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Chapter 12 Information
Information • Common References • Other References • The Internet • Technician References
Drug Information Thousands of new drug related information published yearly. • Several new drugs added to the pharmacy shelves yearly. • Difficult to keep abreast on all new information released. • . • Information resources called drug information are needed.
g. • Provides direct access to the most current information. The Journal of Pharmacy Technology .Type of References • Primary Literature • Includes original research reports and found in scientific journals. • E.
indexing or bibliographic service. Drugdex and Index Medicus are abstracting service that summarize information contained in types of professionals and scientific journals. • Similar to an index at the end of a book or bibliography.g. . • E.Type of References • Secondary Literature • Summarizes information contained in professional and scientific journals. • Also called abstracting services.
• Easy and convenient. • The most commonly used references in the pharmacy. . • References may be published one or more years after the original literature and may no longer be current. standard reference books and review articles. monographs. • No single tertiary reference contains all the information.Type of References • Tertiary Literature • Includes textbooks.
• The Occupational. Health Administration (OSHA). • What to do incase of exposure of hazardous chemicals. • Protective measures on handling a specific chemical. • Mandates that all chemicals to have MSDS. • .Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) Contains information on • Proper handling of a specific chemical. Safety.
• . pharmacy inspection. business laws. and contains addresses of the boards of pharmacy. dispensing requirements. drug control. and relevant state and federal legal requirements.References on Legal Aspects United States Pharmacopoeia Drug Information (USP DI) Volume III • Approved Drug Products and Legal Requirements contains the USP and NF drug standards. • Pharmacy Law Digest of Facts and Comparisons • Provides information on controlled substance.
Common Drug References U. • Both are revised every 5 years. • Printed in a combined edition with the United States Pharmacopeia and the National Formulary(USP–NF). S. • Established by the United States Pharmacopeial Convention (USP). • . Pharmacopeia (USP DI) and National Formulary (NF) Official legal standards for drugs in the U.S.
• Presented in easy-to-use comparative tables. • Used to COMPARE medications in the same therapeutic class. • The drug information is also available online and with monthly and annual CDs through Facts and Comparison 4. • Contains information about prescription and OTC products. • A loose-leaf edition provides the most up-to-date drug reference through monthly updates. • .0.Drug Facts and Comparisons The most common drug reference used in community pharmacy settings.
• Contains international drug monographs with drug names. • Use to research foreign drugs. The Complete Drug Reference Formerly. active constituents. Martindale. country of origin. The Extra Pharmacopoeia.Martindale. • . manufacturers. and licensed indications.
• .AHFS The American Hospital Formulary Service Accepted as the source of comparative. • Used when investigating off-label medication indications. • Groups drugs by therapeutic use. and evidence-based drug information. unbiased. • PDA and Desktop formats are available. • Updated electronically and in an annual print update.
storage. compatibility. administration. • Available through ASHP in print and CD formats. and stability of injectable drugs. • . • Includes information on preparation.Handbook on Injectable Drugs Collection of monographs on commercially available parenteral drugs.
OTC items. • Contains NDC numbers for all FDA-approved drugs. • . wholesalers and third party administrators. buying groups and billing standards. directories for manufacturers. • Provides the latest pricing information. and reimbursable medical supplies.Red Book: Pharmacy’s Fundamental Reference A guide to accurate product information and prices on prescription drugs. drug interaction information and product listings for patients with special needs. common lab values. nationallyrecognized AWP’s and suggested retail prices for OTC products. • Guide to herbal medicines.
• . uses. composition. • Used to find trade and generic names. strength. and common abbreviations. manufacturer. dosage forms. package size. • Drug names are cross-referenced with monographs providing generic pronunciations.American Drug Index Published by Facts and Comparisons • Provides quick access to a comprehensive list of drugs and drug products.
• Use The Merck Index when information on chemical attributes of drugs is needed. medical emergencies. drug reactions. The Merck Manual • Contains information on the signs and symptoms of diseases. • Printed edition includes a companion CD.Drug References The Merck Index • Encyclopedia of chemical substance data including stability and other properties. clinical procedures. . and more.
drug interactions. • Contains: • Drug usage information and warnings.The Physician’s Desk Reference Information similar to the pharmaceutical manufacturer's drug package inserts since manufacturers prepare the essential drug information found in the PDR. • PDR electronic library & CD (requires membership). and full size color photos of drugs. • .
veterinary. • Use USP to prepare for regulatory surveys and to comply with standards of practice regarding compounding sterile and non-sterile preparations. and storage of pharmaceutical preparations. packaging.The USP Pharmacist’s Pharmacopeia Comprehensive information for pharmacy. labeling. • Available on the USP website or in PDF downloads. • Published bi-annually with five interim supplement. and other health care professionals on compounding. • .
FDA Electronic Orange Book Common name for the FDA’s Approved Drug Products with Therapeutic Equivalence Evaluations. • Determines the therapeutic equivalence of a brand and generic drugs. • Code B drugs documented as nonequivalent. • Code A drugs documented as equivalents. • .
Official publications reflecting standards of practice. • Today’s Technician • American Pharmacist • American Journal Health-System Pharmacists • Journal of American Pharmacist’s Association .Other References • Professional Practice Journals .
American Druggist • Pharmacy Times • US Pharmacist • Community Pharmacist • .Trade Journals • Published commercially for pharmacist and contain advertising materials.
• Useful source of current information. • The Medical Letter • The Pink sheet • .Newsletters Published rapidly and frequently.
Textbooks Handbook of Nonprescription Drugs: An Interactive Approach to Self Care • Goodman and Gilman’s The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics • Remington. The Science and Practice of Pharmacy • .
. and critical care. abstracts.full-text database covering drug information extensively.full-text databases covering drug information. CD and online database searching. • Index • • Data structure that improves the speed of data retrieval operations on a database table. • Clinical Pharmacology Online . toxicology. • Index services • Micromedex .Indexes of Primary Literature Primary literature accessed by printed indexes.
original Palm Pilot™ introduced. memory card/slot for data storage. media players. • . • 1996 . and web browsers capability. • Online Pharmacy software available from variety of sources. • Provides drug information to patients and health care professionals. • Downloads information from the Internet. • Touch screen data entry. • Mobile phones. wired or wireless connectivity.Personal Digital Assistance (PDA’s) Hand held computers.
using a common language. • Modem . • Search engine .Software that searches the web for information related to criteria entered by the user. • Browser . • .A piece of hardware that enables a computer to communicate through telephone lines.The Internet World’s largest network contains sources of information called the World Wide Web (www). • Internet Service Provider (ISP) – A company that provides access to the Internet. • URL (Uniform Resource Locator) – Web address.a software program that allow users to view Web sites. • Contains worldwide networks via phone lines.
Technician References Pharmacy Technician Organizations and Publications American Association of Pharmacy Technicians • National Pharmacy Technician Association • Pharmacy Technician’s Letter • Journal of Pharmacy Technology • Today’s Technician • .
Tertiary literature 14. HIPAA 5. Primary literature 11. Digital subscriber line 4.Terms to Remember 1. Uniform resource locator (URL) 16. Off-label indication 8. Trade journals 15. Modem 7. World wide web . PDA 10. Browser 3. Abstracting services 2. Secondary literature 13. Search engine 12. Internet service provider 6. “Orange book” 9.
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