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# National Aeronautics and Space Administration Dryden Flight Research Center P.O.

Box 273 Edwards, California 93523-0273

F-1998-44/D-1048

June 20, 1998

TO: FROM: SUBJECT:

All Holders of NASA/TM-1998-206542 F/Technical Publications Office Errata Sheet for NASA TM-1998-206542

The report titled Mechanical- and Thermal-Buckling Behavior of Rectangular Plates With Different Central Cutouts by William L. Ko has an error in figure 43 on page 36. Please make the following change to this document. Delete the original pages 35 and 36. Then insert the attached pages 35 and 36 to replace it. Staple this errata sheet inside the front cover of the document. Thank you for your cooperation.

Specialist

200

Symmetric buckling Antisymmetric buckling

∆T

w

150

c /w = 1.0

∆Tcr,
°F

100 4C 4C 4S 4S .5

50

0

.1

.2

.3

.4 c/w

.6

.7

.8
970947

Figure 41. Buckling temperatures as functions of hole size; square holes.

∆T

∆T

c/w = 0.2

970948a

c/w = 0.6

970948b

(a) 4S fixed.

∆T

∆T

c/w = 0.2

970949a

c/w = 0.6

970949b

(b) 4C fixed. Figure 42. Buckled shapes of uniformly heated square plates with square holes; l/w = 1.

35

Change 1, 06/20/98

50 45 40 35 30

Symmetric buckling Antisymmetric buckling

w

∆T
c /w = 1.5

∆Tcr,
°F

25 20 15 10 4S 5 0 4S .1 .2 .3 .4 c/w .5 .6 .7 .8
970950

4C 4C

Figure 43. Buckling temperatures as functions of hole size; square holes.

∆T

∆T

c/w = 0.2

970951a

c/w = 0.6

970951b

(a) 4S fixed.

∆T

∆T

c/w = 0.2

970952a

c/w = 0.6

970952b

(b) 4C fixed. Figure 44. Buckled shapes of uniformly heated rectangular plates with square holes; l/w = 1.5.

36

NASA/TM-1998-206542

Mechanical- and Thermal-Buckling Behavior of Rectangular Plates With Different Central Cutouts
William L. Ko Dryden Flight Research Center Edwards, California

March 1998

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NASA/TM-1998-206542 Mechanical.and Thermal-Buckling Behavior of Rectangular Plates With Different Central Cutouts William L. California 93523-0273 March 1998 . California National Aeronautics and Space Administration Dryden Flight Research Center Edwards. Ko Dryden Flight Research Center Edwards.

VA 22161 Price Code: A16 . either expressed or implied. MD 21090-2934 Price Code: A16 National Technical Information Service 5285 Port Royal Road Springﬁeld. by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.NOTICE Use of trade names or names of manufacturers in this document does not constitute an ofﬁcial endorsement of such products or manufacturers. Available from: NASA Center for AeroSpace Information 800 Elkridge Landing Road Linthicum Heights.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 CONCLUDING REMARKS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Thermal Buckling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT . . . . . . . 10 REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Comparison of Buckling Strengths. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Mechanical Buckling for Fixed-Boundary Cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 FIGURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NOMENCLATURE . . 8 Mechanical Buckling for Fixed-Boundary Cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Solution Accuracy. . . . . . 7 Mechanical Buckling for Free-Boundary Cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Mechanical Buckling for Free-Boundary Cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Thermal Buckling . . . 2 DESCRIPTION OF THE PROBLEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Mechanical Buckling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 DISCUSSION . . 4 MATERIAL PROPERTY ITERATIONS . 3 Geometry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Plates With Circular Holes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Boundary Conditions . 8 Plates With Square Holes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 iii . . . . . . . . . . 4 FINITE-ELEMENT ANALYSIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Thermal Buckling . . . . . . 6 RESULTS . . . .

in. NOMENCLATURE c d E E33 E43 G JLOC l Ny SPAR T Ta Tr t w x. depending on the plate boundary conditions. compressive force intensity in y-direction.and thermal-buckling analyses were performed on rectangular plates with central cutouts. By increasing the hole size. °F assumed temperature for material. T r = 70 °F thickness of plates. in. in. The finite-element structural analysis method was used to study the effects of plate-support conditions. in. in/in-°F temperature increase. 3 … ) . lb/in 2 triangular combined membrane and bending element quadrilateral combined membrane and bending element shear modulus. aspect ratio.. For the same cutout areas (i. rectangular Cartesian coordinates coefficient of thermal expansion.e. The compressive-buckling strengths of the plates could also be increased considerably only under certain boundary conditions and aspect ratios. thermal-buckling strengths of the plates could be enhanced. same plate weight density). lb/in 2 joint location (or grid point or node) length of rectangular plates. diameter of circular hole. plate aspect ratio. The results and illustrations provide vital information for the efficient design of aerospace structural panels. and the hole size. in. The cutouts were either circular holes or square holes. width of plates.ABSTRACT Mechanical. the buckling strengths of the same-sized plates with square holes generally surpass those of the plates with circular holes over the range of hole sizes.and thermal-buckling strengths of the perforated plates. °F room temperature. y α ∆T ν side of square hole. structural performance and resizing finite-element computer program temperature. 2. hole geometry. The plate-buckling mode can be symmetrical or antisymmetrical. °F Poisson’s ratio Subscripts ( )cr ( )n critical value at buckling th n iteration ( n = 1. Young’s modulus. and hole size on the mechanical. lb/in.

Ritchie and Rhodes (ref. the two unloaded edges were assumed simply supported. Thus. the double integrations in the energy procedure for each finite element were transformed into line integrals around the element boundary using the well-known Gauss theorem. To minimize the mathematical complexities.. the closed-form buckling solutions are easily obtained because the prebuckling stress field is uniform everywhere in the plate. the buckling analysis becomes extremely cumbersome because the cutout introduces a load-free boundary that causes the stress field in the perforated plate to be nonuniform.INTRODUCTION In aerospace structures. and are not fit for studying the effects of different plate boundary conditions on the buckling strengths of the finite plates with arbitrarily sized holes using those approximate solutions. but lose accuracy when dealing with larger holes. The results of the analysis show that the buckling behavior of perforated rectangular plates is quite different from that of perforated square plates. Hence. To reduce the labor of numerical calculations. and calculated the buckling displacements. a circular or square hole). 3) and Kawai and Ohtsubo (ref. 10) indicated that increasing the hole size in a given plate does not always reduce the 2 . Thus. 3) analyzed the buckling behavior of a simplysupported square plate with a circular hole. This approximate buckling analysis predicted the buckling loads to within 10 percent of those calculated using the finite-element method. subjected to uniform edge displacements with three arbitrary displacement functions. 8–11) analyzed perforated square orthotropic plates by converting the classical two-dimensional buckling analysis into an equivalent onedimensional analysis by approximating the plate displacements with kinematically admissible series. These methods are reasonably accurate for small holes. Nemeth’s analytical and experimental results (ref.e. with finite length and finite width) under uniform compression. and various approximate methods had to be developed to analyze such perforated plates. 5) also studied the perforated square plates using the Rayleigh-Ritz procedure with the prebuckling stress distribution determined by the finite-element method. most of the earlier buckling solutions are limited to small hole sizes. The methods of theoretical analysis used by most of the past investigators (refs. and the loaded edges were either simply supported or clamped. 1–3. or simply to reduce weight. The buckling of flat square plates with central circular holes under in-plane edge compression has been studied both theoretically and experimentally by various authors (refs. and that the buckling mode is dependent on the hole size. Using the Rayleigh-Ritz method. and can result in panel buckling. the buckling behavior of those structural panels with cutouts must be fully understood in the structural design. cutouts are commonly used as access ports for mechanical and electrical systems. Nemeth (refs. The buckling loads were then calculated using the stress-strain relationships. However. except for Schlack (ref. Structural panels with cutouts often experience compressive loads that are induced either mechanically or thermally. 7) studied the buckling behavior of both square and rectangular simply-supported perforated plates.g. Schlack (ref. Kawai and Ohtsubo (ref.. For an unperforated rectangular plate of finite extent (i. the theoretical analysis methods used do not allow the boundary and loading conditions to be precisely defined for larger hole sizes because the stress distributions of the infinite perforated plate are used as the prebuckling stress solution for the finite perforated plate. however. 13). 5). 5) were the Rayleigh-Ritz minimum energy method and the Timoshenko method (ref. 1–12). Their theoretical analysis employed an approximate approach using a combination of Rayleigh-Ritz and finite-element methods. When a finite rectangular plate is perforated with a central cutout (e. In the analysis. the closed-form buckling solutions are practically unobtainable.

0. The past investigations. d /w (or c /w) plots. 0. lack comprehensive information on the buckling behavior of rectangular plates of arbitrary aspect ratios. Dimensions of perforated plates. additional data points for d /w (or c /w) values not listed in table 1 were generated to define those sharp bend regions more accurately.15.6. in.3. hole size. Notice that all the plates have the same width. 0. the range 0 ~ 0.7 covers 0. it is now possible to calculate the prebuckling stress fields and the buckling eigenvalue solutions quite accurately for the finite rectangular plates of any aspect ratios. Geometry Figure 1 shows the geometry of two types of perforated rectangular plates with length l.and thermal-buckling analyses of rectangular plates containing arbitrarily-sized central circular holes or square holes. the 15 hole-size cases will provide 15 data points for plotting each buckling curve in the ( N y )cr vs.7 0 ~ 0. w = 20 in.5. With the availability of powerful tools such as the well-developed. width w. 0.7 0 ~ 0. 0.2. and the same thickness. and plate boundary conditions on the mechanicaland thermal-buckling strengths of perforated plates. 0.1 l /w 1. 0. 0. Lee et al.1 0. containing cutouts of any geometry and any hole sizes.0 1.5 2. Using the finite-element method. t = 0. 0. 0. however.55. (ref. 0.25. This report investigates the mechanical. containing holes of arbitrary sizes. 20 20 20 t. under any specified boundary and loading conditions.7 0 ~ 0. DESCRIPTION OF THE PROBLEM The geometry of the perforated rectangular plates and different boundary conditions used in the finite-element analysis are described as follows. most past theoretical analyses of perforated plates considered mainly the square plates under simply-supported boundary conditions to minimize the mathematical complexities. and supported under any specified boundary conditions. or a central square hole with side c (fig. hole geometry. 0.. Table 1 lists the dimensions of various perforated rectangular plates analyzed.45.buckling load. 0. most past experimental studies on perforated plates were limited to square plates under simplysupported boundary conditions because of the need to compare the test data with the existing theoretical results. The studies.05. 12) examined the buckling behavior of a square plate with a central circular hole. The central cutout is either a circular hole with diameter d (fig. in general.1 in.1 0. A finite-element method was used to study the effects of plate aspect ratio. were limited to small hole sizes.65. 1(b)).7.35. As mentioned earlier. If the buckling curve has any sharp bends in certain regions. however. For a given plate aspect ratio.7 0 ~ 0.0 d /w 0 ~ 0.4.7 In table 1.1. finite-element structural analysis computer programs. 0.7 c /w 0 ~ 0. Likewise. 1(a)). w. 3 . in. and thickness t. 0. Table 1.

5 were generated by properly modifying the aspect ratio of those additional E43 elements in the models with l /w = 2. and models with aspect ratio l /w = 1. FINITE-ELEMENT ANALYSIS In the finite-element analysis. 4. 6(a)). 4 . 4C ﬁxed—four edges clamped. 4C ﬁxed—four edges clamped by ﬁxed-edge supports (ﬁg. For the circular hole cases. Because of symmetry.5. 4(b)). the four edges of the perforated plates are either simply supported or clamped. 2(b) and 3(b)) (called free case). the two side edges can slide freely along the lubricated guides. models with aspect ratio l /w = 2 were generated by adding 100 additional square E43 elements to the square models (l /w = 1). which can have free in-plane transverse motions (ﬁg. Mechanical Buckling For mechanical buckling (uniaxial compressive buckling). Two types of plate boundary conditions were considered: 1. the two side edges can slide freely along the lubricated ﬁxed guides (ﬁg. 5(b)). The lower edge of the plate is kept stationary and the upper edge is allowed to move freely in the loading direction (y-direction). 4S ﬁxed—four edges simply supported by ﬁxed-edge supports (ﬁg. The four cases of boundary conditions considered in the analysis are as follows: 1. 2. the structural performance and resizing (SPAR) finite-element computer program (ref. 3. 4(a)). c /w = 0. which can have free in-plane transverse motions (ﬁg. The plates with circular holes were modeled with both triangular combined membrane and bending elements (E33 elements) and quadrilateral combined membrane and bending elements (E43 elements). 14) was used. only one quarter of the perforated plates were modeled. the two side edges can slide freely along the lubricated clamping guides.Boundary Conditions The various boundary conditions considered in the mechanical. The two unloaded edges are either constrained from the transverse in-plane motions (figs. respectively. in figures 7 and 8.2) are shown. 6(b)).and thermal-buckling analyses are described as follows. 2. the two side edges can slide freely along the lubricated ﬁxed clamping guides (ﬁg.2) and a typical square cutout case (l /w = 1. 4C free—four edges clamped. the plates were subjected to uniform temperature loading. 4S free—four edges simply supported. 2(a) and 3(a)) (called fixed case). d /w = 0.5. Two typical quarter-panel finite-element models generated for a typical circular cutout case (l /w = 1. Thermal Buckling For thermal buckling. or unconstrained from the transverse in-plane motions (figs. only the square-shaped E43 elements were used. 4S ﬁxed—four edges simply supported. For the plates with square holes. 5(a)).

83 0.03 0.31 5.62 α.50 0.10 5. listed in table 3. Also.31 5. c /w = 0).31 5.02 13.31 5.00 5.56 6. which have the highest number of joint locations (JLOCs) and E43 elements. For the square-hole cases. Circular hole (0 < d /w < 0. By using this simple method of generating multiple models.28 14. Table 2 lists the sizes of the basic finite-element models from which numerous perturbed models were generated. 5 . more square E43 elements were added to the square models.36 5. lb/ in × 10 ν 5.31 5. the models with large circular holes were generated from the basic models by carving out some elements in the hole boundary regions of the basic models. Table 2. in/in-°F × 10 4. lb/in × 10 2 2 6 6 G.0 JLOC 951 1061 1061 E33 32 32 32 E43 271 371 371 Square hole (c /w = 0)* JLOC 441 651 861 E43 400 600 800 *Number of JLOC and E43 is maximum when c /w = 0.5 2.31 5.64 11. Table 3.31 5.0 15. to increase the model aspect ratios.31 5. The models with different hole sizes were then generated from the basic models by removing the proper number of the square E43 elements around the square-hole boundaries.40 14. The material properties used in the finite-element analysis are those of monolithic Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy (ref.19 5.59 4.52 4.0 1.85 The data in table 3 are plotted in figure 9 to show the nonlinearity of the temperature-dependent material properties.82 0. all the models were generated from the solid plate models (basic models.6) l /w 1.02 0.Models with circular holes ranging from small to moderate sizes (called the basic models) were generated by modifying the hole sizes without changing the number of elements in the annular domains around the holes (fig.37 0.63 13.31 –6 E. 15).65 0. 15). Material properties of Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy (ref.20 0. creating larger holes would hardly disturb the aspect ratios of the elements lying in the remaining annular domains.20 0.80 14. the tangential-to-radial aspect ratios of the elements in the annular domains will gradually increase with the increasing size of the holes.15 12.44 4. 7).27 5. When the circular holes diminish. Sizes of the basic ﬁnite-element models. 20 additional E33 elements were used to fill each hole cavity so that the models could represent unperforated solid plates. Thus. Therefore. 70 °F 200 °F 300 °F 400 °F 500 °F 600 °F 700 °F 800 °F 900 °F 1000 °F 16.31 5.52 0.84 10.

6 . were not used for solution-comparison purposes. Then. the finite-element buckling solutions for simplysupported solid plates (no holes) of different aspect ratios under uniaxial compression were compared with the corresponding classical buckling solutions (ref. The 4S fixed cases are slightly under biaxial loadings and. giving an acceptable solution for ∆ T cr .and thermal-buckling analysis of rectangular plates with circular and square holes. therefore. then the data point of ∆ T cr will fall right on the 45-deg solution line. this intersection-point temperature was used to update the material properties for the calculations of the third th buckling temperature ( ∆ T cr ) 3 . Solution Accuracy For checking the finite-element solution accuracy. calculations of buckling temperatures require material property iterations. the ( ∆ T cr ) 3 data point (less than 200 °F) would fall practically on the 45-deg solution line. The 45-deg line represents the solution line for the buckling temperature ∆ T cr . RESULTS The following sections present the results of the finite-element mechanical. the material properties at room temperature. ( T a ) 1 = T r . to update the input material properties for the calculations of the second buckling temperature ( ∆ T cr ) 2. Figure 10 shows a graphical iteration process for finding the buckling temperatures ∆ T cr for a typical case of a square panel (l /w = 1) with circular hole size d /w = 0. From the geometry of figure 10. 9) are almost linear in the range 70 < T < 200 °F. In the third iteration. Table 4 shows the results. the value of ( ∆ T cr ) 3 calculated from the third material iteration would practically agree with that obtained from equation (1) because the material property curves (especially E curve. For example. This iteration process is to continue until the n calculated buckling temperature ( ∆ T cr )n data point falls right on the 45-deg solution line. if the assumed material temperature T a agrees with the calculated buckling temperature ∆ T cr + T r ( T r = 70 °F). 13). The classical cases actually correspond to the 4S free cases. The second iteration then uses the material properties at any other temperature. ( ∆ T cr ) 3 may be expressed as a function of ( ∆ T cr ) 1 and ( ∆ T cr ) 2 as ( ∆ T cr ) 1 ( ∆ T cr ) 3 = ---------------------------------------------------( ∆ T cr ) 2 – ( ∆ T cr ) 1 1 – ------------------------------------------( T a )2 – ( T a )1 (1) For the present material. fig.7 under a 4S free boundary condition. In the first iteration. The buckling temperature ∆ T cr is plotted against the assumed material temperature T a . were used to calculate the first buckling temperature ( ∆ T cr ) 1. which are under uniaxial loadings. say ( T a ) 2 = 200 °F.MATERIAL PROPERTY ITERATIONS In the thermal-buckling analysis. Namely. the two buckling data points ( ∆ T cr ) 1 and ( ∆ T cr ) 2 were connected with a straight line to locate the intersection point with the 45-deg solution line.

l /w 1. Plates With Circular Holes For plates with circular holes.5983 157. and 16(b)) depending on the hole sizes and the plate aspect ratios. three cases are considered: mechanical buckling fixed. For larger holes. mechanical buckling free. For a square plate (fig. 13. respectively.9703 145.5891 Square hole model (c = 0) 145. 11.5858 157. Beyond d /w = 0. ( N y ) cr . The value of ( N y ) cr reaches its minimum value in the vicinity of d /w = 0. 11. the secondary or local buckling modes start to appear at the hole boundaries (figs. and provides great confidence in the accuracy of the finite-element buckling solutions for the perforated plates presented in this report. 12(b). and 15).9707 145. 13. and the associated buckling mode shapes (figs. the symmetrical and antisymmetrical buckling curves entangle each other (or mutually intersect). 14. 13. 12(b). and then continues to increase and changing buckling mode at larger hole sizes. the lowest buckling load ( N y ) cr decreases from that of the solid plate (d /w = 0) as the hole starts to initiate and grow in size.Table 4. 12. the buckling mode shapes could be either symmetrical or antisymmetrical (figs.0 1.5854 157. and 15). 14(b). The actual buckling loads ( N y ) cr (symmetrical) for all plate aspect ratios monotonically decrease slightly from their respective solid plate values as the hole sizes increase (figs. and 16) for the plates with circular holes under 4S fixed and 4C fixed boundary conditions. 14(a). 7 . and 15). and therefore. For the 4S fixed cases.4. the buckling load ( N y ) cr becomes greater than that of the solid square plates (d /w = 0). Thus.0 Buckling mode Symmetrical Antisymmetrical Antisymmetrical Circular hole model (d = 0) 145. show the compressive buckling loads ( N y ) cr plotted as functions of hole size d /w (figs. 13) 145. 11) of the 4C fixed case. causing the actual buckling curves (for the lowest ( N y ) cr values) to be composite curves consisting of symmetrical and antisymmetrical buckling curves segments. and thermal buckling. lb/in.5 2. Comparison of ﬁnite-element and classical buckling solutions for simply supported rectangular solid plates under uniaxial compression. 12(a).5866 Timoshenko (ref.9806 145. Mechanical Buckling for Fixed-Boundary Cases Figures 11–16. 14(b). Only figure 11 shows typical finite-element buckling solution data points. 11.2. For the 4C fixed cases. the buckling mode shapes are always symmetrical (figs. the antisymmetrical buckling curves always lie considerably above the symmetrical buckling curves for all plate aspect ratios (figs. and 16(b)). and 16(a)).5854 The very close correlation of the finite-element and the classical buckling solutions shown in table 4 indicates the adequacy of the finite-element modeling.

For rectangular plates (figs. 19 and 21). 19. 13 and 15). 29. The degrees of increases in the ( N y ) cr values for the rectangular plates (figs. 26. and 21). Thermal Buckling Figures 23–28 show the buckling temperatures ∆ T cr . are not as pronounced as the square plate case (fig. the buckling loads ( N y ) cr for both the 4S free and 4C free cases increase at larger hole sizes. 21) than for the 4S free cases. 32. The lowest buckling temperatures ∆ T cr decrease slightly. The symmetrical and antisymmetrical buckling curves intersect at certain hole sizes (figs. shown in fig. show the changes of the compressive buckling loads ( N y ) cr with hole size d /w (figs. 23. 24. 19. 18. 11). This effect is more conspicuous for the 4C free cases (especially for aspect ratio l /w = 2. The lowest buckling loads ( N y ) cr increase initially as the holes start to grow in size. plotted as functions of the hole size d /w (figs.2.3. the buckling mode shapes of the plates with larger holes (figs. mechanical buckling free. and 22) of the plates with circular holes under 4S free and 4C free boundary conditions. 30. Beyond hole size d /w = 0. and 21) and the associated buckling mode shapes (figs. 17. 18. and 22) show complex buckling modes consisting of global and pronounced local buckling at the hole boundaries. the ( N y ) cr values exceed their respective values of the solid rectangular plates (d /w = 0).17. 20. 20. respectively. Mechanical Buckling for Fixed-Boundary Cases Figures 29–34. Mechanical Buckling for Free-Boundary Cases Figures 17–22. which represents the most extensively studied geometry). and 27).7 reaches as high as five times the value of ∆ T cr of the unperforated square plate (d /w = 0). 11). This effect is more pronounced for the 4C cases than for the 4S cases. 17. and 34) for the plates with square holes under 4S fixed and 4C fixed boundary conditions. respectively. the buckling loads ( N y ) cr for both 4S free and 4C free cases decrease monotonically with the hole size and never increase with the hole size like the 4C fixed case (fig. The increase of ∆ T cr at larger hole sizes is the most pronounced for the square plates under 4C boundary condition (fig. 13 and 15) of the 4C fixed cases. 31. 23). then changed mode and reached their respective minimum values near the hole size d /w = 0. however. and 33) and the associated buckling mode shapes (figs. the composite buckling curves are wavy and bent upward as the hole size increases. For a square plate (fig. as the hole size grows initially. and the value of ∆ T cr at hole size d /w = 0. and 28) for the plates with circular holes. and then increase at larger hole sizes. For rectangular plates (figs. The overall 8 . show the variations of the compressive buckling loads ( N y ) cr with the increase of the hole size c /w (figs. 25. For the 4C free cases. and thermal buckling. Plates With Square Holes Analyses of plates with square holes were also made for the three case types: mechanical buckling fixed. and the associated buckling mode shapes (figs.

For the perforated rectangular plates (figs. for a given aspect ratio of the perforated plates (no change in width w). For the 4S free and 4C free boundary conditions. Thermal Buckling Figures 41–46. Comparison of Buckling Strengths The buckling strengths of the plates with circular holes will be compared with those of the plates with square holes under the same weight density conditions.5 (compare 4C fixed cases in figs. the area of the square hole was set equal to that of the circular hole by adjusting the side c of the square hole according to the relationship π c -. for the plates with square holes under 4S free and 4C free boundary conditions. Namely. Again. and 45 must first be converted to the equivalent d /w using equation (2). 44. the square hole cases exhibit higher buckling strengths than the respective circular hole case. 31. Again. the local buckling modes show up clearly at larger hole sizes under the 4C boundary condition. Similar to the fixed cases. 35. 13 and 31). 32. Therefore. respectively. the data points for the square hole cases must be shifted slightly toward the right because the equivalent d /w is slightly greater than c /w in view of equation (2). 41. For the rectangular plates (figs. At large hole sizes. however. 41. 33. 37. and 39) and the associate buckling mode shapes (figs.5. 43. 9 . Figures 47–49 compare the compressive buckling strengths of the two types of perforated plates under 4S fixed and 4C fixed conditions. 36. the buckling behavior of the square hole cases is very similar to that of the corresponding circular hole cases. The reverse is true. show the buckling temperatures ∆ T cr as functions of hole size c /w (figs. the buckling mode shapes exhibit both global and local buckling modes. before the comparison of buckling strengths could be made. 39. 50) have higher compressive buckling strengths than those with circular holes. In comparison with the circular hole cases. 51 and 52).= -----2 d (2) Thus. 38. and 40). 42).buckling behavior of plates with square holes is very similar to that of the plates with circular holes. 42. the 4C boundary condition causes secondary local buckling modes to show up at large hole size for the square plate (fig. At large hole size (figs. especially for the aspect ratio l /w = 1. 30. however. 44 and 46). the local buckling modes are almost invisible. the square plates with square holes (fig. and 46) for the plates with square holes. for hole sizes greater than d /w = 0. and 34) for 4C cases. 37. and 45) and the associated thermal-buckling modes (figs. 35. 43. Mechanical Buckling for Free-Boundary Cases Figures 35–40 show the compressive buckling loads ( N y ) cr plotted against the hole size c /w (figs. the square hole cases have slightly higher buckling loads at larger hole sizes. the abscissa c /w of figures 29. the square hole cases give slightly higher buckling strengths at moderate hole sizes than the circular hole cases.

DISCUSSION The buckling behavior of plates with central holes as presented is quite peculiar because. increase rather than decrease as the hole sizes grow larger. a stronger plate boundary condition (e. The conventional wisdom is that. which effects become dominant will determine the increase or decrease of the buckling strengths of the perforated plates..and thermal-buckling strengths increase with the increasing hole sizes. The effects of plate aspect ratio. the load-carrying narrow side strips along the plate boundaries are practically under uniform compressive stress fields. The unusual buckling characteristics of the perforated plates offer vital applications in aerospace structural panel design. mechanical. Thus. Therefore. contrary to expectation. clamped rather than simply-supported boundaries) increases the buckling strength. This fact may explain why. and plate boundary conditions. hole size. the buckling strengths were expected to decrease as the hole sizes increase. as the hole sizes increase. When the hole size becomes considerably large relative to the plate width. the buckling strengths of the plates with square holes increase more at larger hole sizes than the plates with circular holes having the same weight density. Again. For the circular-hole cases. plate aspect ratios.and thermal-buckling strengths and buckling mode shapes were studied in great detail.and thermal-buckling strengths of the perforated plates. by opening holes of proper sizes in aerostructural panels for weight saving. Increasing the hole size does not necessarily reduce the mechanical. while the higher stress concentration decreases the buckling strength. the mechanical. most of the compressive load is carried by the narrow side strips of material along the plate boundaries. hole geometry. one can shoot down two birds.and thermal-buckling analyses were performed on plates containing centrally located circular and square holes. Such peculiar buckling phenomenon of the perforated plates may be explained as follows. with a single stone. This was not the case. For certain plate aspect ratios and plate support conditions. the plates with square holes exhibit higher thermal-buckling strengths than those with circular holes for all the hole sizes and boundary conditions. and plate support conditions on the mechanical. for most of the cases studied (except figs. which reduces the buckling strengths. 10 . 51 and 52).and thermal-buckling strengths of the perforated plates. their buckling strengths can be boosted simultaneously. The key findings of the analysis are as follows: • • The buckling mode shapes of the perforated plates can be symmetrical or antisymmetrical depending on the hole sizes.g.Figures 53–55 compare the thermal-buckling strengths of the two types of perforated plates. Namely. Thus. the narrow compressed side strips are under stress concentration. CONCLUDING REMARKS Finite-element mechanical. For the square-hole cases. the plates lose more materials and become weaker. under certain boundary conditions (especially cases with clamped edges) and plate aspect ratios. As is well known.

May 27. • Dryden Flight Research Center National Aeronautics and Space Administration Edwards. California.• For most cases under the same weight density conditions.and thermal-buckling strengths of the plates with square holes are slightly higher than those of the corresponding plates with circular holes at increasing hole sizes.and thermalbuckling strengths of the perforated plates at larger hole sizes than the simply-supported boundary conditions. 1997 11 . The clamped boundary conditions more effectively enhance the mechanical. the mechanical.

. J. Manuel Stein. no. Yu. Mech. 3. H.. Ohtsubo. 1988. pp. June 1964. Wei-Wen and Charles S. J. 1. Appl. 2nd ed. 26.” Experimental Mechanics. 2061–2077. “Elastic Stability of Pierced Square Plates. 330–336. Whetstone. Stephen P. W. pp. Program Execution. Nemeth. 14. Michael P. T. 1986. Y. 1968. 281–296. P. C. 1973. 99. no. New York. 1961. pp. National Bureau of Standards.. and C. pp. 1975..” AIAA Journal.. 2 Kumai. M. Samuel. “Buckling Behavior of Orthotropic Composite Plates With Centrally Located Cutouts. Aug. ST10. and Eric R. 6. 8. 1951..” Ph. 4. Davis.” Aeronautical Quarterly. A. 167–172. Dec. ASCE. Nemeth. Jr. An Approximate Buckling Analysis for Rectangular Orthotropic Plates With Centrally Located Cutouts. Government. A Buckling Analysis for Rectangular Orthotropic Plates With Centrally Located Cutouts. 15. 1984. Timoshenko.” AFFDLTR-68-150. and H. 5. vol. D. Feb. 1973. pp. Nemeth. 39. Lin. and Wilhelmina D. “Buckling Behavior of Compression-Loaded Symmetrically Laminated Angle-Ply Plates With Holes.” Journal of Research. SPAR Structural Analysis System Reference Manual: System Level 13A. Michael P. 1989. Oct. Michael Paul. Cong. Lee. Nov.173–188. “A Method of Solution for the Complicated Buckling Problems of Elastic Plates With Combined Use of Rayleigh-Ritz’s Procedure in the Finite Element Method. Woolley. 571–577. McGraw-Hill Book Company. Dec. 26. 9. D. Ritchie. “Elastic Stability of the Square Plate With a Central Circular Hole Under Edge Thrust. Mar. “Experimental Critical Loads for Perforated Square Plates. 13. research paper no. Kawai. 81–88. 10. D. vol. pp.” Composite Structures. Gere..S.. 69–74. vol. Schlack. 3. Jr. vol. 11. and James M. Structural Division. vol. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. Nemeth. pp. NASA TP-2528. no. 12. 1947. Theory of Elastic Stability. Japan Nat. U.. NASA TM-86263. Toyoji. 31. May 1983. 1978. Lin. 1968.” J. Dec. “Instability of Simply Supported Square Plate With Reinforced Circular Hole in Edge Compression. Alois L.” Proc. and J. Ruth M. Schlack. Dissertation.” Experimental Mechanics. Kroll. Levy. Military Handbook 5B (MIL-HDBK-5B). NASA CR-158970-1. “Cold-Formed Steel Members With Perforated Elements. 7. pp. 3... Feb. Rhodes. L. 12 . vol. “A Study on the Buckling Behavior of an Orthotropic Square Plate With a Central Circular Hole. “Buckling and Post-Buckling Behaviour of Plates With Holes. RP1849. 13.REFERENCES 1. Johnson.

Rectangular plates with central cutouts.y x d t w 970887 (a) Circular cutout. y x c t w 970888 (b) Square cutout. Figure 1. 13 .

Ny y Fixed x Fixed Ny 970889 (a) Fixed case—two vertical edges with no in-plane transverse motions. circular cutout case (simply supported or clamped). Figure 2. Ny y Free x Free Ny 970890 (b) Free case—two vertical edges with free in-plane transverse motions. 14 . Fixed and free boundary conditions for two vertical edges.

square cutout case (simply supported or clamped). Ny y Free x Free Ny 970892 (b) Free case—two vertical edges with free in-plane transverse motions. 15 .Ny y Fixed x Fixed Ny 970891 (a) Fixed case—two vertical edges with no in-plane transverse motions. Fixed and free boundary conditions for two vertical edges. Figure 3.

Movable support x Lubricated 970896 (b) 4C free. Fixed support x Lubricated 970895 (a) 4C fixed. Figure 4. Movable support x Lubricated 970894 (b) 4S free. 16 . Figure 5. Two types of boundary conditions for simply-supported vertical edges. Two types of boundary conditions for clamped vertical edges.Fixed support x Lubricated 970893 (a) 4S fixed.

970898 (b) 4C fixed.y x ∆T 970897 (a) 4S fixed. 17 . Figure 6. Two types of boundary conditions used for thermal buckling.

finite-element model for rectangular plate with square hole.2. d/w = 0.5.y x 970899 Figure 7. 18 . l/w = 1.2. l/w = 1. Quarter-panel. Quarter-panel. c/w = 0. y x 970900 Figure 8.5. finite-element model for rectangular plate with circular hole.

100 °F (∆Tcr)1 (∆Tcr)3 (∆Tcr)2 (Ta)2 0 (Ta)1 = Tr = 70 100 Ta. Temperature-dependent material properties of Ti-6A1-4V titanium alloy. 19 . Graphical representation of buckling temperature iteration process. in/in–°F 0 100 200 300 400 500 T.17 x 106 7 x 10–6 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 α 6 5 4 E. °F 600 700 800 Figure 9. lb/in2 E 3 2 1 0 900 1000 960431 α. °F 200 300 970901 Figure 10. 200 First iteration Second iteration Third iteration solution (∆Tcr)3 = 1– (∆Tcr)1 (∆Tcr)2 – (∆Tcr)1 (Ta)2 – (Ta)1 Solution line 1 1 ∆Tcr.

250 lb/in 200 4C 4S 150 100 4S 50 0 .1 . Ny Ny d/w = 0.2 . Compressive buckling loads as functions of hole size.450 400 350 300 Symmetric buckling Antisymmetric buckling Ny w 4C d Ny /w = 1.0 (Ny)cr.4 d/w . fixed edges.6 970904a Ny 970904b (b) 4C fixed.8 970902 Figure 11. Figure 12.5 .2 Ny d/w = 0. Ny Ny d/w = 0. fixed edges.6 Ny 970903a 970903b (a) 4S fixed. l/w = 1. 20 .2 Ny d/w = 0.3 .6 . circular holes. Buckled shapes of square plates with circular holes under compression.7 .

3 . Compressive buckling loads as functions of hole size.6 . fixed edges.5.1 .6 970906b (a) 4S fixed.8 970905 Figure 13. 21 . lb/in /w = 1.7 . fixed edges. l/w = 1.5 4S 4S 50 0 .2 .5 .2 970906a d/w = 0.2 970907a Ny Ny d/w = 0. Figure 14.400 350 300 250 200 150 100 Symmetric buckling Antisymmetric buckling Ny w 4C d 4C Ny (Ny)cr. Buckled shapes of rectangular plates with circular holes under compression. Ny Ny Ny Ny d/w = 0. circular holes.6 970907b (b) 4C fixed.4 d/w . Ny Ny d/w = 0.

0 (Ny)cr. fixed edges.2 d/w = 0.6 970909b (a) 4S fixed.2 . Compressive buckling loads as functions of hole size. l/w = 2. Figure 16. 22 . Ny Ny d/w = 0. Buckled shapes of rectangular plates with circular holes under compression.5 .8 970908 Figure 15.4 d/w .400 350 300 Symmetric buckling Antisymmetric buckling w Ny 4C 250 d Ny /w = 2. fixed edges.1 .6 .2 970909a Ny d/w = 0. lb/in 200 150 4C 4S 100 4S 50 0 .7 .6 970910a Ny Ny 970910b (b) 4C fixed. circular holes. Ny Ny Ny d/w = 0.3 .

2 970913a Ny Ny d/w = 0.7 . lb/in 250 4S 200 150 4S 100 0 .5 .2 .2 970912a Ny Ny d/w = 0.8 970911 Figure 17. Compressive buckling loads as functions of hole size. Ny Ny d/w = 0.6 970912b (a) 4S free.4 d/w .0 (Ny)cr. 23 . Ny Ny d/w = 0. Figure 18. l/w = 1. Buckled shapes of square plates with circular holes under compression.6 .3 . circular holes.450 400 4C 350 300 4C Symmetric buckling Antisymmetric buckling Ny w d Ny /w = 1. free edges.1 .6 970913b (b) 4C free. free edges.

Compressive buckling loads as functions of hole size.6 970916b (b) 4C free.5 .7 . 24 .1 .6 970915b (a) 4S free.2 .2 970915a Ny Ny d/w = 0.3 .8 970914 Figure 19. Ny Ny d/w = 0. circular holes.5. free edges. Ny Ny Ny d/w = 0. free edges.500 450 400 350 Symmetric buckling Antisymmetric buckling Ny w 4C 4C d (Ny)cr.6 .5 4S 150 100 4S 0 . Figure 20.4 d/w . 300 lb/in 250 200 Ny /w = 1. l/w = 1. Buckled shapes of rectangular plates with circular holes under compression.2 970916a Ny d/w = 0.

Compressive buckling loads as functions of hole size.2 970919a Ny d/w = 0. circular holes. free edges. 350 d 4C Ny /w = 2.6 970918b (a) 4S free. 25 .8 970917 Figure 21. free edges.7 .6 970919b (b) 4C free. Buckled shapes of rectangular plates with circular holes under compression.6 .1 4S . Ny Ny Ny d/w = 0.0 4C lb/in 300 250 200 4S 150 100 0 . l/w = 2.2 .2 970918a Ny d/w = 0. Figure 22.550 500 450 400 Symmetric buckling Antisymmetric buckling Ny w (Ny)cr.4 d/w . Ny Ny Ny d/w = 0.3 .5 .

4 d/w .0 ∆Tcr.6 0 .2 d/w = 0.1 .6 970922a 970922b (b) 4C fixed. 26 .2 .6 970921b (a) 4S fixed.8 970920 Figure 23. circular holes.5 .175 150 125 100 75 50 25 Symmetric buckling Antisymmetric buckling ∆T w d /w = 1. ∆T ∆T d/w = 0.3 . °F 4C 4C 4S 4S . Buckled shapes of uniformly heated square plates with circular holes. Buckling temperatures as functions of hole size. ∆T ∆T d/w = 0. l/w = 1.7 .2 970921a d/w = 0. Figure 24.

8 970923 0 Figure 25. °F 4S .5 . l/w = 1. 27 .2 970924a d/w = 0.6 . circular holes.2 .5 4C 4C 4S ∆Tcr.5.6 970925b (b) 4C fixed.3 . Figure 26. ∆T ∆T d/w = 0. ∆T ∆T d/w = 0. Buckled shapes of uniformly heated rectangular plates with circular holes.6 970924b (a) 4S fixed. Buckling temperatures as functions of hole size.1 .2 970925a d/w = 0.7 .4 d/w .35 30 25 20 15 10 5 Symmetric buckling Antisymmetric buckling w ∆T d /w = 1.

28 .4 d/w .2 970927a d/w = 0.3 .6 970927b (a) 4S fixed. ∆T ∆T d/w = 0. °F 20 15 10 4S 5 4S 0 .7 . Buckled shapes of uniformly heated rectangular plates with circular holes.8 970926 Figure 27.6 970928b (b) 4C fixed.6 .5 . circular holes.1 .35 30 25 Symmetric buckling Antisymmetric buckling w ∆T d /w = 2. ∆T ∆T d/w = 0.0 4C 4C ∆Tcr. Buckling temperatures as functions of hole size.2 . l/w = 2. Figure 28.2 970928a d/w = 0.

3 .6 Ny 970931a 970931b (b) 4C fixed. l/w = 1. fixed edges. Ny Ny c/w = 0.7 .6 Ny 970930a 970930b (a) 4S fixed. fixed edges. Ny Ny c/w = 0.8 970929 Figure 29.6 .0 (Ny)cr. Buckled shapes of square plates with square holes under compression.2 Ny c/w = 0.4 c/w . square holes.450 400 350 300 Symmetric buckling Antisymmetric buckling 4C c 4C Ny w Ny /w = 1.1 . Compressive buckling loads as functions of hole size.2 Ny c/w = 0.2 4S . 29 .5 . 250 lb/in 4S 200 150 100 50 0 . Figure 30.

Ny Ny c/w = 0.2 970933a Ny Ny c/w = 0.550 500 450 400 Symmetric buckling Antisymmetric buckling Ny w 4C 350 c Ny /w = 1.5 (Ny)cr.6 .1 .5. Buckled shapes of rectangular plates with square holes under compression.8 970932 Figure 31. 30 .4 c/w .2 970934a Ny Ny c/w = 0. l/w = 1. Ny Ny c/w = 0. Compressive buckling loads as functions of hole size. fixed edges. square holes.2 .6 970934b (b) 4C fixed.5 .6 970933b (a) 4S fixed. 300 lb/in 250 200 150 100 50 0 . Figure 32.7 .3 4C 4S 4S . fixed edges.

Figure 34.8 970935 Figure 33. Compressive buckling loads as functions of hole size. lb/in 250 200 150 4S 100 4S 50 0 .7 .2 970936a Ny Ny c/w = 0.450 400 350 300 Symmetric buckling Antisymmetric buckling Ny w c 4C 4C Ny /w = 2. l/w = 2.6 970937b (b) 4C fixed.3 . fixed edges. 31 . fixed edges.6 .5 .2 .6 970936b (a) 4S fixed. Ny Ny c/w = 0.4 c/w .0 (Ny)cr.2 970937a Ny Ny c/w = 0. Ny Ny c/w = 0.1 . Buckled shapes of rectangular plates with square holes under compression. square holes.

450 4C 400 350 300 Symmetric buckling Antisymmetric buckling Ny w 4C c Ny /w = 1. 32 .8 970938 Figure 35.4 c/w . free edges.3 . free edges.7 . 250 lb/in 200 150 100 50 4S 0 .6 970940b (b) 4C free.5 .2 970940a Ny Ny c/w = 0.6 970939b (a) 4S free.0 4S (Ny)cr. l/w = 1.6 .1 . Compressive buckling loads as functions of hole size.2 . Ny Ny c/w = 0. Figure 36.2 970939a Ny Ny c/w = 0. square holes. Buckled shapes of square plates with square holes under compression. Ny Ny c/w = 0.

6 .2 970943a Ny Ny c/w = 0.2 . Ny Ny c/w = 0.2 970942a Ny Ny c/w = 0.5.3 .8 970941 Figure 37. Buckled shapes of rectangular plates with square holes under compression.1 4S 4S .5 lb/in 300 250 200 150 100 0 . free edges. 350 /w = 1. free edges.5 .550 500 450 400 Symmetric buckling Antisymmetric buckling Ny w c 4C 4C Ny (Ny)cr.6 970943b (b) 4C free.4 c/w . Figure 38.7 . l/w = 1. Compressive buckling loads as functions of hole size. square holes.6 970942b (a) 4S free. 33 . Ny Ny c/w = 0.

Ny Ny c/w = 0.7 .0 4C 4S 4S . Compressive buckling loads as functions of hole size.2 970946a Ny Ny c/w = 0.6 . Figure 40. 34 .1 Symmetric buckling Antisymmetric buckling Ny w c Ny 4C /w = 2. free edges.6 970946b (b) 4C free.8 970944 Figure 39.5 . Buckled shapes of rectangular plates with square holes under compression. ( y)cr 350 lb/in 300 250 200 150 100 0 . free edges.4 c/w .3 .2 .2 970945a Ny Ny c/w = 0. Ny Ny c/w = 0.600 550 500 450 400 N . square holes.6 970945b (a) 4S free. l/w = 2.

3 .2 970948a c/w = 0.2 970949a c/w = 0. Buckled shapes of uniformly heated square plates with square holes. l/w = 1. ∆T ∆T c/w = 0.1 .2 .7 .5 50 0 . ∆T ∆T c/w = 0. Figure 42.6 970948b (a) 4S fixed.6 970949b (b) 4C fixed. °F 100 4C 4C 4S 4S . Buckling temperatures as functions of hole size. 35 .8 970947 Figure 41.0 ∆Tcr. square holes.200 Symmetric buckling Antisymmetric buckling ∆T w 150 c /w = 1.6 .4 c/w .

Buckling temperatures as functions of hole size. 36 .3 .6 970952b (b) 4C fixed.5. square holes. ∆T ∆T c/w = 0.8 970950 Figure 43.5 ∆Tcr. ∆T ∆T c/w = 0.6 970951b (a) 4S fixed.4 c/w .6 .2 . Figure 44.1 . 25 lb/in 20 15 10 5 0 4C 4C 4S 4S . l/w = 1.50 45 40 35 30 Symmetric buckling Antisymmetric buckling w ∆T c /w = 1. Buckled shapes of uniformly heated rectangular plates with square holes.7 .2 970951a c/w = 0.2 970952a c/w = 0.5 .

8 970953 Figure 45.6 970955b (b) 4C fixed. °F 4C 4C 4S 4S 0 . square holes.2 970954a c/w = 0.0 ∆Tcr.4 c/w . ∆T ∆T c/w = 0.6 . Buckling temperatures as functions of hole size. Figure 46. Buckled shapes of uniformly heated rectangular plates with square holes. ∆T ∆T c/w = 0.35 30 25 20 15 10 5 Symmetric buckling Antisymmetric buckling w ∆T c /w = 2. 37 .5 .1 .6 970954b (a) 4S fixed. l/w = 2.2 .2 970955a c/w = 0.7 .3 .

lb/in 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 . Comparison of compressive buckling strengths of square plates with different geometrical cutouts.2 .5 c = π d 2 Ny w (Ny)cr.8 970956 c Ny Figure 47.Antisymmetric buckling S .6 .7 .6 . 250 lb/in 200 150 4S 100 50 S S 0 .3 S S .5 .4 d/w S 4S .4 d/w . 38 .0 c = π d 2 Ny w 300 (Ny)cr.1 . fixed edges.450 400 350 A . fixed edges. 550 500 450 400 350 A . Comparison of compressive buckling strengths of rectangular plates with different geometrical cutouts.3 .8 970957 c Ny Figure 48.Symmetric buckling A A S 4C S S Ny w d Ny /w = 1.1 .Symmetric buckling S A Ny w d A S A A 4C S Ny /w = 1.2 .5 .Antisymmetric buckling S .7 .

Antisymmetric buckling S . Comparison of compressive buckling strengths of square plates with different geometrical cutouts.7 .2 .Symmetric buckling Ny w S S 4C A A A d Ny /w = 1. 39 .4 d/w .1 .5 . Comparison of compressive buckling strengths of rectangular plates with different geometrical cutouts. fixed edges.6 .1 .8 970959 Ny 4S Figure 50.400 350 300 250 A .4 d/w Ny Figure 49.3 .8 970958 (Ny)cr.5 .2 .0 c = π d 2 Ny w 4S S S c .3 . lb/in c S S 0 .6 .0 c = π d 2 Ny w (Ny)cr. 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 A .Symmetric buckling 4C A S A S S A S A w Ny d Ny /w = 2. free edges.Antisymmetric buckling S . lb/in 200 150 100 50 0 .7 .

Comparison of compressive buckling strengths of rectangular plates with different geometrical cutouts.3 . lb/in 300 250 200 A 150 100 0 A .Antisymmetric buckling S .7 A A S S 4S S S d Ny /w = 1.1 . 40 .8 970960 Ny Figure 51. 600 550 500 450 400 A .0 c = π d 2 Ny w S c (Ny)cr.4 d/w .2 . free edges.5 S S 4S S .8 970961 Ny Figure 52. 350 lb/in 300 250 200 150 100 0 .2 A A .7 .1 . Comparison of compressive buckling strengths of rectangular plates with different geometrical cutouts.4 d/w .550 500 A .5 .Antisymmetric buckling S .Symmetric buckling A A S Ny w 450 4C 400 A 350 (Ny)cr.3 S S .5 c = π d 2 Ny w c . free edges.Symmetric buckling A w S Ny 4C A A d Ny /w = 2.6 .6 .

5 c = π d 2 ∆Tcr.1 .Symmetric buckling ∆T w d A 4C A /w = 1. 25 °F 20 15 10 5 0 . °F 100 75 50 25 0 .7 .Symmetric buckling S ∆T d w 150 125 /w = 1. Comparison of thermal buckling strengths of square panels with different geometrical cutouts.8 970962 Figure 53.4 d/w .2 .5 S S .2 .0 c = π d 2 A 4C A ∆Tcr.6 ∆T c w 4S . Comparison of thermal buckling strengths of rectangular panels with different geometrical cutouts.6 .3 S S .8 970963 w c Figure 54.Antisymmetric buckling S .3 S ∆T S 4S S S . 41 .4 d/w .Antisymmetric buckling S .200 175 A . 50 45 40 35 30 A .1 .7 .5 .

4 d/w .2 . °F 20 15 S 10 ∆T 4S S S w 5 c 0 .7 .Symmetric buckling ∆T w d A 4C S A /w = 2.6 .1 .8 970964 Figure 55.5 .3 . Comparison of thermal buckling strengths of rectangular panels with different geometrical cutouts. 42 .0 c = π d 2 ∆Tcr.Antisymmetric buckling S .35 30 25 A .

e.O. same plate weight density). NUMBER OF PAGES Buckling mode shapes. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response. The finite-element structural analysis method was used to study the effects of plate-support conditions. and to the Ofﬁce of Management and Budget. For the same cutout areas (i. Directorate for Information Operations and Reports. The plate-buckling mode can be symmetrical or antisymmetrical. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Unclassiﬁed NSN 7540-01-280-5500 Unclassiﬁed Unclassiﬁed Unlimited Standard Form 298 (Rev. to Washington Headquarters Services. 800 Elkridge Landing Road. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF REPORT 18. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE 19. FUNDING NUMBERS Mechanical. DC 20546-0001 11. Thermal buckling 17. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) H-2206 10. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 words) Mechanical. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER NASA Dryden Flight Research Center P. DISTRIBUTION CODE Unclassiﬁed—Unlimited Subject Category 39 13. Arlington. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES NASA/TM-1998-206542 12a. aspect ratio. Linthicum Heights. PRICE CODE A03 20. gathering and maintaining the data needed. 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway.and thermal-buckling analyses were performed on rectangular plates with central cutouts. Z39-18 298-102 Available from the NASA Center for AeroSpace Information. Send comments regarding this burden estimate or any other aspect of this collection of information. and hole size on the mechanicaland thermal-buckling strengths of the perforated plates. 2-89) Prescribed by ANSI Std. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Technical Memorandum 5.REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. By increasing the hole size. Ko 7. Washington. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED March 1998 4.. The cutouts were either circular holes or square holes. The results and illustrations provide vital information for the efficient design of aerospace structural panels. including the time for reviewing instructions. including suggestions for reducing this burden. DC 20503. AUTHOR(S) WU 522 32 34 William L. VA 22202-4302. 1. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY REPORT NUMBER National Aeronautics and Space Administration Washington. plate aspect ratio. (301)621-0390 . SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF ABSTRACT 48 16. Mechanical buckling. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave blank) 2. Plates with square holes. Suite 1204. California 93523-0273 9. hole geometry. and the hole size. DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY STATEMENT 12b. and completing and reviewing the collection of information. SUBJECT TERMS 15. The compressive-buckling strengths of the plates could also be increased considerably only under certain boundary conditions and aspect ratios. the buckling strengths of the same-sized plates with square holes generally surpass those of the plates with circular holes over the range of hole sizes. Box 273 Edwards. Plates with circular holes. 14.and Thermal-Buckling Behavior of Rectangular Plates With Different Central Cutouts 6. searching existing data sources. thermal-buckling strengths of the plates could be enhanced. depending on the plate boundary conditions. MD 21090. Paperwork Reduction Project (0704-0188). REPORT DATE 3.

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