P. 1
Modul Bahasa Inggris

Modul Bahasa Inggris

|Views: 314|Likes:
Published by smartlearningcenter

More info:

Published by: smartlearningcenter on May 14, 2013
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

11/11/2015

pdf

text

original

E- 2

TENSES 1
· PRESENT CONTINOUS
· PRESENT TENSE · PRESENT PERFECT · PRESENT PERFECT CONTINOUS

1. PRESENT CONTINOUS
A. PENGERTIAN : Menyatakan pekerjaan yang sedang terjadi pada saat kalimatnya diucapkan B. BENTUK

S + is/am/are + V + ing

Contoh : The teacher is teaching now. At present the applicants are waiting for their turn to be interviewed. I am still taking a short course of driving. 2) Menyatakan pekerjaan yang dilakukan dalam near future. Near future : Jarak masa yang akan datang dengan saat ini dekat, misal: - tonigh - tomorrow - the day after tomorrow Near future ini relatif. I am visiting you tomorrow Tonigh I am going to the movie . D. NEGATIVE DAN INTERROGATIVE Untuk membentuk kalimat negative cukup Meletakkan not sesudah to be S + is/am/are + not + v + ing

smart learning center
Ing ditambahkan pada kata kerja bentuk pertama (V1), ex: work + ing = working walk + ing = walking sing + ing = singing · Penambahan ing mengakibatkan V1 mengalami penghampusan "e" diakhir kalimat, ex: make + ing = making love + ing = loving write + ing = writing · Penambahan ing mengakibatkan penggandaan huruf akhir g, t, m, n, p pada V1 yang terdiri dari short vowel. dig + ing = digging swim + ing = swimming run + ing = running stop + ing = stoppinng put + ing = putting C. FUNGSI 1) Menyatakan pekerjaan yang sedang dilaksanakan Ditandai dengan adanya kata: at the moment now at present Is/ am/ are + S + V + ing ? Ex: - Is the teacher teaching now ? - Are you taking the book ? - Are the student discussing the problem 2. SIMPLE PRESENT A. BENTUK : S + V1 Jika subjek orang ketiga tunggal (he,she,,it)maka V1 mengalami penambahan s, es, atau ies tergantung pada huruf akhir V1. He/She/it + V1 + s/es/ies

Subjek I We You He She It They

To be am are are is is is are

Is + not : isn't Are + not : aren't ex : · I am not visiting you tomorrow · The teacher is not teaching now · They are still waiting for us Pembentukan kalimat Tanya (interrogative) dilakukan dengan menukarkan posisi to be dengan subjek.

-1-

1) V1 yang di akhiri huruf h, o, s, x menglami penambahan es. - o : go ..........goes - h : teach ..... teaches - s : kiss ...... kisses - x : fix ......... fixes 2) V1 yang diakhiri oleh huruf y jika sebelumnya terdapat konsonan sebelum menambah- ies, y dihapuskan. - y : fly .......... flies - y : cry ......... cries B. FUNGSI

ex : · Budi doesn't walk to school. · We don't play Badminton · Does Budi walk to school ?

· Do you play badminton every morning? 3. PRESENT PERFECT TENSE
A. BENTUK

S + has/have + V3

1) Habitutual Action
Menyatakan pekerjaan/ sesuatu yang meru pakan kebiasaan.Untuk fungsi ini digunakan beberaapa keterangan waktu : Every day · often week · seldom month · sometimes year · always etc ex: · Budi walk to school every day · we play badminton every morning · Johny always sing at night 2) Untuk menyatakan kebenaran umum (General Sense). Menyatakan teori, hal dan kecenderungan yang memang benar. ex: · Doctors work hard · Men eat foot · Gravitatioan makes apple fall. C. NEGATIVE AND INTERROGATIVE Untuk membentuk kalimat negative dan interrogative kata Bantu do/ does digunakan. do + not : don't does + not : doesn't I You We They He She It I You We They have He She It has

Berdasarkan pembentukan kata kerja dari bentuk pertama (V1) ke bentuk yang kedua dan ketiga (V2, V3) kata kerja dapat dibedakan : 1) Regular Verb Perubahan bentuk pertama ke bentuk kedua dan ketiga hanya menambahkan : - d untuk V1 yang berakhiran dengan huruf e V1 V2 V3 decide decided decided bake baked baked - ed ditambahkan pada V1 yang tidak berakhiran dengan huruf e, mi :

smart learning center
V1 V2 V3 work worked worked walk walked walked - Untuk V1 yang berakhiran oleh huruf y, dan Sebelumnya huruf y dan sebelumnya huruf mati (konsonan) maka sebelum menambah kan ed, y dihapus. V1 V2 V3 cry cried cried fry fried fried 2) Irregular Verb Kata kerja tak beraturan. Pembentukan kata kerja dari V1 ke V2 dan V3 tanpa melalui suatu kaedah. V1 V2 V3 go went gone sing sang sung take took taken cut cut cut

do

does

Pengguanan do/does sebagai kata Bantu pada kaliamat negative dan interrogative mengakibatkan penambahan s, es, ies tidak berlaku. S + do/does/ + not + V1 do/does/ + S + V1 ?

-2-

Kata kerja yang digunakan untuk Present Perfect Tense ialah Kata kerja bentuk ketiga V3 (Past Participle) B. FUNGSI 1) Untuk menyatakan perbuatan yang telah dilaksanakan. Dalam fungsi ini keterangan waktu tidak dibutuhkan, hanya kata just, alreading atau yet untuk penekanan makna. ex : - Ted has postend the letter - The police have caught the thief He has just arrived The students have taken the exam already. 2) Untuk menyatakan perbuatan yang dirintis pada masa yang lampau dan sampai saat ini masih Berlangsung. Dalam fungsi ini digunakan ; - for : selama - since : sejak Ex : - We have don't the exercise for two hours. - She has written the novel for two months. The woman has been ill since next week. .C. NEGATIVE DAN INTERROGATIVE

B. FUNGSI Untuk menyatakan perbuatan yang dirintis pada masa yang lampau dan sampai saat ini masih berlangsung. Dalam fungsi ini digunakan: - for : lama - Since : sejak Ex: - We have been doing the exercise for two hours - She has been writing the novel for two months C. NEGATIVE DAN INTERROGATIVE Kalimat negative ditandai dengan adanya kata not sesudah has, have. S + has/ have + not + been + V + ing ex: - We haven't been doing the exercise for two hours. - She hasn't been writting the novel for two months. Kalimat interrogative / tanya dibentuk dengan meletakkan has/ have sebelum subjek. has/ have + S + Been + V .....?

smart learning center
Kalimat negative ditandai dengan adanya kata not sesudah has, have dan tidak jarang terdapat kata yet diakhir kalimat. S + has/ have + not + V3 .....yet Has + not : hasn't Have + not : haven't ex : - the police haven't caught the thief yet - She hasn't written the novel for two months Kalimat interrogative/ tanya dibentuk dengan meletakkan has/ have sebelum subjek. Has/ have + S + V3 ex : - Has the visitor arrive ? - Have the teacher given us a test ? ex : - Have we been doing the exercise for two hours ? - Has she been writing the novels for two months? Contoh Soal : 1. I ________ my holiday in Bali every year. (A) are spending (B) have spent (C) wiil spend (D) spent (E) spend 2. Mr. Brown _____ in his car for half an hour (A) has rode (B) drove (C) drives (D) has been driving (E) is driving 3. The servant ___ the floor. (A) Has been sweepng (B) Has swept (C) is sweeping (D) sweeps (E) sweep

4. PRESENT PERFECT CONTINOUS
A. BENTUK S + Has/ have + been + V + ing

-3-

4. Detectives ___ uniforms. (A) do not wear (B) does not wear (C) are wearing (D) have not worn (E) have not being wearing 5. Badu _____ learning English now (A) learns (B) has learnt (C) has been learning (D) is learning (E) learn

C. NEGATIVE DAN INTERROGATIVE Pembentukan Negative dan Interrogative dengan menambahkan not pada did dan merubah kata kerja menjadi V1 S + did + not + V1 did + not : didn’t ex : - He didn't pass with flying colours in the last exam. - He didn't play football once Meletakkkan did sebelum subjek Did + S + V1 .......?

E- 2

TENSES 2
Simple past Past continuous Past perfect Past perfect continuous Ex ; - Did he pass with flying colours ? - Did Budi visit me yesterday ?

2. PAST CONTINOUS
A. BENTUK

1. SIMPLE PAST
A. BENTUK

smart learning center
S + was/ were + V + ing
S + V2 V2 Verb Past Tense Pembentukan kata kerja dari bentuk V1 ke V2 dan V3 seperti yang telah dijelaskan pada Present Perfect Tense. B. FUNGSI Menyatakan perbuatan yang terjadi pada masa lampau. Untuk fungsi ini Simple Past selalu ditandai oleh keterangan waktu : - Once - a month ago - Yesterday two week ago - Last night a few year ago - Last week etc month - just now year etc ex : - He passed with flying colours in the last exam. - Yesterday Budi visited me - He played football once.: To be digunakan tergantung pada subyek. I He She It you we they was were B FUNGSI Menyatakan perbuatan yang sedang terjadi pada masa lampau. ex : - The thieves were climbing the wall when the police saw him. - As the woman was getting off the bus, She dropped her purse. - My mother was singing while she was cooking. - Tuti was not helping her mother when her friends came.

3. PAST PERFECT TENSE
A. BENTUK S + had + V3

-4-

Ex: - When he reached the station, the train had left for Medan - After he had taken medicine he felt better - Before the bus arrived, he had finished his Breakfast. - Before he had studied went to his house - Had the gone home after they took lunch?

5. Before the thief ____ , the police caught him (A) ran away (B) had been run away (C) had run away (D) had been running away (E) has run away

E-4 - Modals - pronoun

4. PAST PERFECT CONTINOOUS
A. BENTUK

S + had + been + V + ing Pengertian
B. FUNGSI S + had + been + V + + ing Menyatakan suatu perbuatan atau kejadiaan yang dimulai pada masa lampau dan masih berlanjut pada masa tersebut.

MODALS
Kata Bantu yang digunakan dalam satu kalimat yang tidak dapat berdiri sendiri tanpa kata kerja. FUNGSI 1. Permission Memberi keizinan. Modal yang digunakan : - may - might - can contoh: you may go now you can have it Meminta keizinan. Modal yang digunakan : - may - can - could Contoh : May I help you ? Could you show how to get to the post Office ? 2. Ability Menyatakan kemampuan. Modals yang di gunakan : - can - could Contoh : He could leave the heavy trunk. Jack can swim. 3. Possibility Menyatakan kemmungkinan. Modals digunakan: - May - Might

ex :
At the time I started working at the office, He had been working for three years. - When I came to England in 1985 Budi had been staying there for ten years. Contoh Soal : 1. He _________ in a café when I saw him. (A) were sitting (B) is sitting (C) was sitting (D) are sitting (E) has been sitting 2. When I want to Bali, my brother ________ for three days. (A) have stayed (B) had been staying (C) was staying (D) has been staying (E) stayed 3. My uncle sent me a letter after he ______ (A) arrived (B) was arriving (C) had been arriving (D) had arrived (E) will arrive 4. Jack's father ______the army in 1970. (A) had joined (B) had been joining (C) Joined (D) was joining (E) Joins -

smart learning center

yang

-5-

smart learning center
Contoh Soal
1. you _____ go for a walk. (A) may (D) might (B) must (E) should (C) could 2. ______ I go home in the last lesson. (1) may (3) can (2) could (4) must 3. Birds____ fly. (A) could (D) must (B) can (E) ought to (C) may 4. the woman looked ill. She ____see a doctor. (1) must (3) has to (2) ought to (4) should 5. there was no bus or taxi, so I_____ walk. (A) ought (D) should (B) should (E) has to (C) could . 1. SUBJECT PRONOUN Kata ganti orang untuk pokok kalimat (Sub yek). The woman is going to the shop the woman is shopping. Sebaiknya : She is shopping. The cat is flying on the floor. The cat is sleeping. Sebaiknya : It is sleeping. Johny and I are running. Johny and I are chased by a dog. Sebaiknya : We are chassed by a dog. Bob and Ted are in the river. Bob and Ted are swimming. Sebliknya : Bob and Ted are swimming. 2. OBJECT PRONOUN. Menggunakan kata benda sebagai objek.

Contoh : He might come tomorrow. He may finish the assigment now. 4. Advisability Menyarankan sesuatu. Modals yang digunakan : - should - ought to Contoh : - you should clean your teeth. - You ought not to speak loudly. 5. Obligation Menyatakan kewajiban atau keharusan. Modals yang diguanakan : - Must - have to - has to - had to Contoh : You must obey your parents. All had to return the book. 6. Logical Conclusion. Menarik kesimpulan logis dari suatu statement. Modals yang digunakan : - Must - Might - Should -ought to Contoh : He has a lot of houses. He must be rich. I knocked on the door and got no answer. He might have been sleeping.

Pembagian.
Pronount terdiri dari : A. PERSONAL PRONOUN B. POSSSESSIVE PRONOUN C. REFLEXIVE PRONOUN a. personal Pronoun kata ganti orang, yaitu kata yang menggantikan benda sebagai subyek dan obyek.

PERSONAL PRONOUN

SUBJECT PRONOUN

OBJECT PRONOUN

Kata ganti orang terdiri : SUBJECT I we you he she it they OBJECT me us you him her it they

PRONOUN Pengertian
Kata ganti, yaitu kata yang digunakan sebagai ganti dari kata benda.

-6-

Contoh : We saw a donkey. The farmer hit the donkey with a stick. Sebaiknya the donkey pada kalimat kedua digantikan oleh oleh Objek Pronoun. The farmer hit it with a stick. The lady bought potatoes. The hawker put the potatoes in a package. Sebaiknya : The hawker put them in a package. The teacher called Ani. Her mother waited for Ani in the office. Sebaiknya : Her mother waited for her in the office. Contoh : The man is standing outside the building. The man is waiting for his son. The man pada kalimat kedua Sebaiknya digantikan oleh kata ganti orang sebagai subyek. Kalimatnya : He is waiting for his son. I met Amir at the station. A conductor was talking Amir Sebaiknya : A conductor was talking to her.

POSSESSIVE PRONOUN menggantikan kata benda. Contoh : This is my car. Tis car is mine. This is her wtch. This watch is hers. That is your pen. That pen is yours. These are their books. These books are theirs That is our class. That class is ours. That is its kitten That kitten is its. Possessive Pronoun bisa juga digunakan menggantikan Possessive Adjective jika bendanya diketahui. That is my pen and this is yours. Is this your ? Where is mine ? It belongs to hers. C. reflexive Pronoun Merefleksikan kata benda, reflexive Pronoun : SINGULAR myself yourself himself herself itself PLURAL Oursselves yourselves themselves

smart learning center
The headmaster punished the boys. The teacher found the boys peeping. Sebaiknya : The teacher found them peeping.

2. POSSESSIVE PRONOUN
Kata ganti kepunyaan. Kata ini penggunaannya kerap dikaitkan dengan POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVE. POSS. ADJECTIVE my our your his her its their POSS. PRONOUN mine ours yours h is hers Its their

Contoh : The little girl fell down and hurt herself.
PERSONAL PRONOUN SUBJET OBJECT POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVE POSSESSIVE PRO-NOUN POSSESSIVE PRONOUN

POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVE menerangkan kata benda dan letaknya sebelum benda yang diterangkan.

I we you you he she it they

me us you you him her it them

my our your your his her its their

mine ours yours yours h is hers Its their

myself ourselves yourself yourselves himself herself itself themselves

-7-

He was tired of life so he killed himself. A baby cannot dress it self. I sometimes cut myself when I am shaving. W e must not be selfish and think only about Ourselves. She looked at herself in the mirror. He lives alone and often talks to himself. Some men go to a barber, but most men shave themselves. Reflexive Pronoun dapat digunakan untuk mengeraskan atau menjelaskan benda atau orang yang dimaksud. I saw the minister himself. I myself mended the wireless The queen herself is going to open the New hospital.

The book is red We see high buildings in the city. The teacher always gies us difficult problem to solves. B. POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVE Kata sifat yang menunjukkan kepunyaan. Letaknya sebelum benda yang diterangkan.
PERSONAL PRONOUN SUBJECT I we you you he she it they OBJECT me us you you him her it them

POESSESSIVE ADJECTIVE my our your your his her its their

E-4
1. ADJECTIVE 2. ADVERB

smart learning center
C. DEMONTRATIVE ADJECTIVE

Contoh : I lost my book The teacher forgot to bring his beg The studens were busy writing their composition The pick-pocket tole her wallet

1. ADJECTIVE PENGERTIAN Kata yang menerangkan kata benda (noun ).
PEMBAGIAN

Kata sifat terdiri atas :
A. B. C. D. ADJECTIVE OF QUALITY POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVE DEMONTRATIVE ADJECTIVE INTERROGSTIVE OF QUALITY

Menunjukkan benda yang dimaksud.Letaknya di depan benda yang diterangkannya. Contoh : This boy is strong. These mangoes are sour. Don’t be in such a hurry. That rascal must be punished. D. INTERROGATIVE ADJECTIVE Kata tanya seperti which what, whose yang digunakan dengan kata benda dalam sebuah kalimatnya. Contoh : What manner of man is he ? Which way shall we go? Whose book is this ? E. ADJECTIVE OF QUANTITY Kata sifat yang menunjukkan jumlah ben da yang dimaksud. Contoh : I eat some rice. He showed much patience.

A. ADJECTIVE OF QUALITY Menerangkan kualitas benda dalam konteks: Karakter Usia Bentuk Ukuran Warna Letaknya bisa di depan ataupun di belakang benda yang diterangkannya. Contoh : He is an old man.

-8-

All men must die. He claimed his half share of the booty. You have no sense. The whole sum is expended. There hasn’t been sufficient rain this year.

Letak adverb of manner di dalam kalimat ialah sesudah atau sebelum kata ker-ja. Ex : - He runs quikly - He speaks English fluently - He hopefully found the money 2. ADVERB OF PLACE
8

POSISI ADJECTIVE
1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Dete r mile r 2 four

Qual -ityc harat er Beau tiful expe nsive

size-

Big strong

Ag e lem per a old

Participle

shape

colour

Origin location

9 noun

Negie ted

square

Red black

African french

Hous -es Hors -es

Menunjukkan tempat terjadi perbuatan. Letaknya di akhir kalimat . Ex : - He work in an office. - She’ll meet me at the same. - He drove eastwards. 3. ADVERB OF TIME

suatu

2. ADVERB
PENGERTIAN

Kata yang digunakan untuk menjelaskan atau menerangkan kata kerja (verb).
PEMBAGIAN 1. ADVERB OF MANNER 2. ADVERB OF MANNER 3. ADVERB OF PLACE 4. ADVERB OF TIME 5. ADVERB OF FREQUENCY 6. ADVERB OF DEGREE

Menunjukkan waktu terjadi suatu perbuatan. Letaknya di depan dan di akhir kalimat. Ex : - She is studying now. - Yesterday I visited my cousin. - Next month he will be forty. 4. ADVERB OF FREQUENCY Kata yang digunakan untuk menunjukkan frekwensi terjadinya suatu perbuatan. Kata-kata keterangan tsb : - usually - sometimes - always - never - often - seldom letaknya sebelum verb (kata keja). Ex : - I always go to the library. - She often watchs t.v. 5. ADVERB OF DEGREE

smart learning center
1. ADVERB OF MANNER Menerangkan cara melakukan sesuatu.Adverb ini dibentuk dari Adjective + ly Adjective quick easy foolish beautiful Adverb quickly easily foolishly beautifully Menunjukkan kadar/derajat dari suatu tindakan. letaknya sebelum adjective atau sebelumadverb. ex : - He is too big - He walks very slowly POSISI ADVERB Jika dalam satu kalimat terdapat lebih dari satu adverb maka susunannya : Manner place time

Sehingga : Untuk beberapa adjective kadang-kadang penambhan ly tidak diperlukan. Adjective fast hard good late Adverb fast hard well late

-9-

ex : Susan regularly studio biology at home every day. .........., and so + to be/h.v1 too ........., and neither + h.v + s to be ....., and s + h.v + n’t + either to be ................ but S + h.v./to be .......... but S + h.v./to be + n’t Aplikasi Kalimat Positif untuk menggabung dua kalimat positif yang hanya berbeda subyek, formula berikut dapat digunakan : - and so ....... - and ....., too Contoh : Jack can swim Budi can swim. - Jack can swim and so can Budi atau Jack can swim and Budi can, too Ali walks to school We walk to school - Ali walks to school and sodo we atau Ali walks to school and we do too.

Contoh Soal : 1. Our teacher speaks English _______ (A) good (B) fluent (C) clear (D) fluently (E) fluenting

2. Jakarta has many ____ building (A) high (D) expensive (B) big (E) modern (C) large 3. I want to meet _____ (A) two teacher english (B) teachers english two (C) two english teacher (D) english two teacher (E) teacher two english 4. which of the following senteces is correct ? (1) He works hard in his office every day (2) He hard works in his office every day (3) Every day he works hard in his office (4) He every day works hard in his office 5. He always feels______ (1) anxious (3) happy (2) anxiously (4) happily

smart learning center
E-5
Kalimat negatif - ELLIPSIS - DEGREE OF COMPARISON Untuk menggabung dua kalimat negatif yang hanya memiliki perbedaan pada Subyek digunakan formula sebagai berikut : - and neither ..... - and ...... neither Contoh : Peter can’t swim Teddy can’t swim Peter can’t swim and neither can Teddy Peter can’t swim and teddy can’t either Budi didn’t attend the party last night. Joni didn’t attend the party last night.

ELLIPSIS
Fungsi Untuk menggabungkan kalimat yang hanya memiliki perbedaan pada Subyek (pokok kalimat) Formula .........., and so + to be/h.v + s

- 10 -

Budi didn’t attend the party last night and neither did Joni. Budi didn’t attend the party last night and Joni didn’t either. Kalimat Negatif-Positif Untuk mengkombinasikan dua kalimat yang hanya memiliki perbedaan dalam subyek dan salah satunya negatif digunakan : ....... but S + to be/h.v. Jika kalimat pertama negatif. Contoh : Jack can’t play the guitar. Budi can play the guitar. Jack can’t play the guitar, but Budi can. ....... but S + to be/h.v. + n’t Jikakalimat kedua negatif. Contoh : Joni passed in the exam Budi didn’t pass the exam Joni passed in the exam, but budi did’nt. Contoh Soal : 1. Ani ____wears glassed but her sister______ (A) do (D) don’t (B) can’t (E) doesn’t (C) does 2. Joni made a lot of mistakes in the exam and ____ (A) so I did (D) so did I (B) so do I (E) I did so (C) I do too 3. The girls don’t like the movie, _____ (A) So do we (D) We do too (B) Neither we do (E) Neither don’t we (C) We don’t, either

Untuk membandingkan dua kata sifat (adj ective). Cara membuat perbandingan dengan a). Menambahkan "er) di akhir kata sifat. Hal ini dilakukan jika kata sifat (adjective) satu suku bunyi (one syilable). Contoh : Positive short slow quick tall high Comparative shorter slower quicker taller higher

Kecuali : Kata sifat berakhiran denganhuruf "e" cukup Dengan menambah "r". Positive brave white Comparative braver whiter

smart learning center
Positive red big slim thin fat Comparative redder bigger slimmer thinner fatter

Gunakan than sebelum bentuk Comparative. Kata sifat berakhiran dengan huruf "d", "g", "m","n","t" dan sebelumnya terdapat short vowel maka huruf tersebut digandakan sebelum "er" ditambahkan.

DEGREE OF COMPARISON
Pengertian : Tingkat perbandingan kata sifat (adjective) dan kata keterangan (adverb. Pembagian : A. Comparison of Adjectives B. Comparison of Adverb C. Equal Comparison A. Comparison of Adjectives Membuat perbandingan atas kata sifat (adjEctive). Perbandingan terdiri atas dua, yaitu : 1. Comparative 2. Superlative 3. Compareative

Kata sifat yang berakhiran dengan huruf "Y"dan sebelum huruf tersebut adalah huruf mati (konsonan) maka sebelum menambahkan"er", "y" hilang dan digantikan dengan "i". Positive dirty noisy Comparative dirtier noisier

b). Kata sifat yang terdiri atas lebih dari satu suku bunyi (more than one syilable) mengalami penambahan "more". Positive useful difficult necessary hopeless Comparative more useful more difficult more necessary more hopeless

- 11 -

c). Kata-kata sifat tertentu tak menggunakan kaidah di atas tersebut di bawah ini : Positive Comparative good best bad worst much most many most little least Contoh : Budi is 20 years old. Joni is 21 years old. Ati is 19 years old. Ati is the youngest. Joni is the oldest. "The" harus digunakan sebelum bentuk Superla tive. B. Comparison Of Adverb. Perbandingan Adverb atau kata keterangan. Pada umumnya yang dibandingkan ialah Adverb of manner (keterangan Cara). Bentuk perbandingan : 1. Untuk kata-kata keterangan (adverb) yang di bentuk bukan dari Adjective + ly maka er dan est digunakan dalam membentuk"comparative" dan "Superlative". Positive fast hard high Comp. Super

Contoh : Comparative Planes move faster than buses. Budi learns harder than Joni does. She explained it more clearly than I did. He speaks more loudly than I do. Superlative Rockets move the fastest. Ati learns the hardest. Mr. Ali explains the lesson the most clearly of the teachers. C. Equal Comparison Perbandingan setara. Pembentuknya ialah: .............as.............as...........

.........not as........as.............. ............not so..........as.........

smart learning center
faster harder higher fastest hardest highest 2. Kata keterangan yang bersal dari Adjective + ly menggunakan bentuk more dan most untuk Comparative dan Superlative. Pos. slowly simply nicely neatly tidily Comparative more slowly more simply more nicely more neatly more tidily Super most slowly most simply most nicely most neatly most tidily Untuk perbandingan yang positif kita gunakan bentuk : .......... as adjective as .... Contoh : This book is as thick as that one. Ani is as clever as Budi. Untuk mengungkapkan perbandingan, yang negatif dapat digunakan dua bentuk : ........ not so ... adjective ..... as........ ........ not as ... adjective ..... as ........ Contoh : The car is not as fast as that one. The car is not so fast as that one. Tuti is not as clever as Ati. Tuti is not so clever as Ati. 2. Adverb Positive well bad little much Comp. better worse less more Super best worst least most Positive .......... as ..... adverb .... as ....... Contoh: He thinks as hard as I do. He played as well as I did.

Untuk bentuk tersebut kita bisa mengguna kan baik untuk kata sifat (adjective) maupun kata keterangan (adverb). 1. Adjective

3. Kata keterangan (adverbs) tertentu tidak menggunakan kaidah di atas tersebut dibawah ini :

- 12 -

Negative …….. not as…… adverb ….as ……… …….. not as…… adverb ….as ……… Contoh : He doesn’t walk as fast as I do. He doesn’t walk so fast as I do. Joni didn’t sing as well as Nita did yesterday. Joni didn’t sing so well as Nita did yesterday.

I shall We you he she it they Contoh ; Jack will visit his moter in the country next week. I shall not attend the party tonight. We shan’t have another extra lesson tomorrow. The boys won’t swim across the river next weekend. Interrogative Form. Untuk membentuk kalimat interrogative, kata bantu shall, will diletakkan sebelum atau di depan Subyek. Shall/will + S + V1 ?

will

Contoh Soal :
1. Lauren _____ than Diana. (A) tender (B) tenderer (C) more tender (D) the tenderest (E) the more tender 2. Martin doesn’t speak ____ (A) so foudly as you do (B) so loud as you do (C) as loudly as you do (D) as loud as you do (E) as louder as you do

E-6

smart learning center
TENSES-3
1. 2. 3. 4. SIMPLE FUTURE FUTURE CONTINOUS FUTURE PERFECT FUTURE PERFECT CONTINOUS Will Jack visit his mother in the country next week ? Shall I attend the party tonight ? Shall we have another extra leson tomorrow? Will the boys swim across the river next weekend ? Will you take a day off the day after tomorrow ? Will Tini return the book to the library next month ?

1. SIMPLE FUTURE
Pengertian Menyatakan pekerjaan yang dilaksanakan /terjadi pada masa yang akan datang. Oleh karena itu kalimat Future Tense/Simple Future selalu ditandai dengan keterangan waktu soon afterwards tomorrow tonight the day after tomorrow next week next month. . next year bentuk S + shall/will + V1

Contoh Soal :
1. We _____ our homework together soon. (A) shall do (D) did (B) do (E) does (C) done 2. The visitor _____ tonight. (A) arrived (D) arrives (B) has arrived (E) arrive (C) will arrived

- 13 -

3. ____ the father punish the son for his bad habit ?
(A) shall (B) will (C) Do (D) does (E) has

The boys are not going to swim a acroxx the river next weekend. You are not going to take a day off the day after tomorrow. You are not going to take a day off the day after tomorrow . Tini is not going to return the book to the Library next month . Interrogative

TO BE GOING TO Fungsi Menyatakan sesuatu yang terjadi pada masa yang akan datang. Bisa digunakan sebagai alternatif dari bentuk Shall dan Will. Bentuk S + is/am/are + going to + V1 subyek. I ______ am You We they he she it To be + S + going to + V1 Is Jack going to visit his mother in the country next week ? Am I going to attend the part tonight ? Are we going to have another extra lesson tomorrow ? Are the boys going to swim across the river next weekend ? Are you going to take a day off the day after tomorrow ? Is Tini going to return the book to the library next month ? Contoh Soal : 1. The teacher __ a test soon. (1) has given (2) will given (3) gave (4) Is going to give 2. The boys __ a short course nex week. (A) Are going to take (B) Is going to take (C) Shall take (D) Has taken (E) Took 3. The lady __ to shop tomorrow. (A) Will (D) Are going (B) Shall (E) must (C) is going

Dibentuk dengan melatakkan to be sebe -

are

is

smart learning center

Contoh : Jack is going to visit his mother in the country next week. I am going to attend the part tonight. We are going to have another extra lesson tomorrow. The boys are going to swim a acroxx the river next weekend. You are going to take a day off the day after Tomorrow. Tini is going to return the book to the library next mont. Negative Form

Not digunakan sesudah to be untuk membentuk kalimat negatif. S + to be + not + Going to + V1

Jack is not going to visit his mother in the country next week. I am not going to attend the part tonight. We are not going to have another extra lesson tomorrow.

- 14 -

4. Amir __ for Jakarta next month.
(A) Is going to leave (B) Are going to leave (C) Has leave (D) Left (E) Leaving 5. I ____ supper afterwards. (1) am going to (3) shall have (2) will have (4) have had

by now by the end of the year ex : - By tomorrow, Joni will have worked for three days. - By the time he finishes the question, I will have read the book for one hour.

4. FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS
BENTUK

2. FUTURE CONTINUOUS
BENTUK Shall/will + be + v + ing S + Shall/will + have + been + v + ing Menyatakan perbuatan yang sedang dan masih berlangsung pada masa yang akan datang. Terdapat kesamaan antara future perfect continuous dengan future perfec tenseterutama dalam fungsi. ex : - When she get to London, she will have been travelling for five days. - By the end of this year, he will have been working for three years . Contoh Soal :

FUNGSI Untuk menyatakan perbuatan yang sedang terjadi pada masa yang akan datang. Keterangan waktu yang digunakan untuk fungsi ini; This time tomorrow Next week Monday Month Moring Etc Di samping itu ia juga dapat menggunakan keterang -an waktu simple future. ex : - I"ll be playing tennis this time tomorrow. - I"ll be watching t.v. tonight. - This time next week the pupils will be having a test. - John will be helping us this evening.

smart learning center
1. She ___ as a secretary in the company for five years by the end of this year. (A) will work (B) have worked (C) will have been working (D) will be working (E) is going to work 2. Don't come at five o'clock because _____ (A) I will be playing (B) I will have been playing (C) I have played (D) I will have played (E) I will playing 3. My friends _____ next sunday. (1) Will invite (2) Will be inviting (3) Is going to invite (4) Is inviting 4. we _____ a meeting this time next wednesday. (1) have (2) will have (3) would have (4) shall be having

3. FUTURE PERFECT
BENTUK S + Shall/will + have + V3

FUNGSI Menyatakan perbuatan yang telah selesai pada masa yang akan datang. Untuk fungsi ini keterangan waktunya selalu diawali oleh kata by, mis: by the end of this month by the end of the week

- 15 -

5. John ___ in prison for two months by and of this year. (1) Will stay (2) Will have been staying (3) Will be staying (4) Will be stayed

is/am/are + S + V3 (?) Is the butter is kept here ….? Is Budi played the guitar ….? 2. Present Continous Tense

E-7
(+) PASSIVE VOICE IMPERSONAL IT A B A P : : : : They are repairing the bridge The bridge is being repaired. The man is supervising me Iam being supervised by ….. S + Is/am/are + not + being + V3 S + is/am/are + being + V3

PASSIVE VOICE
Adalah kalimat dimana subjek bukan pelaku cerita atau dikenal pekerjaan . Passive hanya memiliki satu jenis kata kerja.yakni kata kerja transitive dimana ia butuh objek untuk membuat suatu kalimat dan objek merupakan pokok kaliamt dari sebuah kalimat pasif. Bentuk : To be + V3

(-)

smart learning center
Seperti juga kalimat aktif, kalimat pasiv juga mengikuti tense dalam artian terdapat tense untuk kalimat pasiv, mis : present, past dan future.Berikut ini bentuk kalimat pasiv dengan tense yang diiutinya. 1. Present tense (+) (+) A P A P A P S + is/am/are + V3 .... ....... S + has/have + been + V3 (?) Is/am/are + S + being + V3 Is the bridge being repaired ……? Are you being supervised ……...? 3. Present Perfect Tense

A : The thief is climbing the wall when the Police saw him. P : the wall is being climbed by the thief when the police saw . The bridge isn’t being repaired I am not being supervised …...

: We keep the butter here : The butter is kept here : Budi plays the guitar at night : The guitar is played by budi : The teacher teaches the pupils : The pupils are taught by ….. S + is/am/are + not + V3

A : Tuti has written two letters. P : Two letters have been written. A : He has don the work well. P : The work has been done….

(-)

S + has/have + not + been +V3

Two letters have not been written The work has not been done ….. (?) has/have + S + been + V3

(-)

The butter is kept here …. The guitar is not played ….

Have two letters been written ? Has the work been done by him ?

- 16 -

1.

4. Past Tense (+) S + was/were + V3

8. To be going to (+)

S + is/am/are + going to + be + V3

A : The bad boys broke the windows P : The windows were were broken by .... A : The farmer hit the snake P : The snake was hit by ...... (-) S + was/were + not + V3

A : We are going to hoid a party P : A party is going to be held … A : the teacher is going to punish the lazy stude Nts. P : The lazy students are going to be punished byThe teacher. 9. Future Perfect Tense S + shall/will + have + been + V3

The windows were not broken ....... The snake was not hit ..... (?) was/were + S+ V3 ..... ?

Were the windows were broken by .....? Was the snake hit by ....? 5. Past Continous Tense (+) S + was/were + being + V3

A : They were taking the injured player out of the Field P : the injured player were being taken by them .... 6. Past Perfect Tense

A : They will have elected new president in five Years. P : New President will have been elected in five years. A : IPTN will have produced war planes by the year of 2000. P : War planes will have been produced by IPTN by ..... 10. Past Future S + wuold/should + be + V3

smart learning center
S + had + been + V3 (+) A : Ani had watered the flowers when Badu came. P : The flowers had been watered by Ani when Badu came. A : Mother had prepared the meal when the guest arrived. P : The meal had been prepared by the mother When the guest arrived. 7. Future Tense S + shall/will + be + V3 (+) A: P: A: P: He will meet you at the station You will be met by him ...... Budi will lend me his book. I shall be lent by ...... (?) Will /shall + S + be + V3 A : if it rained, We should postphone our picnic P : if it rained, our picnic would be postphoned. A : if all didn't change his behaviour, the teacher would punish him. P : if all didn't change his behaviour, he would be punished by the teacher. 11. Past Puture Perfect (+) S + wuold/should + have +been + V3

Will you be met by him ....? Will you be lent by .......?

A : If you had studied hard, you would have got good marks. P : If you had studied hard, good marks would have been got by you. A : If the goverment had not made mistake, the judge would not have sent Sophia Laurent to prison. P : If the goverment had not made mistake, Sophia Laurent would not have the judge would not have beensent to prison by the judge.

- 17 -

S + wuold/should + have +been + V3

12. Modals
S + modals + be + V3

2. America ______ four hundred years ago. A. discovered B . will be discovered C. had discovered D. was discovered E. was being discovered 3. Tomorrow the car ___ by my sister. A. will be driven B. has be driven C. is driven D. was driven E. will be being driven 4.He sald the several plans ___ A. were being B. were been C. has been D. are been E. had being 5.The food _____ several hours before the guast arrived. A. were cook B. had cooking C. has cook D. were cooked E. had been cooked

Modals :
. . . . . . . can ….. …could may ……. might must … has to ….. had to have to … had to ought to should

A : you must shut these doors P : These doors must be shut A : You ought to open the windows P : The windows ought to be opened A : They should told him P : He should be told by them A : He has to drive me home P : I have to be driven by him …

smart learning center
13. Modals With The Perfect Tense

IMPERSONAL IT

S + modals + have + been + V3 A : The girl must have watered the flowers when I saw her. P : The flowers must have been watered by the girl when … A : I could have asked somebody to carry that box P : Somebody could have been asked to carry That box by me A : The teacher might have told the story when I was absent. P : The story might have been told by the teacher story when I was absent.

PENGERTIAN It yang bukan berfungsi sebagai personal pronoun. APLIKASI 1. Digunakan untuk menyatakan : - distance contoh ; it is a long way to London. It is about two kilometers reach the post of fice. - time Contoh : What time is it ? It is four o’clock. - condition Contoh : It is cold outside. It is warm inside. 2.Dapat digunakan pada kalimat yang subyeknya: - Gerund Dilakukan dengan meletakkan Gerund diakhir -

Contoh Soal :
1. Most scientific book ___ in English. (A) Are printing (D) has been printed (B) Are print (E) are printed (C) Is print

- 18 -

kalimat dan mengganti posisinya dengan it.

Going on appears no good. It appears no good going on.
- To infinitive Caranya sama seperti diatas yaitu dengan menem patkan to infinitive diakhir kalimat dan posisinya digantikan oleh it To say is easy. It is easy to say. - That clause Lakukan pada that clause cara diatas. That they will have to go seem a pity. It seems a pity that willhave to go 3. Dapat digunakan pada kalimat yang objeknya : - To infinitive Memindahkan ke akhir kalimat dan meletakkan it diposisinya. Kata kerja to be atau kata-kata kerja seem, appear, look, happen dihilangkan kaena itu merupakan obyek bukan subyek. Contoh : We consider to cheat is wrong We consider it wrong to cheat . - That clause Lakukan cara di atas untuk that clause. Contoh : We think that they didn't try is a pity. We think it a pity that he didn't try. Kalau sesudah that langsung diikuti oleh to infinitive (tanpa subyek ) maka penempatan itu menyebabkan hilangnya that. Contoh : People believe that to be polite is important. People believe it important tobe polite. Ada beberapa kata kerja yang biasanya diikuti oleh it antara lain : - Believe - know - Consider - realize - Declare - snow - Find - suppose - Guees - take - Imagine - think - Understand Contoh Soal : 1. Step inside ____ outside. (A) There is cold (B) It’s cold (C) Cold (D) It (E) It cold

2. I think ___ necessary for you to sleep. (A) It is (B) It will be (C) It was (D) It (E) It should be
3. _____ impossible for us to build a brick house in a week.

(A) (B) (C) (D) (E)

It It be It is There is There be

4. To understand the lesson is difficult, in other word. (A) it has difficult to understand the lesson. (B) it difficult understand the lesson. (C) it's difficult understand the lesson. (D) it is difficult to understand the lesson. (E) That is difficult to understand the lesson. 5. _____ right for us to obey our parents. (A) (B) (C) (D) (E) there is there are. there has. it is it has

smart learning center
E-8 CONDITIONALS
Secara harfiah conditionals dapat diartikan pengandaian. Merupakan kalimatkalimat yang terdiri dari : 1. syarat/ prasyarat 2. Hasil jika prasyarat tersebut terpenuhi Syarat/ prasyarat tercermin pada if clause dan tercermin pada main clause.

Main clause
. Conditional

- hasil

If clause

- syarat - 19 -

Catatan : if Clause ialah rangkaian kata-kata yang diawali if . Posisi If clause bias di depan atau di belakang main clause. If + S + V + …… If Clause Atau S + V + …….. Main Clause If + S + V + …….. I Clause S + V + …….. I Clause

If clause Simple Present If you study hard If it rains

Main Clause SimpleFuture(can,may)

You will pass the exam We shall postpone our picnic You can wait here If you agree You may use your If you don't know the Dictionary meaning of words The teacher will punish If all doesn't change him his behaviour I shall buy you a car If I am rich

1. Open Conditionals (Future Conditionals/Type 1) - Fungsi Untuk menyatakan bahwa sesuatu akan terjadi jika syaratnya dipenuhi. Conditionals type ini disebut possibility/probability artinya kemungkinan. - Bentuk If clause Tense yang digunakan ialah Simple Present Tense ini terdiri atas: a. S + Stem/Verb/V

Unless
Unless : if not : jika tidak . Digunakan sebagai ganti dari if clause yang negative. Kalimat yang diawali unless harus positif. · If all doesn't change his behaviour, The teacher will punish him. Unless all changes his behaviour, The teacher will punish him. · If you don't save your money,your fatherwon’t give it again. Unless you save your money, your father won’t give it again. Main clause yang negative tidak dapat dihindari. · Kalimat Tanya dalam conditionals

smart learning center
b.

S + is/am/are + …..

Yang berbentuk kalimat tanya adalah Main clause dan posisinya di depan if Clause. Will/Shall/Can/may + Stem…,if + S + Stem ..? Will the teacher punish him, if Ali doesn’t change his behaviour …? 2. Present Conditionals ( Conditionals Type 20 Menyatakan sesuatu yang terjadi sekarang (present) kontras atau bertentangan dengan keinginan (harapan). Tertutup kesempatan untuk memenuhi syarat sehingga disebut Improbable (mustahil) atau Unreal Condition Present. - Fokus fakta (present Group) Pengandalan - Bentuk If Clause Tense yang digunakan ialah Simple Past. Tense ini terdiri dari atas dua bentuk :

Main Clause Tense yang digunakan ialah Simple Future, Bentuknya ialah : Shall/will + Stem Shall … I,We Will … He, She, It You, They Can dan May sering digunakan dalam conditionals pada main clause. .

- 20 -

a.

S + V Past tense S + were + ….

b

Was tidak digunakan, oelh sebab itu ia dise but "unreal". If Clause tidak menggambarkan keada an yang sebenarnya terjadi. ex : I was a boy if I were a bird I was a boy dianggap real (nyata). Saya seorang boc ah laki-laki dahulu. Tetapi seandainya saya burung (if I were a bird) tidak nyata (unreal), karena saya bukanlah seorang burung yang disulap menjadi manusia. Main Clause a. Past Future Should/ would + stem b. Bentuk "could/ Might" untuk kondisi tertentu. Could / might + Stem Main Clause Past Future/could/Might If you studied hard You would get good marks If it rained We should postphone our picnic If you agreed You could wait here If you didn’t know the You might use you meaning of word dictionary if All didn’t change his The teacher would bhaviour punish him If I were rich I should by you a car If Clause Simple Past

a. Mengidentifikasikan fakta dari segi tense-nya. Fakta dapat dibentuk ke dalam Conditionals type 2 jika tense Present Group : ¯ Present Tense ¯ Present Continous Tense ¯ Present Perfect Tense ¯ Present Perfect ContinousTense b. Menentukan Prasyarat …. If Clause Hasil ……… Main Cause c. Mengembalikan fakta Jika fakta positif, conditional harus negative dan sebaliknya Jika fakta negative, conditional harus positif. d. Hindari penggunaan was ex : (-) (+) All doesn’t study hard. He falls in the exam. Syarat hasil If Ali studied hard, he would not fall in the exam. (+) (-)

smart learning center
People would ring me up, if my number were in the directory. (+) (+) e. Kalau dalam hasil terdapat "can" gunakan "could" pada Main Clause. ex : We haven’t got any matches, we can’t light a fire If we got matches, we could light a fire f. Kalau dalam fakta terdapat "perhaps" gunak an "might" ex : He’s very thin, perhaps that’s why he feels the cold so much If he were not thin, he might not feel the cold so much.

People don’t ring me up, because my number is not in the directory (hasil) (syarat)

Jika dalam if Clause terdapat “were”, if bias dihapuskan dengan memindahkan were ke depan. Ex : - If I were rich, I should buy you a car Were I rich, I should buy you a car ¯ If he were not of today, he would meet the supervisor. Were he not of today, he would meet the supervisor. Tanpa “if”, Main Clause harus di belakang. Membentuk Conditional type 2 (present conditionals).

3. Past Conditionals (conditional type 3) Menyatakan sesuatutelah terjadi dahulu (Past) bertentangan denagn keinginan (harapan). Mustahil untuk memenuhi syarat, dengan demiki an disebut impossible atau unreal condition past.

- 21 -

- Fokus * Fakta (past Group) * Penggandaian - Bentuk If clause Tense yang digunakan ialah "Past Future perfect". Bentuknya : Had + Verb Past Participle (Verb 3) Main Clause Tense yang digunakan ialah "Past Future perfect" Bentuknya : Should/would + have + Verb Past Participle Untuk kondisi-kondisi tetentu, main Clause dapat berbentuk : Could/might + have + Verb Past Participle Past If Clause Past Perfect Tense I you had studied hard If it had rained Main Clause Past Future Perfect Could/might Perfect You would have got good marks We should have postphoned our picnic You could have waited here You might have used your dictionary

jika tense-nya Past Group: - Past tense - Past Continous Tense ¯ Past Perfect Tense ¯ Past Perfect ContinousTense b. Menentukan prasyarat ( if Clause) Hasil (Main Clause) c. Memutar balikkan fakta Jika fakta positif, conditional harus negative dan sebaliknya Jika fakta negative, conditional harus positif (-) (+) All didn’t study hard in the last exam. He failed. Syarat hasil If Ali had studied hard in the last exam, he would not have fall. (-) (+) I had no map, I got lost If I had had map, I would not have got lost a. Kalau dalam hasil terdapat "could" jangan gunakan Should/would/might, tetapi gunakan "could have + verb past participle" pada main clause. We couldn’t get into the house, because the hasil

smart learning center
If you had agreed If you had studied not known the meaning of words If Ali had not changed his behaviour If I had been rich The teacher would have punished him I should have bought you a car Semua if bisa dihapus, dengan memindahkan had ke depan. Ex : - If I had been rich, I should have boughtyou car. Had been rich, I should have boughtyou car - If you hadn’t known the meaning of word, you might have used a dictionary. Had you not known the meaning of word, you might have used a dictionary. Tanpa "if", Main Clause harus diblakang Membentuk Conditional Tpe3 ( Past Conditional ) a. Menentukan tense dari fakta Fakta yang dirubah ke dalam Conditional tipe 3 police forbade us. syarat We could have got into the house, if the police had not forbidden us. b. Kalau dalam fakta dapat "perhaps", gunakan: Might + have + Verb Past Participle

Ex : The champion didn’t take the fight seriously at
first; Perhaps that’s why he lost it.

If the champion had taken the fight seriously at
first he might no have lost it. Contoh Soal : 1. If A. B. C. it rains tomorrow, we ___at home. Shall stay D. stay Should stay E. Stayed Stay

- 22 -

2. If I were you,I _____ that book.
A. B. C. D. E. Would buy Will buy Buy bought Will not buy As If + S + V2 As Though Example : - He always speaks as thought he were the superior. - He dresses as if he were an officer. - She speaks as thougt she knew it a lot 2.Mengungkapkan rasa kesal atas sesuatu yang terjadi saat ini (Present). Wish If only + S + V2 Would rather Example : He is sick so he is not able to come. - He wishes he came If only he came She would rather he came The teacher always explains the lesson in a glance - The students wish the teacher explained in detail. If only the teacher explained in detail. The student would rather the teacher explained in detail. Was tidak digunakan karena unreal past (menggambarkan sesuatu yang tidak nyata). C. PERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE 1. Mengungkapkan sesuatu yang terjadi dahulu (past). - bertentangan dengan fakta - diragukan kebenarannya As If S + had + V3 As Though Example : - She screamed as if she had seen a ghost. - He acted as thought he had been an actor yesterday. - He talks about rome as if he had been there once. 2.Mengungkapkan rasa kesalaha atas sesuatu yang terjadi dahulu ( Past). Wished/wish/es If only + S + had + V3 Would rather

3. If he had not helped me, I ___ of hunger. A. B. C. D. E. Would die died Will die Will have died Would doesn’t come today, so I cann’t meet him. 4. He doesn’t come today, so I cann’t meet him. A. B. C. D. E. If If If If If he come today, I can meet him. he had come today, I could have met him he came today, I could meet him I met him today, I could come. I had met him, He could have come today.

E-9

smart learning center
SUBJUNCTIVE CONCORDANCE

SUBJUNCTIVE
Pembagian : A. PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE B. PAST SUBJUNCTIVE C. PERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE A. PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE Menyatakan keinginan, doa atau harapan yang belum tentu terwujud pada masa yang akan datang. Ex : Long live the queen God bless you Heaven help you Sering digunakan dalam sastra atau literature. B. PAST SUBJUNCTIVE 1. Menggunakan sesuatu yang terjadi saat ini (Present) : - bertentangan dengan fakta - diragukan kebenarannya. .

- 23 -

The teacher didn’t give us a test yesterday. - We wished/wish the teacher had given us a test. - If only the teacher had given us a test. - We would rather teacher had given us a test. Budi didn’t take part at the game and we lost it. - Budi wished/wishes he had taken part at the game. - If only Budi had taken part at the game. - I would rather Budi had taken part at the game. Tina was absent to the meeting last night. - Tina wished/wishes he had not been absent to the meeting last night - If only Tina had not been absent the meeting last night. - Tina would rather she had not been absent to the meeting last night.

"and" selalu menggunakan kata kerja jamak (Plural Subjek) ex : - Bob and Badu are here. - He and his friends have arrived. - Fire and water don’t agree. Kecuali : a) Kedua subyek tunggal itu menunjukkan orang atau benda yang sama. ex : - The orator and stateman is dead. - The captain and adjutant was present. - My friend and benefactor has come. b) Dua subyek menunjukkan satu opini ex : - Bread and milk is his only food. - Slow and steady wins the race. - The horse and carriage is at the door. c) Dua subyek yang diawali oleh kata every dan each. - Every boy and girl was ready. - Every woman, man and child was lost. 2. Dua subject yang dihubungkan oleh : a) - Neither …………nor ……… - Either …………..or ………. - ………………….or ……… yang menentukan bentuk kata kerja ialah subyek terakhir. - Either Abdul or Amir has stolen the watch. - Neither the headmaster nor the assistant masters were present. - Rama or his brother have done this. - Either he boy or parents have arrend. b) Dua subyek atau lebih yang dihubungkan oleh: - ……………, with, …………… - ……………, together with, ….. - ……………, in addition to, ….. - ……………, as well as,………. Bentuk kata kerja di tentukan oleh subyek pertama. ex : - The chief, with all his men, was massacred. - John, as well as james, deserves pralse. - Justice,as well as, mercy, allows it. 3.Collective noun menggunakan kata kerja tunggal (singular) jika dianggap sebagai suatu kesatuan, dan menggunakan kata kerja jamak (pural) jika dilihat secara individu. ex : - The council has shosen its presuden. - The military were called out. - The crew was large. - The crew was taken prisoners. - A number of interesting suggestions have been made.

Contoh Soal :
1. He speaks as if he ____ an orator. (A) Was (D) is (B) Had been (E) had (C) were 2. The teacher wished all the students _______ the homework. (A) did (D) was doing (B) had done (E) do (C) have done 3. He acted as if he ______ill. (A) were (D) is (B) was (E) have (C) had been 4. Choose the correct ones. (1) I would rather he went to Medan now. (2) If only he had joined the last lecture. (3) She wished she had joined medical faculty. (4) She wishes she picked her mother up. 5. I wish I ______ you the right time unfortunately my watch stops now. (A) told (D) tell (B) had told (E) telling (C) have told

smart learning center

• CONCORDE PENGERTIAN Bentuk kata kerja yang kita gunakan dalam kalimat apakah singular atau plural tergantung kepada subyek Apabila Subyek Plural maka kata kerja juga plural dan begitu pula sebaliknya jika subyek singular kata kerja harus singular. BENTUK-BENTUK 1. Dua atau lebih singular subjek digabungkan “dengan

- 24 -

4. Kata kerja jamak yang diawali oleh kata ganti atau benda tungga diikuti oleh subyek tunggal. ex : - Each of his sisters is clever - Neither of the men was very tall - The quality of mangoes was not good.

b. Keteranngan waktu Direct now today tomorrow yesterday tonight last night last ago next Indirect then that day the following day the previous day the following night the previous night the previous the following

Contoh Soal :
1. Neither Rama nor his friends ______ hurt. (A) was (D) am (B) were (E) are (C) has 2. Each of these subtances _______ found in India. (A) is (D) were (B) am (E) has (C) are 3. A number of boys ____ caught peeping. (A) are (D) is (B) were (E) am (C) was 4. The horse and the cab _____ in front of the gate. (A) was (D) are (B) is (E) has (C) Am 5. Rama, as well as Hari and govind, ____ hot curry (A) like (D) are liking (B) likes (E) was liking (C) is liking

Namun demikian tidak seluruh keterangan waktu berubah, seperti keterangan waktu yang diawali oleh Every. c. Tenses Direct Present Tense Pres.Cont Pres. Perfect Pres. Perf. Con Past Tense Future Tense Future Cont Future Perf Indirect Past Tense Past Cont. Past Perfect Past Perf. Con Past Perfect Past Future Past F. Con PastF. Perf

smart learning center
E-10 Present Say Will say Have said Past Said Would say Had said

Perubahan Tense dimungkinkan jika introduction dalam Past. Sebaliknya tidak ada prubahan dalam tense jika introduction dalam present.

REPORTED SPEECH
Pengertian Reported speech disebut juga direct inderect speech. DIRECT SPEECH ialah kalimat langsung, kalimat yang diucapkan oleh si pembicara. INDIRECH SPEECH : kalimat tak lansung, kalimat langsung yang diceritakankembali. Penceritaan kembalikalimat langsung atau pembentukan kalimat tak langsung menyebabkan beberapa perubahan. a. Pronoun Karena kalimatnya diucapkan oleh orang kedua maka kata ganti harus disesuaikan dengan kebutuhan kalimat.

d. Penghilangan beberapa tanda baca seperti tanda kutip, koma tanda seru, dan tanda tanya. e. Keterangan lain. Direct this these here Indirect that those there

Reported Speech terdiri atas A. Statement B. Imperative C. Interrogative

- 25 -

Reported Speech

Tom said :"My uncle may go to The USA soon." Tom said that his uncle might go toThe USA soon.

The teacher told us, : "you have to finish your
exercise at home."

The teacher told us we had to finish our exercise
Statement Imperative Interro. at home. b. Imperative Merupakan istilah lain dari perintah dan kalimat permintaan. Perubahan Tenses tidak tampak karena adanya penggunaan to , sehingga kata kerja yang mengikutinya ialah to infinitive. Contoh : I said to Bob : "Open the window, please". I asked Bob to Open the window. The angry workmen said to the manager : "Pay us at once". The angry workmen asked the manager to pay them at once. Badu said to Budi : "Please lend me your dictionary". Badu asked Budi to lend himhis dictionary The teacher said to Tom,: "Collect the exercise books and put them on my table". The teacher asked Tom to collect the exercise books and put them on his table.

a. Statement Disebut juga kalimat berita. Bentuk Indirect selalu diawali oleh That. Tetapi that bisa tidak digunakan. Contoh : PRESENT CONT ____ PAST CONT Jack said : "My sister's learning to cook now". Jack said (that) his sister was learning to cook then. PRESENT TENSE ____ PAST TENSE Bob said: "I come to school by bus every morning". Bob said that he came to school by bus every morning. PRESENT PERFECT____ PAST PERFECT Tini said :"My uncle has bought a new car." Tini said (that) her uncle had bought a new car. PRESENT .PERF.CON____ PAST PERF CON. Siti said to Johny: "I have been waiting for you for half an hour here." Siti told Johny that she had been waiting for him for half an hour there.

smart learning center
Untuk kalimat Negatif not diletakkan sebelum to. The mother said to her children, : "Don’t play with fire". The mother asked her children, not to play with fire. The bus conductor said to the passengers, : "Don’t get off the bus while it is going". The bus conductor told the passengers, not to get off the bus while it was going. Mary’s mother said to her, : "Don’t go out at night without your cout". Mary’s mother told her not to go out at night without her coat. The teacher said to the student, : "Don’t make a lot of noise!". The teacher told the student not to make a lot of noise. PAST TENSE ____ PAST PERFECT Jack said : " Mary fell down but she didn’t hurt herself ". Jack said (that) she had fallen down but she hadn’t hurt herself. SIMPLE FUTURE ___ PAST FUTURE Ted said : "I shall be fifteen years old tomorrow". Ted said (that) he wold would be fifteen years old the following day. FUTURE CONT. ____ PAST FUTURE CONT. Rudi said to Johny: "I will be playing tennis with my friend this time tomorrow." Rudi told Johny (that) he would be playing tennis with his friend this time the following day. Bob said: "I must go to bed early". Bob said he had to go bed early. Jack said : " My father can drive a car ". Jack said his father could drive a car .,

- 26 -

c. Interrogative Interrogative atau kalimat Tanya dibedakan atas:
1. YES/NO QUESTION 2.INTERROGATIVE WITH QUESTION WORDS 1. YES/NO QUESTION Kalimat Tanya yang dijawab ya atau tidak dibentuk ke dalam indirect dengan menggunakan kata sambung if atau whether. Kalimat tak langsung hanya berbentuk kalimat berita.Oleh karena itu, kalimat tanyaditanya dibentuk menjadi kalimat berita dalam indirect. Contoh : The stranger asked the boy, : "Is it a long way to get to the post office?". The stranger asked the boyif it was a long way to get to the post office. The teacher asked the student, : "Have I given you a test ?". The teacher asked the students if he had given us a test. The old man asked the boy, "will you post a letter for me?". The old man asked the boy if he would post a letter for him.

nish you ?" The father asked his son why his teacher had punished him. The policeman asked the woman "where does the suspect park his car ?" The policeman asked the woman when the suspect parked his car. Mother asked Mary, "What are you doing now ?" Mother asked Mary what she was doing then. The teacher asked the students when they would finish their homework. The teacher asked the students when they would finish their homework. Tense tidak berubah jika INTRODUCTION dalam present The teacher always asks his students, "When do you get up every morning ?" The teacher always asks his students when they get up every morning. Mary tells me, I takes a knap at two. Mary tells me that she takes a knap at two.

smart learning center
Contoh Soal :
Siti asked her mother, "Did my friend bob visited me ?" Siti asked her mother, if her friend bob had visited her. The policeman asked the driver, "Do you have you own license ?" The police asked the driver if he had his own license. Kata sambung whether dapat menggantikan if. The police asked the driver whether he had his own license. 2. INTERROGATIVE WITH QUESTION WORDS Question words pada kalimat langsung, menjadi kata sambung pada kalimat tak langsung. The stranger asked me : "What is your name ?" The stranger asked me What my name was. The father asked his son, "why did your teacher pu1. Bob said, "Will you borrow the book for me ?" Bob said __________ (A) you would borrow the book for him. (B) whether you would borrow the book for him (C) whether I would borrow the book for him (D) that I would borrow the book for him (E) that you would borrow the book for him 2. The teacher asked asked the student (A) to clean the blackboard (B) that he cleaned the black board (C) if he cleaned the black board (D) whether he cleaned the blackboard (E) he cleaned the black board 3. The police asked him, "where is your driving license ?" The police asked Jack ______ (A) where his driving license is (B) where his driving license was (C) whether was his driving license (D) where was his driving license (E) where is his driving license

- 27 -

4. The actor said, "I didn’t want to play that part" The actor said _______ (A) He didn’t want to play that part (B) He hadn’t wanted to play that part (C) He haven’t wanted to play that part (D) I hadn’t want to play that part (E) I didn’t want to play that part 5. "I don’t like to see the film" (A) He told me that he does not like to see the film (B) He told me that he didn’t like to see the film (C) He told me that he didn’t like to see the film (D) He told me that he didn’t like to have seen the film (E) He told me whatever he didn’t like to see the film.

6. Untuk memberikan keterangan tambahan terhadap kata sifat. Contoh : Meat are good to eat The medicine is pleasant to cat The boys are anxious to learn. 7. Untuk menerangkan kata benda Contoh : This is notthe time to play You will have cause to repent 8. Untuk memberikan keterangan tambahan terhadap kalimat. Contoh: To tell the truth, I quite forgot my promise. To sering digunakan pada infinitive, tetapi bukan merupakan bagian yang utama. To tidak digunakan jika : 1. Setelah Modals Contoh : I will play He may go 2. Setelah kata-kata kerja tertentu. Bid Let S + make + O + infinitive See Hear

E-11

- INFINITIVE - GERUND

smart learning center
Fungsi 1. Sebagai pokok kalimat Contoh : To find fault is easy. To err is human To reign is worth ambition 2. Sebagai objek Contoh : I do not mean to read He likes to play cards 3. Sebagai Complement Contoh : Her greatest pleasure is to sing His custom is to ride daily 4. Objek dari kata depan. He had no choice but to obey The speaker is about to begin 5. Untuk memberikan keterangan tambahan terhadap kata kerja ,terutama untuk menyatakan tujuan (puspose). Contoh : We eat to leave. I come to bury Caesar Contoh : Let him sit Make him stand I saw him do it I heard him cry I bid him go. Contoh Soal : 1. I am sorry ___ this. A. Hear B. To hear C. Hearing D. Heard E. Hears 2. I have come ___ you . A. To see B. Seeing C. See D. Saw E. Seen 3. Let us ___ A. Pray D. prays B. Prayed E. praying C. To pray

INFINITIVE

- 28 -

4. The order ____ was given
A. B. C. D. E. To advance Advanced Advancing Advance Advances

5. I sawher _____ there A. stand B. stands C. stood D. stood E. to stand

She finished doing her homework You prevented seeing me bad film. Gerund juga dapat digunakan sesudah rangkaian kata-kata berikut, yakni: Can’t stand Can’t help It’s no good + V. ing It’s no use To be worth

Contoh :
It was no good speaking that way It was no use telling him soon The best was really worth seeing I can’t help falling in love with you He couldn’t stand laughing at you

GERUND
Contoh Soal Pengertian
Kata kerja yang mengalami penambahan ing yang berfungsi sebagai kata benda. V + ing Fungsi : 1. Sebagai Subyek Contoh : Seeing is believing Hunting tigers is a favourite sport in this country. 2. Sebagai objek Contoh : Stop playing Children love making mud castles 3. Object of preposition Contoh : I am tired of waiting He is fond of swimming 4. Sebagai Complement Contoh : Seeing believing What I most detest is smoking. 1. We can’t excuse ___ in this room A. Smoke D. to smoke B. smokes E. smoked C. smoking 2. I couldn’t help ___ A. laugh D. laughed B. to laugh E. laughed C. laughing 3. I must avoid ______ him money. A. giving D. given B. to given E. give C. gave

smart learning center
E-12
- PARTICIPLE - CAUSATIVE

PARTICIPLE
Terdiri atas :
- PRESENT PARTICIPLE - PAST PARTICIPLE Bentuk : Verb + ing Fungsi : 1. Digunakan dalam Continuous Tense. tidak dibahas lebih lanjut. 2. Digunakan sebagai adjective. Untuk fungsi yang kedua ia disebut sebagai Participle Adjective. Berfungsi memberikan keterangan tambahan terhadap kata benda.

Gerund sebagaimana infinitive dapat mengikuti kata-kata kerja tertentu, yakni: mind enjoy consider excuse S + finish suggest + V. ing prevent keep (on) avoid miss risk resist postphone Would you mind helping me ? I consider buying another house.

- 29 -

Contoh :
The rolling stone gathers no moss. The lying witness ought to be punished. The smilling general gave the flowers to the little girl. Rolling, lying, smilling berasal dariVerb 1 roll, lie, dan smile + ing. Ketiga bentuk Present Participle tersebut menerangkan kata benda stone (batu), witness (saksi) dan genaral (jendral) kerenanya ia berfungsi sebagai kata sifat. 3. Digunakan sesudah kata-kata kerja tertentu. feel find hear imagine keep leave S + listen to + O + V + ing look at notice observe perceive see smell watch

b. - Subyek kalimat pertama = Subyek kalimat kedua - Kejadian pada kalimat I dilanjutkan oleh kalimat II. Penggabungan : Subyek kalimat I dihapus & kata kerjanya di jadikan Present Participle. Contoh : He opened the drawer He took out a revolver. Opening the drawer , he took out a revolver. He seized his stick. He rushed out of the room Seizing his stick he rushed out of the room. c. - Subyek kalimat 1 = Subyek kalimat ke dua - Salah satu kalimat Past Perfect Tense S + had + V3 Penggabungan : Kalimat yang Past Perfect dihapus Subyeknya dan had dibentuk kedalam keadaan Present Parti ciple. Had______ having Contoh : I had seen the photos of the place. I didn’t have any desire to go there. Having seen the photos of the place I didn’t have any desire to go there. 4. Meringkas Kalimat Kalimat-kalimat yang diawali oleh : AS Since + S + V ...... Because Bisa diringkaskan dengan a. menghapus since, As, Because dan Subjeknya. b. Kemudian kata kerja (verb) dibentuk ke dalam Present Participle. Contoh :

smart learning center
Contoh : They saw the thief running away. They left me waiting outside. We mustn’t keep them wating. 3.Menggabungkan kalimat Kalmat-kalimat yang bias digabungkan dengan Present Participle. a. - Subyek atau obyek salah satu kalimat = Su byek kedua - Salah satu kalimat continuous. Penggabungan : - Subyek kalimat kedua dihapus. - to be atau kata bantu kalimat yang contino us dihilangkan. Contoh : Some students were playing football. They won the game. Some students palying football won the game. - Jika kalimat continous di kalimat kedua maka ia diletakkan setelah subyek atau obyek kalimat 1. Contoh : Some boys were punished. They were chesting during the examinations. Some boys cheating during the examinations were punished.

Because He thought that he couldn’t buy anything on his journey, he brought anything with him Thinking that he couldn’t buy anything on his jouney, he brought anything with him. • PAST PARTICIPLE

V3
Disebut juga kata kerja bentuk ketiga. Fungsinya :

- 30 -

1. Sebagai kata sifat ex : a lost change never returns.

The boiled watered has been poured into a glass. 2. Menggabungkan kalimat
Kalimat yang dapat digabung dengan Past participle : a.. - Subyek atau obyek salah satu kalimat sama dengan Subyek kalimat kedua. - Salah satu kaliamt pasip. Penggabungan : - Subyek kalimat kedua dihapus. - Tobe/kata bantu kalimat yang passive hilang. Contoh : The students were punished by the teacher. They are lazy The students punished by teacher are lazy. - Jika bentuk passive di kalimat kedua maka ia diletakkan setelah subyek atau obyek kalimat I. Contoh : The old man was sad. He was mocked by the bad boys …… Penggabungan : The old man mocked by the bad boys was sad. b. - Subyek kalimat pertama = Subyek kalimat kedua. - Kejadian pada kalimat I dilanjutkan oleh kalimat II. - kaliamt I mengandung V3. Penggabungan : Subyek kalimat I dihapus & kata kerjanya dijadikan Past Participle. Contoh : The ship was scattered by the storm The storm The ship drowned Scattered by the storm the ship drowned c. - Subyek kaliamt I = Subyek kalimat kedua - Salah satu kalimat Past perfect Tense S + had + been + V3

smart learning center
CAUSATIVE CASE
Pengertian Mengakibatkan dilaksanakan atau tidak dilaksanakannya sesuatu. Formula Aktiv Get + O pelaku + To infinitive Penggabungan : Kalimat yang Past Perfect dihapus Subyeknnya dan had dibentuk ke dalam Present Participle. He had been praised by all his friends He was very happy Having been praised by all his friend, he was very happy

Contoh Soal : 1. _____ a sharp axe, he cut down a big tree. (A) Use (B) Used (C) Have used (D) Using (E) Uses 2. The techer caught the students _____ (A) Peep (B) Peeping (C) To peep3. The painter (D) Peeped (E) Peeps 3. The painter _____ with his fans exhibited his paints last month. (A) Talk (B) To talk (C) Talking (D) Talks (E) Talked 4. _____ in the first exam he didn’t want to have another try. (A) Having failed (B) failed (C) fails (D) fail (E) To fail 5. We can drink____ water (A) Boil (B) Boils (C) To boil (D) Boiled (E) Boiling

Have + O pelaku + infinitive

Contoh :
The manager had his secretary type the letter. The manager got his secretary type the letter

- 31 -

The teacher always has his students finish the homeworks. The teacher always gets his students finish the homeworks. We have the servant do the house work . We get the servant to do the house work . I will have my brother fix the bicycle I will get my brother to fix the bicycle Passiv

5. We have the shop ____ the magazine
(A) to deliver (B) delivered (C) delivers (D) delivering (E) deliver

E- 13

CLAUSES
Have + O Penderita + V3 Get Contoh: The manager had the letter type got The teacher has the homeworks finished gets We have the house work done. get I will have the bicycle fixed. get Contoh Soal : CLAUSE terbagi atas dua, yaitu: 1. Main Clause 2. Subordinate Clause CLAUSES

SUBORDINATE CLAUSES

MAIN CLAUSE

smart learning center
1. Asthe trunks were heavy my mother, my mother got someone ____ them (A) To move (B) move (C) moving (D) moves (E) moved

1. SUBORDINATE CLAUSE
Rangkaian kata-kata yang memiliki subyek dan predikat tetapi tidak dapat dikatakan kalimat karena pengertiannya tak lengkap.Ia disebut juga anak kalimat. SUBORDINATE CLAUSE diawali oleh kata sambung yangdisebut SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTION, : What Who When Where Who how which whom whose that however whatever whenever wherever why, etc

2. As He was ill,he wanted to have his meal ___ (A) Serve (B) serves (C) to serve (D) served (E) serving 3. I go to the barber to have him____ my hair. (1) Cuts (2) Cutting (3) To cut (4) Cut (5) 4. The guest had the porter carry his bag (1) The guest himself carried the luggage (2) The guest asked someone to carry luggage (3) The porter got the trunk carried (4) The guest got the trunk carried

Subordinate Conjunction + S + V Contoh : Where I lived When he will come back How we got in touch with them

- 32 -

Rangkaian kata-kata tsb.bukan kalimat, karena tidak memberikan pengertian yang lengkap. Agar ia dapat memberikan makna yang lengkap, dibutuhkan kalimat lain yang disebut dengan MAIN CLAUSE. 2. MAIN CLAUSE Disebut juga induk kalimat. Induk kalimat identik dengan kalimat. Dia dikatakan induk kalimat jika ada anak kalimat. Contoh : He asked me He let us now The police had arranged SUBORDINATE CLAUSE dapat menjadi sebuah kalimat dengan adanya MAIN CLAUSE. Contoh : He asked me where I lived He let us now When he will come back The police had arranged How we got in touch with them. Berdasarkan jabatan kalimat CLAUSE terbagi atas: 1. NOUN CLAUSE 2. ADJECTIVE CLAUSE 3. ADVERB CLAUSE 1. NOUN CLAUSE Rangkaian kata-kata yang memiliki subyek dan objek tetapi tidak dapat dikatakan sebagai kalimat atau berfungsi sebagai kata benda (noun).
FUNGSI KATA BENDA DALAM KALIMAT

Contoh Soal :
1. Tell me _____ (A) How you found it out (B) How did you find it out (C) How it you found (D) How it did find you (E) How did it find you 2. _____ is doubtful. (A) How long shall I stay (B) How long I shall stay (C) How shall I stay long (D) How shall I stay long (E) How long I stay shall 3. Will you explained ______? (A) Why did you behave so (B) Why so you behave (C) So Why you behave (D) Why you behaved so (E) You behaved so why 4. Do _______ (A) Whatever you think right (B) Whatever right you think (C) Whatever do you think right (D) Whatever right do you think (E) Whatever right think you 5. It is not clear _____ (A) Who done this (B) Who this done (C) Who did do this (D) This Who done (E) Who this done

smart learning center
1. SUBYEK (POKOK KALIMAT) Contoh : When his father will return is uncertain. Why he left is a mistery. Whether we can start tomorrow seems uncertain. What is done can’t be undone. 2. OBJEK KATA KERJA TRANSITIF He says that he won’t go I don’t know when I’ll return Tell me why you did this 3. OBJEK KATA DEPAN Pay careful attention to what I am going to say? There’s no meaning in what you say Idon’t believe in what he tell in his story 4. COMPLEMENT OF A VERB My belief is that he will not come His great fear isthat he may fail Life is what we make it 5. MENERANGKAN KATA BENDA ATAU
KATA GANTI

ADJECTIVE CLAUSE
Relative Pronoun Relative Pronoun adalah subordinating conjuction yang mengawali suatu Adjective Clause (who,whom, whose, which, that) .Clause yang diawali oleh Relative Pronoun disebut Relative Clause. Manusia Subyek Objek Possess Non Manusia Subyek Objek Relative Pronoun who/ that whom/ that whose Relative Pronoun which/ that which/ that

You must never forget this, that honesty is the best policy It is feared that he will no come.

- 33 -

Penggunaan : Who digunakan jika penggabungan mengakibatkan hilangnya salah satu subyek. Menggabungkan dua kalimat yang subyeknnya sama : Contoh : The students was my classmate He passed the examination with flying colours. Penggabungan : Subyek kalimat kedua dihapus dndigantikan oleh who dan ditempatkan sesudah subyek yang pertama. The students who passed the exam with flying colours was my classmates. The dapat menggantikan who The students that passed the exam with flying colours was my classmates. Objek kalimat pertama sama dengan subyek kalimat kedua. The teacher called the girl The girl wears glasses. Penggabungan : Subyek kalimat kedua dihilangkan dan digantikan dengan who/that kemudian ditempatkan sesudah objek.. The teacher called the girl who/that wears glasses. Whom Penggabungan menyebabkan salah stuobjek hilang.

Subyek kalimat kedua mempunyai hubungan kepunyaan subyek atau objek kalimat pertama. I saw the boy the boy’s father had an accident yesterday. Penggabungan : Bentuk kepunyaan (the boy’s) digantikan oleh whose. I saw the boy whose father had an accident yesterday. Which Jika subyek atau obyek kalimat pertama sama dengan subyek atau obyek kalimat kedua. The book is on the table. It was written by him The book which/that was written by him is on the table. That is the house. We live in it. That is the house which/that we live in Jika diakhir kalimat terdapat kata depan ia bisa dipindahkan ke depan which. Which yang berada setelah kata depan tidak bisa digantikan oleh that. That is the house in which we live.

smart learning center
Dua kalimat mempunyai objek yang sama. That is the English teacher. Mr.Ali is speaking to her Penggabungan : Kalimat kedua diawali oleh who/that dan objeknya dihilangkan lalu ditempatkan sesudah objek kalimat pertama. That is the English teacher who/that Mr.Ali is speaking to. Jika diakhir kalimat terdapt kata depan /preposition seperti pada kalimat diatas with, kata depan tersebut dapat diletakkan sebelum whom. Whom yang berada sesudah kata depan tidak bias digantikanoleh that. That is the English teacherto whom Mr.Ali is speaking. Whose Penggabungan yang disebabkan karena hubungan kepunyaan(possessive ) Dikatakan Defining Relative Clause jika ia mengidentifikasikan kata benda (noun) ynag diterangkannya. That is the house which/that we live in. That is the boy whose father had an accident yesterday. The teacher called the girl who/that wears glasses. That is the English teacher whom/that Mr.Ali speaking to. Contoh Soal : 1.The man ___ wrote this article is a famous writer. (A) Who (B) Whom (C) Which (D) Whose (E) What 2.My grand father, ____ you just helped, was born ninety years ago. (A) Which (B) Whose (C) Whom (D) What (E) where

- 34 -

3. The helmet ___ you put on the shelf is my brother’s.
(A) Who (B) Whom (C) Whose (D) Which (E) What 4. The woman ___ daughter wrote this poem is the professor of French. (A) who (B) whose (C) who (D) which (E) that DAFTAR KATA-KATA KERJA TAK BERATURAN (LIST OF IRREGULAR VERBS)
No 1. 2. 3. 4 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. .42. Stem Verb1 arise awake be bear become begin bid bid bite blow break bring build burn buy can catch choose come creep cut dig do draw drink drive eat fail feed feel fight flee fly forbid forget forgive freeze get go give grow hang Past Tense Verb II arose awoke was, were bore became began bade bid bit blew broke brought built burnt bought could caught chose came crept cut dug did drew drank drove ete feel fed felt fought filed flew forbade forgot forgave froze got went gave grew hung Past Participle Verb III arisen awoken been born become begun bidden bid bitten blown broken brought built burnt bought could caught chosen come crept cut dug done drawn drunk driven eaten falden fed felt fought fled flown forbidden forgotten forgiven frozen got gone given grown hung Meaning terbit membangunkan adalah/berada melahirkan menjadi memulai meminta menawar menggigit bertiup mematahkan membawa membangun membakar membeli dapat menangkap memilih dating merangkak memotong menggali melakukan menggambar meminum menyetir makan jatuh memberi makanan merasakan berkelahi melarikan diri terbang melarang lupa memaafkan membeku memperoleh pergi memberi tumbuh menggantung

smart learning center

43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. 71. 72. 73. 74. 75. 76. 77. 78. 79. 80. 81. 82. 83. 84. 85. 86. 87. 88. 89. 90. 91. 92. 93. 94. 95. 96. 97. 98. 99. 100. 101. 102. 103. 104. 105 106. 107. 108.

have hear hide hit hold hurt kneel know lay lead leave lend let lie loose make may mean meet ought to overcome partake pay put read rend ride ring rise run say see seek sell send shake shall shine shoot show shut sing sink sit sleep slide smell speak spell spend spin apread stand steal stick sting strike swear sweep swim swing take toach tear tell think

had heard hid hit held hurt knelt knew laid led left lent let lay lost made might meant met ought to overcame partook paid put rent rend rode rang rose run said saw sought sold sent shook should shone shot showed shut sang sank sat slept slid smelt spoke spelt spent spun apread stood stole stuck stung struck swore swept swam swung took taught tore told thought

had heard hid hit held hurt knelt known laid led left lent let lain lost made meant met overcome partaken paid put rent rend ridden rung risen run said seen sought sold sent shaken shone shot shown shut sung sunk sat slept slid smelt spoken spelt spent spun apread stood stolen stuck stung struck sworn swept swum swung taken taught torn told thought

Memiliki Mendengar Bersembunyi Memukul Memegang Melukai Berlututu Mengetahui Menaruh Memimpin Meniggalkan Meminjamkan membiarkan Berbaring Hilang Membuat Mungkin Bermaksud Bertemu Seharusnya Menyelesaikan Partisipasi Membayar meletakkan Membaca Menyewakan Menunggang membunyikan Terbit Berlari Berkata Melihat Mencari Menjual Mengirim Menguncang Akan Bersinar Menembak Menunjukkan Menutup Bernyanyi Tenggelam Duduk Tidur Tergelincir Mencium bau Berbicara Mengeja Menghabiskan Memiintai Menyebarkan Berdiri Mencuri Melekt Menyengat Memukul Bersumpah Menyapu berenanng

berayun
membawa mengajar mengoyak memberitahu berfikir

- 35 -

109. 110 111. 112. 113. 114. 115. 116. 117. 118.

Throw Understand Wake Wear Weep Will Win Wind Withdraw write

Threw Understood Woke Wore Wept Would Won Wound Withdrew wrote

Thrown Understood Woken Woken Wept Won Wound Withdrawn written

Melempar Mengerti Bangun Mengenakan Meratap Akan Menang Mengunci Menarik menulis

smart learning center

- 36 -

smart learning center

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->