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APA Citation Style
GUIDE TO REFERENCES AND CITATIONS IN TEXT

Several departments and courses at Red Deer College, including Psychology, Nursing, and Social Work, require the use of the American Psychological Association (APA) style for citing references in student papers. It is important to remain consistent within the paper and to use the style recommended by your instructor. This guide addresses citation style only. For information on manuscript formatting, including title pages and appendices, consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. The purpose of documentation is to:   Identify (cite) other people’s ideas and information used within your essay or term paper. Indicate the authors or sources of these in a References list at the end of your paper.

Numbers in parentheses refer to pages in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.), unless otherwise noted. The examples in this guide cover frequently used citation forms only. For more detailed information refer to:   the RDC online APA guide at http://rdc.libguides.com/apa the Publication Manual at the Information Desk.

General Guidelines for APA Citation Style  All sources of information and data, whether quoted directly or paraphrased, are cited with parenthetical references in the text of your paper (p. 170). Example: (Walker, 2003).  To document your research throughout the text of your paper cite by author and date (p.174). If quoting directly from a source, include the page number on which that quote appears. Example: (Walker, 2003, p. 238)  Double-space your entire paper, including the References list and any block quotes (pp.171, 180).  List References entries with a hanging indent (p.180).  Arrange References entries in one alphabetical sequence by the surname of the first author or by title or first word if there is no author (pp.181-183).  Use only the initial(s) of the author’s given name, not the full name (p.184).  If the References list includes 2 or more entries by the same author(s), list them in chronological order with the earliest first (p.182).  When a work has 2 authors, cite both names every time the reference occurs. When a work has 3-5 authors, cite all the names the first time the reference occurs; in subsequent citations, use the surname of the first author followed by et al. When a work has 6+ authors, use the surname of the first author followed by et al. every time the reference occurs in the text (p.175).  If the author’s name is unavailable, use the title of the article, book or Web source, including the appropriate capitalization and italics format (pp.176-177). Example: (Scientists say, 2000).  In titles and subtitles capitalize only the first letter of the first word and any proper nouns, except in parenthetical (in text) citations (p.185).  Italicize book titles, journal titles, and volume numbers. Do not italicize issue numbers.  References cited in text must appear in the References list and vice versa. The only exceptions to this rule are personal communications and classical works; they are cited in text only and are not included in the References list (p.174).  When the References entry includes a URL that must be divided between two lines, break it before a slash or dash or at another logical division point (p.192).

See over for examples of Citations


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20(1).. A. W.202) Article or chapter in an edited book Multiple authors/editors (pp.200) Magazine article From article database. R.. p. ON: McGraw Hill Ryerson.203) Citations in Text General format (Author Surname. J.. 2003. no DOI (p. In J. F. N.ebrary. 2007) 2 | Updated 11/20/09 http://rdc. 153) (Lawrence & Dodds.lib. A8. London. K. & Schmidt. 468) (Ochs. 135. December 4). Volume(issue). 55-65. J.204) Article in a reference book (p. doi:10. Lafrance. A. & Dodds. Malden. doi:10. Toronto. 1990. & Harris. Book title: Subtitle. T. #) [direct quote] (Westhues. p. Goal-directed activities and life-span development. #) [direct quote] (Harris. N. A SWOT analysis of social work education in Canada. 203) Edited book (p. 30) (Kuttner. (1990. rd (Lindgren. 2009) (Sillick & Schutte. 2004) JOURNAL/MAGAZINE General format (Author Surname. (2001). (2006). p. Kuttner. (Year). T. pp. S. L.1027/1864-9335.xxxxxxxxxx OR Retrieved from URL of periodical home page [if available]. paginated by issue. Retrieved from http://www. Retrieved from http://www. Business Week. Second Initial. Year. Year) ARTICLES (pp. 2003) (Wallace. Passport applicant finds massive privacy breach. Emotional intelligence and self-esteem mediate between perceived early parental love and adult happiness. Lawrence. 3. 1994. Ochs.202. NY: Wiley.199) (Author Surname. S.198) Journal article From online periodical [Internet only]. 38-48. Social Work Education.com/apa .55 Sillick. A1. A. 517-533).php/ejap Henry. In Encyclopedia of psychology (Vol. p. 2006) Magazine article Print (p.2. Handbook of developmental psychology (pp. Lindgren. with DOI (p. First Initial. Harris. Secondary transfer effect of contact: Do intergroup contact effects spread to noncontacted outgroups? Social Psychology. & Schutte. p.200) (Henry & Mehta. Stereotyping. A. E. Canadian copyright law (3 ed. E-Journal of Applied Psychology.).. 2001. S.200) Newspaper article Discontinuous pages (p.202) E-book (p.188-192 Journal article 3 authors. (1994).com/ Wallace. 2001) (Burley & Harris. (Year). 28-31. J.. Westhues. & K.swin. 24-26. Journal Title. (2007. & Schmidt.businessweek.198-202) For more information on DOIs see pp. A history of nerve functions: From animal spirits to molecular mechanisms [ebrary Reader version]. MA: Blackwell. (2009). Year) (Author Surname. 468-469). H. doi:xx. J.198) Journal article From article database. First Initial. April 9).40. (2003). England: Sage Publications.1080/02615470020028364 Pettigrew. Lafrance. page range. Valsiner. Connolly (Eds. (2003. with DOI (p. The great American pension-fund robbery. & Mehta.). G. 524) References General format Author Surname. A companion to genethics. A. C.com/corp/ General Format Author Surname. Burley. Article title: Subtitle. 35-56. no DOI (p. (2002). Retrieved from http://ojs. 202-205) Book One author (p. 2002. Place of Publication: Publisher. 40(2). pp. September 8). The Globe and Mail. 47) (Pettigrew. Year.au /index. J. New York. p.edu. (2004). Beyond the melting pot.. (2001).). Second Initial. p.libguides. 2(2). Time.LIBRARY INFORMATION COMMON BOOKS (p. (Eds.

The whole brain atlas.wikipedia. retrieval date included Web page University site.com/watch?v=4CV05HyAbM Van Nuys. Holroyd (Eds). Retrieved from Red Deer College ZOO 342 Blackboard site.gc. (Occasional Paper no.cfm?lang=e&id=1067 Mokry.edu /AANLIB/ Environment Canada. M. October 12). 2007.LIBRARY INFORMATION COMMON Citations in Text References AUDIOVISUAL MEDIA (pp. J.). 110).cwrl. Year) (Author Surname OR Title.html Neurology. put n.med. #) [direct quote] (Browning. A. & Becker.d.edu/art/collections /objects/o707. ¶12) Web page from a Wiki No author. J. B. Wesch. & Davidson. (2004). (n. no date (p. Title of specific document. Retrieved from http://www. 2007) Davidson. D.getty. Retrieved from http://www. G.).) (Environment Canada.187-192) Web page General General Format (Author Surname OR Title.libguides.shrinkrapradio..ec. (2007.215) Audio Podcast (p.com/apa . The holy family [image].) (Johnson & Becker. page or para. 1993. Retrieved from Harvard University Medical School website: http://www.d. Retrieved from http://www. (1993). United States: Davidson Films. (Producer). The 1995 peregrine falcon survey in Canada.youtube. n.206) Government Document (p. December 19). Retrieved from URL of specific document [include a retrieval date only if the information is likely to change over time] Browning.d.cws-scf. Retrieved August 8. Retrieved from http://www. (2007. Please check with your instructor to see if this is necessary.ca/publications /AbstractTemplate. J. F.utexas. (Director).d.210) Electronic Image* (adapted from APA Publication Manual) (Davidson & Davidson. Year.org/wiki/Neurology Johnson. Lecture 3: The wonders of APA [PowerPoint slides]. See over for Tips on Citations In Text  3 | Updated 11/20/09 http://rdc. K.205) (Neurology. (Van Nuys. F. Shrink rap radio [Audio podcast].). (Producer). A brief historical survey of women writers of science fiction. 2004) Lecture Notes (Mokry. Retrieved from http://www.edu/~tonya/Tonya/sf /history. T. (n.209-210) Motion picture (Video Recording) (p. from http://en.harvard. Canadian Wildlife Service. Banasch & G.209) YouTube Video (p. n. Skinner: A fresh appraisal [Motion picture]. A. U.html General Format (include available elements) Personal or Corporate Author (if known). (Last update or copyright date. 2007) *Please note: Images in text are also generally accompanied by a caption that includes copyright information and a statement of permission for use.com/ Di Carpi. 2007) (Di Carpi.d. if not known. In Wikipedia. 1540) WEB SITES General info (pp. Information r/evolution [Video file]. (2007). (1540). (1999). 1999) (Wesch.

If a quotation is 40 words or more. para. do include Bertram (1996). p. If the paragraph number is not visible. “Quotations are effective in research papers when used selectively” (p.apastyle. 109) indicates that.179) Letters. [Do not include Fong (1987) in your References. use the abbreviation “para” and the relevant number in the parentheses. 2003.171-172) If a resource contains no page numbers. 1) More Tips for APA Citation When you need to leave out part of a quotation to make it fit grammatically or because it contains irrelevant/unnecessary information. and the like are not included in the reference list because they do not provide recoverable data.173). a paraphrase of Gibaldi’s earlier quotation might be identified as follows: When writing the research paper. because you did not read the original report. In 2003. 5) aptly phrased it… (Beutler. 2000. e-mails. For more information access the APA website at www. but this depends on how memory is tested. 4 | Updated 11/20/09 http://rdc. personal communication. insert ellipses (pp.LIBRARY INFORMATION COMMON Citations In Text How to Cite Quotations (pp. 2005) How to Cite Information When You Have Not Seen the Original Source (p. However. memos. April 15. Fong’s 1987 study (as cited in Bertram. and provide as exact a date as possible: (Y. In this case. then you cannot include a page number in the parentheses. if the source indicates paragraph numbers.178) Sometimes an author writes about research that someone else has done. The words “as cited in” in the parenthetical reference indicate you have not read the original research. Martel.172-173). enclosed in quotation marks. If you must add or slightly change words within a quotation for reasons of grammar or clarity.com/apa . you must cite the original author or researcher. students should use quotations judiciously (Gibaldi. Give the initials as well as the surname of the communicator. “Quotations are effective in research papers when used selectively”. 109). Gibaldi (2003. Fit quotations within your sentences. Conclusion. As Myers (2000.170-171) When you incorporate a direct quotation into a sentence. For example. 109).org/manual/index.libguides. Remember that “[q]uotations are effective in research papers when used selectively” (Gib aldi. but you are unable to track down the original research report. omit quotation marks and use a block format in which the quotation is indented about ½ inch (or 5 spaces) from the left margin. How to Cite Summaries or Paraphrases Even if you put information in your own words by summarizing or paraphrasing. cite the heading and the paragraph number following it. p. indicate the change with square brackets (p. you will include only the source you did consult in your References. How to Cite Lecture Notes / Personal Communications (p. Gibaldi wrote that. para. you must cite the source. Cite them in text only. p. 2003. making sure the sentences are grammatically correct. 1996) found that older students’ memory can be as good as that of young people.aspx and click on Learning APA Style. as can be the case with electronic sources.] How to Cite Information If No Page Numbers Are Available (pp. 109). personal interviews.

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