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Q1.Explain the steps involved in a research process. Answer : Scientific research involves a systematic process that focuses on being objective and gathering a multitude of information for analysis so that the researcher can come to a conclusion. This process is used in all research and evaluation projects, regardless of the research method (scientific method of inquiry, evaluation research, or action research).
Step Step Step Step Step Step Step Step 1: 2: 3: 4: 5: 6: 7: 8: Identify the Problem Review the Literature Clarify the Problem Clearly Define Terms and Concepts Define the Population Develop the Instrumentation Plan Collect Data Analyze the Data
Q2.What are descriptive research designs? Explain the different kinds of descriptive research designs. Answer : Types of Descriptive Research Descriptive research is commonly used in social sciences to study characteristics or phenomenons. Also known as statistical research, researchers look into the frequency, average or other qualitative methods
to understand a subject being studied. It involves case studies, observation, survey and archival research.
Observational Method With the observational method (sometimes referred to as field observation) animal and human behavior is closely observed. There are two main categories of the observational method — naturalistic observation and laboratory observation. The biggest advantage of the naturalistic method of research is that researchers view participants in their natural environments. This leads to greater ecological validity than laboratory observation, proponents say. Case Study Method Case study research involves an in-depth study of an individual or group of indviduals. Case studies often lead to testable hypotheses and allow us to study rare phenomena. Case studies should not be used to determine cause and effect, and they have limited use for making accurate predictions. Survey Method
In survey method research, participants answer questions administered through interviews or questionnaires. After participants answer the questions, researchers describe the responses given. In order for the survey to be both reliable and valid it is important that the questions are constructed properly. Questions should be written so they are clear and easy to comprehend. Q3.Explain the concepts of reliability, validity and sensitivity. Answer : It is important to ensure that the instruments (for example, tests, questionnaires, etc.) used in program evaluation are as reliable, valid and sensitive as possible The reliability of an assessment tool is the extent to which it consistently and accurately measures learning. When the results of an assessment are reliable, we can be conﬁdent that repeated or equivalent assessments will provide consistent results. This puts us in a better position to make generalised statements about a student’s level of achievement, which is especially important when we are using the results of an assessment to make decisions about teaching and learning, or when we are reporting back to students and their parents or caregivers. No results, however, can be completely reliable. There is always some random variation that may affect the assessment, so educators should always be prepared to question results.
Factors which can affect reliability:
The length of the assessment – a longer assessment generally produces more reliable results. The suitability of the questions or tasks for the students being assessed. The
It is fairly obvious that a valid assessment should have a good coverage of the criteria (concepts, skills and knowledge) relevant to the purpose of the examination. The important notion. …………………………………………….-------------------------------------------------------------------.............................
Q5.The procedure of testing hypothesis requires a researcher to adopt several steps. Describe in brief all such steps. Answer : How to Conduct Hypothesis Tests
All hypothesis tests are conducted the same way. The researcher states a hypothesis to be tested, formulates an analysis plan, analyzes sample data according to the plan, and accepts or rejects the null hypothesis, The null hypothesis (denoted By H u ) is a statement about the population statistic, such as The alternate hypothesis (denoted H 1) is a claim to be tested. .
Equal hypothesis verses greater than hypothesis (right-tailed test) : : = some value some value Q6.a.There are three ways to set up a the null and alternate hypothesis.MBA Semester 3 MB 0051: “Legal Aspects of Business “ Assignment SET 1 If You Want to GET the FULL ASSIGMENT SET CALL : 09883104515 email: 2009prasenjit@gmail. 1. What are the different kinds of research reports available to the researcher? Master of Business Administration. Equal hypothesis verses not equal hypothesis (two-tailed test) : = some value : ≠some value 2.com . Equal hypothesis verses less than hypothesis (left-tailed test) : = some value : some value 3.
It is based on the principle that a rule of law which has been settled by a series of decisions generally should be binding on the court and should be followed in similar cases.We Make MBA Projects AND Assignments for ALL UNIVERSITY Website :www. “it is the uniformity of conduct of all persons under like circumstances”.in Q1. When a particular course of conduct is followed again and again. It is a generally observed course of conduct by people on a particular matter. Judicial precedents are an important source of law:Judicial precedents are another important source of law. Q2. only such decisions which lay down some new rules or principles are treated as judicial precedents. . the terms of which the courts have the authority and obligation to enforce. These rules of law are known as judicial precedents. may be defined as “those rules of human action. In simple words. (ii) Secondary sources. Answer : Many renowned jurists have attempted to give a precise definition of Law. An agreement is a less formal creation of an obligation between the two parties.a)Customary Law:Customs have played an important role in making the law and therefore are also known as customary law. Thus. in the words of Keeton. were there is a settled rule of law. (b) judicial precedents (c) stare deices(c) statutesand (d) personal law. in the broadest and most complete sense means a set Sources of Indian Law: The main sources of modern Indian Law. established by usage and regarded as legally binding by those to whom the rules are applicable. may be divided into two broad categories: (i) Primary sources and. Law. However. it is the duty of the judges to follow the same. What are the sources of Indian law? Discuss any one important source of law and justify why it is important. The elements of a contract are "offer" and "acceptance" by "competent persons" having legal capacity who exchange " A contract is a legally binding agreement reached between two parties. each of whom intends to create one or more legal obligations between or among them. ‘Customary Law’.(i) Primary sources of Indian Law:The primary sources of Indian Law are: (a) customs. which are adopted by the courts and applied as sources of law because they are generally followed by the political society as a whole or by some part of it”. What is a contract? Which test would you apply to ascertain whether an agreement is a contract? Answer : A contract is an agreement having a lawful object entered into voluntarily by two or more parties. they cannot substitute their opinions for the established rule of law. as administered by Indian courts.mbaprojectguide.
Write short notes on: a. b. activity. Q3. What is the meaning of dissolution of firm? Is it different from dissolution of partnership? case of dissolution of the partnership the firm may continue under a new agreement whereas in the case of dissolution of partnership firmthe business of the firm comes to an end. as opposed to patient" (OED online. The OED gives for "agency:" "The faculty of an agent or of acting. However. Contracts outline the terms of the relationship that should be formed between the two parties to the contract. exerting power. Agent and agency Answer : Expressed simply. active working or operation. an agent is one who acts. action. . while an agreement may simply involve one party accepting the offer from another party." and for "agent:" "Acting. A bailment is usually a contractual agreement between the bailer and the bailed that specifies the terms and purpose of the change in possession.An agreement usually lacks one or more of the essential elements that are required to be present in order to form a valid contract that will be considered legally enforceable by a court of law. the difference is that the contract’s outline is far more rigid than that of a contract. The bailer entrusts the possession of the good or property to another individual. The essential difference between an agreement and a contract is that typically an agreement will only modify a contract that is already in place but does not place an obligation on either one of the parties to provide consideration to the other party. The power granted or effected through that action is the quality of agency. An agreement also outlines the terms of the relationship between the two. A contract can involve the exchange of promises between the parties to the contract. Q4. which a contract requires. known as the bailed. Baylor and bailed Answer :Definition of 'Baylor' An individual who temporarily relinquishes possession but not ownership of a good or other property under a bailment.
While in the case of a promissory note. while in a promissory note there is an unconditional promise to pay. (7) Nature of acceptance. Answer : A negotiable instrument is a document guaranteeing the payment of a specific amount of money. What do you mean by negotiable instruments? Explain the difference between bill of exchange and promissory note. the drawer.Q5. There are three parties to a bill of exchange. the maker stands in immediate relationship with the payee. The drawer of a bill of exchange stands in immediate relationship with the acceptor and not the payee. (3) Acceptance. In a bill of exchange. (2) Nature of payment. Difference between bill of exchange and promissory note (1) Parties. A bill of exchange requires an acceptance of the drawee before it is presented for payment. there is an unconditional order to pay. . namely. while a promissory note does not require any acceptance since it is signed by the persons who is liable to pay. while in a promissory note there are only two parties – maker and payee. either on ---------------------------------------------------- goods or fraud. ( (6) Maker’s position. the drawee and the payee.
Jammu and Kashmir has its own act called ---------------------------------------------------------- . the maker cannot pay to himself. while a bill of exchange can be accepted conditionally. Discuss the provisions of Right to information act. While in the case of a bill of exchange. or the IT Act) is an Act of the Indian Parliament (No 21 of 2000) notified on October 17. 2005 and information technology act. (8) Copies. 2000. 2000. This act is being opposed by Save Your Voice campaign and other civil society organizations in India The Right to Information Act 2005 (RTI) is an Act of the Parliament of India "to provide for setting out the practical regime of right to information for citizens. A bill of exchange can be drawn in sets. Foreign bills must be protested for dishonor when such protest is required by the law of the place where they are drawn. Answer : The Information Technology Act 2000 (also known as ITA-2000. A promissory note cannot be made payable to a bearer. while a bill of exchange can be so drawn provided it is not payable to bearer on demand. (9) Payable to bearer. the drawer and the payee may be one person. Q6." The Act applies to all States and Union Territories of India except the State of Jammu and Kashmir. (11) Protest. But no such protest is required in the case of a promissory note. but a promissory note cannot be drawn in sets. In a promissory note.A promissory note can never be conditional. (10) Payable to maker.
This law was passed by Parliament on 15 June 2005 and came fully into force on 12 October 2005.com . Information disclosure in India was hitherto restricted by the Official Secrets Act 1923 and various other special laws.to pro-actively publish certain categories of information so that the citizens need minimum recourse to request for information formally.Manpower Planning and Resourcing If You Want to GET the FULL ASSIGMENT SET CALL : 09883104515 email: 2009prasenjit@gmail. which the new RTI Act now relaxes Post Graduate Diploma in Human Resource Management Semester 1 Assignment MU0010 .
2. Manpower planning means planning means deciding the number and type of the human resources required for each job. Human Resource Planning has to be a systems approach and is carried out in a set procedure. Manpower Planning which is also called as Human Resource Planning consists of putting right number of people. Number and quantity of such departments 4. doing the right things for which they are suited for the achievement of goals of the organization. Manpower planning may be viewed as foreseeing the human resources requirement of an organization and the future supply of human resources . Type of organization 2. the current manpower status has to be analysed. 4. right time. Number of departments 3. The procedure is as follows: 1. For this the following things have to be noted1. right kind of people at the right place.mbaprojectguide. Employees in these work units . Human Resource Planning has got an important place in the arena of industrialization. 3.in Q1.Before a manager makes forecast of future manpower. (a) What is manpower planning? Ans.We Make MBA Projects AND Assignments for ALL UNIVERSITY Website :www. Analysing the current manpower inventory Making future manpower forecasts Developing employment programmes Design training programmes Steps in Manpower Planning Analysing the current manpower inventory. unit and the total company for a particular future date in order to carry out organizational activities.
According to Retention Naukrihub. as well as the overall level of communication within your organization. Also consider whether current workers possess management potential and how you will groom them for that development. Employee Retention Your ability to keep employees will affect the size and condition of your workforce. you need to assess your future needs and determine what types of new positions you will need to create. If so. Organizational Structure The nature of your organizational structure will help determine your manpower needs. you may decide that you need one person to man each department. Outsourcing Consider which functions need to be performed in-house and which you can outsource. taking on additional staff may not be an option. you may have difficulty finding enough qualified applicants to fill your open positions. If you are not in a position where you can afford to offer fringe benefits. since it may be difficult to attract regular full-time workers. resulting in the need to hire replacements. If your business is struggling or experiencing a downturn. If you&. such as an Internet marketing service. but you might have plans for future expansion.re located in an area where unemployment is low. you may need to outsource.#039. if your business is project-oriented. you may need to expand your recruiting efforts outside of your geographic region by implementing methods like online recruiting. For example. if you organize by departments. If your open jobs require a high degree of specialized skills. it may be more cost-effective to outsource copy writing jobs as opposed to hiring a full-time copywriter. shipping or accounting. Business Conditions Economic factors and general business conditions will help determine your manpower needs as well. you will have to assess each function to determine the number of workers needed to staff it. Answer : A number of factors can affect the manpower needs of your business. . If you organize by function.(b) Explain the factors affecting manpower planning. For example. A new competitor in town may also attempt to lure your employees by offering them higher wages and better benefits. key components to employee retention include areas such as training and development opportunities. Location Your business location will play a key role in your manpower situation. Expansion Your business may be small now. such as sales.
promotion etc and lower level positions by recruitment from external sources. which is followed by most organisations is to fill up higher vacancies by internal sources i.e. The long. Human resource planning is becoming one of the most important functions within an organization. Q3. What are the problems in manpower planning? Ans. position of labour unions and Government regulations. Under Utilization of Manpower: The objective is to provide right personnel for the right work and optimum utilization of the existing human resources.e.term objective may to start a new industry or to expand the market or to produce a new product or to develop its own sales force. HRP exists as a part of the planning process of business. Align competencies and incentives of human resources to business objectives. This is the activity of the management which is aimed at co-ordinating requirements for and the availability of different types of employers. Following are the main obstacles that organizations face in the process of manpower planning: 1.Q2. The personnel manager should have a thorough knowledge of the labour market. by providing a clear line of sight from daily activities to the organization's strategy. The major activities of HRP . Ensure employees focus efforts on the most important activities. (A) Deciding objectives of manpower Planning -The ultimate objective of manpower planning is one of matching or fitting employee abilities to enterprise requirements with an emphasis on future instead of present arrangements. for one year for example the short term objective may be to hire 50 persons from backward classes for purposes of training. depends upon the policy of a firm. What are the inputs provided by HR for manpower planning? Ans. Which source in the labour market will be tapped. The objectives may be laid down for a short term i.
inventorying (present strength). Often the cost of engaging with a specialist recruitment provider may seem high compared to trying to find a new hire yourself . (a) Resourcing is what organizations do to ensure they have the people they need. (a) What is resourcing strategy? Ans.but weigh up the pros against the cons of peripheral costs such as loss of time wasted which could be directed into more . anticipating (comparison of present and future requirements) and planning (necessary programme to meet future requirements). Q4. Resourcing strategy is concerned with identifying Write out a generic role description for each of the vacancies you regularly need to fill: Not only will this save you time by providing training to fill the business need.include: forecasting (future requirements). Devise an internal training & development team: employees who feel valued and believe their organisation has a that comes naturally.
If needs cannot be satisfied from within the organization. Flexibility strategy – planning for increased flexibility in the use of human resources to enable the organization to make the best use of people and adapt swiftly to changing circumstances. and the cost of hiring and training the wrong candidate who ultimately leaves your business. (a) Explain the benefits of an induction program ? Answer : An induction programme is an important process for bringing staff into an organisation. Resourcing plans – preparing plans for finding people from within the organization and/or for learning and development programmes to help people learn new skills. You can then use this information to refine and improve your future HR sourcing plans Conduct exit interviews: One of the most valuable sources of information is often overlooked Developing the organization’s employee value proposition and its employer brand. Retention strategy – preparing plans for retaining the people the organization needs.profitable activities. it involves preparing longer-term plans for ensuring that recruitment and selection processes will satisfy them. be sure to keep a record of the most successful areas you find talent from. Actively monitor where your business does its hiring from: If you engage with a number of different recruitment agencies or sourcing channels. Talent management strategy – ensuring that the organization has the talented people it requires to provide for management succession and meet present and future business needs Q5. It provides an introduction to the working environment and the set-up of the .
com We Make MBA Projects AND Assignments for ALL UNIVERSITY Website :www.Management and Organisational Development If You Want to GET the FULL ASSIGMENT SET CALL : 09883104515 email: 2009prasenjit@gmail. Those are the disadvantages of informal induction program.mbaprojectguide.in Q1. new employee may leave the organization at the beginning and then the organization may need to follow all the process of recruiting and new employee to the organization. (a) What is Organisational development (OD)? . Spring 2013 Post Graduate Diploma in Human Resource Management Semester 1 MU0011 .because of his/her not knowing things at the operations. turnover intentions and task engagement. Also this method will create a large number of errors making by new employee and then it may creates big losses to the organization. So in that case. But what are those factors or “drivers” that are most closely related to and therefore most influential in determining levels of employee engagement at Onetest. The commitment.
and coaching (to name a few) whose perspective is not steeped in just the behavioral sciences. It is interdisciplinary in nature and draws on sociology. increased understanding.D. psychology. structure of intuition in decision making. tend to reflect "Theory Y. and theories of motivation. and more considerable leadership. Behind this definition lies a depth of research and practice. systematic process of implementing effective organizational change. Characteristics of organizational Development are as follows : (i) It is an educational strategy which attempts to bring about a planned change.Answer : Organisation Development is a growing field of Human Resource Management. Experts in systems thinking and organizational learning. (vi) External change agents are humanists seeking to establish a social and altrustic philosophy within an organisation. have emerged as OD catalysts or tools. but a much more multi-disciplinary and inter-disciplinary approach. (iii) It uses sensitivity training methods and emphasises the importance of experimentally based training. new and emerging fields of study have made their presence felt. but also confusion. Although behavioral science has provided the basic foundation for the study and practice of OD. and personality. OD practitioners are unashamedly humanistic in their approach to change management and delivering sustainable organizational performance. we define organization development (OD) as ‘planned and systematic approach to enabling sustained organisation performance through the involvement of its people’. It is process that helps in solving organizational problems and achieving organizational objectives. OD is known as both a field of science focused on understanding and managing organizational change and as a field of scientific study and inquiry. (iv) Its change agents are almost external consultants outside of the organisation." he aims for better conflict resolution. Organisational Development works as important mechanism that helps in impressing the organization and its employee through planned and established system. In the context of this factsheet. (vii) The goals that the change agent seeks to accomplish through O. and jointly determined goals. system and behaviour of organization. It has its foundations in a number of behavioural and social sciences. (ii) It relates to real organisational problems instead of hypothetical classroom cases. learning. (v) External change agents and internal organisation executives establish a collaborative relationship involving mutual trust and influence. Organization development is an ongoing. (b) What are the characteristics of OD? Answer : Organisational Development (OD) can be described as the systematic process to change the culture. (viii) The organisational changes sought are usually the result of some "exigency or outside problem" .
One of those is the area of organizational diagnosis and the use of structured organizational diagnostic tools. dynamism. This policy aims to set out a framework for effective organisational development. Organisational diagnosis Organisation is a framework that works when operated by people. so long as his .Q2. What is the role of OD professional in organisations? Answer : The role of OD professional in organizations : 1. Describe the levels of diagnosis in organisations. An organisation can put itself through periodic check ups or diagnostic exercises to assess its growth. The purpose or mission of an organisation provides the direction in which it moves. An organisation has several parts each having its own independent minds and they may not always function in a fully unified way. is in a continuous cycle of diagnosis-decision-action –evaluation. Development of leadership Entry and Contracting Diagnosis Designing & Implementing Interventions Evaluating & Institutionalising Evaluating and rewards Trend to use combined teams The concept of Marginal Roles Q3. Every manager irrespective of his level. Outcomes will include: Enhanced ability to meet University strategic goals. Most of the calculated management decisions are based on some sort of diagnosis. Answer : In the field of Organizational Development there are many activities and disciplines. strength. weaknesses etc.
sports teams. It generally sits within the theory and practice of organizational development. events. but can also be applied to sports teams. religious or nonprofit organizations designed for improving team performance. presented to businesses. these team problems can continue to the point of threatening key project milestones and thus risk the success of the ERP project. Problem identification/problem solving workshops 8. Recording and examining critical incidents. . Answer : The impact of information technology on the office has been a topic of interest for many years. usually falling somewhere in between. In some instances. Q4. or poor levels of trust among team members with competing agendas. symposia and training programme 9. Organisational diagnosis is an exercise attempted to make an analysis of the organisation. 5.decisions and actions are not impulsive. Team building is a philosophy of job design in which employees are viewed as members of interdependent teams instead of as individual workers. Questionnaires 2. Vinegar Bush first wrote about it in 1945 when he argued that machines could function as an extension to human memory and he proposed a machine that he called a Meme. subsystems and processes in order to identify the strengths and weaknesses of its structural components and processes and use it as a base for developing plans to improve and/or maximise the dynamism and effectiveness of the organisation There are many ways of analyzing and diagnosing organisations and their phenomena. school groups. Q5. circulars. Task forces and task groups 7. Team building can also be seen in day-to-day operations of an organization and team dynamic can be improved through successful leadership. Team building is not to be confused with "team recreation" that consists of activities for teams that are strictly recreational. and can range from simple bonding exercises to complex simulations and multi-day team building retreats designed to develop a team (including group assessment and group-dynamic games). multi-year ERP implementation. The following are the most frequently used methods : 1. poor communication among members. Explain the impact and benefits of Technology in Organisations. Team building is pursued via a variety of practices. Write short notes on Team Development Interventions. Analysis of records. its structure. Observation 4. and other contexts. appraisal reports and other organizational literture. Analysis of hard data of organisations and various units 6. one or more of the ERP project teams could experience problems with working relationships. schools. Seminars. Team building (which according to English Professor Emeritus Alexandra Gerstley of Dickinson University is correctly spelled with two words) refers to a wide range of activities. Interviews 3. Answer : On a complex. lack of alignment.
Interactive Virtual Environments – Modeling a fully-functioning digital replica allows employees to experience real environments and situations without risk. we call this ‘Organizational Development’: implementing hands-on.4 Credits Assignment . Our bottom line improvements are based on a mix of training. Throughout the 3D eLearning course. the trainings we provide are part of a larger picture. The overall question we want to answer is: how to create high performing organizations? This is what we call: ‘Results with People’. learners complete interactive Spring 2013 Post Graduate Diploma in Human Resource Management Semester 1 MU0012 . Answer : In the view of my company Schouten Training. Write a brief note on Emerging Trends in OD. and consulting. (executive-) coaching. Together.Employee Relations Management .These early Q6.
com We Make MBA Projects AND Assignments for ALL UNIVERSITY Website :www. Sometimes we might miss out on important points. An individual tends to lose focus and concentration if his mind is always clouded with unnecessary tensions and stress. you will never come to know where you are going wrong. An individual spends around 8-9 hours in a day at . One doesn’t feel like going to office if he is not in talking terms with the person sitting next to him. Learn to trust others. One cannot do everything on his own. he will always be eager to assist you in your assignments making your work easier. There are several issues on which an individual cannot take decisions alone. On your own. It has been observed that if people talk and discuss things with each other. Answer : The team leader or the manager plays an important role in promoting healthy relation at workplace: It is essential that the supervisor assigns challenging tasks to his team member as per his specialization and interest. If you have a good rapport with your colleagues. Before implementing any plan. tensions automatically evaporate and one feels better. The organization becomes a happy place to work if the employees work together as a family. A healthy relation with your fellow workers would ease the work load on you and in turn increases your productivity.If You Want to GET the FULL ASSIGMENT SET CALL : 09883104515 email: 2009prasenjit@gmail. Explain the meaning and importance of employee relations management. you will feel relaxed.mbaprojectguide. Responsibilities must be divided among team members to accomplish the assigned tasks within the stipulated time frame. you need people who can act as critic and correct you wherever you are wrong.in Q1. the pros and cons must be evaluated on an open forum where every employee has the right to express his opinions freely. If you do not enjoy a good relation with others no one will ever come to help you. Work becomes easy if it is shared among all . but our fellow workers may come out with a brilliant idea which would help us to achieve our targets at a much faster rate. He needs the guidance and advice of others as well.
you must have a trusted colleague who can handle the work on your behalf. Q2. Healthy employee relations also discourage conflicts and fights among individuals . CORPORATE LEVEL FUNCTIONAL LEVEL STRTEGIES [CORPORATE] FUNCTIONAL LEVEL STRATEGIES 3) Strategies are looked at Corporate level SBU level . These are known as strategic business units. Employees stop complaining against each other and give their best It is wise to share a warm relation with your fellow workers. Answer : Corporate Level Strategy Corporate level strategy occupies the highest level of strategic decision-making and covers actions dealing with the objective of the firm. People tend to adjust more and stop finding faults in each other. Individuals are more serious towards their work and feel like coming to office daily. If you fight with everyone. 1. It is important to respect others to expect the same from them. They would come to your help only when you are nice to them. 2. An individual feels motivated in the company of others whom he can trust and fall back on whenever needed. They start treating each other as friends and try their level best to compromise and make everyone happy. because you never know when you need them. They do not take frequent leaves and start enjoying their work. no one will speak to you and you will be left all alone. In order to segregate different units each performing a common set of activities. You may need them any time. One feels secure and confident and thus delivers his best. You might need leaves for some personal reasons. many companies are organized on the basis of operating divisions/decisions. A healthy employee relation reduces the problem of absenteeism at the work place . acquisition and allocation of resources and coordination of strategies of various SBUs for optimal performance. rather concentrate on their work and strive hard to perform better. Individuals don’t waste their time in meaningless conflicts and disputes. It is okay if you share your secrets with your colleagues but you should know where to draw the line. A sense of trust is important.his workplace and practically it is not possible that one works non stop without a break. When a company performs different business/ has portfolio of products. Describe the different levels of strategy in an organization. Moreover healthy employee relations also spread positivity around. Top management of the organization makes such decisions. the company will organize itself in the form of strategic business units (SBU’s). discuss movies or go out for a stroll once in a while. You should have people with whom you can share your lunch.
For example. The outside force may also be forces of nature. It has to be aligned and integrated. production. 5) CORPORATE LEVEL STRATEGY: It’s a broad level strategy and all its plan of actions is at corporate level i. what the company as a whole. Strategies needs should be in align with the company objective. a character must deal with his or her own mixed feelings or emotions. conflicts have become a part of daily life which cannot be avoided. The outside force may be another character. operation etc. a) FUNCTIONAL STRATEGY b) SOCIETAL STRATEGY c) OPERATIONAL STRATEGY FUNCTIONAL STRATEGY: As the SBU level deals with a relatively. For example. It covers the various strategies performed by different SBU’s. finance. And again it is divided into different divisions: . It may be the character and the community. finance. Q3. a character may have to decide between right and wrong or between two solutions to a problem. (a) What are the types of conflicts? Answer : Irrespective of whether you like them or not. C-Physical Conflict: If the struggle is between one character and one another force in the physical manner and its subdivisions are as follows: ----Man against man ----Man against nature Internal conflict: A struggle that takes place in a character's mind is called internal conflict. They are naturally occurring ingredients that add a spice of flavour to our life. And it is divided into different divisions: A-Emotional Conflict: If the struggle is about the emotions of two different characters and it is again divided into some subdivisions: ----Man against man ----Man against society ----etc.4) There exists a difference at functional levels like marketing. sometimes making it enjoyable. Sometimes. productions etc. There are two main kinds of conflict in stories: external and internal. To ensure things there would need to have co-ordination of different business of the SBU’s. Characters may face several types of outside forces. Functional level strategies exist at both corporate and SBU level. while at other times causing terrible destructions. Conflict: A conflict is a struggle between opposing forces. 6) Resources should be allocated to each SBU and broad level functional strategies. a story might be the main character struggling against the arctic cold.e. External conflict: A struggle between a character and an outside force is an external conflict. Smaller area that provides objectives for a specific function in that SBU environment are marketing. B-Moral Conflict: if the struggle is about the matter of wrong and right on an issue between two characters which again will be divided into some subdivisions: ----Man against man ----Man against society ----etc. 7) For most companies strategies plans are made at 3 levels.
Cooperation conflict style Characterized by an active concern for both pro-social and pro-self behavior. cooperators collaborate with others in an effort to find an amicable solution that satisfies all parties involved in the conflict. positive social relationships. e. Avoidance conflict style Characterized by inaction and passivity. During conflict. During conflict. (b) What methods are used to resolve conflicts in organizations? Answer : Conflicts can be managed in a number of ways. 4. individuals with a yielding conflict style tend to give into others’ demands out of respect for the social relationship 3. But mental conflict is somehow the same moral conflict but just is about the mental issues. Yielding conflict style In contrast. power tactics (e..A-Emotional Conflict B-Moral Conflict C-Mental Conflict: The definitions of the two first ones are the same as what defined before but just take place in the mind of the character.g. Individuals with this type of conflict style tend to . by neglecting to address high-conflict situations.. 2003). Various factors need to be considered to decide the right method that would prove useful in a particular situation. cooperation conflict style is typically used when an individual has elevated interests in their own outcomes as well as in the outcomes of others. Competitive conflict style Competitive or “fighting” conflict style maximizes individual assertiveness (i. When faced with conflict. accuse. This passive pro-social approach emerges when individuals derive personal satisfaction from meeting the needs of others and have a general concern for maintaining stable. avoiders risk allowing problems to fester out of control. Fighters tend to force others to accept their personal views by employing competitive. avoidance conflict style is typically used when an individual has reduced concern for their own outcomes as well as the outcomes of others.e. and typically see conflict as a “win or lose” predicament. 2. violence) that foster feelings of intimidation (Morrill. concern for self) and minimizes empathy (i. argue. concern for others). Unfortunately. yielding or “accommodating” conflict styles are characterized by a high concern for others while having a low concern for one’s own self. insult. these avoiders adopt a “wait and see” attitude. Groups consisting of competitive members generally enjoy seeking domination over others. Some of the ways and means to manage conflict are briefed below.. often allowing conflict to phase out on its own without any personal involvement (Bayazit & Mannix. 1. 1995).
Conciliation conflict style Conciliation or “compromising” conflict style is typical of individuals who possess an intermediate-level of concern for both personal and others’ outcomes. 1996) 5. human capital is critical because so many smaller firms have employees who perform cross-functional duties. work styles. in doing so. By accepting some demands put forth by others. As some small businesses have budget constraints. 1987. it leaves the company with a huge gap to fill and a potential threat to the company's profitability. Compromisers value fairness and. backgrounds and levels of experience among employees. if just one person leaves. collaborators willingly invest time and resources into finding a “win-win” solution. A human resources manager or a staff person specially trained to handle employee relations matters can identify and resolve conflict between two employees or a manager and employee and restore positive working relationships. By seeing conflict as a creative opportunity. in particular.be highly assertive and highly empathetic at the same time. Answer : The importance of Human Resource : Human Capital Value Having an in-house human resources function is important. Jarboe & Witteman. compromisers believe this agreeableness will encourage others to meet half-way. This conflict style can be considered an extension of both “yielding” and “cooperative” strategies. thus promoting conflict resolution (van de Vliert & Euwema. Training and Development . 1994). employment trends and salary analysis based on job functions. anticipate mutual give-and-take interactions. given the diversity of personalities. Conflict Resolution Workplace conflict is inevitable. For small businesses. this human resources function is especially helpful. Q4. According to the literature on conflict resolution. human resources ensures competitive and realistic wage-setting based on studying the labor market. Explain the importance of Human Resource Information Systems. An in-house human resources staff or a human resources expert on staff can increase the understanding of how important human capital is to the company's bottom line. which includes negotiating better rates for benefits such as health care coverage. Budget Control Human resources curbs excessive spending through developing methods for trimming workforce management costs. In addition. a cooperative conflict resolution style is recommended above all others (Sternberg & Dobson. With a smaller workforce.
training new employees and enrolling new employees in benefits plans. thereby creating wasted money on low-performing employees.often an ambiguous measurement at best. Additionally. From the perspective of a small business. The first opportunity human resources has to accomplish this is through wise hiring decisions that identify desirable professional traits. Becoming an employer of choice means human resources balances recruiting the most qualified applicants. human resources determines what underlies employee dissatisfaction and addresses those issues to motivate employees. Corporate Image Businesses want to be known as the "employer of choice. Cost Savings The cost to hire new or replacement workers. focus groups and an exit interview strategy. Sustaining Business Through succession planning that human resources develops. Without a human resources staff person to construct a plan that measures performance. Performance Improvement Human resources develops performance management systems. can be exorbitant for employers. creating a cohesive work environment is imperative. Steadfast Principles Human resources ensures the workforce embraces the company's philosophy and business principles. including training and ramp-up time. In addition. With carefully designed employee surveys." Employers of choice are the companies that receive recognition for the way they treat employees. It's much less expensive than the cost to hire additional staff or more qualified candidates. the human resources function can minimize expenses regarding advertising job postings. employees can wind in jobs that aren't suitable for their skills and expertise. especially small businesses. Employee Satisfaction Human resources specialists usually are charged with the responsibility of determining the level of employee satisfaction -. employees whose performance falls below the employer's expectations can continue on the payroll. This is an important function as it can guarantee the organization's stability and future success. the company identifies employees with the promise and requisite capabilities to eventually transition into leadership roles with the company. Companies in the beginning or growth phases can benefit from identifying training needs for existing staff. With a well-constructed recruitment and selection process. as well as orientation and on-boarding programs.Human resources conducts needs assessments for the organization's current workforce to determine the type of skills training and employee development necessary for improving skills and qualifications. selecting the most suitable candidates and retaining the most talented employees. it's a strategy that also can reduce turnover and improve employee retention. . they are the companies for whom people want to work.
An Employee who has been warned or suspended by the Employer and who feels that disciplinary action so taken is not proper under the circumstances may file a grievance under this same procedure. Step 4: If the matter still remains unresolved. The purpose of the grievance procedure (b) Explain the steps in grievance redressed system. Step 5: If after step 5 the matter still remains unresolved. The best-known application of grievance procedures is as a formal process outlined in labor union contracts. any member of the Union Executives may accompany the employee. . the Employee will take the matter up with his supervisor with or without the Shop Steward. the application. the matter will then be referred to the Ministry of Employment and Manpower Development in accordance with the Industrial Relation Act 299 of 1965. But grievance procedures do not necessarily have to be so formal and elaborate.Q5. the Local Union shall report to the Regional Industrial Relations Officer who will in turn file a written grievance with the Personnel of the Company. the administration or the alleged violation of any clause of the collective agreement. some larger companies may create an entire department dedicated to fielding complaints from employees or customers. Step 2: If the matter remains unresolved. or competitors. In small businesses. (a) What is meant by grievance? Answer : The term grievance refers to a written statement made according to the grievance procedure included in the collective agreement. Step 3: If the matter still remains unresolved. GRIEVANCE PROCEDURE Step 1: In the event of any complaint or grievances. It deals with any dispute concerning the interpretation. management is pleased to introduce following "Grievance Procedure" with immediate effect. Grievance procedures are a means of dispute resolution that can be used to address complaints by employees against management or to settle disputes between a company and its suppliers. the Local Union Secretary or they shall take the matter with the personnel Manager who will arrange and chair a meeting between the Local Union and Sectional/Departmental Manager involved. Answer : Employee's Grievance redressed system In order to streamline the grievance handling system in the company. the Shop Steward and/or the Chief Shop Steward will take up the matter with the Departmental Head and/or his designated representative. customers. On the other hand. the procedures may consist of a few lines in an employee manual or the designation of a single ombudsman to deal with problems as they develop. In the absence of the Chief Shop Steward. Peer review of employee concerns is another popular way to address grievances.
The origin and the growth is being influenced by the many beliefs. They provide social and economic security to the members of the union. Explain the meaning and objectives of trade union. They are there to provide economic security to its members. Trade unions are formed to achieve the following objectives: Trade union is a unity of members who works for the employee's welfare basically. Principles of trade union: The unions task on the basis of important principles. Their primary function is to protect the interests of workers against discrimination and unfair labour practices. The nature of the trade union is continuously changing. and then it shows the strength of the union. Union objectives Conservation & intensification of union as an organization.Q6. Getting more for the members and save work for the welfare of its members. They can take part in the business of the organization and can do collective bargaining or negotiation for the employees. Collective bargaining is done between the union members and the employers of the business mainly. They can be permanent or a temporary contributory party in the organization. They act as a watch dog on the activity of the management of the organization. Answer : Trade unions are formed to protect and promote the interests of their members. They always believe in getting equal pay for the equal work. They always work for the security of the employees regarding any issues related to job. These principles are: The trade union believes when all the employees and the employers come in a unite form. The Efforts of trade ------------------------------ .
A Human Resources Audit is a comprehensive method (or means) to review current human resources policies. documentation and systems to identify needs for improvement and enhancement of the HR function as well as to ensure compliance with ever-changing rules and regulations. procedures. Human Resource Audit is the critical analysis of the existing human resource within the orgasnisation. the audit will have to be served with the data that is quantitative.Spring 2013 Post Graduate Diploma in Human Resource Management Semester 1 MU0013 . To be able to do that.mbaprojectguide. qualitative.com We Make MBA Projects AND Assignments for ALL UNIVERSITY Website :www.4 Credits If You Want to GET the FULL ASSIGMENT SET CALL : 09883104515 email: 2009prasenjit@gmail. as well as comprehensive. In others words.in Q1. Hence the information needs of such a critical exercise must be met. the success of this stage of human resource planning solely rests upon the manner in which personnel records and other information are maintained.HR Audit . Ans.Describe the components of human resource development audit. . It is from the base of the current situation that the human resource audit is to take in order that the future must be planned.
Explain the need for HR audit ? Ans. The purpose is to pinpoint issues of concern. and even employees’ representatives. and iii) develop plans and programmed of audit. Q2. The question to be asked on these topics needs to be framed very carefully. However. the audit efforts will get impetus if clarity is obtained as to the key factors of human resource management selected for audit and the related questions that need to be examined. A properly executed Audit will reveal problem areas and provide Recommendations and suggestions for the remedy of these problems. 3) Surveying employees : surveying employees involves interview with key managers. 2. Some of the reasons to conduct such a review include: 1. generally it involves the following steps: 1) Briefing and orientation : This is a preparatory meeting of key staff members to i) discuss particular issues considered to be significant. 4) Conducting interviews : What questions to ask? The direction which audit must follow is based on issues developed through the scanning of information gathered for the purpose. Q3. 2) Scanning material information : This involves scrutiny of all available information pertaining to the personnel. functional executives. To increase the size of the organization and personnel in several organisations. These questions may be developed by the interviewer/audit team on the following aspects as indicated against each topic. guides. The following model depicts the various key factors on which information needs during human resource audit need to be focused. To change HR management philosophy and thereby personnel policies and practices throughout the world. material on recruitment. It is developed form the interview guide used in an electronics company. present strengths. computer capabilities if a computer and all such other information considered material. anticipated needs and managerial philosophies on human resources. personnel handbooks and manuals. appraisal forms. It covers a wide range of topics of profound interest relation to human resource management practices in the organisation.Describe employee orientation programs . To increase the dependence of the organization on the HR system and its effective functioning.ESSENTIAL STEPA IN HRA (Human Resource Audit) Though the process would vary from organisation to organisation. ii) chart out audit procedures. if necessary. To change the philosophy of management towards HR 3. top functionaries in the organisation. 5. To increase the strength and influence of trade unions 4. The purpose of an HR Audit is to recognize strengths and identify any needs for improvement in the human resources function.
Employee orientation is the process of introducing employees to their new jobs and work environments. Q4. ideally starting on the employee’s first day. This can include coaching. and needs to be carried out diligently and professionally to provide useful information and feedback in relation to how the quality system is operating. division and department goals and priorities. and corporate goals and government priorities. and can ensure a smooth transition into the new workplace for all involved. CSC employees are that CSC is in compliance with legislation and policy with regard to the NTS examined in this audit. Employee orientation programs should be offered using multiple learning methods. department. Employee orientation should be an on-going learning process. Objectives of this audit. to best meet the needs of employees. Developing Employee Orientation Programs An employee orientation program should take into consideration the culture and values of the department. Auditing is an essential part of any quality assurance system. to help employees understand their job and performance expectations. peer support. information sessions and on-line learning. Departments may wish to create check-lists or a guide for managers. the audit found that a management framework to support training activities is in place. Orientation provides an opportunity for new employees to become acclimated to their new company.Ans. Ans. Explain the importance of audit of training. colleagues and work expectations. are: . Effective orientations provide many benefits for employers and employees. as well as check-lists or a guide for employees to explain the employee orientation process.
The goal of an HR scorecard is to help businesses determine the value of their human resources departments. The challenge a component in a company's business success. organizational outcomes. In order to achieve that you would need to: . Q5.Know what the company's strategy is . and.Understand the causal links between HR activities. and the organization's performance . (a) What is HR scorecard? Ans. To provide assurance that CSC is complying with relevant legislation. policy directives and guidance pertaining to CSC's National Training Standards. HR scorecard measures the HR function's effectiveness and efficiency in producing employee behaviors needed to achieve the company's strategic goals. Organizational Outcomes Step 4: Identify the Required Workforce Competencies and Behaviors Step 5: Identify the Strategically Relevant HR System Policies and Activities Step 6: Design the HR Scorecard Measurement System Step 7: Periodically Evaluate the Measurement System .And have metrics to measure all the activities and results involved. employee behaviors. To provide assurance that a management framework is in place for training activities and that it is implemented and monitored.
Q6. Benefits of having workplace policies Well-written workplace policies: are consistent with the values of the organisation comply with employment and other associated legislation demonstrate that the organisation is being operated in an efficient and businesslike manner ensure uniformity and consistency in decision-making and operational procedures add strength to the position of staff when possible legal actions arise save time when a new problem can be handled quickly and effectively through an existing policy foster stability and continuity maintain the direction of the organisation even during periods of change provide the framework for business planning assist in assessing performance and establishing accountability clarify functions and responsibilities. What are the different aspects of workplace policies and practices that need to be considered by employers? Ans. . Types of workplace policies Code of conduct Rrecruitment policy Internet and email policy Mobile phone policy Non-smoking Using social media.
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