Chapter 16 Glycolysis and Gluconeogenesis

Matching Questions
Use the following to answer questions 1-10: Choose the correct answer from the list below. Not all of the answers will be used. a) obligate anaerobes b) AMP c) Embden Meyerhof pathway d) NAD+ e) gluconeogenesis f) UDP-glucose g) GLUT5 h) facultative anaerobes i) ATP j) magnesium k) galactosemia l) biotin 1 ____________ This is the process by which noncarbohydrate precursor molecules are converted into glucose. Ans: e Section: Introduction 2 ____________ This is another name for glycolysis. Ans: c Section: Introduction 3 ____________ These organisms cannot survive in the presence of oxygen. Ans: a Section: 16.1 4 ____________ This substance must be regenerated for glycolysis to proceed. Ans: d Section: 16.1 5 ____________ This intermediate is necessary for the conversion of galactose to glucose. Ans: f Section: 16.1 6 ____________ This molecule is an allosteric inhibitor of phosphofructokinase. Ans: i

1 7 ____________ This transporter is responsible for fructose uptake in the intestine.1 15 The common structural domain of NAD+ binding dehydrogenases is often called a ___________________ after the scientist who first recognized it.1 2 Fill in the Blank Questions 11 Glycolysis produces a net of ________ moles of ATP per one mole of glucose. two Section: 16.1 . Ans: Rossmann fold Section: 16.Chapter 16 Glycolysis and Gluconeogenesis Section: 16. Ans: enediol Section:16. Ans: 2.2 8 ____________ This condition is a result of a genetic deficiency of a single “transferase” enzyme. Ans: g Section: 16. Ans: l Section: 16. the decarboxylation of pyruvate requires a coenzyme that contains the vitamin ______________. Ans: phosphofructokinase Section: 16.1 9 ____________ This essential nutrient is required for the carboxylation of pyruvate in humans.3 10 ____________ This is an allosteric activator of glycolysis. Ans: b Section: 16. Ans: thiamine or B1 Section: 16.1 16 In alcoholic fermentation. Ans: k Section: 16.1 12 Pancreatic ______________ is the digestive enzyme primarily responsible for the hydrolysis of dietary plant starch. Ans: α-amylase Section: Introduction 13 The key enzyme that regulates the pace of glycolysis is ____________________.1 14 The catalytic mechanism of the isomerization of a ketose into an aldose proceeds through an _________________ intermediate.

which is produced from fructose-6-phosphate by PFK2. E) a and b Ans: E Section: 16.Chapter 16 Glycolysis and Gluconeogenesis 17 A potent allosteric activator of liver phosphofructokinase is _____________________. B) Binding of substrate induces cleft closing. b. and c Ans: D Section: Introduction 22 What is the purpose of phosphorylating glucose in cytosol? A) to trap glucose in the cell B) to destabilize glucose and facilitate the next series of metabolic steps C) to convert it to a more soluble form D) All of the above. Ans: fructose-2. E) None of the above.1 23 What two 3-carbon molecules are generated by the cleavage of fructose-1.2 19 The ________________ cycle refers to the metabolic reactions by which glucose is converted into lactate in skeletal muscle. C) All phosphorylate monosaccharides.4 20 The first step in gluconeogenesis is the ___________________ of pyruvate to form oxaloacetate.6-bisphosphate Section:16.2 18 In the absence of oxygen. D) a and b E) a. _____________________ increases the expression of most glycolytic enzymes and the glucose transporters GLUT1 and GLUT3. Ans: carboxylation Section:16. and then lactate converted back into glucose in the liver. D) All of the above. C) It is the only sugar used by the brain.3 3 Multiple Choice Questions 21 Which of the following are reasons that glucose is a common metabolic fuel used by living organisms? A) It has a stable ring structure and is unlikely to glycosylate proteins. Ans: HIF-1. B) It has been found as one of the monosaccharides formed under prebiotic conditions. . Ans: Cori Section: 16.1 24 What is a common mechanistic feature of kinases? A) Phosphoryl groups are transferred from AMP to an acceptor. or hypoxia-inducible transcription factor Section: 16.6-bisphosphate? A) glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate and 3-phosphoglycerate B) glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate C) pyruvate and phosphoenolpyruvate D) enolase and 2-phosphoglycerate E) glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate and pyruvate Ans: B Section: 16.

1 27 What is the function of a thioester intermediate such as the one formed from GAP? A) It speeds up the actual reaction so that more product can be made.1 26 What is the function of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase? A) oxidation by NAD+ and formation of acyl-phosphate B) oxidation of the alcohol to an aldehyde C) dehydration and dephosphorylation of GAP D) hydrolysis of GAP E) None of the above.1 All of the above. Ans: C Section: 16. Ans: A Section: 16. can proceed.1 30 What are the primary metabolic fates of pyruvate? A) ethanol D) B) lactate E) C) acetyl CoA Ans: D Section: 16. None of the above. . E) The thioester prevents the formation of metabolically unfavorable side products. C) The thioester allows the two-step reaction to be coupled so the second reaction.Chapter 16 Glycolysis and Gluconeogenesis Ans: B Section: 16.1 4 25 What reaction is catalyzed by aldolase? A) isomerization of DHAP to GAP B) ligation of GAP and DHAP C) reversible cleavage of F-1.3-bisphosphoglycerate B) diacylglycerol E) 1. B) The thioester shifts the equilibrium of the first stage of the reaction.1 28 What is substrate level phosphorylation? A) phosphorylation of AMP by ATP B) ATP synthesis when the phosphate donor is a substrate with high phosphoryl transfer potential C) phosphorylation of glycolytic intermediates D) phosphorylation of ATP coupled to an ion gradient E) ATP and AMP synthesis from two molecules of ADP Ans: B Section: 16.6-BP to DHAP and GAP D) cleavage of DHAP to GAP E) irreversible aldol condensation of DHAP and GAP Ans: C Section: 16.1 29 What is the additional metabolite that is required for the conversion of 3-phosphoglycerate to 2phosphoglycerate? A) 1-phosphoglycerate D) 2. the energetically unfavorable phosphorylation.3-bisphosphoglycerate C) NADH Ans: D Section: 16. D) The thioester intermediate induces a conformational change that alters the enzyme specificity.

35 How many high-energy phosphate bonds are expended in gluconeogenesis? A) three B) six C) two D) four E) one Ans: B Section: 16. E) Fructose is converted to glucose. thus it should have a higher Km. This lower binding affinity allows this enzyme to become more active at high glucose concentrations.1 33 How are the glycolytic enzymes regulated? A) transcriptional control B) reversible phosphorylation C) allosteric control Ans: D Section: 16. which enters the pathway. B) Fructose is converted to fructose-1-phosphate. None of the above.2 D) E) E) none of the above. when bursts of energy are required. 34 The primary raw materials for gluconeogenesis are A) galactose and sucrose.3 fructose and alanine. Section: Introduction 38 Both hexokinase and glucokinase phosphorylate glucose.Chapter 16 Glycolysis and Gluconeogenesis 31 Fructose can enter glycolysis at two distinct points. E) C) lactate and alanine. C) lactose. the oxygen supply does not meet the demand. depending on the tissue. In order to generate sufficient ATP for energy demands during periods of extreme activity. the muscle depends on activity-dependent anaerobiosis.3 Short-Answer Questions 36 What astounding discovery was made by the Buchners? Ans: They were the first to dispute Pasteur’s assertion that fermentation required intact cells when they demonstrated that fermentation can occur in yeast extracts. Ans: C Section: 16.1 32 Lactose intolerance is caused by a deficiency of A) lactase. Would you expect its Km to be higher or lower than hexokinase? Ans: Glucokinase must be responsive to elevated blood-glucose concentrations. D) B) pyruvate and oxaloacetate. D) sucrase. C) Fructose is converted to fructose-6-phosphate. How is fructose metabolized in adipose tissue? A) Fructose is cleaved to two molecules of GAP. Section: Introduction 37 Why do muscles need to generate ATP under aerobic and anaerobic conditions? Ans: Muscles initially function aerobically. 5 All of the above. B) elastase. The function of glucokinase is to phosphorylate glucose in liver cells as a means to regulate blood-sugar levels. Ans: C Section: 16. Ans: A Section: 16. lactose and lactate. D) Fructose is cleaved to GAP and DHAP. Hexokinase serves to . which saturate hexokinase. However.

Then UDP-Gal is epimerized to UDP-Glc.1 40 At equilibrium.2 39 What two isomerization reactions occur in glycolysis? Why are these steps necessary? Ans: Glucose-6-phosphate is isomerized to fructose-6-phosphate. there is far more DHAP than GAP. which is due to the driving force of the tautamerization of the enol to the more stable ketone. utilizing both of the molecules formed from fructose-1. converting an aldose to a ketose. This genetic disease is referred to as galactosemia. Yet the conversion of DHAP by triose phosphate isomerase proceeds readily. which leads to elevated levels of galactose in the blood and urine. The enzyme.Chapter 16 Glycolysis and Gluconeogenesis phosphorylate glucose (and other hexoses) in the cytosol. Section: 16. or a lower Km value. Why? Ans: The GAP formed is immediately removed by subsequent reactions. Section: 16.1 6 42 Describe the biochemical explanation for galactosemia. it is isomerized into GAP. Individuals deficient in galactose1-phosphate uridyl transferase activity cannot metabolize galactose. Section: 16. Section: 16.3 44 How is glycolysis maintained under anaerobic conditions? Ans: Pyruvate can be reduced to either lactate or ethanol.1 41 How is the conversion of phosphoenolpyruvate to pyruvate accompanied by ATP formation? Ans: The enol phosphate possesses very high potential for phosphoryl transfer. Section: 16. which can then either proceed down glycolysis to pyruvate or up gluconeogenesis to glucose. Later in the pathway. Section: 16.1 43 Give the reactions by which glycerol (from fats) can be metabolized into pyruvate or synthesized into glucose. galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase transfers a uridyl group from UDP-Glc to Gal-1P to produce UDP Gal. which then allows phosphorylation at the number 1 carbon. dihydroxyacetone-phosphate is converted to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate. and this reaction is accompanied by the oxidation of NADH to regenerate NAD+. resulting in conversion of DHAP into GAP by the enzyme. Section: 16. Ans: Galactose is metabolized by conversion to Gal-1-P by galactokinase.1 . UDP-galactose is a necessary intermediate in the metabolism of galactose. Ans: H+ CH2OH HO C H CH2OH glycerol ATP ADP CH2OH HO C H -2 NAD + NADH CH2OH O C CH2OPO3-2 dihydroxyacetone phosphate Glycerol kinase CH2OPO 3 glycerol phosphate Glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase After the glycerol is converted into DHAP.6-bisphosphate cleavage. and has higher affinity for glucose.

which serves as a fuel for aerobic metabolism. and the hydrolysis of glucose 6phosphate. Figure 16. Thus. The two forms differ in their sensitivity to pyruvate. Section: 16.4 50 Describe the two isoforms of lactate dehydrogenase. if citrate levels are high. but are similar in structure. Ans: Two forms exist. High levels of citrate in the cytoplasm means that biosynthetic precursors are abundant.2 7 46 Why is it more sensible for phosphofructokinase to be an important control step. citrate serves as a cell indicator. the enzyme is inhibited. Gluconeogenesis is activated by citrate and acetyl CoA and inhibited by F-2. Thus. At this point. called M and H. alanine. Section: 16. Section: 16. which require four different steps in gluconeogenesis: pyruvate conversion to phosphoenolpyruvate via an oxaloacetate intermediate. AMP. citrate. AMP. fructose 1. respectively.4 48 Which metabolic steps differ from glycolysis in gluconeogenesis? Ans: There are three irreversible steps in glycolysis. and protons inhibit glycolysis. and so there is no need to degrade additional glucose for this purpose. and ADP. which is an intermediate in the citric acid cycle. In this sense.6-BP. Section: 16. glycolytic control would not be maintained by tight regulation of hexokinase. Section: 16. Section: 16. and can form tetramers in various H:M ratios.4 .6-BP. The two forms are products of different genes.6-bisphosphate hydrolysis.6-BP. which predominate in skeletal and heart muscle. rather than hexokinase? Ans: Phosphofructokinase catalyzes the first committed step in the glycolytic pathway. In contrast.2 47 What two functions are attributed to substrate cycles? Ans: The substrate cycles regulate glycolytic path flux by amplifying metabolic signals and they generate body heat produced by the hydrolysis of ATP. and F-1. M4 produces lactate so that glycolysis can continue under anaerobic conditions. In contrast. the molecule is committed to entering the glycolytic path.28 in the text shows the glycolytic path activation by F-2. and fewer glucose molecules are metabolized.3 49 How are gluconeogenesis and glycolysis regulated reciprocally? Ans: The enzymes involved in two substrate cycles are control points. H4 functions primarily to oxidize lactate to pyruvate.Chapter 16 Glycolysis and Gluconeogenesis 45 How does citrate influence glycolysis? Ans: Phosphofructokinase is inhibited by citrate. production of G6P is the first step in many different paths. whereas ATP.

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