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25 Woolterton Marinova Stocker Burke

25 Woolterton Marinova Stocker Burke

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Wooltorton, S. and Marinova, D. (Eds) Sharing wisdom for our future.

Environmental education in action: Proceedings of the 2006 Conference of the Australian Association of Environmental Education

Chapter 25 Overlay Mapping – A Methodology for Place-Based Sustainability Education Laura Stocker and Gary Burke Institute for Sustainability and Technology Policy, Murdoch University 1. Introduction A sense of place is a rich and dynamic dialogue between ourselves and the economic, social, cultural and ecological complexities of life (Beatley and Manning, 1997); places are always political and contested (Hayden, 1995; Stocker and Netherwood, 2006). Almost every place is a cultural landscape with many facets, layers and human expressions (Seddon, 1997) that reflect and maintain power relations (Hayden, 1995). Indigenous commentators like Marcia Langton (1998) have stated that all of Australia is a cultural landscape and that every part of the country has been touched, walked over, hunted on, and dreamt by its traditional owners and occupants for millennia. Consequently, wilderness is a misleading and inappropriate descriptor in Australia. How might we go about reflecting on the sustainability of complexly storied places resulting from relationships among the land and many generations of Indigenous and migrant peoples? The collection and analysis of technical data may describe the decline of species, or the amount of resources and energy used to maintain a society, but they do not account for, nor draw on, people’s experiences of and relationships to place. We suggest in this chapter that one method for deepening sense of place to achieve sustainability is through mapping. Mapping projects are being undertaken in many schools and communities across the globe (Liebenberg, 2003; Parr et al., undated). One example was described by Mark Baldwin (2004); it involves observing the school surroundings, mapping the cultural and environmental features of the area and developing a concept map. His programme called ‘Teaming with Nature’ is designed to be a unit of study that links into the curriculum in a rigorously educational manner (Baldwin, 2004). One crosscultural study showed that mapping ability can be developed in children from a very early age (Blades et al., 1998), while other studies show that smaller children focus and relate to smaller areas. Blaut (1991) argues that mapping is a natural ability and can be practised by all ages in all cultures. Hence it is applicable to adults and children. In the present chapter, we review the evolution of ‘overlay mapping’ from a land management tool in the rangelands of Western Australia to its adaptation for use as a method for mapping sustainability values. We reflect on two case studies: one in a primary school setting and the other in a university setting. The essence of the overlay mapping method we present here includes people’s experiences of relationship to place as a part of reflexive sustainability assessment. It offers an inclusive framework that provides scope for deeper understanding of sustainability values and can be used as a complement to more positivist, objectivist methods. It can be used across time and it can encompass the perspectives of a

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which is an emergent praxis with its own politics of democracy and empowerment. When each pastoralist (or couple) had completed all the overlays for their own station they were then given a small piece of cardboard with a 10 cm hole cut in it. They were asked to move the cardboard doughnut over the map with overlays and find the areas with the greatest intersection of coloured markings: that is. It can be applied at many scales. therefore to understand them differently. The overlay mapping process was participatory and relational in its essence: pastoralists drew on their own existing knowledge and experience of their own stations and were supported to combine their existing awareness with scientific ecological understandings. drainage patterns. the EMU process has much in common with the community science (Stocker. coincided. 1995). and its own epistemology of contextualisation. 2005). 2005). 2003). then on subsequent overlays they marked country types.Wooltorton. (Eds) Sharing wisdom for our future. 2004). and therefore potentially to manage them differently (Burke. Overall the EMU process allowed pastoralists to see their stations differently. The mapping was followed by walks across the stations and low level flights over their stations for ‘ground validating’ the process. Satellite maps were also used to give regional and catchment contexts to these base maps. and relationships among aspects of a place. The process can 229 . What impressed us was the impact this workshop had on the pastoralists (see also Braddick. such as intersection country types and high levels of biodiversity. The pastoralists placed a transparent overlay on the base map and were asked to mark on the overlay their best grazing country. fences. and biodiversity etc. Overlay Mapping: History We first saw the overlay mapping process being used in the semi-arid Gascoyne Murchison rangelands of Western Australia (Gascoyne Murchison Strategy Board. In the EMU workshops pastoralists were provided with a large (A2) map of their own stations as base maps. We saw that the method could be applied in a wide variety of situations and used by a diversity of people with or without literacy skills or a shared culture. and the same maps can be used at different times with different groups. monitoring and management. It can variously record: relationships among people. roads. after the workshop they were seeing stations in terms of vegetation structures. The overlay mapping process was the creation of Ken Tinley and Hugh Pringle. like a doughnut. S. epistemology and methodology. ecojunctions and landtypes. The pastoralists quickly realised that these ‘hotspots’ were priority areas for close inspection. D. Environmental education in action: Proceedings of the 2006 Conference of the Australian Association of Environmental Education highly diverse population. thus extending the diversity and range of input. In its orientation to participatory knowledge creation. These areas were called ‘hotspots’: places where multiple production pressures and landscape features. water points. 2. the areas with greatest conjunction of ‘interests’. On a fresh overlay they marked their water points and drainage patterns.. In academic terms it provided a new ontology. Pringle and Tinley created the EMU (Ecosystem Management Understanding) project in order to enhance pastoralists’ awareness of rangeland landscape ecology and to encourage them to undertake changes in management practices that lead to more sustainable use of natural resources (Pringle et al. and Marinova. Before the workshop they were ‘seeing’ their stations in terms of infrastructure. relationships between people and place.

the significance of ‘social’ was noted and incorporated into the models to add to our understanding. we also use a model that highlights interactivity among these four dimensions. analyse and reconstruct our understanding of a 230 . This adapted method shares the educational principles of developing an understanding of place through participatory and relational practices. and how does the place sustain us?” Our purpose is to provide a different way of seeing and understanding the world and our place in it. because culture describes the ways of being and meaning that underpin the values that drive our behaviours. In particular. the usual problems with finding consensus and domination by loud voices can be mitigated. From this can flow responsible stewardship of place. ecology and society. A student or scholar of sustainability will quickly recognise these as the four pillars of sustainability. rather than the reality of dynamism and synergism. and Marinova. Jennie Buchanan and Dave Palmer. Later. Naturally a place is not literally made up of these abstract layers. In this chapter. 3. Because the final composite map includes all participants’ values and perspectives. social. The method has a special validity because it can include empirical and experiential information in the same framework. We begin by developing an understanding of a place in terms of its layers: cultural. S. or caring for country. Many are also familiar with triple bottom line accounting. economic and ecological. Thinking of a place in terms of its four ‘layers’ allows us to develop a visually and analytically powerful method that can be related directly to a map of that place. ecology and economy were seen by some as the two main aspects of sustainable development. Rather they are used as a means to deconstruct. Kathryn Netherwood. D.Wooltorton. social. The method could be used as a consultative exercise to bring together the ideas of a group of people. Even the Venn diagram suggests a very static abstract world. Environmental education in action: Proceedings of the 2006 Conference of the Australian Association of Environmental Education thus incorporate more input than might be organised at a single workshop. and it is marked on a map without having been first prioritised. As well as significance within each layer. Gary Burke. and to the whole. cultural and economic) as the themes for the overlays in the mapping process. (Eds) Sharing wisdom for our future. We saw that overlay mapping allows participants to see the parts in relation to each other. we saw that the overlay mapping method as applied in the EMU workshops could be adapted and extended using four sustainability layers (ecological. The model enables Indigenous as well as non-Indigenous cultural values to be made explicit. we use a model of sustainability that accounts for culture as well as the conventional aspects of economy. It could also be used as an in-house land planning/management tool by government or other land managers. The term ‘pillars of sustainability’ suggests silos that do not interact. In the early days (as in the EMU project). Most people have seen Venn diagrams of the three overlapping circles with sustainability in the centre. Sustainability Values Mapping The method used in the EMU overlay mapping exercise was adapted and implemented in a broader context of sustainability values by Laura Stocker. The central questions we ask using this adapted method are “How do we sustain a place.

On a map it may include: energy resources. and factories. market places. consumption. bushland. It particularly includes relations and interactions between ecological and physical aspects. theatres. The purpose here was to help students understand the four layers of place and how they can synergise to create sustainability. geology and sky. parks. They would then also have a tool that they could go on to use professionally. or not. Lance Holt School’s longterm interest in sustainability and values education is documented elsewhere in these proceedings (Netherwood. art galleries. Nyindamurra Family School in Forest Grove. Moerlina School in Mount Claremont. beaches. Cultural layer The cultural layer relates to how people make meaning of the world. The economic layer includes the resources required to meet our needs and wants. plants and animals. farms. Pilbarra. It is about how they express that meaning to themselves and to others. and Kerry Street Community School in Hamilton Hill. tip sites. Before describing the specifics of the method we will discuss some concepts that underlie the next two case studies. South West. Ecological layer The ecological layer relates to the features and processes of the living world: its ecosystems. Buchanan and Stocker. 2006). sea. The economic layer also relates to obtaining and maintaining a quality of life that is the whole cycle of production. and waste disposal. including the technologies of this cycle. market places. Economic layer The economic layer relates to how we generate livelihoods. places of worship. shops. Aims of sustainability values mapping process The specific aims of the sustainability values mapping process are: • To map sustainability values • To identify sustainability hotspots • To share ideas with others. art galleries. including where and how we spend money. Environmental education in action: Proceedings of the 2006 Conference of the Australian Association of Environmental Education place. The second case study is based at Murdoch University in the unit Ecologically Sustainable Development which Laura Stocker teaches at an undergraduate and postgraduate level. cafes.Wooltorton. It may include: workplaces. Strelley Aboriginal Community School near Port Hedland. ports. S. and farms. and Marinova. town squares. D. (Eds) Sharing wisdom for our future. bushland. and football ovals. parks. It is precisely our relationship to the layers and the relationships among the layers that are of interest. music clubs. It may include: Indigenous sites and heritage. The first case study describes a project undertaken by a group of independent primary schools in Western Australia: Lance Holt School in the West End of Fremantle. It also includes the physical elements such as water. Thus the purpose was to deepen their understanding of concept and practice of sustaining local areas. tourist sites. 231 . The purpose of this action-research study was to deepen the children’s critical awareness of how their place sustains them and how they can in turn care for it.

lies in understanding where and how the layers interact to create synergies. sustainability practitioners seek ways to re-integrate the four layers so that each layer can synergise and reinforce with the others instead of working in isolation or. Although this is a particular and perhaps oversimplified representation. Now. and we ‘do society’ in at the football club. Both of these are important to people’s positive experiences of the place. A community garden may be a site of economic significance if it highlights the research and development of green technologies and practices. 1. social. philosophy and thought have developed historically along reductionist lines: we ‘do economics’ in an industrial site like Kwinana. 2. For example. market places. a topographic map.Wooltorton.g. if you are not already. Alternatively. the kite festival at the very windy South Beach in Fremantle or the Festival of the Wind in the even windier Esperance on the South Coast of Western Australia. It may include: hospitals. S. This can be a street map. economic and ecological sites within the place and their values. In doing the cultural layer we may note that each year a festival occurs on this beach. 3. or the Sea Dragon festival in Cottesloe celebrating the diverse marine life of the reef there. 232 . we ‘do ecology’ in a national park or reserve. Choose a base map of your local place. A2 or even A3 is a good size. police station. Environmental education in action: Proceedings of the 2006 Conference of the Australian Association of Environmental Education Social layer The social layer relates to where and how we organise ourselves to provide for our needs. these sites marked should emphasise those of personal experience to the participants. It is cultural if it provides participants and users with a sense of meaning. economic growth and environmental protection are frequently polarised). Walk or bike around the local place. The synergy may include an economic dimension like the Blessing of the Fleet festival at Fremantle’s Fishing Boat Harbour. In addition to sites of obvious significance to the broader community. Use 4 clear plastic overlays to mark on cultural. and where and how we create a sense of belonging. The synergy of sustainability The synergist potential of sustainability. matching the place to the map so you get well acquainted with the place. It is social if it hosts enjoyable and productive meetings of diverse people with a shared interest in gardening. or a cultural painting. and cafes. libraries. and Marinova.. we ‘do culture’ in an art gallery or theatre. It is ecological if respects Indigenous flora and fauna while producing food and/or aesthetic appeal in an environmentally safe manner. we may mark/identify a beach as part of the ecological layer. parks. This synergy is a step towards sustainability. Overlay mapping exercise – stages The mapping exercise itself consists of several steps presented here as a set of general instructions. being treated as being adversarial with each other in the policy formulation process (e. and the key to its assessment in this current method. D. (Eds) Sharing wisdom for our future. the festival may actually celebrate the coastal environment in some way: for example. Many aspects of western society. there may be missed opportunities for synergies or even a negative interaction. and if it makes a point of honouring Indigenous and other cultures influencing the place.

some students initiated a restoration place of a favourite sculptural playground that had fallen into disrepair. written reflections and oral interviews were recorded by teachers and by the project management team1. this process reveals the collective values. D. and Marinova. where many cultural. drawings. So although we separate cultural. demonstrating that mapping values can lead to a sense of stewardship. visual art or multimedia productions. 5. went on to produce multimedia representations of the river and its stories. The teachers made the method relevant to the age groups and cultures of their classes. in reality they interact and combine. social. For young kids. (Eds) Sharing wisdom for our future. paintings. Some classes moved quickly from mapping to stewardship. You can see from the compiled maps that there are some sites of very special shared significance. S. or a town beach or a market place. known in Nyungar as Manjaree. Laura Stocker (see Netherwood et al. The map can also include photos.wa. When the plastic overlays are all laid on top of the base map. stuck onto or added to the map as an appendix. The map should be annotated with explanations as to the significance of each site. social. They can be seen in a complexly interactive website http://www. as a hotspot or ‘special place’. Their worldview is much more relational. Some teachers stuck to the method fairly closely. Produce a final map which is a composite. economic and ecological values coincide and interact. 4.au/ designed by Gary Burke but created with participation by all the schools many of whom were learning to make web pages and upload them for the first time. highlights the sites of special sustainability significance with all their values. others built depth into the core idea of mapping place with sculptural installations.kidsplacemaps.g. such as their own homes e. Sam Wynne’s Kindy Kids at Lance Holt School. economic and ecological layers for critical reflection.Wooltorton. after hearing dreaming stories from an Indigenous elder. They set about making the school more meaningful to the kids by negotiating interesting projects based on the school ground such as developing a frog habitat and working through key issues like the loss of a favourite climbing tree deemed a hazard by the local council. The results in the form of the above outputs. experiences and knowledge of all the participants. culture and society are not yet very evocative. Nyindamurra School also quickly moved from place-mapping to the idea of stewardship. say parks. 2006) 233 .edu. Case Studies: Findings Primary schools The application of the above overlay mapping method by the schools varied enormously among them and among classes within the same school.. poems and stories. Older kids mapped the Swan River as a hotspot and. abstract ideas of ecology. Dave Palmer. Teachers of younger age groups tended to focus on smaller areas that the children were familiar with. The idea here was to focus on a scale and place that is naturally meaningful to young children. economy. This movement occurred when as a result of the mapping process the teachers realised that the kids had not identified the school as a hotspot. as well as discussions. Environmental education in action: Proceedings of the 2006 Conference of the Australian Association of Environmental Education 4. Jennie Buchanan. Having mapped their local beach Bathers’ Beach. They commented that the project had brought the school back to its 1 Kathryn Netherwood. radio plays.

• • • • Mapping can be 2D or 3D or digitally interactive. and Marinova. The Markets mapping project concluded by the students putting together all the components of their understanding to construct a physical model of their ideal sustainable market place. and the much loved Cemetery Beach where the campuses meet for school camps. visual or more conceptual. which it then reflected on in a great deal of detail and which was a subject to much interesting values discussion and practice in many interacting layers. Because the project was for assessment. Teachers and children themselves were the key to the method’s successful interpretation and adaptation. The context is the class (including age and culture). The overlay mapping method was very field-based and suited to small independent schools which are not risk-averse and which can get out and about readily with few administrative restraints.) Kerry Street Community School took on the mapping project and identified several hotspots such as a local lake. 2006). their spiritual connections to sites like Mikurrunya. cyclones. D. independent schools they were able to pick up and run with the project and had the freedom to embark on whole-school projects or go out spontaneously on excursions. the key general messages we want to highlight are as follows. (Eds) Sharing wisdom for our future. the preparation and presentation of the maps were smaller and more specific in their scope than were the primary school projects.Wooltorton. (It was established in the 1970s as an alternative school with a focus on community and environment. Because the schools involved were all small. Any educational methodology whose basis is relationality has to respond to context to fulfil its potential and be meaningful. socio-economics and politics of the place where the school is located. One common feature that all the schools shared was the interest in Indigenous culture and people and their relationship to the land. University students 1 A willy-willy is a whirlwind or dust-storm. the neighbours’ chickens and the Kerry Street bus stop. dust. Strelley Community School has three campuses in the Port Hedland region. Environmental education in action: Proceedings of the 2006 Conference of the Australian Association of Environmental Education roots. Murdoch University: Ecologically Sustainable Development The overlay mapping method has also been used by university students as one of three assessment pieces in Laura Stocker’s Ecologically Sustainable Development unit (STP212/512) at Murdoch University (Stocker. the school environs including the grassed areas. it is an independent Aboriginal school. literal and metaphorical. From the point of view of the mapping methodology. S. people’s homes. teacher (particular skills and interests) and the geography. willy-willies1 and floods. the economic. Their mapping process was presented primarily through a photographic medium and it highlighted: the extremes of their physical world – the heat. social and cultural significance of the local roadhouse. a favourite park. 234 . Moerlina School identified the Claremont Showgrounds and the Station Street Markets as hotspots and examined the layers that make up these places.

what if South Beach is both ecological and social? Perhaps it also occurs on the economic layer or the cultural layer? Should you mark the same place on more than one layer? Yes. you can see that the four layers don’t necessarily overlap quite so closely. as well as informal and formal feedback from the students to her.) In 2004. with all four layers present on the campus. however: they ranged in style from creative collages with lots of photos and poems stuck onto the composite map to highly professional technical outputs from Photoshop. and even more so if it is involved in coastal care like Little Creatures Brewery. at full scale. the bushland (ecological) is spatially separated within the campus from the educational sites (social). you should! That is the point of the process. it may or may not sell sustainably harvested seafood though! Students quickly realised that. (Gary Burke ran a workshop demonstrating the digital options.Wooltorton. when you look at the university site on its own. the assignment was done on an individual basis and handed in without being presented orally. The first concern usually raised is. Murdoch University can look like a sustainability hotspot within the city of Melville. 235 . scale matters. to what extent do economic. For example. This outcome demonstrated the benefits of the process for its value to participants rather than to observers. However. (Eds) Sharing wisdom for our future. for argument’s sake. S. which was beneficial. A site like. to identify places that occur on more than one layer. A separate but related issue is the extent to which layers actually synergise where they do overlap in a place. economic and cultural. There can also be synergies within layers. most reported that they saw it in a new light and learned some new things about it. ecological and social layers interact in relation to recycling? To what extent is the Indigenous history (cultural) of the environment (ecological) interpreted to students on campus (social)? Do the departments that teach (social) about environmental issues (ecological) also practise recycling (economic/ecological) in their own offices and teaching resources? What limits these synergistic practices? To what extent is a university that teaches sustainability also sustainable all the way up and down its building design and 1 These and the following conclusions about students’ projects are based on Laura’s personal observations and formal assessments of students’ presentations and assignments. Environmental education in action: Proceedings of the 2006 Conference of the Australian Association of Environmental Education were focusing specifically on a local government area and needed to hand in for assessment the four layers of maps plus a composite map. and Marinova. They could create digital maps if they wished. D. and delivered. For example. Students thoroughly engaged with the process. While a pleasure to mark. in studying the sustainability benefits of hotspots. enjoyed the time spent in the field with the other members of the team. for the most part. all the collaborative benefits were lost. A synergy with the ecological layer can occur if the café‘s trade is enhanced by its location next to the sea. what if the same item occurs on more than one layer? Say. As a learning device. In 2005. the assignment was a collaborative project to be presented to the rest of the tutorial class. lively well-informed presentations1. and to identify where they actually synergise. Many maps were very impressive. For students living in a particular area. the mapping process engaged students through critical reflection on its process as well as the substantive understandings gained. A café can be social. A café that sells seafood supports the local seafood industry. The downside of the assignment was that tutorials were taken up week after week with presentations in which the marginal increase in learning for the audience was small. For many international students it was a crash course in their temporary home.

The strengths of the method lie in the following qualities: • • • • • • • • it can be applied in a wide variety of situations. as derived from the EMU overlay mapping process. Thus the identification of synergies and interactions among layers opens the space for further and deeper analysis. the complexities. a graphics programme such as Photoshop. did it also have to have ecological value? Or. schools and universities. but rather to mark what it is that people value the most in a place and to use this as a reflective. and to the synergistic whole. educational version of the process. especially to a collaborative. and it’s all economic. is a method that compiles and represents the sustainability values of a place. Conclusions and Future Directions The sustainability values mapping process. including communities. the mapping process can represent all the participants’ voices. everything can be on all the layers!’ However what is of interest in this methodology.g. Another questions raised by students was.Wooltorton. what if one layer works against the others: a toxic waste dump near South Beach. cultural and economic functions. The mapping process can be a way of visualising and conceptualising the absence of layers and conflicts among the layers. is it always desirable to have all four layers? Could three be enough for ‘sustainability’? If a town park like the Esplanade in Fremantle served social. tensions and ambiguities of contemporary life are such that these situations are more common than ideal hotspots. In these cases. it collects both empirical and experiential information in the same framework. is not to ensure absolutely everything is marked on the transparencies. Some students even identified ‘cold spots’ on their maps – typically sprawling suburbs with few parks and amenities. inter-subjective tool. In fact. it allows participants to see the layers of sustainability in relation to each other. it is educative. as well as the presence of layers and synergies among them. Environmental education in action: Proceedings of the 2006 Conference of the Australian Association of Environmental Education business practices (economic)? Students identified hotspots within the university campus like the Environmental Technology Centre where synergies among the four layers have deliberately been enabled. ‘Oh. it can be used by people of most ages. D. Further work can be done to translate the results into digital format. or unalleviated industrial areas. the identification of such hotspots and quasi-hotspots also inspired the students to think about what could be done to create better synergies among the four layers – such as having more classes in the bushland (some learning does occur in the bush). it’s all social. for instance. 5. rather than being an endpoint in itself. relational and participatory not just extractive of information. Furthermore. 236 . and Marinova. the tensions among the layers serve as talking points for how sustainability could be improved. S. (Eds) Sharing wisdom for our future. and oh. Some students get overwhelmed when they look at a map and think. The completed electronic maps can then be formatted into a GIS programme and correlated and analysed with data collected elsewhere and by different means (e. The various portions of the process can utilise digital technology: the layers can be compiled electronically within. cultures and literacy abilities. it can be used at many scales. and the mapping process can lead into a planning process.

and community. Spencer.M. 269–277.php 237 . for instance) it does not necessarily capture the relational values that were can be so important in education. Blades. However there are pilot projects being undertaken in local governments in Europe that involve using internet and GIS to enhance public participation (Parr et al. cultural and ecological landscapes and their key attributes of Vermont towns specifically as a place-based community educational process2.uvm. D. Elguea. 1 2 PDA is an acronym for Personal Digital Assistant. Western Australia: Gascoyne Development Commission.gov. Ecological Management Unit Project: Participant Evaluation. J. 65-74. without the capacity for easy public input via the internet (because of lack of access. Shelburne Farms and other partners in mapping the physical. A cross-cultural study of young children’s mapping abilities. Soni. GPS is an acronym for Global Positioning System http://www. S. D. Natural mapping. Kalgoorlie.au/main%20pages/programmes. from a traditional Indigenous painting of Country). S. (1997). D. The availability of personal GPS devices. Darvizeh. combined with the ease with which electronic maps can now be created (e. non-literary software programmes such as Cybertracker for PDA/GPS1 devices. economy. (2004). Uttal (1998). Until recently. Braddick. D.. (2005). Environmental education in action: Proceedings of the 2006 Conference of the Australian Association of Environmental Education ABS census). and graphics based. http://www. T. Beatley. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers. 23(2). Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers New Series 16(1)..html#vla (accessed 04. Washington: Island Press. Blaut. Video produced for GMS. (Eds) Sharing wisdom for our future. (2005). & Manning. The ecology of place: Planning for environment. Fall (74). Gascoyne Murchison Strategy Annual Report 2003-2004.wa. C. means there is greater potential for effective incorporation of information and perspectives from many citizens who are usually marginalised by information gathering processes (Liebenberg. S. USA. Sowden..edu/place/analyze/gis. there has been a collaboration between the University of Vermont. M. GIS has been much less user-friendly for collaborative. L. References Baldwin. Green Teacher.12.M. Burke. Blaut J. (1991). Stea.2006). The advantages of the GIS approach is that it is very information rich but the disadvantage is that.gms. undated) and in Vermont. Fremantle: Production Function. Teaming with nature. K.g. New Series.Wooltorton. Surajpaul. Overview of the Ecosystem Management Understanding Framework (EMU): Principles and Practice for Ecologically Sustainable Pastoral Management. Gascoyne Murchison Strategy Board (2004). 2003). R. as at the educational institutions involved in this project. Z. G. and Marinova. M. 27–30. Western Australia: The Rangeland Natural Resource Management Co-ordinating Group. participatory grass-roots work.

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