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STANDARDS / MANUALS / GUIDELINES FOR SMALL HYDRO DEVELOPMENT
SPONSOR: MINISTRY OF NEW AND RENEWABLE ENERGY GOVERNMENT OF INDIA
GUIDELINES FOR LAYOUT OF SMALL HYDRO PLANTS
LEAD ORGANIZATION: ALTERNATE HYDRO ENERGY CENTRE INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, ROORKEE
S.No. TITLE Page No.
1. Guidelines for Layout of small hydro plants 1.1. Introduction 1.2. Guidelines for layout of shp 1.3. types of scheme 1.4. run – off – river scheme 1.5. canal falls schemes 1.6. toe of dam schemes 1.7. renovation of existing plants 1.8. layout methodology – general 1.8.1. Data collection 1.8.2. map studies 1.8.3. Field Visit 1.8.4. Mapping and site investigations 1.8.5. Conceptual Design 1.9. Layout of Run – off – river Schemes 1.9.1. Determination of plant flow capacity 1.9.2. Determination of FSL of Head Pond 1.9.3. Feeder Canal 1.9.4. Desilter 1.9.5. Power Canal 1.9.6. Other Water Conduction Structures 1.9.7. Forebay Tank
1 1 1 2 2 2 3 4 6 6 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 10
Powerhouse and Tailrace 3. Weight of Steel Surge Tank 3. Examples of Project Layouts 10 10 12 13 13 13 13 14 14 14 14 16 16 17 .7. Benefits and Economic Evolutions 3.1.8. Lowest Down Surge 3. Provision for Future Expansion 188.8.131.52.5. Determination of Capacity and Energy Benefits 3.9. References 184.108.40.206. Penstock 1.2. Surge Tanks 2. RET Screen 3.9. Layout of Dan Toe Schemes 3.8.9. Penstrock Intake 1. Layout of Canal Falls Schemes 3.3.
• Access to site and space for structures and site roads. as given in the following checklist. 1. hydraulic and structural design of civil works and on the maintenance of civil structures and related hydro mechanical equipment. The initial findings can be useful in designing the scope of investigations needed to reliably evaluate the scheme. weight and width limitations on bridges. Table 1.2 Guidelines for Layout of SHP The following topographical features favour the development of economic layouts: a) Waterfalls b) Rapids c) Irrigation canal falls d) Toe of dam locations e) Canyons and narrow valleys f) Major river bends Small hydro plants are most often associated with features a) to d) and infrequently with e) and f).1 GUIDELINES FOR LAYOUT OF SMALL HYDRO PLANTS. If the findings of this phase show that a scheme appears technically and economically feasible then more detailed prefeasibility and feasibility studies can be commissioned. This section provides guidelines on the conceptual design of small hydro plants.1 Check List on Site Conditions Factors to consider: • Climate • Condition of main road to the area. In layout studies (conceptual design) the engineer shall also take into account other site specific conditions.CIVIL WORKS Preamble This part provides guidance on layout. Often the work of this phase is done with incomplete site data. • Foundation conditions and slope stability • Developable head • Penstock/head length ratio AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ Civil Works – Guidelines For Layout Of Small Hydro Plants /Feb 2008 1 . Introduction The objective of this phase of study is to produce estimates of preliminary costs and benefits of a scheme and to assess its economic viability. 1 1.
It should be noted that the waterways upstream of the desilter must be designed for turbine plus flushing flows and while downstream turbine flow alone is sufficient.4. portions of the water conductor system may have to be constructed as box culverts. depending on site conditions. lumber and impermeable fill.• • • • 1. but can be located anywhere along the water conductor system where relatively flat land can be found. Almost all canal fall projects undertaken to date have been constructed many AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ Civil Works – Guidelines For Layout Of Small Hydro Plants /Feb 2008 2 . aqueducts. Preferably.1 and an example of a small run-of-river project is Figure at end of this Section.3 Availability of construction materials (sand. However. as required) Local services and skills availability High water levels and tail water and head pond flow rating curves Others Types of schemes The most common development schemes for Indian small hydro projects are of the following types: • Run-of-river • Canal falls • Toe of dam • Renovation of existing plants 1.5 Canal Falls Schemes Canal falls are locations along an irrigation canal where the level of the canal is stepped-down in a fall structure to better conform to ground elevations. A typical example of a mini hydro scheme is shown in Figure 1. 1.0 m) the energy potentials are significant given the large flows available.4 Run-of-River Schemes A typical run-of-river project would comprise: • Low diversion dam and intake (head works) • Desilter • Power canal / Power Tunnel • Forebay tank / Surge Tank • Penstock • Powerhouse and tailrace If the water carries a substantial sediment load (say more than 200 ppm on average) a desilter would also be required. Although the developable heads available at such structures are often quite small (2. pipelines or inverted siphons.0 m to 5. Most often the water conductor system will be a concrete masonry canal of rectangular cross section. tunnels. aggregates. the desilter would be built as close to the intake as possible.
A typical plant layout includes a bypass (power) canal. The power plant intake and penstock may be incorporated into the diversion works or spillway. This approach provides above water access to turbine runners. to ensure that irrigation on water supply releases would not be interrupted during periods when the plant might be out of service. compact intake-power house and tailrace canal rejoining the irrigation canal below the existing fall structure.6 Toe of Dam Schemes A toe of dam project would comprise an intake and short penstock. • That the new plant should not jeopardize the safety of the existing structures.1. All canal fall projects must include provision for flow bypassing so that irrigation flows can be maintained during periods when the plant may be out of service.3 shows the main features of this project. more conventional bulb or Kaplan turbines layouts were selected. powerhouse and tailrace canal returning flow to a main irrigation canals or river. toe of dam projects are located below storage reservoirs that would effectively trap sediment entering the reservoir. Depending on the operating rules of the reservoir toe of dam reservoir may produce significant amounts of firm energy. Typically. A typical example of this type of development is the Sirkhinda Mini Hydel. as practical. thus eliminating the need for very costly intake and draft tube gates. As hydraulic losses have disproportionately high impacts on the economics of low head developments. • Use of speed increasers to permit use of small low cost high speed generators. All efforts should be made to minimize costs while maintaining efficient operation. AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ Civil Works – Guidelines For Layout Of Small Hydro Plants /Feb 2008 3 . or only secondary energy. Figure 2. These conditions favour the use of Kaplan turbines.years after the original canal project had been completed and were subject to the following constraints: • That the new powerhouse would be constructed without interfering (or with minimum interference) of irrigation system day-to-day operations. These plants are often subject to large variation in head and flow and turbine selection must take this into account. The intake and penstock would normally be constructed in parallel to the outlet works.0 m and unit capacities up to 500 kW). Innovative solutions include: • Use of vertical axis semi-Kaplan units in a siphon elbow (used for heads up to 4. Therefore sediment abrasion of turbine components would not be a problem with this type of development. careful attention to hydraulic design is required to minimize head losses at the canal entry. At other sites. or constructed as a separate facility in an abutment. trashracks and flow restitution in the tailrace canal. 1.
7 Renovation of Existing Plants There are many old hydro plants in India. This minimizes the cost of lost production which is a significant factor in the economics of renovation projects.1. With the above data in hand the scope of renovation should be evaluated by comparative studies of selected development concepts (options). It is customary to assign standard service lives to structures and components mainly for the convenience of economic and financial analysis. Assessment of civil structures should include a re-evaluation of structural stability. Therefore it might not be necessary to replace some components simply because they have exceeded their conventional service lives. In reality some plant components can continue to perform satisfactorily well beyond their conventional service life where site conditions are favourable and maintenance work has been regularly performed. Also plant efficiencies are decreasing due to wear of turbine parts. Based on the findings of these condition assessments lists of items requiring repair or replacement should be prepared and opportunities for upgrading identified. At such times it is opportune to undertake a complete refurbishment of the plant. which could still be in good operating condition. civil structures. • Plant renovation • Plant upgrading A renovation project should start with a thorough condition assessment of the plant including hydrology.4 shows the main features of this development. may be considered technologically obsolete because spare parts are no longer manufactured. 1. flood hydrology and spillway flow capacity. Deficiencies in civil works should be identified and requirements for refurbishment defined. notably electrical instrumentation and switchgear. where operating and maintenance costs are increasing due to deterioration of aging equipment and structures. Other items. which would be incurred if renovation was done piece-meal. electrical and mechanical equipment. In terms of economic parameters such as b/c ratio renovation projects are often found to be very attractive. These are three fundamental options to evaluate in a renovation project: • Plant abandonment. Condition assessment of equipment should be done by qualified electrical and mechanical engineers using approved testing methods to evaluate condition and performance.A typical example of a toe of dam development is Dukwan SHP. Combining several renovation activities together will reduce the cost of downtime and lost energy production. Renovation projects are often initiated by the necessity of major equipment repairs such as runner replacement or generator rewinding. Figure 2. Such conceptual AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ Civil Works – Guidelines For Layout Of Small Hydro Plants /Feb 2008 4 . Replacement of these items with modern components should be assessed as part of a renovation project.
Plant Renovation The objective of plant renovation is to restore the plant to its original condition. The following paragraphs elaborate on the objectives of each type of option: • Plant Abandonment Abandonment might be the preferred choice where site conditions have changed excessively over the life of a project or where renovation costs are found to be excessive.15% 8.15% in capacity. change in site conditions could result from excessive flow diversion from upstream.1% .Increased capacity 6% .5% .design (layouts) should be developed in sufficient detail so that reliable capital costs and benefits can be determined and the relative merits of each option reliably evaluated. These approaches all assume substantial increases in power plant flows that would require additional civil works above the necessary repairs as noted in the proceeding sub section. Although the basic objectives of this option would be achieved with replacement of turbines and generators (if required) of the original designs.5% . Typical benefits from this option are: . then new designs with improved insulation material and more copper should also be considered. protection and control should also be assessed.5% . Upgrading could involve additional units in an extended power house or development of a new powerhouse on the opposite bank or replacement of existing units with larger units. Occasionally.12% in energy.5%. it may be worthwhile to consider new runner designs for improved efficiency. • Plant upgrading Plant upgrading usually implies substantial increases in plant output. Civil works are minimal in this option and are limited to necessary repairs to restore structural integrity and function. 8. If generator rewinds also required. This improves plant reliability and extends service life.Efficiency improvement turbine 3% . a plant may be abandoned in favour of a major redevelopment of the site as part of a much larger project. For example.Recovered efficiency 5% . execution of the required civil works can become quite complicated as these works may interfere with existing structures and / or ongoing plant operations – • AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ Civil Works – Guidelines For Layout Of Small Hydro Plants /Feb 2008 5 .5% .Efficiency improvement generator 0. Options for modernization of switch gear. Unless the original design included provisions for these expansions.
S. ASCE Hydropower Task Committee. Figure 2. IEA Guidelines on Methodology for Generator Upgrading. IEA Guidelines on Methodology for Upgrading Controls. AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ Civil Works – Guidelines For Layout Of Small Hydro Plants /Feb 2008 6 . 1995. Upgrading and Life Extension (RMU&LE) of Hydro power Stations.1.introducing additional works and risks. If the selected design appears economically viable then more detailed feasibility studies would be undertaken in a later phase of studies. • Civil Works for Hydroelectric Facilities: Guidelines for Extension Upgrade. Department of the Interior Bureau of Reclamation Technical Service Center (available on internet) • Guidelines for Evaluating Aging Penstocks (manual) ASCE ca. The recommended layout methodology includes the following sequential steps: • Data Collection • Map studies • Field Visit • Mapping and site geotechnical investigations • Conceptual design • Economic evaluation • Report on preliminary studies 1. An interesting example of an upgrading project is Bluefish G. geology reports should be collected and reviewed.S. Benefits from upgrading projects are very site specific but often can double the output of the original project. aerial photos. market surveys. • IEA Guidelines on Methodology for Hydroelectric Francis Turbine Upgrading.General Layout or conceptual design involves the identification of all practical alternatives and the evaluation of such alternatives in order to determine the optimal conceptual design. previous planning studies. Further guidance on various aspects of plant renovation can be found in the following references: • Guide to Concrete Repair U.8. Careful analysis and planning of construction activities will therefore be necessary to minimize such risks.8 Layout Methodology . All from the International Energy Agency – Paris • Renovation. in NWT. 2007 1.4 shows the main features of this project.1 Data Collection All available maps and documents including: site or regional hydrology data. Canada. Modernization. New Delhi. Manual Published by Central Board of Irrigation and Power.
desilting tank and powerhouse and to decide the side of the river best suited for routing of the waterways. From these on-site observations it is often possible to identify practical locations for temporary facilities. 1.3 Field Visit The field visit provides an opportunity to obtain an appreciation of site topography. These locations. Their practical knowledge of the area and its people could be invaluable.8.8. On larger projects. such as: grass land. as recommended in Section 1.1. a geologist and a hydropower engineer. diamond drilling. This will help to establish which important information is lacking in order to obtain it during the field visit. size and complexity of the site.13 of the Standards. head-works.2 Map studies Potential development schemes should then be laid out on available mapping for guidance during the field visit. geological mapping and (possibly) seismic surveys may also be required. sparse or heavy forest.4 Mapping and site investigations The scope of the mapping and site investigation programs should be prepared following the field visit. a field visit will require 1-3 days depending on the remoteness.L. The relative merits of each alternative are then be assessed by economic analysis to determine the best alternative. 1. routes. routes. Typically. For small projects high head schemes extensive site investigations are rarely required.8. preliminary access roads and T. The extent of the mapping should be sufficient to cover all alternatives envisaged and to allow for reasonable adjustments (re-alignments) of structures. Careful attention should be paid to the cost components with AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ Civil Works – Guidelines For Layout Of Small Hydro Plants /Feb 2008 7 . access roads and T. flow regime. their elevations and co-ordinates can be determined with portable GPS equipment. It is further recommended that an outline of preliminary studies report be made at this time and a check list prepared before going into the field. It is also recommended that the team include local representatives. 1. broken rock or solid bed rock. waterways. It is also recommended that the inspection team include at last three professionals: a hydrologist. It is also recommended that surveyors also record ground conditions on their maps. Field visit should be supplemented with photos and a field inspection report prepared.5 Conceptual Design In this activity preliminary designs and cost estimates are prepared for each alternative and benefits evaluated.8.L. ephemeral on perennial streams. deep soil. but should at least include collection of sand and rock samples to test for suitability for concrete production. geology and access for roads and transmission lines.
1 Determination of plant flow capacity Plant flow capacity should be developed with reference to the flow duration curve (FDC) for the site. 1. These preliminary parameters should later the refined in component optimization studies in detailed feasibility study or design phases.2. Preliminary design is based on data developed in the above steps and hydrology studies performed in accordance with Section 1. Lateral intakes would be favoured on relatively narrow rivers and for medium to large flows (5m3/s and above). In this section preliminary design parameters are suggested to facilitate layout and sizing of project components. QT% = flow equaled or exceeded T% of time.vary from one alternative to the other. at which point a lateral flow design should be considered.2 Determination of FSL of Head Pond Three types of intakes are suitable for low head diversions: lateral intake. Section 2. Also the MFL should be calculated for the design flood. but such changes should be relatively minor and unlikely to change the choice of optimal alternative. Less attention is needed for determining the cost of common components. trench intake or Tyrolean intake. Tyrolean intakes would be favoured for mountain streams and for relatively small plant flows up to about 2 m3/s.9. 1. since their values will not affect the outcomes of comparisons between alternatives.1 of the Standard provides rules on determination of diversion heads for each type of intake structure.9. Trench intakes would be favoured in relatively wide plains rivers for plant flows up to about 20m3/s. For the lateral type the resulting FSL should be compared with the natural high water level.4 of the Standards.9 Layout of Run-of-River Schemes: 1. such as: access roads. conventionally taken as the level for the mean annual flood (Q2). The need for spillway gates is determined considering the AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ Civil Works – Guidelines For Layout Of Small Hydro Plants /Feb 2008 8 . normally Q100 for SHP (or Q10 for temporary type head-works of minihydro schemes). The following preliminary criteria are suggested: For isolated plants: QP = Q90% For grid connected plants: QP = Q35% Where: QP = plant flow capacity (m3/s).
elevation of the MFL and whether unacceptable upstream flooding upstream flooding would be caused with a simple overflow weir design.9.2 mm and larger. In such cases the engineer will have to develop more detailed layouts in accordance with the relevant standards and guidelines. while for larger flow reinforced concrete should be considered.Q (m3) VT Length (L) = (m) 4D L (m) .Width (W) = 4 This design is based on excluding silt of 0.5 m/s to ensure no sediment deposition (based on coarse sand. AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ Civil Works – Guidelines For Layout Of Small Hydro Plants /Feb 2008 9 . Preliminary design of the settling tank (parallel wall section) can be derived from the following formulae. 1.7 Q (m3 per m3/s of flow).3 Feeder Canal Feeder canals transport sediment laden water from the intake to the desilter. At the outlet end a converging transition is also required.0 mm).6 Other Water Conductor Structures Where topography is unfavourable other types of water conductor structures may be required. Where practical a distribution weir is preferred at the entry to the tank. otherwise a transition section expanding at 6:1 will be required. as noted above. 1. They should be designed to carry 1. For flows up to 2.30 Q (m) .Tank Volume (VT) = Vs. 1.20 Qp flushing flow for desilter operation (assuming continuous flushing type). . 1.9.Specific Volume (Vs) = 220.127.116.11 Desilter A continuous flushing hopper design with four hoppers is recommended.Depth D = 1.5 Power Canal A design velocity of 1.20Qp which provides 0. a straight sided section converging at 2:1 is satisfactory. Preliminary canal dimensional design should be based on V = 1. d = 2.0 m3/s canals in masonry would be preferred.5 m/s is recommended for preliminary design of the power canal. For a design flow of Q (flushing flow plus plant flow): . Choice of construction type would be the same as for feeder canals. Four hoppers with depths of W/2 are also required below the rectangular tank bottom for flushing.
The economic diameter of a penstock can be estimated as below: AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ Civil Works – Guidelines For Layout Of Small Hydro Plants /Feb 2008 10 . where water is conveyed by canals a forebay tank is normally required at the transition between canal and penstock to handle transient flows due to changes in plant operation and also to facilitate plant control for plants operating in water level control mode.9. max = 6. The penstock intake should be protected with trash racks but gates can be omitted for mini-hydro plants. then calculate maximum length of penstock: Te Lmax = 3. no surge tank is required.9. Exceptions to these requirements are: . If L< Lmax.9.Qp. 1.f1 Where: (m3/s) QP = plant flow f1 = unit price of reinforced concrete (Rs/m3) C1 = cost of intake (Rupees). (m) V Where: Hn= net head on turbine (m) Te = effective governor closure time.0 secs V = flow velocity in penstock (m/s) [for penstocks with varying diameters Aequiv = L/ΣAi/Li and V = Q/ Aequiv]. For preliminary design the tank volume can be determined using the following formula: V= Qp ×120 (m3) The tank area would be calculated assuming a difference of 1.Mini hydro plants with load controller. .14 Hn.1.High head plants with Pelton turbines If H/L > 5.0m between the tank FSL (spillway crest) and minimum operating level.QP m3 and net cost can be estimated as: C1 = 15. if H/L > 5 a surge tank or turbine bypass valve may be required.8 Penstock Intake The concrete volume of a typical penstock intake is approximately 15. 1.7 Forebay Tank For projects.0m to 2.9 Penstock Check head /length (H/L) ratio of the proposed penstock layout.
footings f2 = unit price of footing concrete C2 = estimated cost of footing (m) (m) (m3) (Rs/m3) (Rupees) AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ Civil Works – Guidelines For Layout Of Small Hydro Plants /Feb 2008 11 .0 m/s Use the lesser of the two values.⎛ Q2 ⎞ D = 3.0015 m If t max ≤ t min Wt = 24.L tmax > tmin ⎛ t min Wt = 24.3Ho for Francis.⎜ ⎜ ⎟ + 24.D.5 ⎜ 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ t max ⎠ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ tonnes ⎠ tonnes If For surface penstocks estimate volume of concrete saddles as: Vf = 3.D = diameter of penstock (m) .0 0.D.L. D= π 3 .D2) 0.55 ⎜ ⎜ 2 gH ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ or 4 Q .0000272 HD + 0.25 Sarkaria’s equation based on V = 3. 1.L = length of penstock Calculate 1 t min = (9.5 tmin. Weight of Penstock Steel: An approximate estimate of steel penstock weight can be calculated as below: Input data: .5 t min .4Ho for Kaplan & 1.5 (L.⎜ ⎜t ⎝ max ⎛ ⎞ t ⎛ t min + t max ⎞ ⎟ 1 − min ⎟.25 D) × 3 m 10 t max = 0. f2 Where: L = slope length of penstock D = diameter of penstock Vf = concrete volume.D.82 and Cost (C2) = Vf.H = max head at turbine with normal waterhammer (m) (Use 1.15Ho for Pelton) .0 +1.L.
10 Surge tanks Surge tanks are required to protect long penstocks from excessive water hammer pressure rise.The volume of anchor block concrete is of the same order of magnitude as concrete saddles. .installing turbine bypass valves.9. include: . This method provides equations relating the following parameters from which the maximum and minimum surge levels can be calculated: Q0 As g L A SA SB H0 Hs Hf = initial steady state flow (m3/s) = cross-section area of surge tank (m2) = acceleration due to gravity (= 9.addition of extra machine inertia (typically by adding a flywheel to a horizontal axis unit or extra mass to a vertical axis generator).6 of this Standard provides guidelines for this task. .8 ms-2) = length of pipeline between forebay reservoir and surge tank (m) = cross section area of pipeline (m2) = upswing (m) = downswing (m) = steady state water level in surge tank (m) = static water level in surge tank (m) and bo as defined below: AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ Civil Works – Guidelines For Layout Of Small Hydro Plants /Feb 2008 12 .9. Section 2.10. to control excessive generator runaway speeds and to contribute to system speed regulation. surge tank to reservoir (m) c = head loss factor as hL= c.Where : A = cross section area of upstream pipe (m2) L = length of pipe. A preliminary design methodology for surge tanks is outlined below.2. 1.s2) H0= steady state head on turbine (m) 1.2 Highest up-surge: In order to dimension the surge tanks it is also necessary to know the maximum and minimum water levels that can be expected. As surge tanks are expensive all options should be evaluated. Alternatives to surge tanks providing some of the benefits of surge tanks. An approximate method is shown below that is based on Parmakian’s method for balanced design (Parmakian – 1960). therefore assume cost of anchor blocks as 66% cost of saddles (or derive a more exact cost from detailed layouts). It is conservative.9. 1.V2 (m-1.pressure relief devices.10.6 AL 1.1 Cross-section area of surge tank (As) = (m2) 2 gcH 0 .
in surge tank = Hs . Preliminary Dimensioning and Layout of Hydroelectric Power Houses. Practical considerations regarding foundation conditions.H f Max. Layout of Canal Falls Schemes There are rarely more than two alternatives for development depending on which side of the existing canal the diversion canal and powerhouse would be located.Hf . The RETScreen Model can be used to obtain preliminary powerhouse cost estimates.L.88 b0−0. as explained in Sub-Section 3. = Ho . Qe L/ A S B = 0.05 bo−0.S f Minimum W.1 Powerhouse and Tailrace Preliminary powerhouse layout requires the selection of appropriate generating equipment and estimation of the main powerhouse dimensions. for preliminary analysis. Coffer dams are not usually needed as interconnecting canals can usually be build 3.96 (kg) H = Height above c/l of penstock to centroid of tank (m) V = Volume of tank cylinder (m3) 3.6 of this Standard.For maximum upsurge calculate: Hf = pipe friction loss + minor losses + bo = Hf Qo . Alternatively. Using these basic dimensions. powerhouse cost estimates by a parametric estimating technique are satisfactory.29 x 10-4 x (HV) 0. preliminary powerhouse layouts can be prepared.L.91 .SB 3 Weight of steel surge tank (WS): Ws = 1. access and the like will probably decide the optimal arrangement.Hf + SA 2 Lowest down surge: For lowest downswing calculate Hf = pipe friction losses + minor losses + Ve 2 2g (where Qe = flow demanded by turbine) Hf AS g bo = . Preliminary guidelines on unit selection and basic layout dimensions can be obtained from IS 12800: Guidelines for Selection of Hydraulic Turbine. As g L/ A Vo2 2g S A = 1.2 AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ Civil Works – Guidelines For Layout Of Small Hydro Plants /Feb 2008 13 . W.89 .
practical consideration of site characteristics.4 3. Department of Natural Resources and available freely over the internet at www. Examples of successful designs can be found in CBIP (2003).5 3. 2003) gives an inventory of Indian hydropower plants with salient data and drawings. firm energy and mean energy should all be referenced to the transmission.6 and 1. For grid connected plants the optimum capacity should be based on benefit-cost analysis using appropriate incremental costs for energy and capacity. voltage as appropriate. Energy output should be expressed in mean kWh per year. These values should be selected in consultation with the responsible State or Central Government authority. Acceleration of flow velocity through the entry is acceptable if economically justified and compatible with flow conditions at the power plant intake. foundations. Central Board for Irrigation and Power (CBIP. Layout of Dam Toe Schemes. Determination of Capacity and Energy Benefits. maximum head loss is normally found to be between 2% and 10% of gross head. Normally.7 of the Standard. For isolated or stand alone projects firm energy is of greater interest.3 during periods when the canal would be out of service for annual maintenance.3. RET Screen RET Screen is a computer model developed by the Government of Canada.retscreen. or distribution line. Design of cofferdams and other protective works must be done with equal care as these works form an integral part of a successful project. Attention must also be paid to hydraulic design to minimize head losses. 1. Deceleration of flow velocity should be avoided. Layout concepts should be based on successful designs of similar plants. The model is available in several languages.4. For isolated SHP the capacity providing the least cost of energy should be selected.6 AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ Civil Works – Guidelines For Layout Of Small Hydro Plants /Feb 2008 14 . As for plants at canal falls. For run-of-river hydro schemes average energy benefits are determined by integration of the project flow duration curve (FDC) using the net head appropriate for each flow class. Firm capacity.net. for small scale run-of-river 3. Occasionally original designs will include provision for addition of a power plant. Firm capacity should be calculated based on the capacity that can be produced with Q90%. For this exercise it is convenient to express hydraulic losses as a function of Q2. Benefits and Economic Evolutions The determination of benefits and economic evolution should be carried out in accordance with Sections 1. The purpose of the model is to compute costs and benefits. Indian practice is to base firm energy determinations on the Q90% flow from the FDC. including greenhouse gas analysis. including Hindi. Layout concepts should be based on successful designs of similar projects. access and the like will probably determine the optimal arrangement.
the latest version now allows the engineer to enter work quantities and unit costs against a comprehensive list of work items.4 Cost Analysis Two options are offered: detailed cost analysis or formula costs. Overall data requirements are much less in this option.6. as below: 3. η gen. The program calculates the energy benefits which are reported in Screen 1.projects. AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ Civil Works – Guidelines For Layout Of Small Hydro Plants /Feb 2008 15 . 3. using hydrology and equipment data from Screens 2 and 3. transformer losses and parasitic losses and hydrologic & equipment parameters as calculated in Screens 2 and 3. Output: FDC and load duration curve (LDC) in tabular and graphic formats.6.3 Equipment Input : Type of turbine.6. Output: Annual energy production. If the detailed analysis is chosen. Output : Estimated turbine efficiency curve. The currency for all cost and financial calculations are input in this screen. 3. ΣHL. 3.6. Qr.2 Hydrology Input Data: Flow duration curve (FDC).7 of the Standard. While originally intended as a tool for preliminary studies utilizing mainly map data. along with the applicable conversion rate Rs per Canadian $ 1.1 Energy Data Model Input Data: H. flow or capacity) for each structure.00. If the formula analysis method is chosen cost components are determined from parametric equations for each structure. Qp. For preliminary design and planning studies the utility of this option is enhanced if the model is first bench marked (on calibrated) against recent projects and escalation factors and main unit prices adjusted to fit. Data comprise characteristic parameters (geometry. The list allows inclusion of additional items one for each division of the work list. Input: Choose the method that is most suitable for cost analysis (detailed or formula) then select economic parameters in accordance with Section 1. the engineer will have to provide quantities and units costs for the list of work items contained in the program. The program is setup in Excel and comprises four screens.
Output: Capital cost estimate 3. Preliminary Dimensioning and Layout of Surface Hydroelectric Power Houses. CBIP (2003) 3. An appropriate structural addition could greatly simplify expansion of the plant in the future with significant savings in cost and schedule.8 RET Screen International: Clean Energy Project Analysis Software Natural Resources Canada Ottawa Website: www. preexcavation of the foundation of a future unit and the like. References Indian Standards Cited IS 12800 (Part 3) Guidelines for Selection of Hydraulic Turbine.6. Such provisions could include addition of a branch in a penstock.retscreen. 3.net AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ Civil Works – Guidelines For Layout Of Small Hydro Plants /Feb 2008 16 . Dover Publishers (1963) Hydroelectric Power Stations in Operation in India.7 Provision for Future Expansion The engineer should think about the possibility of future expansion and consider providing features that would facilitate such work in the future. Parmakian. Other References Waterhammer Analysis J.5 Financial Summary Input : Financial parameters Output : Project costs and savings Results of financial analyses Cost of power.
4.9 Examples of Project Layouts: FIGURE: 1.1 KEDERNATH MINI HYDEL AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ Civil Works – Guidelines For Layout Of Small Hydro Plants /Feb 2008 17 .3.
AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ Civil Works – Guidelines For Layout Of Small Hydro Plants /Feb 2008 18 .
AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ Civil Works – Guidelines For Layout Of Small Hydro Plants /Feb 2008 19 .
AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ Civil Works – Guidelines For Layout Of Small Hydro Plants /Feb 2008 20 .
AHEC/MNRE/SHP Standards/ Civil Works – Guidelines For Layout Of Small Hydro Plants /Feb 2008 21 .
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