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Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards
Identifying Weld Discontinuities
Note: The source of the technical material in this volume is the Professional Engineering Development Program (PEDP) of Engineering Services. Warning: The material contained in this document was developed for Saudi Aramco and is intended for the exclusive use of Saudi Aramco’s employees. Any material contained in this document which is not already in the public domain may not be copied, reproduced, sold, given, or disclosed to third parties, or otherwise used in whole, or in part, without the written permission of the Vice President, Engineering Services, Saudi Aramco.
Chapter : Welding File Reference: COE11405
For additional information on this subject, contact A.A. Omar on 873-3705
Welding Identifying Weld Discontinuities
DETERMINING THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN WELD DISCONTINUITIES AND DEFECTS.............................................................................................................................................1 Weld Quality...........................................................................................................................1 Acceptance Criteria.................................................................................................................1 Weld Discontinuities .................................................................................................2 Nonrelevant Indications ............................................................................................8 Weld Defects .............................................................................................................9 IDENTIFYING NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING METHODS USED TO DETECT WELD DISCONTINUITIES ..............................................................................................................10 Visual Inspection ..................................................................................................................10 Liquid Penetrant....................................................................................................................12 Magnetic Particle ..................................................................................................................14 Ultrasonic..............................................................................................................................17 Radiographic.........................................................................................................................20 WORK AID 1: GUIDES FOR DETERMINING THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN WELD DISCONTINUITIES AND DEFECTS ....................................................25
Visual Inspection Acceptance Standards ..............................................................................25 Magnetic Particle Examination Acceptance Standards .........................................................26 Liquid Penetrant Examination Acceptance Standards...........................................................26 Radiography Examination Acceptance Standards.................................................................27 GLOSSARY .......................................................................................................................................28
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards
Welding Identifying Weld Discontinuities
DETERMINING THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN WELD DISCONTINUITIES AND DEFECTS
This section of the Module provides background information on weld discontinuities and defects. This section includes the following topics that are pertinent to the discussion: • Weld Quality • Acceptance Criteria
Weld quality is defined as the level of perfection that a weld exhibits. Weld quality pertains to the entire volume of weld metal that is in a weldment as well as to the surface appearance of a weldment. Because most welding operations are manually performed by welders, weldment imperfections are not uncommon; however, because engineers can evaluate the service of a weldment and relate the intended service to a specific level of weld quality, weldment imperfections are not necessarily a problem. Certain products, components, systems, and facilities require a higher level of weld quality than do others. The reason for this increased level of weld quality is the inherent danger of the products, components, systems, or facilities that are manufactured or constructed by welding. Historical data and experience have taught design engineers that certain facilities and components, such as nuclear power plants and high pressure storage vessels, can be extremely dangerous if not properly constructed. The level of weld quality that is required for nuclear power plants and high pressure storage vessels is higher than the level of weld quality that is required for atmospheric storage tanks that present fewer safety risks. Construction standards that identify the minimum level of weld quality for the components and systems that are fabricated at Saudi Aramco were discussed in COE 114.02.
Construction standards express the required level of weld quality in terms of the maximum weld imperfections that are allowed in a weldment. In order to be acceptable, weld imperfections must meet the criteria that are listed in the applicable construction standards such as API 1104 and AWS D1.1 that were identified in Module COE 114.02. The term “acceptance criteria” is used by construction standards to define the required level of weld quality. Typically, the weld acceptance criteria that are presented in construction standards are a list of the maximum allowable weld imperfections. These imperfections can refer to the size (length, width, diameter) of the weld imperfection or to the quantity of the weld imperfections. When the quantity of the weld imperfections is the acceptance criteria, the allowable quantity is usually dependent on the thickness of the base metals that are welded. Thicker materials can generally have a larger quantity of weld imperfections than can thinner materials.
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards
The following criteria are examples of acceptance criteria that apply to the physical attributes of a weldment: • Minimum fillet weld size. Maximum concavity and convexity of a fillet weld. Only those weld discontinuities that do not meet the applicable acceptance criteria are considered to be weld defects. Not all weld discontinuities are considered to be weld defects. Typical weld metal discontinuities that are encountered in welds at Saudi Aramco are presented in Figures 1 through 10. Maximum mismatch in groove welds.Engineering Encyclopedia Welding Identifying Weld Discontinuities In addition to weld quality. therefore. Weld Discontinuities A weld discontinuity is defined as an interruption of the typical structure of a weldment such as a lack of homogeneity in the mechanical. • • • • Maximum weld reinforcement (root and face). metallurgical. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 2 . the weld acceptance criteria that are contained in the construction standards also can pertain to the physical attributes of a weldment. or physical characteristics of the weldment. Minimum weld transition requirements between members of unequal thickness. weld discontinuities that meet the applicable acceptance criteria are not considered detrimental to the strength of a weldment.
They are either longitudinal (aligned with the weld bead) or transverse (perpendicular to the weld bead). Cracks can be either surface cracks or subsurface cracks. Figure 1.Engineering Encyclopedia Welding Identifying Weld Discontinuities Figure 1 shows cracks in welds. and they generally occur in a weld due to stresses that are developed during the welding process. Cracks in Welds Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 3 . Cracks in welds are unacceptable discontinuities.
Figure 3. Lack of fusion is generally located at the weld metal and base metal interface. Lack of Fusion Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 4 . Slag inclusions are located within a weld and occur when impurities or flux contaminate a weld. Slag Inclusions Figure 3 shows lack of fusion. Figure 2. Lack of fusion is generally the result of inadequate heat or excessive travel speed. and it occurs when the molten weld metal does not fuse completely with an adjacent weld bead or with the base material. Slag inclusions are the result of improper interpass cleaning.Engineering Encyclopedia Welding Identifying Weld Discontinuities Figure 2 shows slag inclusions.
Undercut results in a depression on the surface of the base metal at the point at which the weld metal contacts the base metal. Figure 5. Incomplete root penetration is generally the result of inadequate heat or excessive travel speed. Incomplete Root Penetration Figure 5 shows weld undercut.Engineering Encyclopedia Welding Identifying Weld Discontinuities Figure 4 shows incomplete root penetration. Incomplete root penetration occurs when the weld metal does not completely penetrate into the root area and consume both of the base materials. A weld undercut is a groove that is melted into the toe or root of a weld and that is left unfilled by the weld metal. Figure 4. Weld Undercut Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 5 . Undercut is generally the result of excessive heat and travel speed.
Cold Lap Figure 7 shows root concavity. Figure 7. too wide of a root opening. Cold lap occurs when the weld metal freezes too quickly and does not fuse with the surface of the base metal. Root concavity results from excessive heat. Cold lap typically is found on the cover pass at the toe of the weld. an example of which would be pipe. Cold lap is generally the result of inadequate heat and excessive travel speed. Root concavity occurs in weld joints that are welded from one side only. or insufficient deposited weld metal. Figure 6. Root Concavity Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 6 .Engineering Encyclopedia Welding Identifying Weld Discontinuities Figure 6 shows cold lap.
Crater Pit Figure 9 shows an arc strike. Arc strikes are caused by dragging the electrode over the surface of the base metal in an effort to initiate an arc for welding. Crater pits are located on the weld bead surface. Figure 9. Figure 8. which leaves a small void. Crater pits result from the rapid breaking of the electric arc so that the weld puddle freezes too quickly and shrinks.Engineering Encyclopedia Welding Identifying Weld Discontinuities Figure 8 shows a crater pit. and they are generally associated with Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW). Arc Strike Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 7 .
and the appearance of the indication. Weld porosity is caused by inadequate flux or shielding gas coverage.. The majority of nonrelevant indications are directly related either to the improper use of a nondestructive testing method or to the examiner’s ability to properly perform the nondestructive testing method. temperature-indicating crayon residue) on the base metal can also vaporize during welding and result in gas bubbles that are trapped in the weld metal. but it is typically located within the weld. Based on the method of NDT. UT reflections that are due to the interface of mating parts rather than due to a discontinuity. Moisture or other contaminants (e. which allows oxygen to contaminate the molten weld metal prior to solidification. oil. such indications can be determined by the NDT technician to be nonrelevant. the configuration of the component that is being examined. penetrant.g. Weld Porosity Nonrelevant Indications Nonrelevant indications are indications that are revealed by nondestructive testing but that are not caused by actual weld discontinuities. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 8 . Flow lines and magnetic writing indications that are revealed by magnetic particle examination.Engineering Encyclopedia Welding Identifying Weld Discontinuities Figure 10 shows weld porosity. Liquid penetrant indications that result from the inability to adequately remove all of the surface penetrant. Porosity can be located on the weld surface. Figure 10. • • • • Sharp lines on radiographic film due to severe changes in the section thickness of the material that was radiographed. Examples of typical nonrelevant indications include the following: • Scratches or water spots on radiographic film.
would probably result in the premature failure of the weld. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 9 . A weld defect. The weld discontinuities that were shown in Figures 1 through 10 would or would not be classified as defects depending on acceptance criteria. Welds that have defects must be repaired so that the defect is either completely removed from the weld or is sufficiently reduced in size so that the defect meets the acceptance criteria. as determined by the construction standards.Engineering Encyclopedia Welding Identifying Weld Discontinuities Weld Defects A weld defect is a discontinuity that does not meet the acceptance criteria of the applicable construction standard.
and welders and welding inspectors continuously use visual inspections during welding operations to improve the quality of welds. The information provides an overview of the nondestructive testing methods. Inspection aids sometimes are used to facilitate visual inspections. The following are examples of commonly used visual inspection aids: • Mirrors • • • • • • • • • Portable Lighting Flashlights Light Meters Straight Edges and Rulers Magnifying Lenses Boroscopes Microscopes Video Cameras Weld Gages The tool that is used to perform visual inspections is the human eye. The following are the requirements to perform a visual inspection: • Visual Acuity . The eye examination checks for conditions such as visual acuity. A visual inspection is the quickest and most cost-effective method of NDT that can be used to identify a surface discontinuity on a weld. mastery of visual inspection methods and the ability to accurately interpret results requires extensive training.Engineering Encyclopedia Welding Identifying Weld Discontinuities IDENTIFYING NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING METHODS USED TO DETECT WELD DISCONTINUITIES This section contains a description of the nondestructive testing (NDT) methods that are used to detect weld discontinuities at Saudi Aramco. and depth perception. color blindness.Personnel who perform visual inspections must pass an annual eye examination in accordance with industry standards. and it includes a description of the basic principles and common applications of each of the following methods: • Visual Inspection • • • • Liquid Penetrant Magnetic Particle Ultrasonic Radiographic Visual Inspection The purpose of visual inspection is to detect surface discontinuities on weldments that are visible to the human eye. The visual inspection is the most frequently used method of examination. Visual inspections often will identify problems during welding that can be repaired “in process” to prevent the discovery of a discontinuity by a subsequent nondestructive test. Due to the complexity of the information that is involved. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 10 .
Engineering Encyclopedia Welding Identifying Weld Discontinuities • Distance . including the bevel angle. To inspect the proper fit-up of socket weld fittings on small diameter pipe. an examination aid can be used. Lighting . the examiner’s eye should be located within 24 inches and at an angle of not less than 30 degrees to the surface of the weld that is being examined. the land. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 11 . To inspect in-process welds and completed welds prior to additional NDT. A minimum of 35 foot candles of light should be available for normal visual inspections. a minimum of 50 foot candles of light should be available.A flashlight or other additional lighting should be used to sufficiently illuminate the area that is to be inspected. • • Common applications for visual inspection include the following: • To determine the size and length of fillet welds on structural members. Access . • • • To inspect the weld joint fit-up. Mirrors can be used to improve the angle of vision. the root opening. If required by a procedure. a light meter can be used to determine the exact amount of illumination that is available.If the area to be examined is not directly accessible. and the cleanliness of piping welds.To conduct a visual inspection. When visual inspections for small indications are being performed.
discontinuities are present on the surface of the material. proper preparation of the surface to be inspected is important. After the excess penetrant is removed. Figure 11. Application of a developer. PT uses the principle of capillary action to detect discontinuities. Removal of the excess penetrant. a developer is applied to the surface of the material to draw the absorbed penetrant back out of the openings.Engineering Encyclopedia Welding Identifying Weld Discontinuities Liquid Penetrant The purpose of liquid penetrant testing (PT) is to detect discontinuities that are open to the surface of nonporous materials. • • • • Application of the penetrant to the surface that is to be inspected. Figure 11 shows that PT can be broken down into the following basic steps: • Cleaning the surface. Principles of PT Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 12 . capillary action will cause the penetrant to enter any small openings that exist on the surface of the material. When a liquid penetrant is applied to the surface of a material. Visual inspection for indications. If the application of the developer causes the penetrant to be drawn back out of an opening. Because dirt or contamination could mask surface discontinuities.
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 13 . Typically. storage tanks. solvent removable penetrants and the dry air spray developers. To check socket welds and root passes on pressure vessels. Special penetrants and developers are required for even moderate temperature use. • Not conducive to high temperature applications. and piping welds. SAIP-04-P only applies to PTs that are performed on materials that have a maximum temperature of 125 oF. The coating prevents the occurrence of capillary action. Surfaces that are covered with paint or other coatings cannot be examined with the liquid penetrant method. • • • The following are common applications for liquid penetrant examinations: • To check for surface discontinuities on non-magnetic welds such as aluminum and stainless steel. The following are the major advantages of PT: • Good sensitivity • • • Inexpensive Simple Wide range of uses The following are the major limitations of PT: • Inability to detect subsurface discontinuities. • • To check for surface discontinuities on magnetic welds when magnetic particle testing cannot be performed. The lengthy dwell time (sometimes up to 45 minutes) of liquid penetrant examinations. visible dye. Extensive surface preparation required. The type of developer that is used depends on the type of penetrant that is used. The use of penetrant materials from different families requires special permission from the Saudi Aramco Inspection Department. the same family of penetrant material is used throughout the inspection process.Engineering Encyclopedia Welding Identifying Weld Discontinuities Saudi Aramco only uses color contrast.
Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 14 . When a discontinuity exists in a ferromagnetic material. Magnetic particle testing is based on the principle of magnetism. the discontinuity results in a distortion in the magnetic lines of force. steel. Magnetism is the ability of one ferromagnetic material to attract other ferromagnetic materials. and it creates a leakage field in which the magnetic testing particles are gathered. The visual gathering of magnetic particles indicates that a discontinuity may exist in the material that is being tested.g. Magnetic fields exist within and around a permanent magnet or around a conductor that carries an electric current.. Ferromagnetic materials (e. These magnetic fields are made up of magnetic lines of force that are perpendicular to the direction of the electric current flow. iron.Engineering Encyclopedia Welding Identifying Weld Discontinuities Magnetic Particle The purpose of magnetic particle testing (MT) is to detect discontinuities that are either on the surface of or near the surface of ferromagnetic materials. and associated alloys) are those materials that can be strongly magnetized.
Figure 12. Principles of MT Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 15 . The test object is evaluated for gathered magnetic particles. • • Magnetic particles are applied to the surface of the magnetized test object. the test object is magnetized).Engineering Encyclopedia Welding Identifying Weld Discontinuities Figure 12 illustrates the following basic principles of MT: • An electric current is passed through a test object to create a magnetic field in the test object (i.e..
in comparison to PT: • MT is less labor-intensive • • • After the initial investment. or dc current to establish magnetic fields. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 16 . or dc current to establish magnetic fields. The test object completes a magnetic circuit with the yoke. however. The particles must be applied lightly and evenly to the surface. The particles are applied by allowing them to lightly settle on the surface of the test object. The following methods can be used: • The wet method uses magnetic particles that are suspended in a liquid such as oil or water. Prods also can use ac. Yokes can use ac. half wave (HW) dc. The following are the major advantages of MT. or they can be in the form of a dry powder. The mixture is applied by allowing it to flow over the test object.This method uses an electromagnetic yoke to pass a magnetic field through the test object. MT can detect some subsurface defects. but the particles are available in different colors. • The dry method uses magnetic particles in the form of a dry powder. The method of application depends on the test situation. dc current also has more of a tendency to magnetize the test objects. The current that passes through the test object establishes the magnetic field.This method uses prods to pass electrical current through the test object. Magnetic particles can be suspended in liquid. which results in the establishment of a magnetic field in the test object. MT is less expensive to perform. HWdc. The magnetic particles may be fluorescent or non-fluorescent. demagnetization may be necessary.Engineering Encyclopedia Welding Identifying Weld Discontinuities The following methods are used at Saudi Aramco to establish the magnetic field: • Indirect Method . The use of ac current results in a magnetic field that is fairly shallow in the test material. Depending on the circumstances of the part that is tested. The wet method of magnetic particle testing generally provides a more sensitive inspection because the wet method is able to detect minute discontinuities. the use of dc current provides a deeper magnetic field. The magnetic particles are non-fluorescent. MT has less post-test cleanup. • Direct Method .
After the wave travels through the test object. the transducer receives the return signal and sends it through a process circuit. the distance that the wave travels can be determined through use of CRT display. return signal. and three indications (initial signal. PT. • • To check socket welds on piping. The ultrasonic energy causes mechanical vibrations (wave propagation) in the form of a wave to travel through a test object. UT is a more complex method of NDT than is either VT. If the wave encounters a discontinuity in the test object. the sensitivity) is a function of the wavelength of the emitted ultrasonic energy.. The transducer uses this electrical signal to generate and emit ultrasonic energy. part of this energy is reflected back. To check vessels and tanks that are susceptible to sulfide stress and hydrogen induced cracking (wet particle method). and reflected signal) will appear on the CRT display screen. When ultrasonic energy (wave) is transferred into a material. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 17 . The following are the common applications for magnetic particle examinations: • To check carbon steel weldments (wet or dry particle method). The ability of the ultrasonic system to detect small defects (e. or MT. and storage tanks (wet or dry particle method). only the initial and return signals appear on the CRT display screen. Ultrasonic The primary purposes of ultrasonic testing (UT) are to detect volumetric discontinuities in materials and to measure the thickness of materials. UT uses a pulse generator to generate an electrical signal that is supplied to a transducer. vessels. weld bevel preps. Figure 13 illustrates the basic principles of UT. however. the return signal will reflect the disruption of the wave. if the wave encounters a discontinuity.Engineering Encyclopedia Welding Identifying Weld Discontinuities The major limitation of MT is that it can only be used to find defects that are at or near the surface of ferromagnetic materials. unlike the previously discussed methods of NDT. If the wave does not encounter a discontinuity. shafts of rotating equipment. structural fillet welds. can be used to inspect the entire volume of a weld. The output of the process circuit is sent to a cathode ray tube.g. valve bodies. UT. A qualified inspector can determine the approximate size and the location of the discontinuity from these indications.
Principles of UT The following are the basic test equipment components that are used to perform UT: • Transducer .A couplant is a medium that is used to facilitate the transmission of ultrasonic energy between the transducer and the test object.Engineering Encyclopedia Welding Identifying Weld Discontinuities Figure 13. Pulse .The pulse generator is used to generate the input electrical signal to the transducer and the CRT display is used to display the return signal. Other important pieces of test equipment are calibration blocks and reference blocks. Calibration and reference blocks are used to help ensure that the test equipment is properly operating.This device is used to convert energy from one form to another form. These piezoelectric devices (transducers) are used to both transmit and receive ultrasonic signals. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 18 . • • Couplant . Because the operation of the test equipment affects the examiner’s interpretation of the test results. proper operation of the test equipment is extremely important.
UT is safe to perform. Contact testing can provide different types of CRT display patterns that are known as scans. • “A” Scan . UT cannot detect discontinuities that are parallel to the ultrasonic beam. UT is the least limited method of NDT.Engineering Encyclopedia Welding Identifying Weld Discontinuities Contact testing is the test method that is widely used at Saudi Aramco. • “B” Scan . • • • • • • UT displays the size and location of discontinuities. • • • UT is difficult to use on course grain materials (castings).An “A” scan is the usual type of CRT display that is used in ultrasonic material testing. UT cannot be used to check all weld joint configurations (e. UT can be used on a variety of materials including most metals.“C” scans provide a plan view of an object. A photograph of the CRT display screen is often taken for record purposes. • The following advantages of UT make it a widely used method of testing for defects in a variety of situations: • UT is extremely sensitive. UT can be performed through use of portable equipment. “C” Scan . The CRT display of a “C” scan also can be photographed.g. however. The following types of CRT display patterns can be used. the following limitations do exist: • UT can only be performed by highly skilled technicians. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 19 . “A” scans indicate the depth of a discontinuity. UT only requires access to one side of a weld structure or component.. Because of the many variations of testing methods. UT can be used on all but the very complex weldments. socket welds). A plan view is the view through the object from the inspection surface. The “B” scan also can indicate the depth of a discontinuity. “B” scans are typically used in medical applications. The type of CRT display pattern that is used is dependent on the application.“B” scans provide a view of an object in a plane that is perpendicular to the direction of movement of the transducer signal and the surface of the test piece.
The portion of the rays that pass through the test object are used to expose a special type of film. RT uses radioactive sources (x-ray. The physical characteristics of the test object determine the amount of the energy beam that passes through the material. The image that is produced on the film will show any changes in the density of the areas that are exposed to the penetrating radiation. piping. gamma ray. Figure 14 illustrates the basic principles of RT. The energy and wavelength characteristics of these rays allow them to be used to penetrate any material.Engineering Encyclopedia Welding Identifying Weld Discontinuities The following are the common applications for ultrasonic examinations: • Thickness gaging for corrosion detection. • • Inspection of plate material for laminations. or neutron beams) to emit radiographic rays that penetrate the test object. Principles of RT Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 20 . Radiographic The purpose of radiographic testing (RT) is to detect internal weld discontinuities and not only surface and subsurface discontinuities. Any changes in material thickness or density will affect the amount of energy that passes through the test object. Figure 14. Inspection of full penetration groove welds in structural members. and pressure vessels.
Photons. Because the senses of the human body cannot detect the presence of radiation. These devices include film badges. the rays can cause permanent damage to the human body. special monitoring equipment must be used. and use of radioactive sources. The tubes may be portable to allow performance of radiographic examinations in the field. This instruction is used by personnel who are involved in all aspects of storage. Overexposure to radiation may cause radiation sickness. dosimeters.0 ( Radiation Monitoring Equipment) of SAIP-08 identifies the devices that are used to perform radiation surveys. permanent damage to vital body organs. A significant danger exists when sources of radiation are not properly handled.09 (Personnel Monitoring Equipment) of SAIP-08 identifies the devices that are used to measure the actual exposure of personnel during the performance of RT. These rays pass through the body in the same way in which they pass through the test object. and radiation survey meters.100 ( Ionizing Radiation Protection) sets the general guidelines that all Saudi Aramco personnel must follow to protect themselves against ionizing radiation. The sources of gamma rays are the disintegrating nuclei of radioactive isotopes. special precautions and safety procedures must be strictly followed by personnel who handle radiation sources.Engineering Encyclopedia Welding Identifying Weld Discontinuities Radiation is the energy that is given off due to a nuclear reaction at the atomic level. The following are the radioactive isotopes that Saudi Aramco uses to produce gamma rays: • Cobalt-60 (Co-60) • Iridium-192 (Ir-192) The penetrating nature of radiation presents a danger to people. if the exposure is excessive. This energy may be in the form of an electromagnetic wave or a particulate. handling. in severe cases. A radiation survey meter is used to check radiation levels in a given area. This information is needed to determine personnel stay times and shielding requirements. death. This danger is magnified because there are no immediate signs to tell people that they are being exposed to harmful amounts of radiation. SAGI 9. and. display both wave and particle characteristics. X-rays are generated in electronic X-ray tubes of the linear accelerator type. Because of these dangers. Section 4. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 21 . which are small packets of energy that are caused by radioactive decay. or. Section 5. The two types of electromagnetic radiation that are used to perform radiography at Saudi Aramco are X-rays and gamma rays.
position. Every effort must be made to achieve the highest quality image so that all of the discontinuities can be identified. Figure 15 shows examples of “panoramic” and “elliptical” radiographic techniques that also are used on piping welds. The radiograph is not acceptable as proof that the test object is free of defects unless it is of good quality. Figure 14 showed an example of the “double wall” radiographic technique that is used to examine piping or small pressure vessel welds. A penetrameter is typically a wire or block that is made of the same material as the test object. A penetrameter is used to check the quality of the image that is produced on the radiographic film. ASTM wire-type penetrameters and hole-type penetrameters are commonly used at Saudi Aramco. density. The type and positioning of the film. The following are the most important factors that must be considered in the achievement of the highest quality image: • The type. The term “exposure” refers to exposing the test object to the radiation source. the amount of exposure decreases. Film processing time and chemical temperatures.Engineering Encyclopedia Welding Identifying Weld Discontinuities The following are the basic radiation safety techniques that are used to reduce personnel exposure to ionizing radiation: • Time . and intensity of the radiation source.As the distance from a radiation source increases. and configuration of the test object. The dimensions of the penetrameter are critical because the dimensions represent the thickness of the object that is being examined. • • Distance . Shielding . The penetrameter is used to confirm the sensitivity of the radiograph. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 22 . Note that the “panoramic” technique requires that the radiation source be placed inside of the pipe or vessel. Many variables must be considered to ensure that the exposure produces a usable image.As the amount of time that is spent near a radiation source decreases. The penetrameter is not used to determine the size of discontinuities.As the amount of shielding that is between the radiation source and personnel increases. The penetrameter image is a permanent record that proves that the technique that is used to perform the RT produced a good quality radiograph. Figure 15 points out the relative location of the radiographic source for each technique. the exposure to the radiation decreases. • • • The thickness. the exposure to the radiation decreases.
Engineering Encyclopedia Welding Identifying Weld Discontinuities Figure 15. Radiographic Techniques Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 23 .
slag inclusions. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 24 . RT provides a permanent record that shows the size and location of discontinuities. • RT cannot detect discontinuities that are located perpendicular to the rays. The following are the major limitations to the use of RT: • RT can only be performed by highly skilled technicians. and they include the following: • Examination of critical full penetration welds in piping and pressure vessels. • • RT exposes personnel who are in the area to radiation. RT can be used on a wide variety of materials. To check for linear and nonlinear weld indications such as cracks. and these advantages are similar to the advantages of UT: • RT is extremely sensitive. Common applications for radiographic examinations are similar to the application for ultrasonic examinations. and porosity. The following conditions may limit the use of RT: • Weld joint geometry. Accessibility and geometry of the radiographic technique. • • Evaluation of the effects of erosion and corrosion on component and piping wall thickness. • • • • RT can identify both surface and subsurface discontinuities.Engineering Encyclopedia Welding Identifying Weld Discontinuities The following are the advantages of RT. lack of fusion. RT can be performed through use of portable equipment.
are listed below and are to be used as guides to perform Exercise 1. Over 1 to 2. incl. Power Piping. incl. or 1/8 times the width of the weld in inches Figure 16. Over 1 Maximum Thickness of Reinforcement for Design Temperature > 750oF 350oF . Allowable Weld Reinforcement Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 25 . Over 1/2 to 1. Thickness of Base Metal. Selected weld acceptance criteria from ASME B31. incl. Visual Inspection Acceptance Standards The following discontinuities are unacceptable: • Cracks on external surfaces.Engineering Encyclopedia Welding Identifying Weld Discontinuities WORK AID 1: GUIDES FOR DETERMINING THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN WELD DISCONTINUITIES AND DEFECTS This Work Aid is designed to help the Participant perform Exercise 1. Weld reinforcement greater than the weld reinforcement that is specified in Figure 16. in. Up to 1/8. incl. Over 3/16 to 1/2.750oF < 350oF 1/16 3/31 3/16 1/16 1/8 3/16 1/16 5/32 3/16 3/32 3/16 3/16 1/8 1/4 1/4 5/32 The greater of 1/4 in.1. Over 1/8 to 3/16. Incomplete penetration (applies only when the inside surface is readily accessible. incl. • • • Undercut on surface that is greater than 1/32" deep.
Liquid Penetrant Examination Acceptance Standards The following discontinuities are unacceptable: • Any cracks or linear indications. Ten or more rounded indications in any 6 sq. • • • Rounded indications with dimensions that exceed 3/16". in. in. Four or more rounded indications that are in a line and that are separated by 1/16" or less from edge to edge. Ten or more rounded indications in any 6 sq.Engineering Encyclopedia Welding Identifying Weld Discontinuities Magnetic Particle Examination Acceptance Standards The following discontinuities are unacceptable: • Any cracks or linear indications. of surface where the major dimension of this area does not exceed 6" and where the area that is chosen is in the most unfavorable location relative to the indications being evaluated. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 26 . Four or more rounded indications that are in a line and that are separated by 1/16" or less from edge to edge. • • • Rounded indications with dimensions that exceed 3/16". of surface where the major dimension of this area does not exceed 6" and where the area that is chosen is in the most unfavorable location relative to the indications being evaluated.
Engineering Encyclopedia Welding Identifying Weld Discontinuities Radiography Examination Acceptance Standards Welds that are shown by radiography to have any of the following types of discontinuities are unacceptable: • Any type of crack or zone of incomplete fusion or penetration. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 27 . Any group of indications in line that have an aggregate length that is greater than t in a length of 12t. except where the distance between the successive indications exceeds 6L. • Any other elongated indication that has a length greater than: – – – NOTE: • 1/4" for t up to 3/4" inclusive 1/3 t for t from 3/4" to 2-1/4" inclusive 3/4" for t over 2-1/4" where t is the thickness of the thinner portion of the weld t is the thickness of the weld being examined. where L is the longest indication in the group. If a weld joins two members with different thicknesses at the weld. t is the thinner of these two thicknesses.
One foot candle equals 1 lumen per square foot. Material (typically lead or concrete) that is used to stop or to reduce the amount of radiation that is generated by a gamma or an x-ray source.Engineering Encyclopedia Welding Identifying Weld Discontinuities GLOSSARY capillary action defect discontinuity electromagnetic examination foot candles inspection nonporous nonrelevant oscilloscope penetrameter piezoelectric radioactive isotope shielding stay time test object Tendency of a liquid to enter small cracks in the test object because of the difference in cohesive forces between the liquid (penetrant) and the surfaces of the crack. or physical characteristics. Property of certain crystals to produce an electric current when a mechanical stress is applied. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 28 . the penetrameter is a device that is placed in the area that is being radiographed. Accelerated electric charges called photons whose energy is related to the frequency of the wavelength. for example. metallurgical. An instrument that is used to trace the electronic signal that is generated by UT. An indication that is obtained during a nondestructive test and that is a result of a normal or known condition in a material and that is not the result of a discontinuity or defect. Unstable elements whose decay produces radiation. The length of time that a person can stay in an area before he receives too much radiation. Also called an image quality indicator (IQI). Unit of measure for the amount of light that is present in a given area. Materials that are free of pores or porosity and that are nonpermeable to liquids. An unacceptable discontinuity as defined by the code. The interpretation of the results that were obtained from a nondestructive examination. An interruption of the typical structure of a material. and it is used to determine the quality and sensitivity of the radiograph. The procedure or method that is used to conduct a destructive or a nondestructive test. A component or weldment that is being subjected to a destructive or a nondestructive test. a lack of homogeneity in the mechanical. The signal is displayed on the screen of a cathode-ray tube (CRT) to provide an instantaneous indication.
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