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MUSIC IN ADVERTISING

General Music for the High School Level

Created by: Vinecia Buchanan Adam Johnson Dylan Suehiro John Zadlo

THE BIG QUESTION


How is music used as a means to manipulate target audiences?

Course Description: In this course, the students will discover how music is used in advertisements for film, politics, products and services, and in our everyday environment. Students will become more aware of their uses and will be able to demonstrate knowledge and perform examples of composing their own music for these different advertising media.

OVERALL LEARNING GOALS


1. Students will perform their original film trailer scores or advertising jingles (NS1, NS2) 2. Students will create music that could act as ambiance in various venues (e.g., restaurants, boutiques). (NS3) 3. Students will improvise music to accompany a video. (NS3) 4. Students will compose an original score to accommodate a silent film (NS4) 5. Students will notate their own film scores, and they will examine and evaluate those made by other groups. (NS5) 6. Students will evaluate various types of music used to advertise products or services in the media (NS6, NS7) 7. Students will explore how cultural norms dictate the types of music played in certain environments. (NS8) 8. Students will analyze the ways in which music is used as a response to politics (NS9)

Unit 1:

MUSIC AND MOTION PICTURES


Dylan Suehiro

Description This unit is designed to offer a deeper understanding of the music used in movie trailers. We will discuss the efficiency of previews, and how the musical aspect relates to advertising in the big picture. We will also improvise and perform live music for a short film, and finally, compose a score for our own movie trailer.

Objectives 1. Students will identify and describe styles and genres of music used in films and their trailers, and also their relationships to other art forms like the visual aspect of film. 2. Students will create and perform an improvised piece to a given video clip. 3. Students will compose, perform and record an original score.

Resources 1. Graakjaer, Nicolai and Christian Jantzen. Media in Advertising. Hungary: Akademiai Kiado. 2009. Print.

Videos: * 2. 300 second official trailer (full version). 26 January 2008. YouTube. Web. 29 November 2009. 3. Movie Trailer Along Came Polly. 04 February 2008. YouTube. Web. 28 November 2009. 4. The Taking of Pelham 123 Official Trailer. 19 February 2009. YouTube. Web. 28 November 2009 5. Walle Official Trailer. 20 June 2008. YouTube. Web. 29 November 2009. 6. Where the Wild Things Are Official Trailer. 27 March 2009. YouTube. Web. 28 November 2009.

Instruments needed: 7. Guitar 8. Piano/keyboard 9. Various percussion instruments 10. Any other instruments on request

Software 11. Sibelius 6 Educational 12. Recording equipment a. Handheld recorders (e.g., Edirol R-09) b. External microphones

*Movies will be chosen based on what is current, making sure that the genres are very distinct, and that the music is as accessible as possible. Also, the teacher could elect to use older clips for more variety.

Student projects 1. Trailer Analysis: The students will watch several different movie trailers in class, and the teacher will guide discussions about specific things like instrumentation and timing to broader topics like genres and time periods. The class will also address similarities and differences across various genres of movies. Following this, students will find two movie trailers on their own and perform the same kind of analysis. a. The students will discuss psychological effects of music on human emotions. b. The class will also explore the historical context of film music, from clips of silent films to the first talkies, to the musical. This segment would only be a brief overview of the history of film. 2. Visualization: For this assignment, students will be given different recordings (or they may choose their own to be approved by the teacher) and they will write a story line to fit the music. The recordings will be about one minute long, and the written assignment will be no more than one page. An example will be done in class, to be accompanied by a discussion of why different music makes one feel a certain way. This assignment would be weighted rather lightly because of its subjective content matter. 3. Improvisation and Composition: This two-part project will be the cumulative unit assessment.

a. Improvisation: In groups, the students will be assigned a minute-long movie (or they may choose their own, to be approved by the teacher) to which they will perform an improvised soundtrack. They will need to watch the video as a group many times to work out cues and other nuances. The groups will perform for each other in class, and their peers will evaluate them. i. Students must incorporate both vocal and instrumental components in their performance. This can include, but is not limited to: singing, chanting, beat boxing, drumming, playing various rhythm or harmony instruments, and body percussion. ii. The performance must use an original melody composed of at least six pitches. The students will improvise around this melody, using any techniques they can think of (inversion, retrograde, ornamentation). b. Composition: Using the same videos, the groups will compose a score for their clip. They may use similar ideas from their improvisation project, but the score must incorporate the same melody used in the improvisation. The students will collaborate using Sibelius notation software, and they may choose to submit a live recording or MIDI file from their composition. Peer evaluation will be done on the scores as well as the recordings.

Unit 2:.

MUSIC IN POLITICS
John Zadlo

Description This unit will focus on music used for political persuasion. The unit will start off with a lesson on using music as a tool for making political statements. This unit will demonstrate how musicians can use music for their own political purposes or how politicians and historical leaders use music as a means of either persuasion or coercion. In this unit I will discuss Hitlers use of Wagner opera as a form of propaganda and justification for his own political motives. I will also discuss the music of the civil rights movement and how it forwarded their ideas, as well as inspired a multitude of followers. Then I will discuss how modern musicians take either historical or current day politics and express their views through their own artistic means. Finally I will ask students to go out and research their own music and see how its used for political agenda, or how political issues affected the artists choice of music.

Objectives 1. Students will examine how different historical figures used music in their own political means. 2. Students will examine how modern day artists forward their political ideals through text and musical expression. 3. Students will analyze different musical eras and their music.

4. Students will create a piece in the style of a musical era in order to demonstrate knowledge of the political events occurring in that time period. 5. Students will analyze vocal scores in order to gain better insight into different composers works. 6. Students will demonstrate knowledge of their era by improvising a line in the style of their era.

Resources Text: 1. Clinefelter, Joan. Artists for the Reich: Culture and Race from Weimar to Nazi Germany. Oxford: Berg, 2005. Print. 2. Etlin, Richard. Art, Culture, and Media under the Third Reich . Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002. Print.
3. Eylon, Lili. "The Controversy Over Richard Wagner." Jewish Virtual Library (2009): n.

pag. Web. 28 Nov 2009.


4. Graakjaer, Nicolai and Christian Jantzen. Media in Advertising. Hungary: Akademiai

Kiado. 2009. Print. 5. Wagner, Richard. Triumph des Willens. York: Schirmer Publishing.

Audio: 6. Dave Matthews Band. Dont Drink the Water. Before These Crowded Streets. BMG Entertainment, 1998. CD. 7. Imogen Heap. Hide and Seek. Speak For Yourself. Megaphonic Records, 2005. CD. 8. Original Cast. Hair. RCA, 1999. CD. 9. Various Artists. Let Freedom Sing The Music of the Civil Rights Movement. Time Life Records, 2009. CD. (Miscellaneous recordings) 10. Battle Cry of Freedom 11. Battle Hymn of the Republic/John Browns Dead Body 12. Dixie Land 13. Union Dixie Videos: 14. Triumph des Willens. 19 November 2007. YouTube. Web. 28 November 2009. 15. Free at Last Instruments needed: Voices and any instruments students deem necessary for their composition project.

Student Projects 1. Students will analyze a particular area of history and discuss the musical events occurring during that time period. They will take a musicological approach and discuss why the music was the way it was during their specific era. They will listen, read, notate, and perform in their given era. 2. Students will compose a piece in the style of the time period they have chosen. It will display the political nature of the time period and convey the ideas that different political parties were pushing for at the time.

Unit 3:

MUSIC AND PRODUCT PLACEMENT


Adam Johnson

Description This unit will focus entirely on music used in television and radio to promote products and services. The unit will begin with an open discussion of jingles and commercials that are engraved in the students memories. What about certain jingles makes them so memorable? The unit will examine the use of jingles and classical and popular music used in ads. By the end of the unit, the students will be creating their own jingles for a given product or business.

Objectives
1. Students will analyze popular commercial jingles for specific products and evaluate their effectiveness on a target market (NS6, NS7) 2. Students will create and fully notate their own product and compose a jingle to help advertise the product (NS4, NS5) 3. Students will examine how specific genres of music are used in advertising to appeal to different target markets (NS9, NS8) 4. Students will perform their composed jingles for the entire class as one of the final projects (NS1, NS2)

5. Students will find flawed jingles and advertisements and alter the jingle to make it more effective
(NS3)

Resources Text: 1. Graakjaer, Nicolai. Music in Advertising: Commercial Sounds in Media Communication and Other Settings. Akademiai Kiado, 2009. Print. 2. Huron, David. Music in Advertising: An Analytic Paradigm. www.musiccog.ohiostate.edu/Huron/Publications/huron.advertising.text.html. n.d. Web. 29 Nov 2009. Audio: 3. Lakme, opera: Act 1: viens, MallikaSous Dome Epais (flower duet). The Most Famous Opera Duets. EMI Classics, 1994. CD. 4. Nutcracker, suite from the ballet, Op. 71a: Russian Dance. 25 Classical Favorites. Vox, 1996. CD. 5. Violin Concerto, for violin, strings, & continuo in E Major (La Primavera, The Four Seasons). 25 Classical Favorites. Vox, 1996. CD. Video: 6. 1,001 Classic Commercials Collection. Mill Creek Entertainment, 2009. DVD. 7. Sold Separately: Classic Kids Commercials. Passport, 2007. DVD.

Instruments needed: 8. Various percussion instruments

Software:

9. GarageBand

Student projects 1. Commercials: Individually, students will be asked to bring in a playlist of commercials to class.
There will be six commercials total, three will display an effective use of music and the other three will not be as effective. The students task is to explain why each advertisement is effective or not effective regarding the music used in the ad. Did the music help advertise the product? Did it take away from the ad? Could there have been more? Was it memorable?

2. Jingles a. Individual Portion: Students will be asked to compose and notate an original jingle for an already known product or business and present it to the class. The jingle should not last more than thirty seconds and only the melody needs to be notated. Help will be given if student has had little to none music theory education b. Group Portion: In a small group, students will be asked to create an original product and compose a jingle for the product the could be used for television or radio advertisements. This jingle must also be notated; just the melody needs to be notated. The group should also be able to come up with a few already existing songs that could be used in the ad campaign effectively.

3. Classical and Popular Music: Individually, students will be assigned two commercials with no sound given. Students will be asked to find a piece of classical music and a piece of popular music to accompany each of the commercials and be able to recognize what makes the use of each genre of music effective for their commercials.

Unit 4:

MUSIC IN THE ENVIRONMENT


Vinecia Buchanan

Description In this unit, students will gain an understanding of how music in advertising is applicable to their environments. They will observe and analyze various environments and the effects they have on them as consumers. In the end they will choose a business in their local area and create a playlist of atmospheric music to appeal to an incoming consumer.

Objectives 1. Students will observe how music is used in various environments. 2. Students will assess how effective music is when used to stimulate a specific type of atmosphere for various commercial settings. 3. Students will create music that will match the type of environment a business wants in order to sell their product. 4. Students will identify different styles of music and assign them to various settings. 5. Students will improvise and perform music used in a commercial atmosphere.

Resources

Text: 1. Graakjaer, Nicolai and Christian Jantzen. Media in Advertising. Hungary: Akademiai Kiado. 2009. Print. 2. Haugtvedt, Curtis, Paul Herr, and Frank Kardes. Handbook of consumer psychology. Routledge,
2008. Print.

3. "The Effects of Music in a Retail Setting on Real & Perceived Shopping Times." Atmospherics n. pag. Web. 28 Nov 2009. Audio: 4. Various Artists. NOW Thats What I Call Music! 30. Umvd Labels 5. Vince Guaraldi Trio. A Charlie Brown Christmas. Fantasy, 2000. CD.

Student projects 1) Observations a. Part 1: This project will be done individually. The assignment will be to go to three local businesses (e.g., grocery stores, coffee shops, stores in the mall). They will first observe what type of music is playing and analyze what type of mood it conveys to them as a potential buyer of the products offered. They will also need to observe other customers as they shop. Students will also observe colors from the places they visited and discuss the mood they created. They will submit a one page paper summarizing their thoughts and observations. b. Part 2: Using their previous notes, students will discuss their findings in an inclass exercise. They will ultimately use the other students data as a platform to start their final projects. Students will be shown colors from different areas and be asked to discuss how they feel when looking at these particular colors.

2) Music creating Atmosphere: This project will focus around the overall choices that a business makes when choosing what sort of atmosphere they would like for their store. a. Part 1: The students will be given a color palette from which they will draw their inspiration for either a musical composition or an improvised piece that encompasses the emotions evoked from those color choices. This will be used to create an overall atmosphere for their business. b. Part 2: They will pick an adjective describing their atmosphere that will be approved by the teacher. They will not share this adjective to the rest of the class. They will ultimately perform the piece with the color palettes behind them and the rest of the class will guess what their adjective was. How well the group portrays their adjective will determine their grade, as will the reaction of the audience and their evaluations of the performance.

FINAL PROJECTS

In groups of four, choose one of the following projects:


1. Congratulations! Your group has just created a business. You will need to: a. Create a title for your business and decide what your business does. b. Choose a piece of music that you could use in an advertisement. c. Come up with a playlist of 810 songs that you could use as ambient music, and for each song, write a few sentences explaining why you chose it. d. Compose an original jingle (30 seconds or more) to promote your business. i. Write appropriate lyrics. ii. Include any chords or harmonies as needed. e. Film a commercial that incorporates your jingle. f. Present your business to the class. Your group will discuss all the aspects of your project, and your commercial and jingle will be evaluated by your peers.

- OR 2. Your group will be making your very own short film! Your task is to: a. Shoot a five-minute short film that takes a political stance about an issue of your choice (think back to Unit II). This can be a documentary, a fictional skit, or an animated feature. i. Film ideas must be approved by the teacher. ii. Avoid offensive topics. If you have to stop and ask yourself if its okay, it probably isnt.

b. Compose an original score that is appropriate for your film. The music should reflect the kind of action in the clip and create an enticing environment for the viewers. i. A minimum of four instruments must be used. Voice will count as one instrument. ii. The score must be either handwritten with western notation or created with notation software (e.g., Sibelius, Finale). c. The film will be played for the class at the end of the course; once as a whole and once with just the music being played.

NOTES: 1. Both projects will be evaluated by the class following the presentations. 2. Video cameras and software will be available on an individual basis. Ask the teacher for details. 3. You will have some class time to work on this project; however, your group is responsible for scheduling time to meet outside of school. Most of your work will be done outside of class.