Learning Assessment Strategies
ON CONTENT VALIDITY OF TESTS
Name of FS Student: Mannielle Mae T.Oliva Course: Bachelor of Elementary Education Year & Section: IV Resource Teacher 1: Mrs. Rowena P. Garcia Signature ___________Date:__________ Cooperating School: Bernardo Lirio Memorial Central School My Target In this Episodes, I must be able to examine different types of scoring rubrics used by my Resource Teachers and relate them to assessment of student learning. I am able to see and examine various types of learner’s portfolios that my Resource Teachers used for assessing learner’s performance. My Performance (How I Will Be Rated) Field Study 5, Episode 4- On Scoring rubrics Field Study 5, Episode 5 - On Portfolios Focused on-Types on Scoring Rubrics Focused on- Types of Learners Portfolio Task Exemplary 4 Superior 3 Satisfactory 2 Unsatisfactory 1
All tasks were All or nearly all done with tasks were done outstanding with high quality quality; work exceeds expectations 4 3
Nearly all tasks Fewer than half were done with of tasks were acceptable done; or most quality objectives met but with poor quality 2 1
Analysis Analysis Analysis questions were questions were questions were answered not answered not answered. well-organized and most supporting documentation are available and/or in logical and clearly marked locations. Clear connection Vaguely related Grammar and with theories to the theories spelling unsatisfactory. 1 Portfolio has many lacking components. in depth answers. 3 2 1
4 My Reflection Reflection statements are profound and clear. completely completely. supporting documentation is organized but is lacking. is unorganized and unclear. Grammar and Grammar and spelling are spelling superior.
4 My Portfolio Portfolio is complete. clear.My Analysis
Analysis questions were answered completely. thoroughly grounded on theories/Exemplary grammar and spelling. unclear and clearly supported by shallow and are supported by experiences not supported by experiences from the experiences from the episode. episode. but not shallow. well-organized and all supporting documentation are located in sections clearly designated. from the episode.
4 Submission Before deadline
1 days or
A day after the Two
. 3 On the deadline 2 Portfolio is incomplete. acceptable.
Reflection Reflection Reflection statements are statements are statements are clear. 3 Portfolio is complete. clear. supported by experiences from the episode.
25 .87 2.deadline 4 Sub Totals 3 2
more after the deadline 1
Rating: (Based on transmutation)
____________________________ Signature of FS Teacher Above Printed Name
Transmutation of score to grade/rating Score 20 18-19 17 16 15 14 Grade 1.90 2.96 1.99 1.93 1.00 .00 3.5 5.75 3.25 .5 .75 .50 2.00 81 78 75 72 and below
.0 .84 Score 12-13 11 10 8-9 7-below Grade 2.
Review “ Scoring Rubrics” in Assesment of Learning 2. performances and the like. Judgements concerning the quality of a given writing sample may vary depending upon the criteria established by the individual evaluator. One evaluator may heavily weigh the evaluation process upon the linguistic structure. 2007. group projects.
. while another evaluator may be more interested in the persuasiveness of the argument. Request my Resource Teachers for a copy ( for to photocopy) of the scoring rubrics that the school uses for hroup projects.
2. Where do you use the scoring rubrics? ( student output or product and activities) Scoring rubrics are typically employed when a judgement of quality is required and may be used to evaluate a broad range of subjects and activities. R. One common use of scoring rubrics is to guide the evaluation of writing samples. I will reflect on all information gathered. pp.
3. 6. If there are no scoring rubrics available I will research samples of scoringrubrics for student papers . students papers cooperative learning activities. cooperative learning activities.
1. by Santos. Interview at least 2 Resources Teachers on their use of scoring rubrics in assessing learning.
Interview of my Resources Teachers I will ask the following question: 1. I will analyzed information gathered from my interview and research.
but he also cautioned that “many rubrics now available to educators are not instructionally beneficial” (p. they must first be designed or modified to reflect greater consistency in their performance criteria descriptors. 3. Scoring rubrics are especially useful in assessment for learning because they contain qualitative descriptions of performance criteria that work well within the process of formative evaluation. 2000). Arter & McTighe. Unfortunately. Rubric Reminders: 1.and What’s Right .2. many educational researchers have noted the instructional benefits of scoring rubrics (for example. Goodrich Andrade.
4. Popham noted their potential as “instructional illuminators” in a 1997 article entitled What’s Wrong . Consider your students and grader(s) when deciding which type to use. At last. 2001. They are popular because they can be created for or adapted to a variety of subjects and situations. When you learn what rubrics do—and why— you can create and use them to support and assess student learning without losing your sanity. For modeling.72). this is what I need!”) followed closely by panic (“Good grief. For scoring rubrics to fulfill their educational ideal. contain design flaws that not only affect their instructional usefulness. how can I be expected to develop a rubric for everything?”). Every time I introduce rubrics to a group of teachers the reaction is the same — instant appeal (“Yes. In recent years. What help have scoring rubrics given you? When there were no scoring rubrics yet. present to your students anchor products or exemplars of products at various levels of development. here’s clarity on the term. The most accessible rubrics.with Rubrics. 3. Neither the analytic nor the holistic rubric is better than the other one. what did you use? Authentic assessments tend to use rubrics to describe student achievement. particularly those available on the Internet.
. 2. What difficulties have you met in the use of scoring rubrics? Scoring rubrics are currently used by students and teachers in classrooms from kindergarten to college across North America. but also the validity of their results. many rubrics are still not instructionally useful because of inconsistencies in the descriptions of performance criteria across their scale levels. Do you make use of holistic and analytic rubrics? How do they differ? Analytic rubrics identify and assess components of a finished product. Holistic rubrics assess student work as a whole.
younger students may be able to integrate it into their schema better than the analytic rubric. a holistic rubric does not list separate levels of performance for each criterion. a holistic rubric assigns a level of performance by assessing performance across
. Using the Research rubric. Both have a place in authentic assessment. like the Research rubric above. An analytic rubric articulates levels of performance for each criterion so the teacher can assess student performance on each criterion. Which is easier to use.
I will research on the following • Types of rubrics
Analytic rubric Most rubrics.5.” Holistic rubric In contrast. How many teachers are scoring the product? How many teachers are scoring the product? Different teachers have different ideas about what constitutes acceptable criteria and used what and where they are more comfortable.
6. are analytic rubrics. Instead. depending on the following: Who is being taught? Because there is less detail to analyze in the holistic rubric.analytic or holistic? Neither rubric is better than the other. Where you involved in the making of scoring rubrics? How do you make one? Which is easier to construct – analytic or holistic? No I just browse on the internet a I often used Holistic rubrics so I can measure the whole work of the student. a teacher could assess whether a student has done a poor. good or excellent job of “organization” and distinguish that from how well the student did on “historical accuracy.
. 5. etc. quizzes. Rubrics are very useful in providing guidance and feedback to students where skills and processes are the targets to be monitored.
6. 2. 3. collaborative work. Assign specific grading criteria for each main category from step six. quality processes. thinking skills (i.. This how to provides step-by-step instructions to help you create effective rubrics. Multiply your total point value from step 3 by each item's assigned percentage to arrive at the point value for that item. comparing. etc. Assign each item on your ranked list a percentage value out of 100 percent.e. as well as in the feedback process and in reporting to stakeholders. Best results with rubrics often occur when students are involved in the design of the rubric. Make sure to leave room in between each category. applying the method of scientific inquiry. 4.) Methods. Organize your list from most important to least important. the analytic research rubric above can be turned into a holistic rubric. Examples of skills or processes that adapt well to being rubriced include: writing. For example. • When to use rubrics Rubrics are best suited for use in situations where a wide range of variation exists between what's considered very proficient and what's considered not yet proficient. and life-long learner skills (i. checklists. problem solving). • How to construct the two types of rubrics Rubrics are a quick and powerful way to grade everything from projects to papers.e. constructing. Make a list of what you want the students to accomplish through your assignment. are more conducive to monitoring quantities or amounts of factual information known by a learner. write the name for each item on your list in order from most to least important. Difficulty: Average Time Required: 20 minutes Here's How: 1. Decide on an overall point value for the assignment. such as tests.multiple criteria as a whole. On a fresh sheet of paper. Rubrics are useful to scaffold the accomplishment of a new performance task or to introduce new skills and processes.
a rubric developed with learners can increase their understanding of the task and the expectations around quality. but can also
Distribute or display the rubric to the students when you are explaining the assignment. art. Performance assessments frequently result in a product that is created or constructed by the students. 2.
Advantages and disadvantages of using rubrics
1. as well as the product created. research papers.” Additionally. Because the criteria are public. which can be complex and subjective. What benefits have scoring rubrics brought to the teaching learning process? A rubric is an attempt to communicate expectations of quality around a task. and music. what should be observed in the making and use of scoring rubrics? Scoring is not always as simple and straightforward as counting the number of words spelled correctly on a spelling test. models. How are scoring rubrics related to portfolio assessment? Portfolios are a kind of authentic assessment and because authentic assessments cannot be graded like traditional assessments. and peer review. they can be more involved in the process of working toward success. A rubric can also provide a basis for self-evaluation. reflection. In performance assessments. Sometimes performance of something is the product. This integration of performance and feedback is called ongoing assessment or formative assessment. scoring rubrics is just one way to assess portfolios in order to increase the reliability of scores based on human judgment. Pamela Flash states that “When students are apprised of grading criteria from the start. projects. Evidence of learning is demonstrated through such products as posters. To get the most from scoring rubrics. 3. rubrics are used to delineate consistent criteria for grading. students generate their own responses. physical education.8. and portfolios. In many cases. fostering understanding and indicating the way to proceed with subsequent learning/teaching. a rubric allows teachers and students alike to evaluate criteria. Another aspect of the performance assessment that may be assessed is performance itself. A rubric can best support the teaching and learning process when it is shared with the learner at the beginning of task creation or development process. It is aimed at accurate and fair assessment. essays. Performances are not limited to dance.
the most common argument for using rubrics is they help define "quality. as well as monitor it. Rubrics provide students with more informative feedback about their strengths and areas in need of improvement." but in other circumstances we observe learning-related behaviors in the classroom setting. First. time on task.. Third. Performance might also involve the actions of the student while preparing the product. they have little left to say about it. Fourth. Thus. or collaboration skills. by making teachers' expectations clear and by showing students how to meet these expectations. increases students' sense of responsibility for their own work and cuts down on the number of "Am I done yet?" questions. The examples here have three or four gradations of quality. but there is no reason they can't be "stretched" to reflect the work of both gifted students and
. one important guideline is that the assessment be done systematically so all students are assessed on the same basis.include speeches. In some situations. e. participation in class discussions. Repeated practice with peer-assessment." One student actually didn't like rubrics for this very reason: "If you get something wrong." she said. When they do have something to say.and peerassessment.g. A second reason that rubrics are useful is that they help students become more thoughtful judges of the quality of their own and others' work.. and especially self-assessment. students become increasingly able to spot and solve problems in their own and one another's work. rather than struggling to explain the flaw or strength they have noticed and figuring out what to suggest in terms of improvements. or both. oral presentation behaviors. teachers appreciate rubrics because their "accordion" nature allows them to accommodate heterogeneous classes. performance. The result is often marked improvements in the quality of student work and in learning. they can often simply circle an item in the rubric. we observe how a student behaves when the student is "performing. rubrics reduce the amount of time teachers spend evaluating student work.and peer-assessed according to a rubric. demonstrations. they are powerful tools for both teaching and assessment. and class presentations in any subject area. When rubrics are used to guide self. Teachers tend to find that by the time a piece has been self. Rubrics can improve student performance. "your teacher can prove you knew what you were supposed to do!" (Marcus 1995).
Reflects on this : Scoring rubrics: Boon or Bane?
BOON Rubrics appeal to teachers and students for many reasons. Whether we are assessing the product.
discuss these issues. During parent conferences I used sample rubrics to explain to parents their purpose.those
disabilities. Parents were very excited about the use of rubrics.
Scoring Rubrics for Paragraph Writing
Qualities & Criteria
• • •
Closely follows all the requirements related to format and layout. without
. Some requirements are not followed. reflected on how both students and parents responded to her use of rubrics: Students were able to articulate what they had learned. font and style
Follows poorly the Follows. a fourth grade teacher.
Quality of Writing
Clarity of sentences
The essay is not well The essay is well The essay is well written. and how they were used in class. rubrics are easy to use and to explain. all the to format and layout. The provided information is not necessary or not sufficient to discuss these issues.
Presentation of the text Structuring of text Follows requirements of length. The provided The provided information is information is. and contains written for the most written from start to many spelling errors. finish.
(Weight 15%) Content/Information
All elements of the topics are addressed • The information is technically sound • Information based on careful research • Coherence of information (Weight 50%)
The essay is not objective and addresses poorly the issues referred in the proposed topic.
The essay is objective The essay is objective and for the most part and addresses with an addresses with an in in depth analysis all depth analysis most the issues referred in of the issues referred the proposed topic. necessary sufficient to discuss and sufficient to these issues. in the proposed topic. for the necessary and most part. part. for the most requirements related part. Christine Hall.
Finally. requirements related to format and layout. without spelling. The reaction of parents was very encouraging. and by the end of the year could be accurate with their evaluations. They knew exactly what their child needed to do to be successful.
and/or correctly cited correctly cited and and/or correctly listed correctly listed in the in the reference list reference list according to APA according to APA style.
(Weight 20%) References and use of references
Scholarly level of references • How effective the references are used in the essay • Soundness of references • APA style in reference list and for citations (Weight 15%)
Most of the Most of the references used are references used are not important. and/or not done by the student. I will refer to Assesment of Learning 2. If the essay is identified as not being original. and/or important. correctly cited and correctly listed in the reference list according to APA style. pp.
My Map I will follow the following steps:
Step 1. grammar or use of English errors. The essay is well organized. style. effectively used.
All the references used are important. The spelling. There is not a minimum of 4 minimum of 4 scholarly resources scholarly resources. and are of good/scholarly quality. and are of are not of good/scholarly good/scholarly quality. that are for the most and/or they are not part used effectively used effectively in thein the essay.
spelling. Revioew Porfolio Assesment Methods. There is a minimum of 4 scholarly resources that are used effectively in the essay. Most of essay. The essay is for the most part well organized.
Overriding criterion: 0riginality and authenticity.
grammar or use of English errors. All the references are effectively used.•
and/or grammar and paragraphs errors and/or use of No errors and English errors. the instructor has the right to grade the paper as an F. grammar and essay is badly use of English organized. lacks Organization and clarity and/or does not present ideas in a coherence of ideas coherent way. 2007 by Santos R. There is a quality. clear and presents ideas in a coherent way. clear and presents ideas in a coherent way. References are the references are not effectively used. 6375 and other refernces
Talk atleast with two Resource Teachers and ask permission to go over available learner portfolio. Elements of a Portfolio Put your ( ) Check here.
Step 3. Cover letter-“ about the Author and “ What My Portfolio Tally ( How many did you see?) many many many Frequency
. Examine the elements and contents of each portfolio. Reflect on my experience
Chekclist Classify the porfolio examined. Classify the porfolio
Step 4. Analyze my observations. Which element/s is/ are present in each? Please check. Types of Porfolio Documentation portfolio Process portfolio Showcase portfolio Observation Checklist Select 3 best portfolios from what you examined. Step 5.Step 2. Step 6. Use the checklist below. 1.
. The cover letter summarizes the evidence of a student’s learning and progress. Drafts of i. A working portfolio is different from a work folder. but also a piece of work which gave trouble or one that was less successful. Table of Contents with numbered pages.” containing work in progress as well as finished samples of work. What did I observe to be the most commonly used portfolio? A working portfolio is so named because it is a project “in the works. 4.
3. i. Reflections can appear at different stages in the learning process (for formative and/or summative purposes.e.both core (items students have to include) and optional (items of student’s choice).Both core (required items) and optional items ( chosen by students) 4. Entries. Drafts of aural/ oral and written products and revised versions. It serves as a holding tank for work that may be selected later for a more permanent assessment or display portfolio. versions.) and can be written in the mother tongue at the lower levels or by students who find it difficult to express themselves in English. The core elements will be required for each student and will provide a common base from which to make decisions on assessment. 2.
products and revised corrected/revised
6. to facilitate written and proof of growth over time. Students can choose to include “best” pieces of work. did I see all the elements of a portfolio? Yes I see the elements of the portfolio they are the.. Reflections
My Analysis 1. The optional items will allow the folder to represent the uniqueness of each student. all entries. with no purpose to the collection. which is simply a receptacle for all work. A working portfolio is an intentional collection of work guided by learning objectives. Dates on all entries to facilitate proof of growth over time 5. Table Of Contents with numbered pages 3. Did I see samples of the 3 different types of portfolio? Yes 2. As I examined 3 selected portfolios.e. Entries . and give reasons why. ( first drafts and corrected/ revised versions) 6. Cover Letter “About the author” and “What my portfolio shows about my progress as a learner” (written at the end. 3.Shows About My Progress as a Learner” 2. versions. Dates on 5. but put at the beginning).
and the like have been utilized in addition to the conventional paper-and-pen examinations. hypermedia. learning portfolios. will this have any impact on the assessment process? Explain your answer. And it may lead to misunderstanding of the student for she will not get the grade that she deserves. Portfolios are collection of documents. 4. It will affect the grading system of the portfolio. These may cover the conception. Have portfolios made the learning assessment process inconvenient? Is the effort exerted on portfolio assessment commensurate to the improvement of learning? Instructional approaches on K-12 education have changed with the passage of time. curricular developments have been undertaken to address the ever increasing stack of educational information needed by students. evidenced-based researches. Such curricular changes also brought about dynamism in the educational evaluation process. This can relate to students’ performance. It is reflective of the daily learning experience of students and should be a continuous documentation to specifically scale student's status. and interactive simulations and lesser practice of the traditional chalkboard method. These did not only redefine the teaching process during K-12 education but also affected the learning experience of students. their purposes and the data they generate. The use of learning portfolios. progress and accomplishments. Teachers are knowledgeable about assessment types. and parents' and/or instructors' evaluative comments on strengths and weaknesses.a. student's assessment of outputs. If one element or two elements of a portfolio are missing. the best pieces of a student's creation. My Reflection 1. as a new approach to the evaluation process has gauged students' performance and ability to process learned information. Electronically generated examinations. For each item . and revision of works in progress.a brief rationale for choosing the item should be included. to their feelings regarding their progress and/or themselves as learners. Is it necessary for a teacher to use varied types of portfolio? Why? Teachers understand and use varied assessments to inform instruction. 5. drafting. Technological advancements have brought into play greater use of visual aids. evaluate and ensure student learning. Additionally.
. literature and other educational materials designed to assess specific student performance.
drafting. and revision" (Sweet. "If goals and criteria have been clearly defined.” containing work in progress as well as finished samples of work. functions and elements of a portfolio by means of 3 separate graphic organizers. 1993). a writer for the Education Consumer Guide Office of Research. The core elements will be required for each student and will provide a common base from which to make decisions on assessment. Students can choose
Display. Functions of Portfolio
The function of a portfolio assessment is to measure progress of a particular process over a specified length of time. the 'evidence' in the portfolio makes it relatively easy to demonstrate that the individual or population has moved from a baseline level of performance to achievement of particular goals.
2. A working portfolio is an intentional collection of work guided by learning objectives. the student must be aware of the goals she is trying to accomplish with this project. which is simply a receptacle for all work. Working Portfolios A working portfolio is so named because it is a project “in the works. or Best Works Portfolios Probably the most
. According to Sewell. Marczack and Horn. The cover letter summarizes the evidence of a student’s learning and progress.My Portfolio Capture what you learned on types. According to David Sweet. It serves as a holding tank for work that may be selected later for a more permanent assessment or display portfolio. The optional items will allow the folder to represent the uniqueness of each student. evolving through various stages of conception. such as an essay. but put at the beginning). she will be confused as to what artifacts to include. Showcase.both core (items students have to include) and optional (items of student’s choice). A working portfolio is different from a work folder. "A portfolio may be a folder containing a student's best pieces and the student's evaluation of the strengths and weaknesses of the pieces. Otherwise." A portfolio functions as a place to store materials so they are not forgotten and so that the student can continuously reflect on her growth in that particular subject area. Entries . Cover Letter “About the author” and “What my portfolio shows about my progress as a learner” (written at the end. 3. with no purpose to the collection. It may also contain one or more works-in-progress that illustrate the creation of a product. Types of Portfolio Kinds of Element Portfolio 1. Before beginning a portfolio. Table of Contents with numbered pages.
6.rewarding use of student portfolios is the display of the students' best work. will determine what students select for their portfolios. This can relate to students’ performance.) and can be written in the mother tongue at the lower levels or by students who find it difficult to express themselves in English. as well as their teachers. to facilitate proof of growth over time. become most committed to the process when they experience the joy of exhibiting their best work and interpreting its meaning. For each item .
Assessment Portfolios The primary function of an assessment portfolio is to document what a student has learned. The content of the curriculum. Their reflective comments will focus
. but also a piece of work which gave trouble or one that was less successful. Students. to their feelings regarding their progress and/or themselves as learners. and give reasons why. then. Many educators who do not use portfolios for any other purpose engage their students in the creation of display portfolios. the work that makes them proud.a brief rationale for choosing the item should be included.. i. The pride and sense of accomplishment that students feel make the effort well worthwhile and contribute to a culture for learning in the classroom.
to include “best” pieces of work. Drafts of aural/oral and written products and revised versions. Reflections can appear at different stages in the learning process (for formative and/or summative purposes. a. Dates on all entries. 4. first drafts and corrected/revised versions. 5.e.
if the curriculum specifies persuasive.on the extent to which they believe the portfolio entries demonstrate their mastery of the curriculum objectives. narrative. For example.
. and descriptive.