da yvela gonieri sargeblobda imiT, erT didgvarovans warsulis Sesaxeb Tqmulebis mZebnels Seukrebia mTeli qveynis moxuci mobedebi da gamoukiTxavs maTgan mefeTa STamomavlebisa da saxelovani gmirebis ambebi”. 30-35 wlis ganmavlobaSi muSaobda ”Sah-nameze” firdousi. bevri mwuxareba da dardi, siRatake da SimSili gadautania poets, magram xelidan ar gaugdia misi sayvareli saqme. firdousis Sromis anazRaureba samanidebisagan unda mieRo, magram am dinastiis bedi ukuRma datrialda. samanidebis dauZlurebasTan erTad Zlierdeboda RaznelTa samefo. taxtze avida mahmud Raznebi da am periodSi firdousimac daamTavra Tavisi saqme. mosaxleobis autanel mdgomareobaSi Cayeneba axasiTebs am udidesi despotis mmarTvelobas, is sulac ar iyo dainteresebuli iranuli kulturis ayvavebiT. amitom firdousi iZulebuli gaxda mis poemaSi Seecvala bevri leqsi da mahmudis saqebari adgilebi Caesva. igi warsdga Tavisi ukvdavi qmnilebiT mahmudis winaSe, magram man ar daafasa ”Sah-name”. firdousi iZulebuli xdeba gaSordes mahmud Raznelis samefo kars. mecnierebisaTvis ucnobia Tu sad da ra pirobebSi aResrula firdousi. gadmocemiT man dawera ”satira sultan mahmudze”. rogorc Cans satiras Cvenamde ar mouRwevia originalis saxiT, radgan satiraSi ucvlelad vxvdebiT ”Sah-namedan” amoRebul mTel rig adgilebs, nuTu didi poeti firdousi Tavis axal literaturul TxzulebaSi sityvasityviT gaimeorebda mis mier erTxel naTqvam striqonebs.

moipoves oqro-vercxli. jemSidi taxts tovebs da . 7) aqa qeba winaswarmetyvelisa da misi megobrebisa. romelic laSqars gauZRva.i. qaiumarsis vaJi siameqi SeebrZola maT da daiRupa. igi dayofilia Semdeg Tavebad: 1) saxeliTa RvTisa. sabolood SeZlo maTi ganadgureba da bevri maTgani daatyveva. eSmaki kvlav Secvlili saxiT cxaddeba masTan da mzareulis adgils iTxovs. 8) aqa ”Sah-names” Sedgena. romelmac miznad daisaxa devTa damoneba da qveynis gawmenda avi sulebisgan. zaaqi iranis mefed gamoacxades. romelTan dakavSirebiTac huSangi awesebs dResaswauls ”sade”. sadac zaaqis mama Cavardeba da suls ganutevebs. bednierebiT datkba qveyana. qaiumarsi cxovrobda mTad. es Tqva Tu ara maSinve gaSorda RvTiuri brwyinvaleba. 12) aqa qeba sulTan mahmudisa. igi imoseboda vefxvis tyaviT aseve imoseboda yvela misi qveSevrdomi. amis Semdeg eSmaki uCinardeba da zaaqs mxrebze gvelebi amoezrdeba. 6) aqa gaCena mTvarisa. roca vaJis sikvdili gaigo mefem. amieridan unda miwodoT qveynis Semoqmedi. mwuxarebisagan mTeli qveyana dabnelda. xeli mihyves gareuli cxovelebis tyavis gamoyenebasac. qaiumarsis gardacvalebis Semdeg misi SviliSvili uSangi avida taxtze. mis dros SemoiRes rkinis iaraRis keTeba. erT dResac masTan eSmaki mivida Secvlili saxiT. misi gardacvalebis Semdeg taxtze adis uSangis vaJi Teimurazi. mkurnalis saxiT kvlav eSmaki gamoecxadeba. mas garkveuli cxovelebic ki emorCilebodnen. is iyo erT-erTi didebulis mardasis Svili. am dros adamiani mudam axalgazrda rCeboda. zaaqi didad nasiamovnebia misi mzareulobiT da sTxovs isurvos misgan rame. Semdeg jemSidi adis taxtze. rom neba darTos SiSveli mxrebis amborisa. erT wliani glovis Semdeg qaiumarsi daiZra Svilis sisxlis asaRebad mas am saqmeSi exmareba siameqis vaJi uSangi. mkurnalebi ver Svelian. igi arwmunebda zaaqs. amitomac mas ”biveresfsac” uwodebdnen.Rrma moxucebulobaSi myof poets TiTqos romantiuli xasiaTis poemac ”iusufi da zoleixa” SeuTxzavs. 9) aqa ambavi poet dayiyisa. igi urCevs mefes. rom mxrebze amozrdil or veSaps sazrdod adamianis tvini misces. ”devTa Semkvreli” ewoda. jemSidis mefobis dros moigones javSani. 5) aqa gaCena mzisa. am dros Cndeba zaaqi. zaaqis TanxmobiT sasaxlesa da salocavs Soris eSmaki amoTxris ormos. romelic daaxloebiT 238 beiTs Seicavs. rom taxti da gvirgvini mas Seefereboda da ara moxuc mamas. am sakmaod vrceli. ”Sah-names” Sinaarsi ”Sah-name” iwyeba SesavliT. romelmac Seagrova devTa didi laSqari da surda samefo taxtisa da gvirgvinis xelSi Cagdeba. Semwynareblisa da mowyalisaTa. 3) aqa gaCena qveynisa. igi mxatvruli Rirebulebis TvalsazrisiT ver utoldeba ”Sah-names”. amitom Teimurazs ”divband”-i e. agreTve tansacmlis qsova da sasaxleTa mSenebloba. uSangis drosve moiSinaures cxovelebi. iswavles xvna-Tesva da puris moyvana. aRmoaCines cecxli. 4) aqa gaCena kacisa. 12 Tavisagan Semdgari Sesavlis Semdeg iwyeba pirveli mefis qaiumarsis ambis gadmocema. moispo sikvdili. iranelTa laSqari arabeTisaken gaemarTa. qaiumarss mtroba dauwyo ahrimanma. 2) aqa qeba gonebisa. is gavleniani mefe iyo. SemoiRes naosnoba. iranSi sadac am dros jemSidi mefobs xalxi ukmayofiloa misi mmarTvelobiT. mas hyavda aTiaTasi cxeni. zaaqi gancxromaSi cxovrobda. gaamayebulma erT dRes moixmo didebulebi da ganucxada: qveynad aravis vcnob sakuTari Tavis garda. 10) aqa wignis safuZvlis Cayra 11) aqa qeba abu mansur ben mohamedisa. amgvarad taxts zaaqi Caigdebs xelSi. eSmaki Txovs. zaaqic usrulebs Txovnas.

zaaqs daesizmra. romelic daatyvevebs mas. gerSasfi cxra wlis Semdeg gardaicvala. keTilma mzareulebma (armailma da qarmailma) SeZles TiTo axalgazrdis gadarCena. fridoni ikvebeba saxelovani furis rZiT. gurgenSi Suri iCens Tavs. axla ukve maT winaaRmdeg sabrZolvelad rostomi emzadeba. zurabis dabadeba. colad irTavs jemSidis debs da SeeZineba sami vaJi: Turi. manuCaris mefobis xana icnobs zaalisa da rodamis samijnuro-satrfialo Tavgadasavals. misi mefobis dros iyo didi gvalva. daatyveveben zaaqs demavendis ormoSi Cahkideben da fridoni qveyanas gaaTavisufleben misgan. misi sikvdilis Semdeg taxtze avida gerSasfi. gzis maCveneblad beJans gurgens gaayoleben. is aiCemebs mazandaranis dapyrobas. yvelaze umcrosma dahkra Zroxisa saxe gurzi.Eerajze SurisZiebas gadawyveten Zmebi da mas moklaven. romelsac Seipyroben da moklaven. Semdeg fridoni alborziis mTisken mihyavs dedas sadac erT RvTismosav kacTan izrdeba. manuCaris gardacvalebis Semdeg gamefda misi Svili navzari. iranelebi imarjveneb. Seukra xel-fexi da demavendis mTamde miaTria. mefe qaixosro Caixedavs Tavis jadosnur sarkeSi da dainaxavs tyveobaSi myof beJans. mis qaliSvils miaTxoveben feSangs da maT eyolebaT manuCari. gamzrdelis saSualebiT igi beJanTan urTierTobas amyarebs. romelic Sehyris zaaqis mowinaaRmdegeebs da miemarTeba fridonisaken.. Turs . mama-Svilis Serkineba da mamis mier RviZli Svilis mokvla. rom taxti upatronod iyo. zaaqs aujanydeba mWedeli qava. salami da eraji. maTi xelmZRvaneli afrasiobi gadaixveweba. Tumca mas laSqriTurT devebi daatyveveben. taxts Seabamen arwives da is gafrindeba. rom sami axalgazrda. mniSvnelovania samanganis Sahis asulis Tahmines da rostomis siyvarulis istoria.Turani da CineTi. zaali da rodamis SeerTebiT ibadeba iranuli eposis udidesi gmiri rostomi. ibadeba fridoni. gurgenma moitana ambavi iranSi beJanis dakargvis Sesaxeb. taxtze adis qeiyobadi. Semdeg qeqaozi gamefdeba. zaaqis mefobis xana iyo saSineli. Turanelebma gaiges. zaaqi gamalebiT daeZebs mas. rostomi 7 sagmiro saqmes gadaixdis. sami dRe-Ramis gancxromis Semdeg maniJes iraneli gmiri koSkSi mihyavs. . qeqaozi colad SeirTavs amavaranis mefis asuls. mefis STamomavali Tavze wamoadga. tyvismcvels Caabarebs bavSvs. romelic jer ar dabadebula taxtidan Camogagdebs.. xolo erajs irani. maTi Sexvedra. beJani iraneli falavnis givis Svilia. is ar iyo windaxeduli mefe. roca arwivebi daiRlebian is aRmoCndeba CineTSi. jemSidis debi Sahranazi da arnavazi zaaqs Caabares. romelic brZolis Semdeg klavs erajis mkvlel Zmebs. Semdeg is moindomebs caSi gafrenas. beJani xocavs taxebs. miaRwevs mazandarans da gamoixsnis tyveebs. rostomi aqac gamoixsnis qeqozs. isini Tavs daesxmebian sasaxles. salims uboZa qveyana rumisa da xaverisa. asi wlis Semdeg mas CineTis zRvaSi Seipyroben. mis drosac grZeldeba brZola iranelebsa da Turanelebs Soris. deda (firaneqi) fridoniTurT erT tyian adgils Seafarebs Tavs. beJani ewveva maniJes. is eubneba beJans gza SevamokloT erTi dRis savaliTo. mis Semdeg taxtze adis fridonis STamomavali zavi. mniSvnelovania beJan-maniJavis epizodi. rostomi qeqaozs kvlav irans daubrunebs. irane-TuranelTa omebSi Turanelebi marcxdebian. isini erTerTi mokluli kacis tvinSi urevdnen erTi cxvris tvins da ise kvebavdnen zaaqis gvelebs. imefa xuTi weli. fridonis gardacvalebis Semdeg taxtze manuCari adis. erT-erTma mobedma zaaqs sizmari ase auxsna: erTi gmiri saxelad fridoni.gadaikargeba. roca am ambavs Seityobs afrasiobi daatyveveben beJans da Casvamen ormoSi. mas mefe gzavnis taxebis sabrZolvelad. . romlis gamosaxsneladac agzavnian rostoms. Semdeg taxtze adis qaixosros Svili luarsabi. roca maniJe Tvals mohkravs beJans misi siyvaruli gaitacebs. zaaqis brZanebiT mas Suaze gaxerxaven.

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