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SUBMITTED IN THE PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF REQUIREMENT OF DEGREE OF BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING IN INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY SUBMITTED TO: SUBMITTED BY:
Mr. Tapas Kumar Mr. Kiran Kumar
Vartika Paul 4-IT-55
DEPARTMENT OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY LINGAYA’S INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT AND TECHNOLOGY, NACHAULI, FARIDABAD, HARYANA-121002
I am greatly thankful to my Teachers and co-students of Information Technology Department, who inspired me to present my seminar on “BIOMETRICS”. They helped and encouraged me in every possible way. The knowledge acquired during the preparation of the seminar report would definitely help me in my future ventures. I would like to express my sincere gratitude thank all the teachers of our Department for their help in various aspects during the seminar.
What is Biometrics?
"Biometrics is the automated identification, or verification of human identity through the measurement of repeatable physiological, or behavioral characteristics” Identification: The search of a biometric sample against a database of other samples in order to ascertain whether the donor is already contained in, or new to the database. Verification: It refers to the 'one to one' comparison between a sample and another to ask the question, 'are you who you say you are.' The term "biometrics" is derived from the Greek words bio (life) and metric (to measure). For our use, biometrics refers to technologies for measuring and analyzing a person's physiological or behavioral characteristics, such as fingerprints, irises, voice patterns, facial patterns, and hand measurements, for identification and verification purposes.
Figure 1 Explains the meaning of definition
Identification and verification have long been accomplished by showing something you have, such as a license or a passport. Sometimes it also required something you know, such as a password or a PIN. As we move into a time when we need more secure and accurate measures, we begin to look at using something you are: biometrics. Biometrics are automated methods of recognizing a person based on a physiological or behavioral characteristic.
After the failure of Bertillonage. so does the public concern over privacy issues. which was developed by Richard Edward Henry of Scotland Yard.History of BIOMETRICS: Chinese Precursor: Possibly the first known example of biometrics in practice was a form of finger printing being used in China in the 14th century. European Origins: Until the late 1800s. . Laws and regulations continue to be drafted and standards are beginning to be developed. identification largely relied upon "photographic memory. His system was used by police authorities throughout the world. As the industry grows however. He wrote that the Chinese merchants were stamping children's palm prints and footprints on paper with ink to distinguish the young children from one another. the police started using finger printing. two people could get treated as one. as reported by explorer Joao de Barros. until it quickly faded when it was discovered that some people shared the same measurements and based on the measurements alone. some are beginning to be used in both legal and business areas. an anthropologist and police desk clerk in Paris named Alphonse Bertillon sought to fix the problem of identifying convicted criminals and turned biometrics into a distinct field of study. This is one of the earliest known cases of biometrics in use and is still being used today. Modern Times: In the past three decades biometrics has moved from a single method (fingerprinting) to more than ten discreet methods. He developed a method of multiple body measurements which got named after him (Bertillonage). Companies involved with new methods number in the hundreds and continue to improve their methods as the technology available to them advances." In the 1890s. While no other biometric has yet reached the breadth of use of fingerprinting. Prices for the harware required continue to fall making systems more feasible for low and mid-level budgets. essentially reverting to the same methods used by the Chinese for years.
For example. The match points are processed using an algorithm into a value that can be compared with biometric data in the database. In most computer access or network access environments. This is sometimes called “one-to-many” matching. software that converts the gathered information into digital form. Verification Mode: In this mode biometric system authenticates a person’s claimed identity from their previously enrolled pattern. the software identifies specific points of data as match points. an entire database can be searched to verify a person has not applied for entitlement benefits under two different names. Figure 2 Enrollment and Verification Technique Enrollment Mode: A sample of the biometric trait is captured. When converting the biometric input. All Biometric authentications require comparing a registered or enrolled biometric sample (biometric template or identifier) against a newly captured biometric sample (for example. where the biometric system identifies a person from the entire enrolled population by searching a database for a match based solely on the biometric. Biometric recognition can be used in Identification mode. and a database that stores the biometric data for comparison with previous records. processed by a computer. This is also called “one-to-one” matching. verification mode would be used. or . and stored for later comparison.WORKING PRINCIPLE OF BIOMETRICS Biometric devices consist of a reader or scanning device. user name. a fingerprint captured during a login). A user enters an account.
Behavioral biometrics: Speaker Recognition .Analyzing fingertip patterns.Measuring the shape of the hand. Signature. Bertillonage .Analyzing signature dynamics. Facial Recognition .Used for either identification or verification.Measuring the time spacing of typed words. Hand Geometry . Keystroke . a simple glance at a camera is enough to authenticate the user.inserts a token such as a smart card. TYPES OF BIOMETRICS: There are two types of biometrics: behavioral and physical. Behavioral biometrics . but instead of entering a password. Iris recognition .Measuring body lengths (no longer used). Physical biometrics . .Analyzing blood vessels in the eye.Analyzing vocal behavior. Physical biometrics : Fingerprint .Analyzing features of colored ring of the eye. Retinal Scan .Measuring facial characteristics.Used for verification .Analyzing vein patterns. Vascular Patterns .
Standardization: Currently. defines a common structure for interfacing with biometrics. The concept of combining smart card or public key infrastructures with biometric readers where the biometric template is . hand geometry and iris recognition. To have personal data stored in a centralized database leaves the information potentially open to theft or compromise. with more than 150 companies with their own proprietary systems and methodologies. • Behavioral are related to the behavior of a person. Only after the technological standard is more established can systems integrate and interact efficiently. • FUTURE OUTLOOK: According to most experts. a group of more than 60 vendors and government agencies. The first characteristic to be used. the future of biometrics is dependant upon two critical areas: standardization and the use of hybrid technologies. Standards have only recently been established in order to provide direction for the development of a common interface that will allow for shared biometric templates. The oldest traits. are fingerprints. the biometrics industry is very fragmented. Yet. competitive forces remain as technology giants like Microsoft have abandoned the consortium and the BioAPI standard in order to develop their own proprietary software standards. More modern approaches are the study of keystroke dynamics and of voice. Other examples are face recognition. is the signature. that have been used for more than 100 years. still widely used today.CHARACTERISTICS OF BIOMETRICS: Biometric characteristics can be divided in two main classes. as represented in figure on the right: Physiological are related to the shape of the body. The BioAPI standard created by the BioAPI Consortium. The development and acceptance of a primary standard is critical for the growth and applicability of the biometrics industry. Hybrid Technologies: One of the critical concerns with the use of biometric technologies is that of privacy and security of stored personal biometric data.
we will live in a faster paced. The future holds no limits for this industry as more applications are found. more secure world where verification of one is identity is critical for daily activities. Imagine a world where interstate air travel is allowed automatically via a full body scan that not only verifies identity but simultaneously searches for insecure or illegal paraphernalia. Where a shopping trip is made possible by a vehicle that operates only with biometric verification of ownership and payment is made via a fingerprint scan that links directly to one is credit account. While some might argue that privacy and personal "freedom" are sacrificed with this level of control. In the future.stored on an individually controlled key has been suggested as a solution for the privacy concern and is considered by some critical to the advancement of biometric applications. Where access to one is bank or credit accounts is only granted after identification via iris or retina scan. Biometrics is a powerful combination of science and technology that can be used to protect and secure our most valuable information and property. . most believe that it is the necessary price for a secure world environment. Further. From the application of total body scanning for highest security areas to speed and accuracy of identification when shopping online. the applications are boundless. the technology itself continues to improve in terms of application and accuracy.
The quality of the sensor used has a significant impact on the recognition results. During the test. etc. biometric information from an individual is stored. This step is an important step as the correct features need to be extracted and the optimal way. but it can change according to the characteristics desired. During the enrollment. to enhance the input (e. The first block (sensor) is the interface between the real world and our system. .BASIC MECHANISM: The diagram shows a simple block diagram of a biometric system. In the third block features needed are extracted. A template is a synthesis of all the characteristics extracted from the source. it has to acquire all the necessary data. biometric information is detected and compared with the stored information. When such a system is networked together with telecommunications technology. Note that it is crucial that storage and retrieval of such systems themselves be secure if the biometric system is be robust. Example “sensors” could be digital cameras (for face recognition) or a telephone (for voice recognition). BIOMETRICS COLLECTION Biometrics are typically collected using a device called a sensor. in the optimal size to allow for adequate identifiability.g. removing background noise). The main operations a system can perform are enrollment and test. Most of the times it is an image acquisition system. These sensors are used to acquire the data needed for recognition and to convert the data to a digital form. A vector of numbers or an image with particular properties is used to create a template. biometric systems become telebiometric systems. The second block performs all the necessary pre-processing: it has to remove artifacts from the sensor. to use some kind of normalization.
• Vein: the analysis of pattern of veins in the back if the hand and the wrist • Voice: the analysis of the tone.BIOMETRIC TEMPLATES A biometric template is a digital representation of an individual’s distinct characteristics.” The difference between templates and models is beyond the scope of this paper. • Permanence measures how well a biometric resists aging. cadence and frequency of a person’s voice. Templates can vary between biometric modalities as well as vendors. • • • Comparison of various biometric technologies It is possible to understand if a human characteristic can be used for biometrics in terms of the following parameters: Uniqueness is how well the biometric separates individually from another. and robustness of technology used. BIOMETRICS IDENTIFICATION SCHEMES: There are several types of biometric identification schemes: Face: the analysis of facial characteristics Fingerprint: the analysis of an individual’s unique fingerprints Hand geometry: the analysis of the shape of the hand and the length of the fingers • Retina: the analysis of the capillary vessels located at the back of the eye • Iris: the analysis of the colored ring that surrounds the eye’s pupil • Signature: the analysis of the way a person signs his name. representing information extracted from a biometric sample. Not all biometric devices are template based. • Collectability eases of acquisition for measurement. speed. For example. voice recognition is based on “models. Biometric templates are what are actually compared in a biometric recognition system. • . • Performance accuracy. pitch.
Jain (H=High. L=Low) Biome Univer Uniqu Perma Collect Perfor Accept Circumv trics: sality eness nence ability mance ability ention* Face H L M H L H L Finger M H H M H M H print Hand geomet M M M H M M M ry Keystr L L L M L M M okes Hand M M M M M M H veins Iris H H H M H L H Retinal H H M L H L H scan Signat L L L H L H L ure Voice M L L M L H L Facial thermo H H L H M H H graph Odor H H H L L M L DNA H H H L H L L Gait M L L H L H M Ear M M H M M H M Canal . The following table shows a comparison of existing biometric systems in terms of those parameters: Comparison of various biometric technologies. Circumvention eases of use of a substitute. K.• • Acceptability degree of approval of a technology. M=Medium. according to A.
commercialize a product. a face image can be Captured by a surveillance camera. Several states check fingerprints for new applicants to social services benefits to ensure recipients do not fraudulently obtain benefits under fake names. venture capitalist. Furthermore. only a touch provides instant access. adequate fingerprint samples require user cooperation. For instance. Fingerprint systems can also be used in identification mode. law enforcement has been classifying and determining identity by matching key points of ridge endings and bifurcations. interested in the implementation of such a system. with some training • Some systems require little space. fingerprint recognition devices for desktop and laptop access are now widely available from many different vendors at a low cost.instead. New York State has over 900. • Easy to use. wide varieties of modalities are being researched and are available on the market. Fingerprint The patterns of friction ridges and valleys on an individual's fingertips are unique to that individual. Therefore. • Large amounts of existing data to allow background and/or watchlist checks. For decades. Many scientists become interested in developing a system based on their own research.BIOMETRIC MODALITIES: Different applications and environments have different constraints. Upon a successful implementation. . Advantages: • Subjects have multiple fingers. users no longer need to type passwords . With these devices. whereas. There are also multiple biometric modalities for technical and financial reasons. One of the most commercially available biometric technologies. Fingerprints are unique for each finger of a person including identical twins. Fingerprints are not available for many of the suspects on Watch lists. • Has proven effective in many large scale systems over years of use. • Fingerprints are unique to each finger of each individual and the ridge arrangement remains permanent during one's lifetime.000 people enrolled in such a system.
hands-free. Disadvantages: • • Face can be obstructed by hair. continuous and accepted by most users. and poses faces change over time. Sensitive to changes in lighting. elastic graph theory. • Easy for humans to verify results. and multi-resolution analysis. hats. Using a wide assortment of cameras. Some of the challenges of facial recognition in the visual spectrum include reducing the impact of variable lighting and detecting a mask or photograph. though many systems use a real-time process to detect a person's head and locate the face automatically. Advantages: • No contact required.Disadvantages: • Public Perceptions. the visible light systems extract features from the captured image(s) that do not change over time while avoiding superficial features such as facial expressions or hair. • Privacy concerns of criminal implications. Local Feature Analysis. expression. Some facial recognition systems may require a stationary or posed user in order to capture the image. Facial recognition in visible light typically model key features from the central portion of a facial image. . • Health or societal concerns with touching a sensor used by countless individuals. glasses. • Large amounts of existing data to allow background and/or watchlist checks. Major benefits of facial recognition are that it is non-intrusive. Face The identification of a person by their facial image can be done in a number of different ways such as by capturing an image of the face in the visible spectrum using an inexpensive camera or by using the infrared patterns of facial heat emission. Several approaches to modeling facial images in the visible spectrum are Principal Component Analysis. scarves etc. • Commonly available sensors (cameras). neural networks.
g. Disadvantages Use requires some training. Hand recognition has been available for over twenty years. Hand geometry has gained acceptance in a range of applications. where the output of several analog filters were averaged over time for matching. size and shape of the throat and mouth) and learned behavioral patterns (e. These acoustic patterns reflect both anatomy (e. This incorporation of learned patterns into the voice templates (the latter called "voiceprints") has earned speaker recognition its classification as a "behavioral biometric. a system may measure either physical characteristics of the fingers or the hands. • Not sufficiently distinctive for identification over large Databases. • Speaker/voice Speaker recognition has a history dating back some four decades. These include length. Believed to be a highly stable pattern over the adult lifespan. • Usually used for verification of a claimed enrollment identity. One interesting characteristic is that some systems require a small biometric sample (a few bytes).• Propensity for users to provide poor-quality video images yet to expect accurate results. in time and attendance systems and in general personal authentication applications Advantages • • Easy to capture. voice pitch.g. It can frequently be found in physical access control in commercial and residential applications.. speaking style). To achieve personal authentication." Speaker recognition systems employ three styles of spoken input: textdependent. Hand Geometry These methods of personal authentication are well established. • System requires a large amount of physical space. text-prompted and text independent. Most speaker verification applications use text-dependent input. thickness and surface area of the hand. width.. Speaker recognition uses the acoustic features of speech that have been found to differ between individuals. which involves selection and .
matrix representation and decision trees. The technology needs little additional hardware by using existing microphones and voice-transmission technology allowing recognition over long distances via ordinary telephones (wire line or wireless). The various technologies used to process and store voiceprints includes hidden Markov models. • Not sufficiently distinctive for identification over large databases. Current systems can be used even in the presence of . Many companies market speaker recognition engines. and world models. Ambient noise levels can impede both collection of the initial and subsequent voice samples. Performance degradation can result from changes in behavioral attributes of the voice and from enrollment using one telephone and verification on another telephone. control and switching systems. Text-prompted input is used whenever there is concern of imposters. such as cohort models. Voice changes due to aging also need to be addressed by recognition systems. Iris scanning devices have been used in personal authentication applications for several years. Disadvantages • Difficult to control sensor and channel variances that significantly impact capabilities. Iris This recognition method uses the iris of the eye which is the colored area that surrounds the pupil. The technology works well in both verification and identification modes (in systems performing one-to-many searches in a database). Iris patterns are thought unique. neural networks. • Commonly Available Sensors(telephones & microphones). Systems based on iris recognition have substantially decreased in price and this trend is expected to continue. Capture of the biometric is seen as non-invasive. Advantages • Public Acceptance. • No Contact Required. Some systems also use "anti-speaker" techniques. often as part of large voice processing. pattern matching algorithms. The iris patterns are obtained through a video-based image acquisition system.enrollment of one or more voice passwords.
One focus for this technology has been e-business applications and other applications where signature is an accepted method of personal authentication. Disadvantages Difficult to capture for some individuals. Lack of existing data deters ability to use for background or watch list checks. • Easily obscured by eyelashes. SIGNATURE VERIFICATION This technology uses the dynamic analysis of a signature to authenticate a person. pressure and angle used by the person when a signature is produced.less prone to injury. Protected internal organ. • • Cannot be verified by a human. • Public myths and fears related to “scanning” the eye with a light source. It does not require physical contact with a scanner. . The technology is not intrusive.eyeglasses and contact lenses. Iris recognition has been demonstrated to work with individuals from different ethnic groups and nationalities Advantages • • • • No contact Required.eyelids.lens and reflections from the cornea. Believed to be highly stable over lifetime. • Acquisition of an iris image requires more training and attentiveness than most biometrics. The technology is based on measuring speed.
and in 1989 they asked John Daugman (then teaching at Harvard University) to try to create actual algorithms for iris recognition. Images of the iris adequate for personal identification with very high confidence can be acquired from distances of up to about 3 feet (1 meter). contraction furrows. It is the only internal organ of the body that is normally visible externally. ciliary’s processes.2 million iris is found to be unique in it’s features. a corona and .IRIS Recognition Technology History of iris recognition technology The idea of using iris patterns for personal identification was originally documented in an ophthalmology textbook by James Doggarts in 1949. It is seen in cross-section in the anatomical drawing above. but it still remained science fiction and conjecture In 1987 two other ophthalmologists. By the 1980's the idea had appeared in James Bond films. These algorithms. located behind the cornea and the aqueous humour. but in front of the lens. are the basis for all current iris recognition systems and products The Daugman algorithms are owned by Iridian Technologies. Aran Safir and Leonard Flom. crypts. Among the visible features of an iris are the trabecular mesh works of connective tissue (pectinate ligament). that is every 1 in 1. and may have been proposed as early as 1936 by ophthalmologist Frank Burch. patented this idea. The false acceptance rate for iris recognition systems is in 1 in 1. which Daugman patented in 1994. and the process is licensed to several other companies who serve as systems integrators and developers of special platforms exploiting iris recognition. the collagenous tissue of the stroma.2 million. rings. Iris structure Figure 3 Iris Structure The iris is a protected internal organ of the eye.
pupillary frill. Because there is no genetic penetrance in the expression of this organ beyond its anatomical form. pupillary dilator and sphincter muscles. • The ease of registering iris image at some distance from a Subject without physical contact. A property the iris shares with fingerprints is the random morphogenesis of its minutiae. Physiological Properties of Iris Further properties of the iris that enhance its suitability for use in high confidence identification systems include: • Its inherent isolation and protection from the external environment. • The impossibility of surgically modifying iris without unacceptable risk to vision. The layers of the iris have both ectodermal and mesodermal embryological origin. consisting of (from back to front): a darkly pigmented epithelium. The structures creating its distinctive pattern are complete by the eighth month of gestation. heavily vascularized stroma (connective tissue of interlacing ligaments containing melanocytes). which provides one of several natural tests against artifice. unintrusively and perhaps inconspicuously . physiology. ridges. with blue irises resulting from an absence of pigment: longer wavelengths differentially penetrate while shorter wavelengths are reflected and scattered. and a zigzag collarette. furrows. colour and general appearance. Iris colour is determined mainly by the density of the stroma and its melanin content. the iris texture itself is stochastic or possibly chaotic. The combined effect is a visible pattern displaying various distinctive features such as arching ligaments. the phenotypic expression even of two irises with the same genetic genotype (as in identical twins. and sometimes freckles. a phenomenon resembling that which makes the sky blue . The striated anterior layer covering the trabecular meshwork creates the predominant texture seen with visible light The human iris begins to form during the third month of gestation. but pigmentation continues into the first years after birth. or the pair possessed by one individual) have uncorrelated minutiae . and an anterior layer of chromataphores and melanocytes with a genetically determined density of melanin pigment granules. crypts. Its physiological response to light. colouration. • • Its detailed morphogenesis depends on initial conditions in the embryonic mesoderm from which it develops.
which imparts a natural coordinate system and an origin of coordinates. iv)Pattern Matching . typically very close to the subject.features representing the iris patterns are extracted. which maps the iris’ distinct patterns and characteristics. .2 bits per square-millimeter of iris tissue. An algorithm is a series of directives that tell a biometric system how to interpret a specific problem. ii) Image Preprocessing.the image is then preprocessed to normalize the scale and illumination of the iris and localize the iris from the acquired image. A specialized camera. no more than three feet. • The high level of randomness in iris pattern. iii)Feature Extraction. recorded and stored for future matching/verification . creating inter-Subject variability spanning about 250 degrees-of-freedom. The inner edge of the iris is located by an iris-scan algorithm. and an entropy (information density) of about 3.decision is made by means of matching. i) Iris Image Acquisition . Working Principle Of Iris Recognition Technology The iris-scan process begins with a photograph. Figure 4 Iris Image After Image Acquisition Process This process takes only one to two seconds and provides the details of the iris that are mapped.• It’s intrinsic polar geometry. Algorithms have a number of steps and are used by the biometric system to determine if a biometric sample and record is a match A general iris recognition system for personal identification is composed of four steps i) Iris Image Acquisition.an image containing the user’s eye is captured by the high resolution Iris Camera. uses an infrared imager to illuminate the eye and capture a very high-resolution photograph.
PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT • False accept rate (FAR) or false match rate (FMR): The probability that the system incorrectly declares a successful match between the input pattern and a non-matching pattern in the database. A common variation is the Detection error trade-off (DET). different eye-to camera distance may result in different image sizes of the same eye. Since iris is small in size and dark in color. For the purpose of analysis. It measures the percent of valid inputs being rejected. Iris Normalization. eyelid. Receiver (or relative) operating characteristic (ROC): In general. Under some conditions. The preprocessing is composed of three steps Iris Localization. It measures the percent of invalid matches. In addition.An important and difficult step of an iris recognition system is image acquisition. • False reject rate (FRR) or false non-match rate (FNMR): The probability that the system incorrectly declares failure of match between the input pattern and the matching template in the database. the brightness is not uniformly distributed. using some specialized camera iris image can be easily acquired for analysis ii) Image Preprocessing The acquired image always contains not only the’ useful’ parts (iris) but also some ‘irrelevant’ parts (e.g. Image Enhancement. the original image needs to be preprocessed. a threshold).).g. This more linear graph illuminates the differences for higher performances (rarer errors). • . pupil etc. The ROC plot is obtained by graphing the values of FAR and FRR. the matching algorithm performs a decision using some parameters (e. These systems are critical since they are commonly used to forbid certain actions by disallowed people. In biometric systems the FAR and FRR can typically be traded off against each other by changing those parameters. which is obtained using normal deviate scales on both axes. changing the variables implicitly.
the ERR is commonly used. ROC or DET plotting is used because how FAR and FRR can be changed. Obtained from the ROC plot by taking the point where FAR and FRR have the same value. When quick comparison of two systems is required. Failure to capture rate (FTC): Within automatic systems. Template capacity: The maximum number of sets of data which can be input in to the system. the probability that the system fails to detect a biometric characteristic when presented correctly.• Equal error rate (EER): The rate at which both accept and reject errors are equal. the more accurate the system is considered Failure to enroll rate (FTE or FER): The percentage of data input is considered invalid and fails to input into the system. • • • BIOMETRIC SECURITY . Failure to enroll happens when the data obtained by the sensor are considered invalid or of poor quality. The lower the EER. is shown clearly.
more private companies and public utilities may use biometrics for safe.Some believe this technology can cause physical harm to an individual using the methods. iris. tampered with.A concern is how a person's biometric. In 2005. once collected. Cancelable Biometrics Physical features. or sold. universal. voice. such as signature. there are concerns that retina scanners might not always be clean. permanence is a key feature for biometrics. • Danger to owners of secured items When thieves cannot get access to secure properties. can be protected. over . fingerprint. For example. or acceptably changed. by criminals stealing. They must be unique. collectable and convenient to the person. rearranging or copying the biometric data. However. the damage to the owner could be irreversible. such as face. hand.g. e. in addition. If the item is secured with a biometric device. Also. most importantly. there is a chance tha ers of secured itemst the thieves will stalk and assault the property owner to gain access. accurate identification. retina. and potentially cost more than the secured property. or that instruments used are unsanitary. Malaysian car thieves cut off the finger of a MercedesBenz S-Class owner when attempting to steal the car. must fulfill a certain criteria to qualify for use in recognition. or behavioral features. These advances are likely to raise concerns such as: • Physical . performance and circumvention. to reliability at recognition. acceptable. Personal Information . and time goes on. the data obtained using biometrics can be used in unauthorized ways without the individual's consent. Sociological concerns As technology advances. Australia has therefore introduced a Biometrics Institute Privacy Code Biometrics Institute in order to protect consumer personal data beyond the current protections offered by the Australian Privacy Act. They must retain all the above features in particular the uniqueness unchanged. gait.There are concerns whether our personal information taken through biometric methods can be misused.
On the other hand. for example compromised from a database. BIOMETRIC APPLICATIONS . the genuine owner will lose control over them forever and lose his/her identity. by unauthorized users. this fundamental feature has brought biometrics to challenge a new risk. If biometric data is obtained.the lifetime of the individual.
Biometrics airport security devices are also deployed at some of the world's famous airports to enhance the security standards. Identifying DNA Patterns of biometrics technology in identifying DNA patterns for identifying criminals. . Packaged in a comfortable. BIOMETRICS DEVICES Optical Fingerprint Scanner Our biometric hamster is the next generation model of popular and versatile biometric fingerprint readers.Provides security to the homeowners. Biometric safes and biometric locks.• • • • • • Biometric Time Clocks -Which are being increasingly used in various organisations to control employee timekeeping. this biometric scanner features the industry's most rugged and advanced optical sensor using patented SEIR fingerprint biometric technology. it features the industry's most rugged and advanced optical sensor using patented SEIR fingerprint biometric technology. etc. Wireless biometrics for high end security and providing safer transactions from wireless devices like PDA's. etc. ergonomic design. OptiMouse OptiMouse is an innovative optical tracking mouse that can operate on almost any surface with exceptional response. Biometric systems are also developed for securing access to pc's and providing single logon facilities. Biometric access control systems Providing strong security at entrances.
and other valuable or potentially harmful items. It utilizes patented embedded web server technology combined with biometrics and smart card authentication. jewelry.iGuard . Personal Fingerprint Safes Biometric personal safes are revolutionary locking storage cases that open with just the touch of your finger. documents. .Integrated Access Control and Time Attendance System iGuard is a complete solution combining a access control system and time attendance system. These products are designed as "access denial" secure storage for medications. weapons. This is the world's only available system that has achieved advanced operability using worldrenowned TCP/IP networking protocol without having to compromise on security.
. Biometrics are also used for accountability applications such as recording the biometric identities of individuals.Biometrics can be used to determine whether or not a peson is already in database such as for social service or national id applications. Where to use BIOMETRICS? Biometric use involve controlling access to physical locations(laboratories . This amazing new product replaces keyed locking mechanisms with a fingerprint sensor that actually recognizes who is and who is not authorized to enter.Applications vary and range from logical access to a personal computer to physical access of a secured laboratory. BIOMETRICS VERSUS FORENSIC While both biometrics ad forensic involves human recognition biometrics is typically applied using automated techniques to prevent situation application such as gaining access to sensitive information or to a secured facility .buildings etc.They can be used in a variety of collection environments as identification systems.Forensic methods are often used to assist in the legal process. Biometrics can be used in environments where recognition of an individual is required. Forensic usually requires days of processing and are held to much higher accuracy requirements.and may not use fully automated methods. Forensic applications typically occur after a crime has occurred.Biometric Fingerprint Door Locks Your fingerprint is the key with our revolutionary fingerprint door lock.
as the technology for fingerprint recognition is being miniaturized and streamlined for performance. transaction management and content protection services based on the devices. Previously. simple and stand-alone packaging. The ability to operate the biometrics verification solution from battery supply is unprecedented. become smaller and require less power for operation. the potential to integrate into new application grows.WIRELESS BIOMETRICS As biometrics systems improve. However. The solution will come as a bundle of a range of validation. Wireless biometrics will consists of both the hardware and software for the fingerprint scanning devices that will be embedded in wireless handheld devices. new avenues of application can be found when technologies are integrated together in small. . biometrics have been used in combination with personal computers and based on a stringent platform to maintain reasonable performance.
Dogs are frequently used as model organisms in the study of human disease . Attending to these wetware protocols has become particularly urgent in the context of a recent study suggesting possible pathological effects from RFID transponders implanted in dogs. With the emergence of multimodal biometrics systems gathering data from different sensors and contexts.TELEBIOMETRICS Telebiometrics applies biometrics to telecommunications and telecommunications to remote biometric sensing. International Standards that support systems performing biometric enrollment and verification or identification have begun to focus on human physiological thresholds as constraints and frameworks for "plug and play" telebiometric networks.