~ourrtal of Sound and Vibration (1979) 64(3), 371-378






M. S. HUNDAL Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont 05405. U.S.A. (Received 12 October 1978, and in revisedform 10 January 1979)

The response of a single degree of freedom springgmass system with viscous and Coulomb friction, with harmonic base excitation, is determined. Closed form analytical solutions of the equation of motion are found for two cases: (a) continuous motion of the mass and (b) motion of mass with two stops per cycle. Results are presented in nondimensional form as magnification factors versus frequency ratios as functions of viscous and Coulomb friction parameters.


a closed form analytical solution for the response of a Den Hartog [l] presented harmonically excited system with Coulomb and viscous friction. His system, shown in Figure l(a), consists of a force excited mass with friction forces acting between it and the ground. He showed both theoretically and by experiment that, depending on system parameters, the mass may move continuously or it may come to stop during parts of each cycle.

Harmonic motion Coolomb friction


Figure 0022460X/79/1

1. (a) System analyzed $02.00:0

by Den Hartog 371


(b) system analyzed V 1979 Academic

by Levitan

[2]. Limited


Press Inc. (London)

II // /‘ .kx’ + L’ dJt/dt + ky. Here o. HUNDAI.. Also z = c/2(km)’ 2 is the damping ratio. 1.ersus frequency ratio are given. depending on system parameters. the magnitude of the Coulomb force is then given by F’ = . showing the effects of the two friction parameters.x’ /dt OF MOTION md2.. It is shown that the mass motion may be continuous or one with stops during each cycle. Levitan [23 analyzed the motion of a system with harmonic displacement of the base. OF THE MASS 3. S. He used a Fourier series approximation for the Coulomb friction force. CONTINUOUS The system is assumed to have reached mass is in continuous motion between steady state. and x = -x. shown in Figure l(b). The model also represents a system in which an active device is mounted on the mass. = -2~ where dots represent differentiation sin(rT+p) + cos(rT+p). whereas the Coulomb friction opposes the mass motion relative to the ground. The device would act as a vibration controller.? + 22i + x + X. Y X’ k m c I A Coulomb frlctlon -/ii-7 . Equation (1) now becomes .1 ‘ . with harmonic excitation of the base 2.. and it is further assumed that the its extreme positions x = X. This paper presents a closed form solution for the response of the system shown in Figure 2. The friction forces in his model act between the base and the mass. When the mass is in motion F’ = F sign(dx’ /dt). The other symbols in equation (1) have their customary meanings (a list of symbols is given in the Appendix).372 M. frequency ratio r = w/w. System with Coulomb friction between mass and ground. . When the mass is at rest and the applied force is insufficient to overcome the Coulomb friction. It is a base excited system in which the viscous friction force acts between base and the mass.x./. applying a constant force to the mass in a direction opposite to its velocity.x’ ldt2 + kx’ + F’ = cd~‘ /dt + 12~ (1) where )! = Ycos(wt+p) is the base motion and F’ is the force of Coulomb friction (see Figure 2). = F’ lk Y../ . Curves of magnification factor \. EQUATION The equation of motion for the system is + cd. (3) with respect MOTION to T. (2) Equation (1) is now put in a non-dimensional form by defining the following dimensionless variables and parameters: time T = w./ l’ .t: displacement x = x’ /Y: Coulomb force X. Figure 2. = (k/m)‘ 12.

1 .[-2zrsine+(l-r’ )cosr] X.C.E/q+l +C.2 = rS. Thus X. For the sake of brevity the symbols S. at at (4) (5) (6) . = (zS. by = -sinp + 2zrcosp. EX.j’ q . (10. (4) are T = 0. + Xf + (X.i. The boundary s = x.+zS.X. -12)2 +(2z. conditions and and on equation q-0 .. Such a motion of the mass and that of the base are shown in Figure 3. . r(cos e)/q. (12) A 2 1 = (z2/q + q) S.)x])1.[(I-r2)sine+2zrcose] Applying the boundary conditions (5) yields C. Equation (4) can now be solved for the steady state response. A.. sin(rT+r) (7) state harmonic where q = (1 -z2)r12.Xf)(z2/q + q) S. equation (3) becomes AND VISCOUS FRICTION 373 factor. = sin(qn/r). Harmonic base motion and continuous motion of the mass . are defined.. T = n!r.t + s = X.E)X. For the half cycle of mass motion + cos(rT+p). The last term in equation (7) represents the steady response of the system in the absence of Coulomb friction. B. = X6&:’ Y is thus the magnification . E/q .q = 0. . Figure 3.X.. which also clarifies the role of the phase angle p..‘ [(1 and the phase angles r and p are related X. = F/kY.-Xf)(C.. = x. E) rX. sin e. = ([l +(2zr)2]. and also A 11 = (zS.jq)E. B. 11) C.. = X. = cos(qxjr).COULOMB x. E = eern* A./q.. (9) C. s = -X0. .< 0.EX. when jl + 2z.X. cos qT) + Xf + X. E.‘ Z (8) = cosp-2zrsinp. = zC.. sin q7+C.2~ sin(rl”+p) where X. The general solution is x(T) = e “(C. = (X.

with the boundary conditions x = x. thus. Next. therefore X..N’ X.. k-0. the required condition is found to be i = e-‘ TIXf(l +M)(sin qT)/q + zrXf N(sin qT)/q . as given in equations (10) and (11).. and C. < T < n/r during the half cycle considered above. for which a continuous motion is possible. the solution of equations (13) is cos e = NX.Ejq-E’ )/(l +C. and C. (13) as functions Equations (13) can now be solved for sine and cos e. Upon differentiating equation (7) and substituting from equations (lo). (3). Applying the boundary conditions (18) yields the same values of C. sine + A. (18) (19) T. MOTION OF MASS WITH STOPS When the magnitude of the Coulomb friction force is sufficiently high.. as illustrated in Figure 4.rXf N cos qT] M) sin rT < 0.. will not begin to move until the applied force is larger than the Coulomb force. + (X.. +X. and an additional equation.E+E*). = X. (11) and (15). cos e = B. are valid. (17) + rX. (20). During the interval and and i = 0.cose = B. (7) and applying the boundary A.. + cos(rT+p).MX. Thus during 0 < T < T.X> = -2zr sin(rT+p) which is also valid at T = 0. and (20) at at T = 0. T=T. -X.E+E2). N cos rT . 5. by applying the boundary conditions (19). This condition is used to determine the maximum values of z and X. S. an additional unknown T. There is..E/rq(l+2C. for 0 < T < n/r. equation (7). x = -x. once it comes to a stop at either end of its stroke.. < T Q rc/r..)? (16) 4. using equations . sine + A. Let the mass be in motion for 0 d T d T. = . LIMITS OF CONTINUOUS MOTION The solution of equation (4) given in section 3 is valid only when Z?< 0 for 0 < T < n/r. and to rest for T.: (15) X. . as motion = -2zrsinp + cosp. the mass.. from equation x . in equation conditions (6)../X. With M and N defined of system parameters by M = (l-2zS. the following two equations are obtained: A. HUNDAI Upon substituting the values of C. At this instant.. X. which yields an explicit expression for X. equation (4) and its solution. (14) sin e = (X. is about to ensue. N = 2S. + MXf)iX.374 M.r(X.

It can be shown that for X../X. = cosrT. for brevity. see Figure 5(a). The condition for no response of the mass is that the limiting Coulomb friction force be greater than the applied force: i... The portions of the curves lying above the broken lines correspond to continuous motion. respectively. (20) and (9) to eliminate X. C’ . +zS./q... + 2zrE. and further. The broken lines represent the boundaries of the regions in which continuous motion of the mass and motion with stops exist. The corresponding values of p and X. or r < (XT. . the mass motion will be zero.e..r2 + C. = sinrT. the symbols S. (23) At high frequency ratios the magnification factor approaches constant values.&. and then p. = cosqT. and are defined by equation (16). = sinqT..C. are shown in Figure 5 for various values of damping ratio and dimensionless Coulomb friction force. > [1+(2zr)2]1/2. and E.sine + D. the mass motion is nearly zero for X.cose = -2X. = X. D22 = co J%(C. (21) D2. = 2zr + S. = e. and e. As r -+ co equation (16) becomes X. 6.. Again. > 1.r2E.. A4 -+ 1 and N -+ 0. Magnification factors for the case of mass motion with two steps per cycle are given by the curves lying below the broken lines in Figure 5.zTo are defined. for a range of frequency ratios./q.. = 1.cose = 0.. It is evident that for z = 0..1)1/2/(2z).COULOMB AND VISCOUS FRICTION 375 t Figure 4. the sum of spring and viscous friction forces. RESULTS Plots of the magnification factor X.. Harmonic base motion and mass motion with one stop per half cycle. since E -+ 0.1. C. sine + D. can then be found from equations (9) and (20) respectively. These broken lines are obtained by applying the condition given by equation (17). These portions of the curves are obtained as described in section 5. D. this condition is X.. = -S. + r(2z2-1)E0S4. From equation (4). = 1 .(CqO+zSq0/q). D.-X. . The equations in sin e and cos e are then D. + r&.o/d. two equations in sin e and cos e are obtained... (22) Equations (22) can be solved numerically for the unknowns T.. D. S.

7.5. (a) z = 0.frequency ratio. Conditions governing the transition from a continuous motion of the mass to one with two stops during each cycle have been determined. is that 1 > 0 for 0 < T < To. HLJNDAL.3: (d) z = 0. 2 (e) I I I Xf Figure 5.376 M. Magnification factor DS. which occurs at low frequency ratios. mass motion with more than two stops per cycle is also possible. the expression for the velocity being equation (17). In the absence of viscous friction the system is mathematically identical to that of Den Hartog [l] under the same restriction. as pointed out by Den Hartog. below broken lines one stop per half cycle. The condition for this type of motion. Furthermore. S. CONCLUSION Closed form solutions for the response of the system shown in Figure 2 with harmonic base excitation have been obtained. Portions of curves above broken lines represent continuous motion of mass. (c) z = 0. .1. These two types of motion are illustrated in Figure 6.4: (e) z = 0. (b) z = 0.2.

z = 0.3: r = 1. = 0. P. base motion. Forced oscillation of a spring-mass system having combined Coulomb and viscous damping. S. 2. = 0. DEN HARTOG 1931 Transactions of the American Society ofMechanical Engineers 53. 1265-1269. 107.COULOMB AND VISCOUS FRICTION 377 A Cb) P- x(T) I- 2L Figure 6. E. Forced vibrations with combined Coulomb and viscous friction. J. (a) X.8 REFERENCES 1. Mass motion us. .I 15. LEVITAN 1960 Journal of the Acoustical Society ofAmerica 32.2: (b) X.

.jY magnification factor with viscous friction only dimensionless displacement. cos(&r) C.. coefficients in equations (13) defined by equations (12) Bi right-hand side terms in equations (13) defined by equations (12) Ci unknown coefficients in equation (7) co cos rT. = w. sin rTo sin(yn/r) sin qTo dimensionless time. =( 1. in the case of motion with stops. = w/w. <F spring stiffness function of system parameters. phase angle associated with steady state harmonic response. t dimensionless time.z’ )l/’ frequency ratio. cos qT.. S. defined by equations (21) E . = F/kY dimensionless Coulomb friction force. see Figure 3 dimensionless natural frequency with viscous friction. coefficients in equations (22). = x’ /Y displacement amplitude of base displacement base displacement damping ratio. T X’ Y Z w w. c coefficient of viscous friction D. F' k M e-zT. at which mass comes to a stop time limiting value of dimensionless Coulomb friction force. =c/2(km)“’ base excitation frequency undamped natural frequency . defined by equations (14) mass function of system parameters. = x. HIJNDAL APPENDIX: NOTATION A. C. see equation (7) limiting value of Coulomb friction force Coulomb friction force. defined by equations (14) phase angle of base displacement.-Zn!r EO .378 M. E P 4 SO S @J s.. = F’ /k Y magnification factor with Coulomb and viscous friction.

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