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TRC A

Phn 3.Bn v mt ct a hnh

PHN 3. BN V MT CT A HNH

CHNG 6. LI KHNG CH TRC A 6.1. Khi qut v li khng ch trc a


6.1.1. Khi nim
xc nh v tr tng h ca cc im trn b mt t trong h thng to thng nht, ngi ta xy dng trn mt t h thng cc im lin h vi nhau bng cc hnh c dng hc nht nh. Vic la chn v tr nh ca cc hnh ny sao cho thun tin o trc tip cc yu t ca chng vi chnh xc cn thit. T s liu o, t cc phng php ton hc v mi lin h gia cc i lng o vi cc yu t cn xc nh, s tnh c ta mt bng (x, y) v cao ( H) ca cc im. Tp hp cc im ny gi l li khng ch trc a . Vy li khng ch trc a l: h thng cc im c nh du chc chn trn mt t, gia chng lin kt vi nhau bi cc hnh hnh hc v cc iu kin ton hc cht ch, c xc nh trong cng mt h thng ta thng nht vi chnh xc cn thit, lm c s phn b chnh xc cc yu t ni dung bn v hn ch sai s tch ly.

6.1.2. Phn loi


Li trc a Vit Nam theo Quyt nh s 83/2000/Q -TT ngy 12/7/2000 ca Th tng Chnh ph th t thng 8 nm 2000 nc ta s s dng h quy chiu v h ta VN-2000. Li trc a c th chia c chia lm ba loi: li khng ch trc a nh nc; li khng ch trc a khu vc v li khng ch o v. Li khng ch nh nc Vit Nam c mt bng v cao u c xy dng theo bn hng , t hng hng I n hng IV. Li hng I ph trm ton quc, li hng II chm dy t li hng I sau chm dy thm c li hng III v IV. Li khng ch mt bng khu vc c pht trin cc vng ring bit khi khng s lng cc im khng ch nh nc; gm li gii tch cp 1, cp 2 hoc ng ng chuyn cp 1 v cp 2. Li khng ch khu vc c chm dy t li khng ch nh nc c mt dy hn nhng chnh xc thp hn. Li khng ch mt bng o v l li c chm dy t li khng ch nh nc v khu vc. Li ny l cp li cp li khng ch cui cng v ta v cao phc v trc tip cho vic o v bn a hnh. Li khng ch o v gm ng chuyn kinh v, li tam gic nh, ng chuyn ton c v cc im chm dy bng phng php giao hi. Li khng ch cao o v c thnh lp theo phng php hnh hc hoc o cao lng gic c kt hp o ng thi vi li khng ch mt bng. Trong phm vi mn hc ny ch nghin cu li khng ch o v.

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TRC A

Phn 3.Bn v mt ct a hnh

6.1.3. Mt s ch tiu c bn ca li khng ch mt bng


Bng 6.1
ng chuyn Cp 1 Cp 2 0,8 0,12 5" 1: 10.000 0,35 0,08 10" 1 : 5000 Cc yu t c trng Chiu di cnh (km) S2 TF o gc ( km) S2 TF tng i cnh gc S2 TF tng i cnh yu Tam gic hng IV 25 2"0 1: 120.000 1: 70.000 Gii tch Cp 1 Cp 2 15 5"0 1: 50.000 1: 20.000 13 10"0 1: 20.000 1: 10.000

6.1.4. Nguyn tc xy dng v pht trin li khng ch trc a


Xy dng li theo nguyn tc t tng th n cc b, t chnh xc cao n chnh xc thp. Phng php xy dng li gm: phng php tam gic c, phng php a gic c, xy dng li bng cng ngh GPS. X

6.2. Cc bi ton trc a c bn


6.2.1. Bi ton trc a thun
Gi s bit to im A (XA, YA), bit gc nh hng v chiu di cnh AB tng ng l AB v DAB. Cn phi tnh ta im B. T s liu cho trc v hnh 6.1 ta d dng tnh c ta im B ( XB, YB): XB = XA + XAB = XA + DAB cos AB YB = YA + YAB = YA + DAB sin AB XAB XA O A YA YAB Hnh 6.1 XB AB DAB

YB

6.2.2. Bi ton trc a ngc


Gi s bit to im A ( XA , YA) v im B(XB , YB). Cn phi tnh chiu di DAB v gc nh hng AB ca cnh AB. Xc nh gc nh hng cng AB theo cng thc (6.2) c lu ti cng thc (1.6).
tgr = YB YA YAB YAB r = arctg = XB XA X AB X AB
X AB = Y AB = 2XAB + 2 YAB cos AB sin AB

(6.2) (6.3)
B A HA
Mt thy chun

Xc nh chiu di cnh AB: D AB =

6.2.3. Bi ton cao


Bit cao im A l HA, chnh cao gia A v B l hAB. Cn phi tnh cao im B ( hnh 6.2). T hnh 6.2 ta c cao im B: HB = HA + hAB (6.4)
HB

hAB

Hnh 6.2

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TRC A

Phn 3.Bn v mt ct a hnh

6.3. Khi nin v tnh ton bnh sai


S i lng o cn thit, ti thiu c th tnh c gi tr ca cc i lng cn xc nh, trong phm vi ca mt vn t ra gi l s lng i lng o cn thit. V d: khi xc nh 1 i lng ta thng o nhiu ln v nhn c nhiu tr o.Trong cc tr o ny 1 tr c gi l tr o cn thit, s cn li l tr o tha; tnh cnh trong tam gic ch cn o 1 cnh 2 gc hoc 2 gc 1cnh, nu o thm i lng no trong tam gic th i lng l i lng o tha... c iu kin kim tra v nng cao chnh xc ca kt qu cn tm, ngoi cc i lng o cn thit cn o thm nhiu i lng khc, s i lng o thm y gi l ai lng o tha. Trong li khng ch trc a v tr ( to ) ca im u dng tnh chuyn to cho cc im khc gi l nhng s liu gc ti thiu, bao gm to hai im gc hoc tng ng vi to mt im gc , chiu di v gc nh hng mt cnh gc. tng chnh xc ca cng tc trc a, ngoi cc s lng gc cn thit cn c cc s liu gc tha gm cnh gc, gc nh hng gc v to gc. Cc s liu gc v cc yu t hnh hc ca li c mi lin h cht ch vi nhau. Cc biu thc ton hc biu din cc mi lin h ny c goi l cc phng trnh iu kin ca li. Cc cng tc trc a khng trnh khi sai s, ngha l cc i lng o c cha cc sai s do vy nn cc phng trnh iu kin khng c tho mn. Hiu s ca cc gi tr ca phng trnh iu kin tnh theo gi tr i lng o v gi tr l thuyt ( gi tr ng) hoc cho trc gi l sai s khp ca phng trnh iu kin. tho mn cc phng trnh iu kin trong li ngha l phi kh b cc sai s khp ca phng trnh iu kin, phi loi tr cc sai s trong cc i lng o v tm ra gi tr tin cy ca chng. Cng vic ny gi l tnh ton bnh sai li trc a v gi tr tin cy gi l gi tr bnh sai ca chng. Ton b li trc a l mt th thng nht, tnh ton chnh xc cc kt qu phi dng phng php tnh ton bnh sai cht ch, tc l phi xt ton b cc mi quan h hnh hc ca cc yu t trong li ng thi. Trong phm vi gio trnh ny ch xt n phng php bnh sai gn ng. Phng php gn ng khi bnh sai ch p dng phng php tnh ton n gin v ring bit, ngha l bnh sai tng iu kin ring bit sao cho khi bnh sai iu kin sau khng vi phm iu kin trc bnh sai.

6.4. ng chuyn kinh v - phng php bnh sai gn ng


6.4.1. ng chuyn kinh v
6.4.1.1.Khi qut v ng chuyn kinh v Tp hp cc im c lin kt vi nhau bi cc on thng kp gia l cc gc phng to thnh ng gy khc hoc dui thng. Cc gc phng o bng my kinh v vi sai s trung phng o gc m = 30, cc cnh o bng thc thp hoc cc my o xa quang in vi sai s trung phng tng i 1/T = 1/2000, tp hp cc im ny gi l ng chuyn kinh v. Phm vi ng dng: ng chuyn kinh v l mt dng ca li khng ch o v, c p dng ph bin nhng ni rm rp, tm nhn kh khn, c t theo hng ca cc cng trnh dng thng phc v trc tip cho o v bn . Bin son: GV. L Vn nh Dng cho sinh vin khi k thut

TRC A 6.4.1.2. hnh c bn ca ng chuyn kinh v


I

Phn 3.Bn v mt ct a hnh

A B

D2 3

II

1 D6

D1

D3 4
III

A d 1 B

I D1 2 D 2 3 D3 II

III 4 5 D4 C c

6
V

5 D5
IV

D4

a, ng chuyn kinh v kn Hnh 6.3


6.4.1.3. Mt s tiuchun k thut ng chuyn kinh v T l o v Chiu di ng chuyn (km) 1:M 1/500 1/1000 1/2000 1/5000 0.8 1.2 2.0 4.0 1.2 1.8 3.0 6.0 f 1'.(n)1/2 1'.(n)1/2 1'.(n)
1/2

b, ng chuyn kinh v ph hp

fs(m)
Khu vc xy dng

fs(m) 0.4 0.6 0.9 1.8

Bng 6.2 1/T 1/2000 1/2000 1/2000 1/2000

Khu vc xy dng Khu vc cha xy dng

Khu vc cha xy dng

0.3 0.4 0.6 1.2

1'.(n)1/2

6.4.1.4. Xy dng ng chuyn kinh v Vic thit k tin hnh trn bn t l ln nht hin c. Sau khi thit k xong tin hnh kho st trn thc a vi mc ch lm sng t bn thit k v quyt nh cui cng v tr cc nh ng chuyn. Trng hp khng c bn th vic thit k v kho st c tin hnh ng thi trn thc a. Yu cu v tr cc im: - t ni chc chn, n nh, bo v d dng v lu di, thun tin cho vic t my o gc, o di , o cao v o v chi tit. - Cc im phi phn b u v khng ch ton b khu vc o v. Khi lm c s kho st, xy dng cc cng trnh dng thng th cc im ng chuyn t theo hng trc cng trnh. Cc im ng chuyn kinh v c ng bng cc g, ng thp, mc gn tng.

6.4.2. Bnh sai gn ng ng chuyn kinh v


6. 4.2.1. Bnh sai gc - Phng trnh iu kin khp gc trong ng chuyn kn

o i

180o (n 2) = 0

(6.5)

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TRC A

Phn 3.Bn v mt ct a hnh

Trong oi - tr s gc l thuyt; n - s gc trong ng chuyn. Khi thay cc gc l thuyt bng cc gc o th phng trnh iu kin s khc 0 , tr s ny gi l sai s khp gc:
f = 180o (n 2)
1 n

(6.6)

- Phng trnh iu kin khp gc nh hng

hnh 6.3b, tr s gc nh hng ca cnh CD c tnh t ta im gc C v D l c ; ta cn c th tnh gc nh hng ca n t gc nh hng cnh AB (d) v cc gc o i:

ct = d + ( i ) + ( p t )180o
i =1

Trong p - s lng cc gc o bn phi ng tnh chuyn; t - s lng cc gc o bn tri ng tnh chuyn. Ta c phng trnh v sai s khp gc nh hng:

d + ( io ) + ( p t )180o C = 0
i =1 n

d + ( i ) + ( p t )180o C = f
i =1

(6.7)

- S hiu chnh cho cc gc o v tr sau bnh sai ca chng

Nu cc sai s khp f , f c tr s khng vt qu 1'. n th ta phn phi u sai s khp cho cc gc o vi du ngc li: ng chuyn kn: ng chuyn ph hp:

V i =

n f ; kim tra: V i = f 1 n n f V i = ( ) ; kim tra: V i = f 1 n

(6.8)

(6.9)

Trong cng thc trn ly du (+) khi cc gc o bn tri ng tnh chuyn ta v ly du () cho cc gc nm bn phi. Tr s cc gc sau bnh sai tnh theo cng thc: = + Vi
6.4.2.2. Bnh sai ta - Phng trnh iu kin to trong ng chuyn kn
i =1 n o Xi = Di cos i = 0 o i =1 n n n

(6.10)

i =1

= Di sin i = 0
o Yi o i =1

vi i = i 1 i m 180o
'

(6.11)

khi thay tr thc ca cc cnh ng chuyn bng cc tr o vo phng trnh iu kin (6.11), ta c sai s khp phng trnh iu kin to : fX = Di.cos i fY = Di. sin i ( 6.12)

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TRC A

Phn 3.Bn v mt ct a hnh

- Phng trnh iu kin to trong ng chuyn ph hp


i =1 n o o Xi ( X C X D ) = Di . cos i ( X C X D ) = 0 i =1 n n

i =1

(YC YD ) = D .sin i (YC YD ) = 0


o Yi i =1 o i

(6.13)

Trong i = i 1 i m 180 ; ta c sai s khp phng trnh iu kin to :


' o i =1 n

Di . cos i ( X C X D ) = f X Di .sin i (YC YD ) = fY

(6.14)

i =1

- Tnh s hiu chnh cho cc s gia to :

Khi sai s khp tng i chiu di ng chuyn tha mn iu kin:


fS
i =1

Di

f X2 + fY2
i =1

Di

1 2000

Th s hiu chnh cho cc s gia ta v gia s ta sau bnh sai l: f f V Xi = n X .Di X ' Xi = Xi + V Xi n D
i =1 i

(6.15)

V Yi = Kim tra:
n

fY
i =1

Di

.Di
n

fy n

'Yi = Yi + VYi

i =1

VXi = fx ; VYi = fy
i =1

T y ta tnh to cho cc im ca li khng ch trn c s to cc im gc v cc gia s to c bnh sai ny.

6.5. Li tam gic nh


6.5.1. Khi qut chung v li tam gic nh
Tp hp cc im c c nh chc chn ngoi thc, gia chng ln kt vi nhau bi cc hnh tam gic v cc iu kin ton hc cht ch. c xc nh chung trong h thng to thng nht, lm c s phn b chnh xc cc yu t ni dung bn v hn ch sai s tch lu. Li tam gic l mt dng li khng ch o v mt bng, c p dng nhng khu vc quang ng, c tm nhn tt, a hnh i ni. Cc gc trong tam gic cn thit k v o vi: 200 140 ; m 30 ; fi 90( so snh khp ). Chiu di cnh li tam gic nh phi nm trong khong 150m Di 800m; trong li c lp cn o cnh y vi sai s trung phng tng i 1/T = 1/ 5000. S lng tam gic gia hai cnh y qui nh theo t l bn : 1/5000 - 20; 1/2000 - 17; 1/1000 -15 v 1/500 l 10.

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TRC A

Phn 3.Bn v mt ct a hnh

6.5.2. Cc dng hnh ca li tam gic nh


I O A III A B II B I C I II

IV

A II

a. a gic trung tm

b. Chui tam gic Hnh 6.4

a. T gic trc a

6.5.3. Bnh sai gn ng li tam gic nh


6.5.3.1. S phng trnh iu kin

r=Nn Trong : N - i lng o n - s lng i lng o cn thit = 2 x s im cn xc nh to


6.5.3.2. Cc dng phng trnh iu kin

(1) iu kin tam gic: Ai0 +Bi0 +Ci0 - 1800 = 0 f i = Ai +Bi+ Ci - 1800 (2) iu kin gc tm: c i0 3600 = 0 f v = c i 3600
i =i i =i 0 ( 3) iu kin t gic: A1 + B i0 3600 = 0 f t = Ai + B i 3600 i =1 i =1 i =1 i =1 4 4 4 4 n n

(6.16) (6.17) (6.18)

(4) Phng trnh iu kin gc i nh: A01 +B0i - ( A03 + B03) = 0 A1 + Bi - ( A3 + B3 ) = f 1 A20 + B02 - ( A04 + B04) = 0 A2 + B2 - ( A4 + B4) = f 2 ( 5) Phng trnh iu kin gc nh hng: d + ( c i0 ) + (P T ).1800 c = 0
n i =1

(6.19)

(6.20)

c + ( c i ) + (P T ).1800 c = f
n 1

Nm phng trnh trn l phng trnh iu kin hnh dng tuyn tnh, y l cc phng trnh iu kin thuc nhm mt. (6) Phng trnh iu kin cnh : Sd n sin Ai0 1 = 0 Sc i =1 B i0 Sd n Sin Ai' 1 fs= Sc i =1 Sin B i0 (6.21)

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TRC A

Phn 3.Bn v mt ct a hnh

(7) Phng trnh iu kin cc :


n Sin Sin Ai0 Ai 1 1 = 0 f c = 0 i =1 Sin B i i =1 Sin B i n

(6.22)

(6) v (7) l phng tnh iu kin nhm 2 dng phi tuyn tnh phng tnh tuyn tnh.
6.5.3.3. Nguyn tc bnh sai gn ng li tam gic nh

Trong li tam gic nh, n gin khi bnh sai, cc phng trnh iu kin c chia lm 2 nhm: nhm 1 gm cc phng trnh iu kin hnh ( 1 5) l cc phng trnh dng tuyn tnh. nhm 2 gm cc phng trnh iu kin cnh, cc... phng trnh phi tuyn tnh. S hiu chnh ln mt Vi cho cc gc o c tnh da vo phng tnh iu kin nhm mt. tnh s hiu chnh ln mt tin hnh bnh sai ring bt tng iu kin hnh, nhng khi bnh sai iu kin sau khng c vi phm iu kin d c bnh sai trc . Da vo s hiu chnh ln mt ta c cc gc o bnh sai ln mt: i = i + Vi S hiu chnh ln hai Vi tnh da vo phng trnh iu kin nhm hai v cc gc hiu chnh ln mt. Ch rng s hiu chnh ln hai cho cc gc tham gia vo iu kin nhm hai c gi tr tuyt i bng nhau nhng ngc du. Cn cc gc trung gian Ci c s hiu chnh ln hai bng 0. Cc gc sau bnh sai: (6.23) A''i = A'i + V''Ai ; B''i = B'i + V''Bi ; C''i = C'i Cc gc sau bnh sai phi tho mn ng thi cc phng trnh iu kin trong li.

6.6. Phng php giao hi gc


6.6.1. Phng php giao hi thun
Gi s bit to 2 im A(X,) v B(XB, YB). xc nh thm to im P, ti im A v B t my kinh v o gc 1 v 2 .T cc s liu trn ta c th tnh to im P nh sau: - T im A, B p dng bi ton trc a ngc tnh gc nh hng v chiu di cnh AB: YAB YAB rAB = arctg tgrAB = X AB X AB P mx my b = 2 X AB + 2YAB - Tnh gc nh hng v chiu di ca hai cnh AP, BP : m 1 D1 D2 m2 b 1 2 AP = AB 1; DAP = sin 2 Sin(1 + 2 ) A b B b Hnh 6.5 BP = BA + 2 ; DBP = sin 1 sin (1 + 2 ) T to im A, gc nh hng v chiu di cnh AP p dng bi ton trc a thun ta tnh c to im P : xA_P ; yA_P XA_P = XA + DAP cos AP YA_P = YA + DAP sin AP Bin son: GV. L Vn nh Dng cho sinh vin khi k thut

TRC A

Phn 3.Bn v mt ct a hnh

T to im B, gc nh hng v chiu di cnh BP p dng bi ton trc a thun ta tnh c to im P. XB_P = XB + DBP cos BP YyB_P = YB + DBP sin BP Nu to im P tnh t im A bng toa im P tnh t im B th to im P l trung bnh ca hai kt qu tnh trn. Nu hai kt qu tnh sai khc nhiu th cn kim tra li qu trnh tnh ton. X + XB_ p Y + YB _ p X p = A_ p ; Yp = A _ p 2 2 (6.40) - chnh xc ca phng php : m m b 2 mp = D12 + D2 ; mp = sin 2 1 + sin 2 2 (6.24) sin sin 2

6.6.2.Phng php giao hi nghch


Bit to A, B, C v v tr ca chng ngoi thc a. t my kinh v ti im cn xc nh p, tin hnh o hai gc p1 v gc P2 . T cc s liu trn ta c th tnh c to im p. - R rng tnh c to im p ta cn phi bit chiu di v gc nh hng ca cc cnh AP, BP, CP. tnh c cc s liu th hai tam gic APC v BPC phi gii c, tuy nhin ta thy mi tam gic mi ch bit mt gc v mt cnh, cn tm thm hai gc hai tam gic 1 v 2. tm c hai gc ny ta phi thnh lp mt h phng trnh c hai phng trnh cha hai n l hai gc trn, y chnh l mu cht ca bi ton giao hi nghch. - Cc bc tnh ton: + T to ba im cho trc A, B, C, p dng bi ton trc a ngc tnh chiu di v gc nh hng cc cnh AB, BC, CA. T gc nh hng cc cnh ny ta tnh c cc gc tam gic ACB. + Thnh lp phng trnh (1). Xt t gic APBC ta c: 1 1 1 + 2+ ( c + p1+ p2) = 3600 ( 1 + 2 ) = 180 0 (c + p1 + p 2 ) (6.25) 2 2 + Thnh lp phng trnh (2). Xt hai tam gic APC v BPC cnh PC c tnh t hai tam gic ny: sin 2 sin p2 Ac Ac Bc PC = sin 1 = sin 2 = = tg t y ta tnh c gc sin p1 sin p 2 sin 1 sin p1 Bc
C

1
A

2
B

Hnh 6.6

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TRC A

Phn 3.Bn v mt ct a hnh sin sin 2 sin + cos sin 1 + sin 2 = = cos sin 1 cos sin sin 1 sin 2 +2 2 ctg 1 tg ( + 450 ) = tg 1 2 2 2 +2 cot g ( + 450 ) tg 1 = tg 1 2 2 2 +2 ctg ( + 450 ) 1 = arctg tg 1 2 2

(6.26)

+ T (6.25) & (6.26) 1 v 2. T cc gc 1 , 2, p1, p2 v to 3 im A, B, C ta d dng tnh c to im p nh cch tnh ca bi ton giao hi gc thun.

6.7. Phng php bnh sai gn ng li cao o v


I

h2

A h1 B h6
V

II

h3
III

A d B h1

I h2 II h3

III h4 C c

h4 h5
IV

(a)

Hnh 6.7

(b)

6.7.1. Bnh sai ng chuyn cao khp kn ( hnh 6.7a)


i =1 o hi = 0 ; thay tr o vo hi = 0 gh i =1 n n

(6.27) (6.28)

i =1

hi + Vhi = 0 Vhi =

f.h hi' = hi + Vhi n

T cc chnh cao bnh sai ta tnh cao cho tt c cc im trong li.

6.7.2. Bnh sai ng cao ph hp ( hnh 6.7b)


f h = H A + hi H B < g.h
i =1 n

(6.29) (6.30)

Vhi =

fh hi' = hi + Vhi n

T cc chnh cao bnh sai ta tnh cao cho tt c cc im trong li.

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TRC A

Phn 3.Bn v mt ct a hnh

CHNG 7. O V BN V MT CT A HNH 7.1. Khi nim v phn loi bn a hnh


Bn a hnh l hnh nh th nh b mt t ln t giy theo quy lut ton hc, dng qui tc tng hp v h thng k hiu thng nht. Bn thng th hin nhng phn mt t rng ln v c k n cong tri t. T l bn c th thay i nhng phn khc nhau ca n. Bnh cng l bn . Tuy nhin phm vi th hin nh hn, khng xt nh hng cong tri t v c t l khng i. T l bn l t s gia tr s chiu di mt on thng trn bn v chiu di tng ng ca n trn mt t. T l bn thng k hiu 1/ M lun ly t s bng 1 cn mu s M th hin mc thu nh chiu di mt on thng ngoi mt t ln bn . Ngi ta c th phn loi bn theo mc ch s dng v chnh xc. Phn loi theo mc ch s dng c bn hnh chnh, bn a chnh, bn lm nghip, bn quy hoch, xy dng, quc phng....Phn loi theo t l ( chnh xc) c: - Bn t l ln: 1/500, 1/1000, 1/2000, 1/5000; - Bn t l trung bnh: 1/10.000 , 1/25.000, 1/50.000; - Bn t l nh: 1/100.000, 1/200.000, 1/500.000, 1/106. Bn c th c o v bng phng php ton bc, bn c v phng php nh.

7.2. Quy tnh o v bn a hnh


7.2.1. Cng tc chun b
- Nhn nhim v, nghin cu mc ch yu cu. - Thu thp ti liu, s liu trc a hin c trong vng: bn c, s liu trc a gc, cc mc li khng ch trc a c. Tm hiu iu kin t nhin, giao thng, dn c khu vc o v. - Kho st ranh gii o v, c im a hnh v a vt khu o.

7.2.2. Thit k li khng ch


Trn bn t l ln nht hin c, thit k cc phng n li khng ch. So snh cc phng n kt hp kho st trc tip ngoi thc a, t chn phng n ti u. C nh v chn mc cc nh li khng ch phng n chn. c tnh chnh xc cng tc o c li, thit k tiu ngm, gi ngm, mc khng ch.

7.2.3. o c , tnh ton bnh sai v xc nh v tr cc im khng ch trn giy v


- Tin hnh o c cc yu t li bao gm: tr s cc gc, cc cnh, cc chnh cao. Qu trnh o phi tun th ng quy trnh, quy phm v cc hn sai cho php tnh ton. - Cc s liu o c tnh ton, bnh sai theo phng php thch hp xc nh tr tin cy ca cc i lng o. T cc tr o sau bnh sai v cc s liu trc a gc, tin hnh tnh to v cao cc im khng ch.

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TRC A

Phn 3.Bn v mt ct a hnh

- Dng li vung to trn t giy v bn , cn c vo to cc im khng ch v h thng li vung to , tin hnh xc nh v tr cc im ca khng ch trn t giy v bn .

7.2.4. o c - tnh ton - v bn gc


- o c cc s liu xc nh v tr mt bng v cao cc im c trng ca a hnh, a vt. - Tnh s o chi tit gm khong cch ngang t my ti cc im chi tit v cao cc im chi tit. - v bn gc: trn c s s liu khng ch v s liu o chi tit; dng thc o , thc t l, thc mm, bt ch hoc cc phn mm chuyn dng xc nh v tr cc im chi tit trn t giy v bn . Th hin cc yu t a vt bng cc k hiu qui c, th hin a hnh bng ng ng mc.

7.2.5. Kim tra, nghim thu, bin tp, in n

7.3. o v chi tit bn a hnh bng phng php ton c


7.3.1. Ni dung phng php
o v chi tit bn thng p dng phng php ta cc. Da trn c s h to cc, ngoi thc a ly cc im khng ch l tm cc, ng ni gia im tm cc vi cc im khng ch khc l trc cc. Mt im chi tit i no c xc ng bi ba thng s: gc cc i, khong cch cc Di v chnh cao hi ca im chi tit so vi im tm c ( hnh 7.1). Sau khi o chi tit ngoi thc a, trong phng tin hnh tnh s o chi tit ng thi dng dng c hoc cc phn v bn xc nh v tr cc im chi tit trn bn v dng h thng k hiu v ng ng mc biu din bn .
II

7.3.2. o c thc a

i Di hi

Hnh 7.1

t my kinh v vo im trm o (im khng ch), thc hin ba thao tc c bn: nh tm, cn bng, nh hng "0" theo hng trc cc. Khi o chi tit, vic o gc bng ch thc hin v tr bn tri. Khong cch t my ti mia o mt ln theo phng php th c mia ng. chnh cao cc im chi tit xc nh theo phng php o cao lng gic. Mt im chi tit ngi ng my phi o bn s liu gm khong cch t my ti mia D, chiu cao im ngm lv, gc bng v s c bn ng VT. Mi trm my cn phi o chiu cao my i tnh chnh cao cc im. t mia ln lt t mia ti cc im c trng ca a hnh v a vt gm: - Cc im c trng cho a vt: nhng im nm trn bin ca a vt ti nhng v tr c trng cho hnh th ca a vt . Thng l cc im khng ch trc a, cc cng trnh xy dng dn dng, cng nghip, kin trc, phn l ra ca cc cng trnh gm... Cc cng trnh in lc, bu chnh vin thng nh trm, tr in, ng dy...Cc cng trnh giao thng ng b, ng st, ng thu, ng bng, nh ga, sn , cu cng ... H thng thu vn sng nh sui, h ao, b nc. Din tch gp nc, b bin, knh mng. H thng phn phi nc, cung cp nc nh

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TRC A

Phn 3.Bn v mt ct a hnh

ging, thp nc, b lc, b cha... Mt im mia v khong cch t my ti mia quy nh bng 7.1. - Cc im mia c trng cho a hnh gm cc im nm trn ranh gii ca cc min a hnh c dc khc nhau, im cao nht, im thp nht, lng cho. Cc im nm trn ng phn thu, t thu, yn nga. cao mc nc trong h, ao, sng ngi (hnh 7.2).

Phn thu

Yn nga T thu

Hnh 7.2

Bng 7.1
T l bn Khong Cao u(m) Khong cch ln nht Gia cc im mia(m) Khong cch ln nht t my ti mia Dng t(m) a vt(m)

1:500 1:1000 1:2000

0.5 1.0 0.5 1~2 0.5 1.0 2.0

15 15 20 30 40 40 50 60 80 100 120

100 150 150 200 200 250 250 250 300 350 350

60 60 80 80 100 100 100 150 150 150 150

1:5000

0.5 1.0 2.0 5.0

Ngi ghi s ngoi vic ghi cc s liu do ngi ng my c vo s o chi tit, cn phi v s ha khu o. Bn s ha ly trm o v hng chun lm gc, trn th hin s ho a hnh v a vt khu o, ghi s im mia theo s th t nh trong s o. C nh vy cng tc ni nghip mi m bo tnh chnh xc khi ni a vt v th hin a hnh.

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TRC A S O CHI TIT

Phn 3.Bn v mt ct a hnh

Trm: I Hng chun: II i= 1.5m


S N
O

HI = 9.76m My o: Theo020 MO = 89o30


S c bn V= MO-VT D= S.cos v
2

l (m)

h= D.tgV + i-l

H= HI+h Ghi ch

(m)

vT

1 2

27.6 1.0 62.3 1.0

37o171 95o36 -6o06 206o423 87o14 +2o16

27.3 62.2

-2.42 +2.95

7.34 12.71

a hnh Gc nh

7.3.3. Cng tc ni nghip


- Tnh s o chi tit gm: chuyn chiu di nghing S v nm ngng D; tnh gc ng V; tnh chnh cao v H ca cc im chi tit. - V khung li vung, kim tra cc cnh vung khng chnh nhau qu 0.2mm, cc ng cho vung khng chnh nhau qu 0.3mm. Xc nh cc im khng ch ln bn v theo phng php to vung gc. V k hiu im khng ch v bn cnh ghi mt phn s vi t s l tn im, mu l cao. - Xc nh cc im chi tit ln bn v theo phng php to cc bng cc dng c vn phng nh: thc o , thc t l, thc mm. Cc im chi tit c nh du bng bt ch v ghi tr s cao cc im mia. Cc du chm ch nh du im chi tit nm cch gc di pha ty ca s ghi cao 1,5mm. - Dng cc k hiu quy c th hin a vt v v ng ng mc th hin dng t.

7.3.4. Kim tra, nh gi chnh xc bn a hnh


- Kim tra khng ch:

sai s gii hn v tr im li khng ch sau bnh sai so vi im gc khng vt qu 0.3mm i vi min i ni v 0.2mm i vi vng quang ng theo t l bn . Sai s gii hn v cao cc im khng ch so vi im cao gc khng vt qu 1/5 khong cao u ng ng mc i vi vng ng bng v 1/3 i vi min ni.
- Kim tra cc im chi tit:

sai s trung bnh v tr cc a vt c nh trn bn so vi im khng ch gn nht khng c vt qu 0.5mm ( vng ni 0.7mm). Trong thnh ph v khu cng nghip sai s v tr tng h gia cc im a vt quan trng, c nh khng vt qu 0.4mm trn bn . Sai s trung bnh cc im a hnh so vi cao im khng ch gn nht tnh theo khong cao u khng vt qu quy nh bng 7.2. Gi tr lch cho php bng hai ln sai s trung bnh trn. S lng im c chnh lch bng hoc vt chnh lch cho php khng c qu 10% tng s im kim tra.

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TRC A

Phn 3.Bn v mt ct a hnh

Bng 7.2 dc a hnh 0 ~2 2 ~6


o o o o

T l o v 1/500 1/4 0 1/3 1/3 0 1/1000 1/4 0 1/3 1/3 1/2 1/2000 1/4 1/3 1/3 1/2 1/2 1/5000 1/4 1/3 1/3 1/2 1/2

KC 0.5m
o o

6 ~15 >15
o

7.4. Biu din a vt, a hnh trn bn


7.4.1. phng php biu din a vt trn bn
Dng h thng k hiu qui c thng nht do Cc o c c Bn Nh nc bin son. Ty theo t l bn v a vt s c nhng k hiu tng ng. C cc loi k hiu nh: k hiu theo t l, phi t l, na t l, ch thch v t mu.
im tram gic Cy l kim M t Nh Cy l rng ng mn La Trng hc Mu ng nha Nh th ng in Tng xy Cu ,cng ng dy TT Ro tm

- K hiu theo t l gi nguyn kch thc ca i tng biu din theo ng t l bn . K hiu loi ny dng cho nhng a vt c kch thc ln, theo n c th bit c v tr v kch thc thc t ca i tng th hin. - K hiu phi t l dng cho cc a vt c kch thc nh nhng c tm quan trng nhng khng th biu din c theo t l bn . V d: im khng ch , Ging, ct cy s, bia m, cy c lp ....K hiu loi ny ch cho bit v tr ca i tng th hin. - K hiu na t l kt hp gia hai loi k hiu trn, dng cho cc loi a vt hnh tuyn. theo k hiu loi ny th chiu di tuyn c th hin bng loi k hiu theo t l cn chiu rng th hin bng k hiu phi t l.

7.4.2. Biu din a hnh bng ng ng mc


7.4.2.1. Khi nim

a hnh mt t bao gm hnh dng bn ngoi ca mt t nh cao, thp, li, lm, dc, bng phng. Ngi ta dng ng ng mc biu din nhng yu t y ca a hnh. ng ng mc l giao tuyn gia mt t t nhin vi cc mt song song vi mt thy chun gc tri t nhng cao khc nhau. Hiu cao gia hai ng ng mc k nhau gi l khong cao u (hnh 7.3).

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TRC A

Phn 3.Bn v mt ct a hnh

h h

Phn thu

Yn nga T thu

Hnh 7.3
Tnh cht ng mc:

- Cc im trn cng mt ng ng mc u c cao bng nhau. - ng ng mc l nhng ng cong, trn, lin tc, khp kn v hu nh khng ct nhau. - Ch no ng ng mc tha th a hnh thoi, ch no ng ng mc mau th a hnh dc. Ch no cc ng ng mc trng nhau a hnh l vch ng. s dng bn c thun tin, c cch 4 hoc 5 ng ng mc ngi ta li t m mt ng v ghi cao ca n hng v pha nh. ng ng mc ny gi l ng ng mc ci.
7.4.2.2. V ng ng mc bng phng php gii tch

Da vo cao ca cc im a hnh v khong cch gia chng, bng phng php tnh ton ngi ta c th xc nh chnh xc v tr cc ng ng mc ct qua gia cc im a hnh c trng. Ni cc im c cng cao vi nhau ta s c ng ng mc. d hnh dung, ta ly mt v d c th minh ho phng php: gi s c hai im a hnh c trng l N v M, cao tng ng l HN = 5,4m v HM= 8,5m. Hai im ny c v tr No v Mo tng ng trn bn (hnh 7.4).
d8 d6 N x1 N' 6 7 8 x2 M'' Mo M M'

No

Hnh 7.4 Khong NoMo trn bn o c a = 20mm, khong cao iu ng ng mc cho trc l H = 1m. Hy tm v tr cc ng ng mc ct qua on NoMo. V on nghing NM c cao ln nht l 8,5m, nh nht l 5,4m v khong cao u cho bng 1m nn s c ba ng ng mc ct qua NM, l ng: 6m, 7m, 8m. tm c v tr ng 6m phi tnh c on x1, ng 7m phi tnh c on x2, cn ng 7m s nm gia ng 6m v ng 8m.

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TRC A

Phn 3.Bn v mt ct a hnh

Xt hai cp tam gic ng dng NN'd6 ~ NMM'' v MM'8 ~ NMM'' ta c: x1 N ' d 6 N ' d6 x MM ' MM ' = x1 = a. ; 2 = x2 = a. a MM ' ' MM ' ' a MM ' ' MM ' ' (7.1)

Trong : MM'' = 8,5 - 5.4 = 3,1 (m); N'd6 = 6 - 5,4 = 0,6 (m); MM' =8,5 - 8 = 0,5 (m), a =20mm. Thay cc gi tr ny vo (7.1) ta c : x1 = 4mm, x2 = 3mm xc nh v tr ng ng mc 6m ta t on x1 trn on NoMo, v tr ng 8m t on x2 trn on MoNo cn ng 7m l im gia ng 6m v ng 8m. Bng cch ni suy nh vy ta s tm c v tr ca tt c cc ng ng mc, ni nhng im c cng cao vi nhau s c ng ng mc y.

7.5. Chia mnh v nh s t bn


thun tin cho s dng v bo qun bn , ngi ta quy nh cch phn mng v nh s cc t bn . H thng phn mnh c thc hin nh sau:

7.5.1. Xy dng tm bn c s t l 1/106


T kinh tuyn 180o v pha ng, theo kinh tuyn c cch 6o l 1 ct, nh s th t ct t 160. T xch o v hai cc, theo v tuyn c cch 4o l 1 hng, nh s cc hng bi: A, B, C ....Mi hnh thang cong kch thc 6o x 4o l mnh bn c s 1/106. Tn ca t bn c s l tn hng theo sau l tn ct. Vit Nam thuc cc t F-48 (C,D,E,F ).

7.5.2. Chia mnh cc t bn c t l khc


- T c s t l 1/106 ( F-48) c chia thnh 4 t bn 1/ 500.000 ( F-48-D) vi tn ring ( A,B,C,D ); 36 t bn 1/ 200.000 ( F-48- XI) tn ring ( I,II,III,...XXXVI ); 144 t bn 1/ 100.000 (F-48-144) tn ring ( 1,2,3,....,144). - T 1/100.000 chia lm 4 t 1/ 50.000 vi tn ring ( A,B,C,D); t 1/ 50.000 chia lm 4 t 1/25.000 vi tn ring (a,b,c,d) ; t 1/25.000 chia lm 4 t 1/10.000 vi tn ring (1,2,3,4). - T 1/100.000 chia lm 256 t 1/5.000 tn ring ( [1], [2], [3],.....,[256]); t 1/ 5.000 chia lm 9 t 1/2.000 vi tn ring ( [a], [b], [c],.....). - Nhng t c t l ln hn dng li km chia, dng bng to gc khung ca Gauss.

7.6. S dng bn a hnh


7.6.1. nh hng bn ngoi thc a
- nh hng bng a vt dng tuyn: c th dng tuyn ng b, ng st, tuyn knh mng nh hng bn . Thc cht ca phng php ny l mang bn ra thc a ti v tr r nt ca a vt dng tuyn, xoay bn sao cho hng a vt dng tuyn trn bn trng vi hng tng ng ca n trn thc a, ta s c bn quay ng hng ca n. - nh hng bng a bn: nh hng, ta t trn bn mt a bn sao cho ng ni bc - nam ca n song song vi hng bc - nam ca li vung ta trn bn . Xoay bn kim a bn trng vi ng ni bc - Nam ca a bn th bn s quay ng hng.

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TRC A

Phn 3.Bn v mt ct a hnh

7.6.2. Xc nh chiu di trn bn


xc nh chiu di mt on thng trn bn ta o chiu di on thng trn bn ri nhn vi t l bn ta s c chiu di tng ng ca n ngoi thc a. xc nh chiu di mt on cong trn bn ta vi phn on cong sao cho cc on ny c th xem nh on thng ri o cc on thng vi phn, ly tng nhn vi t l bn , ta s c chiu di on cong. C th xc nh chiu di on cong bng my o chiu di: S = K ( Un - Uo). Trong Uo s c ban u trn my ng vi im u on cong; Un : s c trn my sau khi cho bnh xe ca my chy t im u v ti im cui ng cong; K: gi tr mt khong chia ca my.

7.6.3. Xc nh gc trn bn
- Gi s cn phi xc nh gc bng () kp gi hai on thng OE V OD trn bn (hnh 7.5), v php chiu bn l php chiu ng gc nn ta c th dng thc o o trc tip gc () trn bn . - Xc nh gc nh hng ca ng thng trn bn : gc nh hng ca ng thng trn bn l gc bng tnh t hng bc trc OX hoc ng thng song song vi trc OX n hng ng thng, v vy cng o trc tip nh i vi o gc bng ( hnh 7.5). - Gc bng v gc nh hng c th xc nh thng qua vic gii ta trn bn .

7.6.4. Xc nh ta mt im trn bn
- Xc nh to a l ca mt im: trn bn c li kinh v , gi tr cc ng kinh v v biu th bi cc vch en, trng trn bn cnh khung bn . Gi s cn xc nh to a l im M. Qua M ta k mt ng song song vi cnh kinh tuyn v mt ng kia song song vi cnh v tuyn; t t l cc on thng o c ta s xc nh c to a l im A. - Xc nh to vung gc ca mt im: ta vung gc xc nh trn bn nh da vo li vung ta ca bn . Gi s cm xc nh to vung gc ca im N (hnh 7.5), qua im N ta k hai ng thng ct cc cnh vung cha im N, dng thc o chiu di cc on a, b, c, d, t s liu o ny ta xc ng c ta vung gc ca im N: b X N = 25 + .( 26 25).M b+a (7.2) c YN = 80 + .(81 80).M c+d Trong M l mu s t l bn .
a

7.6.5. Xc nh cao mt im trn bn


Trn bn , cao cc im c xc da vo ng ng mc. Gi s cn phi xc inh cao ba im A, B, C trn bn ( hnh7.5); v im A nm trn ng ng mc 10m, im C nm trn ng ng mc 5m nn chng c cao bng chnh cao ng ng mc , tc l : HA = 10m, HC = 5m; cn cao im B th phi ni suy.
F

d
10

n
A E B

m
C

Hnh 7.5

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TRC A

Phn 3.Bn v mt ct a hnh

ni suy cao im B ta dng thc o on n v m v p dng cng thc ni suy: HB = 5m + hCB = 10m - hBA Vi : hBC = n m (10 5) ; hCA = (10 5) m+n m+n
(7.3)

7.6.6. Xc nh dc mt t
Dng compa o on thng ni gia hai im nm trn hai ng ng mc lin nhau. t khu compa o trn trc ng thc o dc ri dng ra ng cong tng ng, chiu im dng xung trc ngang ta s c dc a hnh (hnh 7.6).
D

i%

7.6.7. Xc nh din tch trn bn

Hnh 7.6

Gi s cn phi xc nh din tch khu vc no trn bn , ta c thc hin theo phng php sau:
7.6.7.1. Phng php hnh hc

- Khi din tch cn xc nh l mt a gic, ta chia a gic thnh nhng hnh c dng hnh hc c bn nh: hnh tam gic, hnh thang, hnh vung , hnh ch nht. o cc i lng cn thit tnh din tch cc hnh c bn ri ly tng li ta s c din tch khu o. V d t gic OEFD trn hnh 7.5 c chia lm hai tam gic FDO v FOE, o cc cnh hoc chiu cao, cnh y hoc hai cnh v gc kp...trc tip trn bn nh trnh by trn tnh din tch hai tam gic ny. T tnh c din tch t gic. - Khi chu vi hnh cn xc nh din tch c dng cong bt k, c th dng cc tm gii xc nh. Cc tm gii lm bng giy bng m, mica hoc platc. Trn mt cc tm ny, ngi ta k li vung c din tch cc xc nh. t tm gii ln hnh, m s vung nguyn gia v c lng ghp cc phn vung l bin thnh cc vung. T tng cc vng ta s bit c din tch hnh cn o. Xc nh din tch bng phng php hnh hc nhanh, n gin tuy nhin chnh xc thng thp (sai s 5%).
7.6.7.2. Phng php gii tch

Khi khu vc cn xc nh din tch l mt a gic c to cc nh xc nh, ta c th dng cng thc sau tnh din tch :

S=

1 n 1 n X i (Yi +1 Yi 1 ) = Yi ( X i 1 X i +1 ) 2 i =1 2 i =1

(7.4)

Trong Xi v Yi l ta cc nh ca a gic. Phng php gii tch cho chnh xc cao ( sai s 0.1%).

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TRC A 7.6.7.3. My o din tch

Phn 3.Bn v mt ct a hnh

- My o din tch c bn b phn chnh: Cnh tay n cc, cnh tay n quay, bnh xe quy v b phn c s. - Cch o: t kim quay ti im A trn chu vi hnh cn o, c s c ban uu1 . Di chuyn kim quay trn chu vi cho n khi tr li m A, c c s c u2 . Din tch hnh cn o xc nh theo cng thc : S = c (u2 - u1) , trong c l gi tr mi khong chia ca my o din tch c xc nh bng thc nghim (hnh 7.7). Xc nh din tch bng my o c sai s 0.5%.

A
Cnh tay n quay

B phn c s Cnh tay n cc

Hnh 7.7

7.6.8. Lp mt ct a hnh theo mt hng cho trc trn bn


Gi s cn thnh lp mt ct a hnh theo hng ng thng AB cho trc trn bn . t t giy can ln ng thng AB. Dng bt nh du v ghi ch cao cc giao im gia AB vi cc ng ng mc. T cc giao im nh du dng ng vung gc, trn t cao cc giao im theo t l ng ca mt ct. ni u mt cc on thng vung gc li ta s c mt ct a hnh theo ng ab cho trc.
7 6 5 A B

Hnh 7.8

7.7. o v mt ct a hnh
7.7.1. Khi nim
phc v cho thit k k thut cc cng trnh xy dng nh: cu ng, thu li, ng st, ng dy ti in ...phi bit c th v chnh xc a hnh mt t theo hng cng trnh i qua. Cng tc o v v biu din a hnh mt t theo mt hng no c gi l o v mt ct. C 2 loi mt ct a hnh l mt ct dc v mt ct ngang. Bin son: GV. L Vn nh
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TRC A

Phn 3.Bn v mt ct a hnh

- Mt ct dc l giao tuyn gia mt t vi mt thng ng theo trc cng trnh. - Mt ct ngang l mt ct thng ng vung gc vi trc cng trnh. o v mt ct bao gm cc cng vic nh tuyn ngoi thc a, o khong cch v cao cc im trn tuyn, tnh ton v v mt ct.

7.7.2. o mt ct ngoi thc a


- nh tuyn ngoi thc a: xc nh cc im khng ch tuyn ngoi thc a bao gm im u, cc im ti tuyn chuyn hng ( nh), cc im trung gian theo thyt k, im cui. Cc im khng ch tuyn c th kho st chn ngay ngoi thc a ( quy m cng trnh nh) hoc chuyn t bn phng n thit k tuyn c ph duyt. - C nh cc cc chnh: t im u, dng thc dy hoc cc my o di c chnh xc cn thit b tr cc cc cch nhau 100m. Gi cc cc ny l cc cc chnh v c k hiu t C0 cho n Cn. C 10 cc chnh l mt cc km nh s t "km_1" n "km_ n". - C nh cc cc ph: cc cc ph c ng nhng v tr c trng cho a hnh, a vt mt t. Dng thc dy hoc my o di o chiu di gia cc cc ph, gia cc ph vi cc chnh v cc nh gn nht ( khong cch l). - B tr v c nh mt ct ngang: nhng ni trn hng vung gc vi tuyn nu a hnh mt t thay i nhiu th phi o v mt ct ngang. V tr mt ct ngang trn tim tuyn c o v k hiu ging nhng cc ph. Cc im trn mt ct ngang cng l cc im c trng cho a hnh, a vt. Khong cch l trn mt ct ngang o t tim v hai pha ca tuyn bng thc hoc my o di. - Ti cc nh cn phi o gc chuyn hng ( gc li) v b tr cc ng cong nu l cng trnh tuyn giao thng hoc thy li. - o v bnh dc tuyn: ng thi vi vic c nh tuyn cn phi o v bnh dc tuyn vi di rng t tim v hai bn theo quy nh. Trong phm vi quy nh bnh tuyn c o chnh xc nh phn 7.3 hc. Ngoi phm vi quy nh th th c lng bng mt. - Bnh dui thng: bnh dui thng th hin trn mt ct dc tuyn. Trn bnh ny th hin im u, cc cc chnh, cc km, cc ph, cc nh, cc mt ct ngang,...,im cui. V mi tn ch hng ngot ca tuyn. Phc ho a vt, a hnh dc tuyn. - o cao mt ct:

Nhng cng trnh quan trng, quy m ln ta phi o ni tuyn vi li khng ch nh nc nhm thng nht to v cao. khi dn cao dc tuyn thng dng cp cao k thut v ng dng phng php o cao hnh hc t gia; cc cc mt ct trng vi cc lin h gia cc trm my th phi o hai ln trn hai mt mia. kim tra cng tc dn cao, c khong 1km phi o ni tuyn vi cc im khng ch cp cao hn ca li khng ch cao chy dc tuyn. Trong trng hp khc th phi o cao i v v kim tra. Cc cc mt ct khng phi l cc lin h th ch o mt ln bng phng php o cao hnh hc pha trc hoc o cao lng gic.

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TRC A

Phn 3.Bn v mt ct a hnh

7.7.3. Tnh v v mt ct
7.7.3.1. Tnh ton kt qu o mt:

Tnh ton v bnh sai kt qu o cao dc tuyn i vi cc im lin h. Sai s khp cao : f h = 50 Lkm (mm) . Tnh cao cc im trn mt ct mt ct, khong cch l, gc chuyn hng, cc thng s ng cong, cc l trnh, cc 100m, cc km. Nu v mt ct theo phn mm trn my tnh th t chc file s liu chy chng trnh.
7.7.3.1. V mt ct

C th coi mt ct nh mt th, mt trc l trc cao ( thng ng) cn trc kia l trc khong cch l (nm ngang). Da vo kt qu o c tin hnh v mt ct trn giy k ly. Khi v mt ct dc, thy r dc mt t thng ly t l cao gp 10 ln t l ngang. i vi mt ct ngang th t l ng v ngang ly bng nhau. thun tin cho vic trnh by trn mt ct trn giy ngi ta chn mc so snh sao cho im thp nht trn mt ct cch ng so snh t 8cm n 10cm. Hnh 7.9 l mt ct dc tuyn.

Hnh 7.9

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