DISINFECTING AFTER THE FLOOD WASHINGTON, Dec.

6 /PRNewswire/ Flood waters often contain very high levels of b acteria, which is why disinfecting surfaces that have come in contact with flood waters is so important. The Clorox Company offers the following information fr om its disinfecting experts. Disinfecting Contaminated Surfaces Disinfect hard surfaces -- floors, walls and counters -- that may have been cont aminated by flood waters. Use this same solution for dishes, glass, and plastic ware. Disinfection Guidelines: Remove loose dirt and debris from surfaces; Wash down area with a solution of 3/ 4 cup Clorox liquid bleach per gallon of water; Keep wet for 2 minutes and rinse . Clorox household liquid bleach is registered with the U.S. Environmental Prote ction Agency as a disinfectant that kills common bacteria. In the Bathroom To reduce odors that may result from sewage backup: Flush toilet; pour 1 cup Clo rox liquid bleach into the the bowl; Brush entire bowl and let solution stand fo r 10 minutes; flush again Bleach eliminates odors and kills germs. Clothing Washable, colorfast clothing and linens should be washed as soon as possible to prevent mold and mildew and to disinfect laundry. Exterior Cleanup Excessive mold and mildew growth is common after flooding. To remove mo ld and mildew from washable and colorfast exterior surfaces that may have been s aturated by flood waters, follow these directions: Outdoor Cleaning instructions Remove loose dirt and debris from affected surface with a power hose; Keep surfa ce wet with a solution of 3/4 cup Clorox liquid bleach per gallon of water for 5 -15 minutes; Rinse thoroughly with power hose to remove any residue, Children's toys, play equipment and outdoor furniture in contact with flood waters also sho uld be disinfected before use. Food Handling Be sure to dispose of any food items that may have come in contact with flood waters, even canned goods. Household liquid bleach is a safe, inexpensive and effective product that can be used in a variety of areas around the home to clean up after flood contamination. And used according to label directions, Clo rox liquid bleach is safe for the environment, breaking down primarily into salt and water. For more information contact Sandy Sullivan at 510-271-7732, or Mela nie Miller at 202-638-1200, both for Clorox. You may also write to the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), P.O. Box 70274, Washington, DC 20024 and re quest a copy of "Your Family Disaster Plan" and "Your Family Disaster Supplies K it." Your local American Red Cross chapter also has disaster preparedness infor mation available. 12/6/95 Helping Children Cope with Disaster Earthquakes...Tornadoes...Fires...Floods...H urricanes...Hazardous Materials Spills

Disaster may strike quickly and without warning. These events can be frightenin g for adults, but they are traumatic for children if they don't know what to do. During a disaster, your family may have to leave your home and daily routine. C hildren may become anxious, confused or frightened. As an adult, you'll need to cope with the disaster in a way that will help children avoid developing a perm anent sense of loss. It is important to give children guidance that will help t hem reduce their fears. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and the American Red Cross have p repared this brochure to help you help your children cope. Ultimately, you shoul d decide what's best for your children, but consider using these suggestions as guidelines. Children and Their Response to Disaster Children depend on daily routines: They wake up, eat breakfast, go to school, p lay with friends. When emergencies or disasters interrupt this routine, childre n may become anxious. In a disaster, they'll look to you and other adults for help. How you react to an emergency gives them clues on how to act. If you react with alarm, a child m ay become more scared. They see our fear as proof that the danger is real. If you seem overcome with a sense of loss, a child may feel their losses more stron gly. Children's fears also may stem from their imagination, and you should take these feelings seriously. A child who feels afraid is afraid. Your words and a ctions can provide reassurance. When talking with your child, be sure to presen t a realistic picture that is both honest and manageable. Feeling or fear are he althy and natural for adults and children. But as an adult, you need to keep co ntrol of the situation. When you're sure that danger has passed, concentrate on your child's emotional needs by asking the child what's uppermost in his or her mind. Having children participate in the family's recovery activities will hel p them feel that their life will return to "normal." Your response during this time may have a lasting impact. Be aware that after a disaster, children are mos t afraid that the event will happen again. Someone will be injured or killed. Th ey will be separated from the family. They will be left alone. Advice to Parents: Prepare for Disaster You can create a Family Disaster Plan by taking four simple steps. First, learn what hazards exist in your community and how to prepare for each. Then meet wi th your family to discuss what you would do, as a group, in each situation. Nex t, take steps to prepare your family for disaster such as: posting emergency pho ne numbers, selecting an out-of-state family contact, assembling disaster suppli es kits for each member of your household and installing smoke detectors on each level of your home. Finally, practice your Family Disaster Plan so that everyo ne will remember what to do when a disaster does occur. Develop and practice a Family Disaster Plan. Contact your local emergency manage ment or civil defense office, or your local Red Cross chapter for materials that describe how your family can create a disaster plan. Everyone in the household , including children, should play a part in the family's response and recovery e fforts. Teach your child how to recognize danger signals. Make sure your child knows what smoke detectors, fire alarms and local community warning systems (hor ns, sirens) sound like. Explain how to call for help. Teach your child how and when to call for help. Check the telephone directory for local emergency phone numbers and post these phone numbers by all telephones. If you live in a 9-1-1-s ervice area, tell your child to call 9-1-1. Help your child memorize important family information. Children should memorize their family name, address and phone number. They should also know where to me

et in case of an emergency. Some children may not be old enough to memorize the information. They could carry a small index card that lists emergency informat ion to give to an adult or babysitter. AFTER THE DISASTER: TIME FOR RECOVERY Immediately after the disaster, try to reduce your child's fear and anxiety. Kee p the family together. While you look for housing and assistance, you may want to leave your children with relatives or friends. Instead, keep the family toge ther as much as possible and make children a part of what you are doing to get t he family back on its feet. Children get anxious, and they'll worry that their parents won't return. Calmly and firmly explain the situation. As best as you c an, tell children what you know about the disaster. Explain what will happen ne xt. For example, say, "Tonight, we will all stay together in the shelter." Get down to the child's eye level and talk to them. Encourage children to talk. Le t children talk about the disaster and ask questions as much as they want. Enco urage children to describe what they're feeling. Listen to what they say. If p ossible, include the entire family in the discussion. Include children in recove ry activities. Give children chores that are their responsibility. This will he lp children feel they are part of the recovery. Having a task will help them un derstand that everything will be all right. You can help children cope by unders tanding what causes their anxieties and fears. Reassure them with firmness and love. Your children will realize that life will eventually return to normal. I f a child does not respond to the above suggestions, seek help from a mental hea lth specialist or a member of the clergy. The Federal Emergency Management Agency's Community and Family Preparedness Prog ram developed this brochure in cooperation with the American Red Cross' Communit y Disaster Education Program. Both are national efforts to help people prepare for disasters of all types. For more information on how to prepare for and resp ond to disaster, contact your local or State office of emergency management and your local Red Cross chapter. Ask for "Your Family Disaster Plan. Or, write to: FEMA, P.O. Box 70274, Washington, D.C. 20024. DISASTER PREPAREDNESS FOR PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES Being prepared for emergencies can reduce the fear, panic, and inconvenience tha t surrounds a disaster. Check for hazards in the home. During and right after a disaster, ordinary items in the home can cause injury or damage. Anything that can move, fall, break or cause fire is a home hazard. Check for items such as bo okcases, hanging pictures, or overhead lights that could fall in an earthquake o r a flood and block an escape path. Be ready to evacuate. Have a plan for gettin g out of your home or building (ask your family or friends for assistance, if ne cessary). Also, plan two evacuation routes because some roads may be closed or blocked in a disaster. Have disaster supplies on hand. Flashlight with extra bat teries. Portable, battery-operated radio and extra batteries. First aid kit and manual. Emergency food and water. Nonelectric can opener. Essential medicines Cash and credit cards Sturdy shoes. Maintain a list of the f ollowing important items and store it with the emergency supplies. Give a copy to another family member and a friend or neighbor. Special equipment and supplie s, e.g.,hearing aid batteries Current prescriptions names and dosages Names, add resses, and telephone numbers of doctors and pharmacist Detailed information abo ut the specifications of your medication regime Create a self-help network of re latives, friends or co-workers to assist in an emergency. If you think you may n eed assistance in a disaster, discuss your disability with relatives, friends, a nd co-workers and ask for their help. For example, if you need help moving or r equire special arrangements to receive emergency messages, make a plan with frie nds. Make sure they know where you keep emergency supplies. Give a key to a ne ighbor or friend who may be able to assist you in a disaster. Contact your local emergency information management office now. Many loc al emergency management offices maintain registers of people with disabilities s

o they can be located and assisted quickly in a disaster. Wearing medical alert tags help in case of an emergency. Know e facility if you are dependent on quipment or treatment. If you have ity: or bracelets to identify your disability may the location and availability of more than on a dialysis machine or other life-sustaining e a severe speech, language, or hearing disabil

When you dial 9-1-1, tap space bar to indicate TDD call. Store a writing pad and pencils to communicate with others. Keep a flashlight handy to signal w hereabouts to other people and for illumination to aid in communication. Remind friends that you cannot completely hear warnings or emergency instructions. Ask them to be your source of emergency information as it comes over their radio. I f you have a hearing ear dog, be aware that the dog may become confused or disor iented in an emergency. Store extra food, water and supplies for your dog. Planning for Evacuation People with disabilities have the same choices a s other community residents about whether to evacate their homes and where to go when an emergency threatens. Listen to the advice of local officials. Decide w hether it is better to leave the area, stay with a friend or go to a public shel ter. Each of these decisions requires planning and preperation. If you need a w heelchair: Show friends how to operate your wheelchair so they can move you if n ecessary. Make sure your friends know the size of your wheelchair in case it has to be transported. SHEET: FLOODS AND FLASH FLOODS Mitigation pays. It includes any activities that prevent an emergency, reduce the chance of an emergency happening, or lessen the damaging effects of u navoidable emergencies. Investing in mitigation steps now such as constructing barriers such as levees and purchasing flood insurance will help reduce the amou nt of structural damage to your home and financial loss from building and crop d amage should a flood or flash flood occur. BEFORE Find out if you live in a flood-prone area from your local emergency management office or Red Cross chapter. Ask whether your property is above or below the flo od stage water level and learn about the history of flooding for your region. Le arn flood warning signs and your community alert signals. Request information on preparing for floods and flash floods. If you liv e in a frequently flooded area, stockpile emergency building materials. These in clude plywood, plastic sheeting, lumber nails, hammer and saw, pry bar, shovels, and sandbags. Have check valves installed in building sewer traps to prevent fl ood waters from backing up in sewer drains. Finally, use large corks or stoppers to plug showers, tubs, or basins. Plan and practice an evacuation route. Contac t the local emergency management office or local American Red Cross chapter for a copy of the community flood evacuation plan. This plan should include information on the safest routes to shelters. I ndividuals living in flash flood areas should have several alternative routes. H ave disaster supplies on hand. Flashlights and extra batteries, Portable, batter y-operated radio and extra batteries, First aid kit and manual, Emergency food a nd water nonelectric can opener essential medicines, Cash and credit cards, and Sturdy shoes Develop an emergency communication plan. In case family members are sepa rated from one another during floods or flash floods (a real possibility during the day when adults are at work and children are at school), plan to get back to gether. Ask an out-of-state relative or friend to serve as the "family contact."

Shortcuts may be blocked. and wate r. do so immediately. If it is moving swiftly. turn off all utilities at the main switch and close the main gas valve. and people with disabilities. elderly people. Pump out flooded basements gradually (about one -third of the water per day) to avoid structural damage. If your car stalls. Bring outdoor belongings. Look for fire hazards. Turn off the gas at the outside m ain valve if you can and call the gas company from a neighbor's home. Examine walls. Use a stick to poke through debris. do so immediately. If in A Car: If you come to a flooded area. DURING A FLOOD If Indoors: Turn on battery-operated radio or television to get the late st emergency information. Take pictures of the damage--both to the house and its contents for insuran ce claims. Follow recomm ended evacuation routes. Get your preassembled emergency supplies. Be prepared to evacuate. Inspect foundations for cracks or other damage. it's often easier to call long distance. Wear sturdy shoes and use battery-powered lanterns or flashlights when e xamining buildings. Listen to a r adio or television and don't return home until authorities indicate that doing i t so is safe. especially p oisonous snakes. If Outdoors: Climb to high ground and stay there. Remember to help your neighbors who may require special assistance --infants. open a window and quickly leave the building. Watch out for animals. If you tu . Fill bathtubs. tur n around and go another way. Make sure everyone in the family knows the name. and windows to make sure that the building is not in danger of collapsing. Listen to a batter-operated radio for evacuation instructions. police. INSPECTING UTILITIES IN A DAMAGED HOME Check for gas leaks--If you smell gas or hear blowing or hissing noise. Avoid walking through any floodwaters. Many deaths have resulted from attempts to move stalled veh icles. fire department. and jugs with clean water in case water becomes contaminated. and which radio station to tune to for emergency information. doors. electricity. Broken or leaking gas lines flooded electrical circuits submerged furnaces or electrical appliances flammable or explosive mat erials coming from upstream throw away food--including canned goods--that has co me in contact with flood waters. address. sinks. abandon it immediately and clim b to higher ground. Evacuation is much simpler an d safer before flood waters become too deep for ordinary vehicles to drive throu gh. Stay out of buildings if flood waters remain around the building. DURING A FLOOD WATCH Listen to a batter-operated radio for the latest storm information. and leaching systems as soon as possible. If told to l eave. Leave early enough to avoid being marooned by flooded roads. indoors. Make sure that all family members know how to respond after a flood or flash flo od. Learn about the National Fl ood Insurance Program. Service damaged septic tanks. DURING AN EVACUATION If advised to evacuate. Move valuable househ old possessions to the upper floors or to safe ground if time permits. even water 6inches d eep can sweep you off your feet. use extreme c aution.After a disaster. pits. and phone number of the contact person. Homeowner 's policies do not cover flood damage. AFTER Flood dangers do not end when the water begins to recede. Watch for loose plaster and ceilings that could f all.Ask your insurance agent about flood insurance. floors. When entering buildings. Teach children how and when to call 9-1-1. cesspools. Teach all family members how and when to turn off gas. If local authorities instruct you to do so. Damaged sewage systems are health hazards. such as patio furniture. that may have come into your home with the flood waters.

Fasten shelves securely to walls. and water. Store weed killers. violently and without warning. elect ricity. Cash and c redit cards. Brace overhead light fixtures. Have disaster supplies on hand. couches. Hang heavy items such as pictures and mirrors away from beds. develop a plan for reuniting after the disaster. Store breakable items such as bottled foods.rn off the gas for any reason. BEFORE Check for hazards in the home. or elevated expressways. mirrors. Contact y our local emergency management office or American Red Cross chapter for more inf ormation on earthquakes. In case family members are separated fr om one another during an earthquake (a real possibility during the day when adul ts are at work and children are at school). it's often easier to call long distance. Flashlight and extra ba tteries Portable battery-operated radio and extra batteries. Check for sewage and water lines damage-If you suspect sewage lines are damaged avoid using the toilets and call a plumb er. Identifying potenti al hazards ahead of time and advance planning can reduce the dangers of serious injury or loss of life from an earthquake. DURING . If water pipes are damaged. Make sure all family members know how to respond a fter an earthquake. Nonelectric can opener." After a disaster. If you have to step in water to get to the fuse box or circuit br eaker. Place large or heavy objects on lower shelves. and china in low. pesticides. or fire de partment and which radio station to tune to for emergency information. Ask an out-of-state relative or friend to serve as the "family con tact. and anywh ere people sit. Make sure eve ryone in the family knows the name. You can obtain safe water by melting ice cubes. Aw ay from where glass could shatter around windows. Teach all family members how and when to turn off gas. Get expert advice if there a re signs of structural defects. telephone and electrical lines. SHEET: EARTHQUAKES Earthquakes strike suddenly. Repair defective electrical wiring and leaky gas connections. call an electrician for advice. overpas ses. Essential medicines. First aid kit and manual. Identify safe places in each room. police. and flammable p roducts securely in closed cabinets with latches and on bottom shelves. trees. and phone number of the contact per son. E mergency food and water. it must be turned back on by a professional. In the open. contact the water company and avoid the water f rom the tap. away from buildings. Sturdy shoes Develop an emergency communication plan. Repair any deep cracks in ceilings or foundations. or where he avy bookcases or other heavy furniture could fall over. pictures. address. These are potentia l fire risks. Against an inside wall. or i f you smell hot insulation. Locate safe places outdoors. glass. Under sturdy furniture such as a heavy desk or table. Look for electrical system damage--If you see sparks or broken or frayed wires. Teach children how and when to call 9-1-1. closed cab inets with latches. turn off the electricity at the main fuse box or cir cuit breaker. Secure a water heater by strapping it to the wall studs and bolting it to the fl oor.

Inspect the entire length of chimneys carefully for damage. turn off the electricity at the main fuse box or circuit bre aker. or even months after the quake. Clean up spilled medicines. Turn off the gas at the outside main valv e if you can and call the gas company from a neighbor's home. Normally quie defensive. street lights. aftershocks c ause additional damage and maybring weakened structures down. Check for sewage and water lines damage--If you suspect sewage lines are damaged. Leash dogs and place them in a fenced yard. For more information on mitigation. contac t your local emergency management office. If you turn off t he gas for any reason. Unnoticed damage could lead to a fire. and people with disabilities. INSPECTING UTILITIES IN A DAMAGED HOME Check for gas leaks--If you smell gas or hear blowing or hissing noise. stay there until the shaking stops. avoid using the toilets and call a plumbe r. trees. anchoring overhead lighting fixtures to t he ceiling and following local seismic building standards. Leave the area if you smell gas or fumes from other chemicals. Give first aid where appropriate. Once in the open. weeks. it must be turned back on by a professional. Avoid bridges or ramps that might have been dam aged by the quake. Return home only when authorities say it is safe. or utility wires. Aftershocks can o ccur in the first hours. the elderly. Stay out of damaged building s. Pets after an Earthquake The behavior of pets may change dramatically after an t and friendly cats and dogs may become aggressive or closely. proceed with caution. Prepare an the home that includes a 3-day supply of dry food and . and utility wires. or if you sm ell hot insulation. reduce the chance of an emergency happening. to shelters for health and space reasons. MITIGATION Mitigation includes any activities that prevent an emergency. The most dangerous thing to do during the shaking of an earthquake is to try to leave the building because objects can fall on you. will help reduce the impact of earthquakes in the future. Remember to help your neighbors who may require special assistance infants. Move to a clear are a away from buildings. overpasses. bleaches or gasoline or other flam mable liquids immediately. Stay inside. Although smaller than the main shock. If outdoors:Move into the open. You can obtain safe water by melting ice cubes. Investing in preventive mitigation steps now such as repairing deep plast er cracks in ceilings and foundations. days. open a w indow and quickly leave the building. . Once the shaking has stopped. or lessen the damaging effects of unavoidable emergen cies. contact the water company and avoid using water from the tap. Do not move seriously injured persons unless they are in immediate danger of further injury. earthquake.If indoors: Take cover under a piece of heavy furniture or against an inside wal l and hold on. Call for help. If you have to step in water to get to the fuse box or circuit breaker. Watch animals Pets may not be allowed in emergency pen for pets in a large container of water AFTER Be prepared for aftershocks. If water pipes are damaged. c all an electrician first for advice. If in a moving vehicle:Stop quickly and stay in the vehicle. Look for ele ctrical system damage--If you see sparks or broken or frayed wires. away from buildings. Help injur ed or trapped persons. Listen to a battery-operated radio or television for the latest emergency information. Use the telephone only for emergency calls. Open closet and cupboard doors cautiously.

keep the door closed. Never pour water on grease fires. and roll if clothes catch fire. Discard food that has been exposed to heat. Practice alerting other household members. Moving the pan can cause the fire to spread. Draw a floor plan with at least two ways of escapi ng every room. Practice evacuating the building blindfolded. AFTER Give first aid where appropriate. Outlets should have cover plates and no exposed wiring. Lear n to stop. Be careful. Call the fire department from a location outside the house. drop to the ground. Return home only when local fire authorities say it is safe. Replace wiring if frayed or cracked. smoke. Purchase coll apsible ladders at hardware stores and practice using them. get out another way. Contact insurance agent.FACT SHEET: HOUSE AND BUILDING FIRES A fire can engulf a structure in a matter of minutes. Cooking Keep the stove area clean and clear of combustibles such as bags. If there is no smoke at the bott om or top and the door is not hot. or soot. Contact your local fire department or the local A merican Red Cross chapter for more information on fire safety. Close doors in each room after escaping to delay the s pread of the fire. the amount of smoke generated by a fire will most likely make it impossible to see. over nails. Post emergency nu mbers near telephones. It is better to get out first and place the call from somewhere else. Make sure all family membe rs know what to do in a fire. BEFORE Install smoke detectors. Only purchase appliances and electrical devices that have a label indicating that th ey have been inspected by a testing laboratory such as Underwriter's Laboratorie s (UL) or Factory Mutual (FM). When eva cuating. Open a window to escape or for fresh air while awaiting rescue. Fe el all doors before opening them. cover mouth with a cloth to avoid inhaling smoke and gases. or in high traffic areas. slam the door shut. boxes. be aware that if a fire threatens your home. Install A-B-C type fire extinguishers in the home and teach family members how t o use them. Practice staying low to the ground when escaping. Do not overload outlets or extension cords. you should not place the call to your emergency services from inside the home. In a real fire situation. Look for struct ural damage. If a fire starts. Seriously injured or burned victims should be transported to professional medical help immediately. Use the stairs to escape. . Check them once a month and change the batteries at lea st once a year. then open the door slowly. put a lid over the burning pan or use a fire extinguisher. It is a good idea to keep a bell and a flashlight in each bedroom for this purpose. DURING Get out as quickly and as safely as possible. If smoke is pouring in aroun d the bottom of the door or it feels hot. Develop and practice an escape plan. Check electrical wiring. If the door is hot. If in a room with a closed door. and ot her appliances. Stay out of damage buildin gs. If there is too mu ch smoke or fire in the hall. If possible. Understanding the basic c haracteristics of fire and learning the proper safety practices can be the key t o surviving a house or building fire. Choose a safe meeting place outside the house. Don't discard damaged goods until after an inventory has been taken. Do not store combustible materials in closed areas or near a heat so urce. However. stay low to the ground. Save receipts for money relating to fire loss. Make sure wiring i s not under rugs.

Refuel kerosen e heaters outdoors only. Drain cleaner. Have chimneys and wood stoves cleaned annually. Dish and laundry soap. Gun cleaning solvents. Furniture and floor polish. Small amounts of the following products should be disposed of by wrapping the container in newspaper and plasti c and placing it in the trash: Brake fluid. Tires Disposing of Medicines and Spray Cans Flush medicines that are no longer being used or that are out-dated down the toi let and place the empty container in the trash. or trash compactor because the y may explode. Transmiss ion fluid. Detergents. and fireplaces demand saf e operation. Although t he risk of a chemical accident is slight. Large amounts of paint. Gases . Use portable heaters in well-ventilated rooms only. Motor or fuel oil. Liquid fuels. Empty spray cans by pressing the button until nothing comes out and then place the can in the trash. BEFORE Keep fire extinguishers in home and car. Deodorizers. Toilet bowl cleaner. knowing how to handle these products a nd how to react during an emergency can reduce the risk of injury. Home medications. Car battery or battery acid. The y can detect both smoldering and burning fires. Drain cleaner. Ask about the advisability of maintaining antidotes in your home for: Cleaners and germicides. Thinner or stripper. Smoke Detectors Smoke detectors more than double the chance of surviving a fire. Store household chemicals according to the instructions on the label. Tu rpentine. Fertilizer . Read instructions on how to dispose of chemicals properly. Bathroom and glass cleaner. Wood preservatives. FEMA . incinerator. Nail polish. Smoke detector s sense abnormal amounts of smoke or invisible combustion gases in the air. Laundry and dishwashing detergent. Learn to recognize the symptoms of toxic poisoni . Dispose of the following products at a recycli ng center or a collection site: Kerosene. Powder cleansers. Insect repellent.FACT SHEET: HAZARDOUS MATERIALS IN THE HOME FACT SHEET: HAZARDOUS MATERIALS IN THE HOME Nearly every household uses products containing hazardous materials. Post the number of the nearest poison c ontrol center by the telephone. Rubbing alcohol Rug and upholstery cleaner. Do not pla ce spray cans into a burning barrel. Test the smoke detectors each m onth and replace the batteries at least once a year. Paint thinner and strippers. Purchase smoke detectors l abeled by the Underwriter's Laboratories (UL) or Factory Mutual (FM). At least one smoke detector sho uld be installed on every level of a structure. Water -based paint. PREPARE Contact authorities on hazardous household materials. Pesticides. such as the Environmental Protection Agency. Power steering fluid. Small amounts of the following products can be safely poured down the drain with plenty of water: Antifreeze. Bleach. Paint removers and thinners. The U. for information about potentially dangerous household product s and their antidotes. Diesel fuel. Oven cleaner. Laundry bleaches. Toilet bowl cleaner. Drain and bowl cleaners. Fire Administration has more information on fire safety and firefightin g. Fertilizer Household disinfectant. Buy o nly approved heaters and follow the manufacturers' directions. Car wax or polish. wood stoves.S.Heating Devices Heating devices such as portable heaters.

Some materials can be detected because they caus e physical reactions such as watering eyes or nausea. Many hazardous materials d o not have a taste or an odor. Some hazardous materials exist beneath the surface of the ground and can be recognized by an oil or foamlike appearance. or respiratory tract Changes in skin color Headache or blurred vision Dizziness Clumsiness or lack of coordination Cramps or diarrhea DURING If there is danger of a fire or explosion. Communities located near che mical manufacturing plants are particularly at risk.ng: Difficulty in breathing Irritation of the eyes. cool water over the burn for 15-30 minutes. get out of the house immediately. hazardous materia ls are transported on our roadways. Ask about industry and community warning systems. call the fire department after you get out. Flush the eye with clear. BEFORE Learn to detect the presence of a hazardous material. it is important to take i mmediate action. Continue the cleansing process even if the victim indicates he or she no l onger is feeling any pain. railways and waterways daily. Contact your Local Emergency Planning Committee (LEPC) or local emergency management office for information about hazardous materials and commu nity response plans. Refer victim to a medical professional for furth er treatment. Plan several evacuation routes out of the area. FACT SHEET: HAZARDOUS MATERIALS ACCIDENTS A hazardous materials accident can occur anywhere. Be sure that the dress ing will not stick to the burn. Delaying first aid can greatly increase the likelihood of perm anent injury. AFTER Wash hands. battery-operated radio and extra batteries First aid kit and manual Emergency food and water Nonelectric can opener Essential medicines Cash and credit cards . Pour clean. Remove clothing and jewelry from around the injury. lukewarm water for a minimum of 15 minu tes. However. Loosely cover the burn with a sterile or clean dressing. Be ready to evacuate. so any area is considered vulnerable to an accident. arms or other parts of the body that may have been exposed to the ch emical. Find out evacuation plans for your workplace and your child ren's schools. Stay away from the house to avoid the possibility of breathing toxic fumes. then seek medical attention. Have disaster supplies o n hand. Eye Contact with a Hazardous Substance If a hazardous substance comes in contact with an eye. throat. Discard any clothing that may have been contaminated. If there is a fire or explosion. skin. Administer first a id treatment to victims of chemical burns: Call 9-1-1 for emergency help. Flashlight and extra batteries Portable.

weather conditions. Close and lock windows and d oors. Close off nonessential rooms such as storag e areas. Do not walk into or touch any of the spilled substance. Try to stay ups tream. Leave at once. In case family members are separated from one another during a hazardous materia ls accident (this is a real possibility during the day when adults are at work a nd children are at school). Re move contaminated clothing and shoes and place them in a plastic bag. take shallow bre aths through a cloth or a towel. Seal gaps under doorways and windows with wet towels and duct tape. Avoid eating or drinking any food or water that may be contaminated. Cleanse v ictims that have come in contact with chemicals by immediately pouring cold wate r over the skin or eyes for at least 15 minutes. If you have time . If possible. unless authorities instruct you not to use water on the particular chemical involved. Take pre-assembled disaster supplies. DURING If you hear a siren or other warning signal. laundry rooms and extra bedrooms. it's often easier to call long distance. Try not to inhale gases. IF ASKED TO STAY INDOORS ("IN-PLACE SH ELTERING") Seal house so contaminants cannot enter. Remember to help your neighbors who may require special assistance--infants. Other considerations are the length of time it should take to evacuate the area. and stove and dryer vents with duct tape and plastic sheeting. temporary shelters. call 9-1-1 or the local fire department to report the na ture and location of the accident as soon as possible. If gas or vapors could have entered the building." After a di saster. Close fireplace dampers. Monitor the Emergency Broadcast System station for furthe r updates and remain in shelter until authorities indicate it is safe to come ou t. Bring pets inside. uphill and upwind of the accident. Make sure everyone knows the n ame. Immedi ately after the "in-place sheltering" announcement is issued. develop a plan for reuniting after the disaster. and the time of day. Move away from the accident scene and help keep others away. wax paper or alu minum wrap. turn on a radio or television for f urther emergency information. IF CAUGHT AT THE SCENE OF AN ACCIDENT If you see an accident. Seal g aps around window and air conditioning units. elderly people and people with disabilities. Stay away from ac cident victims until the hazardous material has been identified. bathroom and kitchen exhaust fans. fill up bathtubs o r large containers for an additional water supply and turn off the intake valve to the house. Turn off ventilation systems.Sturdy shoes Develop an emergency communication plan. Follow the routes recommended by the authorities--shortcuts may not be safe. address and phone number of the contact person. and procedures. Then you can move victims to fresh air and call for emergency medical care. fumes and smoke. AFTER . Evacuation Authorities will decide if evacuation is necessary based primarily on the type and amount of chemical released and how long it is expected to affect an area. minimize contamination in the house by closing all windows. Assisting Accident Victims Don't try to care for victims of a hazardous materials accident until the substa nce has been identified and authorities indicate it is safe to go near victims. IF ASKED TO EVACUATE Stay tuned to a radio or television for information on evac uation routes. and turning off attic fans.Ask an out-of-state relative or friend to serve as the "family contact. cover mouth with a cloth while leaving the area. shutting all vents .

A cool shower immediately after coming in fro m hot temperatures can result in hypothermia.Vacuum air conditioner filters weekly during periods of high use. or louvers on windows that rec eive morning or afternoon sun. Sunburn slows the ski n's ability to cool itself. solid object in the flush t . Allow your body to get acclimated to hot temperatures for the first 2 or 3 days of a heat wave. or reschedule strenuous activities. Clean up and dispose of residue carefully. stay on the lowest floor out of the sunshine. Use a circulating or box fan to spread the cool air. BEFORE Contact your local emergency management office or American Red Cross chapter for information on extreme heat. re-use water. light-colored clothing that reflects heat and sunlight and helps maintain normal body temperature. Know the symptoms o f heat disorders and overexposure to the sun. such as aluminum foil covered cardboard. Outdoor awnings or louvers can reduce the heat e ntering the house by as much as 80 percent. Drink plenty of water r egularly. particularly for elderly and very young people. Install temporary reflectors. Follow local instructions conc erning the safety of food and water. or liver disease. Dress in loose-fitting clothes that cover as much skin as possible. High-risk ind ividuals should stay in cool places. Take salt tablets only if specified by your physician. Persons who have epilepsy or heart. Check air-conditioning ducts for proper insulation. Avoid too much sunshine. Keep heat outside a nd cool air inside. Place a brick or other large. Keep the cool air inside by weathe r-stripping doors and windowsills. Get plenty of rest to allow your natural "cooling s ystem" to work. Follow instructions from emergency officials concerning clean-up methods. Slow down. Learn the symptoms of hea t disorders and know how to give first aid.Return home only when authorities say it is safe. are on f luid restrictive diets. Consider keeping storm windows up all year. eliminate. spending too much time in the sun or staying too lo ng in an overheated place can cause heat-related illnesses. DURING A DROUGHT Lower water use. During periods of extreme heat. and be ready to give first aid tre atment. DURING Protect windows. Close any floor heat registers nearby. Insulate spaces around air conditioners for a tight er fit. or have a problem with fluid retention should consult a doctor before increasing liquid intake. FACT SHEET: EXTREME HEAT Doing too much on a hot day. awnings. Limit intake of alcoholic beverages.Stay indoors as much as possible. Reduce. they just blow hot air around. Conserve electricity. Install window air conditioners snugly. people tend to use a lot m ore power for air conditioning which can lead to a power shortage or outage. Hang shades. Eat well-balanced.light meals. draperies. Use a sunscreen lotion with a high SPF (sun protecti on factor) rating. S torm windows can keep the heat of a house in the summer the same way they keep t he cold out in the winter. Protect face and head by wearing a wide-brimmed hat. DURING Avoid extreme temperature changes. Alt hough beer and alcohol beverages appear to satisfy thirst. Watering the lawn and washing the car waste water. to reflect any heat back outside. If air conditioning is not available. Whenever po ssible. Lightweight. Persons on salt-restricti ve diets should check with a physician before increasing salt intake. they actually cause f urther body dehydration. Remember that electric fans do not cool. kidney.

weakness. Contact the local emergency management office or Ameri can Red Cross chapter. possible swelling. First Aid: Get victim to lie down in a cool place. If vomiting occurs. Possible unconsciousness. Heavy sweating. DO NOT GIVE FLUIDS. Weak pulse. Learn safe routes inland. Normal temperature possible. Heat Exhaustion Symptoms: Heavy sweating. apply dry. Delay can be fatal . discontinue. First Aid: Heat stroke is a severe medical emergency. If nausea occurs. Use fans and/or air con ditioners.ank of the toilet to reduce the water used to flush. Move victim to a cooler environment. FACT SHEET: HURRICANES Hurricanes can be dangerous killers. Be ready to drive 20 to 50 miles inland to locate a safe place. First Aid: Firm pressure on cramping muscles or gentle massage to relieve spasm. Apply cool . Learning the hurricane warning messages an d planning ahead can reduce the chances of injury or major property damage. headaches. skin cold. to remove oils that may block pores preven ting the body from cooling naturally. Heat Cramps Symptoms: Painful spasms usually in leg and abdominal muscles. If blisters occur. Victim will likely not sweat. Use extreme caution. Fainting. Rapid. wet cloths. Hot. discontinue. Have disaster su pplies on hand. If nausea occurs. HEAT DISORDERS Sunburn Symptoms: Skin redness and pain. using soap. seek immediate medical att ention. Give sips of water. Farmers should contact the county Farmers Home Administration Office for disaster assistance information. Heat Stroke (Sun Stroke) Symptoms: High body temperature (106+). fever. BEFORE Plan an evacuation route. dry skin. and ask for the community hurricane preparedness plan. sterile dres sings and get medical attention. Remove clothing. Give sips of water. vomiting. Pets may not be allowed into emergency shelters for health and space reasons. battery-operated radio and extra batteries First aid kit and manual Emergency food and water Nonelectric can opener Essential medicines Cash and credit cards Sturdy shoes Make arrangements for pets. First Aid: Take a shower. Loosen clothing. strong pulse. blisters. Try a cool bath or sponging to reduce b ody temperature. T his plan should include information on the safest evacuation routes and nearby s helters. Fan or move victim to air-conditioned place. Contact your local humane society for information on l . Flashlight and extra batteries Portable. pale and clammy. Call 9-1-1 or emergency m edical services or get the victim to a hospital immediately.

DURING A HURRICANE WARNING Listen constantly to a battery-operated radio or television for official instruc tions. Hurricane Watches and Warnings A hurricane watch is issued when there is a threat of hurricane conditions withi n 24-36 hours. A lower-cost approach is to put up plywood panels. police. Teach family members how and when to turn off gas. Store drinking water in clean bathtubs. Protect your windo ws. Make sure that all family members know how to respond afte r a hurricane. Remove outside antennas.ocal animal shelters. and you live in an identified surge zone. and phone number of the contact person. Keep a supply of fla shlights and extra batteries handy. Pre-drill holes eve ry 18 inches for screws. Avoid flooded roads and watch for washed-out bridges. skylights. Remember to mark which board fits which window. electricity. or fire department and which radio station to tune to for emergency information. . Store valua bles and personal papers in a waterproof container on the highest level of your home." After a disaster. Do this long before the storm. Make sure everyone in the family knows the name. move it to a higher flo or. and cooking utensils. Check into flood insurance. Secure your home by unplugging appliances and turning off e lectricity and the main water valve. If time permits. Moor boat securely or move it to a designated safe place. Homeowners polices do not cover damage from the flooding that accompanies a hurricane. address. Use rope or chain to secure boat to trailer. as a source of light. Use 1/2 inch plywood--marine plywood is best--cut to fit ea ch window. away from windows. such as candles and kero sene lamps. Ask an out-of-state relative or friend to serve as the "family contact. Fuel car. Lock up home and leave. Tell someone outside of the storm area wher e you are going. it's often easier to call lon g distance. Open only when absolutely nece ssary and close quickly. Teach children how and when to call 9-1-1. A hurricane warning is issued when hurricane conditions (winds o f 74 miles per hour or greater. have a plan for getting back together. and glass doors. elev ate furniture to protect it from flooding or better yet. If officials indicate evacua tion is necessary: Leave as soon as possible. Develop an emergency communication plan. check tiedowns and evacuate immediately. S ecure buildings by closing and boarding up windows. Avoid elevators. You can find out about the Nat ional Flood Insurance Program through your local insurance agent or emergency ma nagement office. Review evacuation plan. DURING A HURRICANE WATCH Listen to a battery-operated radio or television for hurricane progress reports. bottles. If in a mobile home. and garden tools and anchor objects that cannot be brought inside. Take bl ankets and sleeping bags to shelter. jugs. toys. There is normally a 30-day waiting period before a new policy b ecomes effective. Use tiedo wns to anchor trailer to the ground or house. Bring pre-assembled emergency supplies and warm protective clothing. If at home: Stay inside. Avoid open flames. Trim back dead or weak branches from trees. Bring in outdoor objects such as lawn furni ture. Permanent shutters are the best protection. In case family members are separated from one another during a disaster (a real possibility during the day when adults are at work and children are at school). or dangerously high water and rough seas) are ex pected in 24 hours or less. If power is lost. Tu rn refrigerator and freezer to coldest settings. turn off major appliances to reduce power "surge" when electricity is restored. a nd water. Check emergency supplies.

Turn off the gas at the outside main valv e if you can and call the gas company from a neighbor's home. Your county geologist or county planni ng department may have specific information on areas vulnerable to landsliding. retaining walls. For more informa tion on mitigation . brick. you may be liable for damages. Enter your home with caution. MITIGATION Mitigation includes any activities that prevent an emergency. open a w indow and quickly leave the building. Look for ele ctrical system damage--If you see sparks or broken or frayed wires. Fences. police. Call for help. The force of rocks. Take t he following steps to be ready. Learn to recognize the landslide warning signs. Use telephone only for emergency calls. BEFORE Get a ground assessment of your property. INSPECTING UTILITIES IN A DAMAGED HOME Check for gas leaks--If you smell gas or hear blowing or hissing noise. Outside walls. Plan at least two eva cuation routes since roads may become blocked or closed. or trees tilt or m ove. Check refrigerated foods for spoilage. or if you sm ell hot insulation. it must be turned back on by a professional. New cracks appear in plaster. Open windows and doors to ventilate and dry your h ome. Water breaks through the ground surf ace in new locations. Take pictures of the damage. contact the water company and avoid the water fr om the tap. insects. soil . or lessen the damaging effects of unavoidable emergen cies.The ground slopes downward in one specific direction and may begin shifting in that direction under your feet. Develop an emergency co . Avoid loose or dangling power lin es and report them immediately to the power company. You hear a faint rumbling sound that increases in volume as the landslide n ears. Consult a professional geotechnical expert for opinions and advice on landslide problems and on corrective measures you can take. In mudflow areas. or foundations. Investing in preventive mitigation steps now such as strengthening unrein forced masonry to withstand wind and flooding and installing shutters on every w indow will help reduce the impact of hurricanes in the future. or stairs begin pulling away from the building. Bul ging ground appears at the base of a slope. Make evacuation plans. utility poles. Check for sewage and water lines damage--If you suspect sewage lines are damaged avoid using the toilets and call a plumbe r. contact your local emergency management office. widening cracks appear on the ground or o n paved areas such as streets or driveways. Slowly developing. FACTSHEET: LANDSLIDES AND MUDFLOWS Landslide and mudflows usually strike without warning. If you turn off t he gas for any reason. or other debris moving down a slope can devastate anything in its path. and animals driven to higher ground by flood water. build channels or deflection walls to direct the flow around buildings. Underground utility lines break.AFTER Stay tuned to local radio for information. tile. reduce the chance of an emergency happening. Remember: If y ou build walls to divert debris flow and the flow lands on a neighbor's property . If you have to step in water to get to the fuse box or circuit breaker. Drive only if absolutely n ecessary and avoid flooded roads and washed-out bridges. Beware of snakes. turn off the electricity at the main fuse box or circuit bre aker. If water pipes are damaged. Give first aid where appropriate. Help injured or trapped persons. Plant ground cover on slopes and build retaining walls. Doors or windows stick or jam for the first time. walks. Do not move seriously injured persons unless they are in immediate danger of further injury. both to the house and its contents and for insurance claims. Return home only afte r authorities advise that it is safe to do so. c all an electrician first for advice. or fire department. You can obtain safe water by melting ice cubes. Minimize home hazards.

Insurance Mudflow is cover ed by flood insurance policies from the National Flood Insurance Program. though unlikely . Alth ough radioactive materials could be released in a cloud or plume. DURING If inside a building: Stay inside. or installing flexible pipe fitting to avoid g as or water leaks. Give first aid if trained. killing two people and engulfing numerous cars. There may be danger of additional slides. Check the building foundation. a 100-foot wide. it's often easier to call long distance. Check for damaged utility lines. have a plan for getting back together. AFTER Stay away from the slide area. For more information on mitigation. causing the land surface to collapse from a lack of support. Sinkholes A sinkhole occurs when groundwater dissolves a vulnerable land surface such as l imestone. and phone number of the contact person. In June 1993. Replant damaged ground as soon as possible since erosion c aused by loss of ground cover can lead to flash flooding. Check f or injured and trapped persons near the slide area. A nuclear power plant ac cident would not cause the same widespread destruction as a nuclear weapon. elde rly people. and people with disabilities. Report any da mage to the utility company. or lessen the damaging effects of unavoidable emergen cies. Make sure everyone knows the n ame. If esc ape is not possible. Seek the advice of geo technical expert for evaluating landslide hazards or designing corrective techni ques to reduce landslide risk. Ask an out-of-state relative or friend to serve as the "family contact". BEFORE Know these facts about a nuclear power plant emergency. Flood insurance can be purchased through a local insurance agency. Investing in preventive mitigation steps now such as planting ground cove r (low growing plants) on slopes.mmunication plan. will help reduce the impact of landslides and mudflows in the future. Take cover under a desk. reduce the chance of an emergency happening. are possible. or other piece of sturdy furniture. 25-foot deep sinkhole formed under a hotel parking lot in Atlanta. the fallout wo uld be minimal compared to a nuclear weapon. contact your local emergency manag ement office. table. In case family members are separated from one another during a landslide or mudflow this is (a real possibility during the day when adults are at work and children are at school). MITIGATION Mitigation includes any activities that prevent an emergency. If rocks and other debris are approac hing. FACT SHEET: NUCLEAR POWER PLANT EMERGENCY Although construction and operation of nuclear power plants are closely monitore d and regulated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. After a di saster. Remember that flooding may occu r after a mudflow or a landslide. Run to the nearest high ground in a direction away from the path. Listen to a battery-operated radio or television for the latest emergency information. chimney. There may be a radiation hazard in the surrounding areas. and surroun ding land for damage. address. run for the nearest shelter such as a group of trees or a building. The most immediate danger from an accident at a nuclear power p lant is exposure to radiation. accidents. R emember to help your neighbors who may require special assistance--infants. If outdoors: Try and get out of the path of the landslide or mudflow. depending on the type . curl into a tight ball and protect your head.

nursing home s--anywhere family members might be. safety precautions. In case family members are separated fr om one another during a disaster (a real possibility during the day when adults are at work and children are at school). Radiation would be monitored by authorities to determine potential danger and warn the public. Listen to your radio or television for instructions. DURING Listen to a battery-operated radio or television for official information. Young children. and radioactive waste dumps are located. L ocal citizens would be evacuated or instructed on how to avoid radiation hazards . address. Learn emergency plans for schools. Listen to your radio or television for informat ion. amount of radiation released. and weather factors. but it will not affect the community. Ask about the hazards rad iation may pose to your family. Be prepared to evacuate or shelter in your home. pregnant women. No action by you is necessary. but no radiation leak is expected. Develop an emergency communication plan. and the elderly may be affected more than others. it's often easier to call long distance. Emergency Response Plans Federal. Alert means that small amounts of radiation could leak inside the plant. s tate. Small amounts of radiation could leak from t he plant. Ask an out-of-state relative or friend to serve as the "family contact. Attend public information meetings. and phone number of the contact person. Make sure everyone know th e name." After a disaster. Local emergency managers and plant officia ls can provide information about radioactivity. and federal accident emergency plans. and local. Not all nuclear power plant incidents result in the release of radiation. battery-operated radio and extra batteries First aid kit and manual Emergency food and water Nonelectric can opener Essential medicines Cash and credit cards Sturdy shoes Obtain information about official evacuation routes from local officials. Learn your community's wa rning systems. industry. Area sirens may sound.of accident. have a plan for getting back together. and local officials work together to develop emergency response plans for nuclear power plants and surrounding communities. Area sirens will sound. Site area emergen cy describes a more serous problem. If advised to remain at home: . BEFORE Be prepared to evacuate or shelter in your home. These plans are test ed through exercises that can include small-scale evacuation drills for public i nstitutions such as schools and nursing homes. General emergency refers to a serious problem. day care centers. Ask where nuclear power plants. state. Terms for Describing Nuclear Power Plant Emergencies Know the following terms and what they mean: Notification of unusual event means a problem has occurred at the plant. radioactive s torage sites. Have disaster supplies on hand. Radiation could leak outside the plant and off the plant site. Flashlight and extra batteries Portable. No action by you is necessary.

the walls i n your home would be sufficient shielding to protect you. Take disaster supplies. In some cases. temporary shelters. Distance--The more distance between you and the source of the radiation. the more heavy. People receive some radiation exposure each day from the sun. Turn off air conditioning. Radioactive materials are compos ed of atoms that are unstable. Close and lock windows and doors. local authorities will monitor any release of radiation and determine when the threat has passed. avoid using foods from your garden or milk from cows or goats until they can be inspected by local emergency officials. Shielding Like distance. the better. F ollowing a radiological accident. elderly peo ple. The energy emitted is radiation. Stay inside until authorities say it is safe. After the Event When the immediate danger has passed. cover mouth and nose with a damp towel. radioactive elemen . industries. Minimize contamination in house. The longer a person is exposed to rad iation. local officials wi ll likely call for an evacuation. major highways. fans. Shielding. dense materials between you and the sou rce of the radiation. Go to the basement or other u nderground area. Limiting the time spent n ear the source of radiation reduces the amount of radiation you will receive. Remember your neighbors who may require special assistance--infants. and furnace. Close and lock windo ws and doors.Bring pets inside. An unstable atom gives off its excess energy unt il it becomes stable. the greater the risk. FACT SHEET: RADIOLOGICAL ACCIDENTS Radiological accidents can occur wherever radioactive materials are used. Put items worn outdoors in a plastic bag a nd seal it. In addition to nuclear power plants. vents. BEFORE Know these facts about radiation and materials. If you must go ou t. vents. hospitals. stored or transported. fans. Radioactive materials are dangerous because of the harmful effect of certain typ es of radiation on the cells of the body. universities. When coming in from outdoors: Shower and change clothing and shoes. Turn off air conditioning. In a serious nuclear accident. research laboratories. and people with disabilities. Close fireplace dampers. the les s radiation you will receive. Remember that contamination can affect areas many miles from the accident site. Time Most radioactivity loses its strength fairly quickly. railroads or shipping yards c ould be the site of a radiological accident. If advised to evacuate: Listen to a radio or television for information on evacuation routes. This is why local officials could advise you to remain indoors if a radiological accident occurs. and procedures. thereby increasing the distance between you an d the radiation. and Time. Close firepla ce dampers. Three Ways to Minimize Radiation Exposure There are three factors that minimize radiation exposure to your body: Distance. The process by which an atom changes from an unstable state to a more stable state by emitting radiation is called radioactive decay or radioactivity. and furnace.

Obtain information about offici al evacuation routes from local officials. In some cases. Contact your local emergency manager for information a bout how to respond to a radiological accident." After a disaster. day care centers. and Time. thereby increasing the distance between you an d the radiation. . Limiting the time s pent near the source of radiation reduces the amount of radiation you will recei ve. have a plan for getting back together. Following a radiological accident. the walls in your home would be sufficient shielding to protect you. Distance--The more distance between you and the source of the radiation. vents. Time--Most radioactivity loses its strength fairly quickly. Make sure everyone know the name. address. Flashlight and extra batteries Portable. cover mouth and nose with a damp towel. and furnace. the better. and to learn emergency plans for schools. or any other sense. household appliances like television sets and microwav e ovens. nursing homes--anywhere family members might be. local authorities will monitor any relea se of radiation and determine when the threat has passed. s mell. Close and lock windows and doors.<BR> In case family members are separated from one another during a disaster (a real possibility during the day when adults are at work and children are at school). Communities located on major transportation routes should develop and practice a n emergency plan for handling transportation accidents involving radiological ma terials. the more heavy. Ask an out-of-state relative or friend to serve as the "family contact. fans. Develop an emergency communicat ion plan. and phone number of the contact person. DURING Listen to the radio or television for official information. Shielding--Like distance. If you must go out. Learn your community's warning systems. Radiation cannot be detected by sight. In a serious nuclear accident. Turn off air conditioning. Stay inside until authorities say it is safe. Shielding. the les s radiation you will receive. Close fireplace dampers. Go to the basement or other underground area. it's often easier to call lon g distance. local officials wi ll likely call for an evacuation. BEFORE Be prepared to evacuate or shelter in your home. Be prepared to evacuate or shelter in your home.ts in the soil and rocks. This is why local officials could advise you to remain indoors if an radiological accident occurs. Have disaster supplies on hand. and medical and dental x-rays. batter-operated radio and extra batteries First aid kit and manual Emergency food and water Nonelectric can opener Essential medicines Cash and credit cards Sturdy shoes Three Ways to Minimize Radiation Exposure There are three factors that minimize radiation exposure to your body: Distance. dense materials between you and the so urce of the radiation. If advised to remain at home: Bring pets inside.

and phone number. it's always to take your pets with you. After the Event When the immediate danger has passed. avoid using foods from your garden or milk from your cows or goats until these can be inspected by a local emergency offic ial. Store the food in sturdy containers.When coming in from outdoors: Shower and change clothing and shoes. Avoid choosing rooms with hazards such as windows. Make sure your pet has a properly fitted collar that includes current license and rabies tags. address. trained guide dogs for the blind. hanging plants o r pictures in large frames. Most kennels require proof of curren t rabies and distemper vaccinations before accepting a pet. and procedures. as a last resort. include i tems for pets. Also. hearing impaired or handicappe d will be allowed to stay in emergency shelters with their owners. Remember your neighbors who may require special assistance--infants. Extra medications . you have to leave your pets behind. Put items worn outdoors in a plastic bag and seal it. Contact motels and h otels in communities outside of your area and find out if they will accept pets in an emergency. Use a var iety of training methods such as feeding it in the carrier or placing a favorite toy or blanket inside. Decide on safe locations in your house where you could leave your pet in an emergency. . and people with disabilities. fans. vents. If. Take disaster supplies.) Kitty litter. If advised to evacuate: Listen to a radio or television for information on evacuation routes. and furnace. Incl uding an identification tag that has your name. Close and lock window s and doors. humane society. Try and get an extra supply of medications. find out from your veterinarian what you should do in case you have to leave it alone fo r several days. If yo ur dog normally wears a chain link "choker" collar. elderly peo ple. temporary shelters. Consider easy to clea n areas such as utility areas or bathrooms and rooms with access to a supply of fresh water. Extra food (The food should be dry and relatively unappealing to prevent overheating. Train your pet to become comfortable with the carrier. Buy a pet carrier that allows your pet to stand up and turn around inside. pets will not be allowed in public emergency shelters. In case of flooding. If you must evacuate your home. For health and space reasons. Turn off air conditioning. PETS AND DISASTERS Make arrangements for your pets as part of your household disaster planning. Trained Guide Dogs In most states. Contamination could affect areas as far as 50 miles from the accident site . see if your veterinarian will accept your pet in an emergency. Set up two separate locations if you have dogs and cats. Check with l ocal emergency management officials for more information. make sure you have a plan to ensure their care. BEFORE Contact your local animal shelter. the location should have access to high counters that pets can escape to. If your pet is on medication or a special diet. Close fireplac e dampers. have a leather or nylon coll ar available if you have to leave him alone for several days. When assembling emergency supplies for the household. veterinarian or emergency man agement office for information on caring for pets in an emergency. Large capacity self-feeder and water dispenser. Find out if t here will be any shelters set-up to take pets in an emergency. Keep your pet's sh ots current and know where the records are. Minimize contamination in house.

In an emergency. AFTER If after a disaster you have to leave town.DURING Bring your pets inside immediately. s nakes and other dangerous animals may be brought into the area with flood areas. Bringing them in side early can stop them from running away. Make sure that the bird is caged and the cage is covered by a thin cloth or sheet to provide securi ty and filtered light. The very nature of terrorism suggests that there may be little or no warning. kidnappings. Learn whe re emergency exists are located. Animals have instincts about severe weather changes and will often isolate themselves if they are afraid. explosives or inc endiary devices in the United States remains possible. FACT SHEET: TERRORISM A terrorist attack with conventional weapons such as firearms. though unlikely. you may have to leave your bi rds behind. Always maintain close contact. no-spill container. If possible. resorts. and high-profile landmarks. The behavior of your pets may change after an emergency. Downed power lines are a hazard. If you evacuate and have to leave your pet at home. the anx iety of an emergency situation can cause pets to act irrationally. remember to bring your pet's medical records and medicines with your emergency supplies. Make sure the collar has tags and identification . Do not accept packages from strangers. leash your pets when they go outside. Never leave a pet outside or tied u p during a storm. Familiar scents and landmarks may be altered and your pet may become confused and lost. Leash dogs and place them in a fenced yard with access to shelter and water. Do not leave luggage unattended. Large dogs may be able to ovtain frr esh water from a partially filled bathtub. even if it's not the pets usual food. Be aware of conspicuous or unusual behavior. Even if your dogs and cats normally get along. Leave a two or three day supply of dry food. Think ahead about how to evacuate a building. take your pets with you. N otice your immediate surroundings. BEFORE Learn about the nature of terrorism. Foreig n terrorists look for visible targets where they can avoid detection before or a fter an attack such as international airports. Normally quiet and friendly pets may become aggressive or defensive. If you evacuate and plan to take your pets. Replace a chain link "choker" collar with a leather or nylon collar. fall or break in an explosion. Keep small pe ts away from cats and dogs. and sho otings. Be alert and aware of the surrounding area. Prepare to deal with a terrorist incident by adapting many of the same technique s used to prepare for other crises. s ubway or congested public area in a hurry. prepare a safe location for it. Leave familiar items such as the pet's normal bedding and favorite toys. major international events. hijackings. Leave th e water in a sturdy. T ake precautions when traveling. In the first few days after the disaster. large cities. Learn about the different types of terrorist weapons including explosives. Birds Birds must eat daily to survive. Leave the food in a sturdy container that the pet cannot overturn. The food should not be moistened because it turn rancid or so ur. Also. arson. Separate dogs and cats. Pets are u nlikely to survive on their own. . Be aware of heavy or breakable objects that could move. Learn where staircases are located. Talk with your veterinarinan or local pet store about special food dispensers that regulate the amount of foo a bird is given. Watch animals closely. open a faucet slightly an d let the water drip into a big container. Terrorists often choose targets that offer little danger to themselves and areas with relatively easy public access.

Clear the area around the suspicious pa ckage and notify the police immediately. Severity of injuries depends on the type and amount of the chemical agent us ed. Use a whistle if one is avai lable. Shout only as a last resort--shouting can cause a person to inhale danger ous amounts of dust. middl e and upper parts of the door. use the palm of your hand and forearm to feel the lower. Wait for emergency personnel to arrive. they wo . Ke ep fire extinguishers in working order. get out of the building as quickly and calmly as possib le. Know where they are located.Preparing for a Building Explosion The use of explosives by terrorists can result in collapsed buildings and fires. Were a chemical agent attack to occur. animals or plants. get under a stu rdy table or desk. Several hard hats. battery-operated radio and extra batteries. Keep the following items in a designated place on e ach floor of the building. livestock and crops. Tap on a pip e or wall so that rescuers can hear where you are. liquids or solids that have toxic effects o n people. it is almost impossible to know that a biological attack has occurred. Lea ving the shelter to rescue or assist victims can be a deadly decision. DURING In a building explosion. Fluorescent tape to rope off dangerous areas. Because biological agents cannot necessarily be de tected and may take time to grow and cause a disease. get as much information from the caller as possib le. do not touch any suspicious packages. Do not restrict si dewalk or streets to be used by emergency officials. Chemical Agents Chemical agents are poisonous gases. and the duration of exposure. Most chemical agents cause serious injuries or dea th. Heavy smoke and poisonous gases collect first along the c eiling. If it is hot to the touch. Stay in your area so that you don 't kick up dust. If government officials become awa re of a biological attack through an informant or warning by terrorists. Cover nose and mouth with a wet cloth. Portable. After you've been notified of a bomb threat . Contact the local chapter of the American Red Cross for additional information. People who live or work in a multi-level building can do the following: Review emergency evacuation procedures. Keep the caller on the line and record everything that is said. and how to use them. If there is a fire. Stay below the smoke at all times. do not open the door--seek an a lternate escape route. If it is not hot. Several flashlights and extra batteries. There is no assistance that the untrained can offer that would likely be of any value t o the victims of chemical agents. Learn first aid. In evacuating a building. Bomb Threats If you receive a bomb threat. authori ties would instruct citizens to either seek shelter where they are and seal the premises or evacuate immediately. If items are falling off of bookshelves or from the ceiling. avoid standi ng in front of windows or other potentially hazardous areas. Assisting Victims Untrained persons should not attempt to rescue people who are inside a collapse d building. AFTER If you are trapped in debris:Use a flashlight. When approachi ng a closed door. First aid kit and manual. Biological Agents Biological agents are organisms or toxins that have illness-producing effects on people. Stay low to the floor and exit the buildi ng as quickly as possible. Exposure to chemical agents can be fatal. Notify the police and the building management. Know where fire exits are located. brace yourself against the doo r and open it slowly. Cover your mouth with a handkerchief or clothing.

review what actions to take under a "tornado warning" or a "flash flood warni ng. Dist ant lightning and thunder. and phone number of the contact person." Develop an emergency communication plan. FACT SHEET: THUNDERSTORMS AND LIGHTNING Some thunderstorms can be seen approaching. Learn how to respond to a tornado and flash flood. When a "severe thunderstorm warning" is issue d. the danger is very serious an d everyone should go to a safe place.uld most likely instruct citizens to either seek shelter where they are and seal the premises or evacuate immediately. Dead or rotting trees and branches can fall durin g a severe thunderstorm and cause injury and damage. Contact you local emergency management office or American Red Cross chapter for more information o n thunderstorms and lightning. while others hit without warning. Make sure that all family m embers know how to respond after a thunderstorm. Teach family members how and wh en to turn off gas. Severe Thunderstorm Watches and Warnings A severe thunderstorm watch is issued by the National Weather Service when the w eather conditions are such that a severe thunderstorm (damaging winds 58 miles p er hour or more. Some agents are contagious. towering. Teach children how and when to call 9-1-1. Ask an out-of-state relative or friend to serve as the "family contact". This is the time to locate a safe place in the home and tell fa mily members to watch the sky and listen to the radio or television for more inf ormation. or hail three-fourths of an inch in diameter or greater) is lik ely to develop. turn on a battery-operated radio or televi sion. and victims may need to be quarantined. Dark. some medical faci lities may not receive victims for fear of contaminating the hospital population . It is important to learn and recognize the danger signs and to plan ahead. Make sure everyone kno ws the name. Tornadoes are spawned by thunderstorms and flash flood ing can occur with thunderstorms. BEFORE Learn the thunderstorm danger signs. At this point. it's often easier to call long distance. and which ra dio station to tune for emergency information. Have disaster supplies on hand Flashlight with extra batteries Portable. DURING If indoors: Secure outdoor objects such as lawn furniture that could blow away or cause dama . Af ter a disaster. police. In case family members are separated fr om one another during a thunderstorm (a real possibility during the day when adu lts are at work and children are at school). or threatening clouds. address. fire department. battery-operated radio and extra batteries First aid kit and manual Emergency food and water Nonelectric can opener Essential medicines Cash and credit cards Sturdy shoes Check for hazards in the yard. A person affected by a biological agent r equires the immediate attention of professional medical personnel. have a plan for getting back togeth er. Also. electricity and water. and wait for the "all clear" by the authorities. A severe thunderstorm warning is issued when a severe thunderstorm has been sigh ted or indicated by weather radar.

fences. Stay from rivers. fishing rods. and sinks because metal pipes can transmit electricity. get to an o pen space an squat low to the ground as quickly as possible. or other bodies of water. or lessen the damaging effects of unavoidable emergen cies. Debris and washed-out roads may make driving dangerous. lightning flashes can be seen long before the resulting thunder is heard. Important: You are in danger from lightning if you can hear thunder. tal l trees. Avoid bathtubs. If outdoors: Attempt to get into a building or car. Shutter windows securely and brace out side doors. Re port downed utility wires. Mitigation Mitigation includes any activities that prevent an emergency. Do not handle any electrical equipment or telephones because ligh tning could follow the wire. Hail can be smaller than a pea o r as large as a softball and can be very destructive to plants and crops. Stay in the car and turn on the emergency flashers until the heavy rains subside. find an area protected by low clump of trees--never stand underneath a single la rge tree in the open. Listen to a battery operated radio or television for the latest stor m information. give cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) until medical professionals arrive and take over. (If in the woods. Estimate the number of miles you are fr om a thunderstorm by counting the number of seconds between a flash of lightning and the next clap of thunder. Television sets are particularly dangerous at this time. putting you r hands on your knees. Hail Hail is produced by many strong thunderstorms. Avoid flooded roadways. Divide this number by five. If the victim is burned.and people with disabilities. drop to your knees and bend forward. provide first aid and call emergency medical assistance immediately. lakes. AFTER Check for injuries. Take light objects inside. will help reduce the impact of severe thunderstorms . telephone lines. reduce the chance of an emergency happening. Estimating the Distance from a Thunderstorm Because light travels much faster than sound. If the strike cause the victim's hear t and breathing to stop. If in a car: Pull safely onto the shoulder of the road away from any trees that could fall on the vehicle. Do not lie flat on the ground. Pets and livestock are particularly vulnerabl e to hail. or power lines. water faucets. tractors. Look for burns whe re lightning entered and exited the body. bicycles.) Be aware of the potential for flooding in low-lying areas . Drive only if necessary. Stay away from natural lightni ng rods such as golf clubs. or camping equipme nt. If you are isolated in a level field or prairie and you feel your hair stand on end (which indicates that lightning is about to strike). kneel or crouch with hands on knees. Remember to help your neighbors who may requ ire special assistance--infants. elderly people. so bring animals into a shelter. such as installing lightnin g rods to carry the electrical charge of lightning bolts safely to the ground or purchasing flood insurance. In a h ailstorm. Investing in preventive mitigation steps now. If no structure is available. Knowing how far away a storm is does not mean that you're in danger only when the storm is overhead.ge or injury. take cover immediately. A person who has been struck by lightning does not carry an electrical charge that can shock other people. Avoid tall structures such as towers.

you have only a short amount of time to make life-or-d eath decisions. and phone number of the contact person. lie in ditch or low-lying area a safe distance away from the unit . Discuss with family members the difference between a "tornado watch " and a "tornado warning. Mobile Homes Mobile homes are particularly vulnerable. address. and practice having everyone in the family go there in response to a tor nado threat. take shelter in a building with a strong foundation. contact your local emergenc y management office. A tornado warning is is issued when a tornado has been sighted or indicated by r adar. turn o n a battery-operated radio and wait for further instructions. Designate an area in the home as a s helter. This is time to remind family members where the safest places within your home are located. Tornado Danger Signs Learn these tornado danger signs: Large hail: Tornadoes are spawned from powerful thunderstorms and the most power ful thunderstorms produce large hail. In case family members are separated fr om one another during a tornado (a real possibility during the day when adults a re at work and children are at school). Advance planning and quick response are the keys to surviving a tornado. Have disaster supplies on hand. Tornadoes frequently emerge from near the hail-producing portion of the storm. FACTSHEET: TORNADOES When a tornado is coming. Contact your local emergency management office or Amer ican Red Cross chapter for more information on tornadoes. Cloud of debris: An approaching cloud of debris can mark the location of a torna do even if a funnel is not visible. Calm before the storm: Before a tornado hi ts. battery-operated radio and extra batteries First aid kit and manual Emergency food and water Nonelectric can opener Essential medicines Cash and credit cards Sturdy shoes Develop an emergency communication plan. Flashlight and extra batteries Portable. have a plan for getting back together. Make sure everyone in the f amily knows the name. For more information on mitigation.If shelter is not available. Funnel cloud: A visible rotating extension of the cloud base is a sign that a to . and listen to the radio or television for further developments.in the future. the wind may die down and the air may become very still. it's often easier to call long distance. A mobile home can overturn very easily even if precautions have been taken to tie down the unit. When a tornado warni ng is issued. Tornado Watches and Warnings A tornado watch is issued by the National Weather Service when weather condition s are such that tornadoes are likely to develop. The danger is very serious and everyone should go to a safe place. A sk an out-of-state relative or friend to serve as the "family contact." After a disaster. BEFORE Conduct tornado drills each tornado season.

Stay away from corners because they tend to attract debris. or gaso line or other flammable liquids immediately. If there is no time to get indoors. Stay out of damaged buildings. Be aware of the potential for flooding. Be aware of the potential for flooding. get out and find shelter elsewhere. get out of the car and lie in a ditch or low-lying area away fr om the vehicle. Get under a piece of sturdy furniture such as a workbench or heavy table o r desk and hold on to it. Use arms to protect head and nec k. Calm behind the storm: Tornadoes generally occur near the trailing edge of a thu nderstorm. If you turn off the gas for any reason. or shopping m alls. I f there is no basement. Use arms to protect head and neck. cafeterias. bleaches.rnado may develop. or the lowest level of the building. open a window and quickly leave the building. If at work or school: Go to the basement or to an inside hallway at the lowest level. If in a car: Never try to outdrive a tornado in a car or truck. Turn off the gas at the outside main va lve if you can and call the gas company from a neighbor's home. Turn on radio or television to get the latest emergency information. call an electrician first for advice. If you have to step in water to get to the fuse box or circuit breaker. Return home only when authorities say it is safe. lie in a ditch or low-lying area or crouch near a strong bui lding. Look for e lectrical system damage--If you see sparks or broken or frayed wires. the elderly. Go to the cente r of the room. Use the t elephone only for emergency calls. storm cellar. A tornado is evident when one or more of the clouds turns gr eenish (a phenomenon caused by hail) and a dark funnel descends. such as a bathroom or closet. DURING If at home: Go at once to the basement. Get out o f the car immediately and take shelter in a nearby building. Don't try to move the seriously injured unless they are in immediate danger of further injury . Use arms to protect head and neck. It is not uncommon to see clear. it must be turned back on by a professional. get inside a building. AFTER Help injured or trapped persons. sunlit skies behind a tornado. Clean up spilled medicines. turn off the electricity at the main fuse box or circuit b reaker. Avoid places wit h wide-span roofs such as auditoriums. INSPECTING UTILITIES IN A DAMAGED HOME Check for gas leaks--If you smell gas or hear a blowing or hissing noise. Get away from the windows. large hallways. and people with disabilities. Call for help. Leave the buildings if you smell g as or chemical fumes. go to an inner hallway or a smaller inner room without w indows. Roaring noise: The high winds of a tornado can cause a roar that is often compar ed with the sound of a freight train. Take pictures of the damage--both to the house and its con tents--for insurance purposes. If outdoors: If possible. If in a mobile home. or if you smell hot insulation. Check for sewage and water lines damage-- . Get under a piece of sturdy furniture such as a workbench or heavy table or desk and hold on to it. Remember to help your neighbors who may require s pecial assistance--infants. Tornadoes can change directi on quickly and can lift up a car or truck and toss it through the air. Give first aid when appropriate. If shelter is not available or there is no t ime to get indoors.

Make evacuation plans. .If you suspect sewage lines are damaged. If you can see the wave you are too close to escape it. and phone number of the contact person." After a disaster. A noticeable rapid rise or fall in coastal waters is also a sign that a tsunami is approaching. and water. will help reduce the impact of tornadoes in the future. Return home only after t he authorities advise it is safe to do so. Climb to higher ground. After an earthquake or other natural disaster. In case family members are separated fr om one another during a tsunami (a real possibility during the day when adults a re at work and children are at school). St ay away from the beach. reduce the chance of an emergency happening. A tsunami warning is issued when authorities are certain that a tsunami threat exists. have a plan for getting back together. Pick an inland location that is eleva ted. A sk an out-of-state relative or friend to serve as the "family contact. often it's easier to call long distance. avoid using toilets and call a plumber. Make sure all family members know how to re spond to a tsunami. If water pipes are damaged. Flashlight and extra batteries Portable. people liv ing along the coast should consider an earthquake or a sizable ground rumbling a s a warning signal. so pick more than one evacuation route. and be ready to evacuate if asked to do so. Investing in preventive mitigation steps now. MITIGATION Mitigation includes any activities that prevent an emergency. Do not assume that one wave means that the danger over. address. and which radio station to listen for official information. police or fire department. Teach family membe rs how and when to turn off gas. Teach children how and when to call 9-1-1. Contact your local emer gency management office or American Red Cross chapter for more information on ts unamis. contact the water company and avoid using water fr om the tap. or lessen the damaging effects of unavoidable emergen cies. The next wave may be large r than the first one. Never go down to the beach to watch a tsunami come in. battery-operated radio and extra batteries First aid kit and manual Emergency food and water Nonelectric can opener Essential medicines Cash and credit cards Sturdy shoes Develop an emergency communication plan. Because tsunamis can be caused by an underwater disturbance or an earthquake. Be familiar with the tsunami warning signs. FACT SHEET: TSUNAMIS A tsunami is a series of waves that may be dangerous and destructive. Know the height of your street above sea level and the distance of your street from the coast. If you hear an official tsunami warning or detect signs of a tsunami. You can obtain safe water by melting ice cubes. DURING Listen to a radio or television to get the latest emergency information. A tsunami is a series of waves. For more information on mitigation. Make sure everyone knows th e name. evacuate at once. such as checking local buil ding codes and ordinances about wind-resistant designs and strengthening unreinf orced masonry. electricity. Have disaster supplies on hand. Evacuation orders may be based on these numbers. Stay out of the area. roads in and out of the vic inity may be blocked. When you hear a tsunami warning. BEFORE Find out if your home is in a danger area. contact your local emergency management office. move at once to higher ground and stay there until local authorities say it is safe to return home.

If water pipes are damaged. Shovel mud while it is still mo ist to give walls and floors an opportunity to dry. or lessen the damaging effects of unavoidable emergen cies. Check for electrical shorts and live wires. elderly people. contact the water company and avoid the water from the tap. Hel p injured or trapped persons. C all for help. active or dormant. airborne a sh. Look for e lectrical system damage--If you see sparks or broken or frayed wires. Enter your home with c aution. be ready to evacuate at a moment's notice. Investing in preventive mitigation steps now. Return home only when authorities say it is safe." After a disaster. and phone number of the contact person. INSPECTING UTILITIES IN A DAMAGED HOME Check for gas leaks--If you smell gas or hear a blowing or hissing noise. have a plan for getting back together. Do not move ser iously injured persons unless they are in immediate danger of further injury. turn off the electricity at the main fuse box or circuit b reaker. Develop an emergency communicat ion plan. In case family members are separated from one another during a volcani c eruption (a real possibility during the day when adults are at work and childr en are at school). it's often easier to call long distance. it must be turned back on by a professional. Remember to help your neighbors who may require special assistance --infants. reduce the chance of an emergency happening. such as checking local buil ding codes and ordinances about wind-resistant designs and strengthening unreinf orced masonry. avoid using toilets and call a plumber. If you have to step in water to get to the fuse box or circuit breaker. BEFORE Learn about your community warning systems. Turn off the gas at the outside main va lve if you can and call the gas company from a neighbor's home. Stay out of damaged bui ldings. Check for sewage and water lines damage-If you suspect sewage lines are damaged. Be prepared for these disasters that can be spawned by volcanoes. Earthquakes Flash floods Landslides and mudflows Thunderstorms Tsunamis Make evacuation plans. contact your local emergency management office. Use a flashlight when entering damaged buildings. FACT SHEET: VOLCANOES Volcanic eruptions can hurl hot rocks for at least 20 miles. Do not use appliances or lights until an electrician has checked the electrical system. Ask an out-of-state re lative or friend to serve as the "family contact. Make sure everyone knows the name. Have disaster supplies on hand. If you live near a known vol cano. You can obtain safe water by melting ice cubes. Fresh food that has come in contact with flood waters may be co ntaminated and should be thrown out. and people with disabilities. open a window and quickly leave the building. address. . MITIGATION Mitigation includes any activities that prevent an emergency.AFTER Stay tuned to a battery-operated radio for the latest emergency information. Floods. For more information on mitigation. P lan a route out and have a backup route in mind. will help reduce the impact of tornadoes in the future. You want to get to high ground away from the eruption. call an electrician first for advice. Check food supplies and test drinking water. Open windows and doors to help dry the building. Give first aid where appropriate. If you turn off the gas for any reason. or if you smell hot insulation. or noxious fumes can spread 100 miles or more. Have tap water tested by the local health department.

If caught indoors: Close all windows. The power of the mudf low can destroy a bridge very quickly. and people with disabilities. Avoid low-lying area where poisonous gases can collect and flash floods can be most dangerous. A number of victims of the Mount St. Helens volcano died from inhaling ash.Flashlight and extra batteries Portable. A lateral blast of a volcano can travel many miles from the mountain. Protect yourself: Wear long sleeved shirts and pants. beware of mudflows. Wear goggles to protect your eyes. Stay safe. Bring animals and livestock into closed shelters. They are most dangerous close to stream channe ls. Evacuation Although it may seem safe to stay at home and wait out an eruption. Ashfall is very heavy and can cause buildin gs to collapse. roll into a ball to protect head. Stay away from volcanic ashfall. If trapped outdoors: Seek shelter indoors. first look upstream. DURING Follow the evacuation order issued by authorities. AFTER Listen to a battery-powered radio or television for the latest emergency informa tion. battery-operated radio and extra batteries First aid kit and manual Emergency food and water Nonelectric can opener Essential medicinesCash and credit cards Sturdy shoes Get a pair of goggles and a throw-away breathing mask for each member of the hou sehold. Remember to help your neighbors who may require special assistan ce--infants. Follow authorities' instructions and leave the a rea before the disaster begins. Keep car or truck engines off . Stay out of the area. Put all machinery inside a garage or barn . Mudflows occur when rain falls through ash-carrying clouds or when rive rs are damed during an eruption. Stay i ndoors until local health officials advise it is safe to go outside. Mudflows Mudflows are powerful "rivers" of mud that can move faster than people can walk or run. Use goggles to protect eyes. The rock debris from a volcano can break windows and set buildings on fire. elderly people. Trying to watch an erupting volcano is a deadly idea. doors. Clear roofs of ashfall. and dampers. If a mudflow is approachi ng or moving beneath the bridge. When outside: Cover your mouth and nose. doing so cou ld be very dangerous. Avoid areas downwind of the v olcano. If you have a respiratory ailment. do not cross the bridge. If caught in a rockfall. Use a dust-mask or hold a damp cloth over face to help breathing. When you approach a bridge. Keep skin covered to avoid irritation or burns. Avoid drivi ng in heavy ashfall. If caught near a stream. avoid contact with any amount of ash. Driving will stir up more ash that can clog engines and sta ll vehicles. . Contact your local emergency management office or American Red Cross cha pter for more information on volcanoes.

Stone walls can act as heat shields and deflect flames. Create a safety zone to separate the home from combustible plants and vegetation . it's often easier to call long distance. and debris f rom rain gutters. Store combustible or flammable materials in approved safety co ntainers and keep them away from the house. Obtain local building codes and we ed abatement ordinances for structures built near wooded areas. rock. Remove all dead limbs. needles. Ask an out-of-state relative or friend to serve as the "family contact. Place valuables that will not be damaged by water in a pool o r pond. or retrofitting structures. Lawn and poolside furniture. Never leave a fire--even a cigarette--burning unattented. Keep trees adjacent to buildings f ree of dead or dying wood and moss. leave sprinklers on roofs and anything that might be damaged by fire. Turn on a light in each room for visibili ty in heavy smoke. if possible. Prune all branches aroun d the residence to a height of 8 to 10 feet. and phone number of the contact person. In case family members are separated fr om one another during a wildland fire (a real possibility during the day when ad ults are at work and children are at school). BEFORE Learn and teach safe fire practices. concrete block. Build fires away from nearby trees or bushe s. Take action to protect you r home. Make sure everyone kn ows the name. Plan severa l routes in case the fire blocks escape route. Always have a way to extinguish the fire quickly and completely. Keep all tree and shrub limb s trimmed so they don't come in contact with the wires. tempered safety glass in large windows and sliding glass doors. address. Remove combustible items from around the house. battery-operated radio and extra batteries First aid kit and manual Emergency food and water Nonelectric can opener Essential medicines Cash and credit cards Sturdy shoes Develop an emergency communication plan. Close all doors and windows inside your home to prevent draft. Be ready to evacuate all family members and pets when fire nears or when instructed to do so by local officials. Tarp coverings. Use fire-resista nt materials when building. Use tile. Fire-Resistant Building Materials Avoid using wooden shakes and shingles for a roof. metal sidi ng. Take down flammable drapes and curtains and close al l venetian blinds or noncombustible window coverings. Advance planning and knowing h ow to protect buildings in these areas can lessen the devastation of a wildland fire. Avoid open burni ng completely. Contact your local emergency management office or American Red Cross chapter for more inform ation on wildland fires. Use only thi ck. have a plan for getting back toget her. Check for fire hazards around home. DURING Turn on a battery-operated radio to get the latest emergency information. Install smoke detectors on ever y level of your home and near sleeping areas. Install electrical lines underground. renovating. Have disaster supplies on hand Flashlight with extra batteries Portable.FACT SHEET: WILDLAND FIRES The threat of wildland fires for people living near wildland areas or using recr eational facilities in wilderness areas is real. Make evacuation plans. Swimming pools and pat ios can be a safety zone. Keep chimney clean. stucco. Close gas valves and turn off all pilot lights." A fter a disaster. Firewood. Umbrellas . or other fire-resistant materials. and especially during dry season. brick. . If hoses and adequate water are available.

Store a supply of high energy "munchies" and several bottles of water. or lessen the damaging effects of unavoidable emergen cies. Check the attic for hidden burning sparks. Make sure the tires have adequate tread. For more information on mitigation. c ontact your local emergency management office. Wear layers of loose-fitting. Carry food and water. If you must go out during a winter storm. All-weather radials are usually adequate for most winter conditions. if possibl e.AFTER Take care when re-entering a burned wildland area. Hot spots can flare up witho ut warning. Investing in preventive mitigation steps now such as installing a spark a rrestor on your chimney. re-check for smoke and s parks throughout the home. reduce the chance of an emergency happening. Lie flat and cover body with wet clothing or soil. some juris dictions require that to drive on their roads. use public transportation.FACT SHEET: WINTER DRIVING The leading cause of death during winter storms is transportation accidents. look for shelter in a cleared area or among a bed of rocks. Bre athe the air close to the ground through a wet cloth to avoid scorching lungs or inhaling smoke. lightweight clothing. Pre paring your vehicle for the winter season and knowing how to react if stranded o r lost on the road are the keys to safe winter driving. Dress warmly. layered. Listen to the radio or call the state highway patro l for the latest road conditions. replace existing oil with a winter grade oil or the SAE 10w/30 weight variety) Install good winter tires. Cover head and upper body with wet clothing. MITIGATION Mitigation includes any activities that prevent an emergency. and using only fire resistant materials on the exterior of your home. Crouch in a pond or river. Contact your local emergency management office or American Red Cross cha pter for more information on winter driving. Plan long trips carefully. If Trapped in a Wildland Fire You cannot outrun a fire. will help reduce th e impact of wildland fires in the future. If water is not around. vehicles must be equipped with ch ains or snow tires with studs. Maintain at least a half tank of gas during the winter season . Winter Car Kit . BEFORE Have a mechanic check the following items on your car: Battery Antifreeze Wipers and windshield washer fluid Ignition system Thermostat Lights Flashing hazard lights Exhaust system Heater Brakes Defroster Oil level (if necessary. For several hours afterward. Check the roof immediately and extinguish any sparks or embers. take at least one other person. Keep a windshield scraper and small broom for ice and snow removal. However. cleaning roof surfaces and gutters regularly. FEMA . Always travel during daylight and.

Do minor exercises to keep up circ ulation. Be aware of symptoms of dehydration. A blizzard warning means that large amounts of falling or blowing snow and susta . Also. Watch for signs of frostbite and hypothermia. Beware of carbon monoxide poisoning. turn on the car's dome lig ht when the car is running. Run the heater when the car is running. Turn on the car's engine for about 10 minutes each hour. screwdriver) Booster cables Set of tire chains or traction mats Cards. maps. Clap hands and move arms and legs occasionally. You may become disoriented and lost is blowing and drifting snow. socks. and puzzles Brightly colored cloth to use as a flag Canned fruit and nuts Nonelectric can opener Bottled water DURING IF TRAPPED IN CAR DURING A BLIZZARD Stay in the car. huddle t ogether. Keep the exhaus t pipe clear of snow. Try not to stay in one position for too long. Cold weather puts an added strain on the heart. Do not leave the car to search for assistance unless help is vi sible within 100 yards. wrench.Keep these items in your car: Flashlights with extra batteries First aid kit with pocket knife Necessary medications Several blankets Sleeping bags Extra newspapers for insulation Plastic bags (for sanitation) Matches Extra set of mittens. A strong wind combined with a temperatu re of just below freezing can have the same effect as a still air temperature ab out 35 degrees colder. A winter storm warning indicates that severe winter weather conditions are defin itely on the way. take turns sleeping. Avoi d overexertion. Occasiona lly run engine to keep warm. and a wool cap Rain gear and extra clothes Small sack of sand for generating traction under wheels Small shovel Small tools (pliers. Winter Storm Watches and Warnings A winter storm watch indicates that severe winter weather may affect your area. Wind Chill "Wind chill" is a calculation of how cold it feels outside when the effects of t emperature and wind speed are combined. Displa y a trouble sign. games. For warmth. Unaccustomed exercise such as s hoveling snow or pushing a car can bring on a heart attack or make other medical conditions worse. Hang a brightly colored cloth on the radio antenna and raise the hood. and even the removable car mats for added insulation. and open a downwind window slightly for ventilation. If more than one person is in the car. Use newspapers.

Use your won body heat to help. it's often easier to call long distance. wood. Make sure that all fam ily members know how to respond after a severe winter storm. Let faucets drip a little to avoid freezing. Fireplace with ample supply of wood Small. slow speech. Have disaster supplies on hand. regular fuel sour ces may be cut off. First aid kit One-week supply of food (include items that do not require refrigeration or cooking in case the power is shut off) Nonelectric can opener One-week supply of essential prescription medications. Frostbite and Hypothermia Frostbite is a severe reaction to cold exposure that can permanently damage its victims. begin warming the person slowly and s eek immediate medical assistance. In case family members are separated from one another during a winter storm (a r eal possibility during the day when adults are at work and children are at schoo l).ined winds of at least 35 miles per hour are expected for several hours. battery-operated radio and extra batteries. A major winter storm can be lethal.) Install and c heck smoke detectors. frequent stumbling. Install sto rm windows or cover windows with plastic from the inside. Have safe emergency he ating equipment available. Teach children how . or camp stov e with fuel Portable space heaters or kerosene heaters (See Kerosene Heaters. Hypothermia is a condition brought on when the body temperature drops to less th an 55 degrees Fahrenheit. Contact your local emergency management office or American Red Cross chapter for more information on winter storms. address. Wrap pipes in insul ation or layers of old newspapers. Make sure everyone knows t he name. Caffeine. Never give a f rostbite or hypothermia victim something with caffeine in it (like coffee or tea ) or alcohol. Pu t person in dry clothing and wrap their entire body in a blanket. Insulate walls and attic. Preparing for cold weather conditions and responding to th em effectively can reduce the dangers caused by winter storms. Flashlight and extra batteries Portable. Caulk and weather-strip doors and windows. can slow the h eart and also hasten the ill effects of cold body temperatures. Know how to shut off wat er valves. in case the power goes out. or nose and ear lobes are symptoms of frostbite. Make sure you have sufficient heating fuel. If frostbite or hypothermia is suspected. drowsiness. A loss of feeling and a white or pale appearance in fingers." After a disaster. Keep pipes from freezing. Extra blankets and sleeping bags Fire extinguisher (A-B-C type) Develop an emergency communication plan. have a plan for getting back together. toes. Ask an out-of-state relative or friend to serve as the "family contact. coal. Alcohol. a depressant. Warm the person's trunk first. can cause the heart to beat faster and has ten the effects the cold has on the body. Cover the newspapers with plastic to keep out moisture. well-vented. a stimulant. Symptoms of hypothermia include uncontrollable shiver ing. BEFORE Be familiar with winter storm warning messages. memory lapses. and phone number of the contact person. Winterize your home. Service snow removal equipment a nd have rock salt on hand to melt ice on walkways and kitty litter to generate t emporary traction. Arms and legs should be warmed last because stimulation of the limbs can drive cold blood toward the heart and lead to heart failure. and exhaustion.

Outer garments should be tightly woven and wate r repellant. IF OUTDOORS Dress warmly. Unaccustomed exercise such as shoveling snow or pushing a car can bring on a heart attack or make other medica l conditions worse. Conserve fuel. If you go out to shovel snow. drowsiness. elderly people . Frostbite and Hypothermia Frostbite is a severe reaction to cold exposure that can permanently damage its victims. A blizzard warning means that large amounts of falling or blo wing snow and sustained winds of at least 35 miles per hour are expected for sev eral hours. Wind Chill "Wind chill" is a calculation of how cold it feels outside when the effects of t emperature and wind speed are combined. DURING IF INDOORS Stay indoors and dress warmly. or nose and ear lobes are symptoms of frostbite. Cold weather puts an added strain on the heart. frequent stumbling. remove any insulation or layers of newspapers and wrap pipes in rags. Layers can be removed to prevent perspiration and chill. Try not to speak unless absolutely necessary. Change wet clothing frequently to prevent a loss of body heat. Warm the person's trunk first. Remember to help your neighbors who may require special assistance--infants. Wet cl othing loses all of its insulating value and transmits heat rapidly.and when to call 9-1-1. Keep dry. L isten to the radio or television to get the latest information. toes. A winter storm warning indicates that severe winter weather conditions are defi nitely on the way. police. Watch for signs of fro stbite and hypothermia. Hypothermia is a condition brought on when the body temperature drops to less th an 55 degrees Fahrenheit. Close off unused rooms. slow speech. Symptoms of hypothermia include uncontrollable shiver ing. begin warming the person slowly and s eek immediate medical assistance. Cover your mouth. starting where they w ere most exposed to the cold (or where the cold was most likely to penetrate). Comp letely open all faucets and pour hot water over the pipes. Kerosene Heaters Check with your local fire department on the legality of using kerosene heaters in your community. Be aware of symptoms of dehydration. Use your own . A strong wind combined with a temperatu re of just below freezing can have the same effect as a still air temperature ab out 35 degrees colder. layered. Stretch before you go out. If the pipes fr eeze. Use only the correct fuel for your unit and follow the manuf acturer's instructions. or fire department. Prote ct your lungs from extremely cold air by covering your mouth when outdoors. memory lapses. and which radio station to tune to for emergency information. Refuel outdoors only. Also take frequent breaks. Avoid overexertion. Keep your ke rosene heater at least 3 feet away from furniture and other flammable objects. and exhaustion. light-weight clothing. Mittens are warmer than gloves because fingers generate warmth whe n they touch each other. Lower the thermostat to 65 degrees during the day and 55 degrees at night. If frostbite or hypothermia is suspected. and people with disabilities. and only when cool. A loss of feeling and a white or pale appearance in fingers. do a few stretching exe rcises to warm up your body. Wear loose-fitting. Winter Storm Watches and Warnings A winter storm watch indicates that severe winter weather may affect your area.

and stir. Emergency Food and Water Supplies If an earthquake. can cause the heart to beat faster and hasten the effects the cold has on the body. You will need additional water for food preparation and h ygiene. Drink the amount you need t oday. By taking a little time now to store emergency food and water suppli es. to prevent the growth of microorganisms. Arms and legs should be warmed last because stimulation of the limbs can drive cold blood toward the heart and lead to heart failure. remember: Never ration water. Investing in preventive mitigation steps now such as purchasing a flood i nsurance policy and installing storm windows will help reduce the impact of wint er storms in the future. and try to find more for tomorrow. or e ven weeks. Hidden Water Sources in Your Home If a disaster catches you without a stored supply of clean water. you might not have access to food. but some water beds contain toxic chemicals that are not fully removed by many purifiers.Water beds hold up to 400 gallons. fiberglass or enam el-lined metal containers. Some contain ers warn. are best. For more information on mitigation. can slow the heart and also hasten the ill effects of cold body temperatures. Children." You can disregard these warnings if the label states sodium hypochlorite is the only active ingredient and if you use only th e small quantities in these instructions. you can use water in the reservoir tank of your toilet (not the bowl). WATER: THE ABSOLUTE NECESSITY Stocking water reserves and learning how to purify contaminated water should be among your top priorities in preparing for an emergency.This brochure was developed by the Fe deral Emergency Management Agency's Community and Family Preparedness Programs w hich provides information to help families prepare for all types of disasters. Seal your water containers tightly. reduce the chance of an emergency happening. Store a total of at least one gallon per person. "Not For Personal Use. in your plumbing and in ice cubes. Sound plastic conta iners. water and electricity for days. or lessen the damaging effects of unavoidable emergen cies. If your suppl ies begin to run low. such as chlorine bleach. Pu t person in dry clothing and wrap their entire body in a blanket. diet and climate . If you designate a water bed in your home as an emergency resource. such as soft drink bottles. because tiny amounts may remain in the container's pores. depending upon age. activity. a depressant. physical condition. Never give a frostbite or hypothermia victim something with caffeine in it (like coffee or tea) or alcohol.body heat to help. Never use a container that has held toxic substances . Use liquid bleach that contains 5.25 percent sodium hypochlorite and no soap. Alcohol. You can also purchase food-grade p lastic buckets or drums. contact your local emergency management office. A normally active person needs to drink at least two quarts of water each day . drain it yearly . You should store at le ast a two-week supply of water for each member of your family. treat it with a preservative . dark place. How to Store Emergency Water Supplies You can store your water in thoroughly washed plastic. Hot environments can double that amount. nursing mothers and ill p eople will need more. hurricane. winter storm or other disaster ever strikes your co mmunity. Before storing your water. per day. Add four drops of bleach per quart of water (or two scant teaspoons per 10 gallo ns). MITIGATION Mitigation includes any activities that prevent an emergency. a stimulant. you can provide for your entire family. You can minimize the amount of water y our body needs by reducing activity and staying cool. glass. but pur ify it first (described later). label them and store them in a cool. you can use wa ter in your hot-water tank. As a last resort . Everyone's needs will differ. Caffeine.

let any suspended particles set tle to the bottom. food preparation or hygiene. Distillati on will remove microbes. Filtering will also remove radio active fallout. Purification tablets release chlorine or iodine. rivers and other moving bodi es of water Ponds and lakes Natural springs Avoid water with floating material. None are perfect. Three Easy Ways to Purify Water In addition to having a bad odor and taste. To use the water in your pipes. called radioactive fallout. keeping in mind that some water will evaporate. contaminated water can contain micro organisms that cause diseases such as dysentery. salts.) . or strain them through layers of paper towel or clean cloth.) Add two drops of bleach per quart of water (four drops if the water is cloudy). More Rigorous Purification Methods While the three methods described above will remove only microbes from water. Often the best solution is a combination of methods. If you do not have a dropper. most other chemicals and radioactive fallout.Emergency Outdoor Water Sources If you need to seek water outside your home. (See page 1 fo r bleach safety information. cholera. be sure the electricity or gas is off. add another dose and let sta nd another 15 minutes. Place bleach in the spo on and carefully tip it. But pur ify the water before drinking it. use a spoon and a square-ended strip of paper or t hin cloth about 1/4 inch by 2 inches. and open th e drain at the bottom of the tank. Boiling is the safest method of purifying water. Use saltwater only if you distill it first (described la ter). an odor or dark color. Boiled water will taste better if you put oxygen back into it by pouring it back and forth between two containers. Follow the package dire ctions. but it can be contamin ated by radioactive fallout. They are inexpensive and avail able at most sporting goods stores and some drugstores. You should therefore purify all water of uncertain purity before using it for drinking. salts. If the water does not taste and smell of chlorine at that point.To use the water in your hot-water tank. Chlorination uses liquid chlorine bleach to kill microorganisms. Drops the size of those from a medicine dropper will d rip off the end of the strip. heavy metals. There are many ways to purify water. you can use these sources. These measures will kill mi crobes but will not remove other contaminants such as heavy metals. Three easy purification methods are outlined below. Before purifying. Put the strip in the spoon with an end ha nging down about 1/2 inch below the scoop of the spoon. Start the water flowing by turning off the w ater intake valve and turning on a hot-water faucet. let air into the plumbing by turning on the hig hest faucet in your house and draining the water from the lowest one. Bring water to a rolling boil for 10 minutes. th e following two purification methods will remove other contaminants. Do not turn on the gas or electricity when the tank is empty. Usually one tablet is enough for one quart of water.Rainwater Streams. Do you know the location of your incoming wa ter valve? You'll need to shut if off to stop contaminated water from entering your home if you hear reports of broken water or sewage lines. most other chemicals. This will also improve the taste of stored water. typhoid and hepatitis. Double the dose f or cloudy water. and radioact ive dust and dirt. It is unsafe to drink water that contains radioact ive fallout.and refill it with fresh water containing two ounces of bleach per 120 gallons. stir and let stand for 30 minutes. (Water itself cannot become radioactive. Let the water c ool before drinking.

Distillation involves boiling water and then collecting the vapor that condenses back to water. A two-week sup ply can relieve a great deal of inconvenience and uncertainty until services are . and keep them in tight containers. Food. To distill. dry mixes and other staples on your cupboard shelve s. punch holes in the bottom of a large bucket. and put a layer of gravel in the bucket about 1-1/2 inches high. familiar foods are important. fill bottles with water. Then. dried fruits and nuts into screw-top jars or air-tight cans to protect them from pests. and a flash flood forces you to evacuate your home--fast. There' s no time to gather food from the kitchen. Y ou can use the canned foods. Cover the gravel with a towel cut in a circle slightly larger than the bucket. Short-Term Food Supplies Even though it is unlikely that an emergency would cut off your food supply for two weeks. except for children and pregnant women. Storage Tips Keep food in the driest and coolest spot in the house--a dark area if possible. Keep food covered at all times. grab a first -aid kit from the closet and snatch a flashlight and a portable radio from the b edroom.m. and don 't stock salty foods. Tie a cup to the handle on the pot 's lid so that the cup will hang right-side-up when the lid is upside-down (make sure the cup is not dangling into the water) and boil the water for 20 minutes. To make a fallout filter. try to avoid foods that are high in fat and protein. You need to have these items packed and ready in one place before disas ter hits. Also. Try to eat salt-free cr ackers. Empty opened packages of sugar. nutritious and ready-to-eat. Inspe ct all food containers for signs of spoilage before use. The water that drips from the lid into the cup is distilled. unlike wate r. place the filter over a large container. Following are recommended short-term and long-term food storage plans. They can lift morale and give a feel ing of security in time of stress. In fact. Cover soil with a towel . The condensed vapor will not include salt and other impurities. since they will make you thirsty. In addition. Pack at least a three-day supply of food and water. you should prepare a supply that will last that long. Open food boxes or cans carefully so that you ca n close them tightly after each use. canned foods won't require cooking. disinfect the filtered water using one of the methods described above. fill a pot halfway with water. and store it in a handy place. healthy people can survive on half their usual food inta ke for an extended period and without any food for many days. flashlights and extra batteries Shovel and other useful tools Money and matches in a waterproof container Fire extinguisher Blanket and extra clothing Infant and small children's needs (if appropriate) FOOD: PREPARING AN EMERGENCY SOTCKPILE If activity is reduced. C hange the soil in your filter after every 50 quarts of water. You don't need to go out and buy unfamiliar foods to prepare an emergency food supply. Family Disaster Supply Kit It's 2:00 a. and pour contaminated water through. If your water supply is limited. Wrap cookies and crackers in plastic bags. Choose foods that are easy to carry. may be rationed safely. whole grain cereals and canned foods with high liquid content. wa ter or special preparation. pack these emergency items: Medical supplies and first aid manual Hygiene supplies Portable radio.

as will babies. Long-Term Food Supplies In the unlikely event of a military attack or some other national disaster. If you heat it in the can. you could survive for years on small daily amounts of th ese staples. If necessary. corn and beans in sealed cans or plastic buckets. And don't forget nonperishable foods for your pets. Buy powdered mil k in nitrogen-packed cans. dated with ink or marker. Make sure you buy one that can grind corn. Special Considerations to Keep in Mind As you stock food. Nursing mothers may need liquid formula. beans and salt are inexpensive and have nearly unlimited she lf life. The best approach is to store large amounts of staples along with a variety of canned and dried foods. you can grind your grain by filling a large can with whole gr ain one inch deep. corn. Canned dietetic foods. Keep ing it fresh is simple. and replace t hem with fresh supplies. juices and soups may be helpful for the ill or elderly. Just rotate your supply once or twice a year. Make sure you have a can opener and disposabl e utensils.20 pounds Corn--20 pounds Iodized Salt--1 pound Soybeans--10 pounds Vitamin C**--15 grams * Buy in nitrogen-packed cans ** Rotate every two years Storage and Preparation of Food Supplies Store wheat. Bulk quantit ies of wheat. Rotate your food supply. To protect boxed foods from pest s and extend their shelf life. take into account your family's unique needs and tastes. And leave salt and vitamin C in their original packa ges. Individuals with special diets and allergies will need particular attention. Remember to compensate for the amount you eat from other sources (such as restaurants) during an averag e two-week period. Many health food stores sell hand-cranked grain mills or can tell you whe re you can get one. To avoid serious digestive problems. Your emergency food supply should be of the highest quality possible. you'll need to grind t he corn and wheat into flour and cook them. toddlers and the elderly. If these staples comprise your entire menu. Place new items at the back of the storage area and older ones in front. Try to include foods that they will enjoy and that are also high in calories and nu trition. How to Store Your Short-Term Stockpile Keep canned foods in a dry place where the temperature is fairly cool--not above 70 degrees Fahrenheit and not below freezing. The easiest way to develop a two-week stockpile is to increase the am ount of basic foods you normally keep on your shelves. Canned food can be eaten right out of the can. or a charcoal grill or camp stove outdoors only. store the boxes in tightly closed cans or metal c ontainers. in case they are unable to nurse. chafing dishes and fondue pots. before ea ting. holding the can on the ground between your feet and pounding . Foods that require no refrigeration. Inspect your reserves periodically to make sure there are no broken seals or dented containers. be sure to open the can and remove the label first.restored. Stock the following amounts per person. You may already have a two-week supply of food on hand. preparation or cooking are best. You can also heat food with candle warmers. per month: Wheat--20 pounds Powdered Milk(for babies and infants)*-. How to Cook if the Power Goes Out For emergency cooking you can use a fireplace. you may need long-term emergency food supplies. you must eat all of them togeth er to stay healthy. Use foods before they go bad. as well as boil the beans. If you are caug ht without a mill.

the more expensive your stockpile will be. Dried fruit (in metal container)..the grain with a pipe. Brightly colored cloth to use as a flag. Necessary med ications. Take in enough calories to enable yo u to do any necessary work. this will be your best form of stored meat.. Bouillon products. Corn. use perishable food and foods from t he refrigerator. Noncarbonated soft drinks . Cards. Winter Car Kit Keep these items in your car: Flashlights with extra batteries. Use within six months: Powdered milk (boxed). Salt. Soybeans . From a sporting or c amping equipment store. Include vitamin. Canne d fruit and nuts. Set of tire chains or traction mats. In a w ell filled. socks. chocolate bars and canned nuts May be stored indefinitely (in proper containers and conditions): Wheat. buy commercially packaged. Nutrition Tips In a crisis. To minimize the number of times you open the freezer door.well-insulated freezer. post a list of freezer contents on it. Peanut butter. Dry pas ta . Several blankets. Hard candy. Drink enough liquid to enable your bo dy to function properly (two quarts a day). FINALLY. Small sack of sand for generating traction under wheels. Small shovel. FIRST.Instant coffee. First aid kit with pocket knife. beg in to use non-perishable foods and staples. Rain gear and extra clothe s. Extra newspapers for insulation. fruit juices and veget ables . it will be vital that you maintain your strength. water or cooking. Rice. Powdered milk (in nitrogen-packed cans). Ready-to-eat cereals and uncooked instant cereals (in metal containers). crisp crackers (in metal container) Potatoes Use within one year: Canned condensed meat and vegetable soups. foods will usually still have ice crystals in the ir centers (meaning foods are safe to eat) for at least three days. Dry. Canned fruits. Small too ls (pliers. so buy accordi ngly. screwdriver). Shelf Life of Foods for Storage Here are some general guidelines for rotating common emergency foods. White rice. freeze-dried or air-dried foo ds. Booster cables. So remember: Eat at least one well-balanced meal each day. and a wool cap. mineral and protein supplements in your stockpile to assure adequate nutrition. Vita min C. The following is an eas y approach to long-term food storage: Buy a supply of the bulk staples listed ab ove. The more supplements you include. Sleeping bags. and puzzles. Rotate it periodically to maintain a supply of common foods t hat will not require special preparation. Baking powder . Build up your everyday stock of canned goods until you have a two-week to o ne-month surplus. wrench. THEN use the foods from the freezer. popco rn and varieties of beans are nutritious and long-lasting. Ways to Supplement Your Long-Term Stockpile The above staples offer a limited menu. Cocoa . tea. games. If the Electricity Goes Off. Plastic bags ( for sanitation) Matches. but you can supplement them with commerc ially packed air-dried or freeze-dried foods and supermarket goods. Extra set of mittens. Nonelectric can opener . Jelly . Although costly. Vegetable oils.

strikes.Bottled water. Food s torage is a necessary and practical form of insurance. C ost per serving is reasonably low. the oxygen is removed by a vacuum process an d an inert storage atmosphere is injected to retard oxidation. With Ready Reserve dehydrated foods you get choice fresh foods with even more of the moisture delicately removed to retain full flavor and nutrition and built-i n convenience as well as the storage advantages. with all of the oxygen. Traditional sun dried foods still retained fr om 20% to 30% moisture.greater variety and better quality foods through technology. they discovered that f ew things spoil if they could be dried. we all have to eat! WHAT ARE LO-MOISTURE FOODS? Preserving foods by drying them is probably as old as man. Dehydrated foods are noted for having 1) an excellent long-storage life with storage stabil ity characteristics. and ti me-saving convenience and flexibility are built-in. people on the move or people with a surplus turned to drying as the answer to maximizi ng their resources. AN INTRODUCTION TO LO-MOISTURE FOOD STORAGE The concept of a food reserve is not new. with Lo Moisture fo ods can you enjoy a variety of normal menus. Some advanced processed foods of today have gone the ancients two better. In times past. WHAT SHOULD I STORE? Some people worry about what they should store or how much. Such a res erve serves to protect against such occurrences as: food shortages. storage space and weight is greatly reduced. breakdown of food production and dis tribution. . Even though they bel . or loss of income through personal illness or injury. a nd associated color and flavor changes. This highly n utritious. unemployment. in our complex soc iety we are dependent on others to supply many of our physical needs.these foods can be adapted to your meals to provide an easy trans ition when an emergency forces you to switch to your food reserve. Today's technology and Ready Reserve Foods provide a great variety of food t hat stores in less space and in a form that will keep much longer. considering that the shelf-life is greatly ex tended. the beef jerky of the Indians. storing what you use and using what you store. The fact is. It wasn't too long ago that almost eve ry family had a pantry filled with food that could sustain them from harvest to harvest. nutrition-loss. modern processing insures high nutrition as we ll as faithful flavor and appearance for many of the things you eat everyday . . civil unrest. That common sense self-sufficiency of the pantry tradition is still val id. WHY FOOD STORAGE? Most people have various types of insurance for all kinds of emergencies. Moisture and oxygen stimulate most bacterial growth and chemical changes that ca use foods to deteriorate or spoil. S. 2) space-saving compactness and 3) they also permit variety in emergency situations. natural disa sters. From the Roman soldiers' field ration called Pulmentum (roas ted and crushed grain made to be 'rehydrated' to mush or a cake). easily usable reserve can help give the same peace of mind that a ful l pantry gave in past generations. Plus they are packed in a spec ial heavy duty double enameled can. To day we have. spices and condiments in their dry form. Finally. Dragoon. dried fruits. no matter what happens. For centuries men have benefited from dr y grains and cereals. to the "hard-tack" of the U. where. waste is eliminated. WHY LO-MOISTURE FOODS? In addition to long storage life.

WHERE SHOULD I STORE? Ready Reserve Foods high quality dehydrated foods are packaged under careful sup ervision to meet the highest technical packaging standards. While most dehydrated products stay in good condition over four. rice. The most satisfactory way to establish a food reserve is to store those foods that permit normal menus. If your storage conditions are not cool and dry. you may decide to include many Lo-Moisture Foods in your daily meals. A cardboard box tends to draw moisture from the cement like a sponge. A basement or other cool areas. A well rounded diet ca n be attained with with Ready Reserve Lo Moisture foods. six. In the times of food shortage and a ccompanying stress.ieve in the concept of food storage and desire to establish a food reserve. By including fruit. Plastic lids (included in pre-selected food supplies) are available to re-close partially full cans. the atmosph ere. wet-pack. one might. To ut ilize some recipes in a cookbook. and find out what you and your family like to eat. This special can lengthens shelf-life. learn how to use the m. Don't store directly on a cement f loor. it may be wasted. like a closet. Pain t or varnish cans to prevent rust if area is damp or humid. Rust on the outside will not damage product if the can does not rust through.R. but keep in mind that some of these kinds of foods will need co nstant rotation. combine the two fruit servings to a one cup serving. and salt are five most common items along with bean s. and with most items neither will relatively high temperatures for a s hort period of time.'s. By chec king your food supplies. is best. you can determine their condition. sugar or honey. and other emergency rations s uch as M. these amounts assure the best use of available foods. in some instances. check your stocks more often to determine their current condition. When using our Ready Reserve prepackaged supplies. 1/2 cup serving of vegetables 1 cup of protein 8 oz. the recommended year's supply for one person would be enough for two people for six months. A program some people u se is a combination of dehydrated foods. Because our storage foods are designed to provide normal meal variety. PUT AWAY AND FORGET? Even though Ready Reserve Lo-Moisture foods properly prepared for storage are mo re worry free than any other food items. HOW MUCH SHOULD I STORE? For reference. Why? Because many people have approached food storage by putting away items that have little to do with everyday meals. eight years or . protein-rich f oods.E. especially if it is dry . three people for four months or four people for three months. vegetables. we recommend periodic checking. oats and other grains. Do not store food in a garage. attic or metal storage shed where temperatures fluctuate to high degrees . and the seal are all selected to provide maximum protection to the quality foods inside. Whea t.You can increase storage lif e by providing the best storage conditions. If you are not using one of our pre-select ed units. dairy and grain products one is assured of a nutritionally balanced diet. Freezing will not harm products. they fear that if they store the wrong foods. dry milk. it will be very difficult for a family to adjust to an auste re food storage program that has little resemblance to their normal diet. we still recommend the above proportions served as a minimum daily re quirement for emergency planning. The can. of wheat or flour to provide 1/2 loaf daily bread 1/2 cup serving of fruit 1/2 cup serving of potatoes 2 cups milk Although some of our prepackaged supplies provide food for larger quantities tha n these suggestions. consider the following daily amounts. The most important counsel concerning food storage is to "store what you use and use what you stor e" .

Red Cross shelter. relative. Be sure everyone in you household is familiar with it. p ipeline leaks and explosions. Location of gas valve: _______________________ Location of wrench: _________________________ Location of main water valve: ______________________ Location of main circuit breaker: ____________________ Location of other utilities:_______________________________________________ Draw a Plan of your home On a piece of paper draw a floor plan of your home showing the location of exit windows and doors. They could use it to direct someone to a utility cutoff in an emergency. Learn First Aid (available through your local Red Cross Chapter) Persons Trained: ____________________________ Date: ___________________ Location of First Aid kit: ___________________________________ Learn how and where to shut off utilities. fires. fire. friends. airplane crashes. which seldom give war ning are equally devastating to their victims. Earthquakes. ___________________________________________________________________ Learn and discuss school disaster policy. emergency supplies. neighbour. Family Disaster Plan and Personal Survival Guide there are many different kinds of disasters. shoes. utility cutoffs. caustic fumes. This guide is primarily geared t o earthquakes. Church? Club? Other? Are medical cons ent forms complete? ___________________________________________________________ Identify where emergency supplies and equipment are located. clothing. chemical spills. First Aid Kit. food. Preparedness Activities Learn how to protect yourself from falling objects. school. equipment and supplies are needed. List alternate places to meet around home Outside: ___________________________________________ Inside: ____________________________________________ Alternate reunion locations when family is not at home. tools. small and large. relatives. floods. Share your plans with neigh bours. Periodic checks will build confidence in your reserves a nd provide comforting assurance that they will be in good condition when needed. the rotation (use and replacement) of stored foods every few ye ars is a wise practice. e. and others. park. gloves:_______ . smoke. but the planning you and your family do now will be of benefit wh en and if any disaster strikes you.g. Show it to baby-sitters and house guests when you're going to be away.more of storage. Occasional drills will assure quick r eaction and avoid injury and panic in an emergency. etc. etc. Family Meetings: At least once a year have a meeting with your family to discuss and update your plan and determine what tra ining. Fire extinguisher: ___________________________ Flashlight/Batteries: ________________________ Portable radio: ______________________________ Tools: _______________________________________ Safety equipment: ____________________________ Water: _______________________________________ Sanitation supplies: _________________________ Food: ________________________________________ Cooking equipment: ___________________________ Blankets: ____________________________________ Extra eyeglasses: ____________________________ Medication: __________________________________ First Aid Supplies: __________________________ Complete set of clothes. and co-workers.

Check emergency supplies. walker. open windows and carefully leave house. roof and chimney for damage. Do not use phone except for genuine emergencies. Take with you a First Aid kit Flashlight.After an Earthquake be prepared for after shocks If you must evacuate Special Health Needs Be prepared for after shocks Put on Heavy shoes immediately to avoid injury from stepping on glass and other debris. It is probably best to leave on ly dry pet food. shut off water at main valve. Pets In a Disaster Pets are not permitted in shelters. Remove fallen objects from top of stove. starting at the hot water heater. insulin & syringes. Clean up potentially harmful materials. Name and number of famil y doctor and dentist. Never leave cats with dogs. Locate light source if necessary. crutches. sparks or the smell of hot insulation) turn off sy stem at main circuit breaker or fuse box. Toiletrie s and personal item. Turn on radio and listen for advisories. Dentures. Wheelchairs. Include such items as: Medication. If you must evacuate prominently post a message indicating w here you can be found. . radio and batte ries Important papers and cash. If you smell gas or suspect a lea k. Fill a tub or several b uckets. Do not touch downed power lines or objects touched by downed wires. if you must leave your home. turn off main gas valve. It may be better to le ave no food than to leave food which will spoil. Special dietary needs. Chec k for fires and fire hazards. Dogs and cats adapt well to deprivations of food. Do not leave pets in a car with windows closed. Sniff for gas leaks. If water leaks are suspected. low in protein and fat. Keep a list posted of supplies/equipment that your particular family members may need to take with the m in case of evacuation. Open closets and c upboards carefully. Baby supplies. contact lens supplies. Eyeglasses. Leave only friendly dogs tog ether. Sleeping bags/blankets. Tie any vessel so that it cannot be tipped over. If damage to electrical system is suspected. garage or bathroom. Check neighbours for injury. so families should plan for their pets in th e event of a disaster such as an earthquake. you s hould very seriously consider provisions for leaving your pets behind. Food. Be prepared to evacu ate when necessary. Do not go sightseeing. Do not turn lights on or off or light matches or do anything that makes a spark. The most important task is to provide water. (frayed wires. Do Not turn it back on unt il the gas company or plumber has checked it out. Check to see that sewage lines are intact before continued flushing of toilets. Check for injuries and give first aid. Oxy gen tanks. special baby formula. even friendly dogs. Note: Do not shut off gas unless an emergency exists. They sho uld be confined to a basement. Clothes. Cooperate with public safety officials. Check house. but not water.. Special Health Needs.

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