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UT DALLAS

Erik Jonsson School of Engineering & Computer Science

Stable Real-Time Deformations
Authors: Matthias Muller, Julie Dorsey, Leonard McMillan, Robert Jagnow, Barbara Cutler
Presented by: Yin Yang

FEARLESS engineering

Outlines • • • • • • Dynamics Deformations Non-Linear Elasticity Linear Elasticity Stiffness Warping Rotation Tensor Field Results FEARLESS engineering .

. f 2 . xn )T x  ( x01 ...... x02 ..Dynamics Deformations • Finite element method (FEM... f n )T x  ( x1 .. [Bathe. x0 n )T FEARLESS engineering . x2 . 1982]) – More accurate result obtained – Body Subdivided – Interpolate deformation within basic element • Element type(shape) does not matter f elastic  F ( x  x0 ) NOT Linear! f elastic  ( f1 .

Dynamics Deformations • Dynamic equilibrium equation [Cook.1981]   Cx   F ( x  x0 )  f ext M x Defines a coupled system of 3n ODE of position Solve it for each time step! FEARLESS engineering .

1999] FEARLESS engineering .e.Dynamics Deformations • Many solvers have been proposed – Explicit: the status in the next step depend only on the status on the previous – Implicit: A linear system needs to be solved at each step! • Euler first order method – handle discontinuities better(i. collision) than higher order method [Desbrun et al.

1998] FEARLESS engineering .Dynamics Deformations • Implicit Euler (Backward Euler) x i 1  x i  tvi 1 Mv i 1  Mv  t (Cv i i 1  F (x i 1  x0 )  f i 1 ext ) For detailed solver formulation [Witkin and Baraff.

Non-Linear Elasticity • Assume no rigid body motion (i. only deformation) • Original defined on change of length over infinitesimal material • Change of SQUARED length – Green-Lagrange strain tensor FEARLESS engineering .e.

Non-Linear Elasticity • • • Quadratic stress-displacement relationship A good by product Still not a full second order approximation Why? Only one coefficient (i. Young’s modulus) F is no linear! • 1 (ds) 2  (ds0 ) 2 2 (ds0 ) 2 FEARLESS engineering .e.

can be pre-computed Faster! Even more stable! FEARLESS engineering .Linear Elasticity • Linear elasticity F ( x  x0 )  K ( x  x0 )  O(|| x  x0 || 2 ) • • • • K is Jacobian of F at x = x0 Called Stiffness matrix Constant.

Linear Elasticity • Why not linear? – Large deformation can not get rendered correctly – More precisely… – Linear strain tensor does not change during any rigid body transformation – Rotational deformation! FEARLESS engineering .

Stiffness Warping • Try to use linear tensor • E.F for a single tetrahedral element f elastic  K ( x  x0 ) • Assume the rotation is known FEARLESS engineering .

F • Rotate back again to the deformed position f elastic  Re K ( Re x  x0 ) 1 FEARLESS engineering .Stiffness Warping • Rotate the deformed positions back • Compute E.

Growth of volume) • Individual R for each vertex FEARLESS engineering .Stiffness Warping • What is rotation? – Use the global rigid rotation [Terzopoulos and Witkin. 1988] • acceptable result on stiff material with little rotation • bad result on deformable body with large rotation (i.e.

Rotation Tensor Field • Rotation is not unique! – Use least square Fi . j   (ni  uk )( n j  vk ) k 1 N F  USV T R  VU T FEARLESS engineering .

faster method used – – – – – Try to compute local orthonormal frame n1: normalized average of three edges n2: cross of n1 and a chosen edge n3: cross of n1 and n2 Sounds heuristic….Rotation Tensor Field • A simpler. FEARLESS engineering .

Rotation Tensor Field FEARLESS engineering .

Algorithm FEARLESS engineering .

Results Claimed that as fast as linear solver! FEARLESS engineering .

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