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• Introduction • Mechanics of chip formation • Types of chips produced in meta cutting • Mechanics of oblique cutting • Cutting forces and power • Temperature in cutting
• Tool life : Wear and failure
• Surface finish and integrity • Machinability
Fundamentals of cutting Fig 20.3 Schematic illustration of a twodimensional cutting process.also called orthogonal cutting.and the cutting speed are all independent variables.Note that the tool shape and its angles.depth of cut.2 Basic principle of turning operation . Fig 20.1 Examples of cutting process • Fig 20.to.
• Slab-milling rotating cutting tool removes a layer of material from the surface of the work piece • End-milling rotating cutter travels along a certain depth in the work piece and produces a cavity .Introduction : • Cutting process : Remove material from the surface of the work piece by producing chips • Turning operation : the work piece is rotated an a cutting tool removes a layer of material as it moves to the left • Cutting off: Cutting tool moves radially inwards and separated the right piece from the back of the blank.
temperature rise. Tool angles Continuous chip Built-up-edge chip Discontinuous chip Temperature rise. Good surface finish.feed. Influences surface finish.cutting fluids.dimensional accuracy.temperature rise.temperature rise.resistance to tool chipping.thin stable edge can product tool surface.dimensional accuracy.surface finish. As above.type of chips.forces and power. Influences surface finish.steady cutting forces. Desirable for ease of chip disposal.forces and power .forces and power.influence on chip flow direction.surface finish.Factors influencing cutting process Parameter Cutting speed depth of cut.fluctuating cutting forces. Poor surface finish. Related to tool life.undesirable in automated machinery.can affect surface finish and cause vibration and chatters.tool life. Tool wear Machinability Influence and interrelationship Forces power.
T0 Cutting ratio r = To / Tc = Sin Pi / Cos ( pi.Alpha ) .Mechanics of chip formation : • • • • • • • Orthogonal cutting Rake angle – Alpha Relief angle ( clearance angle) Shear angle ( Pi) Thickness of a chip – Tc Depth of cut.
4 (a) Schematic illustration of the basic mechanism of chip formation in metal cutting. .Mechanism of chip formation Fig 20. (b) Velocity diagram in the cutting zone.
4-a Shear strain gama Gama = AB/OC = AO/OC + OB/OC Gama = Cot Pi + tan ( Pi – Alpha ) Note : for actual cutting operation shear strain > 5 .Mechanism of chip formation • • • • • • • Chip compression ratio = 1 / r Always > unity On the basis of fig 20.
Mechanism of chip formation • Shear angle adjusts itself to minimize cutting force • Shear plane is the plane of maximum shear stress • Pi = 45 + Alpha / 2 – Beta / 2 • Beta : Friction angle • Mu – coefficient of friction • Mu = tan beta .
we have V To = Vc Tc Vc = Vr Vc = V Sin pi / Cos ( pi – Alpha ) Vc : Velocity of a chip V : Cutting Speed Vs : Velocity of shearing From trigonometric relation V / cos ( pi – Alpha ) = Vs / Cos ( Alpha ) = Vc / Sin ( pi ) .Mechanism of chip formation • • • • • • • • • • Mass continuity has to be maintained So .
(b) secondary shear zone at the chip tool interface.5 Basic types of chips and their photomicrographs produced in metal cutting (a) continuous ship with a narrow.straight primary shear zone.(c) continuous chip with large primary shear zone. (d) continuous chip with built-up-edge.(e) segmented or nonhomogeneous chip and (f) discontinuous chips .Types of chips • • • • Continuous Built up edge Serrated or segmented Discontinuous Fig20.
Continuous chips (b) Surface finish in turning 5130 steel with a built-up edge Fig :20.6 (a) Hardness distribution in the cutting zone for 3115 steel.Note that some regions in the built-up edge are as mach as three times harder than the bulk metal (c) Surface finish on 1018 steel in face milling .
• tend to get tangled around the tool • operation has to be stopped to clear away the chips.Continuous chips • Continuous chips are usually formed at high rake angles and/or high cutting speeds. • continuous chips are not always desirable. . particularly in automated machine tools. • A good surface finish is generally produced.
• BUE then becomes unstable and eventually breaks up • BUE material is carried away on the tool side of the chip • the rest is deposited randomly on the workpiece surface. .Built-up edges chips • BUE consists of layers of material from the workpiece that are gradually deposited on the tool. • BUE results in poor surface finish • reduced by increasing the rake angle and therefore decreasing the depth of cut.
.Discontinuous chips • Discontinuous chips consist of segments that may be firmly or loosely attached to each other • These chips occur when machining hard brittle materials such as cast iron. • Brittle failure takes place along the shear plane before any tangible plastic flow occurs • Discontinuous chips will form in brittle materials at low rake angles (large depths of cut).
5e • Segmented chips or nonhomogeneous chips • Semi continuous chips with zones low and high shear strain • Low thermal conductivity and strength metals exhibit this behavior Fig 20.Serrated chips • Figure :20.5 (e)segmented or nonhomogeneous chip and .
Chip Breakers • Long continuous chip are undesirable • Chip breaker is a piece of metal clamped to the rake surface of the tool which bends the chip and breaks it • Chips can also be broken by changing the tool geometry.thereby controlling the chip flow Fig 20. (c) Grooves in cutting tools acting as chip breakers .(b) Chip breaker clamped on the rake of a cutting tool.7 (a) Schematic illustration of the action of a chip breaker .
and d)chip hits tool shank and breaks off .Chip Breakers Fig:Various chips produced in turning: a)tightly curled chip b)chip hits workpiece and breaks c)continuous chip moving away from workpiece.
i.Chip Formation in Nonmetallic Materials Fig: a) cutting with an oblique tool b) Top view showing the inclination angle. c) Types of chips produced with different inclination .
Although these tools have traditionally been produced from solids tool-steel bars. • The chip movement is in lateral direction Mechanism of Oblique Cutting Fig: a)right hand cutting tool.The vcarious angles on these tools and their effects on machining are described .they have been largely replaced by carbide or other inserts of various shapes and sizes.• The cutting edge is at an angle i.as shownin b). called inclination angle.
tool.and chip. . Fig:Percentage of the heat generated in cutting going into the workpiece.as a function of cutting speed.Temperature In Cutting Fig:Typical temperature distribution in the cutting zone.
Temperature Distributions Fig:Temperatures developed in turning 52100 steel: a) flank temperature distribution.and b)tool-chip interface temperature distribution .
sowing the average flank wear land VB and the depth-of-cut line (wear notch) . Chipping :Breaking away of a small piece from the cutting edge of the tool . Crater wear:It occurs on the rake face of the tool.showing nose radius R and crater wear pattern on the rake face of the tool c)View of the flank face of a turning tool. (b) View of the rake of a turning tool. Fig (a) Flank and crater wear in a cutting tool. 2. Flank wear :It occurs on the relief face of the tool and the side relief angle. 3.tool moves to the left.Tool Life: Wear and Failure 1.
Wear and Tool Failures: Crater wear Fig (a) Schematic illustrations of types of wear observed on various types of cutting tools .A study of the types and mechanism of tool wear and failure is essential to the development of better tool materials .(b) Schematic illustrations of catastrophic tool failures.
R.that occurs during cutting.Note that the resultant force.Forces acting in 2-Dimensional cutting • Cutting forces can be measured by using suitable dynamometers or force transducers mounted on the machine tool • They can also be calculated from the amount of power consumption. • Fig :Forces acting on a cutting tool in a two dimensional cutting .must be collinear to balance the forces .
THE END .
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